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Sample records for alice silicon pixel

  1. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  2. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Fadmar Osmic, FO

    2006-01-01

    The European Organization for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva is currently constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will allow the study of the subnuclear ranges of physics with an accuracy never achieved before. Within the LHC project, ALICE is to the study of strongly interacting matter at extreme densities and high temperatures. ALICE as many other modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments uses silicon pixel detectors for tracking close to the interaction point (IP). The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) will constitute the two innermost layers of ALICE, and will due to its high granularity provide precise tracking information. In heavy ion collisions, the track density could be as high as 80 tracks/cm2 in the first SPD layer. The SPD will provide tracking information at radii of 3.9 and 7.6 cm from the IP. It is a fundamental element for the study of the weak decays of the particles carrying heavy flavour, whose typical signature will be a secondary vertex separated from the primary verte...

  3. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector Control and Calibration Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Calì, Ivan Amos; Manzari, Vito; Stefanini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was carried out in the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) group of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SPD is the innermost part (two cylindrical layers of silicon pixel detec- tors) of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). During the last three years I have been strongly involved in the SPD hardware and software development, construction and commissioning. This thesis is focused on the design, development and commissioning of the SPD Control and Calibration Systems. I started this project from scratch. After a prototyping phase now a stable version of the control and calibration systems is operative. These systems allowed the detector sectors and half-barrels test, integration and commissioning as well as the SPD commissioning in the experiment. The integration of the systems with the ALICE Experiment Control System (ECS), DAQ and Trigger system has been accomplished and the SPD participated in the experimental December 2007 commissioning run. The complex...

  4. Detector performance of the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cavicchioli, C

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). It consists of two barrel layers of hybrid silicon pixel detectors at radii of 39 and 76 mm. The physics targets of the ALICE experiment require that the material budget of the SPD is kept within approximate to 1\\%X(0) per layer. This has set some stringent constraints on the design and construction of the SPD. A unique feature of the ALICE SPD is that it is capable of providing a prompt trigger signal, called Fast-OR, which contributes to the L0 trigger decision. The pixel trigger system allows to apply a set of algorithms for the trigger selection, and its output is sent to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The detector has been installed in the experiment in summer 2007. During the first injection tests in June 2008 the SPD was able to record the very first sign of life of the LHC by registering secondary particles from the beam dumped upstream the ALICE experiment. In the following months the...

  5. Descent of the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) for ALICE Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) at radii of 3.9 cm and 7.6 cm, respectively. It is a fundamental element for the determination of the position of the primary vertex as well as for the measurement of the impact parameter of secondary tracks originating from the weak decays of strange, charm and beauty particles.

  6. The barrel sector assembly system of the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antinori, F; Cinausero, M; Dima, R; Fabris, D; Fioretto, E; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Pepato, Adriano; Prete, G; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Soramel, F; Turrisi, R; Vannucci, L; Viesti, G

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector is the inner part of the ITS tracking system of the ALICE experiment at LHC. The 240 silicon modules, hosting almost 10 million pixel cells with dimension 50 . 425 mu m /sup 2/, have to be assembled on a carbon fiber support with micrometric precision. To reach this result, a dedicated high- precision computer-controlled tooling system has been developed at the INFN Padova. The assembly system and the mounting procedures are presented. (10 refs).

  7. Assembly procedure of the module (half-stave) of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Caselle, M; Antinori, F; Burns, M; Campbell, M; Chochula, P; Dinapoli, R; Elia, D; Formenti, F; Fini, R A; Ghidini, B; Kluge, A; Lenti, V; Manzari, V; Meddi, F; Morel, M; Navach, F; Nilsson, P; Pepato, Adriano; Riedler, P; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Viesti, G; Wyllie, K

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). The detector includes 1200 readout ASICs, each containing 8192 pixel cells, bump-bonded to Si sensor elements. The thickness of the readout chip and the sensor element is 150mum and 200mum, respectively. Low-mass solutions are implemented for the bus and the mechanical support. In this contribution, we describe the basic module (half-stave) of the two SPD layers and we give an overview of its assembly procedure.

  8. The ALICE pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mercado Perez, J

    2002-01-01

    The present document is a brief summary of the performed activities during the 2001 Summer Student Programme at CERN under the Scientific Summer at Foreign Laboratories Program organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society (Sociedad Mexicana de Fisica). In this case, the activities were related with the ALICE Pixel Group of the EP-AIT Division, under the supervision of Jeroen van Hunen, research fellow in this group. First, I give an introduction and overview to the ALICE experiment; followed by a description of wafer probing. A brief summary of the test beam that we had from July 13th to July 25th is given as well. (3 refs).

  9. The ALICE pixel detector upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidt, F.

    2016-12-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC is designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter, and in particular the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, using proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. The ALICE collaboration is preparing a major upgrade of the experimental apparatus to be installed during the second long LHC shutdown in the years 2019-2020. A key element of the ALICE upgrade is the new, ultra-light, high-resolution Inner Tracking System. With respect to the current detector, the new Inner Tracking System will significantly enhance the pointing resolution, the tracking efficiency at low transverse momenta, and the read-out rate capabilities. This will be obtained by seven concentric detector layers based on a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor with a pixel pitch of about 30×30 μm2. A key feature of the new Inner Tracking System, which is optimised for high tracking accuracy at low transverse momenta, is the very low mass of the three innermost layers, which feature a material budget of 0.3% X0 per layer. This contribution presents the design goals and layout of the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System, summarises the R&D activities focussing on the technical implementation of the main detector components, and the projected detector performance.

  10. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System - Status of the R&D; on monolithic silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem

    2014-01-01

    s a major part of its upgrade plans, the ALICE experiment schedules the installation of a novel Inner Tracking System (ITS) during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2018/19. It will replace the present silicon tracker with seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) and significantly improve the detector performance in terms of tracking and rate capabilities. The choice of technology has been guided by the tight requirements on the material budget of 0 : 3 % X = X 0 /layer for the three innermost layers and backed by the significant progress in the field of MAPS in recent years. The pixel chips are manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process on wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. Within the ongoing R&D; phase, several sensor chip prototypes have been developed and produced on different epitaxial layer thicknesses and resistivities. These chips are being characterized for their performance before and after irradiation using source tests, test beam and measu...

  11. Mr. Lorenzo Dellai, presidente della provincia Autonoma di Trento and Professor Andrea Zanotti, president dell'Instituto Trentino di Cultura, visit ALICE experiment underground area and Pixel Silicon Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Mr. Lorenzo Dellai, presidente della provincia Autonoma di Trento and Professor Andrea Zanotti, president dell'Instituto Trentino di Cultura, visit ALICE experiment underground area and Pixel Silicon Laboratory

  12. Operational Experience with the ALICE Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mastroserio, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment and it is the closest detector to the interaction point. As a vertex detector, it has the unique feature of generating a trigger signal that contributes to the L0 trigger of the ALICE experiment. The SPD started collecting data since the very first pp collisions at LHC in 2009 and since then it has taken part in all pp, Pb-Pb and p-Pb data taking campaigns. This contribution will present the main features of the SPD, the detector performance and the operational experience, including calibration and optimization activities from Run 1 to Run 2.

  13. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  14. Study and Development of a novel Silicon Pixel Detector for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    van Hoorn, Jacobus Willem; Riedler, Petra

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As an important part of its upgrade plans, the ALICE experiment schedules the installation of a new Inner Tracking System (ITS) during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2019/20. The new ITS will consist of seven concentric layers, covering about 10m2 with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This choice of technology has been guided by the tight requirements on the material budget of 0.3 % x/X0 per layer for the three innermost layers and backed by the significant progress in the field of MAPS in recent years. The pixel chips are manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer on top of the substrate. During the R&D phase several chip architectures have been investigated, which take full advantage of a particular process feature, the deep p-well, that allows for full CMOS circuitry within the pixel matrix while retaining full charge colle...

  15. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The bump-bonded silicon pixel detector, developed at CERN by the EP-MIC group, is shown here in its ceramic carrier. Both represent the ISPA-tube anode. The chip features between 1024 (called OMEGA-1) and 8196 (ALICE-1) active pixels.

  16. Silicon Drift Detectors for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Navach, F; CERN. Geneva

    1992-01-01

    The Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) is a semiconductor, not yet extensively used in HEP experiment, which has an excellent spatial resolution and granularity about comparable to a pixel device requiring a number of readout channels two order of magnitude less.

  17. Silicon drift detectors in the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, V; Crescio, E; Giubellino, P; Hernández-Montoya, R; Kolojvari, A A; Mazza, G; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nissinen, J; Nouais, D; Rashevsky, A; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F; Vacchi, A

    2000-01-01

    Silicon drift detectors (SDDs) are well suited to high-energy physics experiments with relatively low event rates. In particular SDDs will be used for the two intermediate layers of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment. Beam test results of linear SDD prototypes have shown a resolution of 40*30 mu m/sup 2/ and a cluster finding efficiency of essentially 100% with E=600 V/cm. (6 refs).

  18. Characteristics of the ALICE Silicon Drift Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, V; Crescio, E; Giubellino, P; Hernández-Montoya, R; Kolojvari, A A; Montaño, L M; Nouais, D; Piemonte, C; Rashevsky, A; Tosello, F; Vacchi, A; Wheadon, R

    2001-01-01

    A Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) with an active area of 7.0 x 7.5 cm2 has been designed, produced and tested for the ALICE Inner Tracking System. The development of the SDD has been focussed on the capability of the detector to work without an external support to the integrated high voltage divider. Severalfeatures have been implemented in the design in order to increase the robustness and the long-term electrical stability of the detector. One of the prototypes has been tested in a pion beam at the CERN SPS. Preliminary results on the position resolution are given.

  19. The ATLAS Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M S; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Andreazza, A; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Musico, P; Osculati, B; Parodi, F; Rossi, L; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Aleppo, M; Caccia, M; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Brandl, A; Gorfine, G; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, SC; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; D'Auria, S; del Papa, C; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been developed. The design of the sensors is guided by the need to operate them in the severe LHC radiation environment at up to several hundred volts while maintaining a good signal-to-noise ratio, small cell size, and minimal multiple scattering. The ability to be operated under full bias for electrical characterization prior to the attachment of the readout integrated circuit electronics is also desired.

  20. ALPIDE: the Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuljić, M.

    2016-11-01

    The upgrade of the ALICE vertex detector, the Inner Tracking System (ITS), is scheduled to be installed during the next long shutdown period (2019-2020) of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . The current ITS will be replaced by seven concentric layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with total active surface of ~10 m2, thus making ALICE the first LHC experiment implementing MAPS detector technology on a large scale. The ALPIDE chip, based on TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Process, is being developed for this purpose. A particular process feature, the deep p-well, is exploited so the full CMOS logic can be implemented over the active sensor area without impinging on the deposited charge collection. ALPIDE is implemented on silicon wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. A single chip measures 15 mm by 30 mm and contains half a million pixels distributed in 512 rows and 1024 columns. In-pixel circuitry features amplification, shaping, discrimination and multi-event buffering. The readout is hit driven i.e. only addresses of hit pixels are sent to the periphery. The upgrade of the ITS presents two different sets of requirements for sensors of the inner and of the outer layers due to the significantly different track density, radiation level and active detector surface. The ALPIDE chip fulfils the stringent requirements in both cases. The detection efficiency is higher than 99%, fake-hit probability is orders of magnitude lower than the required 10-6 and spatial resolution within the required 5 μm. This performance is to be maintained even after a total ionising does (TID) of 2.7 Mrad and a non-ionising energy loss (NIEL) fluence of 1.7 × 1013 1 MeV neq/cm2, which is above what is expected during the detector lifetime. Readout rate of 100 kHz is provided and the power density of ALPIDE is less than 40 mW/cm2. This contribution will provide a summary of the ALPIDE features and main test results.

  1. Probe station for testing of ALICE silicon drift detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Humanic, T J; Piemonte, C; Rashevsky, A; Sugarbaker, E R; Vacchi, A

    2003-01-01

    Large area, 7.25 cm multiplied by 8.76 cm silicon drift detectors have been developed and are in production for the ALICE experiment at LHC. An active area of the detector of more than 50 cm**2 imposes high demands on the quality of processing and raw material. Automated testing procedures have been developed to test detectors before mounting them on the ladders. Probe stations for ALICE SDD testing were designed and built at INFN, Trieste and Ohio State University (OSU). Testing procedures, detector selection criteria and some details of the OSU probe station design are discussed.

  2. ALPIDE, the Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, M.

    2016-07-01

    A new 10 m2 inner tracking system based on seven concentric layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors will be installed in the ALICE experiment during the second long shutdown of LHC in 2019-2020. The monolithic pixel sensors will be fabricated in the 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process of TowerJazz. The ALPIDE design takes full advantage of a particular process feature, the deep p-well, which allows for full CMOS circuitry within the pixel matrix, while at the same time retaining the full charge collection efficiency. Together with the small feature size and the availability of six metal layers, this allowed a continuously active low-power front-end to be placed into each pixel and an in-matrix sparsification circuit to be used that sends only the addresses of hit pixels to the periphery. This approach led to a power consumption of less than 40 mWcm-2, a spatial resolution of around 5 μm, a peaking time of around 2 μs, while being radiation hard to some 1013 1 MeVneq /cm2, fulfilling or exceeding the ALICE requirements. Over the last years of R & D, several prototype circuits have been used to verify radiation hardness, and to optimize pixel geometry and in-pixel front-end circuitry. The positive results led to a submission of full-scale (3 cm×1.5 cm) sensor prototypes in 2014. They are being characterized in a comprehensive campaign that also involves several irradiation and beam tests. A summary of the results obtained and prospects towards the final sensor to instrument the ALICE Inner Tracking System are given.

  3. Electrical Characteristics of Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, I; Hoeferkamp, M; Mata-Bruni, V; Santistevan, G; Seidel, S C; Ciocio, A; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Klaiber Lodewigs, Jonas M; Krasel, O; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Caso, Carlo; Cervetto, M; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Netchaeva, P; Osculati, B; Rossi, L; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Andreazza, A; Caccia, M; Citterio, M; Lari, T; Meroni, C; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Vegni, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; Cauz, D; Cobal-Grassmann, M; D'Auria, S; De Lotto, B; del Papa, C; Grassmann, H; Santi, L; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been electrically characterized. The current and voltage characteristics, charge collection efficiencies, and resolutions have been examined. Devices were fabricated on oxygenated and standard detector-grade silicon wafers. Results from prototypes which examine p-stop and standard and moderated p-spray isolation are presented for a variety of geometrical options. Some of the comparisons relate unirradiated sensors with those that have received fluences relevant to LHC operation.

  4. Silicon Wafer Fabrication and Microchannel for Cooling System in ALICE ITS

    CERN Document Server

    Pasuwan, Patrawan

    2013-01-01

    My summer student project covered details of the upgrade of Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE detector. The tasks are divided in two parts. First was on silicon wafer dicing technology and its resistivity under the supervision of Petra Riedler. Next was on silicon wafer microfabrication and cooling system in microchannel under the supervision of Andrea Francescon. ITS upgrade was proposed for better detection performance and reduction of budget. Detectors in the ITS are composed of monolithic silicon pixel chips. The thickness of the chips was proposed to be 50 μm so that particles that pass through them do not lose too much momentum. Working with very thin chips requires suitable dicing technology. Sum- mary of dicing technology is proposed for the most suitable dicing technique. Properties of the chip can be denoted by observing its resistivity. Literature reviews on surface resistivity profile measurement is represented for consideration. Cooling system is very important for the detector. Fluid t...

  5. Monolithic active pixel sensor development for the upgrade of the ALICE inner tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Giubilato, P.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Kugathasan, T.; Lattuca, A.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Martinengo, P.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Pantano, D.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Siddhanta, S.; Snoeys, W.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.; Yi, J.

    2013-12-01

    ALICE plans an upgrade of its Inner Tracking System for 2018. The development of a monolithic active pixel sensor for this upgrade is described. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel due to the offering of a deep pwell and also to use different starting materials. The ALPIDE development is an alternative to approaches based on a rolling shutter architecture, and aims to reduce power consumption and integration time by an order of magnitude below the ALICE specifications, which would be quite beneficial in terms of material budget and background. The approach is based on an in-pixel binary front-end combined with a hit-driven architecture. Several prototypes have already been designed, submitted for fabrication and some of them tested with X-ray sources and particles in a beam. Analog power consumption has been limited by optimizing the Q/C of the sensor using Explorer chips. Promising but preliminary first results have also been obtained with a prototype ALPIDE. Radiation tolerance up to the ALICE requirements has also been verified.

  6. Silicon buried channels for pixel detector cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscardin, M., E-mail: boscardi@fbk.eu [Fondazione Bruno Kessler Trento, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Conci, P.; Crivellari, M.; Ronchin, S. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler Trento, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Bettarini, S. [Universitá di Pisa, L.go B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa, L.go B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosi, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa, L.go B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    The support and cooling structures add important contributions to the thickness, in radiation length, of vertex detectors. In order to minimize the material budget of pixel sensors, we developed a new approach to integrate the cooling into the silicon devices. The microchannels are formed in silicon using isotropic SF{sub 6} plasma etching in a DRIE (deep reactive ion etcher) equipment. Due to their peculiar profiles, the channels can be sealed by a layer of a PECVD silicon oxide. We have realized on a silicon wafer microchannels with different geometries and hydraulic diameters. We describe the main fabrication steps of microchannels with focus on the channel definition. The experimental results are reported on the thermal characterization of several prototypes, using a mixture of glycol and water as a liquid coolant. The prototypes have shown high cooling efficiency and high-pressure breaking strength.

  7. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The ISPA tube is a position-sensitive photon detector. It belongs to the family of hybrid photon detectors (HPD), recently developed by CERN and INFN with leading photodetector firms. HPDs confront in a vacuum envelope a photocathode and a silicon detector. This can be a single diode or a pixelized detector. The electrons generated by the photocathode are efficiently detected by the silicon anode by applying a high-voltage difference between them. ISPA tube can be used in high-energy applications as well as bio-medical and imaging applications.

  8. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Cavicchioli, C; Giubilato, P; Hillemanns, H; Junique, A; Kugathasan, T; Mager, M; Marin Tobon, C A; Martinengo, P; Mattiazzo, S; Mugnier, H; Musa, L; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Reidt, F; Riedler, P; Snoeys, W; Van Hoorne, J W; Yang, P

    2014-01-01

    Within the R&D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget (~0.3%X0~0.3%X0 in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity (View the MathML source~20μm×20μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity View the MathML source(ρ>1kΩcm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge c...

  9. Development of Microstrip Silicon Detectors for Star and ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Guthneck, L; Higueret, S; Hundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Tarchini, A; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Erazmus, B; Germain, M; Giliberto, S; Martin, L; Le Moal, C; Roy, C; Colledani, C; Dulinski, W; Turchetta, R

    1998-01-01

    The physics program of STAR and ALICE at ultra-relativistic heavy ion colliders, RHIC and LHC respectively, requires very good tracking capabilities. Some specific quark gluon plasma signatures, based on strange matter measurements implies quite a good secondary vertex reconstruction.For this purpose, the inner trackers of both experiments are composed of high-granularity silicon detectors. The current status of the development of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors is presented in this work.The global performance for tracking purpose adn particle identification are first reviewed. Then tests of the detectors and of the associated readout electronics are described. In-beam measurements of noise, spatial resolution, efficiency and charge matching capability, as well as radiation hardness, are examined.

  10. The ALPIDE pixel sensor chip for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    The ALPIDE chip is a CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor being developed for the Upgrade of the ITS of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The ALPIDE chip is implemented with a 180 nm CMOS Imaging Process and fabricated on substrates with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer. It measures 15 mm×30 mm and contains a matrix of 512×1024 pixels with in-pixel amplification, shaping, discrimination and multi-event buffering. The readout of the sensitive matrix is hit driven. There is no signaling activity over the matrix if there are no hits to read out and power consumption is proportional to the occupancy. The sensor meets the experimental requirements of detection efficiency above 99%, fake-hit probability below 10−5 and a spatial resolution of 5 μm. The capability to read out Pb–Pb interactions at 100 kHz is provided. The power density of the ALPIDE chip is projected to be less than 35 mW/cm2 for the application in the Inner Barrel Layers and below 20 mW/cm2 for the Outer Barrel Layers, ...

  11. The ALPIDE pixel sensor chip for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca

    2017-02-01

    The ALPIDE chip is a CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor being developed for the Upgrade of the ITS of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The ALPIDE chip is implemented with a 180 nm CMOS Imaging Process and fabricated on substrates with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer. It measures 15 mm×30 mm and contains a matrix of 512×1024 pixels with in-pixel amplification, shaping, discrimination and multi-event buffering. The readout of the sensitive matrix is hit driven. There is no signaling activity over the matrix if there are no hits to read out and power consumption is proportional to the occupancy. The sensor meets the experimental requirements of detection efficiency above 99%, fake-hit probability below 10-5 and a spatial resolution of 5 μm. The capability to read out Pb-Pb interactions at 100 kHz is provided. The power density of the ALPIDE chip is projected to be less than 35 mW/cm2 for the application in the Inner Barrel Layers and below 20 mW/cm2 for the Outer Barrel Layers, where the occupancy is lower. This contribution describes the architecture and the main features of the final ALPIDE chip, planned for submission at the beginning of 2016. Early results from the experimental qualification of full scale prototype predecessors are also reported.

  12. Silicon pixel R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)754303

    2016-01-01

    Challenging detector requirements are imposed by the physics goals at the future multi-TeV e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). A single point resolution of 3μm for the vertex detector and 7μm for the tracker is required. Moreover, the CLIC vertex detector and tracker need to be extremely light weighted with a material budget of 0.2 % X0 per layer in the ver- tex detector and 1-2%X0 in the tracker. A fast time slicing of 10ns is further required to suppress background from beam-beam interactions. A wide range of sensor and readout ASIC technologies are investigated within the CLIC silicon pixel R&D effort. Various hybrid planar sensor assemblies with a pixel size of 25x25μm2 and 55x55μm2 have been produced and characterised by laboratory measurements and during test-beam campaigns. Experimental and simulation results for thin (50μm-500μm) slim edge and active-edge planar, and High-Voltage CMOS sensors hybridised to various readout ASICs (Timepix, Timepix3, CLICpix) are presented.

  13. Silicon pixel R&D for CLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Challenging detector requirements are imposed by the physics goals at the future multi-TeV e+ e‑ Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). A single point resolution of 3 μm for the vertex detector and 7 μm for the tracker is required. Moreover, the CLIC vertex detector and tracker need to be extremely light weighted with a material budget of 0.2% X0 per layer in the vertex detector and 1–2% X0 in the tracker. A fast time slicing of 10 ns is further required to suppress background from beam-beam interactions. A wide range of sensor and readout ASIC technologies are investigated within the CLIC silicon pixel R&D effort. Various hybrid planar sensor assemblies with a pixel size of 25×25 μm2 and 55×55 μm2 have been produced and characterised by laboratory measurements and during test-beam campaigns. Experimental and simulation results for thin (50 μm–500 μm) slim edge and active-edge planar, and High-Voltage CMOS sensors hybridised to various readout ASICs (Timepix, Timepix3, CLICpix) are presented.

  14. Beam test results of the irradiated Silicon Drift Detector for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Kushpil, S; Giubellino, P.; Idzik, M.; Kolozhvari, A.; Kushpil, V.; Martinez, M.I.; Mazza, G.; Mazzoni, A.; Meddi, F.; Nouais, D.; Petracek, V.; Piemonte, C.; Rashevsky, A.; Riccati, L.; Rivetti, A.; Tosello, F.; Vacchi, A.; Wheadon, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Silicon Drift Detectors will equip two of the six cylindrical layers of high precision position sensitive detectors in the ITS of the ALICE experiment at LHC. In this paper we report the beam test results of a SDD irradiated with 1 GeV electrons. The aim of this test was to verify the radiation tolerance of the device under an electron fluence equivalent to twice particle fluence expected during 10 years of ALICE operation.

  15. ALICE honours industries

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The third annual ALICE Awards ceremony recognizes three companies for their contribution to the experiment's detector. The ALICE Awards winners pictured with CERN Secretary-General, Maximilian Metzger, during the ceremony. Three industries were honoured at the ALICE Awards ceremony on 17 March for their exceptional work on the collaboration's detector. Representatives from the companies accepted their awards at the ceremony, which was also attended by CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger and members of the ALICE Collaboration Board. VTT Microelectronics of Finland received an award for the production of the thin bump bonded ladders (detector arrays, each consisting of 40 960 active cells) for the silicon pixel detector (SPD) in the inner tracking system. A number of technical hurdles had to be overcome: complex and expensive equipment was procured or upgraded, and processes underwent a detailed study and careful tuning. The ladders have a high and stable yield and the production will soon be completed...

  16. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-15

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2}, which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10{sup 15} particles per cm{sup 2}.

  17. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles

    CERN Document Server

    Viel, Simon; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN, as well as simulated data.

  18. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of

  19. Commissioning of the Silicon Drift Detectors of the ALICE experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Biolcati, Emanuele

    2009-01-01

    Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) equip the two central layers of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment at the LHC. Main results of systematic studies of detector performance including noise, gain, drift speed and charge collection measurements will be reported

  20. Development and characterisation of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor prototypes for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Collu, Alberto

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is dedicated to the study and characterisation of the Quark-­‐Gluon Plasma (QGP), exploiting the unique potential of ultrarelativistic heavy-­‐ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The increase of the LHC luminosity leading up to about 50 kHz Pb-­‐Pb interaction rate after the second long shutdown (in 2018-­‐2019) will offer the possibility to perform high precision measurements of rare probes over a wide range of momenta. These measurements are statistically limited or not even possible with the present experimental set up. For this reason, an upgrade strategy for several ALICE detectors is being pursued. In particular, it is foreseen to replace the Inner Tracking System (ITS) by a new detector which will significantly improve the tracking and vertexing capabilities of ALICE in the upgrade scenario. The new ITS will have a barrel geometry consisting of seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with high granularity, which will...

  1. Silicon pixel detector prototyping in SOI CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Roma; Bugiel, Szymon; Idzik, Marek; Kapusta, Piotr; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2016-12-01

    The Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS is one of the most advanced and promising technology for monolithic pixel detectors design. The insulator layer that is implemented inside the silicon crystal allows to integrate sensors matrix and readout electronic on a single wafer. Moreover, the separation of electronic and substrate increases also the SOI circuits performance. The parasitic capacitances to substrate are significantly reduced, so the electronic systems are faster and consume much less power. The authors of this presentation are the members of international SOIPIX collaboration, that is developing SOI pixel detectors in 200 nm Lapis Fully-Depleted, Low-Leakage SOI CMOS. This work shows a set of advantages of SOI technology and presents possibilities for pixel detector design SOI CMOS. In particular, the preliminary results of a Cracow chip are presented.

  2. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  3. Detector and Front-end electronics for ALICE and STAR silicon strip layers

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Higueret, S; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Suire, C; Tarchini, A; Berst, D; Blondé, J P; Clauss, G; Colledani, C; Deptuch, G; Dulinski, W; Hu, Y; Hébrard, L; Kucewicz, W; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Ravel, O; Retière, F

    1998-01-01

    Detector modules consisting of Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) and Front End Electronics (FEE) assembly have been designed in order to provide the two outer layers of the ALICE Inner Tracker System (ITS) [1] as well as the outer layer of the STAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) [2]. Several prototypes have beenproduced and tested in the SPS and PS beam at CERN to validate the final design. Double-sided, AC-coupled SSD detectors provided by two different manufacturers and also a pair of single-sided SSD have been asssociated to new low-power CMOS ALICE128C ASIC chips in a new detector module assembly. The same detectors have also been associated to current Viking electronics for reference purpose. These prototype detector modules are described and some first results are presented.

  4. 3D silicon pixel sensors: Recent test beam results

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, P; Sandaker, H; Korolkov, I; Barrera, C; Wermes, N; Borri, M; Grinstein, S; Troyano, I; Grenier, P; Devetak, E; Fleta, C; Kenney, C; Tsybychev, D; Nellist, C; Chmeissan, M; Su, D; DeWilde, B; Silverstein, D; Dorholt, O; Tsung, J; Sjoebaek, K; Stupak, J; Slaviec, T; Micelli, A; Helle, K; Bolle, E; Huegging, F; Kocian, M; Fazio, S; Balbuena, J; Dalla Betta, G F; La Rosa, A; Rivero, F; Mastroberardino, A; Hasi, J; Darbo, G; Boscardin, M; Da Via, C; Nordahl, P; Giordani, M; Jackson, P; Rohne, O; Gemme, C; Young, C

    2011-01-01

    The 3D silicon sensors aimed for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade have been tested with a high energy pion beam at the CERN SPS in 2009. Two types of sensor layouts were tested: full-3D assemblies fabricated in Stanford, where the electrodes penetrate the entire silicon wafer thickness, and modified-3D assemblies fabricated at FBK-irst with partially overlapping electrodes. In both cases three read-out electrodes are ganged together to form pixels of dimension 50 x 400 mu m(2). Data on the pulse height distribution, tracking efficiency and resolution were collected for various particle incident angles, with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field. Data from a planar sensor of the type presently used in the ATLAS detector were used at the same time to give comparison. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. 3D silicon pixel sensors: Recent test beam results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, P., E-mail: phansson@cern.c [University of Oslo (Norway); Balbuena, J.; Barrera, C. [CNM Barcelona (Spain); Bolle, E. [University of Oslo (Norway); Borri, M. [Torino University (Italy); Boscardin, M. [FBK Trento (Italy); Chmeissan, M. [IFAE Barcelona (Spain); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Universita di Trento and INFN Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Genova (Italy); Da Via, C. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Devetak, E.; DeWilde, B. [Stony Brook University (United States); Su, D. [SLAC (United States); Dorholt, O. [University of Oslo (Norway); Fazio, S. [Calabria University (Italy); Fleta, C. [CNM Barcelona (Spain); Gemme, C. [INFN Genova (Italy); Giordani, M. [University of Udine and INFN Udine (Italy); Gjersdal, H. [University of Oslo (Norway); Grenier, P. [SLAC (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The 3D silicon sensors aimed for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade have been tested with a high energy pion beam at the CERN SPS in 2009. Two types of sensor layouts were tested: full-3D assemblies fabricated in Stanford, where the electrodes penetrate the entire silicon wafer thickness, and modified-3D assemblies fabricated at FBK-irst with partially overlapping electrodes. In both cases three read-out electrodes are ganged together to form pixels of dimension 50x400{mu}m{sup 2}. Data on the pulse height distribution, tracking efficiency and resolution were collected for various particle incident angles, with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field. Data from a planar sensor of the type presently used in the ATLAS detector were used at the same time to give comparison.

  6. ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2006-01-01

    To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

  7. GigaTracker, a Thin and Fast Silicon Pixels Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Velghe, Bob; Bonacini, Sandro; Ceccucci, Augusto; Kaplon, Jan; Kluge, Alexander; Mapelli, Alessandro; Morel, Michel; Noël, Jérôme; Noy, Matthew; Perktold, Lukas; Petagna, Paolo; Poltorak, Karolina; Riedler, Petra; Romagnoli, Giulia; Chiozzi, Stefano; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Gianoli, Alberto; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Wahl, Heinrich; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Jarron, Pierre; Marchetto, Flavio; Gil, Eduardo Cortina; Nuessle, Georg; Szilasi, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    GigaTracker, the NA62’s upstream spectrometer, plays a key role in the kinematically constrained background suppression for the study of the K + ! p + n ̄ n decay. It is made of three independent stations, each of which is a six by three cm 2 hybrid silicon pixels detector. To meet the NA62 physics goals, GigaTracker has to address challenging requirements. The hit time resolution must be better than 200 ps while keeping the total thickness of the sensor to less than 0.5 mm silicon equivalent. The 200 μm thick sensor is divided into 18000 300 μm 300 μm pixels bump-bounded to ten independent read-out chips. The chips use an end-of-column architecture and rely on time-over- threshold discriminators. A station can handle a crossing rate of 750 MHz. Microchannel cooling technology will be used to cool the assembly. It allows us to keep the sensor close to 0 C with 130 μm of silicon in the beam area. The sensor and read-out chip performance were validated using a 45 pixel demonstrator with a laser test setu...

  8. Development of the digital read-out system for the CERN Alice pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, Tullio

    In order to gain new experimental insight at the TeV energy scale, CERN (Geneva) will build the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a new collider machine operating at a maximum center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV (in the p+/p+ interactions). The accelerator can operate in a heavy ion collision mode achieving a center-of-mass energy of ~5.5 TeV. The experimental environment at LHC is characterized by a high crossing rate of the particle bunches (one every 25 ns for p+/p+) and high levels of radiation. Therefore stringent requirements are imposed on the performance of detectors at LHC. Such a particle physics environment calls for dedicated hardware/software solutions with specific constraints, such as radiation tolerance, limited amount of material and limited power dissipation. One of the particle physics experiments carried out in LHC is ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment). The ALICE detector will face a very high density of tracks of particles (a multiplicity of 8000 charged particles per unit of rapidity, that i...

  9. Data Compression for the ALICE Silicon Drift Detector

    CERN Document Server

    De Remigis, P; CERN. Geneva; Mazza, G; Werbrouck, A E; Cavagnino, D

    1998-01-01

    The problem faced when transmitting data coming from the ADC is a typical data compression one. The data to compress may be viewed as a bit stream array containing values in the integer range [0, 255]. A large amount of these values (about 95%) should be around 0 [Alice, 1995], even though the noise will make them generally different from 0. The charges may be imagined as isolated hills (with an approximate gaussian shape) on a (approximately) planar surface. The characteristics required for the algorithm are: compression coefficient c03, which means a compression ratio C30 (where c=1/C=n0/ n1 where n0 is the number of bits exciting the algorithm and n1 is the number of bits entering the algorithm), high operating speed, easy hardware implementation, minimal size of the data structures used, low power consumption, simplicity and degree of lossiness of the algorithm tunable with parameters. A compression algorithm is termed lossy if the decompressed data is not the original data, while it is called lossless ...

  10. Silicon Avalanche Pixel Sensor for High Precision Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ascenzo, N; Moon, C S; Morsani, F; Ratti, L; Saveliev, V; Navarro, A Savoy; Xie, Q

    2013-01-01

    The development of an innovative position sensitive pixelated sensor to detect and measure with high precision the coordinates of the ionizing particles is proposed. The silicon avalanche pixel sensors (APiX) is based on the vertical integration of avalanche pixels connected in pairs and operated in coincidence in fully digital mode and with the processing electronics embedded on the chip. The APiX sensor addresses the need to minimize the material budget and related multiple scattering effects in tracking systems requiring a high spatial resolution in the presence of a large occupancy. The expected operation of the new sensor features: low noise, low power consumption and suitable radiation tolerance. The APiX device provides on-chip digital information on the position of the coordinate of the impinging charged particle and can be seen as the building block of a modular system of pixelated arrays, implementing a sparsified readout. The technological challenges are the 3D integration of the device under CMOS ...

  11. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  12. Test and commissioning of the CARLOS control boards for the ALICE Silicon Drift Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, Bruno; Beolè, S; Coli, S; Costa, F; De Remigis, P; Falchieri, Davide; Gandolfi, Enzo; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Kral, J F; Masetti, Massimo; Mazza, G; Rashevsky, A; Riccati, Lodovico; Rivetti, A; Senyukov, S; Toscano, Letterio; Tosello, F; Wheadon, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the test strategy employed during the installation of the CARLOS end ladder boards developed for the Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) of ALICE. Each CARLOS board compresses the data provided by the front-end electronics of one SDD and sends them via an optical link of 800 Mbit/s to the data concentrator card (CARLOSrx) located in the counting room. The paper describes the integration of the CARLOS boards in the final SDD system, including its cooling and mechanical support, the power supply distribution and the optical interconnections. The results of the tests performed after each step of the installation sequence are reported.

  13. A beam monitor using silicon pixel sensors for hadron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Zou, Shuguang; Fan, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Dong; Kang, Huili; Sun, Daming; Yang, Ping; Pei, Hua; Huang, Guangming; Xu, Nu; Gao, Chaosong; Xiao, Le

    2017-03-01

    We report the design and test results of a beam monitor developed for online monitoring in hadron therapy. The beam monitor uses eight silicon pixel sensors, Topmetal-II-, as the anode array. Topmetal-II- is a charge sensor designed in a CMOS 0.35 μm technology. Each Topmetal-II- sensor has 72×72 pixels and the pixel size is 83×83 μm2. In our design, the beam passes through the beam monitor without hitting the electrodes, making the beam monitor especially suitable for monitoring heavy ion beams. This design also reduces radiation damage to the beam monitor itself. The beam monitor is tested with a carbon ion beam at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Results indicate that the beam monitor can measure position, incidence angle and intensity of the beam with a position resolution better than 20 μm, angular resolution about 0.5° and intensity statistical accuracy better than 2%.

  14. A Beam Monitor Using Silicon Pixel Sensors for Hadron Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Fan, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Dong; Kang, Huili; Sun, Daming; Yang, Ping; Pei, Hua; Huang, Guangming; Xu, Nu; Gao, Chaosong; Xiao, Le

    2016-01-01

    We report the design and test results of a beam monitor developed for online monitoring in hadron therapy. The beam monitor uses eight silicon pixel sensors, \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$}, as the anode array. \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} is a charge sensor designed in a CMOS 0.35 $\\mu$m technology. Each \\textit{Topmetal-${II}^-$} sensor has $72\\times72$ pixels. Each pixel size is about $83\\times83$ $\\mu$m$^2$. In our design the beam passes through the beam monitor without hitting the electrodes, making the beam monitor especially suitable for monitoring heavy ion beams. This design also reduces radiation damage to the beam monitor itself. The beam monitor is tested at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) which provides a carbon ion beam. Results indicate that the beam monitor can measure position, incident angle and intensity of the beam with a position resolution better than 20 $\\mu$m, angular resolution about 0.5$^\\circ$ and intensity statistical accuracy better than 2$\\%$.

  15. Study of silicon pixel sensor for synchrotron radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Jia, Yun-Cong; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    The silicon pixel sensor (SPS) is one of the key components of hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray detection (SRD). In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of SPSs for single beam X-ray photon detection is reported. The designed pixel sensor is a p+-in-n structure with guard-ring structures operated in full-depletion mode and is fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320 μm thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers by a general Si planar process. To achieve high energy resolution of X-rays and obtain low dark current and high breakdown voltage as well as appropriate depletion voltage of the SPS, a series of technical optimizations of device structure and fabrication process are explored. With optimized device structure and fabrication process, excellent SPS characteristics with dark current of 2 nA/cm2, full depletion voltage 150 V are achieved. The fabricated SPSs are wire bonded to ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response to the 1W2B synchrotron beam line of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured S-curves for SRD demonstrate a high discrimination for different energy X-rays. The extracted energy resolution is high (10 keV) and the linear properties between input photo energy and the equivalent generator amplitude are well established. It confirmed that the fabricated SPSs have a good energy linearity and high count rate with the optimized technologies. The technology is expected to have a promising application in the development of a large scale SRD system for the Beijing Advanced Photon Source. Supported by Prefabrication Research of Beijing Advanced Photon Source (R&D for BAPS) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335010)

  16. Optimization of transistor size and operating point for the LVDS driver of the ALICE ITS pixel chip

    CERN Document Server

    Froeen, Solveig Marie

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE Inner Tracker System (ITS) will be upgraded during Long Shutdown 2. The tracker layers will be equipped with monolithic pixel sensors chips. A Low Voltage Differential Signalling (LVDS) driver is required for the off chip data transmission. A current mode 1.2 Gb/s LVDS driver based on H-bridge scheme has already been implemented and tested. Although the present driver meets the specifications, a decrease of its power consumption is beneficial for the reduction of the material required for the detector powering and cooling. This report presents the study of a current mode LVDS driver based on H-bridge scheme where the switches are replaced with current sources that can deliver either ON level or OFF level currents. The ON current is the main static power contributor, and its value is set to 4 mA by specifications to have a differential signal of 400 mV over the 100 Ω termination resistor. The second contributor for the static power is the OFF power, which has to be optimized together with the dynami...

  17. Operation and calibration of the Silicon Drift Detectors of the ALICE experiment during the 2008 cosmic ray data taking period

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Bala, R; Batigne, G; Beolè, S; Biolcati, E; Bock Garcia, N; Bruna, E; Cerello, P; Coli, S; Corrales Morales, Y; Costa, F; Crescio, E; De Remigis, P; Di Liberto, S; Falchieri, D; Feofilov, G; Ferrarese, W; Gandolfi, E; Garcia, C; Gaudichet, L; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Humanic, T J; Igolkin, S; Idzik, M; Kiprich, S K; Kisiel, A; Kolozhvari, A; Kotov, I; Kral, J; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Lea, R; Lisa, M A; Martinez, M I; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masetti, M; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Montano Zetina, L M; Monteno, M; Nilsen, B S; Nouais, D; Padilla Cabal, F; Petrácek, V; Poghosyan, M G; Prino, F; Ramello, L; Rashevsky, A; Riccati, L; Rivetti, A S; Senyukov, S; Siciliano, M; Sitta, M; Subieta Vasquez, M A; Sumbera, M L; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Truesdale, D; Urciuoli, G M; Vacchi, A; Vallero, S; Werbrouck, A; Zampa, G; Zinovjev, G

    2010-01-01

    The calibration and performance of the Silicon Drift Detector of the ALICE experiment during the 2008 cosmic ray run will be presented. In particular the procedures to monitor the running parameters (baselines, noise, drift speed) are detailed. Other relevant parameters (SOP delay, time-zero, charge calibration) were also determined.

  18. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  19. Recent Developments on the Silicon Drift Detector readout scheme for the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Bonazzola, G C; Bonvicini, V; Cavagnino, D; Cerello, P G; De Remigis, P; Falchieri, D; Gabrielli, A; Gandolfi, E; Giubellino, P; Hernández, R; Masetti, M; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nouais, D; Rashevsky, A; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F

    1999-01-01

    Proposal of abstract for LEB99, Snowmass, Colorado, 20-24 September 1999Recent developments of the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) readout system for the ALICE Experiment are presented. The foreseen readout system is based on 2 main units. The first unit consists of a low noise preamplifier, an analog memory which continuously samples the amplifier output, an A/D converter and a digital memory. When the trigger signal validates the analog data, the ADCs convert the samples into a digital form and store them into the digital memory. The second unit performs the zero suppression/data compression operations. In this paper the status of the design is presented, together with the test results of the A/D converter, the multi-event buffer and the compression unit prototype.Summary:In the Inner Tracker System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment the third and the fourth layer of the detectors are SDDs. These detectors provide the measurement of both the energy deposition and the bi-dimensional position of the track. In terms o...

  20. Charge collection in the Silicon Drift Detectors of the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Batigne, G; Beolé, S; Biolcati, E; Cerello, P; Coli, S; Corrales Morales, Y; Crescio, E; De Remigis, P; Falchieri, D; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Lea, R; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Mazza, G; Ortona, G; Prino, F; Ramello, L; Rashevsky, A; Riccati, L; Rivetti, A; Senyukov, S; Siciliano, M; Sitta, M; Subieta, M; Toscano, L; Tosello, F

    2010-01-01

    A detailed study of charge collection efficiency has been performed on the Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) of the ALICE experiment. Three different methods to study the collected charge as a function of the drift time have been implemented. The first approach consists in measuring the charge at different injection distances moving an infrared laser by means of micrometric step motors. The second method is based on the measurement of the charge injected by the laser at fixed drift distance and varying the drift field, thus changing the drift time. In the last method, the measurement of the charge deposited by atmospheric muons is used to study the charge collection efficiency as a function of the drift time. The three methods gave consistent results and indicated that no charge loss during the drift is observed for the sensor types used in 99% of the SDD modules mounted on the ALICE Inner Tracking System. The atmospheric muons have also been used to test the effect of the zero-suppression applied to reduce the d...

  1. Silicon pixel-detector R&D for CLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberg, A.

    2016-11-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few μm, ultra-low mass (~ 0.2%X0 per layer for the vertex region and ~ 1%X0 per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ~ 10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analog readout are explored. For the outer tracking region, both hybrid concepts and fully integrated CMOS sensors are under consideration. The feasibility of ultra-thin sensor layers is validated with Timepix3 readout ASICs bump bonded to active edge planar sensors with 50 μm to 150 μm thickness. Prototypes of CLICpix readout ASICs implemented in 6525 nm CMOS technology with 25 μm pixel pitch have been produced. Hybridisation concepts have been developed for interconnecting these chips either through capacitive coupling to active HV-CMOS sensors or through bump-bonding to planar sensors. Recent R&D achievements include results from beam tests with all types of hybrid assemblies. Simulations based on Geant4 and TCAD are used to validate the experimental results and to assess and optimise the performance of various detector designs.

  2. Silicon pixel R&D for the CLIC detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hynds, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few microns, ultra-low mass (~0.2% X0 per layer for the vertex region and ~1% X0 per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ~10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hy- brid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analogue readout are explored. For the outer tracking region,...

  3. Silicon pixel-detector R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)718101

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few μm, ultra-low mass (∼ 0.2% X${}_0$ per layer for the vertex region and ∼ 1 % X${}_0$ per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ∼ 10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analog readout are explored. For the outer trac...

  4. IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria R. Coluccia et al.

    2002-07-16

    The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  5. Beam test results of the BTeV silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Appel, J A

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of the BTeV silicon pixel detector tests carried out in the MTest beam at Fermilab in 1999-2000. The pixel detector spatial resolution has been studied as a function of track inclination, sensor bias, and readout threshold.

  6. ALICE through the phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    While proton-proton collisions will be the principal diet of CERN's LHC machine, heavy-ion collisions will also be on the menu. The ALICE experiment will be ready and waiting. Another of ALICE's TDRs concerns the experiment's inner tracking system (ITS). This is the innermost layer of the detector, responsible for tracking emerging particles where their density will be at its highest. ALICE physicists have been working with colleagues from fellow LHC experiment LHCb to develop silicon pixel chips for the inner two layers of the ITS.The result is a chip with 50 x 425 mu m cells; a prototype detector based on this chip is being tested this year.The ITS has six layers, all using silicon technology, and about 10 million digital and 2 million analogue readout channels to digest the huge number of particles produced in LHC lead-ion collisions. The collaboration has opted for a hybrid ITS structure combining sensors, electronics and mechanical support. Beam tests so far have indicated that the ITS should achieve pos...

  7. The Phase-1 upgrade of the CMS silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Menichelli, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The present CMS pixel detector will be replaced in the shutdown period 2016/17 by an upgraded version due to the following reasons: increased luminosity at reduced bunch spacing ( from 7 x 10 33 cm - 2 s - 1 at 50 ns bunch spacing to 2 x 10 34 cm - 2 s - 1 at 25 ns bunch spacing) in the LHC , and radiation damage effects that will significantly degrade the present detector. The new upgraded detector will have higher tracking efficiency and lower mass with four barrel layer and three forward/backward disks to provide higher hit pixel coverage out to pseudorapidities of ±2.5. In this paper we will describe the new pixel detector focus ing mostly on the barrel detector design, construction and expected performances

  8. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Simon; Banerjee, Swagato; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2016-09-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN.

  9. Performance of Silicon Pixel Detectors at Small Track Incidence Angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Viel, Simon; The ATLAS collaboration; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian Choate; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN.

  10. The Latest from ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    After intensive installation operations from October 2008 until July 2009 (see Bulletin 31/7/2009), ALICE started a full-detector cosmics run in August, which is scheduled to last until the end of October. In addition to the Silicon Pixel and ACORDE detectors, the latter specially built for triggering on cosmic muons, ALICE is now making extensive use of the trigger provided by the Time Of Flight array. The high granularity and the low noise (0.1 Hz/cm2) of the TOF MRPCs, combined with the large coverage (~150 m2), offers a wide range of trigger combinations. This extended cosmic run serves many purposes: to test the performance of each individual detector; to ensure their integration in the central Data Acquisition; to perform alignment and calibration; to check the reconstruction software; to fine-tune the tracking algorithms; and last but not least, to train the personnel for the long shifts ahead. More than 100 million events h...

  11. Electrical characterization of irradiated prototype silicon pixel sensors for BTeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Rita Coluccia et al.

    2002-11-13

    The pixel detector in the BteV experiment at the Tevatron (Fermi Laboratory) is an important detector component for high-resolution tracking and vertex identification. For this task the hybrid pixel detector has to work in a very harsh radiation environment with up to 10{sup 14} minimum ionizing particles/cm{sup 2}/year. Radiation hardness of prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors has been investigated. We present Electrical characterization curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment. We tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation techniques: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on irradiation with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  12. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, Simon, E-mail: sviel@lbl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Banerjee, Swagato [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States); Pranko, Aliaksandr [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Rieger, Julia [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); II Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen (Germany); Wolf, Julian [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America (United States); Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America (United States)

    2016-09-21

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN. - Highlights: • Extended inner pixel barrel layers are proposed for the ATLAS ITk upgrade. • Test beam results at small track incidence angles validate this ATLAS ITk design. • Long pixel clusters are reconstructed with high efficiency at low threshold values. • Excellent angular resolution is achieved using pixel cluster length information.

  13. Prototype readout electronics for the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielewicz, K. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, J.; Giubilato, P.; Rossewij, M. J.; Schambach, J.; Vanat, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major upgrade to the experimental apparatus. A key element of the upgrade is the construction of a new silicon-based Inner Tracking System containing 12 Gpixels in an area of 10 m2. Its readout system consists of 192 readout units that control the pixel sensors and the power units, and deliver the sensor data to the counting room. A prototype readout board has been designed to test: the interface between the sensor modules and the readout electronics, the signal integrity and reliability of data transfer, the interface to the ALICE DAQ and trigger, and the susceptibility of the system to the expected radiation level.

  14. The CMS Silicon Pixel detector for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is planning an upgrade program which will bring the luminosity to about 5~$\\times10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in 2026, with the goal of an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity scenario, HL-LHC, will present new challenges of higher data rates and increased radiation. To maintain its physics potential in this harsh environment, the CMS detector will undergo a major upgrade program known as the Phase II upgrade. The new Phase II pixel detector will require a high bandwidth readout system and highly radiation tolerant sensors and on-detector ASICs. Several technologies for the sensors are being studied. Serial powering schemes are under consideration to accommodate significant constraints on the system. These prospective designs, as well as new layout geometries that include very forward pixel discs with acceptance extended from $\\vert\\eta\\vert<2.4$ to $\\vert\\eta\\vert<4$, are presented together with performance estimates.

  15. Processing and characterization of a MEDIPIX2-compatible silicon sensor with 220 {mu}m pixel size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froejdh, Anna; Froejdh, Erik; Thungstroem, Goeran; Froejdh, Christer [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Norlin, Boerje, E-mail: Borje.Norlin@miun.se [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    Pixellated silicon detectors with a pixel size of 220 {mu}m have been fabricated at Mid-Sweden University. The purpose was to make a detector compatible with the MEDIPIX2 readout chip with pixels large enough to avoid charge sharing to do spectral imaging. Two different guard ring structures have been tested to investigate leakage current and interpixel isolation in a sensor made on high resistivity silicon.

  16. Performance improvement in amorphous silicon based uncooled microbolometers through pixel design and materials development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmera, Sameer; Brady, John; Hanson, Charles; Schimert, Tom; Syllaios, A. J.; Taylor, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Uncooled amorphous silicon microbolometers have been established as a field-worthy technology for a broad range of applications where performance and form factor are paramount, such as soldier-borne systems. Recent developments in both bolometer materials and pixel design at L-3 in the 17μm pixel node have further advanced the state-of-the-art. Increasing the a-Si material temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) has the impact of improving NETD sensitivity without increasing thermal time constant (TTC), leading to an improvement in the NETD×TTC product. By tuning the amorphous silicon thin-film microstructure using hydrogen dilution during deposition, films with high TCR have been developed. The electrical properties of these films have been shown to be stable even after thermal cycling to temperatures greater than 300oC enabling wafer-level vacuum packaging currently performed at L-3 to reduce the size and weight of the vacuum packaged unit. Through appropriate selection of conditions during deposition, amorphous silicon of ~3.4% TCR has been integrated into the L-3 microbolometer manufacturing flow. By combining pixel design enhancements with improvements to amorphous silicon thin-film technology, L-3's amorphous silicon microbolometer technology will continue to provide the performance required to meet the needs to tomorrow's war-fighter.

  17. Silicon sensors development for the CMS pixel system

    CERN Document Server

    Arndt, Kirk; Bortoletto, Daniela; Giolo, Kim; Horisberger, R P; Rohe, T; Roy, Amitava; Son Seung Hee

    2003-01-01

    The CMS experiment will operate at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A hybrid pixel detector located close to the interaction region of the colliding beams will provide high resolution tracking and vertex identification which will be crucial for b quark identification. Because of the radiation environment of the LHC, the performance of the sensors must be carefully evaluated up to a fluence of 6 multiplied by 10**1**4n//e//qcm **-**2. We expect that the sensors will be operated partially depleted during their operation at the LHC and we have implemented an n**+ on n sensor design. We have irradiated prototype sensors to a dose of 1 multiplied by 10 **1**5n //e//qcm**-**2. We present the results of our testing before and after irradiation.

  18. Silicon micro-fluidic cooling for NA62 GTK pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, G; Brunel, B; Catinaccio, A; Degrange, J; Mapelli, A; Morel, M; Noel, J; Petagna, P

    2015-01-01

    Silicon micro-channel cooling is being studied for efficient thermal management in application fields such as high power computing and 3D electronic integration. This concept has been introduced in 2010 for the thermal management of silicon pixel detectors in high energy physics experiments. Combining the versatility of standard micro-fabrication processes with the high thermal efficiency typical of micro-fluidics, it is possible to produce effective thermal management devices that are well adapted to different detector configurations. The production of very thin cooling devices in silicon enables a minimization of material of the tracking sensors and eliminates mechanical stresses due to the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between detectors and cooling systems. The NA62 experiment at CERN will be the first high particle physics experiment that will install a micro-cooling system to perform the thermal management of the three detection planes of its Gigatracker pixel detector.

  19. Pre- and post-irradiation performance of FBK 3D silicon pixel detectors for CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzywda, A., E-mail: akrzywda@purdue.edu [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Alagoz, E.; Bubna, M. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Obertino, M. [Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Solano, A. [Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Arndt, K. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Uplegger, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Betta, G.F. Dalla [TIFPA INFN and Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 9, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Centro per Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy); Ngadiuba, J. [Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Rivera, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Terzo, S. [Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Bortoletto, D. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Prosser, A.; Adreson, J.; Kwan, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Osipenkov, I. [Texas A and M University, Department of Physics, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Bolla, G. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    In preparation for the tenfold luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (the HL-LHC) around 2020, three-dimensional (3D) silicon pixel sensors are being developed as a radiation-hard candidate to replace the planar ones currently being used in the CMS pixel detector. This study examines an early batch of FBK sensors (named ATLAS08) of three 3D pixel geometries: 1E, 2E, and 4E, which respectively contain one, two, and four readout electrodes for each pixel, passing completely through the bulk. We present electrical characteristics and beam test performance results for each detector before and after irradiation. The maximum fluence applied is 3.5×10{sup 15} n {sub eq}/cm{sup 2}.

  20. ALICE doffs hat to two companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    During the fifth annual ALICE Industrial Awards ceremony, the ALICE Collaboration honoured two companies for their outstanding contributions to the construction of the experiment.For the past five years, the ALICE collaboration has been presenting its industrial partners with awards for meeting demanding or unusual requirements, for excellence in design or execution, for delivery on-time and on-budget and for outstanding cooperation. This year, on 9 March, ALICE presented awards to two companies for their exceptional performance. From left to right: Kees Oskamp (ALICE SSD), Arie de Haas (ALICE SSD), Gert-Jan Nooren (ALICE SSD), Shon Shmuel (FIBERNET), Yehuda Mor-Yosef (FIBERNET), Hans Boggild (ALICE), Jurgen Schukraft (ALICE Spokesperson), Catherine Decosse (ALICE) and Jean-Robert Lutz (ALICE SSD). FIBERNET Ltd., based in Yokneam, Israel, was rewarded for the excellent and timely assembly of the Silicon Strip Detector boards (SSD) of the Inner Tracking System with cable connections. Special low-mass cables, ...

  1. Design of a 16 gray scales 320×240 pixels OLED-on-silicon driving circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ran; Wang Xiaohui; Wang Wenbo; Du Huan; Han Zhengsheng

    2009-01-01

    A 320×240 pixel organic-light-emitting-diode-on-silicon (OLEDoS) driving circuit is implemented using the standard 0.5 μm CMOS process of CSMC. It gives 16 gray scales with integrated 4 bit D/A converters. A three-transistor voltage-programmed OLED pixel driver is proposed, which can realize the very small current driving required for the OLEDoS microdisplay. Both the D/A converter and the pixel driver are implemented with pMOS devices. The pass-transistor and capacitance in the OLED pixel driver can be used to sample the output of the D/A converter. An additional pMOS is added to OLED pixel driver, which is used to control the D/A converter operating only when one row is on. This can reduce the circuit's power consumption. This driving circuit can work properly in a frame frequency of 50 Hz, and the final layout of this circuit is given. The pixel area is 28.4×28.4 μm2 and the display area is 10.7×8.0 mm2 (the diagonal is about 13 mm). The measured pixel gray scale voltage shows that the function of the driver circuit is correct, and the power consumption of the chip is about 350 mW.

  2. Novel silicon n-in-p pixel sensors for the future ATLAS upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rosa, A., E-mail: alessandro.larosa@cern.ch [Section de Physique (DPNC), Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, Genève 4, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gallrapp, C. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Pernegger, H. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Richter, R.H. [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the inner detector with an all silicon system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We present the characterization and performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel sensors produced by CiS (Germany) connected by bump bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. These results are obtained before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 10{sup 16}1-MeV n{sub eq}cm{sup −2}, and prove the operability of this kind of sensors in the harsh radiation environment foreseen for the pixel system at HL-LHC. We also present an overview of the new pixel production, which is on-going at CiS for sensors compatible with the new ATLAS readout chip FE-I4.

  3. Novel Silicon n-in-p Pixel Sensors for the future ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, A; Macchiolo, A; Nisius, R; Pernegger, H; Richter,R H; Weigell, P

    2013-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all silicon system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost eectiveness, that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We present the characterization and performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel sensors produced by CiS (Germany) connected by bump bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. These results are obtained before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 1016 1-MeV $n_{eq}cm^{-2}$, and prove the operability of this kind of sensors in the harsh radiation environment foreseen for the pixel system at HL-LHC. We also present an overview of the new pixel production, which is on-going at CiS for sensors compatible with the new ATLAS readout chip FE-I4.

  4. Extending the dynamic range of silicon photomultipliers without increasing pixel count

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Kurtis F., E-mail: kurtis.johnson@cern.c [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2010-09-21

    A silicon photomultiplier, sometimes called 'multipixel photon counter', which we here refer to as a 'SiPM', is a photo-sensitive device built from an avalanche photodiode array of pixels on a common silicon substrate, such that it can detect single photon events. The dimensions of a pixel may vary from 20 to 100 {mu}m and their density can be greater than 1000 per square millimeter. Each pixel in a SiPM operates in Geiger mode and is coupled to the output by a quenching resistor. Although each pixel operates in digital mode, the SiPM is an analog device because all the pixels are read in parallel, making it possible to generate signals within a dynamic range from a single photon to a large number of photons, ultimately limited by the number of pixels on the chip. In this note we describe a simple and general method of increasing the dynamic range of a SiPM beyond that one may naively assume from the shape of the cumulative distribution function of the SiPM response to the average number of photons per pixel. We show that by rendering the incoming flux of photons to be non-uniform in a prescribed manner, a significant increase in dynamic range is achievable. Such re-distribution of the incoming flux may be accomplished with simple, non-focusing lenses, prisms, interference films, mirrors or attenuating films. Almost any optically non-inert interceding device can increase the dynamic range of the SiPM.

  5. Planar n{sup +}-in-n silicon pixel sensors for the ATLAS IBL upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, C.; Klingenberg, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Muenstermann, D., E-mail: Daniel.Muenstermann@TU-Dortmund.de [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Rummler, A.; Troska, G.; Wittig, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-09-11

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is planning to upgrade its pixel detector by the installation of a 4th pixel layer, the insertable b-layer IBL with a mean sensor radius of only 32 mm from the beam axis. Being very close to the beam, the radiation damage of the IBL sensors might be as high as 5x10{sup 15} n{sub eq} cm{sup -2} at their end-of-life. To investigate the radiation hardness and suitability of the current ATLAS pixel sensors for IBL fluences, n{sup +}-in-n silicon pixel sensors from the ATLAS Pixel production have been irradiated by reactor neutrons to the IBL design fluence and been tested with pions at the SPS and with electrons from a {sup 90}Sr source in the laboratory. The collected charge was found to exceed 10 000 electrons per MIP at 1 kV of bias voltage which is in agreement with data collected with strip sensors. With an expected threshold of 3000-4000 electrons, this result suggests that planar n{sup +}-in-n pixel sensors are radiation hard enough to be used as IBL sensor technology.

  6. A 32-channel, 025 mum CMOS ASIC for the readout of the silicon drift detectors of the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Anghinolfi, F; Martínez, M I; Rivetti, A; Rotondo, F

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a 32 channel ASIC prototype for the readout of the silicon drift detectors (SDDs) of the ALICE experiment. The ASIC integrates on the same substrate 32 transimpedance amplifiers, a 32 x 256 cell analogue memory and 16 successive approximation 10 bit A/D converters. The circuit amplifies and samples at 40 MS/s the input signal in a continuous way. When an external trigger signal validates the acquisition, the sampling is stopped and the data are digitized at lower speed (0.5 MS/s). The chip has been designed and fabricated in a commercial 0.25 mum CMOS technology. It has been extensively tested both on a bench and connected with a detector in several beam tests. In this paper both design issues and test results are presented. The radiation tolerance of the design has been increased by special layout techniques. Total dose irradiation tests are also presented.

  7. A Medipix2-based imaging system for digital mammography with silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bisogni, M G; Fantacci, M E; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Novelli, M; Quattrocchi, M; Rosso, V; Russo, P; Stefanini, A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the first tests of a digital imaging system based on a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to an integrated circuit operating in single photon counting mode. The X-rays sensor is a 300 mu m thick silicon, 14 by 14 mm/sup 2/, upon which a matrix of 256 * 256 pixels has been built. The read-out chip, named MEDIPIX2, has been developed at CERN within the MEDIPIX2 Collaboration and it is composed by a matrix of 256 * 256 cells, 55 * 55 mu m/sup 2/. The spatial resolution properties of the system have been assessed by measuring the square wave resolution function (SWRF) and first images of a standard mammographic phantom were acquired using a radiographic tube in the clinical irradiation condition. (5 refs).

  8. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; Barbero, M; Bates, R; Bolle, E; Borri, M; Boscardin, M; Buttar, C; Capua, M; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cobal, M; Cristofoli, A; Dalla Betta, G F; Darbo, G; Da Via, C; Devetak, E; DeWilde, B; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; Einsweiler, K; Esseni, D; Fazio, S; Fleta, C; Freestone, J; Gallrapp, C; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Giordani, M P; Gjersdal, H; Grinstein, S; Hansen, T; Hansen, T E; Hansson, P; Hasi, J; Helle, K; Hoeferkamp, M; Hugging, F; Jackson, P; Jakobs, K; Kalliopuska, J; Karagounis, M; Kenney, C; Köhler, M; Kocian, M; Kok, A; Kolya, S; Korokolov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Krüger, H; La Rosa, A; Lai, C H; Lietaer, N; Lozano, M; Mastroberardino, A; Micelli, A; Nellist, C; Oja, A; Oshea, V; Padilla, C; Palestri, P; Parker, S; Parzefall, U; Pater, J; Pellegrini, G; Pernegger, H; Piemonte, C; Pospisil, S; Povoli, M; Roe, S; Rohne, O; Ronchin, S; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Sandaker, H; Seidel, S; Selmi, L; Silverstein, D; Sjøbaek, K; Slavicek, T; Stapnes, S; Stugu, B; Stupak, J; Su, D; Susinno, G; Thompson, R; Tsung, J W; Tsybychev, D; Watts, S J; Wermes, N; Young, C; Zorzi, N

    2011-01-01

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  9. Test beam results of 3D silicon pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P., E-mail: grenier@slac.stanford.ed [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (United States); Alimonti, G. [INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy); Barbero, M. [Bonn University (Germany); Bates, R. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); Bolle, E. [Oslo University (Norway); Borri, M. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Boscardin, M. [FBK-irst, Trento (Italy); Buttar, C. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); Capua, M. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza and Universita della Calabria (Italy); Cavalli-Sforza, M. [IFAE Barcelona (Spain); Cobal, M.; Cristofoli, A. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Udine and Universita di Udine (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Trento and DISI Universita di Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy); Da Via, C. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Devetak, E.; DeWilde, B. [Stony Brook University (United States); Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D. [CERN (Switzerland); Einsweiler, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS inner detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump-bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  10. Operational Experience and Performance of the Present ALICE ITS

    CERN Document Server

    Senyukov, Serhiy

    2015-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of four major experiments at the CERN LHC. ALICE studies strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions created in heavy ion colli- sions. The Inner Tracking System (ITS) is an essential part of the ALICE detector. It is used for tracking, reconstruction of primary and secondary vertices and particle identification. ITS is composed of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. Three different techologies are used: hybrid pixel, drift and strip detectors. The ITS was fully commisioned in 2009 at the start of LHC Run 1. The detectors showed good performance during this period contributing to several important measurements. During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) the ITS underwent general consolidation and is now ready for the next LHC run

  11. Development of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the ALICE-ITS Outer Barrel and for the CBM-MVD

    CERN Document Server

    Deveaux, Michael

    2015-01-01

    After more than a decade of R&D;, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS or CPS) have proven to offer concrete answers to the demanding requirements of subatomic physics experi- ments. Their main advantages result from their low material budget, their very high granularity and their integrated signal processing circuitry, which allows coping with high particle rates. Moreover, they offer a valuable radiation tolerance and may be produced at low cost. Sensors of the MIMOSA series have offered an opportunity for nuclear and particle physics exper- iments to address with improved sensitivity physics studies requiring an accurate reconstruction of short living and soft particles. One of their major applications is the STAR-PXL detector, which is the first vertex detector based on MAPS. While this experiment is successfully taking data since two years, it was found that the 0.35 m CMOS technology used for this purpose is not suited for upcoming applications like the CBM micro-vertex detector (MVD) and the ...

  12. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  13. Charged-Particle Multiplicity Distributions over Wide Pseudorapidity Range in Proton-Proton and Proton-Lead Collisions with ALICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaccolo, Valentina

    distributionis sensitive to the number of collisions between quarks and gluonscontained in the colliding systems.In this thesis, data using the Forward Multiplicity Detector and the SiliconPixel Detector of ALICE at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) arepresented, for pp and pPb collisions. For the first time...

  14. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P.; /SLAC; Alimonti, G.; /INFN, Milan; Barbero, M.; /Bonn U.; Bates, R.; /Glasgow U.; Bolle, E.; /Oslo U.; Borri, M.; /Manchester U.; Boscardin, M.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Buttar, C.; /Glasgow U.; Capua, M.; /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Cobal, M.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine; Cristofoli, A.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine; Dalla Betta, G.F.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Darbo, G.; /INFN, Genoa; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Devetak, E.; /SUNY, Stony Brook; DeWilde, B.; /SUNY, Stony Brook; Di Girolamo, B.; /CERN; Dobos, D.; /CERN; Einsweiler, K.; /LBL, Berkeley; Esseni, D.; /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Manchester U. /CERN /LBL, Berkeley /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Oslo U. /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IFAE /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /SLAC /SLAC /Bergen U. /New Mexico U. /Bonn U. /SLAC /Freiburg U. /VTT Electronics, Espoo /Bonn U. /SLAC /Freiburg U. /SLAC /SINTEF, Oslo /Manchester U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Bonn U. /Bonn U. /CERN /Manchester U. /SINTEF, Oslo /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Manchester U. /VTT Electronics, Espoo /Glasgow U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /Hawaii U. /Freiburg U. /Manchester U. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /CERN /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo /Prague, Tech. U. /Trento U. /INFN, Trento /CERN /Oslo U. /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Bergen U. /New Mexico U. /Udine U. /INFN, Udine /SLAC /Oslo U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Oslo U. /Bergen U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /SLAC /Calabria U. /INFN, Cosenza /Manchester U. /Bonn U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Manchester U. /Bonn U. /SLAC /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo

    2011-08-19

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance. Full and partial 3D pixel detectors have been tested, with and without a 1.6T magnetic field, in high energy pion beams at the CERN SPS North Area in 2009. Sensors characteristics have been measured as a function of the beam incident angle and compared to a regular planar pixel device. Overall full and partial 3D devices have similar behavior. Magnetic field has no sizeable effect on 3D performances. Due to electrode inefficiency 3D devices exhibit some loss of tracking efficiency for normal incident tracks but recover full efficiency with tilted tracks. As expected due to the electric field configuration 3D sensors have little charge sharing between cells.

  15. Amorphous silicon pixel layers with cesium iodide converters for medical radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, T.; Cho, G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Goodman, C.A. [Air Techniques, Inc., Hicksville, NY (United States)] [and others

    1993-11-01

    We describe the properties of evaporated layers of Cesium Iodide (Thallium activated) deposited on substrates that enable easy coupling to amorphous silicon pixel arrays. The CsI(Tl) layers range in thickness from 65 to 220{mu}m. We used the two-boat evaporator system to deposit CsI(Tl) layers. This system ensures the formation of the scintillator film with homogenous thallium concentration which is essential for optimizing the scintillation light emission efficiency. The Tl concentration was kept to 0.1--0.2 mole percent for the highest light output. Temperature annealing can affect the microstructure as well as light output of the CsI(Tl) film. 200--300C temperature annealing can increase the light output by a factor of two. The amorphous silicon pixel arrays are p-i-n diodes approximately l{mu}m thick with transparent electrodes to enable them to detect the scintillation light produced by X-rays incident on the CsI(Tl). Digital radiography requires a good spatial resolution. This is accomplished by making the detector pixel size less then 50{mu}m. The light emission from the CsI(Tl) is collimated by techniques involving the deposition process on pattered substrates. We have measured MTF of greater than 12 line pairs per mm at the 10% level.

  16. PC adapter and patch panel for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    These components form part of the ALICE detector data link (DDL). This is a high-speed optical link designed to interface the readout electronics of ALICE detectors to computers for data acquisition. A total of 400 DDLs will be installed on ALICE. These silicon devices have been developed especially for use in the high radiation levels produced in detector environments.

  17. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, J.

    2016-01-01

    3D silicon pixel detectors have been investigated as radiation-hard candidates for the innermost layers of the HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector. 3D detectors are already in use today in the ATLAS IBL and AFP experiments. These are based on 50x250 um2 large pixels connected to the FE-I4 readout chip. Detectors of this generation were irradiated to HL-LHC fluences and demonstrated excellent radiation hardness with operational voltages as low as 180 V and power dissipation of 12--15 mW/cm2 at a fluence of about 1e16 neq/cm2, measured at -25 degree C. Moreover, to cope with the higher occupancies expected at the HL-LHC, a first run of a new generation of 3D detectors designed for the HL-LHC was produced at CNM with small pixel sizes of 50x50 and 25x100 um2, matched to the FE-I4 chip. They demonstrated a good performance in the laboratory and in beam tests with hit efficiencies of about 97% at already 1--2V before irradiation.

  18. Simulations of a silicon pixel based on MOS Deep Trapping Gate Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Fourches, Nicolas T

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the deep trapping gate device was introduced fairly recently on the basis of technological and transport simulations currently used in the field of classical electron devices. The concept of a buried gate containing localized deep level centers for holes (Deep Trapping Gate or DTG) renders possible the operation of this field effect pixel detector. One alternative to Deep Level introduction is the use of a quantum box, which is a hole quantum-well and an electron barrier. In all of these cases the buried gate modulates the drain-source current. This principle was formerly evaluated with realistic simulations parameters and this shows that a measurable signal is obtained for an energy deposition of a minimum-ionizing particle within a limited silicon thickness. In this work a quantitative study of the response of such a pixel to Minimum Ionizing Particles. The influence of some parameters such as the thickness of the pixel and its lateral dimensions, on the operation of the pixel is studied here...

  19. Thin pixel development for the SuperB silicon vertex tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, G., E-mail: giuliana.rizzo@pi.infn.it [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Ceccanti, M.; Cenci, R.; Cervelli, A.; Crescioli, F.; Dell' Orso, M.; Forti, F.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); Lusiani, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN-Pisa (Italy); Gregucci, S.; Mammini, P.; Marchiori, G.; Massa, M.; Morsani, F.; Neri, N. [INFN-Pisa and Universita di Pisa (Italy); and others

    2011-09-11

    The high luminosity SuperB asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, to be built near the INFN National Frascati Laboratory in Italy, has been designed to deliver a luminosity greater than 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with moderate beam currents and a reduced center of mass boost with respect to earlier B-Factories. An improved vertex resolution is required for precise time-dependent measurements and the SuperB Silicon Vertex Tracker will be equipped with an innermost layer of small radius (about 1.5 cm), resolution of 10-15{mu}m in both coordinates, low material budget (<1% X0), and able to withstand a background rate of several tens of MHz/cm{sup 2}. The ambitious goal of designing a thin pixel device with these stringent requirements is being pursued with specific R and D programs on different technologies: hybrid pixels, CMOS MAPS and pixel sensors developed with vertical integration technology. The latest results on the various pixel options for the SuperB SVT will be presented.

  20. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, J.; Carulla Areste, M.; Cavallaro, E.; Förster, F.; Grinstein, S.; López Paz, I.; Manna, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Terzo, S.; Vázquez Furelos, D.

    2016-11-01

    3D silicon pixel detectors have been investigated as radiation-hard candidates for the innermost layers of the HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector. 3D detectors are already in use today in the ATLAS IBL and AFP experiments. These are based on 50 × 250 μm2 large pixels connected to the FE-I4 readout chip. Detectors of this generation were irradiated to HL-LHC fluences and demonstrated excellent radiation hardness with operational voltages as low as 180 V and power dissipation of 12-15 mW/cm2 at a fluence of about 1016 neq/cm2, measured at -25°C. Moreover, to cope with the higher occupancies expected at the HL-LHC, a first run of a new generation of 3D detectors designed for the HL-LHC was produced at CNM with small pixel sizes of 50 × 50 and 25 × 100 μm2, matched to the FE-I4 chip. They demonstrated a good performance in the laboratory and in beam tests with hit efficiencies of about 97% at already 1-2 V before irradiation.

  1. Study of the Tracking Method and Expected Performance of the Silicon Pixel Inner Tracker Applied in BESIII

    CERN Document Server

    Xiu, Qinglei; Li, Weidong; Liu, Huaimin; Ma, Qiumei; Ouyang, Qun; Qin, Zhonghua; Wang, Liangliang; Wu, Linghui; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The inner drift chamber of the BESIII is encountering serious aging problem after five year's running. For the first layer, the decrease in gas gain is about 26% from 2009 to 2013. The upgrade of the inner tracking detector has become an urgent problem for the BESIII experiment. An inner tracker using CMOS pixel sensors is an important candidate because of its great advantages on spatial resolution and radiation hardness. In order to carry out a Monte Carlo study on the expected performance, a Geant4-based full simulation for the silicon pixel detector has been implemented. The tracking method combining the silicon pixel inner tracker and outer drift chamber has been studied and a preliminary reconstruction software was developed. The Monte Carlo study shows that the performances including momentum resolution, vertex resolution and the tracking efficiency are significantly improved due to the good spatial resolution and moderate material budget of the silicon pixel detector.

  2. Amorphous silicon pixel radiation detectors and associated thin film transistor electronics readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Drewery, J.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Lee, H.; Mireshghi, A.

    1994-10-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin (1 {mu}m) and thick (>30 {mu}m) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-rays and {gamma} rays. For x-ray, {gamma} ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For direct detection of charged particles with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. Deposition techniques using helium dilution, which produce samples with low stress are described. Pixel arrays for flux exposures can be readout by transistor, single diode or two diode switches. Polysilicon charge sensitive pixel amplifiers for single event detection are described. Various applications in nuclear, particle physics, x-ray medical imaging, neutron crystallography, and radionuclide chromatography are discussed.

  3. Development of the Pixelated Photon Detector Using Silicon on Insulator Technology for TOF-PET

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, Akihiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Orita, Tadashi; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Nio, Daisuke; Hamasaki, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    To measure light emission pattern in scintillator, higher sensitivity and faster response are required to photo detector. Such as single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), conventional pixelated photo detector is operated at Geiger avalanche multiplication. However higher gain of SPAD seems very attractive, photon detection efficiency per unit area is low. This weak point is mainly caused by Geiger avalanche mechanism. To overcome these difficulties, we designed Pixelated Linear Avalanche Integration Detector using Silicon on Insulator technology (SOI-Plaid). To avoid dark count noise and dead time comes from quench circuit, we are planning to use APD in linear multiplication mode. SOI technology enables laminating readout circuit and APD layer, and high-speed and low-noise signal reading regardless smaller gain of linear APD. This study shows design of linear APD by using SOI fabrication process. We designed test element group (TEG) of linear APD and inspected optimal structure of linear APD.

  4. High-Sensitivity X-ray Polarimetry with Amorphous Silicon Active-Matrix Pixel Proportional Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jahoda, K.; Ready, S. E.; Street, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Photoelectric X-ray polarimeters based on pixel micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs) offer order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity over more traditional techniques based on X-ray scattering. This new technique places some of the most interesting astronomical observations within reach of even a small, dedicated mission. The most sensitive instrument would be a photoelectric polarimeter at the focus of 2 a very large mirror, such as the planned XEUS. Our efforts are focused on a smaller pathfinder mission, which would achieve its greatest sensitivity with large-area, low-background, collimated polarimeters. We have recently demonstrated a MPGD polarimeter using amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (TFT) readout suitable for the focal plane of an X-ray telescope. All the technologies used in the demonstration polarimeter are scalable to the areas required for a high-sensitivity collimated polarimeter. Leywords: X-ray polarimetry, particle tracking, proportional counter, GEM, pixel readout

  5. New concept of a submillimetric pixellated Silicon detector for intracerebral application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit, M. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire (LAL, Universite Paris Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 8608), Orsay (France); Maerk, J.; Weiss, P. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CPPM, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6550), Marseille (France); Benoit, D. [Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie (IMNC, Universite Paris Sud et Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, IMNC, Centre Universitaire, batiment 440, 91406 Orsay Cedex, UMR 8165), Orsay (France); Clemens, J.C.; Fougeron, D. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CPPM, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6550), Marseille (France); Janvier, B. [Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie (IMNC, Universite Paris Sud et Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, IMNC, Centre Universitaire, batiment 440, 91406 Orsay Cedex, UMR 8165), Orsay (France); Jevaud, M.; Karkar, S.; Menouni, M. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CPPM, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6550), Marseille (France); Pain, F.; Pinot, L. [Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie (IMNC, Universite Paris Sud et Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, IMNC, Centre Universitaire, batiment 440, 91406 Orsay Cedex, UMR 8165), Orsay (France); Morel, C. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille (CPPM, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6550), Marseille (France); and others

    2011-12-11

    A new beta{sup +} radiosensitive microprobe implantable in rodent brain dedicated to in vivo and autonomous measurements of local time activity curves of beta radiotracers in a volume of brain tissue of a few mm{sup 3} has been developed recently. This project expands the concept of the previously designed beta microprobe, which has been validated extensively in neurobiological experiments performed on anesthetized animals. Due to its limitations considering recordings on awake and freely moving animals, we have proposed to develop a wireless setup that can be worn by an animal without constraining its movements. To that aim, we have chosen a highly beta sensitive Silicon-based detector to devise a compact pixellated probe. Miniaturized wireless electronics is used to read-out and transfer the measurement data. Initial Monte-Carlo simulations showed that high resistive Silicon pixels are appropriate for this purpose, with their dimensions to be adapted to our specific signals. More precisely, we demonstrated that 200 {mu}m thick pixels with an area of 200 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 500 {mu}m are optimized in terms of beta{sup +}sensitivity versus relative transparency to the gamma background. Based on this theoretical study, we now present the development of the novel sensor, including the system simulations with technology computer-assisted design (TCAD) to investigate specific configurations of guard rings and their potential to increase the electrical isolation and stabilization of the pixel, as well as the corresponding physical tests to validate the particular geometries of this new sensor.

  6. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorini, M., E-mail: Massimiliano.Fiorini@cern.ch [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Aglieri Rinella, G. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Carassiti, V. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Ceccucci, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cortina Gil, E. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P. [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy); Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Martin, E. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Mazza, G. [INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy); Morel, M.; Noy, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Nuessle, G. [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Perktold, L.; Petagna, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); and others

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼1GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X{sub 0}. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2×10{sup 14} 1 MeV n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (<0.15%X{sub 0}) cooling system is being constructed, using a novel microchannel cooling silicon plate. Two complementary read-out architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200μm thick silicon sensors.

  7. A silicon pixel readout ASIC with 100 ps time resolution for the NA62 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellacasa, G; Garbolino, S; Marchetto, F; Martoiu, S; Mazza, G; Rivetti, A; Wheadon, R, E-mail: mazza@to.infn.it [INFN sez. di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The silicon tracker of the NA62 experiment requires the measurement of the particles arrival time with a resolution better than 200 ps rms and a spatial resolution of 300 {mu}m. A time measurement technique based on a Time to Amplitude Converter has been implemented in an ASIC in order to prove the possibility to integrate a TDC with resolution better than 200 ps in a pixel cell. Time-walk problem has been addressed with the use of the Constant Fraction Discriminator technique. The ASIC has been designed in a CMOS 0.13 {mu}m technology with single event upset protection of the digital logic.

  8. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedler, P.

    2016-12-01

    During the long shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2019-20 (LS2) the present Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment based on silicon pixel, silicon drift and silicon strip detectors, will be entirely replaced by a new tracker using novel monolithic silicon pixel chips. This new tracker will significantly enhance heavy flavour measurements, which are out of reach for the present system, e.g. charmed baryons, such as the ΛC, and will allow studying hadrons containing a beauty quark. The new tracker will provide an improved pointing resolution in rϕ and z, decreasing the present values by a factor 3 and 5, respectively, to about 40 μm for a pT of 500 MeV/c. Each of the seven layers will be constructed using 50 μm, respectively 100 μm thin silicon chips on a very light weight carbon fibre based support structure for the innermost and the outer layers. The material budget for the first three layers corresponds to 0.3% X0/layer while the four outer layers will have an average material budget of 1% X0/layer. The innermost layer will be placed at 23 mm radius, compared to presently 39 mm. Furthermore, the readout rate of the new ITS will increase from presently 1 kHz to 50 kHz for Pb-Pb collisions and 400 kHz for p-p collisions, thus matching the expected event rate for Pb-Pb collisions after LS2. This contribution will provide an overview of the upgrade of the ALICE ITS and the expected performance improvement and will present the actual status of the R&D.

  9. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00397348; Cavallaro, E.; Grinstein, S.; López Paz, I.

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to install 3D silicon pixel detectors about 210 m away from the interaction point and very close to the beamline (2-3 mm). This implies the need of slim edges of about 100-200 $\\mu$m width for the sensor side facing the beam to minimise the dead area. Another challenge is an expected non-uniform irradiation of the pixel sensors. It is studied if these requirements can be met using slightly-modified FE-I4 3D pixel sensors from the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer production. AFP-compatible slim edges are obtained with a simple diamond-saw cut. Electrical characterisations and beam tests are carried out and no detrimental impact on the leakage current and hit efficiency is observed. For devices without a 3D guard ring a remaining insensitive edge of less than 15 $\\mu$m width is found. Moreover, 3D detectors are non-uniformly irradiated up to fluences of several 10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$ with either a focussed 23 GeV proton beam or a 23 MeV proton beam through holes in Al ma...

  10. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina Gil, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Perktold, L.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼ 1 GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X0. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2 ×1014 1 MeV neq /cm2, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100 μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200 μm thick silicon sensors.

  11. Characterization of Ni/SnPb-TiW/Pt Flip Chip Interconnections in Silicon Pixel Detector Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Härkönen, Jaakko; Luukka, Panja-riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Haeggstrom, Edward; Kalliopuska, Juha; Vahanen, Sami; Kassamakov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary high energy physics experiments, silicon detectors are essential for recording the trajectory of new particles generated by multiple simultaneous collisions. Modern particle tracking systems may feature 100 million channels, or pixels, which need to be individually connected to read-out chains. Silicon pixel detectors are typically connected to readout chips by flip-chip bonding using solder bumps. High-quality electro-mechanical flip-chip interconnects minimizes the number of dead read-out channels in the particle tracking system. Furthermore, the detector modules must endure handling during installation and withstand heat generation and cooling during operation. Silicon pixel detector modules were constructed by flip-chip bonding 16 readout chips to a single sensor. Eutectic SnPb solder bumps were deposited on the readout chips and the sensor chips were coated with TiW/Pt thin film UBM (under bump metallization). The modules were assembled at Advacam Ltd, Finland. We studied the uniformity o...

  12. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Christophersen, M.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gimenez, E.; Kachkanov, V.; Kalliopuska, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Maneuski, D.; Phlips, B. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Stewart, G.; Tartoni, N.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced edge or ``edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  13. Design of a radiation hard silicon pixel sensor for X-ray science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwandt, Joern

    2014-06-15

    At DESY Hamburg the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) is presently under construction. The EuXFEL has unique properties with respect to X-ray energy, instantaneous intensity, pulse length, coherence and number of pulses/sec. These properties of the EuXFEL pose very demanding requirements for imaging detectors. One of the detector systems which is currently under development to meet these challenges is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, AGIPD. It is a hybrid pixel-detector system with 1024 x 1024 p{sup +} pixels of dimensions 200 μm x 200 μm, made of 16 p{sup +}nn{sup +}- silicon sensors, each with 10.52 cm x 2.56 cm sensitive area and 500 μm thickness. The particular requirements for the AGIPD are a separation between noise and single photons down to energies of 5 keV, more than 10{sup 4} photons per pixel for a pulse duration of less than 100 fs, negligible pile-up at the EuXFEL repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, operation for X-ray doses up to 1 GGy, good efficiency for X-rays with energies between 5 and 20 keV, and minimal inactive regions at the edges. The main challenge in the sensor design is the required radiation tolerance and high operational voltage, which is required to reduce the so-called plasma effect. This requires a specially optimized sensor. The X-ray radiation damage results in a build-up of oxide charges and interface traps which lead to a reduction of the breakdown voltage, increased leakage current, increased interpixel capacitances and charge losses. Extensive TCAD simulations have been performed to understand the impact of X-ray radiation damage on the detector performance and optimize the sensor design. To take radiation damage into account in the simulation, radiation damage parameters have been determined on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes as function of dose. The optimized sensor design was fabricated by SINTEF. Irradiation tests on test structures and sensors show that the sensor design is radiation hard and

  14. Still Alice

    OpenAIRE

    Massa, Lilian Dias Bernardo; Faria,Lina Rodrigues de

    2015-01-01

    Alice Howland (Julianne Moore), happily married with three grown children, is a renowned linguistics professor who starts to forget words. When she receives a diagnosis of Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease, Alice and her family find their bonds thoroughly tested. Her struggle to stay connected to who she once was is frightening, heartbreaking, and inspiring. Alice Howland (Julianne Moore), felizmente casada y con tres hijos, es una renombrada profesora de lingüística que empieza a olvidar pa...

  15. Study of Charge Diffusion in a Silicon Detector Using an Energy Sensitive Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, E. J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Visser, J.; Koffeman, E.; Heijne, E.; Engel, K. J.; Uher, J.

    2015-01-01

    A 300 μm thick thin p-on-n silicon sensor was connected to an energy sensitive pixel readout ASIC and exposed to a beam of highly energetic charged particles. By exploiting the spectral information and the fine segmentation of the detector, we were able to measure the evolution of the transverse profile of the charge carriers cloud in the sensor as a function of the drift distance from the point of generation. The result does not rely on model assumptions or electric field calculations. The data are also used to validate numerical simulations and to predict the detector spectral response to an X-ray fluorescence spectrum for applications in X-ray imaging.

  16. Silicon MOS Pixel Based on the Deep Trapping Gate Principle: Design and Material Science Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Fourches, Nicolas T

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the deep trapping gate device was introduced fairly recently on the basis of technological and transport simulations currently used in the field of classical electron devices. The concept of a buried gate containing localized deep level centers (Deep Trapping Gate or DTG) renders possible the operation of this field effect pixel detector. The deep centers can be deep defects or localized states in a quantum dot. This gate modulates the drain-source current. This principle was formerly evaluated with realistic simulations parameters and this shows that a measurable signal is obtained for an energy deposition of a minimum ionizing particle within a limited silicon thickness. We will study here the potential techniques usable for the fabrication of the device with their drawbacks, advantages and limits. The first technique introduced is impurity implantation, followed by annealing. The problems related to the control of the defects in the DTG will be examined in the light of recent work on ion imp...

  17. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allport, P. P.; Ball, K.; Casse, G.; Chmill, V.; Forshaw, D.; Hadfield, K.; Pritchard, A.; Pool, P.; Tsurin, I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their products meet all the stringent technical requirements. A semiconductor company with very widespread experience of producing science grade CCDs (including deep depletion devices) has adapted their CCD process to fabricate for the first time several wafers of pixel and micro-strip radiation hard sensors, suitable for future high energy physics experiments. The results of the pre-irradiation characterization of devices fabricated with different processing parameters and the measurements of charge collection properties after different hadron irradiation doses up to those anticipated for the (larger area) outer pixel layers at the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are presented and compared with results from more established particle physics suppliers.

  18. The ALICE experiment: $\\rm D^{+}$-meson production in heavy-ion collisions and silicon low noise sensors characterization for the ITS Upgrade.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084697; Bruna, Elena

    This thesis collects my work on two aspects of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider: the measurement of $\\rm D^{+}$-meson production in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm {NN}}}= 2.76$ TeV and the characterization of silicon low noise sensors for the Inner Tracking System Upgrade. I worked within the INFN group of Torino that it is involved in the ALICE experiment both in the physics program related to the study of heavy-flavour production and in the project of the ITS Upgrade. ALICE is one of the main experiment of the LHC and it is the only one optimized to study ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The main goal is to study the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), a phase of matter where quarks and gluons are deconned. Heavy quarks are a powerful tool to study such properties because they can be created only in hard scattering processes at the initial stage of the collision and, subsequently, they interact with the QGP. The measurement of charmed meson production in Pb-P...

  19. Investigating the Inverse Square Law with the Timepix Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector: A CERN [at] School Demonstration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyntie, T.; Parker, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector has been used to investigate the inverse square law of radiation from a point source as a demonstration of the CERN [at] school detector kit capabilities. The experiment described uses a Timepix detector to detect the gamma rays emitted by an [superscript 241]Am radioactive source at a number of different…

  20. Classical two-dimensional numerical algorithm for ?-Induced charge carrier advection-diffusion in Medipix-3 silicon pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Mason; Idarraga, John

    2013-04-01

    A classical hybrid alternating-direction implicit difference scheme is used to simulate two-dimensional charge carrier advection-diffusion induced by alpha particles incident upon silicon pixel detectors at room temperature in vacuum. A mapping between the results of the simulation and a projection of the cluster size for each incident alpha is constructed. The error between the simulation and the experimental data diminishes with the increase in the applied voltage for the pixels in the central region of the cluster. Simulated peripheral pixel TOT values do not match the data for any value of applied voltage, suggesting possible modifications to the current algorithm from first principles. Coulomb repulsion between charge carriers is built into the algorithm using the Barnes-Hut tree algorithm. The plasma effect arising from the initial presence of holes in the silicon is incorporated into the simulation. The error between the simulation and the data helps identify physics not accounted for in standard literature simulation techniques.

  1. Characterization of thin irradiated epitaxial silicon sensors for the CMS phase II pixel upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Eichhorn, Thomas; Garutti, Erika; Junkes, Alexandra; Steinbrueck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The high-luminosity upgrade fo the large hadron collider foreseen for 2023 resulted in the decision to replace the tracker system of the CMS experiment. The innermost layer of the new pixel detector will experience fluences in the order of $\\phi_{eq} \\approx 10^{16}$~cm$^{-2}$ and a dose of $\\approx 5$~MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000~fb$^{-1}$. Several materials and designs are under investigation in order to build a detector that can withstand such high fluences. Thin planar silicon sensors are good canditates to achieve this goal since the degradation of the signal produced by traversing particles is less severe than for thicker devices. A study has been carried out in order to characterize highly irradiated planar epitaxial silicon sensors with an active thickness of 100~$\\mu$m. The investigation includes pad diodes and strip detectors irradiated up to a fluence of $\\phi_{eq} = 1.3 \\times 10^{16}$~cm$^{-2}$. The electrical properties of diodes have bee...

  2. Spectral response of a silicon detector with 220 {mu}m pixel size bonded to MEDIPIX2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froejdh, Erik, E-mail: erik.frojdh@miun.se [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Froejdh, Anna; Norlin, Boerje; Froejdh, Christer [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    Pixellated radiation detectors with single photon processing can be used for spectral X-ray imaging. A problem using such detectors with small pixels is that the spectral information is distorted by charge sharing. In order to get images with good spectral resolution a number of silicon sensors with a pixel size of 220 {mu}m were fabricated and bonded to a MEDIPIX2 readout chip using only a limited number of pixels on the readout chip. The device was then used in an X-ray microscopy setup to obtain good spatial resolution as well. It is shown that spectral imaging can provide good contrast images of embedded structures by selecting an appropriate energy window.

  3. Characterization of silicon 3D pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Paz, I.; Cavallaro, E.; Lange, J. [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies - IFAE, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Grinstein, S. [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies - IFAE, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies - ICREA, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project aims to measure protons scattered under a small angle from the pp collisions in ATLAS. In order to perform such measurements, a new silicon tracker, together with a time-of-flight detector for pile-up removal, are planned to be installed at ∼210 m from the interaction point and at 2-3 mm from the LHC proton beam. To cope with such configuration and maximize the physics outcome, the tracker has to fulfil three main requirements: endure highly non-uniform radiation doses, due to the very inhomogeneous beam profile, have slim and efficient edges to improve the acceptance of the tracker, and provide good position resolution. Recent laboratory and beam test characterization results of AFP prototypes will be presented. Slim-edged 3D pixel detectors down to 100-200 μm were studied and later non-uniformly irradiated (with a peak fluence of several 10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}) to determine the fulfilment of the AFP requirements. (authors)

  4. A Measurement of Lorentz Angle and Spatial Resolution of Radiation Hard Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, I; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, S C; Ciocio, A; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F X; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Meuser, S; Stockmanns, T; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Cervetto, M; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Netchaeva, P; Osculati, B; Parodi, F; Rossi, L; Dao, K; Fasching, D; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A N; Trouilleau, C; Valin, I; Aleppo, M; Andreazza, A; Caccia, M; Lari, T; Meroni, C; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Vegni, G; Rohe, T; Boyd, G; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Snow, J; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Lipka, D; Ziolkowski, M; Cauz, D; D'Auria, S; del Papa, C; Grassman, H; Santi, L; Becks, K H; Gerlach, P; Grah, C; Gregor, I; Harenberg, T; Linder, C

    2002-01-01

    Silicon pixel sensors developed by the ATLAS collaboration to meet LHC requirements and to withstand hadronic irradiation to fluences of up to $10^{15} n_eq/cm^{2}$ have been evaluated using a test beam facility at CERN providing a magnetic field. The Lorentz angle was measured and found to alter from 9.0 deg. before irradiation, when the detectors operated at 150 V bias at B=1.48 T, to 3.1 deg after irradiation and operating at 600 V bias at 1.01 T. In addition to the effect due to magnetic field variation, this change is explained by the variation of the electric field inside the detectors arising from the different bias conditions. The depletion depths of irradiated sensors at various bias voltages were also measured. At 600 V bias 280 micron thick sensors depleted to ~200 micron after irradiation at the design fluence of 1 10^{15} 1 MeV n_eq/cm2 and were almost fully depleted at a fluence of 0.5 * 10^{15} 1 MeV n_eq/cm2. The spatial resolution was measured for angles of incidence between 0 deg and 30 deg....

  5. Laser Soldering and Thermal Cycling Tests of Monolithic Silicon Pixel Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Strand, Frode Sneve

    2015-01-01

    An ALPIDE-1 monolithic silicon pixel sensor prototype has been laser soldered to a flex printed circuit using a novel interconnection technique using lasers. This technique is to be optimised to ensure stable, good quality connections between the sensor chips and the FPCs. To test the long-term stability of the connections, as well as study the effects on hit thresholds and noise in the sensor, it was thermally cycled in a climate chamber 1200 times. The soldered connections showed good qualities like even melting and good adhesion on pad/flex surfaces, and the chip remained in working condition for 1080 cycles. After this, a few connections failed, having cracks in the soldering tin, rendering the chip unusable. Threshold and noise characteristics seemed stable, except for the noise levels of sector 2 in the chip, for 1000 cycles in a temperature interval of "10^{\\circ}" and "50^{\\circ}" C. Still, further testing with wider temperature ranges and more cycles is needed to test the limitations of the chi...

  6. Characterization and Performance of Silicon n-in-p Pixel Detectors for the ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Weigell, Philipp; Gallrapp, Christian; La Rosa, Alessandro; Macchiolo, Anna; Nisius, Richard; Pernegger, Heinz; Richter, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The existing ATLAS Tracker will be at its functional limit for particle fluences of 10^15 neq/cm^2 (LHC). Thus for the upgrades at smaller radii like in the case of the planned Insertable B-Layer (IBL) and for increased LHC luminosities (super LHC) the development of new structures and materials which can cope with the resulting particle fluences is needed. N-in-p silicon devices are a promising candidate for tracking detectors to achieve these goals, since they are radiation hard, cost efficient and are not type inverted after irradiation. A n-in-p pixel production based on a MPP/HLL design and performed by CiS (Erfurt, Germany) on 300 \\mu m thick Float-Zone material is characterised and the electrical properties of sensors and single chip modules (SCM) are presented, including noise, charge collection efficiencies, and measurements with MIPs as well as an 241Am source. The SCMs are built with sensors connected to the current the ATLAS read-out chip FE-I3. The characterisation has been performed with the ATL...

  7. Performance of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00052711; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; Ducourthial, Audrey; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The paper reports on the performance of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology an overview of the first beam test results will be given.

  8. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderini, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica E. Fermi, Universitá di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bagolini, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pisa (Italy); Bomben, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Università degli studi di Trieste (Italy); INFN-Trieste (Italy); Chauveau, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy); La Rosa, A. [Section de Physique (DPNC), Universitè de Geneve, Geneve (Switzerland); Marchiori, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2016-09-21

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  9. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderini, G.; Bagolini, A.; Beccherle, R.; Bomben, M.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Chauveau, J.; Giacomini, G.; La Rosa, A.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-09-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  10. Production and Characterisation of SLID Interconnected n-in-p Pixel Modules with 75 Micrometer Thin Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tunability, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at ...

  11. Optimal scan strategy for mega-pixel and kilo-gray-level OLED-on-silicon microdisplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuan; Ran, Feng; Ji, Weigui; Xu, Meihua; Chen, Zhangjing; Jiang, Yuxi; Shen, Weixin

    2012-06-10

    The digital pixel driving scheme makes the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) microdisplays more immune to the pixel luminance variations and simplifies the circuit architecture and design flow compared to the analog pixel driving scheme. Additionally, it is easily applied in full digital systems. However, the data bottleneck becomes a notable problem as the number of pixels and gray levels grow dramatically. This paper will discuss the digital driving ability to achieve kilogray-levels for megapixel displays. The optimal scan strategy is proposed for creating ultra high gray levels and increasing light efficiency and contrast ratio. Two correction schemes are discussed to improve the gray level linearity. A 1280×1024×3 OLED-on-silicon microdisplay, with 4096 gray levels, is designed based on the optimal scan strategy. The circuit driver is integrated in the silicon backplane chip in the 0.35 μm 3.3 V-6 V dual voltage one polysilicon layer, four metal layers (1P4M) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with custom top metal. The design aspects of the optimal scan controller are also discussed. The test results show the gray level linearity of the correction schemes for the optimal scan strategy is acceptable by the human eye.

  12. NOTE: First images of a digital autoradiography system based on a Medipix2 hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettivier, Giovanni; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Russo, Paolo

    2003-06-01

    We present the first images of beta autoradiography obtained with the high-resolution hybrid pixel detector consisting of the Medipix2 single photon counting read-out chip bump-bonded to a 300 µm thick silicon pixel detector. This room temperature system has 256 × 256 square pixels of 55 µm pitch (total sensitive area of 14 × 14 mm2), with a double threshold discriminator and a 13-bit counter in each pixel. It is read out via a dedicated electronic interface and control software, also developed in the framework of the European Medipix2 Collaboration. Digital beta autoradiograms of 14C microscale standard strips (containing separate bands of increasing specific activity in the range 0.0038-32.9 kBq g-1) indicate system linearity down to a total background noise of 1.8 × 10-3 counts mm-2 s-1. The minimum detectable activity is estimated to be 0.012 Bq for 36 000 s exposure and 0.023 Bq for 10 800 s exposure. The measured minimum detection threshold is less than 1600 electrons (equivalent to about 6 keV Si). This real-time system for beta autoradiography offers lower pixel pitch and higher sensitive area than the previous Medipix1-based system. It has a 14C sensitivity better than that of micro channel plate based systems, which, however, shows higher spatial resolution and sensitive area.

  13. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-07-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a {approx}10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38.

  14. Detection of atmospheric muons with ALICE detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessandro, B. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dep. di Fisica Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Cortes Maldonado, I. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Cuautle, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez Tellez, A. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Gomez Jimenez, R. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Gonzalez Santos, H. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Herrera Corral, G. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Leon, I. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Martinez, M.I.; Munoz Mata, J.L. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Podesta, P. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Ramirez Reyes, A. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M., E-mail: mrodrigu@mail.cern.c [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Sitta, M. [Universita Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria (Italy); Subieta, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dep. di Fisica Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Tejeda Munoz, G.; Vargas, A.; Vergara, S. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico)

    2010-05-21

    The calibration, alignment and commissioning of most of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at the CERN LHC) detectors have required a large amount of cosmic events during 2008. In particular two types of cosmic triggers have been implemented to record the atmospheric muons passing through ALICE. The first trigger, called ACORDE trigger, is performed by 60 scintillators located on the top of three sides of the large L3 magnet surrounding the central detectors, and selects atmospheric muons. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) installed on the first two layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) gives the second trigger, called SPD trigger. This trigger selects mainly events with a single atmospheric muon crossing the SPD. Some particular events, in which the atmospheric muon interacts with the iron of the L3 magnet and creates a shower of particles crossing the SPD, are also selected. In this work the reconstruction of events with these two triggers will be presented. In particular, the performance of the ACORDE detector will be discussed by the analysis of multi-muon events. Some physical distributions are also shown.

  15. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Rossegger, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) is the key ALICE detector for the study of heavy flavour production at LHC. Heavy flavor can be studied via the identification of short-lived hadrons containing heavy quarks which have a mean proper decay length in the order of 100-300 $\\mu$m. To accomplish this task, the ITS is composed of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors (two pixel, two drift and two strip) with a radial coverage from 3.9 to 43 cm and a material budget of 1.1% X0 per layer. %In particular, the properties of the two innermost layers define the ITS performance in measuring the displaced vertex of such short-lived particles. In order to enhance the ALICE physics capabilities, and, in particular, the tracking performance for heavy-flavour detection, the possibility of an ITS upgrade has been studied in great detail. It will make use of the spectacular progress made in the field of imaging sensors over the last ten years as well as the possibility to install a smaller radius beampipe. The upgraded detec...

  16. Optimization of the Radiation Hardness of Silicon Pixel Sensors for High X-ray Doses using TCAD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Schwandt, J; Klanner, R; Pintilie, I; Zhang, J

    2011-01-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) will deliver 27000 fully coherent, high brilliance X-ray pulses per second each with a duration below 100 fs. This will allow the recording of diffraction patterns of single molecules and the study of ultra-fast processes. One of the detector systems under development for the XFEL is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD), which consists of a pixel array with readout ASICs bump-bonded to a silicon sensor with pixels of 200 {\\mu}m \\times 200 {\\mu}m. The particular requirements for the detector are a high dynamic range (0, 1 up to 10E5 12 keV photons/XFEL-pulse), a fast read-out and radiation tolerance up to doses of 1 GGy of 12 keV X-rays for 3 years of operation. At this X-ray energy no bulk damage in silicon is expected. However fixed oxide charges in the SiO2 layer and interface traps at the Si-SiO2 interface will build up. As function of the 12 keV X-ray dose the microscopic defects in test structures and the macro- scopic electrical properties of...

  17. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The read-out from individual pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through the sensor. The resolution given by individual pixel sizes is significantly improved by using the information from the charge sharing between pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years to obtain an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, clusters have an increased probability of merging the charge deposited by multiple particles. Recently, a neural network based algorithm which estimates both the cluster position and whether a cluster should be split has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurement to tracks within jets and improves the position accuracy with respect to standard interpolation techniques by taking into account the 2-dimensional ...

  18. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Cavalcanti, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The hit signals read out from pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters, to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through. The resolution of the individual pixel sizes can be improved significantly using the information from the cluster of adjacent pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years giving an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, is likely that the charge deposited by two or more close-by tracks merges into one single cluster. A new pattern recognition algorithm based on neural network methods has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. This can identify the shared clusters, split them if necessary, and estimate the positions of all particles traversing the cluster. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurements to tracks within jets, and improves the positional accuracy with respect to stand...

  19. ALICE overview

    CERN Document Server

    Räsänen, Sami S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent results from the ALICE experiment are presented with a particular emphasis on particle identification, the nuclear modification factor ($R_{AA}$) and azimuthal anisotropy ($v_2$). Comparison of lead-lead and proton-lead results reveals evidence of collectivity in small systems.

  20. The Gigatracker: An ultra-fast and low-mass silicon pixel detector for the NA62 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Mapelli, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Martoiu, S.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Petrucci, F.; Riedler, P.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Rivetti, A.; Tiuraniemi, S.

    2011-02-01

    The Gigatracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector developed to track the highly intense NA62 hadron beam with a time resolution of 150 ps (rms). The beam spectrometer of the experiment is composed of three Gigatracker stations installed in vacuum in order to precisely measure momentum, time and direction of every traversing particle. Precise tracking demands a very low mass of the detector assembly ( delay-locked loop based TDC placed at the end of each pixel column and a time-over-threshold discriminator with time-walk correction technique. The current status of the R&D program is overviewed and results from the prototype read-out chips test are presented.

  1. A New Low Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Transistor Pixel Circuit for Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Lin, Yi-Yan; Chang, Jyu-Yu; Sun, Bo-Jhang; Liu, Yan-Wei

    2010-06-01

    This study presents one novel compensation pixel design and driving method for active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays that use low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) with a voltage feed-back method and the simulation results are proposed and verified by SPICE simulator. The measurement and simulation of LTPS TFT characteristics demonstrate the good fitting result. The proposed circuit consists of four TFTs and two capacitors with an additional signal line. The error rates of OLED anode voltage variation are below 0.3% under the threshold voltage deviation of driving TFT (ΔVTH = ±0.33 V). The simulation results show that the pixel design can improve the display image non-uniformity by compensating the threshold voltage deviation of driving TFT and the degradation of OLED threshold voltage at the same time.

  2. Light prototype support using micro-channel technology as high efficiency system for silicon pixel detector cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosi, F., E-mail: filippo.bosi@pi.infn.it [INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Balestri, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Mammini, P.; Massa, M.; Petragnani, G.; Ragonesi, A.; Soldani, A. [INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-09-11

    The development of micro-scale mechanical systems has been moving rapidly, allowing an opportunity to the semiconductor detectors to have ever more power located on the active region. Miniaturization associated with micro-channel technologies allows the design of micro-system structures that are able to cool silicon pixel detectors with power of the order of some W/cm{sup 2} with thickness less than 0.3% of radiation length. We present the design and thermo-hydraulic test results for low material budget support and cooling obtained through forced liquid convection in micro-channels, developed for the innermost layer (Layer 0) of SuperB silicon vertex tracker.

  3. X-ray radiation damage studies and design of a silicon pixel sensor for science at the XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiaguo

    2013-06-15

    Experiments at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) require silicon pixel sensors which can withstand X-ray doses up to 1 GGy. For the investigation of Xray radiation damage up to these high doses, MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes built on high resistivity n-doped silicon with crystal orientations left angle 100 right angle and left angle 111 right angle produced by four vendors, CiS, Hamamatsu, Canberra and Sintef have been irradiated with 12 keV X-rays at the DESY DORIS III synchrotron-light source. Using capacitance/ conductance-voltage, current-voltage and thermal dielectric relaxation current measurements, the densities of oxide charges and interface traps at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface, and the surface-current densities have been determined as function of dose. Results indicate that the dose dependence of the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density depend on the crystal orientation and producer. In addition, the influence of the voltage applied to the gates of the MOS capacitor and the gate-controlled diode during X-ray irradiation on the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density has been investigated at doses of 100 kGy and 100 MGy. It is found that both strongly depend on the gate voltage if the electric field in the oxide points from the surface of the SiO{sub 2} to the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface. To verify the long-term stability of irradiated silicon sensors, annealing studies have been performed at 60 C and 80 C on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes irradiated to 5 MGy as well, and the annealing kinetics of oxide charges and surface current were determined. Moreover, the macroscopic electrical properties of segmented sensors have slao been investigated as function of dose. It is found that the defects introduced by X-rays increase the full depletion voltage, the surface leakage current and the inter-electrode capacitance of the segmented sensor. An

  4. Around ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On the occasion of CERN's Golden Jubilee at Centre Culturel Jean Monnet de Saint-Genis-Pouilly Exposition from Monday 11 October to Sunday 24 October A presentation of CERN and the ALICE experiment with photos, student-made projects, computer animations, virtual reality demonstrations, and more. Saturday 16 October* Planting of a commemorative tree at 16:00 Public presentation at 16:30, followed by a visit to the subterranean site of the ALICE experiment (Number of places limited, reservations at: Service Culturel de la Marie de Saint-Genis-Pouilly, tel 04 50 20 52 59, or the Office de Tourisme Saint-Genis-Pouilly, tel: 04 50 42 29 37) * for the occasion of the Open Day, with 50 sites at CERN, see: http://intranet.cern.ch/Chronological/2004/CERN50/openday/openday_en.html

  5. Around ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ On the occasion of CERN's Golden Jubilee, at the Centre culturel Jean Monnet de Saint-Genis-Pouilly Exposition from Monday 11 October to Sunday 24 October. A presentation of CERN and the ALICE experiment with photos, student-made projects, computer animations, virtual reality demonstrations, and more. Saturday 16 October* Planting of a commemorative tree at 16:00 Public presentation at 16:30, followed by a visit to the subterranean site of the ALICE experiment (Number of places limited, reservations at: Service Culturel de la Marie de Saint-Genis-Pouilly, tél 04. 50. 20. 52. 59, Office de Tourisme Saint-Genis-Pouilly, tél: 04. 50. 42. 29. 37) * for the occasion of the Open Day, with 50 sites at CERN, see: http://intranet.cern.ch/Chronological/2004/CERN50/

  6. ALICE Organisation

    CERN Multimedia

    Gouriou, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is the acronym for A Large Ion Collider Experiment, one of the largest experiments in the world devoted to research in the physics of matter at an infinitely small scale. Hosted at CERN, the European Laboratory for Nuclear Research, this project involves an international collaboration of more than 1400 physicists, engineers and technicians, including about 340 graduate students, from 132 physics institutes in 37 countries across the world.

  7. ALICE Organisation

    CERN Multimedia

    Hadre, J

    2015-01-01

    ALICE is the acronym for A Large Ion Collider Experiment, one of the largest experiments in the world devoted to research in the physics of matter at an infinitely small scale. Hosted at CERN, the European Laboratory for Nuclear Research, this project involves an international collaboration of more than 1400 physicists, engineers and technicians, including around 340 graduate students, from 132 physics institutes in 37 countries across the world.

  8. Fitting ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The support structures for the detectors inside the ALICE solenoid magnet (the L3 magnet) were finished in December 2003. After commissioning and testing, over the next year, the structures will be lowered into the cavern and installed in the magnet by spring 2005. At first sight you might mistake them for scaffolding. But a closer look reveals unusual features: Two are made of austenitic (non-magnetic) stainless steel with a cross section that looks like an "H". Another is made of 8 centimetre aluminium square tubes. "Them" are the support structures for the detectors and services inside the ALICE solenoid magnet (the L3 magnet) which were finished in December 2003. «The physicists don't want to have a lot of material close to their detectors; it has to be as few as possible,» says Diego Perini, who is responsible for the common support structures of ALICE. «We therefore had the very difficult task to design something relatively light that i...

  9. Production and characterisation of SLID interconnected n-in-p pixel modules with 75 μm thin silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andricek, L. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Beimforde, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Nisius, R., E-mail: Richard.Nisius@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 München (Germany); Terzo, S.; Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2014-09-11

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 μm thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 μm thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tuning characteristics, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at a usage at the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC accelerator called HL-LHC, the results were obtained before and after irradiation up to fluences of 10{sup 16}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}.

  10. The Gigatracker: An ultra-fast and low-mass silicon pixel detector for the NA62 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorini, M., E-mail: Massimiliano.Fiorini@cern.c [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Carassiti, V. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Ceccucci, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cortina, E. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S. [INFN Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mapelli, A. [EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Marchetto, F. [INFN Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Martin, E. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Martoiu, S.; Mazza, G. [INFN Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Morel, M.; Noy, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Nuessle, G. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Petrucci, F. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Riedler, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-02-01

    The Gigatracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector developed to track the highly intense NA62 hadron beam with a time resolution of 150 ps (rms). The beam spectrometer of the experiment is composed of three Gigatracker stations installed in vacuum in order to precisely measure momentum, time and direction of every traversing particle. Precise tracking demands a very low mass of the detector assembly (<0.5% X{sub 0} per station) in order to limit multiple scattering and beam hadronic interactions. The high rate and especially the high timing precision requirements are very demanding: two R and D options are ongoing and the corresponding prototype read-out chips have been recently designed and produced in 0.13{mu}m CMOS technology. One solution makes use of a constant fraction discriminator and on-pixel analogue-based time-to-digital-converter (TDC); the other comprises a delay-locked loop based TDC placed at the end of each pixel column and a time-over-threshold discriminator with time-walk correction technique. The current status of the R and D program is overviewed and results from the prototype read-out chips test are presented.

  11. The Gigatracker: An ultra-fast and low-mass silicon pixel detector for the NA62 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorini, M; Morel, M; Petrucci, F; Marchetto, F; Garbolino, S; Cortina, E; Tiuraniemi, S; Ceccucci, A; Martin, E; Riedler, P; Martoiu, S; Ramusino, A C; Rinella, G A; Mapelli, A; Mazza, G; Noy, M; Jarron, P; Nuessle, G; Dellacasa, G; Kluge, A; Rivetti, A; Kaplon, J

    2011-01-01

    The Gigatracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector developed to track the highly intense NA62 hadron beam with a time resolution of 150 ps (rms). The beam spectrometer of the experiment is composed of three Gigatracker stations installed in vacuum in order to precisely measure momentum, time and direction of every traversing particle. Precise tracking demands a very low mass of the detector assembly (<0.5\\% X(O) per station) in order to limit multiple scattering and beam hadronic interactions. The high rate and especially the high timing precision requirements are very demanding: two R\\&D options are ongoing and the corresponding prototype read-out chips have been recently designed and produced in 0.13 mu m CMOS technology. One solution makes use of a constant fraction discriminator and on-pixel analogue-based time-to-digital-converter (TDC); the other comprises a delay-locked loop based TDC placed at the end of each pixel column and a time-over-threshold discriminator with time-walk correction techniq...

  12. Vectors and submicron precision: redundancy and 3D stacking in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, E H M; Wong, W; Idarraga, J; Visser, J; Jakubek, J; Leroy, C; Turecek, D; Visschers, J; Pospisil, S; Ballabriga, R; Vykydal, Z; Vermeulen, J; Plackett, R; Heijne, E H M; Llopart, X; Boltje, D; Campbell, M

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are shown of GeV pions and muons in two 300 mu m thick, Si Medipix pixel detector assemblies that are stacked on top of each other, with a 25 mu m thick brass foil in between. In such a radiation imaging semiconductor matrix with a large number of pixels along the particle trail, one can determine local space vectors for the particle trajectory instead of points. This improves pattern recognition and track reconstruction, especially in a crowded environment. Stacking of sensor planes is essential for resolving directional ambiguities. Signal charge sharing can be employed for measuring positions with submicron precision. In the measurements one notices accompanying `delta' electrons that emerge outside the particle trail, far beyond the boundaries of the 55 mu m pixel cells. The frequency of such corrupted position measurements is similar to one per 2.5mm of traversed Si.

  13. The First JFET-Based Silicon Carbide Active Pixel Sensor UV Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) imaging is needed in the fields of astronomy, national defense, and bio-chemistry. United Silicon Carbide, Inc. proposes to develop a...

  14. The First JFET-based Silicon Carbide Active Pixel Sensor UV Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) imaging is critically important in the fields of space astronomy, national defense, and bio-chemistry. United Silicon Carbide, Inc....

  15. ALICE inner tracking system readout electronics prototype testing with the CERN ``Giga Bit Transceiver''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambach, J.; Rossewij, M. J.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, J.; Giubilato, P.; Vanat, T.

    2016-12-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the LHC Run 3, which includes the construction of a new silicon pixel based Inner Tracking System (ITS). The ITS readout system consists of 192 readout boards to control the sensors and their power system, receive triggers, and deliver sensor data to the DAQ. To prototype various aspects of this readout system, an FPGA based carrier board and an associated FMC daughter card containing the CERN Gigabit Transceiver (GBT) chipset have been developed. This contribution describes laboratory and radiation testing results with this prototype board set.

  16. DEPFET: A silicon pixel detector for future colliders. Fundamentals, characterization and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Marinas Pardo, Carlos Manuel; Vos, Marcel Andre

    2011-01-01

    The future electron-positron colliders, either breaking the energy frontier (like ILC or CLIC) or the luminosity frontier (SuperKEKB), impose unprecedented constraints over the new generation of detectors that will be operated in those facilities. In particular, the vertex detectors must be designed for an efficient flavour tagging and excellent vertex reconstruction. To cope with these requirements, highly pixelated sensors with a fast readout, very low material budget and low power consumption must be developed. Although the combination of these factors is a substantial challenge, the DEPFET Collaboration has developed a new generation of sensors that can be operated in such a harsh environment. The DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) is a pixel sensor that combines detection and internal amplification at the same time. With such configuration, thin detectors with good signal-to-noise ratio and low power consumption can be produced. In this thesis, the optimization and performance of two gen...

  17. Evaluation of the breakdown behaviour of ATLAS silicon pixel sensors after partial guard-ring removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goessling, C.; Klingenberg, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Muenstermann, D., E-mail: Daniel.Muenstermann@TU-Dortmund.d [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Wittig, T. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Physik IV, TU Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-11

    To avoid geometrical inefficiencies in the ATLAS pixel detector, the concept of shingling is used up to now in the barrel section. For the upgrades of ATLAS, it is desired to avoid this as it increases the volume and material budget of the pixel layers and complicates the cooling. A direct planar edge-to-edge arrangement of pixel modules has not been possible in the past due to about 1100{mu}m of inactive edge composed of approximately 600{mu}m of guard rings and 500{mu}m of safety margin. In this work, the safety margin and guard rings of ATLAS SingleChip sensors were cut at different positions using a standard diamond dicing saw and irradiated afterwards to explore the breakdown behaviour and the leakage current development. It is found that the inactive edge can be reduced to about 400{mu}m of guard rings with almost no reduction in pre-irradiation testability and leakage current performance. This is in particular important for the insertable b-layer upgrade of ATLAS (IBL) where inactive edges of less than 450{mu}m width are required.

  18. ALICE takes its ITS to heart

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In the study of heavy-ion events, the ALICE Inner Tracking System must use the most delicate materials. A hundred physicists and engineers from around the world witnessed its impressive journey to the centre of the ALICE experiment. ALICE's ITS on its way into the TCP. On 15 March, after 15 years of development, construction, commissioning and testing, the Inner Tracking System (ITS) finally reached its ultimate destination at the heart of ALICE. With almost five square meters of double-sided silicon strip detectors and over one square meter of silicon drift detectors, ALICE's ITS is the largest system built for either type of silicon detector. In ALICE's search for heavy-ion events at the LHC, it is necessary for the ITS to be extremely lightweight and delicate. For this reason the ITS was designed and built using the smallest amounts of only the lightest materials, with the design team developing innovative construction and assembly systems. The team prepared in detail for the final transport from the fi...

  19. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Calderini, G; Bomben, M; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Chauveau, J; Giacomini, G; La Rosa, A; Marchiori, G; Zorzi, N

    2014-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-in-p bulk technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. The large area necessary to instrument the outer layers will demand to tile the sensors, a solution for which the inefficient region at the border of each sensor needs to be reduced to the minimum size. This paper reports on a joint R&D project by the ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento on a novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process available at FBK.

  20. Investigation of properties of novel silicon pixel assemblies employing thin n-in-p sensors and 3D-integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigell, Philipp

    2013-01-15

    Until the end of the 2020 decade the LHC programme will be defining the high energy frontier of particle physics. During this time, three upgrade steps of the accelerator are currently planned to further increase the luminosity and energy reach. In the course of these upgrades the specifications of several parts of the current LHC detectors will be exceeded. Especially, the innermost tracking detectors are challenged by the increasing track densities and the radiation damage. This thesis focuses on the implications for the ATLAS experiment. Here, around 2021/2, after having collected an integrated luminosity of around 300 fb{sup -1}, the silicon and gas detector components of the inner tracker will reach the end of their lifetime and will need to be replaced to ensure sufficient performance for continued running - especially if the luminosity is raised to about 5 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} as currently planned. An all silicon inner detector is foreseen to be installed. This upgrade demands cost effective pixel assemblies with a minimal material budget, a larger active area fraction as compared to the current detectors, and a higher granularity. Furthermore, the assemblies must be able to withstand received fluences up to 2 . 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. A new pixel assembly concept answering the challenges posed by the high instantaneous luminosities is investigated in this thesis. It employs five novel technologies, namely n-in-p pixel sensors, thin pixel sensors, slim edges with or without implanted sensor sides, and 3D-integration incorporating a new interconnection technology, named Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) as well as Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs). n-in-p sensors are cost-effective, since they only need patterned processing on one side. Their performance before and after irradiation is investigated and compared to results obtained with currently used n-in-n sensors. Reducing the thickness of the sensors lowers the amount of multiple scattering

  1. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Via, Cinzia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco, E-mail: dallabe@disi.unitn.it [DISI, Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Darbo, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Fleta, Celeste [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Gemme, Claudia [INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-14146 Genova (Italy); Grenier, Philippe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Grinstein, Sebastian [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE) and ICREA, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Hansen, Thor-Erik [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kok, Angela [SINTEF MiNaLab, Blindern, N-0314 Oslo (Norway); Parker, Sherwood [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pellegrini, Giulio [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona E-08193 (Spain); Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as {approx}4 {mu}m. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R and D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of {approx}4 cm{sup 2}. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  2. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P.P

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their pro...

  3. Microchannel cooling in low material budget supports for silicon pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestri, G. [INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56010 Pisa (Italy); Bosi, F., E-mail: filippo.bosi@pi.infn.i [INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56010 Pisa (Italy); Ceccanti, M.; Mammini, P.; Massa, M.; Petragnani, G.; Ragonesi, A.; Soldani, A. [INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56010 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    Pixel detectors at future colliders will need to match very stringent requirement on position resolution. To ensure the needed mechanical stability and the removal of the power dissipated by the read-out electronic, the support structure and cooling add an important contribution to the total material in the active area, in terms of radiation length. We present the development, the construction and the mechanical-thermal characterization of prototypes of light material support for pixel detectors with microchannel for heat evacuation through forced convection of liquid coolant. The solution we choose shows several advantages: heat exchange is taking place efficiently due to the high ratio surface/volume and so high thermal conductivities can be obtained, minimally affecting the stiffness of the structure; the thermal resistances are reduced because of the contiguity between the fluid and the circuit dissipating power; the uniformity of temperature on the surface covered by of the sensors is also kept under control. Several prototypes implementing different geometries of micro-machined channels have been realized in composites materials (CFRP). FEA studies have been performed to validated the experimental test conducted in the thermo-fluid dynamic test bench we recently assembled in the INFN Pisa laboratory.

  4. Preliminary test results of a new high-energy-resolution silicon and CdZnTe pixel detectors for application to x-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkov, V. V.; Hamilton, William J.; Hurley, Kevin; Maeding, Dale G.; Ogelman, Hakki; Paulos, Robert J.; Puetter, Richard C.; Tumer, Tumay O.; Zweerink, Jeffrey

    1999-10-01

    New, high spatial resolution CdZnTe (CZT) and silicon (Si) pixel detectors are highly suitable for x-ray astronomy. These detectors are planned for use in wide field of view, imaging x-ray, and low energy gamma-ray all-sky monitor (AXGAM) in a future space mission. The high stopping power of CZT detectors combined with low-noise front-end readout makes possible an order of magnitude improvement in spatial and energy resolution in x-ray detection. The AXGAM instrument will be built in the form of a fine coded aperture placed over two-dimensional, high spatial resolution and low energy threshold CZT pixel detector array. The preliminary result of CZT and silicon pixel detector test with low-noise readout electronics system are presented. These detectors may also be used with or without modification for medical and industrial imaging.

  5. A neural network clustering algorithm for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    A novel technique to identify and split clusters created by multiple charged particles in the ATLAS pixel detector using a set of artificial neural networks is presented. Such merged clusters are a common feature of tracks originating from highly energetic objects, such as jets. Neural networks are trained using Monte Carlo samples produced with a detailed detector simulation. This technique replaces the former clustering approach based on a connected component analysis and charge interpolation. The performance of the neural network splitting technique is quantified using data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 and from Monte Carlo simulations. This technique reduces the number of clusters shared between tracks in highly energetic jets by up to a factor of three. It also provides more precise position and error estimates of the clusters in both the transverse and longitudinal impact parameter resolution.

  6. Novel Multi-pixel Silicon Photon Detectors and Applications in T2K

    CERN Document Server

    Beznosko, Dmitriy

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, numerous fields such as High Energy Physics (HEP), medical imaging devices, portable radiation detectors etc., require a robust, miniature, reliable and readily available photon detector that is stable in a variety of environments, such as the presence of strong magnetic fields. The recently available $\\sim$1mm$^{\\textrm{2}}$ active area Multi-pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) sensors, produced by Hamamatsu Photonics, have been found to be reliable and an attractive choice for the HEP applications. The following sensor characteristics have been thoroughly tested by T2K collaboration: gain, dark noise, detection efficiency, reliability. These appear to be stable; in addition, the characteristic spread between numerous devices was assessed. Sensors with larger area are being developed for imaging and direct-to-scintillator coupling purposes.

  7. On the horizon for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    ALICE – the LHC experiment specifically designed to study the physics of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) and, more generally, of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy densities – is planning a series of upgrades during the long shutdowns of the accelerator in the coming years. The new ALICE will have enhanced read-out capabilities and improved efficiency when tracking particles and identifying the vertex of the interactions.     Corrado Gargiulo, ALICE's Project Engineer with ITS prototype. The new ITS will consist of 7 layers of silicon sensors supported by a ultra-light carbon fibre structure.  The LHC has been operated with lead ions for only about two months, but this has been sufficient for ALICE and other LHC experiments to produce results that previous accelerators took several years of operation to produce. “Prior to the start-up of the LHC heavy-ion programme, the nature of the QGP as an almost-perfect liquid had already...

  8. Transverse momentum spectra of hadrons identified with the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Milano, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Inner Tracking System is the ALICE detector closest to the beam axis. It is composed of six layers of silicon detectors: two innermost layers of Silicon Pixel Detectors (SPD), two intermediate layers of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) and two outermost layers of Silicon Strip Detectors (SSD). The ITS can be used as a standalone tracker in order to recover tracks that are not reconstructed by the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and to reconstruct low momentum particles with $p_{t}$ down to 100 MeV/c. Particle identification in the ITS is performed by measuring the energy loss signal in the SDD and SSD layers. The ITS allows to extend the charged particle identification capability in the ALICE central rapidity region at low $p_{t}$: it is possible to separate $\\pi/K$ in the range 100 MeV/c $< p_{t} <$ 500 MeV/c and $K/p$ in the range 200 MeV/c $ < p_{t} <$ 800 MeV/c. The identification of hadron in the ITS will be discussed in detail, different methods used to extract the $p_{t}$ spectra of $\\pi, K$...

  9. ALICE Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernandez Tellez, A; Martinez Hernandez, M; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE underground cavern provides an ideal place for the detection of high energy atmospheric muons coming from cosmic ray showers. ACORDE detects cosmic ray showers by triggering the arrival of muons to the top of the ALICE magnet.

  10. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  11. Performance of CMS 3D silicon pixel detectors before and after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obertino, M., E-mail: margherita.obertino@cern.ch [Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, and INFN, Torino (Italy); Solano, A. [Università di Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Alagoz, E. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Andresen, J. [University of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Arndt, K.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Boscardin, M. [Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Povo di Trento (Italy); Brosius, R. [SUNY, Buffalo (United States); Bubna, M. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [INFN Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) and Università di Trento, Povo di Trento (Italy); Jensen, F. [University of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Krzywda, A. [Physics Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kumar, A. [SUNY, Buffalo (United States); Kwan, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Lei, C.M. [University of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Menasce, D.; Moroni, L. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Ngadiuba, J. [Università di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Milano (Italy); Osipenkov, I. [Texas A and M University, TX (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) silicon detectors are emerging as one of the most promising technologies for the innermost layers of tracking devices for the foreseen upgrades of the LHC. 3D sensors compatible with the CMS readout, fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy), were tested in the laboratory and with a 120 GeV/c proton beam at the FNAL test beam facility, before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 3.5×10{sup 15}neq/cm{sup 2}. Preliminary results of the data analysis are presented. -- Highlights: •3D characterized in laboratory, tested with beam and irradiated with 800 MeV protons. •Leakage current: few hundred nA before irradiation, ∼10 μA after irradiation. •Depletion voltage: 20 V. Breakdown voltage: 25–35 V, not increasing after irradiation. •Efficiency: 97.5%, increasing when tilting sensors with respect to the beam. •Radiation effect: lower efficiency and lower collected charge.

  12. Prototype of the front-end circuit for the GOSSIP (Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel) chip in the 0.13 μm CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gromov, V; van der Graaf, H

    2007-01-01

    The new GOSSIP detector, capable to detect single electrons in gas, has certain advantages with respect silicon (pixel) detectors. It does not require a Si sensor; it has a very low detector parasitic capacitance and a zero bias current at the pixel input. These are attractive features to design a compact, low-noise and low-power integrated input circuit. A prototype of the integrated circuit has been developed in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. It includes a few channels equipped with preamplifier, discriminator and the digital circuit to study the feasibility of the TDC-perpixel concept. The design demonstrates very low input referred noise (60e- RMS) in combination with a fast peaking time (40 ns) and an analog power dissipation as low as 2 μW per channel. Switching activity on the clock bus (up to 100 MHz) in the close vicinity of the pixel input pads does not cause noticeable extra noise.

  13. Beam-test results of 4k pixel CMOS MAPS and high resistivity striplet detectors equipped with digital sparsified readout in the Slim5 low mass silicon demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, M., E-mail: villa@bo.infn.i [Universita degli Studi di Bologna and INFN-Bologna (Italy); Bruschi, M.; Di Sipio, R.; Fabbri, L.; Giacobbe, B.; Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Pellegrini, G.; Sbarra, C.; Semprini, N.; Spighi, R.; Valentinetti, S.; Zoccoli, A. [Universita degli Studi di Bologna and INFN-Bologna (Italy); Avanzini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Cenci, R. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa and INFN-Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The results obtained by the Slim5 collaboration on a low material budget tracking silicon demonstrator put on a 12 GeV/c proton test beam at CERN are reported. Inside a reference telescope, two different and innovative detectors were placed for careful tests. The first was a 4k-Pixel Matrix of Deep N Well MAPS, developed in a 130 nm CMOS Technology, square pixels 50{mu}m wide, thinned down to 100{mu}m and equipped with a digital sparsified readout running up to 50 MHz. The other was a high resistivity double sided silicon detector, 200{mu}m thick, with short strips with 50{mu}m pitch at 45{sup 0} angle to the detector's edge. The detectors were equipped with dedicated fast readout architectures performing on-chip data sparsification and providing the timing information for the hits. The criteria followed in the design of the pixel sensor and of the pixel readout architecture will be reviewed. Preliminary measurements of the pixel charge collection, track detection efficiencies and resolutions of pixel and strip sensors are discussed. The data driven architecture of the readout chips has been fully exploited in the test beam by a data acquisition system able to collect on electronic board up to 2.5 Million events per second before triggering. By using a dedicated Associative Memory board, we were able to perform a level 1 trigger system, with minimal latency, identifying cleanly tracks traversing the detectors. System architecture and main performances are shown.

  14. Conception and modelling of photo-detection pixels. PIN photodiodes conceived in amorphous silicon for particles detection; Conception et modelisation de pixels de photodetection: Photodiodes PIN en silicium amorphe en vue de leurs utilisations comme detecteurs de particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negru, R

    2008-06-15

    The research done has revealed that the a-Si:H is a material ideally suited for the detection of particles, while being resistant to radiation. It also has a low manufacturing cost, is compatible with existing technology and can be deposited over large areas. Thus, despite the low local mobility of charges (30 cm{sup 2}/V/s), a-Si:H is a material of particular interest for manufacturing high-energy particle detection pixels. As a consequence of this, we have studied the feasibility of an experimental pixel stacked structure based on a-Si:H as a basic sensor element for an electromagnetic calorimeter. The structure of such a pixel consists of different components. First, a silicon PIN diode in a-Si:H is fabricated, followed by a bias resistor and a decoupling capacitor. Before such a structure is made and in order to optimize its design, it is essential to have an efficient behavioural model of the various components. Thus, our primary goal was to develop a two-dimensional physical model of the PIN diode using the SILVACO finite element calculation software. This a-Si:H PIN diode two-dimensional physical model allowed us to study the problem of crosstalk between pixels in a matrix structure of detectors. In particular, we concentrated on the leakage current and the current generated in the volume between neighbouring pixels. The successful implementation of this model in SPICE ensures its usefulness in other professional simulators and especially its integration into a complete electronic structure (PIN diode, bias resistor, decoupling capacity and low noise amplifier). Thanks to these modelling tools, we were able to simulate PIN diode structures in a-Si:H with different thicknesses and different dimensions. These simulations have allowed us to predict that the thicker structures are relevant to the design of the pixel detectors for high energy physics. Applications in astronomy, medical imaging and the analysis of the failure of silicon integrated circuits, can

  15. Technical Design Report for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agostinelli, A; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmed, I; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Aimo, I; Aiola, S; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Anderssen, E C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bairathi, V; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastian Van Beelen, J; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Battistin, M; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Baudot, J; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Benettoni, M; Benotto, F; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Berger, M E; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Besson, A; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatti, A; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielcík, J; Bielcíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Boehmer, F V; Bogdanov, A; Boggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bornschein, J; Borshchov, V N; Bortolin, C; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Böttger, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Carena, F; Carena, W; Cariola, P; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Caudron, T; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Claus, G; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Coli, S; Colledani, C; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Crochet, P; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dang, R; Danu, A; Da Riva, E; Das, D; Das, I; Das, K; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; Decosse, C; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; Dénes, E; D'Erasmo, G; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Robertis, G; 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Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2014-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is preparing a major upgrade of its experimental apparatus, planned for installation in the second long LHC shutdown (LS2) in the years 2018-2019. These plans are presented in the ALICE Upgrade Letter of Intent submitted to the LHCC in September 2012. A key element of the upgrade is the construction of a new, ultra-light, high-resolution Inner Tracking System based on monolithic pixel detectors. This Technical Design Report is an update of the Conceptual Design Report for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System, which was presented to the LHCC in September 2012. The primary focus of the ITS upgrade is on the improved performance for detection of heavy-flavour hadrons, and of thermal photons and low-mass di-electrons emitted by the QGP. The Conceptual Design Report demonstrated that it is possible to build a new silicon tracker with greatly improved features in terms of determination of the distance of closest approach to the primary vertex, tracking efficiency a...

  16. Alignment of the ALICE Inner Tracking System with cosmic-ray tracks

    CERN Document Server

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Kox, S; Kozlov, K; Králik, I; Kral, J; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Kravcáková, A; Krawutschke, T; Krivda, M; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, L; Kumar, N; Kupczak, R; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A N; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kutouski, M; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Lackner, F; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lafage, V; Lal, C; Lara, C; La Rocca, P; Larsen, D T; Laurenti, G; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Le Bris, N; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Listratenko, O; Liu, L; Li, Y; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; López Noriega, M; López-Ramírez, R; López Torres, E; Lopez, X; Løvhøiden, G; Lozea Feijo Soares, A; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Lu, S; Lutz, J R; Luvisetto, M; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, A; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Makhlyueva, I; Ma, K; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malek, M; Mal'Kevich, D; Malkiewicz, T; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Mares, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martínez, M I; Maruyama, Y; Ma, R; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masetti, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Mattos Tavares, B; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mendez Lorenzo, P; Meoni, M; Mercado Pérez, J; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Michalon, A; Miftakhov, N; Milosevic, J; Minafra, F; Mischke, A; Miskowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizoguchi, K; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Mondal, M M; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Moukhanova, T; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Navach, F; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nendaz, F; Newby, J; Nianine, A; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nyiri, A; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Odyniec, G; Oeschler, H; Oinonen, M; Okada, K; Okada, Y; Oldenburg, M; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Orsini, F; Ortíz Velázquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskamp, C; Oskarsson, A; Osmic, F; Österman, L; Ostrowski, P; Otterlund, I; Otwinowski, J; Øvrebekk, G; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paic, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Pal, S K; Pal, S; Panse, R; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Pastircák, B; Pastore, C; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pepato, A; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D; Pérez, C; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Peschek, J; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Peters, A J; Petrácek, V; Petridis, A; Petris, M; Petrovici, M; Petrov, P; Petta, C; Peyré, J; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piuz, F; Platt, R; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta Lerma, P L M; Poggio, F; Poghosyan, M G; Poghosyan, T; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Polozov, P; Polyakov, V; Pommeresch, B; Pop, A; Posa, F; Poskon, M; Pospisil, V; Potukuchi, B; Pouthas, J; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, A; Punin, V; Putis, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Radomski, S; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Rammler, M; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S; Rashevskaya, I; Rath, S; Read, K F; Real, J; Redlich, K; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M; Røed, K; Röhrich, D; Román López, S; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosinský, P; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio-Montero, A J; Rui, R; Rusanov, I; Russo, G; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safarík, K; Sahoo, R; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salgueiro Dominques da Silva, R; Salur, S; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schindler, H; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schossmaier, K; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Segato, G; Semenov, D; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serkin, L; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharkov, G; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddi, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simili, E; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singhal, V; Singh, R; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Snow, H; Søgaard, C; Sokolov, O; Soloviev, A; Soltveit, H K; Soltz, R; Sommer, W; Son, C W; Song, M; Son, H S; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Soyk, D; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Staley, F; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, P; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Swoboda, D; Symons, J; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Szuba, M; Tadel, M; Tagridis, C; Takahara, A; Takahashi, J; Tanabe, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Taureg, H; Tauro, A; Tavlet, M; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Tieulent, R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Tolyhy, T; Torcato de Matos, C; Torii, H; Torralba, G; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Tournaire, A; Traczyk, T; Tribedy, P; Tröger, G; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsiledakis, G; Tsilis, E; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Turvey, A; Tveter, T S; Tydesjö, H; Tywoniuk, K; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van den Brink, A; van der Kolk, N; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A; Vassiliev, I; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vetlitskiy, I; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopianov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wallet, L; Wan, R; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Wen, Q; Wessels, J; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Willis, N; Windelband, B; Xu, C; Yang, C; Yang, H; Yasnopolsky, A; Yermia, F; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zagreev, B; Zalite, A; Zampolli, C; Zanevsky, Yu; Zaporozhets, Y; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zepeda, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, S; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zinchenko, A; Zinovjev, G; Zinovjev, M; Zoccarato, Y; Zychácek, V

    2010-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiment devoted to investigating the strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC energies. The ALICE ITS, Inner Tracking System, consists of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors with three different technologies; in the outward direction: two layers of pixel detectors, two layers each of drift, and strip detectors. The number of parameters to be determined in the spatial alignment of the 2198 sensor modules of the ITS is about 13,000. The target alignment precision is well below 10 micron in some cases (pixels). The sources of alignment information include survey measurements, and the reconstructed tracks from cosmic rays and from proton-proton collisions. The main track-based alignment method uses the Millepede global approach. An iterative local method was developed and used as well. We present the results obtained for the ITS alignment using about 10^5 charged tracks from cosmic rays that h...

  17. Performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon Pixel readout for Cherenkov ring detection

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Bibby, J H; Campbell, M; Duane, A; Easo, S; Gys, Thierry; Halley, A W; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Simmons, B; Snoeys, W; Websdale, David M; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, Ken H

    1999-01-01

    We report on the first test beam performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype, using binary readout electronics, intended for use in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The detector has been installed in a quarter-scale prototype vessel of the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov system. Focussed ring images produced by 120 GeV/c negative pions traversing an air radiator have been recorded. The observed light yield and Cherenkov angle resolution are discussed.

  18. Performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout for Cherenkov ring detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemi, M.; Barber, G.; Bibby, J.; Campbell, M.; Duane, A.; Easo, S.; Gys, T.; Halley, A.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Simmons, B.; Snoeys, W.; Websdale, D.; Wotton, S.; Wyllie, K

    1999-08-01

    We report on the first test beam performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype, using binary readout electronics, intended for use in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The detector has been installed in a quarter-scale prototype vessel of the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov system. Focussed ring images produced by 120 GeV/c negative pions traversing an air radiator have been recorded. The observed light yield and Cherenkov angle resolution are discussed.

  19. ALICE brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  20. ALICE brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  1. ALICE brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  2. ALICE brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE studies the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  3. ALICE brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  4. "Alice imedemaal" Vanemuises

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    7. veebr. esietendub Vanemuises tantsulavastus "Alice imedemaal". Etendus põhineb briti kirjaniku L. Carrolli samanimelisel lasteraamatul, koreograaf M. Murdmaa, kunstnik K. Jancis ja muusika on kirjutanud ungari helilooja S. Kall̤s, Alice'i osa tantsib korealanna Hye Min Kim

  5. ALICE chip processor

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This tiny chip provides data processing for the time projection chamber on ALICE. Known as the ALICE TPC Read Out (ALTRO), this device was designed to minimize the size and power consumption of the TPC front end electronics. This single chip contains 16 low-power analogue-to-digital converters with six million transistors of digital processing and 8 kbits of data storage.

  6. ALICE brochure (Norwegian version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2009-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  7. ALICE brochure (Spanish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  8. ALICE brochure (Polish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  9. The ALICE Data Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.P.Baud; W.Carena; 等

    2001-01-01

    Since 1998,the ALICE experiment and the CERN/IT division have jointly executed several large-scale high throughput distributed computing exercises:the ALICE data challenges.The goals of these regular exercises are to test hardware and software components of the data acqusition and computing systems in realistic conditions and to execute an early integration of the overall ALICE computing infrastructure.This paper reports on the third ALICE Data Challenge (ADC III) that has been performed at CERN from January to March 2001.The data used during the ADC Ⅲ are simulated physics raw data of the ALICE TPC,produced with the ALICE simulation program AliRoot.The data acquisition was based on the ALICE online framework called the ALICE Data Acquisition Test Environment (DATE) system.The data after event building,were then formatted with the ROOT I/O package and a data catalogue based on MySQl was established.The Mass Storage System used during ADC III is CASTOR.Different software tools have been used to monitor the performances,DATE has demonstrated performances of more than 500 MByte/s.An aggregate data throughput of 85 MByte/s was sutained in CASTOR over several days.The total collected data amounts to 100 TBytes in 100.00 files.

  10. Study of the influence of design parameters of MAPS for the ALICE ITS Upgrade: Project Report

    CERN Document Server

    Munteanu, Laura-Iuliana

    2016-01-01

    This report illustrates the results of measurements performed on various MAPS chips used during the R&D phase for the ALICE ITS Upgrade. It lists the influence that pixel design parameters have on the performance of the chips.

  11. Foward Calorimetry in ALICE at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Tatsuya; Alice Focal Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    We present an upgrade proposal for calorimetry in the forward direction, FOCAL, to measure direct photons in η = 3 . 3 - 5 . 3 in ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We suggest to use an electromagnetic calorimeter based on the novel technology of silicon sensors with W absorbers for photons, together with a conventional hadron calorimeter for jet measurements and photon isolation. The current status of the FOCAL R&D project will be presented.

  12. Innovative low-mass cooling systems for the ALICE ITS Upgrade detector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez Marzoa, Manuel

    The Phase-1 upgrade of the LHC to full design luminosity, planned for 2019 at CERN, requires the modernisation of the experiments around the accelerator. The Inner Tracking System (ITS), the innermost detector at the ALICE experiment, will be upgraded by replacing the current apparatus by new silicon pixels arranged in 7 cylindrical layers. Each layer is composed by multiple independent modules, named staves, which provide mechanical support and cooling to the chips. This thesis aims to develop and validate experimentally an ultra-lightweight stave cooling system for the ITS Upgrade. The moderate thermal requirements, with a nominal power density of 0.15 W/cm^2 and a maximum chip temperature of 30ºC, are counterweighted by extreme low-mass restrictions, obliging to resort to lightweight, non-metallic materials, such as carbon fibre-reinforced polymers and plastics. Novel lightweight stave concepts were developed and experimentally validated, meeting the thermal requirements with minimal material inventory. T...

  13. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C

    2013-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  14. ALICE HMPID RICH

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Particle identification plays a key role in the complete understanding of heavy-ion collisions in ALICE at the LHC. . The CsI Photodetector . The Radiator . The Front-End Electronics . Detector performance

  15. ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Christensen, C

    2013-01-01

    The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

  16. Overview of ALICE results

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE detector was designed to study the physics of matter under extreme conditions of high energy density. Different results were reported by the experiment using data from the successful run I of the LHC. The goal of the present work is to present an overview of recent ALICE results. This comprises selected results from several analyses of pp, p-pb and Pb-Pb data at the LHC energies.

  17. The ALICE absorbers

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Weighing more than 400 tonnes, the ALICE absorbers and the surrounding support structures have been installed and aligned with a precision of 1-2 mm, hardly an easy task but a very important one. The ALICE absorbers are made of three parts: the front absorber, a 35-tonne cone-shaped structure, and two small-angle absorbers, long straight cylinder sections weighing 18 and 40 tonnes. The three pieces lined up have a total length of about 17 m.

  18. Installing the ALICE detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The huge iron yoke in the cavern at Point 2 in the LHC tunnel is prepared for the installation of the ALICE experiment. The yoke is being reused from the previous L3 experiment that was located at the same point during the LEP project from 1989 to 2000. ALICE will be inserted piece by piece into the cradle where it will be used to study collisions between two beams of lead ions.

  19. Dolly and Alice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Dan L

    2015-11-01

    The opinion of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, In re Roslin Institute, rejecting patent claims to mammals cloned from somatic cells, was rendered about a month before the United States Supreme Court's decision in Alice Corp. v. CLS Bank International. The Alice opinion explicitly sets out the standard for determining whether an invention falls within statutory patentable subject matter. Thus one is thus left to wonder what the Roslin opinion might have looked like had it been decided only a few weeks later, after the Alice decision was published, with the benefit of the Supreme Court's further direction on patentable subject matter. In this essay I explore whether in hindsight the Alice standard might have dictated a different outcome in Roslin, suggesting how the two-part test articulated by the Supreme Court in Alice might apply to a 'products of nature' analysis for cloned mammals. Drawing on that analysis, I then use the Roslin case as a vehicle to highlight certain issues with the Supreme Court's current subject matter jurisprudence as applied to biotechnology. By juxtaposing Dolly with Alice, it becomes clear that the Supreme Court has revivified a number of dormant biotechnology patent problems in the guise of subject matter analysis.

  20. Development of CMOS Pixel Sensors with digital pixel dedicated to future particle physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Wang, T.; Pham, H.; Hu-Guo, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Two prototypes of CMOS pixel sensor with in-pixel analog to digital conversion have been developed in a 0.18 μm CIS process. The first design integrates a discriminator into each pixel within an area of 22 × 33 μm2 in order to meet the requirements of the ALICE inner tracking system (ALICE-ITS) upgrade. The second design features 3-bit charge encoding inside a 35 × 35 μm2 pixel which is motivated by the specifications of the outer layers of the ILD vertex detector (ILD-VXD). This work aims to validate the concept of in-pixel digitization which offers higher readout speed, lower power consumption and less dead zone compared with the column-level charge encoding.

  1. Pixel structures to compensate nonuniform threshold voltage and mobility of polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors using subthreshold current for large-size active matrix organic light-emitting diode displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jun-Seok; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2014-01-01

    We propose pixel structures for large-size and high-resolution active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays using a polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistor (TFT) backplane. The proposed pixel structures compensate the variations of the threshold voltage and mobility of the driving TFT using the subthreshold current. The simulated results show that the emission current error of the proposed pixel structure B ranges from -2.25 to 2.02 least significant bit (LSB) when the variations of the threshold voltage and mobility of the driving TFT are ±0.5 V and ±10%, respectively.

  2. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-04-17

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN{sub ch}/d{eta}) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of {radical}(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of {radical}(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  3. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  4. ALICE - ARC integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva;

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic...... Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The interoperation has two aspects, one is the data...... management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. dCache provides support for several data management tools (among them for xrootd the tools used by AliEn) using the so called "doors". Therefore, we will concentrate on the second...

  5. Heavy flavour in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Pillot, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium states are expected to provide essential informa- tion on the properties of the strongly interacting system fo rmed in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy density. Such probes are espe cially promising at LHC energies where heavy quarks (both c and b) are copiously produced. The ALICE detector shall measure the production of open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium st ates in both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The expected performances of ALICE for heavy flavour physics is discussed based on the results of simulation studies on a s election of benchmark channels

  6. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  7. GRID Activities in ALICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Cerello; T.Anticic; 等

    2001-01-01

    The challenge of LHC computing,with data rates in the range of several PB/year,requires the development of GRID technologies,to optimize the exploitation of distributed computing power and the authomatic access to distributed data storage.In the framework of the EU-DataGrid project,the ALICE experiment is one of the selected test applications for the early development and implementation of GRID Services.Presently,about 15 ALICE sites are makin use of available GRID tools and a large scale test production involving 9 of them was carried out with our simulation program.Results are discussed in detail,as well as future plans.

  8. ALICE Geometry Database

    CERN Document Server

    Santo, J

    1999-01-01

    The ALICE Geometry Database project consists of the development of a set of data structures to store the geometrical information of the ALICE Detector. This Database will be used in Simulation, Reconstruction and Visualisation and will interface with existing CAD systems and Geometrical Modellers.At the present time, we are able to read a complete GEANT3 geometry, to store it in our database and to visualise it. On disk, we store different geometry files in hierarchical fashion, and all the nodes, materials, shapes, configurations and transformations distributed in this tree structure. The present status of the prototype and its future evolution will be presented.

  9. GEANT4 in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Hrivnacova, I

    1999-01-01

    The smooth way of transition from existing GEANT3 based simulation software to GEANT4 adopted by ALICE will be explained. The AliRoot package as a client of the Monte Carlo interface (pure abstract class) is used in GEANT4 based classes for building GEANT4 objects (geometry physics list, primary generator). We shall also summarise our experience with GEANT4 and give an overview of what parts of GEANT4 are used in the current ALICE GEANT4 simulation prototype, what functionality has been added and what problems have been encountered.

  10. ALICE Vzero Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Cheynis, B

    2013-01-01

    ALICE is the only experiment at CERN specifically designed to study the Quark-Gluon Plasma, the hot and dense matter which is created in ultra relativistic heavy-ion collisions. - VZERO-A (CINVESTAV-UNAM Mexico): 2.8 328 cm away from Interaction Point - VZERO-C (IPN Lyon): -3.6 88 cm away from Interaction Point

  11. First ALICE detectors installed!

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

  12. ALICE-ARC integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva;

    2008-01-01

    Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The interoperation has two aspects, one is the data...

  13. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  14. ALICE installs its TPC

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE time projection chamber has been transported to the experimental cavern. The handling of this extremely fragile detector was a long and delicate process. The lorry transporting the TPC took one hour to travel from the assembly hall to the access shaft...200 metres away.The TPC was lowered into the ALICE experimental cavern with extreme care. The gap between the structure and the shaft wall was only 10 centimetres! For ALICE the year started with a flurry of activity...but at a snail's pace. On 8 January, the day CERN reopened after the end-of-year break, teams from ALICE and the TS Department began the transportation of the experiment's time projection chamber (TPC), the largest ever built. This 5-metre long and 5-m diameter cylinder was transported from the clean room where it had been assembled to the experimental cavern. The 300-metre journey took no less than four days! Since the TPC is an extremely fragile object, the utmost precautions were exercised in its transportation. The TPC, which is d...

  15. Alice - The Virtual Secretary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    Animated Agents are increasingly finding their way into computer applications and websites. They create life on the screen for us, attempt to personalize our communication and rather than us being forced to read long website introductions, they can verbally introduce us to the content. One...... in order to create Alice – The virtual secretary....

  16. The ALICE Electronic Logbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altini, V [INFN, Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Sezione INFN Bary (Italy); Carena, F; Carena, W; Chapeland, S; Barroso, V Chibante; Costa, F; Divia, R; Fuchs, U; Makhlyueva, I; Roukoutakis, F; Schossmaier, K; Soos, C; Vyvre, P Vande; Haller, B Von, E-mail: Vasco.Chibante.Barroso@cern.c [CERN, Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    All major experiments need tools that provide a way to keep a record of the events and activities, both during commissioning and operations. In ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) at CERN, this task is performed by the Alice Electronic Logbook (eLogbook), a custom-made application developed and maintained by the Data-Acquisition group (DAQ). Started as a statistics repository, the eLogbook has evolved to become not only a fully functional electronic logbook, but also a massive information repository used to store the conditions and statistics of the several online systems. It's currently used by more than 600 users in 30 different countries and it plays an important role in the daily ALICE collaboration activities. This paper will describe the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP) based architecture of the eLogbook, the database schema and the relevance of the information stored in the eLogbook to the different ALICE actors, not only for near real time procedures but also for long term data-mining and analysis. It will also present the web interface, including the different used technologies, the implemented security measures and the current main features. Finally it will present the roadmap for the future, including a migration to the web 2.0 paradigm, the handling of the database ever-increasing data volume and the deployment of data-mining tools.

  17. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... design it became relevant to investigate the use of LEDs as the physical equivalent of a pixel as a design approach. In this book our interest has been in identifying how the qualities of LEDs can be used in lighting applications. With experiences in the planning and implementation of architectural...... elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...

  18. ALICE dipole and decoration

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE cavern receives a painting made specially to mark the 50th anniversary of CERN that is mounted on the L3 solenoid magnet, reused from the LEP experiment that ran from 1989 to 2000. The dipole, which is cooled by demineralised water, will bend the path of muons that leave the huge rectangular solenoid. These muons are heavy electrons that interact less with matter allowing them to be studied at large distances from the interaction point.

  19. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  20. ALICE comes to life

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 26 March, a first major part of the ALICE detector arrived at CERN: one of the four cylinders in composite material for the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The construction of the TPC 'field cage' (the structure that defines the configuration of the electrical field of the TPC) is the fruit of exceptional collaboration between CERN and the Austrian manufacturer Fischer Advanced Composite Components (Fischer ACC).

  1. Pentaquark searches with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bobulska, Dana

    2016-01-01

    In this report we present the results of the data analysis for searching for possible invariant mass signals from pentaquarks in the ALICE data. Analysis was based on filtered data from real p-Pb events at psNN=5.02 TeV collected in 2013. The motivation for this project was the recent discovery of pentaquark states by the LHCb collaboration (c ¯ cuud resonance P+ c ) [1]. The search for similar not yet observed pentaquarks is an interesting research topic [2]. In this analysis we searched for a s ¯ suud pentaquark resonance P+ s and its possible decay channel to f meson and proton. The ALICE detector is well suited for the search of certain candidates thanks to its low material budget and strong PID capabilities. Additionally we might expect the production of such particles in ALICE as in heavy-ion and proton-ion collisions the thermal models describes well the particle yields and ratios [3]. Therefore it is reasonable to expect other species of hadrons, including also possible pentaquarks, to be produced w...

  2. ALICE on the move

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    A new management, new modules for its sub-detectors and an increased capacity to probe the properties of the quark-gluon plasma. The new year bodes well for ALICE and ion physics as quarks and gluons prepare to unveil their most profound mysteries.   Installation of one of the new EMCal modules in the detector. Paolo Giubellino, the new ALICE spokesperson, talks with enthusiasm about what has already been done by the ALICE collaboration and what is yet to come. He has recently taken over from Jurgen Schukraft, who led the collaboration from its earliest beginnings. “We had a very exciting first year of operation, with many interesting results coming up in a very short space of time,” says Giubellino, a heavy-ion-physics expert from the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (see box for details). “The Christmas technical stop wasn’t a break for us as we upgraded the detector, completing the installation of the electromagnetic calorimeter (E...

  3. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  4. Beam test results of a monolithic pixel sensor in the 0.18 μm tower-jazz technology with high resistivity epitaxial layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiazzo, S., E-mail: serena.mattiazzo@pd.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova IT 35131 (Italy); Aimo, I. [Politecnico di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Torino, Torino IT 10129 (Italy); Baudot, J. [Universitè de Strasbourg, IPHC, Strasbourg F67037 (France); CNRS, MMR7178, Strasbourg F67037 (France); Bedda, C. [Politecnico di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Torino, Torino IT 10129 (Italy); La Rocca, P. [Università di Catania and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Catania, Catania IT 95123 (Italy); Perez, A. [Universitè de Strasbourg, IPHC, Strasbourg F67037 (France); CNRS, MMR7178, Strasbourg F67037 (France); Riggi, F. [Università di Catania and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Catania, Catania IT 95123 (Italy); Spiriti, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati and Sezione di Roma 3, Roma IT 00146 (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade in the second Long LHC Shutdown in the years 2018–2019; this upgrade includes the full replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), deploying seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). For the development of the new ALICE ITS, the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel and different silicon wafers (including high resistivity epitaxial layers). A large test campaign has been carried out on several small prototype chips, designed to optimize the pixel sensor layout and the front-end electronics. Results match the target requirements both in terms of performance and of radiation hardness. Following this development, the first full scale chips have been designed, submitted and are currently under test, with promising results. A telescope composed of 4 planes of Mimosa-28 and 2 planes of Mimosa-18 chips is under development at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) in Italy with the final goal to perform a comparative test of the full scale prototypes. The telescope has been recently used to test a Mimosa-22THRb chip (a monolithic pixel sensor built in the 0.18 μm Tower-Jazz process) and we foresee to perform tests on the full scale chips for the ALICE ITS upgrade at the beginning of 2015. In this contribution we will describe some first measurements of spatial resolution, fake hit rate and detection efficiency of the Mimosa-22THRb chip obtained at the BTF facility in June 2014 with an electron beam of 500 MeV.

  5. Beam test results of a monolithic pixel sensor in the 0.18 μm tower-jazz technology with high resistivity epitaxial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Aimo, I.; Baudot, J.; Bedda, C.; La Rocca, P.; Perez, A.; Riggi, F.; Spiriti, E.

    2015-10-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade in the second Long LHC Shutdown in the years 2018-2019; this upgrade includes the full replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), deploying seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). For the development of the new ALICE ITS, the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel and different silicon wafers (including high resistivity epitaxial layers). A large test campaign has been carried out on several small prototype chips, designed to optimize the pixel sensor layout and the front-end electronics. Results match the target requirements both in terms of performance and of radiation hardness. Following this development, the first full scale chips have been designed, submitted and are currently under test, with promising results. A telescope composed of 4 planes of Mimosa-28 and 2 planes of Mimosa-18 chips is under development at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) in Italy with the final goal to perform a comparative test of the full scale prototypes. The telescope has been recently used to test a Mimosa-22THRb chip (a monolithic pixel sensor built in the 0.18 μm Tower-Jazz process) and we foresee to perform tests on the full scale chips for the ALICE ITS upgrade at the beginning of 2015. In this contribution we will describe some first measurements of spatial resolution, fake hit rate and detection efficiency of the Mimosa-22THRb chip obtained at the BTF facility in June 2014 with an electron beam of 500 MeV.

  6. Test Results of the ALICE SDD Electronic Readout Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Anelli, G; Bonazzola, G C; Cavagnino, D; Cerello, P G; De Remigis, P; Falchieri, D; Gabrielli, A; Gandolfi, E; Giubellino, P; Masetti, M; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nouais, D; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F; Werbrouck, A E; Wheadon, R

    2000-01-01

    The first prototypes of the front-end electronics of the ALICE silicon driftdetectors have been designed and tested. The integrated circuits have been designed using state of the art technologies and, for the analog parts, with radiation-tolerantdesign techniques. In this paper, the test results of the building blocks of the PASCAL chip and the first prototype of the AMBRA chip are presented. The prototypes fully respect the ALICE requirements; owingto the use of deep-submicron technologies together with radiation-tolerant layout techniques, the prototypes have shown a toleranceto a radiation dose much higher than the one foreseen for the ALICE environment.(Abstract only available, full text to follow).

  7. Evaluation of the PANDA silicon pixel front-end electronics and investigation of the anti ΛΛ final state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, Simone

    2014-04-28

    high precision particle beams for several experiments. The AntiProton Annihilation at Darmstadt (PANDA) experiment is one of the large detectors at FAIR. PANDAs main physics objectives center around the properties of particles and excited particles made from quarks of the first and second quark family. It is a fixed target experiment within the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR), which delivers an intense, phase-space cooled antiproton beam in the momentum range of 1.5 to 15 GeV/c. With the high precision of the HESR, PANDA will be able to perform precise spectroscopic studies of hadronic states in the charm quark mass range. The luminosity will be up to 2.10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, thus enabling very rare processes to be studied. This high luminosity leads to a high particle flux and a high radiation environment which the sub-detectors must withstand. The most highly affected sub-detector of this high radiation environment is the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD), the innermost detector of PANDA. The main task of the MVD is the detection of the interaction points of events (vertexing). This vertex finding is crucial for the analysis of short living particles like e.g. D-mesons, particles consisting of a c-quark and a light antiquark. An essential part of the MVD detector is the readout of the semiconductor sensors. The ToPix (Torino Pixel) Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is the front-end electronics for the MVD sensor, developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Turin, Italy. It measures the spatial coordinate, the time and the deposited charge of incident charged particles. The most recent prototype of this ASIC is the ToPix 3, a version of reduced size and functionality. The Juelich Digital Readout System (JDRS) was adopted and extended to be able to readout this prototype, thus enabling specific test measurements of the prototype. In addition, the performance of PANDA for detecting long lived. particles was studied, and the

  8. Pixel Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    Pixel detectors for precise particle tracking in high energy physics have been developed to a level of maturity during the past decade. Three of the LHC detectors will use vertex detectors close to the interaction point based on the hybrid pixel technology which can be considered the state of the art in this field of instrumentation. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as the very harsh...

  9. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  10. ALICE bags data storage accolades

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    ComputerWorld has recognized CERN with an award for the 'Best Practices in Storage' for ALICE's data acquisition system, in the category of 'Systems Implementation'. The award was presented to the ALICE DAQ team on 18 April at a ceremony in San Diego, CA. (Top) ALICE physicist Ulrich Fuchs. (Bottom) Three of the five storage racks for the ALICE Data Acquisition system (Photo Antonio Saba). Between 16 and19 April, one thousand people from data storage networks around the world gathered to attend the biannual Storage Networking World Conference. Twenty-five companies and organizations were celebrated as finalists, and five of those were given honorary awards-among them CERN, which tied for first place in the category of Systems Implementation for the success of the ALICE Data Acquisition System. CERN was one of five finalists in this category, which recognizes the winning facility for 'the successful design, implementation and management of an interoperable environment'. 'Successful' could include documentati...

  11. Pixel-Level Digital-to-Analog Conversion Scheme for Compact Data Drivers of Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Low-Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae-Wook Kim,; Byong-Deok Choi,

    2010-03-01

    This paper shows that a part of a digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) function can be included in a pixel circuit to save the circuit area of an integrated data driver fabricated with low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs). Because the pixel-level DAC can be constructed by two TFTs and one small capacitor, the pixel circuit does not become markedly complex. The design of an 8-bit DAC, which combines a 6-bit resistor-string-based DAC and a 2-bit pixel-level DAC for a 4-in. diagonal VGA format active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED), is shown in detail. In addition, analysis results are presented, revealing that the 8-bit DAC scheme including a 2-bit pixel-level DAC with 1:3 demultiplexing can be applied to very high video formats, such as XGA, for a 3 to 4-in. diagonal AMOLED. Even for a 9- to 12-in. diagonal AMOLED, the proposed scheme can still be applied to the XGA format, even though no demultiplexing is allowed. The total height of the proposed 8-bit DAC is approximately 960 μm, which is almost one-half of that of the previous 6-bit resistor-string-based DAC.

  12. Diffraction studies with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Zamora, Pedro González

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of Single and Double Di raction cross-sections in pp collisions by the ALICE Collaboration at p s = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV will be presented. The relevance of di raction to the understanding of inelastic pp interactions will be discussed and the measurement of the inelastic pp cross-section will be presented. A brief status of ALICE’s studies of centrally produced systems, selected with a two-pseudorapidity gap topology, will also be given

  13. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  14. Data science in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of Heavy Ion collisions. In particular, the detector features low momentum tracking and vertexing, and comprehensive particle identification capabilities. In a single central heavy ion collision at the LHC, thousands of particles per unit rapidity are produced, making the data volume, track reconstruction and search of rare signals particularly challenging. Data science and machine learning techniques could help to tackle some of the challenges outlined above. In this talk, we will discuss some early attempts to use these techniques for the processing of detector signals and for the physics analysis. We will also highlight the most promising areas for the application of these methods.

  15. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00246160

    2015-01-01

    {During the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2018/2019, the ALICE experiment plans the installation of a novel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The upgraded detector will fully replace the current ITS having six layers by seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). The upgraded ITS will have significantly improved tracking and vertexing capabilities, as well as readout rate to cope with the expected increased Pb-Pb luminosity in LHC. The choice of MAPS has been driven by the specific requirements of ALICE as a heavy ion experiment dealing with rare probes at low $p_\\mathrm{T}$. This leads to stringent requirements on the material budget of 0.3$\\%~X/X_{0}$ per layer for the three innermost layers. Furthermore, the detector will see large hit densities of $\\sim 19~\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}/\\mathrm{event}$ on average for minimum-bias events in the inner most layer and has to stand moderate radiation loads of 700 kRad TID and $1\\times 10^{13}$ 1 MeV n$_\\mathrm{eq}/\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$ NIEL at maximum. The MAPS dete...

  16. ALICE Expert System

    CERN Document Server

    Ionita, C

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in dierent system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by reg...

  17. Exotica production with ALICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dönigus Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high collision energies reached at the LHC lead to significant production yields of light (anti-nuclei and (hyper-nuclei in proton–proton, proton–lead and, in particular, lead–lead collisions. The excellent particle identification capabilities of the ALICE apparatus, based on the specific energy loss in the Time Projection Chamber and the velocity information in the Time-Of-Flight detector, allow for the detection of these rarely produced particles. Further, the Inner Tracking System gives the possibility to separate primary nuclei from those coming from weak decay of heavier systems. One example of such a weak decay is the measurement of the (anti-hypertriton decay to 3He + π− (3H̅e̅ + π+. The aforementioned capabilities of the ALICE apparatus offer the unique opportunity to search for exotica, like the bound state of a Λ and a neutron which would decay into a deuteron and a pion, or the bound state of two Λ’s. Results on the production of stable nuclei in Pb–Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV are presented, and compared with thermal model predictions. We further present the current status of the searches, by their upper limits on the production yields, and compare the results to thermal and coalescence model expectations.

  18. ALICE pp physics programme

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The physics programme of the ALICE experiment at CERN-LHC comprises besides studies of high-energy heavy-ion collisions measurements of proton-proton interactions at unprecedented energies, too. This paper focuses on the global event characterisation in terms of the multiplicity distribution of charged hadrons and mean transverse momentum. These bulk observables become accessible because the detector features excellent track reconstruction, especially at low transverse momenta. The measurement of strange hadrons is of particular interest since the strange-particle phase-space was found to be suppressed beyond canonical reduction at lower center-of-mass energies and the production mechanism of soft particles is not yet fully understood. Here we benefit in particular from particle identification down to very low transverse momentum, i.e. 100 - 300 MeV/c, giving access to spectra and integrated yields of identified hadrons. Equipped with these features, ALICE will play a complementary role w.r.t. other LHC exper...

  19. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste) Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  20. CERN Open Days 2013, Point 2 - ALICE: ALICE Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Photolab

    2013-01-01

    Stand description: Visitors will be guided through the ALICE experiment, an extraordinary particle physics detector located at a depth of 80 meters below ground.  ALICE started up in 2008 to study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe. Visitors will also be able to walk inside the LHC tunnel, where superconducting magnets guide the beams of protons at unprecedented energies around the LHC. In addition to the underground visit, several ALICE physicists and engineers will be available to answer visitors' questions. On surface no restricted access  Above ground, scientific  and other kinds of shows will entertain the visitors to ALICE, even the youngest, throughout the day.

  1. Production of ALICE microstrip detectors at ITC-irst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregori, Paolo [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)]. E-mail: gregori@itc.it; Bellutti, Pierluigi [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Collini, Amos [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); DIT, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Pucker, Georg [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2007-03-01

    We report on the results from the production of 600 double-sided silicon microstrip detectors for the ALICE experiment. We present the fabrication process and some selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures. The large amount of experimental data allowed a statistically relevant analysis to be performed. The main technological aspects related to production yield optimization will also be addressed.

  2. The ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Garabatos, C

    2004-01-01

    We describe the ALICE TPC, with emphasis on the design features which are driven by the physics requirements of the detector. In particular, the gas choice and composition, Ne-CO/sub 2/ Ý90-10¿, as well as the unprecedentedly high gain for a TPC (2*10/sup 40/), are direct consequences of the expected performance in the high- multiplicity environment of heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The characteristics of this mixture are discussed and a viable way of improving the stability of detectors working under these conditions, namely the addition of nitrogen into the mixture, is presented. This results in a more effective Penning transfer of neon excited states onto ionisation of the quencher at no penalty for the charge transport and amplification properties.

  3. ALICE Particle Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein Ezzelarab, Nada

    2014-01-01

    During my stay at CERN, I have attended lectures mornings and worked on my research project under orienting guidance of my supervisors afternoons. The lectures were informative and pedagog- ically well-prepared and presented. Their contents was an excellent combination of theoretical and experimental topics in high-energy physics. Furthermore, I was privileged to visit the ALICE, CMS and LHCb detectors and the LINIAC accelerator. I have participated in workshop on ”MadGraph software”. I was furnished with excellent experiences and cultural exchanges with good colleagues from different countries. I got opportunities to know what the other students have done, in which projects they were involved and how they performed their scientific researches, especially regarding LHC data analysis. For my own project, I have to prove excellent experience with C++ and of course LINUX, ROOT and AliROOT. Tools such as Histograms, Graphs, Fitting, trees and many others were very essential. Furthermore, I am very proud getti...

  4. ALICE Masterclass on strangeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foka Panagiota

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An educational activity, the International Particle Physics Masterclasses, was developed by the International Particle Physics Outreach Group with the aim to bring the excitement of cutting-edge particle-physics research into the classroom. Thousands of pupils, every year since 2005, in many countries all over the world, are hosted in research centers or universities close to their schools and become “scientists for a day” as they are introduced to the mysteries of particle physics. The program of a typical day includes lectures that give insight to topics and methods of fundamental research followed by a “hands-on” session where the high-school students perform themselves measurements on real data from particle-physics experiments. The last three years data from the ALICE experiment at LHC were used. The performed measurement “strangeness enhancement” and the employed methodology are presented.

  5. Latest results from ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Scapparone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper selected results obtained by the ALICE experiment at the LHC will be presented. Data collected during the pp runs taken at sqrt(s)=0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV and Pb-Pb runs at sqrt(s_NN)=2.76 TeV allowed interesting studies on the properties of the hadronic and nuclear matter: proton runs gave us the possibility to explore the ordinary matter at very high energy and up to very low pt, while Pb-Pb runs provided spectacular events where several thousands of particles produced in the interaction revealed how a very dense medium behaves, providing a deeper picture on the quark gluon plasma(QGP) chemical composition and dynamics.

  6. ALICE EMCal Physics Performance Report

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, U.; Aronsson, T.; Awes, T.; Badala, A.; Baumgart, S.; Bellwied, R.; Benhabib, L.; Bernard, C.; Bianchi, N.; Blanco, F.; Bortoli, Y.; Boswell, B.; Bourdaud, G.; Bourrion, O.; Boyer, B.; Brown, C.R.; Bruna, E.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calvo Diaz Aldagalan, D.; Capitani, G.P.; Carcagno, Y.; Casanova Diaz, A.; Cherney, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cunqueiro Mendez, L.; Delagrange, H.; Del Franco, M.; Dialinas, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Donoghue, A.; Elnimr, M.; Enokizono, A.; Estienne, M.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Fichera, F.; Figueredo, M.A.S.; Foglio, B.; Fresneau, S.; Fujita, J.; Furget, C.; Gadrat, S.; Garishvili, I.; Germain, M.; Giudice, N.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Grimaldi, A.; Guernane, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hasch, D.; Heinz, M.; Hicks, B.; Hille, P.T.; Hornback, D.; Ichou, R.; Jacobs, P.; Jangal, S.; Jayananda, K.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kharlov, Y.; Klay, J.L.; Knospe, A.G.; Kox, S.; Kral, J.; Laloux, P.; LaPointe, S.; La Rocca, P.; Lewis, S.; Li, Q.; Librizzi, F.; Ma, R.; Madagodahettige Don, D.; Mao, Y.; Markert, C.; Martashvili, I.; Mayes, B.; Milletto, T.; Mlynarz, J.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, H.; Munhoz, M.G.; Muraz, J.F.; Newby, J.; Nattrass, C.; Noto, F.; Novitzky, N.; Nilsen, B.S.; Odyniec, G.; Orlandi, A.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Pavlinov, A.; Pesci, W.; Petrov, V.; Petta, C.; Pichot, P.; Pinsky, L.; Ploskon, M.; Pompei, F.; Pulvirenti, A.; Putschke, J.; Pruneau, C.A.; Rak, J.; Rasson, J.; Read, K.F.; Real, J.S.; Reolon, A.R.; Riggi, F.; Riso, J.; Ronchetti, F.; Roy, C.; Roy, D.; Salemi, M.; Salur, S.; Sano, M.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Sharma, M.; Silvermyr, D.; Smirnov, N.; Soltz, R.; Sorensen, S.; Sparti, V.; Srivastava, B.K.; Stutzmann, J.S.; Symons, J.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tarini, L.; Thomen, R.; Timmins, A.; Turvey, A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vieira, R.; Viticchie, A.; Voloshin, S.; Vernet, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    The ALICE detector at the LHC (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) will carry out comprehensive measurements of high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, in order to study QCD matter under extreme conditions and the phase transtion between confined matter and the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). This report presents our current state of understanding of the Physics Performance of the large acceptance Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMCal) in the ALICE central detector. The EMCal enhances ALICE’s capabilities for jet measurements. The EMCal enables triggering and full reconstruction of high energy jets in ALICE, and augments existing ALICE capabilities to measure high momentum photons and electrons. Combined with ALICE’s excellent capabilities to track and identify particles from very low pT to high pT , the EMCal enables a comprehensive study of jet interactions in the medium produced in heavy ion collisions at the LHC.

  7. First Physics Results from ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peressounko, Dmitri [Russian Research Centre - RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov sq.1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Castillo Castellanos, Javier [service de physique nucleaire - SPhN, IRFU, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Belikov, Iouri [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien - IPHC, 23 rue du loess - BP28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France)

    2010-07-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. The main purpose of ALICE is to investigate the properties of a state of deconfined nuclear matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma. Heavy flavour measurements will play a crucial role in this investigation. The physics programme of ALICE has started by studying proton-proton collisions at unprecedented high energies. We will present the first results on open heavy flavour and quarkonia in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV measured by the ALICE experiment at both mid- and forward-rapidities. We will conclude with the prospects for heavy flavour and quarkonium measurements in both proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Also presented are first results of neutral meson reconstruction and its perspectives, as well as further physics studies. (author)

  8. That’s a matter for ALICE!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    ALICE has launched a new online newsletter to report on developments at the detector: ALICE Matters. The fortnightly newsletter will keep members of the collaboration – and a wider readership – up-to-date with the latest news from the detector.   Screenshot of the ALICE Matters website. The new ALICE Matters newsletter highlights the work of ALICE collaborators through news, interviews and feature articles. Published online every fortnight, it will report the latest developments from the experiment, providing information about operation and data taking, installation work during technical stops, and news from ALICE members. The newsletter is aimed at members of the collaboration, but as an online publication it is also open to the general public. “We often receive questions from people who follow our progress and are interested in what's happening at ALICE,” explains Despina Hatzifotiadou, ALICE Outreach Coordinator. “With ALICE Matters, we can n...

  9. ALICE @ LHC: Status and Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, Alberica

    2016-11-01

    ALICE is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. After a two-year long shutdown, the LHC restarted its physics programme in June 2015 with proton-proton collisions at √s = 13 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV, the highest centre-of-mass energy ever reached in laboratory. Recent results and future perspective for ALICE will be presented.

  10. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  11. FLUKA Simulation of Particle Fluences to ALICE due to LHC Injection Kicker Failures

    CERN Document Server

    Shetty, N V; Di Mauro, A; Lechner, A; Leogrande, E; Uythoven, J

    2014-01-01

    The counter-rotating beams of the LHC are injected in insertion regions which also accommodate the ALICE and LHCb experiments. An assembly of beam absorbers ensures the protection of machine elements in case of injection kicker failures, which can affect either the injected or the stored beam. In the first years of LHC operation, secondary particle showers due to beam impact on the injection beam stopper caused damage to the MOS injectors of the ALICE silicon drift detector as well as high-voltage trips in other ALICE subdetectors. In this study, we present FLUKA [1,2] simulations of particle fluences to the ALICE cavern for injection failures encountered during operation. Two different cases are reported, one where the miskicked beam is fully intercepted and one where the beam grazes the beam stopper.

  12. ALICE presents its first award to Industry

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Behind from left to right (Derrière de gauche à droite): Bernardo Mota, member of the ALTRO design team, Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson, Luciano Musa, leader of the ALTRO Design Team and Coordinator of the ALICE TPC FEE, Roberto Camapagnolo, member of the ALICE TPC FEE team, Jean-Pierre Coffin, Deputy of the ALICE Collaboration Board Chairman, Hans de Groot ALICE Resource Coordinator, Laurent Degoujon, ST - Data Converter Design Manager, Claude Engster, member of the ALICE TPC FEE team, Alain Delpi, ST - Data Converter Business Unit Manager, Carmen Gonzalez, member of the ALICE TPC FEE team, Yiota Foka, ALICE Outreach Coordinator; Front: Fabio Formenti , EP-ED Group Leader, Juan Antonio Rubio, ETT Division Leader.

  13. ALICE rewards one of its suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    On 6 October 2007 the ALICE Collaboration Board awarded one of its prestigious Industrial Awards to Hewlett-Packard for its instrumental role in enabling ALICE physicists to collect and process experimental data on the Grid. From left to right: Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson; Michel Bénard, Hewlett Packard, Director, Technology Programs and University Relations; Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader; Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chairperson; Arnaud Pierson, Hewlett Packard, E.M.E.A Program Manager, University Relations and HP Labs; Latchezar Betev, ALICE Distributed Computing Coordinator.The ALICE DAQ and Offline groups have been collaborating with HP since 1993 in the yearly Computing and GRID physics data challenges programme. These are high-level exercises of readiness of hardware and software frameworks for data acquisition and processing. HP hosted ALICE experts in their "centre de compétences"...

  14. Radiation hard analog circuits for ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajanana, D.; Gromov, V.; Kuijer, P.; Kugathasan, T.; Snoeys, W.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE experiment is planning to upgrade the ITS (Inner Tracking System) [1] detector during the LS2 shutdown. The present ITS will be fully replaced with a new one entirely based on CMOS monolithic pixel sensor chips fabricated in TowerJazz CMOS 0.18 μ m imaging technology. The large (3 cm × 1.5 cm = 4.5 cm2) ALPIDE (ALICE PIxel DEtector) sensor chip contains about 500 Kpixels, and will be used to cover a 10 m2 area with 12.5 Gpixels distributed over seven cylindrical layers. The ALPOSE chip was designed as a test chip for the various building blocks foreseen in the ALPIDE [2] pixel chip from CERN. The building blocks include: bandgap and Temperature sensor in four different flavours, and LDOs for powering schemes. One flavour of bandgap and temperature sensor will be included in the ALPIDE chip. Power consumption numbers have dropped very significantly making the use of LDOs less interesting, but in this paper all blocks are presented including measurement results before and after irradiation with neutrons to characterize robustness against displacement damage.

  15. The ALICE time machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferretti Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the Big Bang theory, the Universe was once in an extremely hot and dense state which expanded rapidly. In such a state the normal nuclear matter could not exist: it is believed that a few microsecond after big-bang the matter underwent a phase transition, from a state called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP to a hadron gas. Some of the unexplained features of the Universe could be explained by the QGP properties. One of the aims of the CERN LHC is to recreate (on a smaller scale a QGP state, compressing and heating ordinary nuclear matter by means of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. The ALICE experiment at CERN is dedicated to the study of the medium produced in these collisions : in particular, the study of the heavy quarkonia suppression pattern can give a measure of the temperature reached in these collisions, helping us to understand how close we are getting to the conditions of the starting point of the Universe.

  16. Alice in Danceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ciambella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lo scopo di questo saggio è quello di presentare un ‘case study’ finora inesplorato nel campo degli studi sugli adattamenti: la danza in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865 di Lewis Carroll e le sue trasformazioni in sede di transmodalizzazione. In particolar modo si prenderanno in esame i due adattamenti cinematografici più celebri del romanzo dello scrittore vittoriano: il cartone animato prodotto dalla Disney nel 1951 e il film del 2010 diretto dal regista californiano Tim Burton. Se in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland di Carroll la danza è quella delle aragoste del capitolo (il decimo per l'esattezza che si intitola proprio “The Lobster Quadrille”, nel capolavoro Disney non vi è traccia alcuna né di aragoste, né tanto meno di tartarughe o grifoni. Eppure paradossalmente la danza nel cartone animato è un motivo ricorrente, che fa da sfondo alle peripezie della protagonista dall'inizio alla fine dell'opera. Quel che stupisce ancora di più lo spettatore di Alice di Burton è la presenza della danza in due precisi momenti della pellicola – all'inizio e alla fine – che non sono presenti né nell’ipotesto, né nell'adattamento Disney. In altre parole, sebbene la danza sia presente nelle tre opere, essa non compare mai nello stesso momento o con le stesse modalità.

  17. ALICE tests its digital chain

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    During its 7th data challenge, ALICE successfully tested the infrastructure of its data acquisition, transfer and storage system. The ALICE experiment will need a rock-solid data acquisition, selection, transfer, storage and handling system to analyse the billions of bits of data that will be generated every second. The heavy ion collisions at the LHC will generate 10 times more data per second than proton collisions. The ALICE teams have therefore been hard at it for several years designing a cutting-edge informatics system, whose reliability is regularly put to the test in the annual data challenges. Last December, groups from the Collaboration and the IT Department joined forces, or rather cables, in the 7th of these challenges. The teams of ALICE DAQ (data acquisition), ALICE Offline (data handling), IT-CS-IO (network) and IT-FIO (CASTOR and data storage) all took part in testing the various components of the infrastructure, from data acquisition to transfer and storage. Working in close collaboration,...

  18. ALICE presents its first award to Industry

    CERN Multimedia

    On 19 June, a French company received the first ALICE award to industry. ST Technologies has provided ALICE with a key device for the design of a very sophisticated chip for the readout of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. Behind from left to right (Derrière de gauche à droite): Bernardo Mota, member of the ALTRO design team, Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson, Luciano Musa, leader of the ALTRO Design Team and Coordinator of the ALICE TPC FEE, Roberto Camapagnolo, member of the ALICE TPC FEE team, Jean-Pierre Coffin, Deputy of the ALICE Collaboration Board Chairman, Hans de Groot ALICE Resource Coordinator, Laurent Degoujon, ST - Data Converter Design Manager, Claude Engster, member of the ALICE TPC FEE team, Alain Delpi, ST - Data Converter Business Unit Manager, Carmen Gonzalez, member of the ALICE TPC FEE team, Yiota Foka, ALICE Outreach Coordinator; Front: Fabio Formenti , EP-ED Group Leader, Juan Antonio Rubio, ETT Division Leader The ALICE experiment is setting new demands on readout electronics i...

  19. Development of SOI pixel detector in Cracow

    CERN Document Server

    Bugiel, Szymon; Glab, Sebastian; Idzik, Marek; Moron, Jakub; Kapusta, Piotr Julian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new monolithic Silicon-On-Insulator pixel sensor in $200~nm$ SOI CMOS technology. The main application of the proposed pixel detector is the spectroscopy, but it can also be used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) tracking in particle physics experiments. For this reason few different versions of pixel cells are developed: a source-follower based pixel for tracking, a low noise pixel with preamplifier for spectroscopy, and a self-triggering pixel for time and amplitude measurements. In addition the design of a Successive Approximation Register Analog-to-Digital Converter (SAR ADC) is also presented. A 10-bit SAR ADC is developed for spectroscopic measurements and a lower resolution 6-bit SAR ADC is integrated in the pixel matrix as a column ADC, for tracking applications.

  20. Industrial collaborators honoured by ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Picture 01 : the winners gather after the ALICE Award ceremony (from left to right): Yuri Saveliev, Stanislav Burachas and Sergei Beloglovsky of North Crystals; Maximilian Metzger, CERN's secretary-general; Rang Cai of ATM; Jürgen Schukraft, ALICE spokesperson; Erich Pamminger and Daniel Gattinger of FACC; and Tiejun Wang of ATM. The ALICE collaboration has presented its second round of awards to three companies for their novel and remarkable contributions to major detector systems: Advance Technology and Materials (ATM), Fischer Advanced Composite Components (FACC) and North Crystals. The awards presented to these three leaders in advanced, modern materials were beautifully sculpted from one of the oldest materials used by mankind to manufacture tools - Mexican Obsidian

  1. Managing Information Flow in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Augustinus, A; Moreno, A; Kurepin, A N; De Cataldo, G; Pinazza, O; Rosinský, P; Lechman, M; Jirdén, L S

    2011-01-01

    ALICE is one of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The ALICE detector control system is an integrated system collecting 18 different detectors’ controls and general services. Is implemented using the commercial SCADA package PVSS. Information of general interest, such as beam and condition data, and data related to shared plants or systems, are made available to all the subsystems via the distribution capabilities of PVSS. Great care has been taken to build a modular and hierarchical system, limiting the interdependencies of the various subsystems. Accessing remote resources in a PVSS distributed environment is very simple and can be initiated unilaterally. In order to improve the reliability of distributed data and to avoid unforeseen and unwished dependencies, the ALICE DCS group has enforced the centralization of global data required by the subsystems. A tool has been developed to monitor the level of interdependency and to understand the ...

  2. Overview of recent ALICE results

    CERN Document Server

    Gunji, Taku

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment explores the properties of strongly interacting QCD matter at extremely high temperatures created in Pb-Pb collisions at LHC and provides further insight into small-system physics in (high-multiplicity) pp and p-Pb collisions. The ALICE collaboration presented 27 parallel talks, 50 posters, and 1 flash talk at Quark Matter 2015 and covered various topics including collective dynamics, correlations and fluctuations, heavy flavors, quarkonia, jets and high $p_{\\rm T}$ hadrons, electromagnetic probes, small system physics, and the upgrade program. This paper highlights some of the selected results.

  3. Overview of recent ALICE results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunji, Taku

    2016-12-01

    The ALICE experiment explores the properties of strongly interacting QCD matter at extremely high temperatures created in Pb-Pb collisions at LHC and provides further insight into small-system physics in (high-multiplicity) pp and p-Pb collisions. The ALICE collaboration presented 27 parallel talks, 50 posters, and 1 flash talk at Quark Matter 2015 and covered various topics including collective dynamics, correlations and fluctuations, heavy flavors, quarkonia, jets and high pT hadrons, electromagnetic probes, small system physics, and the upgrade program. This paper highlights some of the selected results.

  4. Alice Childress: A Pioneering Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Guillory, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    Interview with Alice Childress (born 1920), an actress, playwright, novelist, editor, and lecturer. Her "Gold through the Forest" (1952) was the first play by a Black woman to be produced professionally on the American stage. Her latest play, "Moms," was produced in New York City in 1987. (BJV)

  5. ALICE Holds Up to Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's main austenitic stainless steel support structure (the Space Frame) has recently gone through many tests that proved quite challenging: insuring the structure is sound and lowering it horizontally into the ALICE cavern. This structure is constructed to hold the large volume detectors, such as the Time Projection Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time of Flight inside the ALICE solenoid magnet. After the final assembly at CERN, two large mobile cranes were needed for the job of lifting and turning the 14 tonne frame onto its side. Once shifted, it was placed in Building SX2, one of the surface assembly areas designated for ALICE. The structure, which is 8 m in diameter and 7 m long, underwent many tests in its new position. Geometric control tests were performed by measuring each of the 18 cells and placing wooden or metal samples constructed to the same dimensions as the real thing inside the structure. The most important check was the movement of the real Time Projection Chamber from its s...

  6. Elliptic Flow Measurement at ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simili, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    In view of the upcoming ALICE experiment, a dedicated detector to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the present thesis has been devoted to the study of Elliptic Flow, i.e. the azimuthal anisotropy in the momenta distribution of the final state

  7. Alice in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  8. ALICE Time Of Flight Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Alici, A

    2013-01-01

    Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector. The time measurement with the TOF, in conjunction with the momentum and track length measured by the tracking detector, is used to calculate the particle mass.

  9. ALICE moves into warp drive.

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Since its successful start-up in 2010, the LHC has been performing outstandingly, providing to the experiments long periods of stable collisions and an integrated luminosity that greatly exceeds the planned targets. To fully explore these privileged conditions, we aim at maximizing the experiment's data taking productivity during stable collisions. We present in this paper the evolution of the online systems in order to spot reasons of inefficiency and address new requirements. This paper describes the features added to the ALICE Electronic Logbook (eLogbook) to allow the Run Coordination team to identify, prioritize, fix and follow causes of inefficiency in the experiment. Thorough monitoring of the data taking efficiency provides reports for the collaboration to portray its evolution and evaluate the measures (fix...

  10. Overview of recent ALICE results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldi Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ALICE is the LHC experiment devoted to the study of heavy-ion collisions. While results from Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV provide insight on the properties of the plasma of quarks and gluons, formed in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the study of p-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV allows a deeper understanding of cold nuclear matter effects. Therefore, p-Pb results turn out to be a powerful tool to provide a baseline for Pb-Pb, to correctly quantify how the various observables are affected by genuine hot medium effects. In this proceeding, a selection of the most recent ALICE results on the medium global properties and on heavy-flavour and quarkonium production will be discussed.

  11. Layout of the ALICE detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE experiment will study the collisions of beams of lead nuclei in an attempt to produce a new state of matter known as 'quark-gluon plasma'. The barrel of the detector will be housed in the solenoid that once contained the L3 experiment when LEP was in operation at CERN, between 1989 and 2000. Outside of the solenoid, a dipole magnet will bend the path of charged particles called muons, allowing their momenta to be measured.

  12. The ALICE time projection chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    This time projection chamber is part of the ALICE detector on the new LHC accelerator at CERN. Particles produced in collisions at the core of the detector will follow paths outward through the various sub-detector layers. If these particles carry a charge, they will ionise the gas contained within this chamber producing an electric signal as the ions drift in the chamber's electric field.

  13. ALICE upgrades its powerful eyes

    CERN Multimedia

    Yuri Kharlov, ALICE Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) is a high-resolution photon detector that measures the photons coming out of the extremely hot plasma created in the lead-lead collisions at the LHC. Taking advantage of the long accelerator shut-down, the ALICE teams are now repairing and upgrading the existing modules and getting ready to install the brand-new module in time for the next run. The upgraded PHOS detector will be faster and more stable with wider acceptance and improved photon identification.   PHOS crystal matrix during repair. The key feature and the main complexity of the ALICE PHOS detector is that it operates at a temperature of -25°C, which makes it the second-coldest equipment element at the LHC after the cryogenic superconducting magnets. Since 2009 when it was installed, the PHOS detector, with its cold and warm volumes, has been immersed in airtight boxes to avoid condensation in the cold volumes. The 10,752 lead tungstate crystals of the PHOS were completely insulated fr...

  14. Studies for the ALICE inner tracking system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidt, Felix

    2016-04-28

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC identifies D{sup 0} mesons via secondary-vertex reconstruction and topological cuts to reduce the corresponding combinatorial background in heavy-ion collisions. The D{sup 0} meson is produced promptly in initial, hard scatterings via the strong interaction or as feed-down from weakly decaying B hadrons. Within this thesis, a novel method for the separation of prompt and feed-down D{sup 0} mesons using cut variations was implemented and applied to data from p-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=5.02 TeV. The effectiveness of the secondary-vertex reconstruction strongly depends on the performance and in particular the pointing resolution of the Inner Tracking System. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System for the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC in 2019/2020 will significantly improve its vertex-reconstruction and tracking capabilities. It will be equipped with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors manufactured using the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer. In another part of this thesis, several pixel-chip prototypes of the ALPIDE architecture with in-pixel amplification and discrimination as well as in-matrix data reduction were characterised. The pALPIDE-2 prototype was measured to fulfil the requirements in terms of detection efficiency, fake-hit rate, position resolution and tolerance to irradiation with non-ionising energy loss. Based on simulations modelling the tracking and vertex-reconstruction performance of the upgraded Inner Tracking System, the perspective of the feed-down separation using cut variations after the upgrade was assessed within this thesis.

  15. ALICE Time of Flight Construction of MRPCs

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Particles are identified in ALICE by time-of-flight (TOF); heavier particles are slower and it takes for them longer to reach the outer layers of the detector. For TOF system ALICE uses detectors called multigap resistive plate chambers, like the prototype shown here.

  16. NOTE receives the prestigious ALICE Industrial Award

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "NOTE Lund has been given the ALICE Industrial Award due to good co-operation, great capacity for innovation and high quality of work, as a PCB manufacturer in the CERN project ALICE. Only a small number of awards have so far been conferred to a select number of companies."

  17. Interview with Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    Questions : 1. How does it feel to be the Spokesperson of a large worldwide collaboration as ALICE at the very moment when the LHC is going to produce the first data? 2. Is ALICE ready for data taking? 3. Did you take advantage of the long shut down? 4. What was ALICE designed for? 5. What can you expect to find at 3.5 TeV per beam and later at 7? 6. Is ALICE going to take data only with the lead iron beams from the LHC? 7. Can you tell us more about the primordial soup of gluons and quarks? 8. What is going to happen in the ALICE control room on collision day?

  18. Test System for Standard ALICE DCS Components

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2160773

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the ALICE DCS project is supervising equipment installed in the ALICE experiment site at CERN. Hence, the aim of this project was to provide a test bench in the DCS lab, where a real equipment and software tools will be deployed. Using this test bench, test procedures which exercise the devices under the test in a configurable way and provide logging and trending of the acquired data were implemented. The setup was devised using the ALICE software framework and Siemens SCADA system WINCC OA, providing the same functionality as the systems installed in ALICE, and will be used for the commissioning of the new software and hardware, burn-in tests of new modules and log-term stability tests of ALICE hardware.

  19. ALICE gets its first ‘upgrade’

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE experiment has reached another milestone with the successful installation of the first two modules of the electromagnetic calorimeter. Preparations for installing the EMCal in the ALICE cavern. On 17 and 19 March the first two sections of the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) were fitted in the ALICE cavern. The full EMCal, a lead-scintillator sampling calorimeter, will be made up of 12 separate modules plus 2 half modules. Weighing 8 tons each, these modules required a whole new support structure to be built and a sophisticated ‘bridge’ device (pictured) to install them in situ. Project Leader, Tom Cormier from Wayne State University, notes that: "The EMCal is a late addition to ALICE, arriving in effect as a first upgrade. Indeed full approval with construction funds occurred only in early 2008." Although ALICE has excellent momentum measurement and identification capabilities for charged hadrons it previously lac...

  20. Studies for dimuon measurement with ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, D. [Institut de Physique, Orsay (France)

    1995-07-15

    The idea of measuring dimuon in the ALICE detector is not new, since it already appeared in the Aachen Conference. In the meantime studies were aiming at the use of the two detectors of LHC p-p physics, CMS and ATLAS, already dedicated to dimuon measurement, for these same measurements in heavy ion collisions, whereas the detector dedicated to heavy ions physics at LHC, ALICE, was considering all the other observables. Recently, the interest for dimuon measurements in ALICE was renewed by demands from LHC committee, stiring the activities of a working group in the ALICE collaboration, also associated to a more recent move from new groups. In the following the author briefly describes the interest of measuring dimuons in heavy ion collisions, particularly in ALICE, then the experimental strategy and first estimates of the performances that could be reached with the proposed system.

  1. VNR CMS Pixel detector replacement

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Joel Butler, spokesperson of the CMS collaboration explains how a team from many different partner institutes installed a new detector in CMS. This detector is the silicon pixel detector and they’ve been working on it for about five years, to replace one of our existing detectors. This detectors measures particles closer to the beam than any of the other components of this huge detector behind me. It gives us the most precise picture of tracks as they come out of the collisions and expand and travel through the detector. This particular device has twice as many pixels, 120 million, as opposed to about 68 million in the old detector and it can take data faster and pump it out to the analysis more quickly. 00’53’’ Images of the descent, insertion and installation of first piece of the Pixel detector on Tue Feb 28. Images of the descent, insertion and installation of second piece of the Pixel and the two cylinders being joined.

  2. Soft QGP probes with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Graczykowski, Łukasz Kamil

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC a hot and dense medium of deconfided partons, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), is created. Its global properties can be characterized by the measurements of particles in the low transverse momentum (or "soft") regime, which represent the majority of created particles. In this report we outline a selection of measurements of the soft probes by the ALICE experiment in pp, p--Pb, and Pb--Pb collisions. The paper focuses on recent flow measurements via angular correlations and femtoscopic studies. The first ever preliminary analysis of $\\mathrm{K}^0_{\\rm S}\\mathrm{K}^{\\pm}$ femtoscopy is also presented.

  3. Proceedings of PIXEL98 -- International pixel detector workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    Experiments around the globe face new challenges of more precision in the face of higher interaction rates, greater track densities, and higher radiation doses, as they look for rarer and rarer processes, leading many to incorporate pixelated solid-state detectors into their plans. The highest-readout rate devices require new technologies for implementation. This workshop reviewed recent, significant progress in meeting these technical challenges. Participants presented many new results; many of them from the weeks--even days--just before the workshop. Brand new at this workshop were results on cryogenic operation of radiation-damaged silicon detectors (dubbed the Lazarus effect). Other new work included a diamond sensor with 280-micron collection distance; new results on breakdown in p-type silicon detectors; testing of the latest versions of read-out chip and interconnection designs; and the radiation hardness of deep-submicron processes.

  4. Upgrade of the Inner Tracking System of ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Kofarago, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The upgrade of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of ALICE is planned for the second long shutdown of the LHC in 2019-2020. The ALICE physics program after the shutdown requires the ITS to have improved tracking capabilities and improved impact parameter resolution at very low transverse momentum, as well as a substantial increase in the readout rate. To fulfill these requirements the current ITS will be replaced by seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors. The new detector will be moved as close as 23 mm to the interaction point and will have a significantly reduced material budget. Several prototypes of the sensor have been developed to test different aspects of the sensor design including prototypes with analog and digital readout, as well as small and final-size sensors. These prototypes have been thoroughly characterized both in laboratory tests and at test beam facilities including studies on the radiation hardness of the sensors. This contribution gives an overview of the current status of the rese...

  5. Studies for the ALICE Inner Tracking System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079168; Musa, Luciano

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC identifies D0 mesons via secondary-vertex reconstruction and topological cuts to reduce the corresponding combinatorial background in heavy-ion collisions. The D0 meson is produced promptly in initial, hard scatterings via the strong interaction or as feed-down from weakly decaying B hadrons. Within this thesis, a novel method for the separation of prompt and feed-down D0 mesons using cut variations was implemented and applied to data from p–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt(s_\\mathrm{NN})=5.02$ TeV. The effectiveness of the secondary-vertex reconstruction strongly depends on the performance and in particular the pointing resolution of the Inner Tracking System. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System for the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC in 2019/2020 will significantly improve its vertex-reconstruction and tracking capabilities. It will be equipped with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors manufactured using the TowerJazz 180nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitax...

  6. 77 FR 21761 - Alice Falls Corporation, Alice Falls Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alice Falls Corporation, Alice Falls Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On February 23, 2012, Alice Falls Corporation (transferor) and Alice Falls Hydro, LLC (transferee) filed an ] application for transfer...

  7. The ALICE analysis train system

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In the ALICE experiment hundreds of users are analyzing big datasets on a Grid system. High throughput and short turn-around times are achieved by a centralized system called the LEGO trains. This system combines analysis from different users in so-called analysis trains which are then executed within the same Grid jobs thereby reducing the number of times the data needs to be read from the storage systems. The centralized trains improve the performance, the usability for users and the bookkeeping in comparison to single user analysis. The train system builds upon the already existing ALICE tools, i.e. the analysis framework as well as the Grid submission and monitoring infrastructure. The entry point to the train system is a web interface which is used to configure the analysis and the desired datasets as well as to test and submit the train. Several measures have been implemented to reduce the time a train needs to finish and to increase the CPU efficiency.

  8. ALICE Upgrades: Plans and Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tieulent, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration consolidated and completed the installation of current detectors during LS1 with the aim to accumulate 1 nb$^{-1}$ of Pb-Pb collisions during Run 2 corresponding to about 10 times the Run 1 integrated luminosity. In parallel, the ALICE experiment has a rich detector upgrade programme scheduled during the second LHC long shutdown (LS2, 2018-2019) in order to fully exploit the LHC Runs 3 and 4. The main objectives of this programme are: improving the tracking precision and enabling the read-out of all Pb-Pb interactions at a rate of up to 50 kHz, with the goal to record an integrated luminosity of 10 nb$^{-1}$ after LS2 in minimum-bias trigger mode. This sample would represent an increase by a factor of one hundred with respect to the minimum-bias sample expected during Run 2. The implementation of this upgrade programme, foreseen in LS2, includes: a new low-material Inner Tracking System at central rapidity with a forward rapidity extension to add vertexing capabilities to the current M...

  9. Scale model of the ALICE detector arrives from India.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A 1:10 scale model of the ALICE detector, designed and built in India, has arrived at CERN. Photo 01: Members of the ALICE Technical Board pictured with the detector model in building 40. Photos 02 03: (left to right) Christian Fabjan, ALICE technical coordinator; Yogendra Viyogi, Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) project leader and ALICE representative from the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Calcutta; and Jurgen Schukraft, spokesperson for the ALICE collaboration.

  10. More Than ALICE: Development of an augmented reality mobile application for the ALICE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ouellette, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    More Than ALICE is a mobile application for iOS and Android built in the Unity Engine. This project concerns the development of the second edition of the application, which is meant to completely succeed the original version built in 2014. The purpose of the application is to describe the various components of the ALICE detector and to overlay live collisions to increase public awareness for the research goals of the ALICE collaboration. The application provides an augmented reality (AR) interface via the Vuforia SDK to track images of the ALICE detector or components of the paper model of ALICE that can be purchased at the ALICE secretariat office. For those without access to either images of the detector or the detector model, the app provides a virtual detector model (VR) that contains the same functionality as the augmented reality.

  11. ALICE event display of a Pb-Pb collision at 5.02A TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Weber, Steffen Georg

    2016-01-01

    One of the first lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at the top energy of 5.02 per nucleon pair in the center of mass, recorded by the ALICE detector in November 2015. In this collision of lead nuclei at a small impact parameter (central collision), 1582 positively-charged (darker tracks) and 1579 negatively-charged (lighter tracks) particles are produced; about 80 percent of them are pions. The curvature of a track in the magnetic field of ALICE (0.5 T) is inversely proportional to the momentum of the particle. The cylinder is the Time Projection Chamber of ALICE, with a diameter of 5 m and a length of 5 m, recording the charged particles in three dimensions with the equivalent of 500 million pixels.

  12. ALICE event display of a Pb-Pb collision at 2.76A TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)740940; Andronic, Anton

    2015-01-01

    One of the first lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, recorded by the ALICE detector in November 2010. In this collision of lead nuclei at a small impact parameter (central collision), 1209 positively-charged (darker tracks) and 1197 negatively-charged (lighter tracks) particles are produced, about 80 percent are pions. The curvature of a track in the magnetic field of ALICE (0.5 T) is inversely proportional to the momentum of the particle. The cylinder is the Time Projection Chamber of ALICE, with a diameter of 5 m and a length of 5 m, recording the charged particles in three dimensions with the equivalent of 500 million pixels.

  13. Advanced monolithic pixel sensors using SOI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Mari; Fujita, Yowichi; Hamasaki, Ryutaro; Hara, Kazuhiko; Honda, Shunsuke; Ikegami, Yoichi; Kurachi, Ikuo; Mitsui, Shingo; Nishimura, Ryutaro; Tauchi, Kazuya; Tobita, Naoshi; Tsuboyama, Toru; Yamada, Miho

    2016-07-01

    We are developing advanced pixel sensors using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. A SOI wafer is used; top silicon is used for electric circuit and bottom silicon is used as a sensor. Target applications are high-energy physics, X-ray astronomy, material science, non-destructive inspection, medical application and so on. We have developed two integration-type pixel sensors, FPIXb and INTPIX7. These sensors were processed on single SOI wafers with various substrates in n- or p-type and double SOI wafers. The development status of double SOI sensors and some up-to-date test results of n-type and p-type SOI sensors are shown.

  14. The ALICE data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, F; Chapeland, S; Chibante Barroso, V; Costa, F; Dénes, E; Divià, R; Fuchs, U; Grigore, A; Kiss, T; Simonetti, G; Soós, C; Telesca, A; Vande Vyvre, P; Von Haller, B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design, the construction, the commissioning and the operation of the Data Acquisition (DAQ) and Experiment Control Systems (ECS) of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The DAQ and the ECS are the systems used respectively for the acquisition of all physics data and for the overall control of the experiment. They are two computing systems made of hundreds of PCs and data storage units interconnected via two networks. The collection of experimental data from the detectors is performed by several hundreds of high-speed optical links. We describe in detail the design considerations for these systems handling the extreme data throughput resulting from central lead ions collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (custom optical links and commercial computing equipment), infrastructure (racks, cooling, power distribution, control room), and software led to many innovative solutions which are described together with ...

  15. Alice'i imedemaa Pariisis / Isabel Chiang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Chiang, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    1998. a. Pariisis Catherine Alice Mamet' poolt asutatud mööblisalongist, seal tegutsevate disainerite (Pucci de Rossi, Satch, Guy Ferrer, Pablo Pares jt.) loomingunäiteid. Pariisis disaini õppiva tudengi Isabel Chiangi eluloolisi andmeid. 15 illustratsiooni

  16. ... ALICE forges ahead with further detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Following the installation of the HMPID, the project has progressed swiftly with further detectors being lowered into the ALICE cavern. The first supermodule of the ALICE transition radiation detector was successfully installed on 10 October. The TRD collaborators from Germany standing next to the supermodule mounted in a rotating frame (bottom left corner) in the ALICE cavern. In the final configuration, 18 supermodules that make up the transition radiation detector will cylindrically surround the large time projection chamber in the central barrel of the ALICE experiment. Each supermodule is about 7 metre long and consists of 30 drift chambers in six layers. The construction of the modules is a collaboration between five institutes in Germany (Universities of Frankfurt and Heidelberg and Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH in Darmstadt), Romania (NIPNE Bucharest) and Russia (JINR Dubna) with radiators (See 'Did you know?' section) produced at the University of Muenster, Germany. During the summer, ...

  17. Upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hügging, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector (Phase 1) consists in the construction of a new pixel layer, which will be installed during the 1st long shutdown of the LHC machine (LS1) in 2013/14. The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of about 3.2 cm. The IBL requires the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase of radiation and pixel occupancy as well as to improve the physics performance of the existing pixel detector. The pixel size is reduced and the material budget is minimized by using new lightweight mechanical support materials and a CO2 based cooling system. For Phase 2 upgrade of LHC a complete new 4-layer pixel system is planned as part of a new all silicon Inner Detector. The increase in luminosity to about $5\\cdot 10^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ together with a total expected lifetime of ab...

  18. ALICE: Simulated lead-lead collision

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ALICE detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. ALICE will focus on the study of collisions between nuclei of lead, a heavy element that produces many different particles when collided. It is hoped that these collisions will produce a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma, which existed billionths of a second after the Big Bang.

  19. Prototype ALICE front-end card

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    This circuit board is a prototype 48-channel front end digitizer card for the ALICE time projection chamber (TPC), which takes electrical signals from the wire sensors in the TPC and shapes the data before converting the analogue signal to digital data. A total of 4356 cards will be required to process the data from the ALICE TPC, the largest of this type of detector in the world.

  20. The fifth annual ALICE Industrial Awards ceremony on 9 March, 2007.

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration presents Quantum Corp with an award for the high performance cluster file system (StorNext) for the ALICE DAQ system, and for their outstanding cooperation in implementing the software.From left to right: Jurgen Schukraft (ALICE Spokesperson), Pierre vande Vyvre (ALICE DAQ), Hans Boggild (ALICE), Ewan Johnston (Quantum Corp.), Derek Barrilleaux (Quantum Corp.), Lance Hukill (Quantum Corp.), Ulrich Fuchs (ALICE DAQ), Catherine Decosse (ALICE) and Roberto Divia (ALICE DAQ).

  1. Pixel Vertex Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Pixel vertex detectors are THE instrument of choice for the tracking of charged particles close to the interaction point at the LHC. Hybrid pixel detectors, in which sensor and read-out IC are separate entities, constitute the present state of the art in detector technology. Three of the LHC detectors use vertex detectors based on this technology. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as ...

  2. Commissioning of the ATLAS pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high precision silicon tracking device located closest to the LHC interaction point. It belongs to the first generation of its kind in a hadron collider experiment. It will provide crucial pattern recognition information and will largely determine the ability of ATLAS to precisely track particle trajectories and find secondary vertices. It was the last detector to be installed in ATLAS in June 2007, has been fully connected and tested in-situ during spring and summer 2008, and is ready for the imminent LHC turn-on. The highlights of the past and future commissioning activities of the ATLAS pixel system are presented.

  3. Heavy ion physics with the ALICE experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zampolli, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    ALICE is the experiment at the LHC collider at CERN dedicated to heavy ion physics. In this report, the ALICE detector will be presented, together with its expected performance as far as some selected physics topics are concerned.

  4. European Researchers Night, Students on Shift at ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Fons Rademakers

    2010-01-01

    During European Researchers' Night, on Friday 24 September 2010, from 17:00 to 24:00, pupils from French and Swiss schools visited ALICE and took shifts in the control room, helping the ALICE physicists run the experiment.

  5. Simulation study of pixel detector charge digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyue; Nachman, Benjamin; Sciveres, Maurice; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Team

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of tracks from nearly overlapping particles, called Tracking in Dense Environments (TIDE), is an increasingly important component of many physics analyses at the Large Hadron Collider as signatures involving highly boosted jets are investigated. TIDE makes use of the charge distribution inside a pixel cluster to resolve tracks that share one of more of their pixel detector hits. In practice, the pixel charge is discretized using the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique. More charge information is better for discrimination, but more challenging for designing and operating the detector. A model of the silicon pixels has been developed in order to study the impact of the precision of the digitized charge distribution on distinguishing multi-particle clusters. The output of the GEANT4-based simulation is used to train neutral networks that predict the multiplicity and location of particles depositing energy inside one cluster of pixels. By studying the multi-particle cluster identification efficiency and position resolution, we quantify the trade-off between the number of ToT bits and low-level tracking inputs. As both ATLAS and CMS are designing upgraded detectors, this work provides guidance for the pixel module designs to meet TIDE needs. Work funded by the China Scholarship Council and the Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  6. Triggering with the ALICE TRD

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    We discuss how a level-1 trigger, about 8 us after a hadron-hadron collision, can be derived from the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) in A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) at the LHC. Chamber-wise track segments from fast on-detector reconstruction are read out with position, angle and electron likelihood. In the Global Tracking Unit up to 6 tracklets from a particle traversing the detector layers are matched and used for the reconstruction of transverse momentum and electron identification. Such tracks form the basis for versatile and flexible trigger conditions, e.g. single high-pt hadron, single high-pt electron, di-electron (J/Psi, Upsilon) and at least n close high-pt tracks (jet). The need for low-latency on-line reconstruction poses challenges on the detector operation. The calibration for gain (pad-by-pad) and drift velocity must be applied already in the front-end electronics. Due to changes in pressure and gas composition an on-line monitoring and feedback loop for these parameters is requi...

  7. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Application components of ISPA tubes are shown: the CERN-developed anode chip, special windows for gamma and x-ray detection, scintillating crystal and fibre arrays for imaging and tracking of ionizing particles.

  8. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    On the table, under the scrutiny of some collaboration members, an ISPA tube (upper-left of the table) with some of its application components is shown: they consist of the CERN-developed anode chip, special windows for gamma and x-ray detection, scintillating crystal and fibre arrays for imaging and tracking of ionizing particles.

  9. ALICE opens its new nerve centre

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine fully equipped and ergonomic workstations, one meeting area and 11 large format screens in a completely refurbished room: the ALICE Run Control Centre (ARC) implements the best and newest solutions for its shift workers and expert operators, including access for persons with reduced mobility and very soon a magic window for Point 2 visitors.   The ALICE Run Control Centre. “Our initial intention was just to optimise the old layout,” says Federico Ronchetti from Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy), a CERN scientific associate currently appointed as ALICE Run Coordinator and person in charge of the ALICE Consolidation Task Force. “However, during the review process, we carried out a study of all the existing control rooms at CERN and became aware we needed a radical change. Hence we started planning a complete redesign of the workspace.” Designed and equipped over many years, the old ALICE control room did not have enough space to fit al...

  10. Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Ate There.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Gordon T.

    2002-01-01

    In the book, 'Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There', Alice walks through a mirror into a mirror-image world. Assuming that she is not changed by this transition, her enzymes are still only capable of processing molecules of the handedness of her native world. So the question is, what can Alice eat in the mirror-image world that…

  11. Active Pixel Sensors: Are CCD's Dinosaurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCD's) are presently the technology of choice for most imaging applications. In the 23 years since their invention in 1970, they have evolved to a sophisticated level of performance. However, as with all technologies, we can be certain that they will be supplanted someday. In this paper, the Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology is explored as a possible successor to the CCD. An active pixel is defined as a detector array technology that has at least one active transistor within the pixel unit cell. The APS eliminates the need for nearly perfect charge transfer -- the Achilles' heel of CCDs. This perfect charge transfer makes CCD's radiation 'soft,' difficult to use under low light conditions, difficult to manufacture in large array sizes, difficult to integrate with on-chip electronics, difficult to use at low temperatures, difficult to use at high frame rates, and difficult to manufacture in non-silicon materials that extend wavelength response.

  12. Performance of the ALICE VZERO system

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, E.; Adam, J.; Adamova, D.; Adare, A.M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A.G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Masoodi, A.Ahmad; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S.A.; Ahn, S.U.; Aimo, I.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Molina, R.Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz Avina, E.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anson, C.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshauser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I.C.; Arslandok, M.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T.C.; Aysto, J.; Azmi, M.D.; Bach, M.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y.W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Ban, J.; Baral, R.C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnafoldi, G.G.; Barnby, L.S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P.C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I.G.; Beck, H.; Behera, N.K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A.A.E.; Bertens, R.A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Bottger, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Boggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossu, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T.A.; Browning, T.A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G.E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, W.; Carena, F.; Carlin Filho, N.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Diaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castillo Hernandez, J.F.; Casula, E.A.R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J.L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D.D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C.H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S.U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J.G.; Cormier, T.M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortes Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M.R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M.E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Alaniz, E.Cruz; Albino, R.Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, K.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Dash, A.; De, S.; de Barros, G.O.V.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; De Marco, N.; Denes, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Deppman, A.; Erasmo, G.D.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M.A.; Di Bari, D.; Dietel, T.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Donigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A.K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A.K.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H.A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Feofilov, G.; Fernandez Tellez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M.A.S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F.M.; Fiore, E.M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D.R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, M.; Gheata, A.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glassel, P.; Gomez, R.; Ferreiro, E.G.; Gonzalez-Trueba, L.H.; Gonzalez-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goswami, A.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L.K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J.F.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Han, B.H.; Hanratty, L.D.; Hansen, A.; Harmanova-Tothova, Z.; Harris, J.W.; Hartig, M.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S.T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hess, B.A.; Hetland, K.F.; Hicks, B.; Hippolyte, B.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hrivnacova, I.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T.J.; Hwang, D.S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G.M.; Innocenti, P.G.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P.M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H.J.; Janik, M.A.; Jayarathna, P.H.S.Y.; Jena, S.; Jha, D.M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R.T.; Jones, P.G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kaidalov, A.B.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J.H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, M.M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S.A.; Khan, K.H.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, M.; Kim, T.; Kim, B.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, D.W.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bosing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M.L.; Knospe, A.G.; Kohler, M.K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kompaniets, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Kralik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravcakova, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P.G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, V.; Kushpil, S.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; La Pointe, S.L.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, S.C.; Lee, G.R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R.C.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; Leon, H.; Leoncino, M.; Leon Monzon, I.; Levai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M.A.; Ljunggren, H.M.; Lodato, D.F.; Loenne, P.I.; Loggins, V.R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K.K.; Lopez, X.; Lopez Torres, E.; Lovhoiden, G.; Lu, X.G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, R.; Ma, K.; Madagodahettige-Don, D.M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Margotti, A.; Marin, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N.A.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, M.I.; Martinez Garcia, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazumder, R.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Perez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A.N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mizuno, S.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montano Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D.A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Muller, H.; Munhoz, M.G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B.K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T.K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B.S.; Niida, T.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B.S.; Nilsson, M.S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S.K.; Oleniacz, J.; Da Silva, A.C. Oliveira; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S.K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Park, W.J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D.I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lara, C.E.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Pestov, Y.; Petracek, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D.B.; Planinic, M.; Ploskon, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P.L.M.; Poghosyan, M.G.; Polak, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospisil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S.K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C.A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Raiha, T.S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Rasanen, S.S.; Rascanu, B.T.; Rathee, D.; Rauch, W.; Rauf, A.W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K.F.; Real, J.S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R.J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A.R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R.A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Roed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Rohrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, P.; Roy, C.; Rubio Montero, A.J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P.K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C.A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sandor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, H.R.; Schmidt, C.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Scott, P.A.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, S.; Sharma, N.; Rohni, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Sicking, E.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sinha, B.C.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T.B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.J.M.; Sogaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B.K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J.H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Subieta Vasquez, M.A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Sumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T.J.M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M.A.; J.Tapia Takaki, D.; Peloni, A.Tarantola; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Ter Minasyan, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thader, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A.R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T.S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urciuoli, G.M.; Usai, G.L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Hoorne, J.W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, A.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Volkl, M.A.; Voloshin, S.; Voloshin, K.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, V.; Wagner, B.; Wan, R.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J.P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M.C.S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C.G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, P.; Yang, H.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.K.; Yoon, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I.S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, F.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-01-01

    ALICE is an LHC experiment devoted to the study of strongly interacting matter in proton--proton, proton--nucleus and nucleus--nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. The ALICE VZERO system, made of two scintillator arrays at asymmetric positions, one on each side of the interaction point, plays a central role in ALICE. In addition to its core function as a trigger, the VZERO system is used to monitor LHC beam conditions, to reject beam-induced backgrounds and to measure basic physics quantities such as luminosity, particle multiplicity, centrality and event plane direction in nucleus--nucleus collisions. After describing the VZERO system, this publication presents its performance over more than four years of operation at the LHC.

  13. ALICE physicists receive 2014 Lise Meitner Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On Wednesday, 3 September, four ALICE physicists were presented with the European Physical Society's 2014 Lise Meitner Prize for their outstanding contributions to nuclear physics (see here).   ALICE collaboration members Johanna Stachel (Heidelberg University, Germany), Peter Braun-Munzinger (GSI, Germany), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Turin, Italy, and CERN) and Jürgen Schukraft (CERN) were presented with their awards at a private ceremony held in the Globe of Science and Innovation. In addition to members of the ALICE collaboration, the ceremony was attended by members of the CERN Management including the Director-General, Rolf Heuer, as well as the EPS Nuclear Physics Board Chair, Douglas MacGregor, and the EPS Lise Meitner Prize Committee Chair, Victor Zamfir. For more information, please see "EPS honours CERN's heavy-ion researchers".  From left to right: Douglas MacGregor (EPS); Prize recipients Jürgen Schukraft,&a...

  14. ALICE gives its first thesis awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    For the first time the ALICE collaboration has given two of its doctoral students awards for their outstanding theses. Winners Christian Holm Christensen and Zaida Conesa del Valle holding their awards.On 29 October the ALICE collaboration honoured two students for their outstanding theses at a ceremony held at CERN. The two awards, one of which was given for a physics thesis and the other for a technical thesis, went to Zaida Conesa Del Valle (Laboratoire de physique subatomique et des technologies associées) and Christian Holm Christensen (Niels Bohr Institute) respectively. "It is very gratifying to see that the collaboration appreciates our work," said Zaida Conesa del Valle, winner of the physics award for her thesis: Performance of the ALICE Muon Spectrometer. Weak Boson Production and Measurement in Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC. "I also feel specially thankful to all the people who worked with me," she added. "It was pl...

  15. From vertex detectors to inner trackers with CMOS pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Besson, A; Spiriti, E.; Baudot, J.; Claus, G.; Goffe, M.; Winter, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) for high resolution and low material vertex detectors has been validated with the 2014 and 2015 physics runs of the STAR-PXL detector at RHIC/BNL. This opens the door to the use of CPS for inner tracking devices, with 10-100 times larger sensitive area, which require therefore a sensor design privileging power saving, response uniformity and robustness. The 350 nm CMOS technology used for the STAR-PXL sensors was considered as too poorly suited to upcoming applications like the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), which requires sensors with one order of magnitude improvement on readout speed and improved radiation tolerance. This triggered the exploration of a deeper sub-micron CMOS technology, Tower-Jazz 180 nm, for the design of a CPS well adapted for the new ALICE-ITS running conditions. This paper reports the R&D results for the conception of a CPS well adapted for the ALICE-ITS.

  16. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules.

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, Igor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013-14). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 3.2 cm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with increase of radiation or pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising Silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the sensor technologies qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests will be presented.

  17. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will have different steps towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013–2014). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing Pixel Detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 33 mm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase in the radiation damage and the pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance, which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the Pixel Detector. An overview of the sensor technologies' qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests is presented.

  18. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will have different steps towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013-14). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 33 mm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase of the radiation damage and the pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance, which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the sensor technologies’ qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests are presented.

  19. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C.; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Rose, Andrew; Shabetai, Alexandre; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, Jim H.; Valin, Isabelle; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.; Winter, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.

  20. Crew participating in the ALICE TRD beamtests

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 1: Sitting in front of the experimental setup is part of the crew participating in the ALICE TRD beamtests at pion/electron secondary beams at CERN Proton Synchrotron in October 2002. From left to right: Mircea Ciobanu, Andres Sandoval, Vojtech Petracek, Oliver Busch, Chilo Garabatos, Wilrid Ludolphs and Harald Appelshaeuser. photo 2: Two fierce experimental physicists, Chilo Garabatos (left) and Anton Andronic, guarding their most valuable asset: Transition Radiation Detector prototypes for the ALICE experiment. These detectors are tested in electron/pion secondary beams at CERN Proton Synchrotron.

  1. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnasco, S.; Barbera, R; Buncic, P.; Carminati, F.; Cerello, P.; Saiz, P.

    2003-01-01

    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Stora...

  2. Proton-proton physics in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, T K

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE experiment has several unique features which makes it an important contributor to proton-proton physics at the LHC, in addition to its specific design goal of studying the physics of strongly interacting matter in heavy-ion collisions. The unique capabilities include its low transverse momentum (\\pT) acceptance, excellent vertexing, particle identification over a broad \\pT range and jet reconstruction. In this report, a brief review of ALICE capabilities is given for studying bulk properties of produced particles which characterize the underlying events, and the physics of heavy-flavour, quarkonia, photons, di-leptons and jets.

  3. The pixelated detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Sutton, C

    1990-01-01

    "Collecting data as patterns of light or subatomic particles is vitally important in all the sciences. The new generation of solid-state detectors called pixel devices could transform experimental research at all levels" (4 pages).

  4. A novel source–drain follower for monolithic active pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, C., E-mail: chaosong.gao@mails.ccnu.edu.cn [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Aglieri, G.; Hillemanns, H. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Huang, G., E-mail: gmhuang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Junique, A.; Keil, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kim, D. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kofarago, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C.A.; Martinengo, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Mugnier, H. [Mind, Archamps (France); Musa, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Lee, S. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Reidt, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitat Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Riedler, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Rousset, J. [Mind, Archamps (France); Sielewicz, K.M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Snoeys, W. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); and others

    2016-09-21

    Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) receive interest in tracking applications in high energy physics as they integrate sensor and readout electronics in one silicon die with potential for lower material budget and cost, and better performance. Source followers (SFs) are widely used for MAPS readout: they increase charge conversion gain 1/C{sub eff} or decrease the effective sensing node capacitance C{sub eff} because the follower action compensates part of the input capacitance. Charge conversion gain is critical for analog power consumption and therefore for material budget in tracking applications, and also has direct system impact. This paper presents a novel source–drain follower (SDF), where both source and drain follow the gate potential improving charge conversion gain. For the inner tracking system (ITS) upgrade of the ALICE experiment at CERN, low material budget is a primary requirement. The SDF circuit was studied as part of the effort to optimize the effective capacitance of the sensing node. The collection electrode, input transistor and routing metal all contribute to C{sub eff}. Reverse sensor bias reduces the collection electrode capacitance. The novel SDF circuit eliminates the contribution of the input transistor to C{sub eff}, reduces the routing contribution if additional shielding is introduced, provides a way to estimate the capacitance of the sensor itself, and has a voltage gain closer to unity than the standard SF. The SDF circuit has a somewhat larger area with a somewhat smaller bandwidth, but this is acceptable in most cases. A test chip, manufactured in a 180 nm CMOS image sensor process, implements small prototype pixel matrices in different flavors to compare the standard SF to the novel SF and to the novel SF with additional shielding. The effective sensing node capacitance was measured using a {sup 55}Fe source. Increasing reverse substrate bias from −1 V to −6 V reduces C{sub eff} by 38% and the equivalent noise charge

  5. Status and Performance of New Silicon Stripixel Detector for the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC Beta Source, Cosmic-rays and Proton Beam at 120 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2009-01-01

    We are constructing a Silicon Vertex Tracker detector (VTX) for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. Our main motivation is to enable measurements of heavy flavor production (charm and beauty) in p+p, p+d and A+A collisions. Such data will illuminate the properties of the matter created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The measurements also will reveal the distribution of gluons in protons from p+p collisions. The VTX detector consists of four layers of barrel detectors and covers |eta|< 1.2, and almost a 2pi in azimuth. The inner two silicon barrels consist of silicon pixel sensors; their technology accords with that of the ALICE1LHCB sensor-readout hybrid. The outer two barrels are silicon stripixel detectors with a new "spiral" design, and a single-sided sensor with 2-dimensional (X, U) readout. In this paper, we describe the silicon stripixel detector and discuss its performance, including its response to electrons from a beta source (90Sr), muons from cosmic-rays, and a 120 GeV proton beam. The results ...

  6. Gender roles for Alice and Bob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip

    2013-04-01

    As the head of a department that is striving to achieve bronze status under the Athena SWAN (Scientific Women's Academic Network) programme, I have become extremely sensitive to gender stereotyping, and I am afraid that the "Alice and Bob" image on the cover of your March issue on quantum frontiers set off some alarm bells.

  7. Upgrade Strategy for ALICE at High Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, L

    2012-01-01

    The longterm goal of the ALICE experiment is to provide a precise characterization of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) state. Such a determination of its properties including initial temperature, degrees of freedom, speed of sound, and in general, transport coefficients would be a major achievement. This would go a long way towards a better understanding of QCD as a genuine multi-particle theory. To achieve this goal, high statistics measurements are required, which will give access also to the very rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of this condensed phase of QCD. The general upgrade strategy for the ALICE central barrel is conceived to deal with this challenge with expected Pb-Pb interaction rates of up to 50 kHz, that would provide an accumulated sample of the order of 10 nb^-1 in the period 2019-2023. In this document we sketch the modifications/replacements needed in all ALICE central barrel detectors and online systems (Trigger, DAQ and HLT) for high luminosity running. As the ALICE for...

  8. Fibre optic cables for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    These thin fibres will transmit the signal received in detectors at the ALICE experiment when it starts up with the LHC in 2008. The analogue signals produced in the detectors are first converted into digital pulse, which are transported in light down such fibres. Computers then read this digital signal to produce the final set of data.

  9. The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, K.; de Haas, A.P.; Grebenyuk, O.; Ivan, C.G.; Kamermans, R.; Mischke, A.; Nooren, G.J.L.; Oskamp, C.J.; Peitzmann, T.; Simili, E.; van den Brink, A.; van Eijndhoven, N.J.A.M.; Yuting, B.

    2008-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a general-purpose, heavy-ion detector at the CERN LHC which focuses on QCD, the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model. It is designed to address the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at extreme values of energy dens

  10. Development of ALICE microstrip detectors at IRST

    CERN Document Server

    Boscardin, M; Dalla Betta, Gian Franco; Gregori, P; Rachevskaia, I; Zorzi, N

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of double-sided, AC-coupled, microstrip detectors oriented to the A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE). The main design and processing issues are presented, together with some selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and related test structures. (3 refs).

  11. ALICE physicists receive 2014 Lise Meitner Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeanneret, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    September 3rd, 2014: ALICE collaboration members Johanna Stachel (Heidelberg University, Germany), Peter Braun-Munzinger (GSI, Germany), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Turin, Italy, and CERN) and Jürgen Schukraft (CERN) were presented the 2014 Lise Meitner Prize at a private ceremony held in the Globe of Science and Innovation.

  12. First detector installed inside the ALICE solenoid...

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's emblematic red magnet welcomed its first detector on 23 September, when the array of seven Cherenkov detectors, named HMPID, was successfully installed. ALICE team members standing in front of the completed HMPID detector.The red magnet, viewed from its front opening. The HMPID unit, seen from the back (top right corner of photo) is placed on a frame and lifted onto a platform during the installation. After the installation of the ACORDE scintillator array and the muon trigger and tracking chambers, the ALICE collaboration fitted the first detector inside the solenoid. The HMPID, for High Momentum Particle Identification, was installed at the 2 o'clock position in the central and most external region of the space frame, just below the solenoid yoke. It will be used to extend the hadron identification capability of the ALICE experiment up to 5 GeV/c, thus complementing the reach of the other particle identification systems (ITS, TPC and TOF). The HMPID is a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector in a...

  13. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), test beam.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Electrons and positrons can be discriminated from other charged particles using the emission of transition radiation - X-rays emitted when the particles cross many layers of thin materials. To develop such a Transition Radiation Detector(TRD) for ALICE many detector prototypes were tested in mixed beams of pions and electrons, as in the example shown here.

  14. Round Two for Three ALICE Industrial Awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Excellency in industrial collaboration with the LHC experimental teams is one important contribution to the successful development and realization of the experiments. A few weeks ago the ALICE collaboration presented a second round of awards to industrial collaborators for their novel and remarkable contributions to major detector systems.

  15. Strangeness detection in ALICE experiment at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarik, K. [European Lab. for Particle Physics, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-07-15

    The authors present some parameters of the ALICE detector which concern the detection of strange particles. The results of a simulation for neutral strange particles and cascades, together with estimated rates are presented. They also briefly discuss the detection of charged K-mesons. Finally, they mention the possibility of open charm particle detection.

  16. Small pitch pixel sensors\\\\ for the CMS Phase II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The CMS collaboration has undertaken two sensor R\\&D programs on thin n-in-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. To cope with the increase in instantaneous luminosity, the pixel area has to be reduced to approximately 2500 $\\mu$m$^{2}$ to keep the occupancy at the percent level. Suggested pixel cell geometries to match this requirement are {50$\\times$50 }$\\mu$...

  17. First results on the NA60 pixel telescope in In-In collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Radermacher, E

    2003-01-01

    The NA60 experiment aims at studying the production of prompt dimuons and of open charm with proton and heavy ion beams at the CERN SPS. Downstream of the nuclear targets and inside a 2.5 T dipole magnet a pixel telescope measures all charged tracks, from which some are then matched to muons recorded in the muon spectrometer placed behind a hadron absorber. The high multiplicity of charged particles imposes the use of pixel detectors. The constructed pixel telescope is composed of 16 planes with 96 pixel assemblies in total, made from radiation tolerant ALICE1 LHCb pixel readout chips bonded to pixel sensors. The 8 planes nearest to the target contain 4 pixel assemblies and are followed by 8 planes with 8 assemblies. First successful tests of 3 pixel planes, exposed to Pb-Pb collisions, were performed in October 2002. This paper describes the design and assembly of the complete NA60 pixel telescope and gives an overview of the first results obtained in the first weeks of In-In collisions.

  18. Near Future Upgrades for the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system, providing high precision space point measurements of charged particle trajectories. The current pixel detector is designed to operate at a maximum luminosity of $1\\times10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$. Before 2018 the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC is expected to reach $2\\times10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}$, which will significantly increase the number of interactions per bunch crossing. The performance of the current pixel detector in such high occupancy environment will be degraded due to substantial data-loss and effects of radiation damage of sensors, built up over the operational period. In order to maintain or exceed its current performance, the CMS pixel detector will be replaced by a new lightweight system with additional detection layers, better acceptance and improved readout electronics. The upgraded pixel detector will provide improved track and vertex reconstruction, standalone tracking capabilities, as well as identification of ...

  19. DEPFET--a pixel device with integrated amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Neeser, W; Buchholz, P; Fischer, P; Holl, P; Kemmer, J; Klein, P; Koch, H; Löcker, M; Lutz, Gerhard; Matthäy, H; Strüder, L; Trimpl, M; Ulrici, J; Wermes, N

    2002-01-01

    In the DEPFET pixel concept, the absorbed radiation directly modulates the channel current of a p-JFET transistor being integrated into a fully depleted high ohmic silicon substrate in every pixel cell, offering very low noise operation at room temperature. Hence, DEPFET pixels open new possibilities in biomedical applications, but also have a potential in particle physics and astrophysics. Second prototype 50 mu mx50 mu m single pixels as well as large (64x64) DEPFET matrices have been successfully produced and operated confirming the low noise behavior (12e). Device studies as well as a full DEPFET pixel Bioscope system to be used in real-time digital autoradiography with excellent spatial and energy resolution for X-rays are presented.

  20. DC-DC powering for the CMS pixel upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Lutz; Fleck, Martin; Friedrichs, Marcel; Hensch, Richard; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David; Sammet, Jan; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC-DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC-DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R&D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to 24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC-DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC-DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  1. DC-DC Powering for the CMS Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Feld, Lutz Werner; Marcel Friedrichs; Richard Hensch; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David Michael; Sammet, Jan Domenik; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC-DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC-DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R and D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC-DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC-DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  2. DC–DC powering for the CMS pixel upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, Lutz, E-mail: Lutz.Feld@rwth-aachen.de; Fleck, Martin; Friedrichs, Marcel; Hensch, Richard; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David; Sammet, Jan; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-12-21

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC–DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC–DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R and D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to 24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC–DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC–DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  3. Test of the ALICE DDL Test setups and Test of ALICE DDL Integration to ALICE TPC test system

    CERN Document Server

    Csató, P; Sulyán, J; Rubin, G; Tarján, D; Vissy, B

    1998-01-01

    Presentation made at the 4th Workshop on Electronics for LHC Experiments, INFN Rome, 21-25 September 1998.The Detector Data Link (DDL) has been developed to constitute a standard interface between the ALICE sub-detectors and the DAQ system.In this paper we present the test environment and the application software library made for supporting the DDL development and its integration into the ALICE detector system. The test setups contain VME64 crates, MVME processor cards, a VMETRO analyser, a logic-analyser and Read-out-Receiver (RORC) andDestination-Interface-Unit (DIU) cards. They made possible to measure the maximum throughput of the full read-out chain and also to measurethe transmission latencies. They support the functional and long-term stability tests as well.

  4. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevertailo V. L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

  5. Pixel detector insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of the Pixel Tracker, the 66-million-channel device used to pinpoint the vertex of each colliding proton pair, located at the heart of the detector. The geometry of CMS is a cylinder lying on its side (22 meters long and 15 meters high in dia

  6. ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE Career Networking Event 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Marinov, Andrey; Strom, Derek Axel

    2015-01-01

    A networking event for alumni of the ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE experiments as well as current ATLAS/CMS/LHCb/ALICE postdocs and graduate students. This event offers an insight into career opportunities outside of academia. Various former members of the ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE collaborations will give presentations and be part of a panel discussion and elaborate on their experience in companies in a diverse range of fields (industry, finance, IT,...). Details at https://indico.cern.ch/event/440616

  7. Performance optimisations for distributed analysis in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Betev, L; Gheata, M; Grigoras, C; Hristov, P

    2014-01-01

    Performance is a critical issue in a production system accommodating hundreds of analysis users. Compared to a local session, distributed analysis is exposed to services and network latencies, remote data access and heterogeneous computing infrastructure, creating a more complex performance and efficiency optimization matrix. During the last 2 years, ALICE analysis shifted from a fast development phase to the more mature and stable code. At the same time, the framewo rks and tools for deployment, monitoring and management of large productions have evolved considerably too. The ALICE Grid production system is currently used by a fair share of organized and individual user analysis, consuming up to 30% or the available r esources and ranging from fully I/O - bound analysis code to CPU intensive correlations or resonances studies. While the intrinsic analysis performance is unlikely to improve by a large factor during the LHC long shutdown (LS1), the overall efficiency of the system has still to be improved by a...

  8. New Fast Interaction Trigger for ALICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk

    2017-02-01

    The LHC heavy-ion luminosity and collision rate from 2021 onwards will considerably exceed the design parameters of the present ALICE forward trigger detectors and the introduction of the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) will significantly reduce the space available for the new trigger detectors. To comply with these conditions a new Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) will be built. FIT will be the main forward trigger, luminometer, and interaction-time detector. It will also determine multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane of heavy-ion collisions. FIT will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov quartz radiators with MCP-PMT sensors and of a plastic scintillator ring. By increasing the overall acceptance of FIT, the scintillator will improve centrality and event plane resolution. It will also add sensitivity for the detection of beam-gas events and provide some degree of redundancy. FIT is currently undergoing an intense R&D and prototyping period. It is scheduled for installation in ALICE during 2020.

  9. The Wonderland of Operating the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Augustinus, A; Pinazza, O; Rosinský, P; Lechman, M; Jirdén, L; Chochula, P

    2011-01-01

    ALICE is one of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. Composed of 18 sub-detectors each with numerous subsystems that need to be controlled and operated in a safe and efficient way. The Detector Control System (DCS) is the key to this and has been used by detector experts with success during the commissioning of the individual detectors. During the transition from commissioning to operation, more and more tasks were transferred from detector experts to central operators. By the end of the 2010 datataking campaign, the ALICE experiment was run by a small crew of central operators, with only a single controls operator. The transition from expert to non-expert operation constituted a real challenge in terms of tools, documentation and training. A relatively high turnover and diversity in the operator crew that is specific to the HEP experiment environment (as opposed to the more stable operation crews for accelerators) made this challenge even bigger. Thi...

  10. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Belikov, Iouri

    2016-01-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is built to study the properties of the strongly interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. With the upgrade of its Inner Tracking System (ITS), the ALICE experiment is going to increase the rate of data taking by almost two orders of magnitude. At the same time, the precision of secondary vertex reconstruction will become by at least a factor 3 better than it currently is. In this talk, we briefly show some selected physics results motivating the upgrade of the ITS, describe the design goals and the layout of the new detector, and highlight a few important measurements that will be realized after the completion of this upgrade.

  11. The scene is set for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Now that the electromagnetic calorimeter support and the mini space frame have been installed, practically all ALICE’s infrastructure is in place. The calorimeter support, an austenitic stainless steel shell weighing 30 tonnes, was slid gently inside the detector, in between the face of the magnet and the space frame. With the completion of two major installation projects, the scene is finally set for the ALICE experiment…or at least it nearly is, as a few design studies, minor installation jobs and measurements still need to be carried out before the curtain can finally be raised. The experiment’s chief engineer Diego Perini confirms: "All the heavy infrastructure for ALICE has been in place and ready for the grand opening since December 2007." The next step will be the installation of additional modules on the TOF and TRD detectors between January and March 2008, and physicists have already started testing the equipment with co...

  12. Sensor development for the CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bölla, G; Horisberger, R P; Kaufmann, R; Rohe, T; Roy, A

    2002-01-01

    The CMS experiment which is currently under construction at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will contain a pixel detector which provides in its final configuration three space points per track close to the interaction point of the colliding beams. Because of the harsh radiation environment of the LHC, the technical realization of the pixel detector is extremely challenging. The readout chip as the most damageable part of the system is believed to survive a particle fluence of 6x10 sup 1 sup 4 n sub e sub q /cm sup 2 (All fluences are normalized to 1 MeV neutrons and therefore all components of the hybrid pixel detector have to perform well up to at least this fluence. As this requires a partially depleted operation of the silicon sensors after irradiation-induced type inversion of the substrate, an ''n in n'' concept has been chosen. In order to perform IV-tests on wafer level and to hold accidentally unconnected pixels close to ground potential, a resistive path between the pixe...

  13. Planar pixel sensors in commercial CMOS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Macchiolo, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the high luminosity LHC, an all-silicon tracker is foreseen to cope with the increased rate and radiation levels. Pixel and strip detectors will have to cover an area of up to 200m2. To produce modules in high number at reduced costs, new sensor and bonding technologies have to be investigated. Commercial CMOS technologies on high resistive substrates can provide significant advantages in this direction. They offer cost effective, large volume sensor production. In addition to this, production is done on 8'' wafers allowing wafer-to-wafer bonding to the electronics, an interconnection technology substantially cheaper than the bump bonding process used for hybrid pixel detectors at the LHC. Both active and passive n-in-p pixel sensor prototypes have been submitted in a 150 nm CMOS technology on a 2kΩ cm substrate. The passive sensor design will be used to characterize sensor properties and to investigate wafer-to-wafer bonding technologies. This first prototype is made of a matrix of 36 x 16 pixels of size compatible with the FE-I4 readout chip (i.e. 50 μm x 250 μm). Results from lab characterization of this first submission are shown together with TCAD simulations. Work towards a full size FE-I4 sensor for wafer-to-wafer bonding is discussed.

  14. Overview of anisotropic flow measurements from ALICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou You

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anisotropic flow is an important observable to study the properties of the hot and dense matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP, created in heavy-ion collisions. Measurements of anisotropic flow for inclusive and identified charged hadrons are reported in Pb–Pb, p–Pb and pp collisions with the ALICE detector. The comparison of experimental measurements to various theoretical calculations are also presented in these proceedings.

  15. Monitoring System for ALICE Surface Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Demirbasci, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    I have been at CERN for 12 weeks within the scope of Summer Student Programme working on a monitoring system project for surface areas of the ALICE experiment during this period of time. The development and implementation of a monitoring system for environmental parameters in the accessible areas where a cheap hardware setup can be deployed were aim of this project. This report explains how it was developed by using Arduino, Raspberry PI, WinCC OA and DIM protocol.

  16. High pt identified particle production in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is a dedicated heavy ion physics detector at the LHC with unique capabilities for studying identified particle production. In this proceeding preliminary results for RAA for pi and K+p (sum), are reported, based on measurements in pp at sqrt(s) = 2.76 TeV and Pb-Pb at sqrt(sNN) = 2.76 TeV. The results are compared to theoretical predictions and measurements at RHIC.

  17. One module of the ALICE photon spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first module for the ALICE photon spectrometer has been completed. Each of the five modules will contain 3584 lead-tungstate crystals, a material as transparent as ordinary silica glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, allowing the energy of electrons, positrons and photons to be measured through the 17 920 detection channels.

  18. Readout scheme of the upgraded ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshaeuser, Harald; Ivanov, Marian; Lippmann, Christian; Wiechula, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In this document, we present the updated readout scheme for the ALICE TPC Upgrade. Two major design changes are implemented with respect to the concept that was presented in the TPC Upgrade Technical Design Report: – The SAMPA front-end ASIC will be used in direct readout mode. – The ADC sampling frequency will be reduced from 10 to 5 MHz. The main results from simulations and a description of the new readout scheme is outlined.

  19. The ALICE Software Release Validation cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzano, D.; Krzewicki, M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most important steps of software lifecycle is Quality Assurance: this process comprehends both automatic tests and manual reviews, and all of them must pass successfully before the software is approved for production. Some tests, such as source code static analysis, are executed on a single dedicated service: in High Energy Physics, a full simulation and reconstruction chain on a distributed computing environment, backed with a sample “golden” dataset, is also necessary for the quality sign off. The ALICE experiment uses dedicated and virtualized computing infrastructures for the Release Validation in order not to taint the production environment (i.e. CVMFS and the Grid) with non-validated software and validation jobs: the ALICE Release Validation cluster is a disposable virtual cluster appliance based on CernVM and the Virtual Analysis Facility, capable of deploying on demand, and with a single command, a dedicated virtual HTCondor cluster with an automatically scalable number of virtual workers on any cloud supporting the standard EC2 interface. Input and output data are externally stored on EOS, and a dedicated CVMFS service is used to provide the software to be validated. We will show how the Release Validation Cluster deployment and disposal are completely transparent for the Release Manager, who simply triggers the validation from the ALICE build system's web interface. CernVM 3, based entirely on CVMFS, permits to boot any snapshot of the operating system in time: we will show how this allows us to certify each ALICE software release for an exact CernVM snapshot, addressing the problem of Long Term Data Preservation by ensuring a consistent environment for software execution and data reprocessing in the future.

  20. Diffraction in ALICE and trigger efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    Navin, Sparsh; Lietava, Roman

    ALICE is built to measure the properties of strongly interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions. In addition, taking advantage of the low pT acceptance in the central barrel, ALICE is playing an important role in understanding pp collisions with minimum bias triggers at LHC energies. The work presented in this thesis is based on pp data simulated by the ALICE collaboration and early data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. A procedure to calculate trigger efficiencies and an estimate of the systematic uncertainty due to the limited acceptance of the detector are shown. A kinematic comparison between Monte Carlo event generators, PYTHIA 6, PYTHIA 8 and PHOJET is also presented. To improve the description of diffraction in PYTHIA, a hard diffractive component was added to PYTHIA 8 in 2009, which is described. Finally a trigger with a high efficiency for picking diffractive events is used to select a sample with an enhanced diffractive component from pp data. These data are compared to Monte ...

  1. Alice Walker’s Womanism in Meridian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Lin

    2015-01-01

    Meridian is one of Alice Walker’s early work. It tells a story that happened in the American south during the 1960s and early 70s’. It describes the life of the main character, Meridian Hill, a black woman from a southern town, who got out of the oppression of white society, and ends up in participate in Civil Rights Movement. The paper firstly illustrates the soul of womanism—anti-sexism, anti-racism, sisiterhood as well as the maternity love, then analyzes how these theories permeated into the novel—Meridian. The paper paid attention to the function of this novel on the improvement of Alice Walker ’s womanism. In proving that womanism not only permeates into Meridian, but also improved womanism from many perspectives, it comes to the conclusion that Meridian is a novel to improve Alice Walker’s womanism, it serves as the good novel to highlight the African Culture, and made a great contribution for the encouragement of black women to seek for freedom in the society.

  2. ALICE: The best is yet to come

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The ALICE wonderland is the ion-ion collisions. However, the proton run was intensely used by the collaboration to get to know its detector in detail and to produce its first results in QCD-related matters. This very successful preparatory phase will now allow ALICE to enter the uncharted territory of the quark-gluon plasma at the extreme energies provided by the LHC.   The ALICE detector is optimized to study ion-ion collisions in which quark-gluon plasma may be formed. This type of matter, which existed a few moments after the Big Bang and appears when quarks and gluons are deconfined to form a highly dense and hot soup, has been studied at CERN’s SPS in the 1990s and later, from 2000 onwards, at much higher energy at RHIC in the US. Now it’s ALICE’s turn. “Quark-gluon plasma is created at very high temperatures but starts to cool down very quickly to become normal matter again. The high energy of the LHC puts us much higher above the threshold of its for...

  3. ALICE A Large Ion Collider Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Hristov, P Z; Caffarri, D; Mager, M; Rohr, D M; Kucera, V; Miskowiec, D C; Selyuzhenkov, I; Mercado-perez, J; Lohner, D; Bertelsen, H; Kox, S; Cheynis, B; Hamar, G; Choudhury, S; Sambyal, S S; Agnello, M; Miake, Y; Inaba, M; Maldonado cervantes, I A; Fernandez tellez, A; Kulibaba, V; Zinovjev, G; Martynov, Y; Usenko, E; Pshenichnov, I; Nikolaev, S; Vasiliev, A; Vinogradov, A; Moukhanova, T; Vasilyev, A; Kozlov, Y; Voloshin, K; Kiselev, S; Kirilko, Y; Lyublev, E; Kondratyeva, N; Gameiro munhoz, M; Alarcon do passo suaide, A; Lagana fernandes, C; Carlin filho, N; Yin, Z; Zhu, J; Luo, J; Pikna, M; Bombara, M; Pastircak, B; Donigus, B; Rascanu, B T; Scott, H; Hanratty, L D; Marangio, G; Gianotti, P; Muccifora, V; Morando, M; Bartke, J G; Sputowska, I A; Ilkiv, I; Christiansen, P; Dodokhov, V; Yurevich, V; Fedunov, A; Malakhov, A; Efremov, A; Feofilov, G; Vinogradov, L; Asryan, A; Kovalenko, V; Piyarathna, D; Myers, C J; Martashvili, I; Scott, R M; Oh, H; Cherney, M G; Malagalage, K J; D'erasmo, G; Wagner, V; Smakal, R; Lopez, X B; Sartorelli, G; Mlynarz, J; Garishvili, I; Murray, C J; Oh, S; Srivastava, B K; Becker, B; Usai, G; Razazi, V; Zbroszczyk, H P; Feldkamp, L; Pappalardo, G; Khlebnikov, A; Basmanov, V; Punin, V; Demanov, V; Gotovac, S; Irfan, M; Felea, D; Zgura, S I; Yang, H; Vernet, R; Son, C; Shtejer diaz, K; Hwang, S; Alfaro molina, J R; Jahnke, C; Richter, M R; Garcia-solis, E J; Hitchcock, T M; Utrobicic, A; Brun, R; Divia, R; Schukraft, J; Riedler, P; Floris, M; Eulisse, G; Von haller, B; Haake, R; Kushpil, V; Ivanov, M; Malzacher, P; Schweda, K O; Reygers, K J; Pachmayer, Y C; Gaardhoeje, J J; Bearden, I G; Borel, H; Pereira da costa, H D A; Faivre, J; Germain, M; Schutz, Y R; Delagrange, H; Batigne, G; Stocco, D; Estienne, M D; Bergognon, A A E; Zoccarato, Y D; Levai, P; Bencedi, G; Mahapatra, D P; Ghosh, P; Das, T K; Mazzoni, A M; Alessandro, B; Cerello, P; De marco, N; Paic, G; Ovchynnyk, V; Karavicheva, T; Kucheryaeva, M; Skuratovskiy, O; Mal kevich, D; Bogdanov, A; Pereira, L G; Cai, X; Zhu, X; Wang, M; Zhou, F; Fan, F; Sitar, B; Cerny, V; Renfordt, R A E; Gonzalez zamora, P; Loo, K K; Jones, P G; Bianchi, N; Dainese, A; Giubilato, P; Festanti, A; Torii, H; Hori, Y; Tsuji, T; Herrera corral, G A; Kowalski, M; Rybicki, A; Kielbowicz, M M; Deloff, A; Petrovici, A; Nomokonov, P; Parfenov, A; Koshurnikov, E; Shahaliyev, E; Rogochaya, E; Kondratev, V; Oreshkina, N; Tarasov, A; Norenberg, M; Bodnya, E; Bogolyubskiy, M; Symons, T; Blanco, F; Madagodahettige don, D M; Umaka, E N; Rana, D B; Schaefer, B; De pasquale, S; Fusco girard, M; Song, M; Kim, T; Jeon, H; Porteboeuf, S J; Nandi, B K; Sarkar - sinha, T; Aggarwal, M M; Arcelli, S; Scapparone, E; Shevel, A; Nikulin, V; Komkov, B; Voloshin, S; Hille, P T; Kannan, S; Cicalo, C; De falco, A; Graczykowski, L K; Matynia, R M; Zimmermann, M B; Vinogradov, Y; Vikhlyantsev, O; Telnov, A; Tumkin, A; Khan, M M; Erdal, H A; Keidel, R; Rui, R; Yeo, I; Vilakazi, Z; Klay, J L; Boswell, B D; Lindenstruth, V; Tveter, T S; Batzing, P C; Goel, A; Breitner, T G; Sahoo, R; Roy, A; Musa, L; Perini, D; Vande vyvre, P; Fuchs, U; Aglieri rinella, G; Salgueiro domingues da silva, R M; Kalweit, A P; Greco, V; Francescon, A; Bond, P M; Marin, A M; Glassel, P; Schicker, R M; Staley, F M; Castillo castellanos, J E; Furget, C; Real, J; Martino, J F; Cheshkov, C V; Sahu, P K; Sahu, S K; Baral, R C; Singaraju, R N; Ahammed, Z; Saini, J; Basu, S; Bala, R; Gupta, R; Di bari, D; Bruno, G E; Biasotto, M; Esumi, S; Sano, M; Roehrich, D; Lonne, P; Drakin, Y; Manko, V; Nikulin, S; Yushmanov, I; Kozlov, K; Kerbikov, B; Stavinskiy, A; Sultanov, R; Raniwala, R; Zhu, H; Meres, M; Kralik, I; Evans, D; Tudor jones, G; Kinson, J; Rizzi, V; Orlandi, A; Fabris, D; Viesti, G; Lea, R; Kuijer, P G; Figiel, J; Gorlich, L M; Shabratova, G; Lobanov, V; Zaporozhets, S; Pocheptsov, T; Ivanov, A; Iglovikov, V; Ochirov, A; Petrov, V; Garner, R M; Jacobs, P M; De gruttola, D; Corsi, F; Varma, R; Koyithatta meethaleveedu, G; Kumar, J; Parmar, S; Nania, R; Zalite, A; Samsonov, V; Pruneau, C A; Caines, H L; Aronsson, T; Adare, A M; Zwick, S M; Fearick, R W; Ostrowski, P K; Kulasinski, K; Heine, N; Wilk, A; Ilkaev, R; Ilkaeva, L; Pavlov, V; Mikhaylyukov, K; Rybin, A; Naumov, N; Mudnic, E; Cortese, P; Listratenko, O; Stan, I; Nooren, G; Song, J; Krawutschke, T; Kim, S Y; Hwang, D S; Lee, S H; Leon monzon, I; Vorobyev, I; Wikne, J; Dordic, O; Yan, Y; Mazumder, R; Palmeri, A; La rocca, P; Pajares vales, C; Shahoyan, R; Kluge, A; Safarik, K; Tauro, A; Lakomov, I; Van hoorne, J W; Foka, P; Frankenfeld, U M; Masciocchi, S; Schwarz, K E; Anguelov, V; Hansen, A; Baldisseri, A; Aphecetche, L B; Berenyi, D; Sahoo, S; Nayak, T K; Muhuri, S; Patra, R N; Adhya, S P; Potukuchi, B; Saavedra san martin, O; Arnaldi, R; Scomparin, E; Beole, S; Mizuno, S; Enyo, H; Cuautle flores, E; Djuvsland, O; Altinpinar, S; Wagner, B; Fehlker, D; Velure, A; Potin, S; Zynovyev, M; Kurepin, A; Belyaev, S; Ryabinkin, E; Kiselev, I; Pestov, Y; Hayrapetyan, A; Manukyan, N; Lutz, J; Belikov, I; Roy, C S; Takahashi, J; Araujo silva figueredo, M; Tang, S; Szarka, I; Kapusta, S; Hasko, J; Putis, M; Sandor, L; Vrlakova, J; Antonczyk, D W; Bailhache, R M; Ladron de guevara, P; Acero fernandez, A; Diaz corchero, M A; Platt, R J; Kour, R; Scott, P A; Das, S; Turrisi, R; Hayashi, S; Van rijn, A J; Siemiarczuk, T; Petrovici, M; Petris, M; Stenlund, E A; Malinina, L; Fateev, O; Kolozhvari, A; Altsybeev, I; Sadovskiy, S; Soloviev, A; Markert, C; Ploskon, M A; Mayes, B W; Sorensen, S P; Awes, T; Virgili, T; Pagano, P; Kim, B; Krus, M; Vulpescu, B; Sett, P; Bhatt, H; Sinha, B; Khan, P; Antonioli, P; Scioli, G; Sakaguchi, H; Volkov, S; Ivanov, V; Khanzadeev, A; Malaev, M; Lisa, M A; Salzwedel, J S N; Loggins, V R; Schuster, T R; Hicks, B R; Scharenberg, R P; Masoni, A; Incani, E; Debski, P R; Oleniacz, J; Westerhoff, U; Wilde, M R; Yanovskiy, V; Domrachev, S; Smirnova, Y; Zimmermann, S; Ahmad, N; Shestakov, V; Veldhoen, M; Van der maarel, J; Kileng, B; Seo, J; Lopez torres, E; Ceballos sanchez, C; Camerini, P; Jang, H J; Buthelezi, E Z; Steyn, G F; Suleymanov, M K O; Belmont moreno, E; Skaali, B; Milosevic, J; Zhao, C; Perales, M; Kobdaj, C; Mishra, A N; Roukoutakis, F; Gonzalez ferreiro, E; Keil, M; Morsch, A; Rademakers, A; Soos, C; Zampolli, C; Grigoras, C; Chibante barroso, V M; Schuchmann, S; Grigoras, A G; Berzano, D; Lafuente mazuecos, A; Wegrzynek, A T; Bielcikova, J; Kushpil, S; Braun-munzinger, P; Andronic, A; Zimmermann, A; Wilkinson, J J; Arbor, N; Erazmus, B E; Pichot, P; Pillot, P; Grossiord, J; Boldizsar, L; Costanza, S; Gallio, M; Masera, M; Simonetti, L; Prino, F; Oppedisano, C; Toscano, L; Nappi, G; Botta, E; Vargas trevino, A D; Nystrand, J I; Ullaland, K; Haaland, O S; Huang, M; Naumov, S; Trubnikov, V; Alkin, A; Ivanytskyi, O; Guber, F; Karavichev, O; Nyanin, A; Sibiryak, Y; Peresunko, D Y; Patarakin, O; Aleksandrov, D; Blau, D; Yasnopolskiy, S; Chumakov, M; Vetlitskiy, I; Nedosekin, A; Selivanov, A; Okorokov, V; Grigoryan, A; Papikyan, V; Kuhn, C C; Wan, R; Zhou, D; Cajko, F; Siska, M; Mares, J; Zavada, P; Pitz, N; Rubio montero, A J; Reolon, A R; Antinori, F; Gunji, T; Snellings, R; Mayer, C; Matyja, A T; Klusek-gawenda, M J; Schiaua, C C; Andrei, C; Herghelegiu, A I; Soegaard, C; Panebrattsev, Y; Penev, V; Efimov, L; Zanevskiy, Y; Vechernin, V; Zarochentsev, A; Kolevatov, R; Agapov, A; Polishchuk, B; Loizides, C; Anwar, R; Anticic, T; Kwon, Y; Kim, M; Moon, T; Petran, M; Rosnet, P; Ramillien barret, V; Sahoo, B; Das bose, L; Hushnud, H; Hatzifotiadou, D; Shigaki, K; Jha, D M; Soltz, R A; Murray, S; Mastroserio, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Siddhanta, S; Badala, A; Putevskoy, S; Shapovalova, E; Ahmad, A; Haiduc, M; Mitu, C M; Mischke, A; Grelli, A; Hetland, K F; Rachevski, A; Menchaca-rocha, A A; De cuveland, J; Hutter, D; Langhammer, M; Dahms, T; Watkins, E P; Kumar, L; Petta, C; Gago medina, A M; Planinic, M; Riegler, W; Telesca, A; Lazaridis, L; Ferencei, J; Martin, N A; Windelband, B S; Nielsen, B S; Chojnacki, M; Espagnon, B; Uras, A; Lemmon, R C; Agocs, A G; Viyogi, Y; Pal, S K; Singhal, V; Khan, S A; Alam, S N; Bagnasco, S; Rodriguez cahuantzi, M; Maslov, M; Kurepin, A; Ippolitov, M; Lebedev, V; Tsvetkov, A; Klimov, A; Agafonov, G; Martemiyanov, A; Loginov, V; Kononov, S; Grigoryan, S; Jangal, S G; Hnatic, M; Kalinak, P; Appelshaeuser, H; Ulery, J G; Luettig, P J; Heckel, S T; Trzaska, W H; Kral, J; Lietava, R; Matthews, Z L; Palaha, A S; Raha, S; Calero diaz, L; Segato, G; Canoa roman, V; Cruz albino, R; Botje, M; Gladysz-dziadus, E; Marszal, T; Dobrowolski, T A; Oskarsson, A N E; Otterlund, I; Tydesjo, H; Ljunggren, H M; Vodopyanov, A; Akichine, P; Kuznetsov, A; Vedeneyev, V; Naumenko, P; Bilov, N; Rogalev, R; Evdokimov, S; Braidot, E; Bellwied, R; De caro, A; Kang, J H; Gorbunov, Y; Lee, J; Pachr, M; Baldit, A; Manso, F; Crochet, P; Batista camejo, A; Dash, S; Roy, P K; Cifarelli, L; Laurenti, G; Margotti, A; Bellini, F; Sugitate, T; Zhalov, M; Pavlinov, A; Harris, J W; Caballero orduna, D; Pluta, J M; Kisiel, A R; Wrobel, D; Klein-boesing, C; Zhitnik, A; Nazarenko, S; Zavyalov, N; Miroshnikov, D; Kuryakin, A; Vyushin, A; Mamonov, A; Vickovic, L; Niculescu, M; De rooij, R S; Fragiacomo, E; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S; Foertsch, S V; Brown, C R; Munzer, R H; Lovhoiden, G; Harton, A V; Khosonthongkee, K; Schmidt, H R; Barbera, R; Giudice, N; Grimaldi, A; Betev, L; Buncic, P; Carena, F; Di mauro, A; Martinengo, P; Gargiulo, C; Grosse-oetringhaus, J F; Costa, F; Baltasar dos santos pedrosa, F; Laudi, E; Adamova, D; Lippmann, C; Schmidt, C J; Grajcarek, R; Volkl, M A; Christensen, C H; Rakotozafindrabe, A M; Conesa balbastre, G; Martinez-garcia, G; Suire, C P; Ducroux, L; Tieulent, R N; Barnafoldi, G G; Pochybova, S; Dubey, A K; Acharya, S; Gupta, A; Ricci, R A; Meddi, F; Vercellin, E; Chujo, T; Watanabe, K; Onishi, H; Akiba, Y; Vergara limon, S; Tejeda munoz, G; Skjerdal, K; Svistunov, S; Reshetin, A; Maevskaya, A; Antonenko, V; Mishustin, N; Meleshko, E; Korsheninnikov, A; Balygin, K; Zagreev, B; Akindinov, A; Mikhaylov, K; Gushchin, O; Grigoryev, V; Gulkanyan, H; Sanchez castro, X; Peretti pezzi, R; Oliveira da silva, A C; Harmanova, Z; Vokal, S; Beitlerova, A; Kramer, F; Book, J H; Montes prado, E; Rak, J; Jusko, A; Ghosh, S K; Spiriti, E; Ronchetti, F; Casanova diaz, A O; Lunardon, M; Aiftimiei, C; Kuzmin, N; Melkumov, G; Zinchenko, A; Shklovskaya, A; Bunzarov, Z I; Chernenko, S; Toulina, T; Kompaniets, M; Titov, A; Kharlov, Y; Dantsevich, G; Stolpovskiy, M; Porter, R J; Datskova, O V; Nattrass, C; Mazer, J A; Seger, J E; Kim, J; Kim, D S; Jung, W W; Kim, H; Bielcik, J; Pospisil, V; Cepila, J; Dupieux, P; Bastid, N; Das, D; Bhati, A K; Williams, C; Pesci, A; Roshchin, E; Humanic, T; Steinpreis, M D; Yaldo, C G; Abelev, B B; Smirnov, N; Heinz, M T; Connors, M E; Barile, F; Fiore, E M; Orzan, G; Wielanek, D H; Servais, E L J; Patecki, M; Passfeld, A; Zhelezov, S; Morkin, A; Zabelin, O; Hussain, T; Ramello, L; Rogachevskiy, O; Van leeuwen, M; Van den brink, A; Bertens, R A; Lodato, D F; Haque, M R; Kim, E J; Coccetti, F; Margagliotti, G V; Rauf, A W; Sandoval, A; Berger, M E; Qvigstad, H; Lindal, S; Cervantes jr, M; Kebschull, U W; Engel, H; Karasu uysal, A; Hess, B A; Calvo villar, E; Augustinus, A; Carena, W; Chochula, P; Chapeland, S; Dobrin, A F; Reidt, F; Bock, F; Galdames perez, A; Sumbera, M; Averbeck, R P; Garabatos cuadrado, J; Stachel, J; Wang, Y; Boggild, H; Gulbrandsen, K H; Hansen, J C; Charvet, J F; Shabetai, A; Hadjidakis, C M; Vertesi, R; Mitra, J; Altini, V; Riccati, L; Ferretti, A; Gagliardi, M; Bufalino, S; Sakata, D; Niida, T; Martinez hernandez, M I; Yang, S; Langoy, R; Karpechev, E; Veselovskiy, A; Konevskikh, A; Finogeev, D; Fokin, S; Karadzhev, K; Kucheryaev, Y; Plotnikov, V; Ryabinin, M; Golubev, A; Kaplin, V; Ter-minasyan, A; Abramyan, A; Raniwala, S; Hippolyte, B; Zhang, H; Strmen, P; Krivan, F; Reichelt, P S; Marquard, M; Broker, T A; Zyzak, M; Kulakov, I; Sahlmuller, B; Kalliokoski, T E A; Chang, B; Krivda, M; De cataldo, G; Paticchio, V; Fantoni, A; Soramel, F; Scarlassara, F; Bombonati, C; Gomez jimenez, R; Christakoglou, P; Cyz, A; Wilk, G A; Kurashvili, P; Pop, A; Arefiev, V; Batyunya, B; Kadyshevskiy, V; Lioubochits, V; Zryuev, V; Sokolov, M; Patalakha, D; Xaplanteris karampatsos, L; Grounds, A; Pinsky, L; Timmins, A R; Petracek, V; Krelina, M; Chattopadhyay, S; Basile, M; Falchieri, D; Miftakhov, N; Konyushikhin, M; Joseph, N; Cleymans, J W A; Dietel, T; Pawlak, T J; Kucinski, M; Janik, M A; Surma, K D; Niedziela, J; Wessels, J P; Riggi, F; Ivanov, A; Selin, I; Budnikov, D; Filchagin, S; Sitta, M; Gheata, M; Danu, A; Diomkin, V; Peitzmann, T; Reicher, M; Helstrup, H; Subasi, M; Mathis, A M; Nilsson, M S; Banerjee, S S; Goyal, D; Rist, J A S; Jena, C; Lara martinez, C E; Vasileiou, M; Spyropoulou-stassinaki, M; Simatovic, G

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\ALICE is a general-purpose heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. It currently includes more than 750~physicists and $\\sim$70 institutions in 27 countries.\\\\ \\\\The detector is designed to cope with the highest particle multiplicities anticipated for Pb-Pb reactions (dN/dy~$\\approx$~8000) and it will be operational at the start-up of the LHC. In addition to heavy systems, the ALICE Collaboration will study collisions of lower-mass ions, which are a means of varying the energy density, and protons (both pp and p-nucleus), which provide reference data for the nucleus-nucleus collisions.\\\\ \\\\ALICE consists of a central part, which measures event-by-event hadrons, electrons and photons, and a forward spectrometer to measure muons. The central part, which covers polar angles from 45$^{0} $ to 135$^{0} $ ($\\mid \\eta \\mid $ < 0.9) over the full azimuth, is embedded in the large L3 solenoidal mag...

  4. LS1 Report: ALICE ups the ante

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    SPS up and running... LHC almost cold... CCC Operators back at their desks... all telltale signs of the start of Run 2! For the experiments, that means there are just a few short months left for them to prepare for beams. The CERN Bulletin will be checking in with each of the Big Four to see how they are getting on during these closing months...   It has been a long road for the ALICE LS1 team. From major improvements to the 19 sub-detectors to a full re-cabling and replacement of LEP-era electrical infrastructure, no part of the ALICE cavern has gone untouched.* With the experiment set to close in early December, the teams are making finishing touches before turning their focus towards re-commissioning and calibration. "Earlier this week, we installed the last two modules of the di-jet calorimeter," explains Werner Riegler, ALICE technical coordinator. "These are the final parts of a 60 degree calorimeter extension that is installed opposite the present calorimeter, c...

  5. ALICE's first vacuum bakeout a success

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of April, the ALICE central beryllium beam pipe and absorber beam pipes were successfully conditioned. The installation and bakeout shell surround the beam pipe (lower left), running through the middle of the ITS and TPC. Notice the high-tech cooling system, an additional precaution to avoid overheating the ALICE detection equipment.One end of the vacuum sector during the bakeout and pure gas refill. It is unusual for a vacuum sector to end as it does in the middle of a non-accessible detector and made the installation and cabling of the bakeout equipment a more difficult procedure. Just before Easter, the first bakeout and NEG activation of experimental chambers in the LHC was carried out, followed by ultra pure gas refill. The bakeout consisted of externally heating the chambers under vacuum in order to lower their outgassing. This same heating process also activates the NEG, a coating on the inside surface of the beam vacuum chambers, which pumps the residual gas. ALICE's bakeout was pa...

  6. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio ( Q / C ). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q / C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining suf fi cient Q / C , collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  7. The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Hans-Günther, E-mail: moser@mpp.mpg.de

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will explore heavy flavour physics (B, charm and tau) at the starting of 2018 with unprecedented precision. Charged particles are tracked by a two-layer DEPFET pixel device (PXD), a four-layer silicon strip detector (SVD) and the central drift chamber (CDC). The PXD will consist of two layers at radii of 14 mm and 22 mm with 8 and 12 ladders, respectively. The pixel sizes will vary, between 50 μm×(55–60) μm in the first layer and between 50 μm×(70–85) μm in the second layer, to optimize the charge sharing efficiency. These innermost layers have to cope with high background occupancy, high radiation and must have minimal material to reduce multiple scattering. These challenges are met using the DEPFET technology. Each pixel is a FET integrated on a fully depleted silicon bulk. The signal charge collected in the ‘internal gate’ modulates the FET current resulting in a first stage amplification and therefore very low noise. This allows very thin sensors (75 μm) reducing the overall material budget of the detector (0.21% X{sub 0}). Four fold multiplexing of the column parallel readout allows read out a full frame of the pixel matrix in only 20 μs while keeping the power consumption low enough for air cooling. Only the active electronics outside the detector acceptance has to be cooled actively with a two phase CO{sub 2} system. Furthermore the DEPFET technology offers the unique feature of an electronic shutter which allows the detector to operate efficiently in the continuous injection mode of superKEKB.

  8. The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Hans-Günther

    2016-09-01

    The Belle II experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will explore heavy flavour physics (B, charm and tau) at the starting of 2018 with unprecedented precision. Charged particles are tracked by a two-layer DEPFET pixel device (PXD), a four-layer silicon strip detector (SVD) and the central drift chamber (CDC). The PXD will consist of two layers at radii of 14 mm and 22 mm with 8 and 12 ladders, respectively. The pixel sizes will vary, between 50 μm×(55-60) μm in the first layer and between 50 μm×(70-85) μm in the second layer, to optimize the charge sharing efficiency. These innermost layers have to cope with high background occupancy, high radiation and must have minimal material to reduce multiple scattering. These challenges are met using the DEPFET technology. Each pixel is a FET integrated on a fully depleted silicon bulk. The signal charge collected in the 'internal gate' modulates the FET current resulting in a first stage amplification and therefore very low noise. This allows very thin sensors (75 μm) reducing the overall material budget of the detector (0.21% X0). Four fold multiplexing of the column parallel readout allows read out a full frame of the pixel matrix in only 20 μs while keeping the power consumption low enough for air cooling. Only the active electronics outside the detector acceptance has to be cooled actively with a two phase CO2 system. Furthermore the DEPFET technology offers the unique feature of an electronic shutter which allows the detector to operate efficiently in the continuous injection mode of superKEKB.

  9. Novel integrated CMOS pixel structures for vertex detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bieser, Fred; Chen, Yandong; Gareus, Robin; Matis, Howard S.; Oldenburg, Markus; Retiere, Fabrice; Ritter, Hans Georg; Wieman, Howard H.; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2003-10-29

    Novel CMOS active pixel structures for vertex detector applications have been designed and tested. The overriding goal of this work is to increase the signal to noise ratio of the sensors and readout circuits. A large-area native epitaxial silicon photogate was designed with the aim of increasing the charge collected per struck pixel and to reduce charge diffusion to neighboring pixels. The photogate then transfers the charge to a low capacitance readout node to maintain a high charge to voltage conversion gain. Two techniques for noise reduction are also presented. The first is a per-pixel kT/C noise reduction circuit that produces results similar to traditional correlated double sampling (CDS). It has the advantage of requiring only one read, as compared to two for CDS, and no external storage or subtraction is needed. The technique reduced input-referred temporal noise by a factor of 2.5, to 12.8 e{sup -}. Finally, a column-level active reset technique is explored that suppresses kT/C noise during pixel reset. In tests, noise was reduced by a factor of 7.6 times, to an estimated 5.1 e{sup -} input-referred noise. The technique also dramatically reduces fixed pattern (pedestal) noise, by up to a factor of 21 in our tests. The latter feature may possibly reduce pixel-by-pixel pedestal differences to levels low enough to permit sparse data scan without per-pixel offset corrections.

  10. ATLAS Tracker and Pixel Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00222525; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on the silicon and gaseous tracking subsystems that form the ATLAS Inner Detector. Those subsystems have undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the LHC during Run2. The key status and performance metrics of the Pixel Detector and the Semi Conductor Tracker, are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described.

  11. Alpine Pixel Detector Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Delebecque, P; The ATLAS collaboration; Geffroy, N; Massol, N; Rambure, T; Todorov, T

    2013-01-01

    A description of an optimized layout of pixel sensors based on a stave that combines both barrel and endcap module orientations. The mechanical stiffness of the structure is provided by carbon fiber shells spaced by carbon foam. The cooling of the modules is provided by two-phase $CO_{2}$ flowing in a thin titanium pipe glued inside the carbon fiber foam. The electrical services of all modules are provided by a single stave flex. This layout eliminates the need for separate barrel and endcap detector structures, and therefore the barrel services material in front of the endcap. The transition from barrel to endcap module orientation is optimized separately for each layer in order to minimize the active pixel area and the traversed material. The sparse module spacing in the endcap part of the stave allows for multiple fixation points, and for a stiff overall structure composed only of staves interconnected by stiff disks.

  12. Fabrication of ATLAS pixel detector prototypes at IRST

    CERN Document Server

    Boscardin, M; Gregori, P; Zen, M; Zori, N

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of a fabrication technology for n-on-n silicon pixel detectors oriented to the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The main processing issues and some selected results from the electrical characterization of detector prototypes and related test structures are presented and discussed. (5 refs).

  13. Digital Calorimetry Using Pixel Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reicher, M.

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a new type of electromagnetic calorimeter, which is not based on proportionality of deposited energy, but instead on counting the number of showering particles. This calorimeter is a proof of principle for a proposed upgrade of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron C

  14. Planar Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS Upgrade: Beam Tests results

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, J; Beimforde, M; Benoit, M; Bomben, M; Calderini, G; Gallrapp, C; George, M; Gibson, S; Grinstein, S; Janoska, Z; Jentzsch, J; Jinnouchi, O; Kishida, T; La Rosa, A; Libov, V; Macchiolo, A; Marchiori, G; Münstermann, D; Nagai, R; Piacquadio, G; Ristic, B; Rubinskiy, I; Rummler, A; Takubo, Y; Troska, G; Tsiskaridtze, S; Tsurin, I; Unno, Y; Weigel, P; Wittig, T

    2012-01-01

    Results of beam tests with planar silicon pixel sensors aimed towards the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include spatial resolution, charge collection performance and charge sharing between neighbouring cells as a function of track incidence angle for different bulk materials. Measurements of n-in-n pixel sensors are presented as a function of fluence for different irradiations. Furthermore p-type silicon sensors from several vendors with slightly differing layouts were tested. All tested sensors were connected by bump-bonding to the ATLAS Pixel read-out chip. We show that both n-type and p-type tested planar sensors are able to collect significant charge even after integrated fluences expected at HL-LHC.

  15. Design and test of pixel sensors for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bölla, G; Rott, C; Roy, A; Kwan, S; Chien, C Y; Cho, H; Gobbi, B; Horisberger, R P; Kaufmann, R

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will have a silicon pixel detector as its innermost tracking device. The pixel system will be exposed to the harsh radiation environment of the LHC. Prototype sensors have been designed to meet the specifications of the CMS experiment. The sensors are n/sup +/-n devices to allow partial depletion operation after bulk type inversion. The isolation of the n/sup +/ pixels is provided through a novel double open p-ring design that allows sensor testing before bump bonding and flip chipping. The prototype wafers contain a variety of p-stop designs and are fabricated by two vendors on different bulk substrates including oxygenated silicon. A study of the static measurement of the prototype sensors before irradiation is presented. (2 refs).

  16. A novel source-drain follower for monolithic active pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Aglieri, G.; Hillemanns, H.; Huang, G.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kim, D.; Kofarago, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Martinengo, P.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Lee, S.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Rousset, J.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Snoeys, W.; Sun, X.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.

    2016-09-01

    Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) receive interest in tracking applications in high energy physics as they integrate sensor and readout electronics in one silicon die with potential for lower material budget and cost, and better performance. Source followers (SFs) are widely used for MAPS readout: they increase charge conversion gain 1/Ceff or decrease the effective sensing node capacitance Ceff because the follower action compensates part of the input capacitance. Charge conversion gain is critical for analog power consumption and therefore for material budget in tracking applications, and also has direct system impact. This paper presents a novel source-drain follower (SDF), where both source and drain follow the gate potential improving charge conversion gain. For the inner tracking system (ITS) upgrade of the ALICE experiment at CERN, low material budget is a primary requirement. The SDF circuit was studied as part of the effort to optimize the effective capacitance of the sensing node. The collection electrode, input transistor and routing metal all contribute to Ceff. Reverse sensor bias reduces the collection electrode capacitance. The novel SDF circuit eliminates the contribution of the input transistor to Ceff, reduces the routing contribution if additional shielding is introduced, provides a way to estimate the capacitance of the sensor itself, and has a voltage gain closer to unity than the standard SF. The SDF circuit has a somewhat larger area with a somewhat smaller bandwidth, but this is acceptable in most cases. A test chip, manufactured in a 180 nm CMOS image sensor process, implements small prototype pixel matrices in different flavors to compare the standard SF to the novel SF and to the novel SF with additional shielding. The effective sensing node capacitance was measured using a 55Fe source. Increasing reverse substrate bias from -1 V to -6 V reduces Ceff by 38% and the equivalent noise charge (ENC) by 22% for the standard SF. The SDF

  17. A radiation tolerant pixel detector system for the ALICE and LHCb experiments at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Dinapoli, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Le travail présenté dans cette thèse a été effectué au sein du groupe Microélectronique du CERN, le laboratoire européen pour la physique des particules. Il s’agit d’un laboratoire situé près de Genève en Suisse, il a été créé dans les années 50 pour donner aux scientifiques européens les moyens d'étudier la physique des hautes énergies (HEP, High Energy Physics). Grâce aux accélérateurs de particules conçus et réalisés au CERN (en particulier le LEP, Large Electron Positron) il a été possible de développer le « Modèle Standard », une théorie qui essaye d'expliquer la matière en termes de forces et de particules. Ce modèle a été testé avec succès par les expériences de physique des particules, cependant il est incomplet, car il ne prend pas en compte la masse des particules fondamentales. L'idée la plus simple pour inclure cette dernière s'appelle le mécanisme de Higgs. Ce mécanisme implique l’existence de une particule additionnelle, appelée le boson de Higgs...

  18. Uinunud Alice'i toas teeb imesid lavamaagia / Jaanus Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Jaanus

    2004-01-01

    7. veebr. esietendus Vanemuises tantsulavastus "Alice imedemaal". Etendus põhineb briti kirjaniku L. Carrolli samanimelisel lasteraamatul, koreograaf M. Murdmaa, kunstnik K. Jancis ja muusika on kirjutanud ungari helilooja S. Kall̤s, Alice'i osa tantsib korealanna Hye Min Kim

  19. ALICE EXPERIMENT Time of Flight Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Charged particules are identified in ALICE by Time-Of-Flight (TOF); heavier particles are slower and it takes for them longer to reach the outer layers of the detector. For TOF system ALICE uses detectors called Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), like the prototype shown here.

  20. ALICES: advanced software engineering workshop for real-time simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, A.; Rouault, G. [Tractebel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-01

    The ALICES software workshop is presently being applied for the development of a multifunctional simulator for Belgium`s Tihange-1 nuclear power unit. This will be the best validation for all the functions included in the tools. It is believed that ALICES will permit the development of quality realtime simulators at a significantly lower price.

  1. ALICE Diffractive Detector Control System for RUN-II in the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00522336; Martinez, M.I.; Monzon, I. Leon

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes general characteristics of the deployment and commissioned of the Detector Control System (DCS) AD0 for the second phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The AD0 detector is installed in the ALICE experiment to provide a better selection of diffractive events.

  2. Open access for ALICE analysis based on virtualization technology

    CERN Document Server

    Buncic, P; Schutz, Y

    2015-01-01

    Open access is one of the important leverages for long-term data preservation for a HEP experiment. To guarantee the usability of data analysis tools beyond the experiment lifetime it is crucial that third party users from the scientific community have access to the data and associated software. The ALICE Collaboration has developed a layer of lightweight components built on top of virtualization technology to hide the complexity and details of the experiment-specific software. Users can perform basic analysis tasks within CernVM, a lightweight generic virtual machine, paired with an ALICE specific contextualization. Once the virtual machine is launched, a graphical user interface is automatically started without any additional configuration. This interface allows downloading the base ALICE analysis software and running a set of ALICE analysis modules. Currently the available tools include fully documented tutorials for ALICE analysis, such as the measurement of strange particle production or the nuclear modi...

  3. The DELPHI silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H

    1997-01-01

    The DELPHI collaboration has upgraded the Silicon Vertex Detector in order to cope with the physics requirements for LEP200. The new detector consists of a barrel section with three layers of microstrip detectors and a forward extension made of hybrid pixel and large pitch strip detectors. The layout of the detector and the techniques used for the different parts of the new silicon detector shall be described.

  4. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  5. The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ALICE Collaboration; Aamodt, K.; Abrahantes Quintana, A.; Achenbach, R.; Acounis, S.; Adamová, D.; Adler, C.; Aggarwal, M.; Agnese, F.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, S.; Akindinov, A.; Akishin, P.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alfaro, R.; Alfarone, G.; Alici, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Amend, W.; Andrei, C.; Andres, Y.; Andronic, A.; Anelli, G.; Anfreville, M.; Angelov, V.; Anzo, A.; Anson, C.; Anticić, T.; Antonenko, V.; Antonczyk, D.; Antinori, F.; Antinori, S.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Aprodu, V.; Arba, M.; Arcelli, S.; Argentieri, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Arefiev, A.; Arsene, I.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Awes, T. C.; Äysto, J.; Danish Azmi, M.; Bablock, S.; Badalà, A.; Badyal, S. K.; Baechler, J.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldit, A.; Bán, J.; Barbera, R.; Barberis, P.-L.; Barbet, J. M.; Barnäfoldi, G.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Bartos, D.; Basile, M.; Basmanov, V.; Bastid, N.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baudot, J.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I.; Becker, B.; Belikov, J.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belogianni, A.; Belyaev, S.; Benato, A.; Beney, J. L.; Benhabib, L.; Benotto, F.; Beolé, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdermann, E.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bernard, C.; Berny, R.; Berst, J. D.; Bertelsen, H.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Baskar, P.; Bhati, A.; Bianchi, N.; Bielčik, J.; Bielčiková, J.; Bimbot, L.; Blanchard, G.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Blyth, S.; Boccioli, M.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bombonati, C.; Bondila, M.; Bonnet, D.; Bonvicini, V.; Borel, H.; Borotto, F.; Borshchov, V.; Bortoli, Y.; Borysov, O.; Bose, S.; Bosisio, L.; Botje, M.; Böttger, S.; Bourdaud, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, S.; Braem, A.; Braun, M.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bravina, L.; Bregant, M.; Bruckner, G.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Brunasso, O.; Bruno, G. E.; Bucher, D.; Budilov, V.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Buncic, P.; Burns, M.; Burachas, S.; Busch, O.; Bushop, J.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calaon, F.; Caldogno, M.; Cali, I.; Camerini, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Campbell, M.; Cao, X.; Capitani, G. P.; Romeo, G. Cara; Cardenas-Montes, M.; Carduner, H.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Cariola, P.; Carminati, F.; Casado, J.; Casanova Diaz, A.; Caselle, M.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castor, J.; Catanescu, V.; Cattaruzza, E.; Cavazza, D.; Cerello, P.; Ceresa, S.; Černý, V.; Chambert, V.; Chapeland, S.; Charpy, A.; Charrier, D.; Chartoire, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chepurnov, V.; Chernenko, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chochula, P.; Chiavassa, E.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Choi, J.; Christakoglou, P.; Christiansen, P.; Christensen, C.; Chykalov, O. A.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli-Strolin, L.; Ciobanu, M.; Cindolo, F.; Cirstoiu, C.; Clausse, O.; Cleymans, J.; Cobanoglu, O.; Coffin, J.-P.; Coli, S.; Colla, A.; Colledani, C.; Combaret, C.; Combet, M.; Comets, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J.; Cormier, T.; Corsi, F.; Cortese, P.; Costa, F.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cussonneau, J.; Dahlinger, M.; Dainese, A.; Dalsgaard, H. H.; Daniel, L.; Das, I.; Das, T.; Dash, A.; Da Silva, R.; Davenport, M.; Daues, H.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; De Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; de Gaspari, M.; de Girolamo, P.; de Groot, J.; De Gruttola, D.; De Haas, A.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Remigis, P.; de Vaux, D.; Decock, G.; Delagrange, H.; Del Franco, M.; Dellacasa, G.; Dell'Olio, C.; Dell'Olio, D.; Deloff, A.; Demanov, V.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Derkach, D.; Devaux, A.; Di Bari, D.; Di Bartolomeo, A.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dialinas, M.; Diaz, L.; Díaz Valdes, R.; Dietel, T.; Dima, R.; Ding, H.; Dinca, C.; Divià, R.; Dobretsov, V.; Dobrin, A.; Doenigus, B.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domínguez, I.; Dorn, M.; Drouet, S.; Dubey, A. E.; Ducroux, L.; Dumitrache, F.; Dumonteil, E.; Dupieux, P.; Duta, V.; Dutta Majumdar, A.; Dutta Majumdar, M.; Dyhre, Th; Efimov, L.; Efremov, A.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engster, C.; Enokizono, A.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Evangelista, A.; Evans, D.; Evrard, S.; Fabjan, C. W.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Farano, R.; Fearick, R.; Fedorov, O.; Fekete, V.; Felea, D.; Feofilov, G.; Férnandez Téllez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Fichera, F.; Filchagin, S.; Filoni, E.; Finck, C.; Fini, R.; Fiore, E. M.; Flierl, D.; Floris, M.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, Y.; Fokin, S.; Force, P.; Formenti, F.; Fragiacomo, E.; Fragkiadakis, M.; Fraissard, D.; Franco, A.; Franco, M.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fratino, U.; Fresneau, S.; Frolov, A.; Fuchs, U.; Fujita, J.; Furget, C.; Furini, M.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J.-J.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadrat, S.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gaido, L.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gallio, M.; Gandolfi, E.; Ganoti, P.; Ganti, M.; Garabatos, J.; Garcia Lopez, A.; Garizzo, L.; Gaudichet, L.; Gemme, R.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Giolu, G.; Giraudo, G.; Giubellino, P.; Glasow, R.; Glässel, P.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Gonzalez Gutierrez, C.; Gonzales-Trueba, L. H.; Gorbunov, S.; Gorbunov, Y.; Gos, H.; Gosset, J.; Gotovac, S.; Gottschlag, H.; Gottschalk, D.; Grabski, V.; Grassi, T.; Gray, H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grebieszkow, K.; Gregory, C.; Grigoras, C.; Grion, N.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, C.; Grigoryan, S.; Grishuk, Y.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Grynyov, B.; Guarnaccia, C.; Guber, F.; Guerin, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, M.; Guichard, A.; Guida, M.; Guilloux, G.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, V.; Gustafsson, H.-A.; Gutbrod, H.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamar, G.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Hansen, J. C.; Hardy, P.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Harris, J. W.; Hartig, M.; Harutyunyan, A.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Hasch, D.; Hasegan, D.; Hehner, J.; Heine, N.; Heinz, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herlant, S.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hetland, K.; Hille, P.; Hinke, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hoch, M.; Hoebbel, H.; Hoedlmoser, H.; Horaguchi, T.; Horner, M.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Hu, S.; Guo, C. Hu; Humanic, T.; Hurtado, A.; Hwang, D. S.; Ianigro, J. C.; Idzik, M.; Igolkin, S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Imhoff, M.; Innocenti, P. G.; Ionescu, E.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Insa, C.; Inuzuka, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jacobs, P.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jančurová, L.; Janik, R.; Jasper, M.; Jena, C.; Jirden, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jones, G. T.; Jorgensen, C.; Jouve, F.; Jovanović, P.; Junique, A.; Jusko, A.; Jung, H.; Jung, W.; Kadija, K.; Kamal, A.; Kamermans, R.; Kapusta, S.; Kaidalov, A.; Kakoyan, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kang, E.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplin, V.; Karadzhev, K.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Karpio, K.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Mohsin Khan, M.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kikola, D.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, H. N.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, S.; Kinson, J. B.; Kiprich, S. K.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, T.; Kiworra, V.; Klay, J.; Klein Bösing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Klimov, A.; Klovning, A.; Kluge, A.; Kluit, R.; Kniege, S.; Kolevatov, R.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kornas, E.; Koshurnikov, E.; Kotov, I.; Kour, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Kozlov, K.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kraus, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krawutschke, T.; Krivda, M.; Kryshen, E.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugler, A.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, N.; Kumpumaeki, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. N.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kutovsky, M.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M.; Labbé, J.-C.; Lackner, F.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lafage, V.; La Rocca, P.; Lamont, M.; Lara, C.; Larsen, D. T.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Bornec, Y.; Le Bris, N.; Le Gailliard, C.; Lebedev, V.; Lecoq, J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. C.; Lefévre, F.; Legrand, I.; Lehmann, T.; Leistam, L.; Lenoir, P.; Lenti, V.; Leon, H.; Monzon, I. Leon; Lévai, P.; Li, Q.; Li, X.; Librizzi, F.; Lietava, R.; Lindegaard, N.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M.; Listratenko, O. M.; Littel, F.; Liu, Y.; Lo, J.; Lobanov, V.; Loginov, V.; López Noriega, M.; López-Ramírez, R.; López Torres, E.; Lorenzo, P. M.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, S.; Ludolphs, W.; Lunardon, M.; Luquin, L.; Lusso, S.; Lutz, J.-R.; Luvisetto, M.; Lyapin, V.; Maevskaya, A.; Magureanu, C.; Mahajan, A.; Majahan, S.; Mahmoud, T.; Mairani, A.; Mahapatra, D.; Makarov, A.; Makhlyueva, I.; Malek, M.; Malkiewicz, T.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manea, C.; Mangotra, L. K.; Maniero, D.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marcel, A.; Marchini, S.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marin, A.; Marin, J.-C.; Marras, D.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Martínez Garcia, G.; Martini, S.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Marzocca, C.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masetti, M.; Maslov, N. I.; Masoni, A.; Massera, F.; Mast, M.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z. L.; Mayer, B.; Mazza, G.; Mazzaro, M. D.; Mazzoni, A.; Meddi, F.; Meleshko, E.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meneghini, S.; Meoni, M.; Mercado Perez, J.; Mereu, P.; Meunier, O.; Miake, Y.; Michalon, A.; Michinelli, R.; Miftakhov, N.; Mignone, M.; Mikhailov, K.; Milosevic, J.; Minaev, Y.; Minafra, F.; Mischke, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitsyn, V.; Mitu, C.; Mohanty, B.; Moisa, D.; Molnar, L.; Mondal, M.; Mondal, N.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Morando, M.; Morel, M.; Moretto, S.; Morhardt, Th; Morsch, A.; Moukhanova, T.; Mucchi, M.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Müller, H.; Müller, W.; Munoz, J.; Mura, D.; Musa, L.; Muraz, J. F.; Musso, A.; Nania, R.; Nandi, B.; Nappi, E.; Navach, F.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T.; Nazarenko, S.; Nazarov, G.; Nellen, L.; Nendaz, F.; Nianine, A.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B.; Nitti, M.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noto, F.; Nouais, D.; Nyiri, A.; Nystrand, J.; Odyniec, G.; Oeschler, H.; Oinonen, M.; Oldenburg, M.; Oleks, I.; Olsen, E. K.; Onuchin, V.; Oppedisano, C.; Orsini, F.; Ortiz-Velázquez, A.; Oskamp, C.; Oskarsson, A.; Osmic, F.; Österman, L.; Otterlund, I.; Ovrebekk, G.; Oyama, K.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S.; Pal, S.; Pálla, G.; Palmeri, A.; Pancaldi, G.; Panse, R.; Pantaleo, A.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pastirčák, B.; Pastore, C.; Patarakin, O.; Paticchio, V.; Patimo, G.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pénichot, Y.; Pepato, A.; Pereira, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez, C.; Perez Griffo, J.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Peters, A. J.; Petráček, V.; Petridis, A.; Petris, M.; Petrov, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Peyré, J.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pichot, P.; Piemonte, C.; Pikna, M.; Pilastrini, R.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pini, B.; Pinsky, L.; Pinto Morais, V.; Pismennaya, V.; Piuz, F.; Platt, R.; Ploskon, M.; Plumeri, S.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Podesta, P.; Poggio, F.; Poghosyan, M.; Poghosyan, T.; Polák, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Polozov, P.; Polyakov, V.; Pommeresch, B.; Pompei, F.; Pop, A.; Popescu, S.; Posa, F.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Pouthas, J.; Prasad, S.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Prodan, L.; Prono, G.; Protsenko, M. A.; Pruneau, C. A.; Przybyla, A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Pulvirenti, A.; Punin, A.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Quartieri, J.; Quercigh, E.; Rachevskaya, I.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Radomski, S.; Radu, A.; Rak, J.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rasmussen, O. B.; Rasson, J.; Razin, V.; Read, K.; Real, J.; Redlich, K.; Reichling, C.; Renard, C.; Renault, G.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Ricaud, H.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Rigalleau, L. M.; Riggi, F.; Riegler, W.; Rindel, E.; Riso, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rizzi, M.; Rizzi, V.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Røed, K.; Röhrich, D.; Román-López, S.; Romanato, M.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosinsky, P.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Rostchin, V.; Rotondo, F.; Roukoutakis, F.; Rousseau, S.; Roy, C.; Roy, D.; Roy, P.; Royer, L.; Rubin, G.; Rubio, A.; Rui, R.; Rusanov, I.; Russo, G.; Ruuskanen, V.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahoo, R.; Saini, J.; Saiz, P.; Salur, S.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Santiard, J.-C.; Santo, R.; Santoro, R.; Sargsyan, G.; Saturnini, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Schackert, B.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schioler, T.; Schippers, J. D.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H.; Schneider, R.; Schossmaier, K.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Schyns, E.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Snow, H.; Sedykh, S.; Segato, G.; Sellitto, S.; Semeria, F.; Senyukov, S.; Seppänen, H.; Serci, S.; Serkin, L.; Serra, S.; Sesselmann, T.; Sevcenco, A.; Sgura, I.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharkov, E.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shileev, K.; Shukla, P.; Shurygin, A.; Shurygina, M.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddi, E.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Sigward, M. H.; Silenzi, A.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestri, R.; Simili, E.; Simion, V.; Simon, R.; Simonetti, L.; Singaraju, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B.; Sinha, T.; Siska, M.; Sitár, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, B.; Skowronski, P.; Slodkowski, M.; Smirnov, N.; Smykov, L.; Snellings, R.; Snoeys, W.; Soegaard, C.; Soerensen, J.; Sokolov, O.; Soldatov, A.; Soloviev, A.; Soltveit, H.; Soltz, R.; Sommer, W.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Soyk, D.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Stachel, J.; Staley, F.; Stan, I.; Stavinskiy, A.; Steckert, J.; Stefanini, G.; Stefanek, G.; Steinbeck, T.; Stelzer, H.; Stenlund, E.; Stocco, D.; Stockmeier, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolpovsky, P.; Strmeň, P.; Stutzmann, J. S.; Su, G.; Sugitate, T.; Šumbera, M.; Suire, C.; Susa, T.; Sushil Kumar, K.; Swoboda, D.; Symons, J.; Szarka, I.; Szostak, A.; Szuba, M.; Szymanski, P.; Tadel, M.; Tagridis, C.; Tan, L.; Tapia Takaki, D.; Taureg, H.; Tauro, A.; Tavlet, M.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Thäder, J.; Tieulent, R.; Timmer, P.; Tolyhy, T.; Topilskaya, N.; Torcato de Matos, C.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Tosello, F.; Tournaire, A.; Traczyk, T.; Tröger, G.; Tromeur, W.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W.; Tsiledakis, G.; Tsilis, E.; Tsvetkov, A.; Turcato, M.; Turrisi, R.; Tuveri, M.; Tveter, T.; Tydesjo, H.; Tykarski, L.; Tywoniuk, K.; Ugolini, E.; Ullaland, K.; Urbán, J.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Usseglio, M.; Vacchi, A.; Vala, M.; Valiev, F.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Den Brink, A.; Van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Der Kolk, N.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vanzetto, S.; Vanuxem, J.-P.; Vargas, M. A.; Varma, R.; Vascotto, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Vassiliou, M.; Vasta, P.; Vechernin, V.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Verhoeven, W.; Veronese, F.; Vetlitskiy, I.; Vernet, R.; Victorov, V.; Vidak, L.; Viesti, G.; Vikhlyantsev, O.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y.; Vodopianov, A.; Volpe, G.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wabnitz, C.; Wagner, V.; Wallet, L.; Wan, R.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wheadon, R.; Weis, R.; Wen, Q.; Wessels, J.; Westergaard, J.; Wiechula, J.; Wiesenaecker, A.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, C.; Willis, N.; Windelband, B.; Witt, R.; Woehri, H.; Wyllie, K.; Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Yang, H.; Yermia, F.; Yin, Z.; Yin, Z.; Ky, B. Yun; Yushmanov, I.; Yuting, B.; Zabrodin, E.; Zagato, S.; Zagreev, B.; Zaharia, P.; Zalite, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampolli, C.; Zanevskiy, Y.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zaudtke, O.; Závada, P.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zepeda, A.; Zeter, V.; Zgura, I.; Zhalov, M.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, S.; Zhu, G.; Zichichi, A.; Zinchenko, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zubarev, A.; Zucchini, A.; Zuffa, M.

    2008-08-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a general-purpose, heavy-ion detector at the CERN LHC which focuses on QCD, the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model. It is designed to address the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at extreme values of energy density and temperature in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Besides running with Pb ions, the physics programme includes collisions with lighter ions, lower energy running and dedicated proton-nucleus runs. ALICE will also take data with proton beams at the top LHC energy to collect reference data for the heavy-ion programme and to address several QCD topics for which ALICE is complementary to the other LHC detectors. The ALICE detector has been built by a collaboration including currently over 1000 physicists and engineers from 105 Institutes in 30 countries. Its overall dimensions are 16 × 16 × 26 m3 with a total weight of approximately 10 000 t. The experiment consists of 18 different detector systems each with its own specific technology choice and design constraints, driven both by the physics requirements and the experimental conditions expected at LHC. The most stringent design constraint is to cope with the extreme particle multiplicity anticipated in central Pb-Pb collisions. The different subsystems were optimized to provide high-momentum resolution as well as excellent Particle Identification (PID) over a broad range in momentum, up to the highest multiplicities predicted for LHC. This will allow for comprehensive studies of hadrons, electrons, muons, and photons produced in the collision of heavy nuclei. Most detector systems are scheduled to be installed and ready for data taking by mid-2008 when the LHC is scheduled to start operation, with the exception of parts of the Photon Spectrometer (PHOS), Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) and Electro Magnetic Calorimeter (EMCal). These detectors will be completed for the high-luminosity ion run expected in 2010. This

  6. Heavy-flavour production in ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Shingo

    2014-06-15

    We present measurements of heavy-flavour production in Pb–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV and in p–Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. A strong suppression of heavy-flavour production at high p{sub T} is observed in central Pb–Pb collisions, while non-zero elliptic flow is seen at low p{sub T} in semi-central collisions. The cold nuclear matter effects on the measurements in Pb–Pb collisions have been investigated in p–Pb collisions, and no large effects have been observed.

  7. The Kepler Pixel Response Function

    CERN Document Server

    Bryson, Stephen T; Jenkins, Jon M; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Klaus, Todd; Caldwell, Douglas A; Gilliland, Ronald L; Haas, Michael R; Dotson, Jessie L; Koch, David G; Borucki, William J

    2010-01-01

    Kepler seeks to detect sequences of transits of Earth-size exoplanets orbiting Solar-like stars. Such transit signals are on the order of 100 ppm. The high photometric precision demanded by Kepler requires detailed knowledge of how the Kepler pixels respond to starlight during a nominal observation. This information is provided by the Kepler pixel response function (PRF), defined as the composite of Kepler's optical point spread function, integrated spacecraft pointing jitter during a nominal cadence and other systematic effects. To provide sub-pixel resolution, the PRF is represented as a piecewise-continuous polynomial on a sub-pixel mesh. This continuous representation allows the prediction of a star's flux value on any pixel given the star's pixel position. The advantages and difficulties of this polynomial representation are discussed, including characterization of spatial variation in the PRF and the smoothing of discontinuities between sub-pixel polynomial patches. On-orbit super-resolution measurement...

  8. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the “ITk” (Inner Tracker). The pixel detector will comprise the five innermost layers, and will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Four layout options are being investigated at the moment, two with forward coverage to |eta| < 3.2 and two to |eta| < 4. For each coverage option, a layout with long barrel staves and a layout with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region are considered. All potential layouts include modules mounted on ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions...

  9. The Phase II ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Terzo, Stefano; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the "ITk" (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of ITk will consist of a pixel detector with five layers in the barrel region and and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions. It will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m$^2$ , depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Several layout options are being investigated at the moment, including some with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region and others with very long innermost barrel layers. Forward coverage could be as high as $|\\eta| < 4$. Supporting structures will be ...

  10. Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Keith; Loudin, James; Goetz, Georges; Huie, Philip; Wang, Lele; Kamins, Theodore I.; Galambos, Ludwig; Smith, Richard; Harris, James S.; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases lead to blindness due to loss of the `image capturing' photoreceptors, while neurons in the `image-processing' inner retinal layers are relatively well preserved. Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight by electrically stimulating the surviving neurons. Most implants are powered through inductive coils, requiring complex surgical methods to implant the coil-decoder-cable-array systems that deliver energy to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which silicon photodiodes in each pixel receive power and data directly through pulsed near-infrared illumination and electrically stimulate neurons. Stimulation is produced in normal and degenerate rat retinas, with pulse durations of 0.5-4 ms, and threshold peak irradiances of 0.2-10 mW mm-2, two orders of magnitude below the ocular safety limit. Neural responses were elicited by illuminating a single 70 µm bipolar pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density.

  11. Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K

    2001-01-01

    expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

  12. Quarkonium production in ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjidakis, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC, the ALICE Collaboration is studying Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) matter at very high energy density where the formation of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) is expected. Quarkonium production is an important probe to characterize the QGP properties. High precision data in pp collisions provide the baseline of Pb-Pb measurements and p-Pb collisions serve to quantify the amount of initial and/or final state effects, related to cold nuclear matter, that are largely unknown at the LHC energy. Since 2010, the LHC provided Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76 TeV, pp collisions at various energies and in 2013 p-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02 TeV. In ALICE, quarkonia can be reconstructed at forward rapidity in the dimuon channel and at mid-rapidity in the dielectron channel, and, for both channels, down to zero transverse momentum. New measurements on inclusive production of J/psi, psi (2S) and Upsilon performed in p-Pb collisions and on the p_T dependence of inclusive J/psi in ...

  13. Quarkonium production in ALICE at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjidakis, Cynthia

    2014-12-15

    In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC, the ALICE Collaboration is studying Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) matter at very high energy density where the formation of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) is expected. Quarkonium production is an important probe to characterize the QGP properties. High precision data in pp collisions provide the baseline of the Pb–Pb measurements and data in p–Pb collisions serve to quantify the contribution of initial and/or final state effects, related to cold nuclear matter. Since 2010, the LHC provided Pb–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV, pp collisions at various energies and in 2013 p–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=5.02 TeV. ALICE measures quarkonium production from zero transverse momentum in the dimuon channel at forward rapidity and in the dielectron channel at mid-rapidity. This proceedings presents the new results on inclusive production of J/ψ, ψ(2S) and ϒ performed in p–Pb collisions and on the p{sub T} dependence of inclusive J/ψ in Pb–Pb collisions. The contribution of J/ψ from B hadrons to the inclusive production in Pb–Pb is also discussed. Finally, the p–Pb measurements allow an estimation of the contribution of the cold nuclear matter effect to the Pb–Pb measurements and this is also reported.

  14. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnasco, S; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cerello, P G; Saiz, P

    2003-01-01

    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Storage Element and Computing Element), and act as interface nodes between the systems. An EDG Resource Broker is seen by the AliEn server as a single Computing Element, while the EDG storage is seen by AliEn as a single, large Storage Element; files produced in EDG sites are registered in both the EDG Replica Catalogue and in the AliEn Data Catalogue, thus ensuring accessibility from both worlds. In fact, both registrations are required: the AliEn one is used for the data management, the EDG one to guarantee the integrity and...

  15. Particle identification in ALICE: a Bayesian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Balasubramanian, Supraja; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Benacek, Pavel; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; 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Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kostarakis, Panagiotis; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; 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Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasin, Zafar; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-01-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to particle identification (PID) within the ALICE experiment. The aim is to more effectively combine the particle identification capabilities of its various detectors. After a brief explanation of the adopted methodology and formalism, the performance of the Bayesian PID approach for charged pions, kaons and protons in the central barrel of ALICE is studied. PID is performed via measurements of specific energy loss (dE/dx) and time-of-flight. PID efficiencies and misidentification probabilities are extracted and compared with Monte Carlo simulations using high purity samples of identified particles in the decay channels ${\\rm K}_{\\rm S}^{\\rm 0}\\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-$, $\\phi\\rightarrow {\\rm K}^-{\\rm K}^+$ and $\\Lambda\\rightarrow{\\rm p}\\pi^-$ in p–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}= 5.02$TeV. In order to thoroughly assess the validity of the Bayesian approach, this methodology was used to obtain corrected $p_{\\rm T}$ spectra of pions, kaons, protons, and D$^0$ mesons in pp coll...

  16. A germanium hybrid pixel detector with 55μm pixel size and 65,000 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennicard, D.; Struth, B.; Hirsemann, H.; Sarajlic, M.; Smoljanin, S.; Zuvic, M.; Lampert, M. O.; Fritzsch, T.; Rothermund, M.; Graafsma, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors provide high performance through a combination of direct detection, a relatively small pixel size, fast readout and sophisticated signal processing circuitry in each pixel. For X-ray detection above 20 keV, high-Z sensor layers rather than silicon are needed to achieve high quantum efficiency, but many high-Z materials such as GaAs and CdTe often suffer from poor material properties or nonuniformities. Germanium is available in large wafers of extremely high quality, making it an appealing option for high-performance hybrid pixel X-ray detectors, but suitable technologies for finely pixelating and bump-bonding germanium have not previously been available. A finely-pixelated germanium photodiode sensor with a 256 by 256 array of 55μm pixels has been produced. The sensor has an n-on-p structure, with 700μm thickness. Using a low-temperature indium bump process, this sensor has been bonded to the Medipix3RX photoncounting readout chip. Tests with the LAMBDA readout system have shown that the detector works successfully, with a high bond yield and higher image uniformity than comparable high-Z systems. During cooling, the system is functional around -80°C (with warmer temperatures resulting in excessive leakage current), with -100°C sufficient for good performance.

  17. Pixelated gamma detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinsky, Sergei Ivanovich; Yanoff, Brian David; Guida, Renato; Ivan, Adrian

    2016-12-27

    A pixelated gamma detector includes a scintillator column assembly having scintillator crystals and optical transparent elements alternating along a longitudinal axis, a collimator assembly having longitudinal walls separated by collimator septum, the collimator septum spaced apart to form collimator channels, the scintillator column assembly positioned adjacent to the collimator assembly so that the respective ones of the scintillator crystal are positioned adjacent to respective ones of the collimator channels, the respective ones of the optical transparent element are positioned adjacent to respective ones of the collimator septum, and a first photosensor and a second photosensor, the first and the second photosensor each connected to an opposing end of the scintillator column assembly. A system and a method for inspecting and/or detecting defects in an interior of an object are also disclosed.

  18. Comprehensive measurements of GaAs pixel detectors capacitance

    CERN Document Server

    Caria, M; D'Auria, S; Lai, A; Randaccio, P; Cadeddu, S

    2002-01-01

    We have studied GaAs pixel detectors on semi-insulating wafers with Schottky contacts. We performed comprehensive measurements on the inter-pixel and capacitance to back plane. Being semi-insulating, the behaviour is totally different with respect to other common semiconductors, such as high resistivity silicon. Non-homogeneities are also an issue, due to both the contacts and the crystal bulk. In order to detect them and their influence on capacitance, we undertook systematic measurements with different configurations of the measuring electrodes.

  19. ALICE Diffractive Detector Control System for RUN-II in the ALICE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, J. C.; Martínez, M. I.; León, I.

    2016-10-01

    The ALICE Diffractive (AD0) detector has been installed and commissioned for the second phase of operation (RUN-II). With this new detector it is possible to achieve better measurements by expanding the range of pseudo-rapidity in which the production of particles can be detected. Specifically the selection of diffractive events in the ALICE experiment which was limited by the range over which rapidity gaps occur. Any new detector should be able to take data synchronously with all other detectors and to be operated through the ALICE central systems. One of the key elements developed for the AD0 detector is the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS is designed to operate safely and correctly this detector. Furthermore, the DCS must also provide optimum operating conditions for the acquisition and storage of physics data and ensure these are of the highest quality. The operation of AD0 implies the configuration of about 200 parameters, as electronics settings and power supply levels and the generation of safety alerts. It also includes the automation of procedures to get the AD0 detector ready for taking data in the appropriate conditions for the different run types in ALICE. The performance of AD0 detector depends on a certain number of parameters such as the nominal voltages for each photomultiplier tube (PMT), the threshold levels to accept or reject the incoming pulses, the definition of triggers, etc. All these parameters affect the efficiency of AD0 and they have to be monitored and controlled by the AD0 DCS.

  20. Planar Pixelations and Image Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Rowekamp, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Any subset of the plane can be approximated by a set of square pixels. This transition from a shape to its pixelation is rather brutal since it destroys geometric and topological information about the shape. Using a technique inspired by Morse Theory, we algorithmically produce a PL approximation of the original shape using only information from its pixelation. This approximation converges to the original shape in a very strong sense: as the size of the pixels goes to zero we can recover important geometric and topological invariants of the original shape such as Betti numbers, area, perimeter and curvature measures.

  1. Recent hadronic resonance measurements at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Knospe, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion physics, measurements of short-lived hadronic resonances allow the properties of the hadronic phase of the collision to be studied. In addition, resonances can be used along with stable hadrons to study parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma and the mechanisms that shape hadron pT spectra at intermediate transverse momenta. Resonance measurements in small systems serve as a reference for heavy-ion collisions and contribute to searches for collective effects. An overview of recent results on hadronic resonance production measured in ALICE is presented. These results include the pT spectra and yields of the rho(770)0, K*(892)0, and phi(1020) mesons in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at different energies as well as the Sigma(1385)+/- and Xi(1530)0 baryons in pp and p-Pb collisions.

  2. Trigger electronics for the ALICE PHOS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Musa, L; Yin, Z; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Sibiryak, Yu; Budnikov, D L

    2004-01-01

    The Photon Spectrometer of ALICE consists of 5 identical modules of 56 multiplied by 64 PWO crystals with a total of 100 degree azimuthal coverage of the barrel. The electronics required for implementing both the L0 trigger for high luminosity p-p physics and the L1 trigger for high p//T Pb+Pb physics has been studied. A full integration of the trigger logic into the detector's enclosure is based on analog transmission of fast trigger sums between stacks of front-end boards and trigger-router units. The latter contain 112 digitizer channels of 10bit, which are mapped into a single FPGA per trigger unit, covering areas of 24 multiplied by 16 crystals. The running modes allow for Level-0 trigger at 800ns and Level-1 at 6200ns trigger latencies. The design and status of the PHOS trigger electronics are outlined.

  3. ALICE & LHCb: refinements for the restart

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Following the previous issue, the Bulletin continues its series to find out what the six LHC experiments have been up to since last September, and how they are preparing for the restart. Previously we looked at CMS and ATLAS; this issue we will round up the past 10 months of activity at ALICE and LHCb. LHCb The cavern of the LHCb experiment. This year has given LHCb the chance to install the 5th and final plane of muon chambers, which will improve the triggering at nominal luminosity. This is the final piece of the experiment to be installed. "Now the detector looks exactly as it does in the technical design report," confirms Andrei Golutvin, LHCb Spokesperson. "We also took advantage of this shutdown to make several improvements. For example, we modified the high voltage system of the electromagnetic calorimeter to reduce noise further to a negligible level. We also took some measures to improve ...

  4. Timing in the ALICE trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Lietava, Roman; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jovanovic, P; Jusko, A; Králik, I; Krivda, M; Pastircák, B; Sándor, L; Urbán, J; Villalobos Baillie, O

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss trigger signals synchronisation and trigger input alignment in the ALICE trigger system. The synchronisation procedure adjusts the phase of the input signals with respect to the local Bunch Crossing (BC) clock and, indirectly, with respect to the LHC bunch crossing instant. The synchronisation delays are within one clock period: 0-25 ns. The alignment assures that the trigger signals originating from the same bunch crossing reach the processor logic in the same clock cycle. It is achieved by delaying signals by an appropriate number of full clock periods. We propose a procedure which will allow us to nd alignment delays during the system con guration, and to monitor them during the data taking.

  5. Jet measurements by ALICE at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultanov, Rishat, E-mail: rishat.sultanov@cern.ch [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Collaboration: ALICE Collaboration

    2015-12-15

    Jets are collimated sprays of particles originating from fragmentation of high energy partons produced in a hard collision. They are an important diagnostic tool in studies of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). The modification of the jet fragmentation pattern and its structure is a signature for the influence of hot and dense matter on the parton fragmentation process. Jet measurements in proton-proton collisions provide a baseline for similar measurements in heavy-ion collisions, while studies in proton-nucleus system allow to estimate cold nuclear matter effects. Here we present jet studies in different colliding systems (p–p, p–Pb, Pb–Pb) performed by the ALICE collaboration at LHC energies. Results on jet spectra, cross sections, nuclear modification factors, jet structure and other kinematic observables will be presented.

  6. Controls Interfaces for Two ALICE Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomen, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Software for the control of a laser alignment system for the Inner Tacking System (ITS) and for the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) was developed for the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) at CERN. The interfaces for both subsystems use the CERN-standard hardware controls system PVSS (Prozessvisualisierungs- und Steuerungs-System). Software for the ITS has been created to measure the relative alignment of the ITS with the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) so to ensure accurate particle tracking. The ITS alignment system locates laser images in four cameras. The EMC requires several subsystems to be running in order to operate properly. Software has been created and tested for the detector's high and low voltage systems, and temperature monitoring hardware. The ITS and EMC software specifications and design requirements are presented and their performance is analyzed.

  7. Recent ALICE results on hadronic resonance production

    CERN Document Server

    Badalà, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Hadronic resonances are a valuable tool to study the properties of the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions. In particular, they can provide information on particle-formation mechanisms and on the properties of the medium at chemical freeze-out. Furthermore they contribute to the systematic study of parton energy loss and quark recombination. Measurements of resonances in pp and in p-Pb collisions provide a necessary baseline for heavy-ion data and help to disentangle initial-state effects from medium-induced effects. In this paper the latest ALICE results on mid-rapidity K*(892)^0 and {\\phi}(1020) production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies are presented

  8. Heavy flavour measurements with ALICE at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Castellanos, Javier [service de physique nucleaire - SPhN, IRFU, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. The main purpose of ALICE is to investigate the properties of a state of deconfined nuclear matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma. Heavy flavour measurements will play a crucial role in this investigation. The physics programme of ALICE has started by studying proton-proton collisions at unprecedented high energies. We will present the first results on open heavy flavour and quarkonia in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV measured by the ALICE experiment at both mid- and forward-rapidities. We will conclude with the prospects for heavy flavour and quarkonium measurements in both proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions. (author)

  9. ALICE installs new hardware in preparation for the 2012 run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin and ALICE Matters

    2012-01-01

    2011 was a fantastic year for the heavy-ion run at ALICE despite unprecedented challenges and difficult conditions. The data collected is at least one order of magnitude greater than the 2010 data. Thanks to a planned upgrade to two subdetectors during the 2011/2012 winter shutdown and a reorganisation of ALICE’s Physics Working Groups that should allow them to better deal with the greater challenges imposed by the LHC, the collaboration is confident that the 2011 run will allow ALICE to extend its physics reach and improve its performance.   Photograph of ALICE taken by Antonio Saba during this year's winter shutdown. The annual winter shutdown has been a very intense period for the ALICE collaboration. In conjunction with the general maintenance, modifications and tests of the experiment, two major projects – the installation of 3 supermodules of the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) and 2 supermodules of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMCal) – hav...

  10. Sampling Lake Alice NWR Fish Populations - 2014, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The USFWS and North Dakota Game and Fish Department sampled Northern pike, walleye, yellow perch and white bass within the boundary of Lake Alice NWR in North...

  11. Intrajet radiation study with the ALICE experiment at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jangal, Swensy, E-mail: swensy.jangal@ires.in2p3.fr [IPHC, 23 rue du Loess-BP 28, 67037 STRASBOURG cedex 2 (France)

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration is interested in measuring the {xi} ln(p{sup jet}{sub T}/p{sup hadron}{sub T}) distribution of hadrons in jets known as the Hump-backed plateau (HBP). After an introduction to color coherence effects responsible for the shape of the HBP, we discuss the ALICE capabilities to perform such a study. Preliminary results from ALICE for non corrected charged particle and jet spectra measurement in p+p collisions at {radical}s = 900 GeV and 7 TeV are presented. Finally, we show the results of a MC based analysis of intrajet radiations. It supports the idea of jet collimation which increases with increasing jet energy as expected from QCD and show the feasability of this study with ALICE.

  12. ALICE takes root in Saint-Genis-Pouilly

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    To celebrate the CERN 50th anniversary and to emphasize the close ties between the community of Saint-Genis-Pouilly, CERN and the ALICE Collaboration, Hubert Bertrand, Mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly and Christian Fabjan, Technical Coordinator of the ALICE Experiment, planted a tree on Saturday 16 October 2004 in front of the Jean Monet Culture Center.

  13. ALICE takes root in Saint-Genis-Pouilly

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To celebrate the CERN 50th anniversary and to emphasize the close ties between the community of Saint-Genis-Pouilly, CERN and the ALICE Collaboration, Hubert Bertrand, Mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly and Christian Fabjan, Technical Coordinator of the ALICE Experiment, planted a tree on Saturday 16 October 2004 in front of the Jean Monet Culture Center.

  14. ALICE's main austenitic stainless steel support structure (the Space Frame)

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This structure is constructed to hold the large volume detectors, such as the Time Projection Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time of Flight inside the ALICE solenoid magnet. After the final assembly at CERN, two large mobile cranes were needed for the job of lifting and turning the 14 tonne frame onto its side. Once shifted, it was placed in Building SX2, one of the surface assembly areas designated for ALICE.

  15. Performance of the ALICE Experiment at the CERN LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny; Adam, Jaroslav; Adamova, Dagmar; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agostinelli, Andrea; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Berger, Martin Emanuel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubskiy, Mikhail; Boehmer, Felix Valentin; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile Ioan; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; De Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dorheim, Sverre; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutt Mazumder, Abhee Kanti; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Esposito, Marco; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigory; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanouil; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Jimenez, Ramon; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Khan, Kamal; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard Richard; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskikh, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leoncino, Marco; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Okatan, Ali; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Sahoo, Pragati; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palmeri, Armando; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitry; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Pesci, Alessandro; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Pohjoisaho, Esko Heikki Oskari; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Rauf, Aamer Wali; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Sharma, Rohni; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sanchez Rodriguez, Fernando Javier; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Segato, Gianfranco; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Ter-Minasyan, Astkhik; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Vannucci, Luigi; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wagner, Vladimir; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Xiang, Changzhou; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yang, Shiming; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yi, Jungyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2014-01-01

    ALICE is the heavy-ion experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The experiment continuously took data during the first physics campaign of the machine from fall 2009 until early 2013, using proton and lead-ion beams. In this paper we describe the running environment and the data handling procedures, and discuss the performance of the ALICE detectors and analysis methods for various physics observables.

  16. VHMPID: a new detector for the ALICE experiment at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perini D.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the basic idea of VHMPID, an upgrade detector for the ALICE experiment at LHC, CERN. The main goal of this detector is to extend the particle identification capabilities of ALICE to give more insight into the evolution of the hot and dense matter created in Pb-Pb collisions. Starting from the physics motivations and working principles the challenges and current status of development is detailed.

  17. Interfacing HepMC with Alice Analysis Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Thorsbro, Brian Peter

    2014-01-01

    An interface is implemented, which injects data in a specific format called HepMC from Monte Carlo event generators into the simulation and reconstruction environment of the ALICE experiment, called ``AliRoot''. The interface can both be used in a stand alone version to analyse output from Monte Carlo event generators, or it can be used on the grid to run large scale productions in the ALICE simulation and reconstrunction environment.

  18. VHMPID: a new detector for the ALICE experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Agócs, A Gu; Barnaföldi, G G; Bellwied, R; Bencze, Gy; Berényi, D; Boldizsár, L; Cuautle, E; De Cataldo, G; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Dominguez, I; Futó, E; García, E; Hamar, G; Harris, J; Harton, A; Kovács, L; Lévai, P; Lipusz, Cs; Markert, C; Martinengo, P; Martinez, M I; Mastromarco, M; Mayani, D; Molnár, L; Nappi, E; Ortiz, A; Paić, G; Pastore, C; Patino, M E; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peskov, V; Pinsky, L; Piuz, F; Pochybová, S; Smirnov, N; Song, J; Timmins, A; Varga, D; Vargas, A; Vergara, S; Volpe, G; Yi, J; Yoo, I K

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the basic idea of VHMPID, an upgrade detector for the ALICE experiment at LHC, CERN. The main goal of this detector is to extend the particle identification capabilities of ALICE to give more insight into the evolution of the hot and dense matter created in Pb-Pb collisions. Starting from the physics motivations and working principles the challenges and current status of development is detailed.

  19. Diamond pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Robichaud, A; Potenza, R; Kuleshov, S; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Wermes, N; Dulinski, W; Eremin, V; Smith, S; Sopko, B; Olivero, P; Gorisek, A; Chren, D; Kramberger, G; Schnetzer, S; Weilhammer, P; Martemyanov, A; Hugging, F; Pernegger, H; Lagomarsino, S; Manfredotti, C; Mishina, M; Trischuk, W; Dobos, D; Cindro, V; Belyaev, V; Duris, J; Claus, G; Wallny, R; Furgeri, A; Tuve, C; Goldstein, J; Sciortino, S; Sutera, C; Asner, D; Mikuz, M; Lo Giudice, A; Velthuis, J; Hits, D; Griesmayer, E; Oakham, G; Frais-Kolbl, H; Bellini, V; D'Alessandro, R; Cristinziani, M; Barbero, M; Schaffner, D; Costa, S; Goffe, M; La Rosa, A; Bruzzi, M; Schreiner, T; de Boer, W; Parrini, G; Roe, S; Randrianarivony, K; Dolenc, I; Moss, J; Brom, J M; Golubev, A; Mathes, M; Eusebi, R; Grigoriev, E; Tsung, J W; Mueller, S; Mandic, I; Stone, R; Menichelli, D

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10(16) protons/cm(2) illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel m...

  20. The ATLAS tracker Pixel detector for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenges to the ATLAS tracker. The current Inner Detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation levels are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLAS Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options are reviewed.

  1. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Sherwood I. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  2. The Phase-1 upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Katja

    2017-02-01

    The CMS experiment features a pixel detector with three barrel layers and two discs per side, corresponding to an active silicon area of 1 m2. The detector delivered high-quality data during LHC Run 1. However, the CMS pixel detector was designed for the nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of 1 ·1034cm-2s-1 . It is expected that the instantaneous luminosity will increase and reach twice the design value before Long Shutdown 3, scheduled for 2023. Under such conditions, the present readout chip would suffer from data loss due to buffer overflow, leading to significant inefficiencies of up to 16%. The CMS collaboration is presently constructing a new pixel detector to replace the present device during the winter shutdown 2016/2017. The design of this new detector will be outlined, the construction status summarized and the performance described.

  3. Online calibrations and performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately 80 M electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region, thus allowing measuring particle tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. The readout system of the Pixel Detector is based on a bi-directional optical data transmission system between the detector and the data acquisition system with an individual link for each of the 1744 modules. Signal conversion components are located on both ends, approximately 80 m apart. The talk will give an overview of the calibration and performance of both the detector and its optical readout. The most basic parameter to be tuned and calibrated for the detector electronics is the readout threshold of the individual pixel channels. These need to be carefully tuned to optimise position resolution a...

  4. HEXITEC ASIC-a pixellated readout chip for CZT detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.l.jones@stfc.ac.uk; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Hardie, Alec [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-01

    HEXITEC is a collaborative project with the aim of developing a new range of detectors for high-energy X-ray imaging. High-energy X-ray imaging has major advantages over current lower energy imaging for the life and physical sciences, including improved phase-contrast images on larger, higher density samples and with lower accumulated doses. However, at these energies conventional silicon-based devices cannot be used, hence, the requirement for a new range of high Z-detector materials. Underpinning the HEXITEC programme are the development of a pixellated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors and a pixellated readout ASIC which will be bump-bonded to the detector. The HEXITEC ASIC is required to have low noise (20 electrons rms) and tolerate detector leakage currents. A prototype 20x20 pixel ASIC has been developed and manufactured on a standard 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process.

  5. HEXITEC ASIC—a pixellated readout chip for CZT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lawrence; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Hardie, Alec

    2009-06-01

    HEXITEC is a collaborative project with the aim of developing a new range of detectors for high-energy X-ray imaging. High-energy X-ray imaging has major advantages over current lower energy imaging for the life and physical sciences, including improved phase-contrast images on larger, higher density samples and with lower accumulated doses. However, at these energies conventional silicon-based devices cannot be used, hence, the requirement for a new range of high Z-detector materials. Underpinning the HEXITEC programme are the development of a pixellated Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors and a pixellated readout ASIC which will be bump-bonded to the detector. The HEXITEC ASIC is required to have low noise (20 electrons rms) and tolerate detector leakage currents. A prototype 20×20 pixel ASIC has been developed and manufactured on a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process.

  6. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pan, L.S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W. E-mail: william@physics.utoronto.ca; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G

    1999-11-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 {mu}m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch.

  7. Testbeam and Laboratory Characterization of CMS 3D Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Bubna, M; Krzywda, A; Koybasi, O; Arndt, K; Bortoletto, D; Shipsey, I; Bolla, G; Kok, A; Hansen, T -E; Hansen, T A; Jensen, G U; Brom, J M; Boscardin, M; Chramowicz, J; Cumalat, J; Betta, G F Dalla; Dinardo, M; Godshalk, A; Jones, M; Krohn, M D; Kumar, A; Lei, C M; Moroni, L; Perera, L; Povoli, M; Prosser, A; Rivera, R; Solano, A; Obertino, M M; Kwan, S; Uplegger, L; Via, C D; Vigani, L; Wagner, S

    2014-01-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device in CMS, reconstructing interaction vertices and charged particle trajectories. The sensors located in the innermost layers of the pixel detector must be upgraded for the ten-fold increase in luminosity expected with the High- Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) phase. As a possible replacement for planar sensors, 3D silicon technology is under consideration due to its good performance after high radiation fluence. In this paper, we report on pre- and post- irradiation measurements for CMS 3D pixel sensors with different electrode configurations. The effects of irradiation on electrical properties, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution of 3D sensors are discussed. Measurements of various test structures for monitoring the fabrication process and studying the bulk and surface properties, such as MOS capacitors, planar and gate-controlled diodes are also presented.

  8. The Phase-1 Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment features a pixel detector with three barrel layers and two disks per side, corresponding to an active silicon area of 1\\,m$^2$. The detector delivered high-quality data during LHC Run~1. However, the CMS pixel detector was designed for the nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of $1\\cdot 10^{34}\\,$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. It is expected that the instantaneous luminosity will increase and reach twice the design value before Long Shutdown 3, scheduled for 2023. Under such conditions, the present readout chip would suffer from data loss due to buffer overflow, leading to significant inefficiencies of up to~16\\,\\%. The CMS collaboration is presently constructing a new pixel detector to replace the present device during the winter shutdown 2016/2017. The design of this new detector will be outlined, the construction status summarized and the performance described.

  9. Performance of the INTPIX6 SOI pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y.; Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Idzik, M.; Kapusta, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Miyoshi, T.; Turala, M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of the monolithic pixel detector INPTIX6, designed at KEK and fabricated in Lapis 0.2 μ m Fully-Depleted, Low-Leakage Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS technology, was performed. The INTPIX6 comprises a large area of 1408 × 896 integrating type squared pixels of 12 micron pitch. In this work the performance and measurement results of the prototypes produced on lower resistivity Czochralski type (CZ-n) and high resistivity floating zone (FZ-n) sensor wafers are presented. Using 241Am radioactive source the noise of INTPIX6 was measured, showing the ENC (Equivalent Noise Charge) of about 70 e-. The resolution calculated from the FWHM of the Iron-55 X-ray peak was about 100 e-. The radiation hardness of the SOI pixel detector was also investigated. The CZ-n type INTPIX6 received a dose of 60 krad and its performance has been continuously monitored during the irradiation.

  10. From Pixels to Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownston, Lee; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission was launched in 2009 as NASAs first mission capable of finding Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Its telescope consists of a 1.5-m primary mirror and a 0.95-m aperture. The 42 charge-coupled devices in its focal plane are read out every half hour, compressed, and then downlinked monthly. After four years, the second of four reaction wheels failed, ending the original mission. Back on earth, the Science Operations Center developed the Science Pipeline to analyze about 200,000 target stars in Keplers field of view, looking for evidence of periodic dimming suggesting that one or more planets had crossed the face of its host star. The Pipeline comprises several steps, from pixel-level calibration, through noise and artifact removal, to detection of transit-like signals and the construction of a suite of diagnostic tests to guard against false positives. The Kepler Science Pipeline consists of a pipeline infrastructure written in the Java programming language, which marshals data input to and output from MATLAB applications that are executed as external processes. The pipeline modules, which underwent continuous development and refinement even after data started arriving, employ several analytic techniques, many developed for the Kepler Project. Because of the large number of targets, the large amount of data per target and the complexity of the pipeline algorithms, the processing demands are daunting. Some pipeline modules require days to weeks to process all of their targets, even when run on NASA's 128-node Pleiades supercomputer. The software developers are still seeking ways to increase the throughput. To date, the Kepler project has discovered more than 4000 planetary candidates, of which more than 1000 have been independently confirmed or validated to be exoplanets. Funding for this mission is provided by NASAs Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Design and test of the final ALICE SDD CARLOS end ladder board

    CERN Document Server

    Antinori, S; Falchieri, D; Gabrielli, A; Gandolfi, E; Masetti, M; Tosellob, F

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the design and test of the final prototype of the CARLOS (Compression And Run Length Encoding Subsystem) end ladder board that is going to be used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. This board is able to compress data coming from one Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) front-end electronics and to send them towards the data concentrator card CARLOSrx in counting room via a 800 Mb/s optical link. The board design faces several constraints, mainly size (54x49 mm) and radiation tolerance: for this reason the board contains several CERN developed ASICs. A test setup has been realized for selecting the good devices among the 500 cards already produced.

  12. Zero Suppression and Data Compression for SDD Output in the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alberici, G; De Remigis, P; Mazza, G; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F; Werbrouck, A E

    1999-01-01

    We describe a proposal for the zero suppression and data compression for the Silicon Drift Detectors in the ALICE experiment. The proposal seeks to maintain maximum precision within the limits of data transmission bandwidth, to retain two-dimensional cluster reconstructability and to monitor statistically the background. Two thresholds (high and low) are employed to facilitate understanding of the cluster neighbourhoods. This choice also helps to suppress single high background peaks and provides a statistically cleaner sample for background monitoring. Background average and standard deviation are monitored by counting the zero signal (due to negative inputs to the ADCs) and the signals above the thresholds, then using a minimisation algorithm. Background counts which overflow the small counter ranges are discarded to avoid wasting bits and then corrected statistically offline.First the 10-bit output of the ADCs is compressed to 8 bits using a quasi-parabolic monotonic characteristic which requires no conver...

  13. Pixel detector modules performance for ATLAS IBL and future pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00355104; Pernegger, Heinz

    2015-11-06

    The ATLAS Detector is one of the four big particle physics experiments at CERN’s LHC. Its innermost tracking system consisted of the 3-Layer silicon Pixel Detector (~80M readout channels) in the first run (2010-2012). Over the past two years it was refurbished and equipped with new services as well as a new beam monitor. The major upgrade, however, was the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). It adds ~12M readout channels for improved vertexing, tracking robustness and b-tagging performance for the upcoming runs, before the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC will take place. This thesis covers two main aspects of Pixel detector performance studies: The main work was the planning, commissioning and operation of a test bench that meets the requirements of current pixel detector components. Each newly built ATLAS IBL stave was thoroughly tested, following a specifically developed procedure, and initially calibrated in that setup. A variety of production accompanying measurements as well as preliminary results after integ...

  14. The Pixels system: last but not late!

    CERN Multimedia

    Kevin Einsweiler

    The Pixel Detector for ATLAS is one of the smallest, but most challenging components of the experiment. It lives in the dangerous territory directly outside the beampipe, where the radiation environment is particularly fierce, and it must be roughly one million times more radiation-hard than its human designers. Starting at a radius of just 5cm from the interaction point where the proton beams collide, it occupies a volume of slightly more than one meter in length and a half meter in diameter. In this compact region, there are eighty million channels of electronics (most of the electronics channels in ATLAS!), each capable of measuring the charge deposited by a track in a silicon pixel measuring only 50 microns by 400 microns in size (a volume of 0.005 cubic millimeters). A total cooling capacity of 15 KWatts is available to keep it operating comfortably at -5C. This detector is built around, and provides the support for, the central beampipe of ATLAS. It is supported on carbon fiber rails inside of the Pix...

  15. optical links for the atlas pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Optical links are necessary to satisfy the high speed readout over long distances for advanced silicon detector systems. We report on the optical readout used in the newly installed central pixel layer (IBL) in the ATLAS experiment. The off detector readout employs commercial optical to analog converters, which were extensively tested for this application. Performance measurements during installation and commissioning will be shown. With the increasing instantaneous luminosity in the next years, the next layers outwards of IBL of the ATLAS Pixel detector (Layer 1 and Layer 2) will reach their bandwidth limits. A plan to increase the bandwidth by upgrading the off detector readout chain is put in place. The plan also involves new optical readout components, in particular the optical receivers, for which commercial units cannot be used and a new design has been made. The latter allows for a wider operational range in term of data frequency and light input power to match the on-detector sending units on the pres...

  16. Optical links for the ATLAS Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Optical links are necessary to satisfy the high speed readout over long distances for advanced silicon detector systems. We report on the optical readout used in the newly installed central pixel layer (IBL) in the ATLAS experiment. The off detector readout employs commercial optical to analog converters, which were extensively tested for this application. Performance measurements during installation and commissioning will be shown. With the increasing instantaneous luminosity in the next years, the next layers outwards of IBL of the ATLAS Pixel detector (Layer 1 and Layer 2) will reach their bandwidth limits. A plan to increase the bandwidth by upgrading the off detector readout chain is put in place. The plan also involves new optical readout components, in particular the optical receivers, for which commercial units cannot be used and a new design has been made. The latter allows for a wider operational range in term of data frequency and light input power to match the on-detector sending units on the pres...

  17. ATLAS Pixel Detector Design For HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector will be called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended eta-range: at least to |eta|<3.2, and likely up to |eta|<4.0. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362 mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into 'extended' and 'inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline, while inclined designs have sensors angled such that they point towards the interaction point. The relative advantages and challenges of these two classes of designs will be examined in this paper, along with the mechanical solutions being considered. Thermal management, radiation-length mapping, and electrical services will al...

  18. ATLAS Pixel Detector Design For HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector will be called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended eta-range: at least to |eta|<3.2, and likely up to |eta|<4.0. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into 'extended' and 'inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline. High-eta particles will therefore hit these sensors at shallow angles, leaving elongated charge clusters. The length of such a charge cluster can be used to estimate the angle of the passing particle. This information can then be used in track reconstruction to improve tracking efficiency and reduce fake rates. Inclined designs ...

  19. Testbeam and laboratory characterization of 3D CMS pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubna, Mayur; Krzwyda, Alex; Alagoz, Enver; Bortoletto, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Future generations of colliders, like High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN will deliver much higher radiation doses to the particle detectors, specifically those closer to the beam line. Inner tracker detectors will be the most affected part, causing increased occupancy and radiation damage to Silicon detectors. Planar Silicon sensors have not shown enough radiation hardness for the innermost layers where the radiation doses can reach values around 10^16 neq/cm^2. As a possible replacement of planar pixel sensors, 3D Silicon technology is under consideration as they show higher radiation hardness, and efficiencies comparable to planar sensors. Several 3D CMS pixel designs were fabricated at FBK, CNM, and SINTEF. They were bump bonded to the CMS pixel readout chip and characterized in the laboratory using radioactive source (Sr90), and at Fermilab MTEST beam test facility. Sensors were also irradiated with 800 MeV protons at Los Alamos National Lab to study post-irradiation behavior. In addition, several diodes and test structures from FBK were studied before and after irradiation. We report the laboratory and testbeam measurement results for the irradiated 3D devices.

  20. ATLAS pixel detector design for the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, B.

    2017-02-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector is called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended η-range: at least to |η|<3.2, and likely up to 0|η|<4.. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362 mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into `extended' and `inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline, while inclined designs have sensors angled such that they point towards the interaction point. The relative advantages and challenges of these two classes of designs will be examined in this paper, along with the mechanical solutions being considered. Thermal management, radiation-length mapping, and electrical services will also be discussed.

  1. Bump bonding of pixel systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, M. E-mail: manuel.lozano@cnm.es; Cabruja, E.; Collado, A.; Santander, J.; Ullan, M

    2001-11-01

    A pixel detector consists of an array of radiation sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. Many different ways of making this connection between these two different devices are currently being used or considered to be used in the next future. Bonding techniques such as flip chip technology can present real advantages because they allow very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. This paper presents a review of the different flip chip technologies available and their suitability for manufacturing pixel detectors. The particular problems concerning testing of pixel detectors and thermal issues related to them are pointed out.

  2. Bump bonding of pixel systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, M; Collado, A; Santander, J; Ullán, M

    2001-01-01

    A pixel detector consists of an array of radiation sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. Many different ways of making this connection between these two different devices are currently being used or considered to be used in the next future. Bonding techniques such as flip chip technology can present real advantages because they allow very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. This paper presents a review of the different flip chip technologies available and their suitability for manufacturing pixel detectors. The particular problems concerning testing of pixel detectors and thermal issues related to them are pointed out.

  3. Smart readout of silicon drift detector using ON-LINE fuzzy logic

    CERN Document Server

    Russo, G V; Caponetto, L; Caligiore, C; Lo Nigro, L; Lo Presti, D; Panebianco, S; Pappalardo, L L; Petta, C; Randazzo, N; Reito, S; Russo, M

    2000-01-01

    A silicon drift detector front-end and a smart readout is proposed for ALICE's ITS readout. It is based on a dedicated fuzzy processor. Four main aims can be achieved: a significant reduction of data volume toward mass storage; less matter across the particle trajectories; ON-LINE personalised calibration of the detector against temperature effects; more insensitivity to noise effects compared with traditional systems for both position and charge measurement. The system fulfils the requirement for the ALICE inner tracker system silicon drift detectors. This paper aims at illustrating to the physics community the work presently done that has engaged many people for a long time. (39 refs).

  4. Smart readout of silicon drift detector using ON-LINE fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, G. V.; Becciani, U.; Caponetto, L.; Caligiore, C.; Lo Nigro, L.; Presti, D. Lo; Panebianco, S.; Pappalardo, L.; Petta, C.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Russo, M.

    2000-04-01

    A Silicon Drift Detector Front-End and a Smart Readout is proposed for ALICE's ITS readout. It is based on a dedicated Fuzzy Processor. Four main aims can be achieved: a significant reduction of data volume toward mass storage; less matter across the particle trajectories; ON-LINE personalised calibration of the detector against temperature effects; more insensitivity to noise effect compared with traditional systems for both position and charge measurement. The system fulfils the requirement for ALICE Inner Tracker System Silicon Drift Detectors. This paper aims at illustrating to the Physics community the work presently done that has engaged many people for a long time.

  5. Inbetriebnahme und Kalibrierung der ALICE-TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Wiechula, Jens

    2008-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment), is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is optimised to reconstruct and identify the particles created in a lead-lead collision with a centre of mass energy of 5.5TeV. The main tracking detector is a large-volume time-projection chamber (TPC). With an active volume of about 88m^3 and a total readout area of 32.5m^2 it is the most challenging TPC ever build. A central electrode divides the 5m long detector into two drift regions. Each readout side is subdivided into 18 inner and 18 outer multi-wire proportional read-out chambers. The readout area is subdivide into 557568 pads, where each pad is read out by and electronics chanin. A complex calibration is needed in order to reach the design position-resolution of the reconstructed particle tracks of about 200um. One part of the calibration lies in understanding the electronic-response. The work at hand presents results of the pedestal and noise behaviour of the front-end elect...

  6. Alice-Anne Martin (1926 - 2016)

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Alice-Anne Martin, known as “Schu” from her maiden name Schubert, passed away on 8 January 2016.   (Image: Gérard Bertin) Hired the year CERN was founded, 1954, when the construction of the Laboratory had not even begun, Schu first worked at the Villa de Cointrin (a historic building now within the grounds of Geneva airport) as a secretary. In this role, she typed the convention between CERN and the Swiss Confederation, prepared by Stéphanie Tixier, as well as some of the "Yellow Reports" that have marked key points in the Laboratory’s history. For example, using a special typewriter with two keyboards – Latin and Greek – she typed the Yellow Report on the KAM theorem by Rolf Hagedorn. Schu also worked with Felix Bloch, the first Director-General of CERN, and later became the secretary of Herbert Coblenz, the first CERN librarian. She was head of the team that edited the proceedings of the ...

  7. ALICE HLT high speed tracking on GPU

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, Sergey; Aamodt, Kenneth; Alt, Torsten; Appelshauser, Harald; Arend, Andreas; Bach, Matthias; Becker, Bruce; Bottger, Stefan; Breitner, Timo; Busching, Henner; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Cleymans, Jean; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; Djuvsland, Oystein; Engel, Heiko; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Fearick, Roger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hille, Per Thomas; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Kisel, Ivan; Kretz, Matthias; Lara, Camillo; Lindal, Sven; Lindenstruth, Volker; Masoodi, Arshad Ahmad; Ovrebekk, Gaute; Panse, Ralf; Peschek, Jorg; Ploskon, Mateusz; Pocheptsov, Timur; Ram, Dinesh; Rascanu, Theodor; Richter, Matthias; Rohrich, Dieter; Ronchetti, Federico; Skaali, Bernhard; Smorholm, Olav; Stokkevag, Camilla; Steinbeck, Timm Morten; Szostak, Artur; Thader, Jochen; Tveter, Trine; Ullaland, Kjetil; Vilakazi, Zeblon; Weis, Robert; Yin, Zhong-Bao; Zelnicek, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The on-line event reconstruction in ALICE is performed by the High Level Trigger, which should process up to 2000 events per second in proton-proton collisions and up to 300 central events per second in heavy-ion collisions, corresponding to an inp ut data stream of 30 GB/s. In order to fulfill the time requirements, a fast on-line tracker has been developed. The algorithm combines a Cellular Automaton method being used for a fast pattern recognition and the Kalman Filter method for fitting of found trajectories and for the final track selection. The tracker was adapted to run on Graphics Processing Units (GPU) using the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) framework. The implementation of the algorithm had to be adjusted at many points to allow for an efficient usage of the graphics cards. In particular, achieving a good overall workload for many processor cores, efficient transfer to and from the GPU, as well as optimized utilization of the different memories the GPU offers turned out to be cri...

  8. The pixel tracking telescope at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Simon; Lei, CM [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Ngadiuba, Jennifer [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, and Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Prosser, Alan; Rivera, Ryan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Terzo, Stefano [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, and Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Turqueti, Marcos [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Uplegger, Lorenzo, E-mail: uplegger@fnal.gov [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Vigani, Luigi; Dinardo, Mauro E. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    An all silicon pixel telescope has been assembled and used at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) since 2009 to provide precise tracking information for different test beam experiments with a wide range of Detectors Under Test (DUTs) requiring high resolution measurement of the track impact point. The telescope is based on CMS pixel modules left over from the CMS forward pixel production. Eight planes are arranged to achieve a resolution of less than 8 μm on the 120 GeV proton beam transverse coordinate at the DUT position. In order to achieve such resolution with 100×150 μm{sup 2} pixel cells, the planes were tilted to 25 degrees to maximize charge sharing between pixels. Crucial for obtaining this performance is the alignment software, called Monicelli, specifically designed and optimized for this system. This paper will describe the telescope hardware, the data acquisition system and the alignment software constituting this particle tracking system for test beam users.

  9. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus crucial for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via front-end chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-on-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including calibration procedures, detector performance and measurements of radiation damage. The detector performance is excellent: more than 95% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the des...

  10. Federico Antinori elected as the new ALICE Spokesperson

    CERN Multimedia

    Iva Raynova

    2016-01-01

    On 8 April 2016 the ALICE Collaboration Board elected Federico Antinori from INFN Padova (Italy) as the new ALICE Spokesperson.   During his three-year mandate, starting in January 2017, he will lead a collaboration of more than 1500 people from 154 physics institutes across the globe. Antinori has been a member of the collaboration ever since it was created and he has already held many senior leadership positions. Currently he is the experiment’s Physics Coordinator and as such he has the responsibility to overview the whole sector of physics analysis. During his mandate ALICE has produced many of its most prominent results. Before that he was the Coordinator of the Heavy Ion First Physics Task Force, charged with the analysis of the first Pb-Pb data samples. In 2007 and 2008 Federico served as ALICE Deputy Spokesperson. He was also the first ALICE Trigger Coordinator, having a central role in defining the experiment’s trigger menus from the first run in 2009 until the end of...

  11. 160×120 uncooled amorphous silicon TEC-less detector with 25 μm pixel-pitch%像元间距为25 μm、160×120元无热电制冷器的非致冷非晶硅探测器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.L.Tissot

    2007-01-01

    介绍用非晶硅微型辐射热量计制成的160×120元非致冷红外焦平面阵列的特点和性能,该阵列集成在一个无铅芯片载体封装中,像素间距为25 μm,适合于大批量生产.25 μm像元结构得益于较小的热时间常数,该技术使我们能够设计出更高的热隔离性能,从而能以35 μm技术为基础开发出25 μm技术.通过采用新的像素设计和更进一步推动设计方法,在没有采用复杂昂贵的双层结构的前提下,保持了较高填充因子.从读出集成电路结构、封装、可操作性和光电性能入手对该探测器进行了介绍.为该探测器设计了一种新型集成读出电路.可以通过串行链接对增益、图像翻转和积分时间等高级功能进行操控,降低电气对接的数量.研制的小型无铅芯片载体封装便于大规模生产探测器,主要用途为便携式摄像机或头盔摄像机.%This paper reviews characteristics and performance of a 160×120 uncooled infrared focal plane array made from amorphous silicon microbolometers with a pixel-pitch of 25 μm,integrated in a LCC package compatible with mass production.The 25 μm pixel architecture profits from the low thermal time constant which characterizes our technology, to design a higher pixel thermal insulation and therefore to develop a 25 μm version from the well mastered 35 μm technology. Thanks to a new pixel design and by pushing the design rules even further, a high fill factor has been kept, without the use of complex, as well as expensive, two-level structure. The detector is described in terms of ROIC architecture, packaging, operability and electro-optical performances.A new read out integrated circuit structure has been designed for this detector. High level functions like gain, image flip and integration time could be operated through a serial link to minimize the number of electrical interconnections.A small LCC package has been developed enabling a mass production of

  12. The LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO) Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Emma

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to perform high-precision measurements of CP violation and the decays of beauty and charm hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. There is a planned upgrade during Long Shutdown 2 (LS2), expected in 2019, which will allow the detector to run at higher luminosities by transforming the entire readout to a trigger-less system. This will include a substantial upgrade of the Vertex Locator (VELO), the silicon tracker that surrounds the LHCb interaction region. The VELO is moving from silicon strip technology to hybrid pixel sensors, where silicon sensors are bonded to VeloPix ASICs. Sensor prototypes have undergone rigorous testing using the Timepix3 Telescope at the SPS, CERN. The main components of the upgrade are summarised and testbeam results presented.

  13. 10'000 ton ALICE gets her UK-built "Brain"

    CERN Multimedia

    Maddock, Julia

    2007-01-01

    For one of the four LEP experiments, called ALICE, the process got a step closer last week when a crucial part of the 10'000-ton detector, the British-built Central Trigger Processor (CTP), was installed in the ALICE cavern, some 150 feet underground. (plus background information about ALICE) (2,5 pages)

  14. A counting pixel chip and sensor system for X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P.; Hausmann, J.; Helmich, A.; Lindner, M.; Wermes, N. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany). Physikalisches Institut; Blanquart, L. [CNRS, Marseille (France). Centre de Physique des Particules

    1999-08-01

    Results obtained with a (photon) counting pixel imaging chip connected to a silicon pixel sensor using the bump and flip-chip technology are presented. The performance of the chip electronics is characterized by an average equivalent noise charge (ENC) below 135 e and a threshold spread of less than 35 e after individual threshold adjust, both measured with a sensor attached. First results on the imaging performance are also reported.

  15. A Bayesian approach to particle identification in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Among the LHC experiments, ALICE has unique particle identification (PID) capabilities exploiting different types of detectors. During Run 1, a Bayesian approach to PID was developed and intensively tested. It facilitates the combination of information from different sub-systems. The adopted methodology and formalism as well as the performance of the Bayesian PID approach for charged pions, kaons and protons in the central barrel of ALICE will be reviewed. Results are presented with PID performed via measurements of specific energy loss (dE/dx) and time-of-flight using information from the TPC and TOF detectors, respectively. Methods to extract priors from data and to compare PID efficiencies and misidentification probabilities in data and Monte Carlo using high-purity samples of identified particles will be presented. Bayesian PID results were found consistent with previous measurements published by ALICE. The Bayesian PID approach gives a higher signal-to-background ratio and a similar or larger statist...

  16. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    CERN Document Server

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before t...

  17. Disability Exclusion and Rights: The Life Story of Alice Jamieson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Lynch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a commonly held belief that fear of disability by society is the reason for segregation of the disabled. Although acknowledging the validity of such a belief, this paper disputes this claim as it pertains to sufferers of mental illness. Specifically it explores one woman’s development of dissociative identity disorder as a result of years of incestuous abuse. Alice Jamieson developed multiple personalities in order to survive her horrendous childhood, which ultimately caused her to live a life of segregation and social exclusion. Alice did however; experience the enabling effects of positive, supportive relationships on rare occasions throughout her childhood (with her grandfather and her adult life (with a work colleague. The telling of her story bought Alice a powerful sense of healing and has helped raise awareness of childhood sexual abuse and its devastating consequences.

  18. Quarkonium production in p–Pb collisions with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Lakomov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The production of quarkonia, bound states of quark and anti-quark pairs, is intensively studied both experimentally and theoretically. They are ideal probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) formed in heavy-ion collisions. At the beginning of 2013, data from p–Pb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV have been collected by ALICE, which can be exploited to measure cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects on quarkonium production. These measurements are important in order to disentangle, in Pb–Pb collisions, hot and CNM effects. In this paper final ALICE results on the charmonium and bottomonium production in p–Pb collisions from Run I of the LHC are presented. ALICE measurements are compared to various models of CNM effects and to PHENIX measurements.

  19. AliEn: ALICE environment on the GRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagnasco, S; Betev, L; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cirstoiu, C; Grigoras, C; Hayrapetyan, A; Harutyunyan, A; Peters, A J; Saiz, P [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: pablo.saiz@cern.ch

    2008-07-15

    Starting from mid-2008, the ALICE detector at CERN LHC will collect data at a rate of 4PB per year. ALICE will use exclusively distributed Grid resources to store, process and analyse this data. The top-level management of the Grid resources is done through the AliEn (ALICE Environment) system, which is in continuous development since year 2000. AliEn presents several original solutions, which have shown their viability in a number of large exercises of increasing complexity called Data Challenges. This paper describes the AliEn architecture: Job Management, Data Management and UI. The current status of AliEn will be illustrated, as well as the performance of the system during the data challenges. The paper also describes the future AliEn development roadmap.

  20. ALICE Connex : Mobile Volunteer Computing and Edutainment Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Chalumporn, Gantaphon

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices are very powerful and trend to be developed. They have functions that are used in everyday life. One of their main tasks is to be an entertainment devices or gaming platform. A lot of technologies are now accepted and adopted to improve the potential of education. Edutainment is a combination of entertainment and education media together to make use of both benefits. In this work, we introduce a design of edutainment platform which is a part of mobile volunteer computing and edutainment platform called ‘ALICE Connex’ for ALICE at CERN. The edutainment platform focuses to deliver enjoyment and education, while promotes ALICE and Volunteer Computing platform to general public. The design in this work describes the functionality to build an effective edutainment with real-time multiplayer interaction on round-based gameplay, while integrates seamless edutainment with basic particle physic content though game mechanism and items design. For the assessment method we will observe the enjoyment o...

  1. Upgrade of the ALICE Experiment: Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agostinelli, A; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmed, I; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Aimo, I; Aiola, S; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Anderssen, E C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bairathi, V; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastian Van Beelen, J; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Battistin, M; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Baudot, J; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Benettoni, M; Benotto, F; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Berger, M E; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Besson, A; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatti, A; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielcík, J; Bielcíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Boehmer, F V; Bogdanov, A; Boggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bornschein, J; Borshchov, V N; Bortolin, C; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Böttger, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Carena, F; Carena, W; Cariola, P; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Caudron, T; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Claus, G; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Coli, S; Colledani, C; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Crochet, P; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dang, R; Danu, A; Da Riva, E; Das, D; Das, I; Das, K; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; Decosse, C; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; Dénes, E; D'Erasmo, G; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Robertis, G; De Roo, K; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Divià, R; Di Bari, D; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Djuvsland, o; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Dorheim, S; Dorokhov, A; Doziere, G; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dulinski, W; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Ehlers III, R J; Elia, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Eschweiler, D; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Fiorenza, G; Floratos, E; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Franco, M; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhoje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gajanana, D; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubilato, P; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez, R; Gomez Marzoa, M; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Graczykowski, L K; Grajcarek, R; Greiner, L C; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Grondin, D; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J -Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; H Khan, K; Haake, R; Haaland, o; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harris, J W; Hartmann, H; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Hennes, E; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hillemanns, H; Himmi, A; Hippolyte, B; Hladky, J; Hristov, P; Huang, M; Hu-Guo, C; Humanic, T J; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Igolkin, S; Ijzermans, P; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, G M; Ionita, C; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Ivanytskyi, O; Jacholkowski, A; Jadlovsky, J; Jahnke, C; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Junique, A; Jusko, A; Kalcher, S; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keil, M; Ketzer, B; Khan, M Mohisin; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, B; Kim, D; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kravcáková, A; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Krymov, E B; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucera, V; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Lee, G R; Legrand, I; Lehnert, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; Lesenechal, Y; Lévai, P; Li, S; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Listratenko, O M; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loddo, F; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lu, X -G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luzzi, C; M Gago, A; M Jacobs, P; Ma, R; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Maltsev, N A; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mapelli, A; Marchisone, M; Mares, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Marin Tobon, C A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Marras, D; Martashvili, I; Martin, N A; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martin Blanco, J; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Maslov, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Mattiazzo, S; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazumder, R; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miskowiec, D; Mitu, C M; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Mongelli, M; Montaño Zetina, L; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Morel, F; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhammad Bhopal, F; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Okatan, A; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Pagano, P; Paic, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Palmeri, A; Panati, S; Pant, D; Pantano, D; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Passfeld, A; Pastore, C; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Paul, B; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Pestov, Y; Petagna, P; Petrácek, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Pham, H; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Piyarathna, D B; Ploskon, M; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Pohjoisaho, E H O; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Porter, J; Pospisil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Protsenko, M A; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Puggioni, C; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Raha, S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rasson, J E; Rathee, D; Rauf, A W; Razazi, V; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reed, R J; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Reidt, F; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J -P; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rocco, E; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Roed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohni, S; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Ronflette, L; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossewij, M J; Rossi, A; Roudier, S; Rousset, J; Roy, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Ryabov, Y; Rybicki, A; Sacchetti, M; Sadovsky, S; Safarík, K; Sahlmuller, B; 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Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vasquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; suljic, M; Sultanov, R; sumbera, M; Sun, X; Susa, T; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymanski, M; Takahashi, J; Tangaro, M A; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tarantola Peloni, A; Tarazona Martinez, A; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Ter Minasyan, A; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Toia, A; Torii, H; Trubnikov, V; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turchetta, R; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Tymchuk, I T; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Valentino, V; Valin, I; Vallero, S; Vande Vyvre, P; Vannucci, L; Van Der Maarel, J; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vasta, P; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Velure, A; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara Limón, S; Verlaat, B; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S A; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, J; Wagner, V; Wang, M; Wang, Y; Watanabe, D; Weber, M; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Winn, M; Winter, M; Xiang, C; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, H; Yang, P; Yang, S; Yano, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I -K; Yushmanov, I; Zaccolo, V; Zach, C; Zaman, A; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zherebchevsky, V I; Zhou, D; Zhou, F; Zhou, Y; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2014-01-01

    The long term goal of the ALICE experiment is to provide a precise characterization of the high-density, high-temperature phase of strongly interacting matter. To achieve this goal, high-statistics precision measurement are required. The general upgrade strategy for the ALICE detector is conceived to deal with this challenge with expected Pb-Pb interaction rates of up to 50 kHz aiming at an integrated luminosity of the order of 10 nb^-1. With the proposed timeline, starting the high-rate operation progressively after 2018 shutdown, the goals set up in our upgrade plans should be achieved collecting data until mid-2020's. In this document we present the main physics motivations for running the LHC with heavy ions at high luminosities and discuss the modifications and replacements needed in the ALICE detectors, the online systems and offline system. The schedule, cost estimate and organization of the upgrade programme are presented as well.

  2. AliEn: ALICE Environment on the GRID

    CERN Multimedia

    Bagnasco, S; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cirstoiu, C; Grigoras, C; Hayrapetyan, A; Harutyunyan, A; Peters, A J; Saiz, P

    2007-01-01

    Starting from mid-2008, the ALICE detector at CERN LHC will collect data at a rate of 4PB per year. ALICE will use exclusively distributed Grid resources to store, process and analyse this data. The top-level management of the Grid resources is done through the AliEn (ALICE Environment) system, which is in continuous development since year 2000. AliEn presents several original solutions, which have shown their viability in a number of large exercises of increasing complexity called Data Challenges. This paper describes the AliEn architecture: Job Management, Data Management and UI. The current status of AliEn will be illustrated, as well as the performance of the system during the data challenges. The paper also describes the future AliEn development roadmap.

  3. Computing Architecture of the ALICE Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Augustinus, A; Moreno, A; Kurepin, A N; De Cataldo, G; Pinazza, O; Rosinský, P; Lechman, M; Jirdén, L S

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE Detector Control System (DCS) is based on a commercial SCADA product, running on a large Windows computer cluster. It communicates with about 1200 network attached devices to assure safe and stable operation of the experiment. In the presentation we focus on the design of the ALICE DCS computer systems. We describe the management of data flow, mechanisms for handling the large data amounts and information exchange with external systems. One of the key operational requirements is an intuitive, error proof and robust user interface allowing for simple operation of the experiment. At the same time the typical operator task, like trending or routine checks of the devices, must be decoupled from the automated operation in order to prevent overload of critical parts of the system. All these requirements must be implemented in an environment with strict security requirements. In the presentation we explain how these demands affected the architecture of the ALICE DCS.

  4. A Leakage Current-based Measurement of the Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, Igor; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A measurement has been made of the radiation damage incurred by the ATLAS Pixel Detector barrel silicon modules from the beginning of operations through the end of 2012. This translates to hadronic fluence received over the full period of operation at energies up to and including 8 TeV. The measurement is based on a per-module measurement of the silicon sensor leakage current. The results are presented as a function of integrated luminosity and compared to predictions by the Hamburg Model. This information can be used to predict limits on the lifetime of the Pixel Detector due to current, for various operating scenarios.

  5. La pionera oculta: Alice Guy en el origen del cine

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Ramón, Irene de

    2011-01-01

    Alice Guy es una pionera de la cinematografía en los orígenes del cine, sin embargo, ha sido sistemáticamente excluida de tal consideración en la Historia del cine. A pesar de que su obra muestra méritos y aportaciones suficientes para ser reconocida como tal, el tratamiento que ha recibido en la historiografía general hasta la actualidad no lo refleja así. Asistimos pues a una infravaloración de la importancia, de la trascendencia de la figura de Alice Guy y su obra respecto al del resto de ...

  6. Evénements ALICE - French version only

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Le 29 septembre 2004 à 15h00, programme « A la rencontre d'ALICE », à la Médiathèque municipale de Saint-Genis-Pouilly, France. Histoire pour des enfants (à partir de 8 ans), extraite de la bande dessinée: « ALICE et la soupe de quarks et de gluons ». Le 2 octobre 2004 à 11h00, programme « A la rencontre d'ALICE », à la Médiathèque municipale de Saint-Genis-Pouilly, France. Présentation ALICE pour les adolescents (à partir de 14 ans).

  7. Energy-recycling pixel for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Che-Yu; Cho, Ting-Yi; Chen, Yen-Yu; Yang, Chih-Jen; Meng, Chao-Yu; Yang, Chieh-Hung; Yang, Po-Chuan; Chang, Hsu-Yu; Hsueh, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Chung-Chih; Lee, Si-Chen

    2007-06-01

    The authors report a pixel structure for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays that has a hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell inserted between the driving polycrystalline Si thin-film transistor and the pixel OLED. Such an active-matrix OLED pixel structure not only exhibits a reduced reflection (and thus improved contrast) compared to conventional OLEDs but also is capable of recycling both incident photon energies and internally generated OLED radiation. Such a feature of energy recycling may be of use for portable/mobile electronics, which are particularly power aware.

  8. Qualification of the modules for the Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving; CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The innermost component of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector, the silicon pixel tracker, will be replaced by a new device in early 2017 to cope with the significant increase in instantaneous luminosity expected for the remainder of Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider. The upgraded detector is composed of two subcomponents: the barrel pixel (BPIX) and the forward pixel (FPIX). In this work, we describe the testing and calibration procedures that the FPIX detector subcomponents underwent as well as the quality assurance criteria used for selecting the best detector modules for the final installation. NSF

  9. Silicon Vertex Tracker for PHENIX Upgrade at RICH: Capabilities and Detector Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouicer, R.

    From the wealth of data obtained from the first three years of RHIC operation, the four RHIC experiments, BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS and STAR, have concluded that a high density partonic matter is formed at central Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. The research focus now shifts from initial discovery to a detailed exploration of partonic matter. Particles carrying heavy flavor, i.e. charm or beauty quarks, are powerful tool for study the properties of the hot and dense medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions at RHIC. At the relatively low transverse momentum region, the collective motion of the heavy flavor will be a sensitive signal for the thermalization of light flavors. They also allow to probe the spin structure of the proton in a new and precise way. An upgrade of RHIC (RHIC-II) is intended for the second half of the decade, with a luminosity increase to about 20-40 times the design value of 8 × 10^26 cm-2 s-1 for Au+Au, and 2 × 10^32 cm-2 s-1 for polarized proton beams. The PHENIX collaboration plans to upgrade its experiment to exploit with an enhanced detector new physics then in reach. For this purpose, we are constructing the Silicon Vertex Tracker (VTX). The VTX detector will provide us the tool to measure new physics observables that are not accessible at the present RHIC or available only with very limited accuracy. These include a precise determination of the charm production cross section, transverse momentum spectra at high-pT region for particles carrying beauty quarks as well the detection of recoil jets in direct photon production. The VTX detector consists of four layers of barrel detectors located in the region of pseudorapidity |η| < 1.2 and covers almost 2π azimuthal angle. The pseudorapidity, η, is defined as η = -ln[tan(θ/2)], where θ is the emission angle relative to the beam axis. The inner two silicon barrels consists of silicon pixel sensors and their technology is the ALICE1LHCb sensor-readout hybrid, which was developed

  10. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulos, S; Campbell, M; Snoeys, W; Heijne, Erik H M; Pernigotti, E; Raine, C; Smith, K; Watt, J; O'Shea, V; Ludwig, J; Schwarz, C

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the OMEGA 3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  11. X-ray imaging with photon counting hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolopoulos, S.; Bates, R.; Campbell, M.; Snoeys, W.; Heijne, E.; Pernigotti, E.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. E-mail: k.smith@physics.gla.ac.uk; Watt, J.; O' Shea, V.; Ludwig, J.; Schwarz, C

    1999-09-11

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed for particle physics experiments, have been studied as X-ray imaging devices. The performance of devices using the {omega}3 read-out chip bump-bonded to pixellated silicon semiconductor detectors is characterised in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio when exposed to 60 kVp X-rays. Although parts of the devices achieve values of this ratio compatible with the noise being photon statistics limited, this is not found to hold for the whole pixel matrix, resulting in the global signal-to-noise ratio being compromised. First results are presented of X-ray images taken with a gallium arsenide pixel detector bump-bonded to a new read-out chip, (MEDIPIX), which is a single photon counting read-out chip incorporating a 15-bit counter in every pixel. (author)

  12. Running experience with the DELPHI pixel detector reflections on design characteristics and system features

    CERN Document Server

    Heuser, J M

    1999-01-01

    The DELPHI experiment at LEP is the first collider experiment with hybrid pixel detectors contributing to its track reconstruction. The pixel detector has been installed in 1996 with the final DELPHI silicon tracker, an assembly of microstrip, ministrip and pixel detectors optimized for the operation at LEP2. It was completed for the physics period in 1997. The pixel detector comprises 1.2 million detector cells of 330*330 mu m/sup 2/. 152 detector modules are arranged in 4 inclined cone-shaped layers which cover polar angles from 10 degrees to 25 degrees . Experience on the system's features has been gained during three years of operation. The article intends to provide information on positive and critical aspects which might be useful for designers of pixel detector systems in forthcoming experiments. (4 refs).

  13. MONOLITHIC ACTIVE PIXEL MATRIX WITH BINARY COUNTERS IN AN SOI PROCESS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUPTUCH,G.; YAREMA, R.

    2007-06-07

    The design of a Prototype monolithic active pixel matrix, designed in a 0.15 {micro}m CMOS SOI Process, is presented. The process allowed connection between the electronics and the silicon volume under the layer of buried oxide (BOX). The small size vias traversing through the BOX and implantation of small p-type islands in the n-type bulk result in a monolithic imager. During the acquisition time, all pixels register individual radiation events incrementing the counters. The counting rate is up to 1 MHz per pixel. The contents of counters are shifted out during the readout phase. The designed prototype is an array of 64 x 64 pixels and the pixel size is 26 x 26 {micro}m{sup 2}.

  14. Full kinematic reconstruction of charged B mesons with the upgraded Inner Tracking System of the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074762

    In this thesis, the performance of the full kinematic reconstruction of $\\mathrm{{B}}^{+}$ mesons in the decay channel $\\mathrm{{B}}^{+}\\rightarrow\\mathrm{\\overline{D}^{0}}\\pi^{+}$ ($\\mbox{$\\mathrm{\\overline{D}^{0}}\\rightarrow \\mathrm{K}^{+}\\pi^{-}$}$) and charge conjugates for the 0-10 % most central Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\mathrm{NN}}}}$ = 5.5 TeV is demonstrated for the upgraded ALICE Experiment, which is planned before Run 3 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), beginning in 2020. Within the scope of the foreseen detector and readout upgrades to inspect all Pb-Pb collisions at their interaction rate of 50 kHz, in particular through the installation of a new high-granularity pixel inner tracker, for the first time these rare signals will become accessible using full kinematic reconstruction in central Pb-Pb collisions in ALICE at mid-rapidity at the LHC. Topological and kinematic criteria are used to select the beauty signal against the large combinatorial and correlated background. In addition to a...

  15. Imaging by photon counting with 256x256 pixel matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, Lukas; Campbell, Michael; Heijne, Erik H. M.; Llopart, Xavier

    2004-09-01

    Using 0.25µm standard CMOS we have developed 2-D semiconductor matrix detectors with sophisticated functionality integrated inside each pixel of a hybrid sensor module. One of these sensor modules is a matrix of 256x256 square 55µm pixels intended for X-ray imaging. This device is called 'Medipix2' and features a fast amplifier and two-level discrimination for signals between 1000 and 100000 equivalent electrons, with overall signal noise ~150 e- rms. Signal polarity and comparator thresholds are programmable. A maximum count rate of nearly 1 MHz per pixel can be achieved, which corresponds to an average flux of 3x10exp10 photons per cm2. The selected signals can be accumulated in each pixel in a 13-bit register. The serial readout takes 5-10 ms. A parallel readout of ~300 µs could also be used. Housekeeping functions such as local dark current compensation, test pulse generation, silencing of noisy pixels and threshold tuning in each pixel contribute to the homogeneous response over a large sensor area. The sensor material can be adapted to the energy of the X-rays. Best results have been obtained with high-resistivity silicon detectors, but also CdTe and GaAs detectors have been used. The lowest detectable X-ray energy was about 4 keV. Background measurements have been made, as well as measurements of the uniformity of imaging by photon counting. Very low photon count rates are feasible and noise-free at room temperature. The readout matrix can be used also with visible photons if an energy or charge intensifier structure is interposed such as a gaseous amplification layer or a microchannel plate or acceleration field in vacuum.

  16. WFC3 Pixel Area Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, J. S.; Cox, C.; Dressel, L.; Fruchter, A.; Hack, W.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Mack, J.

    2010-04-01

    We present the pixel area maps (PAMs) for the WFC3/UVIS and WFC3/IR detectors, and discuss the normalization of these images. HST processed flt images suffer from geometric distortion and therefore have pixel areas that vary on the sky. The counts (electrons) measured for a source on these images depends on the position of the source on the detector, an effect that is implicitly corrected when these images are multidrizzled into drz files. The flt images can be multiplied by the PAMs to yield correct and uniform counts for a given source irrespective of its location on the image. To ensure consistency between the count rate measured for sources in drz images and near the center of flt images, we set the normalization of the PAMs to unity at a reference pixel near the center of the UVIS mosaic and IR detector, and set the SCALE in the IDCTAB equal to the square root of the area of this reference pixel. The implications of this choice for photometric measurements are discussed.

  17. Performance of the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Mis̈kowiec, D.; Mitu, C. M.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montano Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Okatan, A.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Twinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Sahoo, P.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palmeri, A.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Pesci, A.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Poghosyan, M. G.; Pohjoisaho, E. H O; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J. P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Rd, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohni, S.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sánchez Rodríguez, F. J.; Sándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P. A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Seger, J. E.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, C. B.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J M; Saard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A P; Subieta Vasquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Sumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J M; Szanto De Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Ter Minasyan, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vannucci, L.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Van Leeuwen, M.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.

    2014-01-01

    ALICE is the heavy-ion experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The experiment continuously took data during the first physics campaign of the machine from fall 2009 until early 2013, using proton and lead-ion beams. In this paper we describe the running environment and the data handling proced

  18. Soft QCD, minimum bias and diffraction: results from ALICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonioli Pietro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report recent results from the ALICE experiment at the LHC for minimum bias pp collisions. This overview includes results on inelastic cross section, with analysis of single and double diffractive events; the study of hadron production mechanisms, both for inclusive and identified particles; Bose-Einstein correlations; and fluctuations in 〈PT〉.

  19. The “24 hours” of the ALICE magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE dipole magnet, now in its final location in the cavern at Point 2 , has run at full current for 24 hours. The dipole of the ALICE muon spectrometer has successfully completed new tests in its final position. The ALICE detector is based on two large magnets - the big solenoid magnet formerly used by L3 on LEP, and a new dipole magnet, built through a strong and successful collaboration with a team from JINR in Russia, under the direction of Detlef Swoboda from TS-LEA at CERN. By October 2004, the dipole had been assembled in a preliminary position in the ALICE cavern, and in November it successfully passed extensive testing (CERN Bulletin 04/05). Now it has been transferred to its final position on the far side of the L3 solenoid, and has passed tests with flying colours. The first â€ワpre-assembly” was necessary to perform all the remaining machining operations for fixing the coils and to verify the assembly tooling, as the available space in the final location is very limited and does no...

  20. Alice Walker's Womanism Colored in The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧慧

    2009-01-01

    In her famous novel The Color Purple,Alice Walker's womanism is colored by four kinds of conseiousness-female consciousness,racial consciousness,root-seeking consciousness,and universal consciousness.It is owing to the womanism that the heroine celie grown from an abused woman to an independent selfhood.

  1. Measurement of Forward-Backward Charged Particle Correlations with ALICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Carsten

    Part I of the defence covers experimental development carried out in the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research - CERN. For the Time Projection Chamber a sophisticated laser calibration system has been developed by the Niels Bohr Institute...

  2. Overview of jet physics with ALICE at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mengliang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In these proceedings, a selection of recent results on jet physics from ALICE experiment is presented, including jet spectra, nuclear modification factors, jet structure and fragmentation observables, obtained in different collision systems (pp, p–Pb and Pb–Pb.

  3. Search for Krypton 81 at Alice Accelerator Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, A.; Brissaud, I.; Kalifa, J.; Laurent, H.; Roynette, J. C.

    1982-08-01

    81Kr concentration measurements is a good clock for the old groundwater dating because of its chemical stability and of its atmospheric production. Unfortunately its presence in natural samples is very low. In this paper we report an experiment to measure the 81Kr concentration by means of the ALICE facility.

  4. Improved performance of QCD code on ALiCE

    CERN Document Server

    Sroczynski, Z

    2003-01-01

    We present results for the performance of QCD code on ALiCE, the Alpha-Linux Cluster Engine at Wuppertal. We describe the techniques employed to optimise the code, including the metaprogramming of assembler kernels, the effects of data layout and an investigation into the overheads incurred by the communication.

  5. Improved performance of QCD code on ALiCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroczynski, Z.

    2003-05-01

    We present results for the performance of QCD code on ALiCE , the Alpha-Linux Cluster Engine at Wuppertal. We describe the techniques employed to optimise the code, including the metaprogramming of assembler kernels, the effects of data layout and an investigation into the overheads incurred by the communication.

  6. ALICE breaks through the one Gigabyte/sec barrier

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The test phases of the ALICE data acquisition system, known as the Data Challenges, are celebrating their fourth anniversary. The fruit of collaboration between several of the experiment's groups and IT Division, the 2002 tests concentrated on the system's performance and stability.

  7. ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) Readout Sector in Lab

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main particle tracking detector in ALICE. Charged particles crossing the gas of the TPC knock electrons out of their atoms, which drift in the eletric field. By measuring the arrival of electrons at the end of the chamber, at segments such as the one shown here, the TPC will reconstruct the paths of the original charged particles.

  8. Romanian Physicists at CERN work for the Alice Program

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "For the past six years a team of Romanian scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Magurele, Romania, work as part of an international team of CERN to recreate the very first moments of the Universe, right after the Big Bang. The experiment was called Alice."(2 pages)

  9. Study of the photon identification efficiency with ALICE photon spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ya-Xian; ZHOU Dai-Cui; XU Chun-Cheng; YIN Zhong-Bao

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency for the detection and identification of photons with the ALICE PHOton Spectrometer PHOS has been studied with the Monte-Carlo generated data. In particular, the influence on the efficiency of the PHOS-module edge-effect and of the material in front of PHOS have been examined.

  10. Managing Infrastructure in the ALICE Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Lechman, M; Bond, P M; Chochula, P.Ch; Kurepin, A N; Pinazza, O; Rosinsky, P; Kurepin, A N; Pinazza, O

    2014-01-01

    The main role of the ALICE Detector Control System (DCS) is to ensure safe and efficient operation of one of the large high energy physics experiments at CERN. The DCS design is based on the commercial SCADA software package WinCC Open Architecture.

  11. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Alice H. Eagly

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alice H. Eagly, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for her work in the field of social psychology, the psychology of gender, and the use of meta-analytic techniques. She envisions a psychology that extends from individual cognitions to societal structures. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected…

  12. Overview of recent azimuthal correlation measurements from ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00290856

    2016-01-01

    Azimuthal correlations are a powerful tool to probe the properties and the evolution of the collision system. In this proceedings, we will review the recent azimuthal correlation measurements from ALICE at the LHC. The comparison to other experimental measurements and various theoretical calculations will be discussed as well.

  13. Testbeam and laboratory test results of irradiated 3D CMS pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubna, Mayur [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Purdue University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Alagoz, Enver, E-mail: enver.alagoz@cern.ch [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Cervantes, Mayra; Krzywda, Alex; Arndt, Kirk [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Obertino, Margherita; Solano, Ada [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienzadella Informazione, Universitá di Trento, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Menace, Dario; Moroni, Luigi [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy); Uplegger, Lorenzo; Rivera, Ryan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Osipenkov, Ilya [Texas A and M University, Department of Physics, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Andresen, Jeff [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela [Purdue University, Department of Physics, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1396 (United States); Boscardin, Maurizio [Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Marie Brom, Jean [Strasbourg IPHC, Institut Pluriedisciplinaire Hubert Curien, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Brosius, Richard [State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY), Department of Physics, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States); Chramowicz, John [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); and others

    2013-12-21

    The CMS silicon pixel detector is the tracking device closest to the LHC p–p collisions, which precisely reconstructs the charged particle trajectories. The planar technology used in the current innermost layer of the pixel detector will reach the design limit for radiation hardness at the end of Phase I upgrade and will need to be replaced before the Phase II upgrade in 2020. Due to its unprecedented performance in harsh radiation environments, 3D silicon technology is under consideration as a possible replacement of planar technology for the High Luminosity-LHC or HL-LHC. 3D silicon detectors are fabricated by the Deep Reactive-Ion-Etching (DRIE) technique which allows p- and n-type electrodes to be processed through the silicon substrate as opposed to being implanted through the silicon surface. The 3D CMS pixel devices presented in this paper were processed at FBK. They were bump bonded to the current CMS pixel readout chip, tested in the laboratory, and testbeams carried out at FNAL with the proton beam of 120 GeV/c. In this paper we present the laboratory and beam test results for the irradiated 3D CMS pixel devices. -- Highlights: •Pre-irradiation and post-irradiation electrical properties of 3D sensors and 3D diodes from various FBK production batches were measured and analyzed. •I–T measurements of gamma irradiated diodes were analyzed to understand leakage current generation mechanism in 3D diodes. •Laboratory measurements: signal to noise ratio and charge collection efficiency of 3D sensors before and after irradiation. •Testbeam measurements: pre- and post-irradiation pixel cell efficiency and position resolution of 3D sensors.

  14. Module and Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITK Pixel System

    CERN Document Server

    Nellist, Clara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS is preparing for an extensive modification of its detector in the course of the planned HL-LHC accelerator upgrade around 2025 which includes a replacement of the entire tracking system by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The five innermost layers of ITk will comprise of a pixel detector built of new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m$^{2}$, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in early 2017. An intense R\\&D activity is taking place in the field of planar, 3D, CMOS sensors to identify the optimal technology for the different pixel layers. In parallel various sensor-chip interconnection options are explored to identify reliable technologies when employing 100-150~$\\mu$m thin chips. While the new read-out chip is being developed by the RD53 Collaboration, the pixel off de...

  15. Module and Electronics Developments for the ATLAS ITK Pixel System

    CERN Document Server

    Rummler, Andr{e}; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown around 2025 by an all-silicon detector (Inner Tracker, ITk). The pixel detector will be composed by the five innermost layers, instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the severe HL-LHC environment in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total area of the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m^2, depending on the final layout choice that is expected to take place in early 2017. Different designs of planar, 3D, CMOS sensors are being investigated to identify the optimal technology for the different pixel layers. In parallel sensor-chip interconnection options are evaluated in collaboration with industrial partners to identify reliable technologies when employing 100-150 μm thin chips. While the new read-out chip is being developed by the RD53 Collaboration, the pixel off detector read-out electronics will be implemented in the frame...

  16. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS currently develops a new pixel detector for the first upgrade of its tracking system: The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel detector (IBL). The new layer will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and a new beam pipe. The sensors are placed at a radius of 3.4 cm. The expected high radiation levels and high hit occupancy require new developments for front-end chip and sensors which can stand radiation levels beyond 5$ imes$10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}$/cm$^{2}$ . ATLAS has developed the new FEI4 chip and new silicon sensors to be used as pixel modules. Furthermore a new lightweight support and cooling structure was developed, which minimizes the overall radiation length and allows detector cooling with CO$_{2}$ at -40 $^{circ}$C coolant temperature. Currently the overall integration and installation procedure is being developed and tested ready for installation in 2013. The paper summarizes the current state of development of IBL modules, first preliminary test results of the new chip ...

  17. Overview of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS currently develops a new pixel detector for the first upgrade of its tracking system: The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer Pixel detector (IBL). The new layer will be inserted between the inner most layer of the current pixel detector and a new beam pipe. The sensors are placed at a radius of 3.4cm. The expected high radiation levels and high hit occupancy require new developments for front-end chip and the sensor which can stand radiation levels beyond 5E15 neq/cm2. ATLAS has developed the new FEI4 and new silicon sensors to be used as pixel modules. Furthermore a new lightweight support and cooling structure was developed, which minimizes the overall radiation and allows detector cooling with CO2 at -40C coolant temperature. Currently the overall integration and installation procedure is being developed and test ready for installation in ATLAS in 2013. The presentation summarizes the current state of development of IBL modules, first preliminary test results of the new chip with new sensors, the construction ...

  18. Signal variations in high granularity Si pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Tlustos, L; Heijne, Erik H M; Llopart-Cudie, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    Fixed pattern noise is one of the limiting factors of image quality and degrades the achievable spatial resolution. In the case of silicon sensors non-uniformities due to doping inhomogeneities can be limited by operating the sensor in strong overdepletion. For high granularity photon counting pixel detectors an additional high frequency interpixel signal variation is an important factor for the achievable signal to noise ratio (SNR). It is common practice to apply flatfield corrections to increase the SNR of the detector system. For the case of direct conversion detectors it can be shown that the Poisson limit can be reached for floodfield irradiation. However when used for imaging with spectral X-ray sources flatfield corrections are less effective. This is partly a consequence of charge sharing between adjacent pixels, which gives rise to an effective energy spectrum seen by the readout, which is different from the spectral content of the incident beam. In this paper we present simulations and measurements...

  19. Online Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately 80 million electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region, thus allowing measuring particle tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. The readout system of the Pixel Detector is based on a bi-directional optical data transmission system between the detector and the data acquisition system with an individual link for each of the 1744 modules. Signal conversion components are located on both ends, approximately 80 m apart. This paper describes the tuning and calibration of the optical links and the detector modules, including measurements of threshold, noise, charge measurement, timing performance and the sensor leakage current.

  20. Pixel detector system development at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, J.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Tartoni, N.

    2010-10-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors consisting of an array of silicon photodiodes bump-bonded to CMOS read-out chips provide high signal-to-noise ratio and high dynamic range compared to CCD-based detectors and Image Plates. These detector features are important for SAXS experiments where a wide range of intensities are present in the images. For time resolved SAXS experiments, high frame rates are compulsory. The latest CMOS read-out chip developed by the MEDIPIX collaboration provides high frame rate and continuous acquisition mode. A read-out system for an array of MEDIPIX3 sensors is under development at Diamond Light Source. This system will support a full resolution frame rate of 1 kHz at a pixel counter depth of 12-bit and a frame rate of 30 kHz at a counter depth of 1 bit. Details concerning system design and MEDIPIX sensors characterization are presented.