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Sample records for alice silicon pixel

  1. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  2. The ALICE silicon pixel detector readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krivda, M; Burns, M; Caselle, M; Kluge, A; Manzari, V; Torcato de Matos, C; Morel, M; Riedler, P; Aglieri Rinella, G; Sandor, L; Stefanini, G

    2010-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracking system (ALICE Collaboration, 1999) [1]. The SPD is built with 120 detector modules (half-staves) and contains about 10 million pixels in total. The half-staves are connected to the off-detector electronics, housed in a control room 100 m away, via bidirectional optical links. The stream of data from the front-end electronics is processed in 20 VME readout modules, called routers, based on FPGAs. Three 2-channel link-receiver daughter cards, also based on FPGAs, are plugged in each router. Each link-receiver card receives data via the optical link from two half-staves, applies the zero suppression and passes them to the router to be processed and sent to the ALICE–DAQ system through the detector data link (DDL). The SPD control, configuration and data monitoring are performed using the VME interface embedded in the router.

  3. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Fadmar Osmic, FO

    2006-01-01

    The European Organization for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva is currently constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will allow the study of the subnuclear ranges of physics with an accuracy never achieved before. Within the LHC project, ALICE is to the study of strongly interacting matter at extreme densities and high temperatures. ALICE as many other modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments uses silicon pixel detectors for tracking close to the interaction point (IP). The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) will constitute the two innermost layers of ALICE, and will due to its high granularity provide precise tracking information. In heavy ion collisions, the track density could be as high as 80 tracks/cm2 in the first SPD layer. The SPD will provide tracking information at radii of 3.9 and 7.6 cm from the IP. It is a fundamental element for the study of the weak decays of the particles carrying heavy flavour, whose typical signature will be a secondary vertex separated from the primary verte...

  4. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector Control and Calibration Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Calì, Ivan Amos; Manzari, Vito; Stefanini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was carried out in the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) group of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SPD is the innermost part (two cylindrical layers of silicon pixel detec- tors) of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). During the last three years I have been strongly involved in the SPD hardware and software development, construction and commissioning. This thesis is focused on the design, development and commissioning of the SPD Control and Calibration Systems. I started this project from scratch. After a prototyping phase now a stable version of the control and calibration systems is operative. These systems allowed the detector sectors and half-barrels test, integration and commissioning as well as the SPD commissioning in the experiment. The integration of the systems with the ALICE Experiment Control System (ECS), DAQ and Trigger system has been accomplished and the SPD participated in the experimental December 2007 commissioning run. The complex...

  5. Detector performance of the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cavicchioli, C

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). It consists of two barrel layers of hybrid silicon pixel detectors at radii of 39 and 76 mm. The physics targets of the ALICE experiment require that the material budget of the SPD is kept within approximate to 1\\%X(0) per layer. This has set some stringent constraints on the design and construction of the SPD. A unique feature of the ALICE SPD is that it is capable of providing a prompt trigger signal, called Fast-OR, which contributes to the L0 trigger decision. The pixel trigger system allows to apply a set of algorithms for the trigger selection, and its output is sent to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The detector has been installed in the experiment in summer 2007. During the first injection tests in June 2008 the SPD was able to record the very first sign of life of the LHC by registering secondary particles from the beam dumped upstream the ALICE experiment. In the following months the...

  6. Descent of the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) for ALICE Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) at radii of 3.9 cm and 7.6 cm, respectively. It is a fundamental element for the determination of the position of the primary vertex as well as for the measurement of the impact parameter of secondary tracks originating from the weak decays of strange, charm and beauty particles.

  7. The Level 0 Pixel Trigger System for the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector: implementation, testing and commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G

    2008-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector transmits 1200 Fast-OR signals every 100 ns on 120 optical readout channels. They indicate the presence of at least one hit in the pixel matrix of each readout chip. The ALICE Level 0 Pixel Trigger System extracts them, processes them and delivers an input signal to the Central Trigger Processor for the first level trigger decision within a latency of 800 ns. This paper describes tests and measurements made on the system during the qualification and commissioning phases. These included Bit Error Rate tests on the Fast-OR data path, the measurement of the overall process latency and the recording of calibration data with cosmic rays. The first results of the operation of the Pixel Trigger System with the SPD detector in the ALICE experiment are also presented.

  8. The barrel sector assembly system of the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antinori, F; Cinausero, M; Dima, R; Fabris, D; Fioretto, E; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Pepato, Adriano; Prete, G; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Soramel, F; Turrisi, R; Vannucci, L; Viesti, G

    2004-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector is the inner part of the ITS tracking system of the ALICE experiment at LHC. The 240 silicon modules, hosting almost 10 million pixel cells with dimension 50 . 425 mu m /sup 2/, have to be assembled on a carbon fiber support with micrometric precision. To reach this result, a dedicated high- precision computer-controlled tooling system has been developed at the INFN Padova. The assembly system and the mounting procedures are presented. (10 refs).

  9. Design, production and first operation of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; Antinori, F; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Cavicchioli, C; Dima, R; Elia, D; Fabris, D; Krivda, M; Librizzi, F; Manzari, V; Marangio, G; Morel, M; Moretto, S; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Pepato, Adriano; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Torcato Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Tydesjol, H; Viesti, G

    2008-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost barrel layers of the ALICE experiment. The SPD is the detector closest to the interaction point, mounted around the beam pipe with the two layers at r=3.9 cm and 7.6 cm distance from beam axis. In order to reduce multiple scattering the material budget per layer in the active region has been limited to ≈1% X0. The SPD consists of 120 hybrid silicon pixel detectors modules with a total of ~107 cells. The on-detector read-out is based on a multi-chip-module containing 4 ASICs and an optical transceiver module. The readout electronics, located in the control room, is housed in 20 VME boards; it is the interface to the ALICE trigger, data acquisition, control system and detector electronics. In this contribution the SPD detector components design and production are reviewed. First operation results are reported.

  10. Beam Test Performance and Simulation of Prototypes for the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, J; Antinori, F; Badalà, A; Barbera, R; Boccardi, A; Bruno, G E; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Ceresa, S; Chochula, P; Cinausero, M; Dima, R; Elia, D; Fabris, D; Fini, R A; Fioretto, E; Kapusta, S; Kluge, A; Krivda, M; Lenti, V; Librizzi, F; Lunardon, M; Manzari, V; Morel, M; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Nilsson, P; Noriega, M L; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Paticchio, V; Pepato, Adriano; Prete, G; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Soramel, F; Stefanini, G; Sándor, L; Torcatode-Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Vannucci, L; Viesti, G; Virgili, T

    2007-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector (SPD) of the ALICE experiment in preparation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to provide the precise vertex reconstruction needed for measuring heavy flavor production in heavy ion collisions at very high energies and high multiplicity. The SPD forms the innermost part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) which also includes silicon drift and silicon strip detectors. Single assembly prototypes of the ALICE SPD have been tested at the CERN SPS using high energy proton/pion beams in 2002 and 2003. We report on the experimental determination of the spatial precision. We also report on the first combined beam test with prototypes of the other ITS silicon detector technologies at the CERN SPS in November 2004. The issue of SPD simulation is briefly discussed.

  11. The ALICE pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mercado Perez, J

    2002-01-01

    The present document is a brief summary of the performed activities during the 2001 Summer Student Programme at CERN under the Scientific Summer at Foreign Laboratories Program organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society (Sociedad Mexicana de Fisica). In this case, the activities were related with the ALICE Pixel Group of the EP-AIT Division, under the supervision of Jeroen van Hunen, research fellow in this group. First, I give an introduction and overview to the ALICE experiment; followed by a description of wafer probing. A brief summary of the test beam that we had from July 13th to July 25th is given as well. (3 refs).

  12. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System - Status of the R&D; on monolithic silicon pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem

    2014-01-01

    s a major part of its upgrade plans, the ALICE experiment schedules the installation of a novel Inner Tracking System (ITS) during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2018/19. It will replace the present silicon tracker with seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) and significantly improve the detector performance in terms of tracking and rate capabilities. The choice of technology has been guided by the tight requirements on the material budget of 0 : 3 % X = X 0 /layer for the three innermost layers and backed by the significant progress in the field of MAPS in recent years. The pixel chips are manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process on wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. Within the ongoing R&D; phase, several sensor chip prototypes have been developed and produced on different epitaxial layer thicknesses and resistivities. These chips are being characterized for their performance before and after irradiation using source tests, test beam and measu...

  13. Mr. Lorenzo Dellai, presidente della provincia Autonoma di Trento and Professor Andrea Zanotti, president dell'Instituto Trentino di Cultura, visit ALICE experiment underground area and Pixel Silicon Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Mr. Lorenzo Dellai, presidente della provincia Autonoma di Trento and Professor Andrea Zanotti, president dell'Instituto Trentino di Cultura, visit ALICE experiment underground area and Pixel Silicon Laboratory

  14. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  15. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  16. Study and Development of a novel Silicon Pixel Detector for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    van Hoorn, Jacobus Willem; Riedler, Petra

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As an important part of its upgrade plans, the ALICE experiment schedules the installation of a new Inner Tracking System (ITS) during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2019/20. The new ITS will consist of seven concentric layers, covering about 10m2 with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This choice of technology has been guided by the tight requirements on the material budget of 0.3 % x/X0 per layer for the three innermost layers and backed by the significant progress in the field of MAPS in recent years. The pixel chips are manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer on top of the substrate. During the R&D phase several chip architectures have been investigated, which take full advantage of a particular process feature, the deep p-well, that allows for full CMOS circuitry within the pixel matrix while retaining full charge colle...

  17. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The bump-bonded silicon pixel detector, developed at CERN by the EP-MIC group, is shown here in its ceramic carrier. Both represent the ISPA-tube anode. The chip features between 1024 (called OMEGA-1) and 8196 (ALICE-1) active pixels.

  18. Pixel readout chips in deep submicron CMOS for ALICE and LHCb tolerant to 10 Mrad and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeys, W.; Burns, M.; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Cencelli, V.; Dinapoli, R.; Heijne, E.; Jarron, P.; Lamanna, P.; Minervini, D.; Morel, M.; O'Shea, V.; Quiquempoix, V.; San Segundo Bello, D.; Koningsveld, van B.; Wyllie, K.

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE1LHCB chip is a mixed-mode integrated circuit designed to read out silicon pixel detectors for two different applications: particle tracking in the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector and particle identification in the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. To satisfy the different needs for these

  19. ANUSANSKAR: a 16 channel frontend electronics (FEE) ASIC targeted for silicon pixel array detector based prototype Alice FOCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANUSANSKAR is a 16 channel pulse processing ASIC with analog multiplexed output designed in 0.7 um standard CMOS technology with each channel consisting of CSA, Semi Gaussian pulse shaper, DC cancellation and pedestal control, track and hold, output buffer blocks. The ASIC's analog multiplexed output can be read serially in daisy-chain topology. Testing, characterization and validation of ANUSANSKAR ASIC as readout for prototype ALICE forward calorimeter (FOCAL) has been carried out in PS beam line at CERN with up to 6 GeV of pion and electron beam. This paper describes the ANUSANSKAR ASIC along with the experimental results. (author)

  20. Pixel readout electronics development for the ALICE pixel vertex and LHCb RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W; Cantatore, E; Cencelli, V; Dinapoli, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Lamanna, P; Minervini, D; O'Shea, V; Quiquempoix, V; San Segundo-Bello, D; Van Koningsveld, B; Wyllie, Ken H

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE1LHCB pixel readout chip emerged from previous experience at CERN. The RD-19 collaboration provided the basis for the installation of a pixel system in the WA97 and NA57 experiments. Operation in these experiments was key in the understanding of the system issues. In parallel the RD-49 collaboration provided the basis to obtain radiation tolerance in commercial submicron CMOS through special circuit layout. The new ALICE1LMB chip was developed to serve two different applications: particle tracking in the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector and particle identification in the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. To satisfy the different needs for these two experiments, the chip can be operated in two different modes. In tracking mode all the 50 mu m*435 mu m pixel cells in the 256*32 array are read out individually, whilst in particle identification mode they are combined in groups of 8 to form a 32*32 array of 400 mu m*425 mu m cells. The circuit is currently being manufactured in a commercial 0.25 mu m CMO...

  1. Performance of ALICE silicon tracker detector

    CERN Document Server

    Luparello, G

    2014-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the LHC experiment devoted to the study of the strong interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions. The ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) consists of six layers of silicon detectors exploiting three different technologies: pixel, drift and strip (from inside to outside). It covers the central pseudorapidity range, j h j < 0 : 9, and its distance from the beam line ranges from r = 3 : 9 cm for the innermost pixel layer up to r = 43 cm for the outermost strip layer. The main tasks of the ITS are to reconstruct the primary and secondary vertices, to track and identify charged particles with a low- p T cutoff and to improve the momentum resolution at high p T . During the operations, the ITS has demonstrated its tracking and vertexing capabilities, which are in excellent agreement with the design values. In these proceedings, after a brief description of the features of the system, the performance during the first three years of data taking at LHC will be presen...

  2. Pixel readout electronics development for the ALICE pixel vertex and LHCb RICH detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeys, W.; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Cencelli, V.; Dinapoli, R.; Heijne, E.; Jarron, P.; Lamanna, P.; Minervini, D.; O'Shea, V.; Quiquempoix, V.; San Segundo Bello, D.; Koningsveld, van B.; Wyllie, K.

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE1LHCB pixel readout chip emerged from previous experience at CERN. The RD-19 collaboration provided the basis for the installation of a pixel system in the WA97 and NA57 experiments. Operation in these experiments was key in the understanding of the system issues. In parallel the RD-49 coll

  3. Pixel readout chips in deep submicron CMOS for ALICE and LHCb tolerant to 10 mrad and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Cantatore, E; Cencelli, V; Dinapoli, R; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Lamanna, P; Minervini, D; Morel, M; O'Shea, V; Quiquempoix, V; San Segundo-Bello, D; Van Koningsveld, B; Wyllie, Ken H

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE1LHCB chip is a mixed-mode integrated circuit designed to read out silicon pixel detectors for two different applications: particle tracking in the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector and particle identification in the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector. To satisfy the different needs for these two experiments, the chip can be operated in two different modes. In tracking mode all the 50 mu m *425 mu m pixel cells in the 256*32 array are read out individually, whilst in particle identification mode they are combined in groups of 8 to form a 32*32 array of 300 mu m x 425 mu m cells. Radiation tolerance was enhanced through special circuit layout. Sensitivity to coupling of digital signals into the analog front end was minimized. System issues such as testability and uniformity further constrained the design. The circuit is currently being manufactured in a commercial 0.25 mu m CMOS technology. (28 refs).

  4. The ATLAS Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M S; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Andreazza, A; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Musico, P; Osculati, B; Parodi, F; Rossi, L; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Aleppo, M; Caccia, M; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Brandl, A; Gorfine, G; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, SC; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; D'Auria, S; del Papa, C; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been developed. The design of the sensors is guided by the need to operate them in the severe LHC radiation environment at up to several hundred volts while maintaining a good signal-to-noise ratio, small cell size, and minimal multiple scattering. The ability to be operated under full bias for electrical characterization prior to the attachment of the readout integrated circuit electronics is also desired.

  5. The ALICE silicon strip detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Kuijer, P

    2000-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 5.5 TeV per nucleon. The detector consists essentially of two main components: the central part, composed of detectors mainly devoted to the study of hadronic signals and dielectrons, and the forward muon spectrometer devoted to the study of quarkonia behaviour in dense matter. The central part, which covers +-45 deg. (|eta|<0.9) over the full azimuth, is embedded in a large magnet with a weak solenoidal field. Outside of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), there are a cylindrical TPC and a large area PID array of time-of-flight (TOF) counters. In addition, there are two small-area single-arm detectors: an electromagnetic calorimeter (Photon Spectrometer, PHOS) and an array of RICH counters optimized for high-momentum inclusive particle identification (HMPID). This article describes the silicon strip detector system used in the outer layers o...

  6. Electrical Characteristics of Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, I; Hoeferkamp, M; Mata-Bruni, V; Santistevan, G; Seidel, S C; Ciocio, A; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Klaiber Lodewigs, Jonas M; Krasel, O; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Caso, Carlo; Cervetto, M; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Netchaeva, P; Osculati, B; Rossi, L; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Andreazza, A; Caccia, M; Citterio, M; Lari, T; Meroni, C; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Vegni, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; Cauz, D; Cobal-Grassmann, M; D'Auria, S; De Lotto, B; del Papa, C; Grassmann, H; Santi, L; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been electrically characterized. The current and voltage characteristics, charge collection efficiencies, and resolutions have been examined. Devices were fabricated on oxygenated and standard detector-grade silicon wafers. Results from prototypes which examine p-stop and standard and moderated p-spray isolation are presented for a variety of geometrical options. Some of the comparisons relate unirradiated sensors with those that have received fluences relevant to LHC operation.

  7. Electrical characteristics of silicon pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Mata-Bruni, V.; Santistevan, G.; Seidel, S.C. E-mail: seidel@dot.phys.unm.edu; Ciocio, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Emes, J.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Marchesini, R.; McCormack, F.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Pengg, F.; Richardson, J.; Zizka, G.; Ackers, M.; Comes, G.; Fischer, P.; Keil, M.; Martinez, G.; Peric, I.; Runolfsson, O.; Stockmanns, T.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.; Goessling, C.; Huegging, F.; Klaiber-Lodewigs, J.; Krasel, O.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wunstorf, R.; Barberis, D.; Beccherle, R.; Caso, C.; Cervetto, M.; Darbo, G.; Gagliardi, G.; Gemme, C.; Morettini, P.; Netchaeva, P.; Osculati, B.; Rossi, L.; Charles, E.; Fasching, D.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnon, P.; Calvet, D.; Clemens, J.-C.; Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G.; Laugier, D.; Mouthuy, T.; Rozanov, A.; Valin, I.; Andreazza, A.; Caccia, M.; Citterio, M.; Lari, T.; Meroni, C.; Ragusa, F.; Troncon, C.; Vegni, G.; Lutz, G.; Richter, R.H.; Rohe, T.; Boyd, G.R.; Skubic, P.L.; Sicho, P.; Tomasek, L.; Vrba, V.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Cauz, D.; Cobal-Grassmann, M.; D' Auria, S.; De Lotto, B.; Del Papa, C.; Grassmann, H.; Santi, L.; Becks, K.H.; Lenzen, G.; Linder, C

    2002-08-21

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been electrically characterized. The current and voltage characteristics, charge-collection efficiencies, and resolutions have been examined. Devices were fabricated on oxygenated and standard detector-grade silicon wafers. Results from prototypes which examine p-stop and standard and moderated p-spray isolation are presented for a variety of geometrical options. Some of the comparisons relate unirradiated sensors with those that have received fluences relevant to LHC operation.

  8. ALPIDE, the Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, M.

    2016-07-01

    A new 10 m2 inner tracking system based on seven concentric layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors will be installed in the ALICE experiment during the second long shutdown of LHC in 2019-2020. The monolithic pixel sensors will be fabricated in the 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process of TowerJazz. The ALPIDE design takes full advantage of a particular process feature, the deep p-well, which allows for full CMOS circuitry within the pixel matrix, while at the same time retaining the full charge collection efficiency. Together with the small feature size and the availability of six metal layers, this allowed a continuously active low-power front-end to be placed into each pixel and an in-matrix sparsification circuit to be used that sends only the addresses of hit pixels to the periphery. This approach led to a power consumption of less than 40 mWcm-2, a spatial resolution of around 5 μm, a peaking time of around 2 μs, while being radiation hard to some 1013 1 MeVneq /cm2, fulfilling or exceeding the ALICE requirements. Over the last years of R & D, several prototype circuits have been used to verify radiation hardness, and to optimize pixel geometry and in-pixel front-end circuitry. The positive results led to a submission of full-scale (3 cm×1.5 cm) sensor prototypes in 2014. They are being characterized in a comprehensive campaign that also involves several irradiation and beam tests. A summary of the results obtained and prospects towards the final sensor to instrument the ALICE Inner Tracking System are given.

  9. Silicon Wafer Fabrication and Microchannel for Cooling System in ALICE ITS

    CERN Document Server

    Pasuwan, Patrawan

    2013-01-01

    My summer student project covered details of the upgrade of Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE detector. The tasks are divided in two parts. First was on silicon wafer dicing technology and its resistivity under the supervision of Petra Riedler. Next was on silicon wafer microfabrication and cooling system in microchannel under the supervision of Andrea Francescon. ITS upgrade was proposed for better detection performance and reduction of budget. Detectors in the ITS are composed of monolithic silicon pixel chips. The thickness of the chips was proposed to be 50 μm so that particles that pass through them do not lose too much momentum. Working with very thin chips requires suitable dicing technology. Sum- mary of dicing technology is proposed for the most suitable dicing technique. Properties of the chip can be denoted by observing its resistivity. Literature reviews on surface resistivity profile measurement is represented for consideration. Cooling system is very important for the detector. Fluid t...

  10. Monolithic active pixel sensor development for the upgrade of the ALICE inner tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Giubilato, P.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Kugathasan, T.; Lattuca, A.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Martinengo, P.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Pantano, D.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Siddhanta, S.; Snoeys, W.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.; Yi, J.

    2013-12-01

    ALICE plans an upgrade of its Inner Tracking System for 2018. The development of a monolithic active pixel sensor for this upgrade is described. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel due to the offering of a deep pwell and also to use different starting materials. The ALPIDE development is an alternative to approaches based on a rolling shutter architecture, and aims to reduce power consumption and integration time by an order of magnitude below the ALICE specifications, which would be quite beneficial in terms of material budget and background. The approach is based on an in-pixel binary front-end combined with a hit-driven architecture. Several prototypes have already been designed, submitted for fabrication and some of them tested with X-ray sources and particles in a beam. Analog power consumption has been limited by optimizing the Q/C of the sensor using Explorer chips. Promising but preliminary first results have also been obtained with a prototype ALPIDE. Radiation tolerance up to the ALICE requirements has also been verified.

  11. Front end optimization for the monolithic active pixel sensor of the ALICE Inner Tracking System upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALICE plans to replace its Inner Tracking System during the second long shut down of the LHC in 2019 with a new 10 m2 tracker constructed entirely with monolithic active pixel sensors. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging Sensor process has been selected to produce the sensor as it offers a deep pwell allowing full CMOS in-pixel circuitry and different starting materials. First full-scale prototypes have been fabricated and tested. Radiation tolerance has also been verified. In this paper the development of the charge sensitive front end and in particular its optimization for uniformity of charge threshold and time response will be presented

  12. Charge sharing in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K; Seller, P; Prydderch, M L; O'Shea, V; Bates, R L; Smith, K M; Rahman, M

    2002-01-01

    We used a pixellated hybrid silicon X-ray detector to study the effect of the sharing of generated charge between neighbouring pixels over a range of incident X-ray energies, 13-36 keV. The system is a room temperature, energy resolving detector with a Gaussian FWHM of 265 eV at 5.9 keV. Each pixel is 300 mu m square, 300 mu m deep and is bump bonded to matching read out electronics. The modelling packages MEDICI and MCNP were used to model the complete X-ray interaction and the subsequent charge transport. Using this software a model is developed which reproduces well the experimental results. The simulations are then altered to explore smaller pixel sizes and different X-ray energies. Charge sharing was observed experimentally to be 2% at 13 keV rising to 4.5% at 36 keV, for an energy threshold of 4 keV. The models predict that up to 50% of charge may be lost to the neighbouring pixels, for an X-ray energy of 36 keV, when the pixel size is reduced to 55 mu m.

  13. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The ISPA tube is a position-sensitive photon detector. It belongs to the family of hybrid photon detectors (HPD), recently developed by CERN and INFN with leading photodetector firms. HPDs confront in a vacuum envelope a photocathode and a silicon detector. This can be a single diode or a pixelized detector. The electrons generated by the photocathode are efficiently detected by the silicon anode by applying a high-voltage difference between them. ISPA tube can be used in high-energy applications as well as bio-medical and imaging applications.

  14. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Cavicchioli, C; Giubilato, P; Hillemanns, H; Junique, A; Kugathasan, T; Mager, M; Marin Tobon, C A; Martinengo, P; Mattiazzo, S; Mugnier, H; Musa, L; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Reidt, F; Riedler, P; Snoeys, W; Van Hoorne, J W; Yang, P

    2014-01-01

    Within the R&D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget (~0.3%X0~0.3%X0 in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity (View the MathML source~20μm×20μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity View the MathML source(ρ>1kΩcm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge c...

  15. Development of Microstrip Silicon Detectors for Star and ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Guthneck, L; Higueret, S; Hundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Tarchini, A; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Erazmus, B; Germain, M; Giliberto, S; Martin, L; Le Moal, C; Roy, C; Colledani, C; Dulinski, W; Turchetta, R

    1998-01-01

    The physics program of STAR and ALICE at ultra-relativistic heavy ion colliders, RHIC and LHC respectively, requires very good tracking capabilities. Some specific quark gluon plasma signatures, based on strange matter measurements implies quite a good secondary vertex reconstruction.For this purpose, the inner trackers of both experiments are composed of high-granularity silicon detectors. The current status of the development of double-sided silicon microstrip detectors is presented in this work.The global performance for tracking purpose adn particle identification are first reviewed. Then tests of the detectors and of the associated readout electronics are described. In-beam measurements of noise, spatial resolution, efficiency and charge matching capability, as well as radiation hardness, are examined.

  16. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the R and D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget (∼0.3%X0 in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity (∼20μm×20μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity (ρ>1kΩcm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge collection properties of the different pixel variants implemented in Explorer0 have been studied using a 55Fe X-ray source and 1–5 GeV/c electrons and positrons. The sensor capacitance has been estimated, and the effect of the sensor bias has also been examined in detail. A second version of the Explorer0 chip (called Explorer1) has been submitted for production in March 2013, together with a novel circuit with in-pixel discrimination and a sparsified readout. Results from these submissions are also presented

  17. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Giubilato, P.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Martinengo, P.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Pantano, D.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.

    2014-11-01

    Within the R&D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget (~ 0.3 %X0 in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity (~ 20 μm × 20 μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity (ρ > 1 kΩ cm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge collection properties of the different pixel variants implemented in Explorer0 have been studied using a 55Fe X-ray source and 1-5 GeV/c electrons and positrons. The sensor capacitance has been estimated, and the effect of the sensor bias has also been examined in detail. A second version of the Explorer0 chip (called Explorer1) has been submitted for production in March 2013, together with a novel circuit with in-pixel discrimination and a sparsified readout. Results from these submissions are also presented.

  18. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavicchioli, C., E-mail: costanza.cavicchioli@cern.ch [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Chalmet, P.L. [MIND, Archamps Technopole, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Cedex 74166 (France); Giubilato, P. [Università and INFN, Padova (Italy); Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Marin Tobon, C.A. [Valencia Polytechnic University, Valencia (Spain); Martinengo, P. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Mattiazzo, S. [Università and INFN, Padova (Italy); Mugnier, H. [MIND, Archamps Technopole, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Cedex 74166 (France); Musa, L. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Pantano, D. [Università and INFN, Padova (Italy); Rousset, J. [MIND, Archamps Technopole, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Cedex 74166 (France); Reidt, F. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Van Hoorne, J.W. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Technische Universitaet Wien, Vienna (Austria); Yang, P. [Central China Normal University CCNU, Wuhan (China)

    2014-11-21

    Within the R and D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget (∼0.3%X{sub 0} in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity (∼20μm×20μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity (ρ>1kΩcm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge collection properties of the different pixel variants implemented in Explorer0 have been studied using a {sup 55}Fe X-ray source and 1–5 GeV/c electrons and positrons. The sensor capacitance has been estimated, and the effect of the sensor bias has also been examined in detail. A second version of the Explorer0 chip (called Explorer1) has been submitted for production in March 2013, together with a novel circuit with in-pixel discrimination and a sparsified readout. Results from these submissions are also presented.

  19. Electric performance of the ALICE Silicon Drift Detector irradiated with 1 GeV electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Piemonte, C; Rashevsky, A; Vacchi, A; Wheadon, R

    2002-01-01

    The final version of the ALICE Silicon Drift Detector was irradiated with 1 GeV electrons at the LINAC of the Synchrotron 'Elettra' in Trieste. The electron fluence was equivalent to the total particle fluence expected during 10 years of ALICE operation as far as the bulk damage is concerned. The anode current, the voltage distribution on the integrated divider, and the operation of the MOS injectors were tested. The detector was found to be sufficiently radiation hard for the ALICE experiment.

  20. Very low mass microcables for the ALICE silicon strip detector

    CERN Document Server

    De Haas, A P; Van den Brink, A; Kuijer, P G; Borshchov, V N; Kiprich, S K; Ruzhitsky, V M

    1999-01-01

    Proposal of abstract for LEB99, Snowmass, Colorado, 20-24 September 1999The ALICE Inner Tracker (ITS) silicon strip layers will use kapton/aluminium microcables (12/14 um thickness) exclusively for all interconnections to and from the front-end chips and hybrids, completely eliminating traditional wirebonding. Benefits are increased robustness and an extra degree of dimensional freedom. Utilising a low-power, low temperature and low-force (10-15 grams) single-point TAB bonding process, aluminium traces are directly bonded through bonding windows in the kapton foil to bond pads on the chips and the hybrid. The same technique is also used to interconnect these microcables to create multi-layer bus structures with "bonded via's". A double-sided strip detector using prototype cables has been installed in the NA57 experiment in 1998.

  1. Silicon pixel R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)754303

    2016-01-01

    Challenging detector requirements are imposed by the physics goals at the future multi-TeV e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). A single point resolution of 3μm for the vertex detector and 7μm for the tracker is required. Moreover, the CLIC vertex detector and tracker need to be extremely light weighted with a material budget of 0.2 % X0 per layer in the ver- tex detector and 1-2%X0 in the tracker. A fast time slicing of 10ns is further required to suppress background from beam-beam interactions. A wide range of sensor and readout ASIC technologies are investigated within the CLIC silicon pixel R&D effort. Various hybrid planar sensor assemblies with a pixel size of 25x25μm2 and 55x55μm2 have been produced and characterised by laboratory measurements and during test-beam campaigns. Experimental and simulation results for thin (50μm-500μm) slim edge and active-edge planar, and High-Voltage CMOS sensors hybridised to various readout ASICs (Timepix, Timepix3, CLICpix) are presented.

  2. Assembly and validation of the SSD silicon microstrip detector of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A.P.; Kuijer, P.G.; Nooren, G.J.L.; Oskamp, C.J.; Sokolov, A.N.; van den Brink, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) forms the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of ALICE. The SSD detector consists of 1698 double-sided silicon microstrip modules. The electrical connection between silicon sensor and front-end electronics is made via TAB-bonded aluminium–polyimid

  3. MISTRAL & ASTRAL: two CMOS Pixel Sensor architectures suited to the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, C.; Bertolone, G.; Claus, G.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Dozière, G.; Dulinski, W.; Fang, X.; Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Senyukov, S.; Specht, M.; Szelezniak, M.; Pham, H.; Valin, I.; Wang, T.; Winter, M.

    2014-01-01

    A detector, equipped with 50 μm thin CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS), is being designed for the upgrade of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment at LHC. Two CPS flavours, MISTRAL and ASTRAL, are being developed at IPHC aiming to meet the requirements of the ITS upgrade. The first is derived from the MIMOSA28 sensor designed for the STAR-PXL detector. The second integrates a discriminator in each pixel to improve the readout speed and power consumption. This paper will describe in details the sensor development and show some preliminary test results.

  4. ALICE honours industries

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The third annual ALICE Awards ceremony recognizes three companies for their contribution to the experiment's detector. The ALICE Awards winners pictured with CERN Secretary-General, Maximilian Metzger, during the ceremony. Three industries were honoured at the ALICE Awards ceremony on 17 March for their exceptional work on the collaboration's detector. Representatives from the companies accepted their awards at the ceremony, which was also attended by CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger and members of the ALICE Collaboration Board. VTT Microelectronics of Finland received an award for the production of the thin bump bonded ladders (detector arrays, each consisting of 40 960 active cells) for the silicon pixel detector (SPD) in the inner tracking system. A number of technical hurdles had to be overcome: complex and expensive equipment was procured or upgraded, and processes underwent a detailed study and careful tuning. The ladders have a high and stable yield and the production will soon be completed...

  5. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-15

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2}, which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10{sup 15} particles per cm{sup 2}.

  6. Study of Silicon Pixel Sensors for Synchrotron Radiation Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors have been successfully employed and widely used in Synchrotron radiation X-ray detection. In this paper, the silicon pixel sensors for single X-ray photon detection, which operate in full-depletion mode have been studied. The pixel sensors were fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320{\\mu}m thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers. The pixel sensors has a p+-in-n structure with varies of pixel size and gap size including guard-ring structures. Later, the pixel sensor was wire bonded to the ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response in the synchrotron beam line (BSRF, 1W2B). From the S-curve scan, we could get the energy resolution and the linear properties between input energy and the equivalent generator amplitude. The pixel sensors we fabricated have a good energy linear and high count rate depending on the ASIC readout circuit. We get the 20% energy resolution above 10 keV photon energy via wire bonding. The energy resolution would get better if we b...

  7. Development and characterisation of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor prototypes for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Collu, Alberto

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is dedicated to the study and characterisation of the Quark-­‐Gluon Plasma (QGP), exploiting the unique potential of ultrarelativistic heavy-­‐ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The increase of the LHC luminosity leading up to about 50 kHz Pb-­‐Pb interaction rate after the second long shutdown (in 2018-­‐2019) will offer the possibility to perform high precision measurements of rare probes over a wide range of momenta. These measurements are statistically limited or not even possible with the present experimental set up. For this reason, an upgrade strategy for several ALICE detectors is being pursued. In particular, it is foreseen to replace the Inner Tracking System (ITS) by a new detector which will significantly improve the tracking and vertexing capabilities of ALICE in the upgrade scenario. The new ITS will have a barrel geometry consisting of seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with high granularity, which will...

  8. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  9. 3D silicon pixel sensors: Recent test beam results

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, P; Sandaker, H; Korolkov, I; Barrera, C; Wermes, N; Borri, M; Grinstein, S; Troyano, I; Grenier, P; Devetak, E; Fleta, C; Kenney, C; Tsybychev, D; Nellist, C; Chmeissan, M; Su, D; DeWilde, B; Silverstein, D; Dorholt, O; Tsung, J; Sjoebaek, K; Stupak, J; Slaviec, T; Micelli, A; Helle, K; Bolle, E; Huegging, F; Kocian, M; Fazio, S; Balbuena, J; Dalla Betta, G F; La Rosa, A; Rivero, F; Mastroberardino, A; Hasi, J; Darbo, G; Boscardin, M; Da Via, C; Nordahl, P; Giordani, M; Jackson, P; Rohne, O; Gemme, C; Young, C

    2011-01-01

    The 3D silicon sensors aimed for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade have been tested with a high energy pion beam at the CERN SPS in 2009. Two types of sensor layouts were tested: full-3D assemblies fabricated in Stanford, where the electrodes penetrate the entire silicon wafer thickness, and modified-3D assemblies fabricated at FBK-irst with partially overlapping electrodes. In both cases three read-out electrodes are ganged together to form pixels of dimension 50 x 400 mu m(2). Data on the pulse height distribution, tracking efficiency and resolution were collected for various particle incident angles, with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field. Data from a planar sensor of the type presently used in the ATLAS detector were used at the same time to give comparison. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Detector and Front-end electronics for ALICE and STAR silicon strip layers

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Coffin, J P; Guillaume, G; Higueret, S; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Lutz, Jean Robert; Suire, C; Tarchini, A; Berst, D; Blondé, J P; Clauss, G; Colledani, C; Deptuch, G; Dulinski, W; Hu, Y; Hébrard, L; Kucewicz, W; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Ravel, O; Retière, F

    1998-01-01

    Detector modules consisting of Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) and Front End Electronics (FEE) assembly have been designed in order to provide the two outer layers of the ALICE Inner Tracker System (ITS) [1] as well as the outer layer of the STAR Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) [2]. Several prototypes have beenproduced and tested in the SPS and PS beam at CERN to validate the final design. Double-sided, AC-coupled SSD detectors provided by two different manufacturers and also a pair of single-sided SSD have been asssociated to new low-power CMOS ALICE128C ASIC chips in a new detector module assembly. The same detectors have also been associated to current Viking electronics for reference purpose. These prototype detector modules are described and some first results are presented.

  11. ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Outreach

    2006-01-01

    To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

  12. GigaTracker, a Thin and Fast Silicon Pixels Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Velghe, Bob; Bonacini, Sandro; Ceccucci, Augusto; Kaplon, Jan; Kluge, Alexander; Mapelli, Alessandro; Morel, Michel; Noël, Jérôme; Noy, Matthew; Perktold, Lukas; Petagna, Paolo; Poltorak, Karolina; Riedler, Petra; Romagnoli, Giulia; Chiozzi, Stefano; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Gianoli, Alberto; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Wahl, Heinrich; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Jarron, Pierre; Marchetto, Flavio; Gil, Eduardo Cortina; Nuessle, Georg; Szilasi, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    GigaTracker, the NA62’s upstream spectrometer, plays a key role in the kinematically constrained background suppression for the study of the K + ! p + n ̄ n decay. It is made of three independent stations, each of which is a six by three cm 2 hybrid silicon pixels detector. To meet the NA62 physics goals, GigaTracker has to address challenging requirements. The hit time resolution must be better than 200 ps while keeping the total thickness of the sensor to less than 0.5 mm silicon equivalent. The 200 μm thick sensor is divided into 18000 300 μm 300 μm pixels bump-bounded to ten independent read-out chips. The chips use an end-of-column architecture and rely on time-over- threshold discriminators. A station can handle a crossing rate of 750 MHz. Microchannel cooling technology will be used to cool the assembly. It allows us to keep the sensor close to 0 C with 130 μm of silicon in the beam area. The sensor and read-out chip performance were validated using a 45 pixel demonstrator with a laser test setu...

  13. Development of the digital read-out system for the CERN Alice pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, Tullio

    In order to gain new experimental insight at the TeV energy scale, CERN (Geneva) will build the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a new collider machine operating at a maximum center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV (in the p+/p+ interactions). The accelerator can operate in a heavy ion collision mode achieving a center-of-mass energy of ~5.5 TeV. The experimental environment at LHC is characterized by a high crossing rate of the particle bunches (one every 25 ns for p+/p+) and high levels of radiation. Therefore stringent requirements are imposed on the performance of detectors at LHC. Such a particle physics environment calls for dedicated hardware/software solutions with specific constraints, such as radiation tolerance, limited amount of material and limited power dissipation. One of the particle physics experiments carried out in LHC is ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment). The ALICE detector will face a very high density of tracks of particles (a multiplicity of 8000 charged particles per unit of rapidity, that i...

  14. Silicon Avalanche Pixel Sensor for High Precision Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ascenzo, N; Moon, C S; Morsani, F; Ratti, L; Saveliev, V; Navarro, A Savoy; Xie, Q

    2013-01-01

    The development of an innovative position sensitive pixelated sensor to detect and measure with high precision the coordinates of the ionizing particles is proposed. The silicon avalanche pixel sensors (APiX) is based on the vertical integration of avalanche pixels connected in pairs and operated in coincidence in fully digital mode and with the processing electronics embedded on the chip. The APiX sensor addresses the need to minimize the material budget and related multiple scattering effects in tracking systems requiring a high spatial resolution in the presence of a large occupancy. The expected operation of the new sensor features: low noise, low power consumption and suitable radiation tolerance. The APiX device provides on-chip digital information on the position of the coordinate of the impinging charged particle and can be seen as the building block of a modular system of pixelated arrays, implementing a sparsified readout. The technological challenges are the 3D integration of the device under CMOS ...

  15. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  16. The ALICE Silicon Strip Detector performance during the first LHC data taking

    CERN Document Server

    Contin, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) is a fundamental part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) for the ALICE experiment. Since the early phase of proton-proton collisions at LHC, the SSD is fully operational and participating in the charged particle detection and identification carried out by ALICE. The performance of the SSD during the 900 GeV and 7 TeV collision data taking is presented here. The stability of the system is monitored through the time evolution of its calibration parameters and their correlation with the environmental conditions. The intrinsic noise of the 2.6 million channels composing the SSD is used to assess the detector efficiency. Finally the performance in terms of hit reconstruction and energy-loss measurement is discussed with reference to the global tracking and the ITS-standalone particle identification carried out in the first collision events.

  17. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R and D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision

  18. Zero suppression logic of the ALICE muon forward tracker pixel chip prototype PIXAM and associated readout electronics development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouzat, C.; Değerli, Y.; Guilloux, F.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of the ALICE experiment upgrade at HL-LHC, a new forward tracking detector, the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT), is foreseen to overcome the intrinsic limitations of the present Muon Spectrometer and will perform new measurements of general interest for the whole ALICE physics. To fulfill the new detector requirements, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) provide an attractive trade-off between readout speed, spatial resolution, radiation hardness, granularity, power consumption and material budget. This technology has been chosen to equip the Muon Forward Tracker and also the vertex detector: the Inner Tracking System (ITS). Since few years, an intensive R&D program has been performed on the design of MAPS in the 0.18 μ m CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. In order to avoid pile up effects in the experiment, the classical rolling shutter readout system of MAPS has been improved to overcome the readout speed limitation. A zero suppression algorithm, based on a 3 by 3 cluster finding (position and data), has been chosen for the MFT. This algorithm allows adequate data compression for the sensor. This paper presents the large size prototype PIXAM, which represents 1/3 of the final chip, and will focus specially on the zero suppression block architecture. This chip is designed and under fabrication in the 0.18 μ m CIS process. Finally, the readout electronics principle to send out the compressed data flow is also presented taking into account the cluster occupancy per MFT plane for a single central Pb-Pb collision.

  19. Study of silicon pixel sensor for synchrotron radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Jia, Yun-Cong; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    The silicon pixel sensor (SPS) is one of the key components of hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray detection (SRD). In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of SPSs for single beam X-ray photon detection is reported. The designed pixel sensor is a p+-in-n structure with guard-ring structures operated in full-depletion mode and is fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320 μm thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers by a general Si planar process. To achieve high energy resolution of X-rays and obtain low dark current and high breakdown voltage as well as appropriate depletion voltage of the SPS, a series of technical optimizations of device structure and fabrication process are explored. With optimized device structure and fabrication process, excellent SPS characteristics with dark current of 2 nA/cm2, full depletion voltage 150 V are achieved. The fabricated SPSs are wire bonded to ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response to the 1W2B synchrotron beam line of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured S-curves for SRD demonstrate a high discrimination for different energy X-rays. The extracted energy resolution is high (10 keV) and the linear properties between input photo energy and the equivalent generator amplitude are well established. It confirmed that the fabricated SPSs have a good energy linearity and high count rate with the optimized technologies. The technology is expected to have a promising application in the development of a large scale SRD system for the Beijing Advanced Photon Source. Supported by Prefabrication Research of Beijing Advanced Photon Source (R&D for BAPS) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335010)

  20. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects

  1. Optimization of transistor size and operating point for the LVDS driver of the ALICE ITS pixel chip

    CERN Document Server

    Froeen, Solveig Marie

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE Inner Tracker System (ITS) will be upgraded during Long Shutdown 2. The tracker layers will be equipped with monolithic pixel sensors chips. A Low Voltage Differential Signalling (LVDS) driver is required for the off chip data transmission. A current mode 1.2 Gb/s LVDS driver based on H-bridge scheme has already been implemented and tested. Although the present driver meets the specifications, a decrease of its power consumption is beneficial for the reduction of the material required for the detector powering and cooling. This report presents the study of a current mode LVDS driver based on H-bridge scheme where the switches are replaced with current sources that can deliver either ON level or OFF level currents. The ON current is the main static power contributor, and its value is set to 4 mA by specifications to have a differential signal of 400 mV over the 100 Ω termination resistor. The second contributor for the static power is the OFF power, which has to be optimized together with the dynami...

  2. Silicon sensors for the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accelerator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The first upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2.1034 cm-2s-1. A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5.1034 cm-2s-1. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The first upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout electronics that allow efficient data taking up to a luminosity of 2.1034 cm-2s-1, twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at different institutes. Hamburg (University and DESY) is responsible for the production of 350 pixel modules. The second upgrade (phase II) of the pixel detector is foreseen for 2025. The innermost pixel layer of the upgraded detector will accumulate a radiation damage corresponding to an equivalent fluence of Φeq=2.1016 cm-2 and a dose of ∼10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. Several groups are investigating sensor designs and configurations able to withstand such high doses and fluences. This work is divided into two parts related to important aspects of the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector. For the phase I upgrade, a setup has been developed to provide an absolute energy calibration of the pixel modules that will constitute the detector. The calibration is obtained using monochromatic X-rays. The same setup is used to test the buffering capabilities of the modules' readout chip. The maximum rate experienced by the modules produced in Hamburg will be 120 MHz

  3. Silicon sensors for the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centis Vignali, Matteo

    2015-12-15

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accelerator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The first upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The first upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout electronics that allow efficient data taking up to a luminosity of 2.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at different institutes. Hamburg (University and DESY) is responsible for the production of 350 pixel modules. The second upgrade (phase II) of the pixel detector is foreseen for 2025. The innermost pixel layer of the upgraded detector will accumulate a radiation damage corresponding to an equivalent fluence of Φ{sub eq}=2.10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and a dose of ∼10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. Several groups are investigating sensor designs and configurations able to withstand such high doses and fluences. This work is divided into two parts related to important aspects of the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector. For the phase I upgrade, a setup has been developed to provide an absolute energy calibration of the pixel modules that will constitute the detector. The calibration is obtained using monochromatic X-rays. The same setup is used to test the buffering capabilities of the modules' readout chip

  4. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  5. Recent Developments on the Silicon Drift Detector readout scheme for the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Bonazzola, G C; Bonvicini, V; Cavagnino, D; Cerello, P G; De Remigis, P; Falchieri, D; Gabrielli, A; Gandolfi, E; Giubellino, P; Hernández, R; Masetti, M; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nouais, D; Rashevsky, A; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F

    1999-01-01

    Proposal of abstract for LEB99, Snowmass, Colorado, 20-24 September 1999Recent developments of the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) readout system for the ALICE Experiment are presented. The foreseen readout system is based on 2 main units. The first unit consists of a low noise preamplifier, an analog memory which continuously samples the amplifier output, an A/D converter and a digital memory. When the trigger signal validates the analog data, the ADCs convert the samples into a digital form and store them into the digital memory. The second unit performs the zero suppression/data compression operations. In this paper the status of the design is presented, together with the test results of the A/D converter, the multi-event buffer and the compression unit prototype.Summary:In the Inner Tracker System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment the third and the fourth layer of the detectors are SDDs. These detectors provide the measurement of both the energy deposition and the bi-dimensional position of the track. In terms o...

  6. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of the ITS use double-sided silicon strip detectors. This thesis focuses on testing of these detectors and performance studies of the detector module prototypes at the beam test. Silicon strip detector layers will require about 20 thousand HAL25 front-end readout chips and about 3.5 thousand hybrids each containing 6 HAL25 chips. During the assembly procedure, chips are bonded on a patterned TAB aluminium microcables which connect to all the chip input and output pads, and then the chips are assembled on the hybrids. Bonding failures at the chip or hybrid level may either render the component non-functional or deteriorate its the performance such that it can not be used for the module production. After each bond...

  7. Silicon pixel-detector R&D for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)718101

    2016-01-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few μm, ultra-low mass (∼ 0.2% X${}_0$ per layer for the vertex region and ∼ 1 % X${}_0$ per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ∼ 10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analog readout are explored. For the outer trac...

  8. Development and Characterization of Diamond and 3D-Silicon Pixel Detectors with ATLAS-Pixel Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10^16 particles per cm^2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 × 50 um^2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm^2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 × 6 cm^2). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge c...

  9. Development of hybrid photon detectors with integrated silicon pixel readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Formenti, F; Gys, Thierry; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    1999-01-01

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based $9 on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a fast, binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The $9 performance of a half-scale prototype is presented, together with the developments and tests of a full-scale tube with large active area. Specific requirements for pixel front-end and readout electronics in LHCb are outlined, and $9 recent results obtained from pixel chips applicable to hybrid photon detector design are summarized.

  10. The Phase-1 upgrade of the CMS silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Menichelli, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The present CMS pixel detector will be replaced in the shutdown period 2016/17 by an upgraded version due to the following reasons: increased luminosity at reduced bunch spacing ( from 7 x 10 33 cm - 2 s - 1 at 50 ns bunch spacing to 2 x 10 34 cm - 2 s - 1 at 25 ns bunch spacing) in the LHC , and radiation damage effects that will significantly degrade the present detector. The new upgraded detector will have higher tracking efficiency and lower mass with four barrel layer and three forward/backward disks to provide higher hit pixel coverage out to pseudorapidities of ±2.5. In this paper we will describe the new pixel detector focus ing mostly on the barrel detector design, construction and expected performances

  11. Performance of silicon pixel detectors at small track incidence angles for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Simon; Banerjee, Swagato; Brandt, Gerhard; Carney, Rebecca; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kashif, Lashkar; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Rieger, Julia; Wolf, Julian; Wu, Sau Lan; Yang, Hongtao

    2016-09-01

    In order to enable the ATLAS experiment to successfully track charged particles produced in high-energy collisions at the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, the current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by the Inner Tracker (ITk), entirely composed of silicon pixel and strip detectors. An extension of the tracking coverage of the ITk to very forward pseudorapidity values is proposed, using pixel modules placed in a long cylindrical layer around the beam pipe. The measurement of long pixel clusters, detected when charged particles cross the silicon sensor at small incidence angles, has potential to significantly improve the tracking efficiency, fake track rejection, and resolution of the ITk in the very forward region. The performance of state-of-the-art pixel modules at small track incidence angles is studied using test beam data collected at SLAC and CERN.

  12. ALICE through the phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    While proton-proton collisions will be the principal diet of CERN's LHC machine, heavy-ion collisions will also be on the menu. The ALICE experiment will be ready and waiting. Another of ALICE's TDRs concerns the experiment's inner tracking system (ITS). This is the innermost layer of the detector, responsible for tracking emerging particles where their density will be at its highest. ALICE physicists have been working with colleagues from fellow LHC experiment LHCb to develop silicon pixel chips for the inner two layers of the ITS.The result is a chip with 50 x 425 mu m cells; a prototype detector based on this chip is being tested this year.The ITS has six layers, all using silicon technology, and about 10 million digital and 2 million analogue readout channels to digest the huge number of particles produced in LHC lead-ion collisions. The collaboration has opted for a hybrid ITS structure combining sensors, electronics and mechanical support. Beam tests so far have indicated that the ITS should achieve pos...

  13. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushpil, Svetlana; ALICE Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    ALICE detector was constructed to study the properties of hot and dense hadronic matter formed in relativistic nuclear collisions. During the second long LHC shutdown in 2019-2020, the collaboration plans to upgrade the current vertex detector, the Inner Tracking System (ITS), in order to increase the reconstruction accuracy of secondary vertices and to lower the threshold of particle transverse momentum measurement. The upgrade strategy of ITS is based on the application of new Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) designed in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The 50 μm thick chip consists of a single silicon die incorporating a 0.18 μm high-resistivity silicon epitaxial layer (sensor active volume) and matrix of charge collection diodes (pixels) with readout electronics. Radiation hardness of the upgraded ITS is one of the crucial moments in the overall performance of the system. A wide set of MAPS structures with different read-out circuits was produced and is being studied by the ALICE collaboration to optimize the pixel sensor functionality. An overview of the ALICE ITS upgrade and the expected performance improvement will be presented together with selected results from a campaign that includes several irradiation and beam tests.

  14. The Latest from ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    After intensive installation operations from October 2008 until July 2009 (see Bulletin 31/7/2009), ALICE started a full-detector cosmics run in August, which is scheduled to last until the end of October. In addition to the Silicon Pixel and ACORDE detectors, the latter specially built for triggering on cosmic muons, ALICE is now making extensive use of the trigger provided by the Time Of Flight array. The high granularity and the low noise (0.1 Hz/cm2) of the TOF MRPCs, combined with the large coverage (~150 m2), offers a wide range of trigger combinations. This extended cosmic run serves many purposes: to test the performance of each individual detector; to ensure their integration in the central Data Acquisition; to perform alignment and calibration; to check the reconstruction software; to fine-tune the tracking algorithms; and last but not least, to train the personnel for the long shifts ahead. More than 100 million events h...

  15. Processing and characterization of a MEDIPIX2-compatible silicon sensor with 220 {mu}m pixel size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froejdh, Anna; Froejdh, Erik; Thungstroem, Goeran; Froejdh, Christer [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Norlin, Boerje, E-mail: Borje.Norlin@miun.se [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    Pixellated silicon detectors with a pixel size of 220 {mu}m have been fabricated at Mid-Sweden University. The purpose was to make a detector compatible with the MEDIPIX2 readout chip with pixels large enough to avoid charge sharing to do spectral imaging. Two different guard ring structures have been tested to investigate leakage current and interpixel isolation in a sensor made on high resistivity silicon.

  16. Silicon micro-fluidic cooling for NA62 GTK pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Romagnoli, G; Brunel, B; Catinaccio, A; Degrange, J; Mapelli, A; Morel, M; Noel, J; Petagna, P

    2015-01-01

    Silicon micro-channel cooling is being studied for efficient thermal management in application fields such as high power computing and 3D electronic integration. This concept has been introduced in 2010 for the thermal management of silicon pixel detectors in high energy physics experiments. Combining the versatility of standard micro-fabrication processes with the high thermal efficiency typical of micro-fluidics, it is possible to produce effective thermal management devices that are well adapted to different detector configurations. The production of very thin cooling devices in silicon enables a minimization of material of the tracking sensors and eliminates mechanical stresses due to the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between detectors and cooling systems. The NA62 experiment at CERN will be the first high particle physics experiment that will install a micro-cooling system to perform the thermal management of the three detection planes of its Gigatracker pixel detector.

  17. Design of a 16 gray scales 320×240 pixels OLED-on-silicon driving circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ran; Wang Xiaohui; Wang Wenbo; Du Huan; Han Zhengsheng

    2009-01-01

    A 320×240 pixel organic-light-emitting-diode-on-silicon (OLEDoS) driving circuit is implemented using the standard 0.5 μm CMOS process of CSMC. It gives 16 gray scales with integrated 4 bit D/A converters. A three-transistor voltage-programmed OLED pixel driver is proposed, which can realize the very small current driving required for the OLEDoS microdisplay. Both the D/A converter and the pixel driver are implemented with pMOS devices. The pass-transistor and capacitance in the OLED pixel driver can be used to sample the output of the D/A converter. An additional pMOS is added to OLED pixel driver, which is used to control the D/A converter operating only when one row is on. This can reduce the circuit's power consumption. This driving circuit can work properly in a frame frequency of 50 Hz, and the final layout of this circuit is given. The pixel area is 28.4×28.4 μm2 and the display area is 10.7×8.0 mm2 (the diagonal is about 13 mm). The measured pixel gray scale voltage shows that the function of the driver circuit is correct, and the power consumption of the chip is about 350 mW.

  18. Optimization of radiation hardness and charge collection of edgeless silicon pixel sensors for photon science

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiaguo; Pennicard, David; Sarajlic, Milija; Graafsma, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in active-edge technology of silicon sensors enables the development of large-area tiled silicon pixel detectors with small dead space between modules by utilizing edgeless sensors. Such technology has been proven in successful productions of ATLAS and Medipix-based silicon pixel sensors by a few foundries. However, the drawbacks of edgeless sensors are poor radiation hardness for ionizing radiation and non-uniform charge collection by edge pixels. In this work, the radiation hardness of edgeless sensors with different polarities has been investigated using Synopsys TCAD with X-ray radiation-damage parameters implemented. Results show that if no conventional guard ring is present, none of the current designs are able to achieve a high breakdown voltage (typically < 30 V) after irradiation to a dose of ~10 MGy. In addition, a charge-collection model has been developed and was used to calculate the charges collected by the edge pixels of edgeless sensors when illuminated with X-rays. The mode...

  19. Beam test characterization of CMS silicon pixel detectors for the phase-1 upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Silicon Pixel Detector forms the innermost part of the CMS tracking system and is critical to track and vertex reconstruction. Being in close proximity to the beam interaction point, it is exposed to the highest radiation levels in the silicon tracker. In order to preserve the tracking performance with the LHC luminosity increase which is foreseen for the next years, the CMS collaboration has decided to build a new pixel detector with four barrel layers mounted around a reduced diameter beam pipe, as compared to the present three layer pixel detector in the central region. A new digital version of the front-end readout chip has been designed and tested; it has increased data buffering and readout link speed to maintain high efficiency at increasing occupancy. In addition, it offers lower charge thresholds that will improve the tracking efficiency and position resolution. Single chip modules have been evaluated in the DESY electron test beam in terms of charge collection, noise, tracking efficiency and position resolution before and after irradiation with 24 GeV protons from the CERN Proton Synchroton equivalent to the fluence expected after 500 fb−1 of integrated luminosity in the fourth layer of the pixel tracker. High efficiency and an excellent position resolution have been observed which are well maintained even after the proton irradiation. The results are well described by the CMS pixel detector simulation

  20. Beam test characterization of CMS silicon pixel detectors for the phase-1 upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, I.

    2015-10-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector forms the innermost part of the CMS tracking system and is critical to track and vertex reconstruction. Being in close proximity to the beam interaction point, it is exposed to the highest radiation levels in the silicon tracker. In order to preserve the tracking performance with the LHC luminosity increase which is foreseen for the next years, the CMS collaboration has decided to build a new pixel detector with four barrel layers mounted around a reduced diameter beam pipe, as compared to the present three layer pixel detector in the central region. A new digital version of the front-end readout chip has been designed and tested; it has increased data buffering and readout link speed to maintain high efficiency at increasing occupancy. In addition, it offers lower charge thresholds that will improve the tracking efficiency and position resolution. Single chip modules have been evaluated in the DESY electron test beam in terms of charge collection, noise, tracking efficiency and position resolution before and after irradiation with 24 GeV protons from the CERN Proton Synchroton equivalent to the fluence expected after 500 fb{sup −1} of integrated luminosity in the fourth layer of the pixel tracker. High efficiency and an excellent position resolution have been observed which are well maintained even after the proton irradiation. The results are well described by the CMS pixel detector simulation.

  1. Novel Silicon n-in-p Pixel Sensors for the future ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, A; Macchiolo, A; Nisius, R; Pernegger, H; Richter,R H; Weigell, P

    2013-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all silicon system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost eectiveness, that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We present the characterization and performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel sensors produced by CiS (Germany) connected by bump bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. These results are obtained before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 1016 1-MeV $n_{eq}cm^{-2}$, and prove the operability of this kind of sensors in the harsh radiation environment foreseen for the pixel system at HL-LHC. We also present an overview of the new pixel production, which is on-going at CiS for sensors compatible with the new ATLAS readout chip FE-I4.

  2. Novel silicon n-in-p pixel sensors for the future ATLAS upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, A.; Gallrapp, C.; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.; Pernegger, H.; Richter, R. H.; Weigell, P.

    2013-08-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards HL-LHC the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the inner detector with an all silicon system. The n-in-p silicon technology is a promising candidate for the pixel upgrade thanks to its radiation hardness and cost effectiveness that allow for enlarging the area instrumented with pixel detectors. We present the characterization and performance of novel n-in-p planar pixel sensors produced by CiS (Germany) connected by bump bonding to the ATLAS readout chip FE-I3. These results are obtained before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 10161-MeV neq cm-2, and prove the operability of this kind of sensors in the harsh radiation environment foreseen for the pixel system at HL-LHC. We also present an overview of the new pixel production, which is on-going at CiS for sensors compatible with the new ATLAS readout chip FE-I4.

  3. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  4. ALICE doffs hat to two companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    During the fifth annual ALICE Industrial Awards ceremony, the ALICE Collaboration honoured two companies for their outstanding contributions to the construction of the experiment.For the past five years, the ALICE collaboration has been presenting its industrial partners with awards for meeting demanding or unusual requirements, for excellence in design or execution, for delivery on-time and on-budget and for outstanding cooperation. This year, on 9 March, ALICE presented awards to two companies for their exceptional performance. From left to right: Kees Oskamp (ALICE SSD), Arie de Haas (ALICE SSD), Gert-Jan Nooren (ALICE SSD), Shon Shmuel (FIBERNET), Yehuda Mor-Yosef (FIBERNET), Hans Boggild (ALICE), Jurgen Schukraft (ALICE Spokesperson), Catherine Decosse (ALICE) and Jean-Robert Lutz (ALICE SSD). FIBERNET Ltd., based in Yokneam, Israel, was rewarded for the excellent and timely assembly of the Silicon Strip Detector boards (SSD) of the Inner Tracking System with cable connections. Special low-mass cables, ...

  5. Filter-free image sensor pixels comprising silicon nanowires with selective color absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunsung; Dan, Yaping; Seo, Kwanyong; Yu, Young J; Duane, Peter K; Wober, Munib; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2014-01-01

    The organic dye filters of conventional color image sensors achieve the red/green/blue response needed for color imaging, but have disadvantages related to durability, low absorption coefficient, and fabrication complexity. Here, we report a new paradigm for color imaging based on all-silicon nanowire devices and no filters. We fabricate pixels consisting of vertical silicon nanowires with integrated photodetectors, demonstrate that their spectral sensitivities are governed by nanowire radius, and perform color imaging. Our approach is conceptually different from filter-based methods, as absorbed light is converted to photocurrent, ultimately presenting the opportunity for very high photon efficiency. PMID:24588103

  6. A Medipix2-based imaging system for digital mammography with silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bisogni, M G; Fantacci, M E; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Novelli, M; Quattrocchi, M; Rosso, V; Russo, P; Stefanini, A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the first tests of a digital imaging system based on a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to an integrated circuit operating in single photon counting mode. The X-rays sensor is a 300 mu m thick silicon, 14 by 14 mm/sup 2/, upon which a matrix of 256 * 256 pixels has been built. The read-out chip, named MEDIPIX2, has been developed at CERN within the MEDIPIX2 Collaboration and it is composed by a matrix of 256 * 256 cells, 55 * 55 mu m/sup 2/. The spatial resolution properties of the system have been assessed by measuring the square wave resolution function (SWRF) and first images of a standard mammographic phantom were acquired using a radiographic tube in the clinical irradiation condition. (5 refs).

  7. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, P; Barbero, M; Bates, R; Bolle, E; Borri, M; Boscardin, M; Buttar, C; Capua, M; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cobal, M; Cristofoli, A; Dalla Betta, G F; Darbo, G; Da Via, C; Devetak, E; DeWilde, B; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; Einsweiler, K; Esseni, D; Fazio, S; Fleta, C; Freestone, J; Gallrapp, C; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Giordani, M P; Gjersdal, H; Grinstein, S; Hansen, T; Hansen, T E; Hansson, P; Hasi, J; Helle, K; Hoeferkamp, M; Hugging, F; Jackson, P; Jakobs, K; Kalliopuska, J; Karagounis, M; Kenney, C; Köhler, M; Kocian, M; Kok, A; Kolya, S; Korokolov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Krüger, H; La Rosa, A; Lai, C H; Lietaer, N; Lozano, M; Mastroberardino, A; Micelli, A; Nellist, C; Oja, A; Oshea, V; Padilla, C; Palestri, P; Parker, S; Parzefall, U; Pater, J; Pellegrini, G; Pernegger, H; Piemonte, C; Pospisil, S; Povoli, M; Roe, S; Rohne, O; Ronchin, S; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Sandaker, H; Seidel, S; Selmi, L; Silverstein, D; Sjøbaek, K; Slavicek, T; Stapnes, S; Stugu, B; Stupak, J; Su, D; Susinno, G; Thompson, R; Tsung, J W; Tsybychev, D; Watts, S J; Wermes, N; Young, C; Zorzi, N

    2011-01-01

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  8. A CMOS analog front-end for silicon pixel detectors for γ imaging in medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent works we presented the γ0, a chip expressely designed for γ imaging in medical application. The chip was designed to be the anode of an Integrated Silicon Pixel Array (ISPA) tube. This chip consists of a matrix of 1024 pixels each 135u by 135u, each pixel comprises a CSA, designed to handle signals of few thousand electrons, a shaper, a discriminator and a 10 bit event buffer. The chip addresses many issues that are essential for the realization of cheap and fast detectors. Particularly it integrates a DAC controlled biasing network and an energy discrimination system. In this work, we present the test system and the first test results for the γ0

  9. New concept of a submillimetric pixellated Silicon detector for intracerebral application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M.; Märk, J.; Weiss, P.; Benoit, D.; Clemens, J. C.; Fougeron, D.; Janvier, B.; Jevaud, M.; Karkar, S.; Menouni, M.; Pain, F.; Pinot, L.; Morel, C.; Laniece, P.

    2011-12-01

    A new beta+ radiosensitive microprobe implantable in rodent brain dedicated to in vivo and autonomous measurements of local time activity curves of beta radiotracers in a volume of brain tissue of a few mm3 has been developed recently. This project expands the concept of the previously designed beta microprobe, which has been validated extensively in neurobiological experiments performed on anesthetized animals. Due to its limitations considering recordings on awake and freely moving animals, we have proposed to develop a wireless setup that can be worn by an animal without constraining its movements. To that aim, we have chosen a highly beta sensitive Silicon-based detector to devise a compact pixellated probe. Miniaturized wireless electronics is used to read-out and transfer the measurement data. Initial Monte-Carlo simulations showed that high resistive Silicon pixels are appropriate for this purpose, with their dimensions to be adapted to our specific signals. More precisely, we demonstrated that 200 μm thick pixels with an area of 200 μm×500 μm are optimized in terms of beta+sensitivity versus relative transparency to the gamma background. Based on this theoretical study, we now present the development of the novel sensor, including the system simulations with technology computer-assisted design (TCAD) to investigate specific configurations of guard rings and their potential to increase the electrical isolation and stabilization of the pixel, as well as the corresponding physical tests to validate the particular geometries of this new sensor.

  10. Alice and Alice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Vilalba Nunes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two Alices. One follows a rabbit and falls into a hole that seems to have no end, enters into another world, a world out of control, out of context, a world never seen before. The other does not fall anywhere, she only exists in the world. In this world. A world under control? Within the context? It would appear so. But Alice is only ten years old, what would she know about the control and the context of the world, besides the reference that those older and supposedly wiser give her? However, for the adults surrounding her, the world is not under control, their own lives are not. Alice, far from being naive knows that, and thus, her world turns confused, or rather, it turns confused by the complexity of adult relationships that she must undergo. The Alices and their small bodies immersed in these uncontrolled worlds turn their problematic situation into a ludic situation, a game, a playing, within the ease of doing this kind of reversal that only children and the so called crazy have. Thus, Alice and Alice makes a crossing between these two distant worlds characters, but close at the same time. One Alice literature, the other film. One Lewis Carroll, the other Wim Wenders. This essay investigates the relation regarding to the similarities and the discrepancies between the two forms of language, but mainly, the relation between the conditions of the two girls. Based on Deleuze's thought on the reversal of Cartesian thought examined on Carroll’s book, this work will ponder the situations experienced by Wenders’ Alice and consider the possibility that real life can be full of paradoxes, games and situations that move away from reasoning.

  11. Development of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the ALICE-ITS Outer Barrel and for the CBM-MVD

    CERN Document Server

    Deveaux, Michael

    2015-01-01

    After more than a decade of R&D;, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS or CPS) have proven to offer concrete answers to the demanding requirements of subatomic physics experi- ments. Their main advantages result from their low material budget, their very high granularity and their integrated signal processing circuitry, which allows coping with high particle rates. Moreover, they offer a valuable radiation tolerance and may be produced at low cost. Sensors of the MIMOSA series have offered an opportunity for nuclear and particle physics exper- iments to address with improved sensitivity physics studies requiring an accurate reconstruction of short living and soft particles. One of their major applications is the STAR-PXL detector, which is the first vertex detector based on MAPS. While this experiment is successfully taking data since two years, it was found that the 0.35 m CMOS technology used for this purpose is not suited for upcoming applications like the CBM micro-vertex detector (MVD) and the ...

  12. Operational Experience and Performance of the Present ALICE ITS

    CERN Document Server

    Senyukov, Serhiy

    2015-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of four major experiments at the CERN LHC. ALICE studies strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions created in heavy ion colli- sions. The Inner Tracking System (ITS) is an essential part of the ALICE detector. It is used for tracking, reconstruction of primary and secondary vertices and particle identification. ITS is composed of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. Three different techologies are used: hybrid pixel, drift and strip detectors. The ITS was fully commisioned in 2009 at the start of LHC Run 1. The detectors showed good performance during this period contributing to several important measurements. During the LHC Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) the ITS underwent general consolidation and is now ready for the next LHC run

  13. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  14. 14C autoradiography with an energy-sensitive silicon pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first performance tests are presented of a carbon-14 (14C) beta-particle digital autoradiography system with an energy-sensitive hybrid silicon pixel detector based on the Timepix readout circuit. Timepix was developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration and it is similar to the photon-counting Medipix2 circuit, except for an added time-based synchronization logic which allows derivation of energy information from the time-over-threshold signal. This feature permits direct energy measurements in each pixel of the detector array. Timepix is bump-bonded to a 300 μm thick silicon detector with 256 x 256 pixels of 55 μm pitch. Since an energetic beta-particle could release its kinetic energy in more than one detector pixel as it slows down in the semiconductor detector, an off-line image analysis procedure was adopted in which the single-particle cluster of hit pixels is recognized; its total energy is calculated and the position of interaction on the detector surface is attributed to the centre of the charge cluster. Measurements reported are detector sensitivity, (4.11 ± 0.03) x 10-3 cps mm-2 kBq-1 g, background level, (3.59 ± 0.01) x 10-5 cps mm-2, and minimum detectable activity, 0.0077 Bq. The spatial resolution is 76.9 μm full-width at half-maximum. These figures are compared with several digital imaging detectors for 14C beta-particle digital autoradiography.

  15. Charged-Particle Multiplicity Distributions over Wide Pseudorapidity Range in Proton-Proton and Proton-Lead Collisions with ALICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaccolo, Valentina

    distributionis sensitive to the number of collisions between quarks and gluonscontained in the colliding systems.In this thesis, data using the Forward Multiplicity Detector and the SiliconPixel Detector of ALICE at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) arepresented, for pp and pPb collisions. For the first time...

  16. High performance uncooled amorphous silicon VGA IRFPA with 17-µm pixel-pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, J. L.; Durand, A.; Garret, Th.; Minassian, C.; Robert, P.; Tinnes, S.; Vilain, M.

    2010-04-01

    The high level of accumulated expertise by ULIS and CEA/LETI on uncooled microbolometers made from amorphous silicon enables ULIS to develop VGA IRFPA formats with 17μm pixel-pitch to build up the currently available product catalog. This detector keeps all the innovations developed on the 25 μm pixel-pitch ROIC (detector configuration by serial link, low power consumption and wide electrical dynamic range). The specific appeal of this unit lies in the high spatial resolution it provides. The reduction of the pixel-pitch turns this TEC-less VGA array into a product well adapted for high resolution and compact systems. In the last part of the paper, we will look more closely at the high electro-optical performances of this IRFPA and the rapid performance enhancement. We will insist on NETD trade-off with wide thermal dynamic range, as well as the high characteristics uniformity, achieved thanks to the mastering of the amorphous silicon technology coupled with the ROIC design. This technology node paves the way to high end products as well as low end compact smaller formats like 160 x 120 or smaller.

  17. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, J; Cavallaro, E; Förster, F; Grinstein, S; Paz, I López; Manna, M; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Terzo, S; Furelos, D Vázquez

    2016-01-01

    3D silicon pixel detectors have been investigated as radiation-hard candidates for the innermost layers of the HL-LHC upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector. 3D detectors are already in use today in the ATLAS IBL and AFP experiments. These are based on 50x250 um2 large pixels connected to the FE-I4 readout chip. Detectors of this generation were irradiated to HL-LHC fluences and demonstrated excellent radiation hardness with operational voltages as low as 180 V and power dissipation of 12--15 mW/cm2 at a fluence of about 1e16 neq/cm2, measured at -25 degree C. Moreover, to cope with the higher occupancies expected at the HL-LHC, a first run of a new generation of 3D detectors designed for the HL-LHC was produced at CNM with small pixel sizes of 50x50 and 25x100 um2, matched to the FE-I4 chip. They demonstrated a good performance in the laboratory and in beam tests with hit efficiencies of about 97% at already 1--2V before irradiation.

  18. Simulations of a silicon pixel based on MOS Deep Trapping Gate Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Fourches, Nicolas T

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the deep trapping gate device was introduced fairly recently on the basis of technological and transport simulations currently used in the field of classical electron devices. The concept of a buried gate containing localized deep level centers for holes (Deep Trapping Gate or DTG) renders possible the operation of this field effect pixel detector. One alternative to Deep Level introduction is the use of a quantum box, which is a hole quantum-well and an electron barrier. In all of these cases the buried gate modulates the drain-source current. This principle was formerly evaluated with realistic simulations parameters and this shows that a measurable signal is obtained for an energy deposition of a minimum-ionizing particle within a limited silicon thickness. In this work a quantitative study of the response of such a pixel to Minimum Ionizing Particles. The influence of some parameters such as the thickness of the pixel and its lateral dimensions, on the operation of the pixel is studied here...

  19. Characterization of thin irradiated epitaxial silicon sensors for the CMS phase II pixel 2 upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider foreseen around 2023 resulted in the decision to replace the entire tracking system of the CMS experiment. The new pixel detector will be exposed to severe radiation corresponding to 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence up to φeq ∼ 1016 cm-2 and ionizing dose of ∼ 5 MGy after 3000 fb-1. Thin planar silicon sensors are good candidates to build the pixel detector since the degradation of the signal is less severe than for thicker devices. A study has been carried out in order to characterize highly irradiated planar epitaxial silicon sensors with an active thickness of 100 μm, in addition other silicon materials with a thickness of 200 μm have been studied. The investigation includes pad diodes and strip detectors irradiated up to a fluence of φeq = 1.3 x 1016 cm-2. The diodes have been characterized using laboratory measurements, while measurements have been carried out at the DESY II test beam facility to characterize the charge collection of the strip detectors. In this talk, the results obtained for p-bulk sensors are shown.

  20. Study of the Tracking Method and Expected Performance of the Silicon Pixel Inner Tracker Applied in BESIII

    CERN Document Server

    Xiu, Qinglei; Li, Weidong; Liu, Huaimin; Ma, Qiumei; Ouyang, Qun; Qin, Zhonghua; Wang, Liangliang; Wu, Linghui; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The inner drift chamber of the BESIII is encountering serious aging problem after five year's running. For the first layer, the decrease in gas gain is about 26% from 2009 to 2013. The upgrade of the inner tracking detector has become an urgent problem for the BESIII experiment. An inner tracker using CMOS pixel sensors is an important candidate because of its great advantages on spatial resolution and radiation hardness. In order to carry out a Monte Carlo study on the expected performance, a Geant4-based full simulation for the silicon pixel detector has been implemented. The tracking method combining the silicon pixel inner tracker and outer drift chamber has been studied and a preliminary reconstruction software was developed. The Monte Carlo study shows that the performances including momentum resolution, vertex resolution and the tracking efficiency are significantly improved due to the good spatial resolution and moderate material budget of the silicon pixel detector.

  1. High-Sensitivity X-ray Polarimetry with Amorphous Silicon Active-Matrix Pixel Proportional Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jahoda, K.; Ready, S. E.; Street, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Photoelectric X-ray polarimeters based on pixel micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs) offer order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity over more traditional techniques based on X-ray scattering. This new technique places some of the most interesting astronomical observations within reach of even a small, dedicated mission. The most sensitive instrument would be a photoelectric polarimeter at the focus of 2 a very large mirror, such as the planned XEUS. Our efforts are focused on a smaller pathfinder mission, which would achieve its greatest sensitivity with large-area, low-background, collimated polarimeters. We have recently demonstrated a MPGD polarimeter using amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (TFT) readout suitable for the focal plane of an X-ray telescope. All the technologies used in the demonstration polarimeter are scalable to the areas required for a high-sensitivity collimated polarimeter. Leywords: X-ray polarimetry, particle tracking, proportional counter, GEM, pixel readout

  2. Development of the Pixelated Photon Detector Using Silicon on Insulator Technology for TOF-PET

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, Akihiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Orita, Tadashi; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Nio, Daisuke; Hamasaki, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    To measure light emission pattern in scintillator, higher sensitivity and faster response are required to photo detector. Such as single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), conventional pixelated photo detector is operated at Geiger avalanche multiplication. However higher gain of SPAD seems very attractive, photon detection efficiency per unit area is low. This weak point is mainly caused by Geiger avalanche mechanism. To overcome these difficulties, we designed Pixelated Linear Avalanche Integration Detector using Silicon on Insulator technology (SOI-Plaid). To avoid dark count noise and dead time comes from quench circuit, we are planning to use APD in linear multiplication mode. SOI technology enables laminating readout circuit and APD layer, and high-speed and low-noise signal reading regardless smaller gain of linear APD. This study shows design of linear APD by using SOI fabrication process. We designed test element group (TEG) of linear APD and inspected optimal structure of linear APD.

  3. Photon counting pixel and array in amorphous silicon technology for large area digital medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdandoost, Mohammad Y.; Shin, Kyung W.; Safavian, Nader; Taghibakhsh, Farhad; Karim, Karim S.

    2010-04-01

    A single photon counting Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) based pixel architecture in amorphous silicon (a-Si) technology is reported for large area digital medical imaging. The VCO converts X-ray generated input charge into an output oscillating frequency signal. Experimental results for an in-house fabricated VCO circuit in a-Si technology are presented and external readout circuits to extract the image information from the VCO's frequency output are discussed. These readout circuits can be optimized to reduce the fixed pattern noise and fringing effects in an imaging array containing many such VCO pixels. Noise estimations, stability simulations and measurements for the fabricated VCO are presented. The reported architecture is particularly promising for large area photon counting applications (e.g. low dose fluoroscopy, dental computed tomography (CT)) due to its very low input referred electronic noise, high sensitivity and ease of fabrication in low cost a-Si technology.

  4. The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Christian Holm; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4 < \\eta < 5.1$. It is placed around the beam pipe at small angles to extend the charged particle acceptance of ALICE into the forward regions, not covered by the central barrel detectors.

  5. New-type silicon bipolar-pixel detector with internal amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubenko, A. P.; Karmanov, D. E.; Legotin, S. A.; Mukhamedshin, R. A.; Murashev, V. N.

    2009-12-01

    New-type silicon detector of charged particles and photons with internal amplification is considered. Bipolar npn-transistor pixel placed on a high-purity n-type silicon substrate is the functional element of the detector. The range being sensitive to ionization is a low-doped ( N˜10 cm) n region of the collector with a thickness virtually coinciding with the substrate thickness. A thin base containing one or more n emitters is formed on the surface. The current-amplification gain factor of the emitterbase junction is about 30. Detector prototypes are manufactured in the form of transistor matrices of 3×3 mm and 6×6 mm dimensions with a interpixel spacing of 50 and 100 microns. Results of testing of matrices are presented. The work is supported by the International Science and Technology Center, Project # 3024.

  6. A liquid-crystal-on-silicon color sequential display using frame buffer pixel circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangrok

    Next generation liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) high definition (HD) televisions and image projection displays will need to be low-cost and high quality to compete with existing systems based on digital micromirror devices (DMDs), plasma displays, and direct view liquid crystal displays. In this thesis, a novel frame buffer pixel architecture that buffers data for the next image frame while displaying the current frame, offers such a competitive solution is presented. The primary goal of the thesis is to demonstrate the LCOS microdisplay architecture for high quality image projection displays and at potentially low cost. The thesis covers four main research areas: new frame buffer pixel circuits to improve the LCOS performance, backplane architecture design and testing, liquid crystal modes for the LCOS microdisplay, and system integration and demonstration. The design requirements for the LCOS backplane with a 64 x 32 pixel array are addressed and measured electrical characteristics matches to computer simulation results. Various liquid crystal (LC) modes applicable for LCOS microdisplays and their physical properties are discussed. One- and two-dimensional director simulations are performed for the selected LC modes. Test liquid crystal cells with the selected LC modes are made and their electro-optic effects are characterized. The 64 x 32 LCOS microdisplays fabricated with the best LC mode are optically tested with interface circuitry. The characteristics of the LCOS microdisplays are summarized with the successful demonstration.

  7. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Jörn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Paz, Ivan Lopez

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to install 3D silicon pixel detectors about 210 m away from the interaction point and very close to the beamline (2-3 mm). This implies the need of slim edges of about 100-200 $\\mu$m width for the sensor side facing the beam to minimise the dead area. Another challenge is an expected non-uniform irradiation of the pixel sensors. It is studied if these requirements can be met using slightly-modified FE-I4 3D pixel sensors from the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer production. AFP-compatible slim edges are obtained with a simple diamond-saw cut. Electrical characterisations and beam tests are carried out and no detrimental impact on the leakage current and hit efficiency is observed. For devices without a 3D guard ring a remaining insensitive edge of less than 15 $\\mu$m width is found. Moreover, 3D detectors are non-uniformly irradiated up to fluences of several 10$^{15}$ n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$ with either a focussed 23 GeV proton beam or a 23 MeV proton beam through holes in Al ma...

  8. Characterization of Ni/SnPb-TiW/Pt Flip Chip Interconnections in Silicon Pixel Detector Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Härkönen, Jaakko; Luukka, Panja-riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Haeggstrom, Edward; Kalliopuska, Juha; Vahanen, Sami; Kassamakov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary high energy physics experiments, silicon detectors are essential for recording the trajectory of new particles generated by multiple simultaneous collisions. Modern particle tracking systems may feature 100 million channels, or pixels, which need to be individually connected to read-out chains. Silicon pixel detectors are typically connected to readout chips by flip-chip bonding using solder bumps. High-quality electro-mechanical flip-chip interconnects minimizes the number of dead read-out channels in the particle tracking system. Furthermore, the detector modules must endure handling during installation and withstand heat generation and cooling during operation. Silicon pixel detector modules were constructed by flip-chip bonding 16 readout chips to a single sensor. Eutectic SnPb solder bumps were deposited on the readout chips and the sensor chips were coated with TiW/Pt thin film UBM (under bump metallization). The modules were assembled at Advacam Ltd, Finland. We studied the uniformity o...

  9. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Christophersen, M.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gimenez, E.; Kachkanov, V.; Kalliopuska, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Maneuski, D.; Phlips, B. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Stewart, G.; Tartoni, N.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced edge or ``edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  10. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced edge or ''edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  11. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Gys, Thierry; Mikulec, B; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Schomaker, R; Snoeys, W; Wyllie, Ken H

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface...

  12. Silicon MOS Pixel Based on the Deep Trapping Gate Principle: Design and Material Science Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Fourches, Nicolas T

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the deep trapping gate device was introduced fairly recently on the basis of technological and transport simulations currently used in the field of classical electron devices. The concept of a buried gate containing localized deep level centers (Deep Trapping Gate or DTG) renders possible the operation of this field effect pixel detector. The deep centers can be deep defects or localized states in a quantum dot. This gate modulates the drain-source current. This principle was formerly evaluated with realistic simulations parameters and this shows that a measurable signal is obtained for an energy deposition of a minimum ionizing particle within a limited silicon thickness. We will study here the potential techniques usable for the fabrication of the device with their drawbacks, advantages and limits. The first technique introduced is impurity implantation, followed by annealing. The problems related to the control of the defects in the DTG will be examined in the light of recent work on ion imp...

  13. Study of Charge Diffusion in a Silicon Detector Using an Energy Sensitive Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, E. J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Visser, J.; Koffeman, E.; Heijne, E.; Engel, K. J.; Uher, J.

    2015-01-01

    A 300 μm thick thin p-on-n silicon sensor was connected to an energy sensitive pixel readout ASIC and exposed to a beam of highly energetic charged particles. By exploiting the spectral information and the fine segmentation of the detector, we were able to measure the evolution of the transverse profile of the charge carriers cloud in the sensor as a function of the drift distance from the point of generation. The result does not rely on model assumptions or electric field calculations. The data are also used to validate numerical simulations and to predict the detector spectral response to an X-ray fluorescence spectrum for applications in X-ray imaging.

  14. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allport, P. P.; Ball, K.; Casse, G.; Chmill, V.; Forshaw, D.; Hadfield, K.; Pritchard, A.; Pool, P.; Tsurin, I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their products meet all the stringent technical requirements. A semiconductor company with very widespread experience of producing science grade CCDs (including deep depletion devices) has adapted their CCD process to fabricate for the first time several wafers of pixel and micro-strip radiation hard sensors, suitable for future high energy physics experiments. The results of the pre-irradiation characterization of devices fabricated with different processing parameters and the measurements of charge collection properties after different hadron irradiation doses up to those anticipated for the (larger area) outer pixel layers at the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are presented and compared with results from more established particle physics suppliers.

  15. 3D silicon pixel detectors for the ATLAS Forward Physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) project plans to install 3D silicon pixel detectors about 210 m away from the interaction point and very close to the beamline (2–3 mm). This implies the need of slim edges of about 100–200 μm width for the sensor side facing the beam to minimise the dead area. Another challenge is an expected non-uniform irradiation of the pixel sensors. It is studied if these requirements can be met using slightly-modified FE-I4 3D pixel sensors from the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer production. AFP-compatible slim edges are obtained with a simple diamond-saw cut. Electrical characterisations and beam tests are carried out and no detrimental impact on the leakage current and hit efficiency is observed. For devices without a 3D guard ring a remaining insensitive edge of less than 15 μm width is found. Moreover, 3D detectors are non-uniformly irradiated up to fluences of several 1015 neq/cm2 with either a focussed 23 GeV proton beam or a 23 MeV proton beam through holes in Al masks. The efficiency in the irradiated region is found to be similar to the one in the non-irradiated region and exceeds 97% in case of favourable chip-parameter settings. Only in a narrow transition area at the edge of the hole in the Al mask, a significantly lower efficiency is seen. A follow-up study of this effect using arrays of small pad diodes for position-resolved dosimetry via the leakage current is carried out

  16. Investigating the Inverse Square Law with the Timepix Hybrid Silicon Pixel Detector: A CERN [at] School Demonstration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyntie, T.; Parker, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Timepix hybrid silicon pixel detector has been used to investigate the inverse square law of radiation from a point source as a demonstration of the CERN [at] school detector kit capabilities. The experiment described uses a Timepix detector to detect the gamma rays emitted by an [superscript 241]Am radioactive source at a number of different…

  17. Classical two-dimensional numerical algorithm for ?-Induced charge carrier advection-diffusion in Medipix-3 silicon pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Mason; Idarraga, John

    2013-04-01

    A classical hybrid alternating-direction implicit difference scheme is used to simulate two-dimensional charge carrier advection-diffusion induced by alpha particles incident upon silicon pixel detectors at room temperature in vacuum. A mapping between the results of the simulation and a projection of the cluster size for each incident alpha is constructed. The error between the simulation and the experimental data diminishes with the increase in the applied voltage for the pixels in the central region of the cluster. Simulated peripheral pixel TOT values do not match the data for any value of applied voltage, suggesting possible modifications to the current algorithm from first principles. Coulomb repulsion between charge carriers is built into the algorithm using the Barnes-Hut tree algorithm. The plasma effect arising from the initial presence of holes in the silicon is incorporated into the simulation. The error between the simulation and the data helps identify physics not accounted for in standard literature simulation techniques.

  18. Characterization of thin irradiated epitaxial silicon sensors for the CMS phase II pixel upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Centis Vignali, Matteo; Eichhorn, Thomas; Garutti, Erika; Junkes, Alexandra; Steinbrueck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The high-luminosity upgrade fo the large hadron collider foreseen for 2023 resulted in the decision to replace the tracker system of the CMS experiment. The innermost layer of the new pixel detector will experience fluences in the order of $\\phi_{eq} \\approx 10^{16}$~cm$^{-2}$ and a dose of $\\approx 5$~MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000~fb$^{-1}$. Several materials and designs are under investigation in order to build a detector that can withstand such high fluences. Thin planar silicon sensors are good canditates to achieve this goal since the degradation of the signal produced by traversing particles is less severe than for thicker devices. A study has been carried out in order to characterize highly irradiated planar epitaxial silicon sensors with an active thickness of 100~$\\mu$m. The investigation includes pad diodes and strip detectors irradiated up to a fluence of $\\phi_{eq} = 1.3 \\times 10^{16}$~cm$^{-2}$. The electrical properties of diodes have bee...

  19. Spectral response of a silicon detector with 220 {mu}m pixel size bonded to MEDIPIX2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froejdh, Erik, E-mail: erik.frojdh@miun.se [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Froejdh, Anna; Norlin, Boerje; Froejdh, Christer [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    Pixellated radiation detectors with single photon processing can be used for spectral X-ray imaging. A problem using such detectors with small pixels is that the spectral information is distorted by charge sharing. In order to get images with good spectral resolution a number of silicon sensors with a pixel size of 220 {mu}m were fabricated and bonded to a MEDIPIX2 readout chip using only a limited number of pixels on the readout chip. The device was then used in an X-ray microscopy setup to obtain good spatial resolution as well. It is shown that spectral imaging can provide good contrast images of embedded structures by selecting an appropriate energy window.

  20. Evaluation of a wavelet-based compression algorithm applied to the silicon drift detectors data of the ALICE experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Falchieri, Davide; Masotti, Matteo

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performances of a wavelet-based compression algorithm applied to the data produced by the silicon drift detectors of the ALICE experiment at CERN. This compression algorithm is a general purpose lossy technique, in other words, its application could prove useful even on a wide range of other data reduction's problems. In particular the design targets relevant for our wavelet- based compression algorithm are the following ones: a high- compression coefficient, a reconstruction error as small as possible and a very limited execution time. Interestingly, the results obtained are quite close to the ones achieved by the algorithm implemented in the first prototype of the chip CARLOS, the chip that will be used in the silicon drift detectors readout chain.

  1. Laser Soldering and Thermal Cycling Tests of Monolithic Silicon Pixel Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Strand, Frode Sneve

    2015-01-01

    An ALPIDE-1 monolithic silicon pixel sensor prototype has been laser soldered to a flex printed circuit using a novel interconnection technique using lasers. This technique is to be optimised to ensure stable, good quality connections between the sensor chips and the FPCs. To test the long-term stability of the connections, as well as study the effects on hit thresholds and noise in the sensor, it was thermally cycled in a climate chamber 1200 times. The soldered connections showed good qualities like even melting and good adhesion on pad/flex surfaces, and the chip remained in working condition for 1080 cycles. After this, a few connections failed, having cracks in the soldering tin, rendering the chip unusable. Threshold and noise characteristics seemed stable, except for the noise levels of sector 2 in the chip, for 1000 cycles in a temperature interval of "10^{\\circ}" and "50^{\\circ}" C. Still, further testing with wider temperature ranges and more cycles is needed to test the limitations of the chi...

  2. A Measurement of Lorentz Angle and Spatial Resolution of Radiation Hard Silicon Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, I; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, S C; Ciocio, A; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F X; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Meuser, S; Stockmanns, T; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Cervetto, M; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Netchaeva, P; Osculati, B; Parodi, F; Rossi, L; Dao, K; Fasching, D; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A N; Trouilleau, C; Valin, I; Aleppo, M; Andreazza, A; Caccia, M; Lari, T; Meroni, C; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Vegni, G; Rohe, T; Boyd, G; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Snow, J; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Lipka, D; Ziolkowski, M; Cauz, D; D'Auria, S; del Papa, C; Grassman, H; Santi, L; Becks, K H; Gerlach, P; Grah, C; Gregor, I; Harenberg, T; Linder, C

    2002-01-01

    Silicon pixel sensors developed by the ATLAS collaboration to meet LHC requirements and to withstand hadronic irradiation to fluences of up to $10^{15} n_eq/cm^{2}$ have been evaluated using a test beam facility at CERN providing a magnetic field. The Lorentz angle was measured and found to alter from 9.0 deg. before irradiation, when the detectors operated at 150 V bias at B=1.48 T, to 3.1 deg after irradiation and operating at 600 V bias at 1.01 T. In addition to the effect due to magnetic field variation, this change is explained by the variation of the electric field inside the detectors arising from the different bias conditions. The depletion depths of irradiated sensors at various bias voltages were also measured. At 600 V bias 280 micron thick sensors depleted to ~200 micron after irradiation at the design fluence of 1 10^{15} 1 MeV n_eq/cm2 and were almost fully depleted at a fluence of 0.5 * 10^{15} 1 MeV n_eq/cm2. The spatial resolution was measured for angles of incidence between 0 deg and 30 deg....

  3. Characterisation of a cobalt-60 small-beam animal irradiator using a realtime silicon pixelated detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porumb, C. S.; Davies, J. B.; Perevertaylo, V.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Petasecca, M.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a study performed by the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP) using a high spatial and temporal resolution silicon pixelated detector named MagicPlate-512. The study focuses on the characterisation of three pencil beams from a low-dose rate, 6 TBq, cobalt-60 source, in terms of percentage depth dose, beam profiles, output factor and shutter timing. Where applicable, the findings were verified against radiochromic EBT3 film and ionization chambers. It was found that the results of the MagicPlate-512 and film agreed within 0.9 mm for penumbra and full-width at half-maximum measurements of the beam profiles, and within 0.75% for percentage depth dose study. The dose rate of the cobalt-60 source was determined to be (10.65 ± 0.03) cGy/min at 1.5 cm depth in Solid Water. A significant asymmetry of the small pencil beam profile was found, which is due to the irregular machining of the small collimator. The average source shutter speed was calculated to be 26 cm/s. The study demonstrates that the MagicPlate-512 dosimetry system, developed at CMRP, is capable of beam characterisation even in cases of very low dose rate sources.

  4. Performance of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bomben, Marco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; Ducourthial, Audrey; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The paper reports on the performance of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology an overview of the first beam test results will be given.

  5. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderini, G.; Bagolini, A.; Beccherle, R.; Bomben, M.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Chauveau, J.; Giacomini, G.; La Rosa, A.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2016-09-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The presentation describes the performance of novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology, some feedback from preliminary results of the first beam test will be discussed.

  6. Optimal scan strategy for mega-pixel and kilo-gray-level OLED-on-silicon microdisplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuan; Ran, Feng; Ji, Weigui; Xu, Meihua; Chen, Zhangjing; Jiang, Yuxi; Shen, Weixin

    2012-06-10

    The digital pixel driving scheme makes the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) microdisplays more immune to the pixel luminance variations and simplifies the circuit architecture and design flow compared to the analog pixel driving scheme. Additionally, it is easily applied in full digital systems. However, the data bottleneck becomes a notable problem as the number of pixels and gray levels grow dramatically. This paper will discuss the digital driving ability to achieve kilogray-levels for megapixel displays. The optimal scan strategy is proposed for creating ultra high gray levels and increasing light efficiency and contrast ratio. Two correction schemes are discussed to improve the gray level linearity. A 1280×1024×3 OLED-on-silicon microdisplay, with 4096 gray levels, is designed based on the optimal scan strategy. The circuit driver is integrated in the silicon backplane chip in the 0.35 μm 3.3 V-6 V dual voltage one polysilicon layer, four metal layers (1P4M) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with custom top metal. The design aspects of the optimal scan controller are also discussed. The test results show the gray level linearity of the correction schemes for the optimal scan strategy is acceptable by the human eye. PMID:22695650

  7. NOTE: First images of a digital autoradiography system based on a Medipix2 hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettivier, Giovanni; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Russo, Paolo

    2003-06-01

    We present the first images of beta autoradiography obtained with the high-resolution hybrid pixel detector consisting of the Medipix2 single photon counting read-out chip bump-bonded to a 300 µm thick silicon pixel detector. This room temperature system has 256 × 256 square pixels of 55 µm pitch (total sensitive area of 14 × 14 mm2), with a double threshold discriminator and a 13-bit counter in each pixel. It is read out via a dedicated electronic interface and control software, also developed in the framework of the European Medipix2 Collaboration. Digital beta autoradiograms of 14C microscale standard strips (containing separate bands of increasing specific activity in the range 0.0038-32.9 kBq g-1) indicate system linearity down to a total background noise of 1.8 × 10-3 counts mm-2 s-1. The minimum detectable activity is estimated to be 0.012 Bq for 36 000 s exposure and 0.023 Bq for 10 800 s exposure. The measured minimum detection threshold is less than 1600 electrons (equivalent to about 6 keV Si). This real-time system for beta autoradiography offers lower pixel pitch and higher sensitive area than the previous Medipix1-based system. It has a 14C sensitivity better than that of micro channel plate based systems, which, however, shows higher spatial resolution and sensitive area.

  8. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-07-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a {approx}10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38.

  9. Detection of atmospheric muons with ALICE detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessandro, B. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dep. di Fisica Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Cortes Maldonado, I. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Cuautle, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez Tellez, A. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Gomez Jimenez, R. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Gonzalez Santos, H. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Herrera Corral, G. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Leon, I. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Martinez, M.I.; Munoz Mata, J.L. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Podesta, P. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Ramirez Reyes, A. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M., E-mail: mrodrigu@mail.cern.c [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Sitta, M. [Universita Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria (Italy); Subieta, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dep. di Fisica Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Tejeda Munoz, G.; Vargas, A.; Vergara, S. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico)

    2010-05-21

    The calibration, alignment and commissioning of most of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at the CERN LHC) detectors have required a large amount of cosmic events during 2008. In particular two types of cosmic triggers have been implemented to record the atmospheric muons passing through ALICE. The first trigger, called ACORDE trigger, is performed by 60 scintillators located on the top of three sides of the large L3 magnet surrounding the central detectors, and selects atmospheric muons. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) installed on the first two layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) gives the second trigger, called SPD trigger. This trigger selects mainly events with a single atmospheric muon crossing the SPD. Some particular events, in which the atmospheric muon interacts with the iron of the L3 magnet and creates a shower of particles crossing the SPD, are also selected. In this work the reconstruction of events with these two triggers will be presented. In particular, the performance of the ACORDE detector will be discussed by the analysis of multi-muon events. Some physical distributions are also shown.

  10. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Rossegger, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) is the key ALICE detector for the study of heavy flavour production at LHC. Heavy flavor can be studied via the identification of short-lived hadrons containing heavy quarks which have a mean proper decay length in the order of 100-300 $\\mu$m. To accomplish this task, the ITS is composed of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors (two pixel, two drift and two strip) with a radial coverage from 3.9 to 43 cm and a material budget of 1.1% X0 per layer. %In particular, the properties of the two innermost layers define the ITS performance in measuring the displaced vertex of such short-lived particles. In order to enhance the ALICE physics capabilities, and, in particular, the tracking performance for heavy-flavour detection, the possibility of an ITS upgrade has been studied in great detail. It will make use of the spectacular progress made in the field of imaging sensors over the last ten years as well as the possibility to install a smaller radius beampipe. The upgraded detec...

  11. Optimization of the Radiation Hardness of Silicon Pixel Sensors for High X-ray Doses using TCAD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Schwandt, J; Klanner, R; Pintilie, I; Zhang, J

    2011-01-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) will deliver 27000 fully coherent, high brilliance X-ray pulses per second each with a duration below 100 fs. This will allow the recording of diffraction patterns of single molecules and the study of ultra-fast processes. One of the detector systems under development for the XFEL is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD), which consists of a pixel array with readout ASICs bump-bonded to a silicon sensor with pixels of 200 {\\mu}m \\times 200 {\\mu}m. The particular requirements for the detector are a high dynamic range (0, 1 up to 10E5 12 keV photons/XFEL-pulse), a fast read-out and radiation tolerance up to doses of 1 GGy of 12 keV X-rays for 3 years of operation. At this X-ray energy no bulk damage in silicon is expected. However fixed oxide charges in the SiO2 layer and interface traps at the Si-SiO2 interface will build up. As function of the 12 keV X-ray dose the microscopic defects in test structures and the macro- scopic electrical properties of...

  12. Module concepts with ultra thin FE chips and Through Silicon Vias for the upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of trackers for High Energy Physics experiments at high luminosity poses strict requirements on the material budget to allow good vertexing and b-tagging performance. State-of-the-art silicon technologies offer a variety of processes that can be used to achieve light modules design. Together with IZM Berlin we investigated the thinning of FE (Front-End) chips down to 90 μm, and developed a dedicated flip chip process to assure a reliable mechanical and electrical connection between thin FE chips and sensor. The selected flip chip method is currently used for the production of modules for the IBL (Insertable B-Layer) project, the first ATLAS pixel detector upgrade. Results from the characterization of IBL modules with 100 and 150 μm thin FE chip are shown. For future upgrades of the ATLAS pixel detector we propose more advanced module concepts with Through Silicon Vias (TSVs). IZM offers two via last TSV processes, Straight Side Wall TSVs and Tapered Side Wall TSVs. Both processes were successfully demonstrated with ATLAS pixel readout electronics (FE-I2/3). Results from prototype modules with planar sensor and 90 μm thin FE-I2 with Tapered TSV and back side redistribution layer are shown.

  13. Uncooled amorphous silicon XGA IRFPA with 17μm pixel-pitch for high end applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieque, B.; Robert, P.; Minassian, C.; Vilain, M.; Tissot, J. L.; Crastes, A.; Legras, O.; Yon, J. J.

    2008-04-01

    The high level of accumulated expertise by ULIS and CEA/LETI on uncooled microbolometers made from amorphous silicon enables ULIS to develop 1024 x 768 (XGA) IRFPAs with 17 μm pixel-pitch to build up the currently available product catalog. This detector has kept all the innovations developed on the full TV format Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) (detector configuration by serial link, two video outputs, low power consumption and wide electrical dynamic range ...). The specific appeal of this unit lies in the high image resolution it provides. The reduction of the pixel-pitch turns this XGA array into a product well adapted for high resolution and compact systems. In the last part of the paper, we will look more closely at high electro-optical performances of this IRFPA; we will highlight the wide thermal dynamic range as well as the high characteristics uniformity and high pixel operability achieved thanks to the mastering of the amorphous silicon technology coupled with the ROIC design.

  14. High-performance uncooled amorphous silicon TEC less XGA IRFPA with 17μm pixel-pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouilleau, C.; Fièque, B.; Noblet, S.; Giner, F.; Pochic, D.; Durand, A.; Robert, P.; Cortial, S.; Vilain, M.; Tissot, J. L.; Yon, J. J.

    2009-05-01

    The high level of accumulated expertise by ULIS and CEA/LETI on uncooled microbolometers made from amorphous silicon enables ULIS to develop 1024 x 768 (XGA) IRFPA formats with 17μm pixel-pitch to address high end, high performance applications. This detector has kept all the innovations developed on the full TV format readout integrated circuit (ROIC): detector configuration by serial link, two video outputs, low power consumption, wide electrical dynamic range... The specific appeal of this unit lies in the high image resolution it provides. The reduction of the pixel-pitch turns this XGA array into a product well adapted for high resolution yet compact systems. In the last part of the paper, we will look more closely at the high electro-optical performances of this IRFPA and the rapid performance enhancement. We will insist on NETD coupled with wide thermal dynamic range, as well as the outstanding uniformity and high pixel operability, achieved thanks to the mastering of the amorphous silicon technology coupled with the ROIC design. This technology node paves the way to high end VGA or 1/4VGA sensors as well as large diffusion compact smaller formats like 160 x 120 or smaller.

  15. Test-beam results of a silicon pixel detector with Time-over-Threshold read-out having ultra-precise time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri Rinella, G.; Cortina Gil, E.; Fiorini, M.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Albarran, M. E. Martin; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Tiuraniem, S.; Velghe, B.

    2015-12-01

    A time-tagging hybrid silicon pixel detector developed for beam tracking in the NA62 experiment has been tested in a dedicated test-beam at CERN with 10 GeV/c hadrons. Measurements include time resolution, detection efficiency and charge sharing between pixels, as well as effects due to bias voltage variations. A time resolution of less than 150 ps has been measured with a 200 μm thick silicon sensor, using an on-pixel amplifier-discriminator and an end-of-column DLL-based time-to-digital converter.

  16. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The read-out from individual pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through the sensor. The resolution given by individual pixel sizes is significantly improved by using the information from the charge sharing between pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years to obtain an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, clusters have an increased probability of merging the charge deposited by multiple particles. Recently, a neural network based algorithm which estimates both the cluster position and whether a cluster should be split has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurement to tracks within jets and improves the position accuracy with respect to standard interpolation techniques by taking into account the 2-dimensional ...

  17. Neural network based cluster creation in the ATLAS silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Cavalcanti, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The hit signals read out from pixels on planar semi-conductor sensors are grouped into clusters, to reconstruct the location where a charged particle passed through. The resolution of the individual pixel sizes can be improved significantly using the information from the cluster of adjacent pixels. Such analog cluster creation techniques have been used by the ATLAS experiment for many years giving an excellent performance. However, in dense environments, such as those inside high-energy jets, is likely that the charge deposited by two or more close-by tracks merges into one single cluster. A new pattern recognition algorithm based on neural network methods has been developed for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. This can identify the shared clusters, split them if necessary, and estimate the positions of all particles traversing the cluster. The algorithm significantly reduces ambiguities in the assignment of pixel detector measurements to tracks within jets, and improves the positional accuracy with respect to stand...

  18. Initial steps toward the realization of large area arrays of single photon counting pixels based on polycrystalline silicon TFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Albert K.; Koniczek, Martin; Antonuk, Larry E.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Jiang, Hao; Street, Robert A.; Lu, Jeng Ping

    2014-03-01

    The thin-film semiconductor processing methods that enabled creation of inexpensive liquid crystal displays based on amorphous silicon transistors for cell phones and televisions, as well as desktop, laptop and mobile computers, also facilitated the development of devices that have become ubiquitous in medical x-ray imaging environments. These devices, called active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs), measure the integrated signal generated by incident X rays and offer detection areas as large as ~43×43 cm2. In recent years, there has been growing interest in medical x-ray imagers that record information from X ray photons on an individual basis. However, such photon counting devices have generally been based on crystalline silicon, a material not inherently suited to the cost-effective manufacture of monolithic devices of a size comparable to that of AMFPIs. Motivated by these considerations, we have developed an initial set of small area prototype arrays using thin-film processing methods and polycrystalline silicon transistors. These prototypes were developed in the spirit of exploring the possibility of creating large area arrays offering single photon counting capabilities and, to our knowledge, are the first photon counting arrays fabricated using thin film techniques. In this paper, the architecture of the prototype pixels is presented and considerations that influenced the design of the pixel circuits, including amplifier noise, TFT performance variations, and minimum feature size, are discussed.

  19. Microstrip detector for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows a close up of one of the silicon microstrip detectors that will be installed on the ALICE experiment at the LHC. 1698 double-sided modules of these silicon microstrips will be installed in the two outermost layers of the ALICE inner tracking system. The microstrips have to be specially designed to withstand the high resolution levels at the heart of the detector.

  20. Development and characterization of 16-channel silicon photomultiplier prototype with sub-mm pixels for high-resolution PET system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazoe, K.; Lipovec, A.; Takahashi, H.; Wiest, F.; Iskra, P.; Ganka, T.; Kamada, K.

    2014-11-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are one of the most promising photodetectors for high-resolution PET systems because of their high gain and fast rise time. The resolution of a modern animal PET scanner is now in the sub-mm range; it has also been reported that an individual readout for pixels is necessary in order to achieve the theoretically best resolution. For achieving sub-mm resolution, a detector with pixelated crystals individually coupled to the photodetector is ideal. To this end, a prototype 16-channel SiPM with a pitch of 500μm was designed and fabricated, and its characteristics were studied. Several parameters, such as dark count rate (DCR), gain, crosstalk, and photon detection efficiency (PDE) are characterized in this study. The developed SiPM shows the performance required for future PET detector application.

  1. The ToPiX v4 prototype for the triggerless readout of the PANDA silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, G.; Calvo, D.; De Remigis, P.; Mignone, M.; Olave, J.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Zotti, L.

    2015-01-01

    ToPiX v4 is the prototype for the readout of the silicon pixel sensors for the Micro Vertex Detector of the PANDA experiment. ToPiX provides position, time and energy measurement of the incoming particles and is designed for the triggerless environment foreseen in PANDA. The prototype includes 640 pixels with a size of 100 × 100 μm2, a 160 MHz time stamp distribution circuit to measure both particle arrival time and released energy (via ToT technique) and the full control logic. The ASIC is designed in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology with SEU protection techniques for the digital parts.

  2. A New Low Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Transistor Pixel Circuit for Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Lin, Yi-Yan; Chang, Jyu-Yu; Sun, Bo-Jhang; Liu, Yan-Wei

    2010-06-01

    This study presents one novel compensation pixel design and driving method for active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays that use low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) with a voltage feed-back method and the simulation results are proposed and verified by SPICE simulator. The measurement and simulation of LTPS TFT characteristics demonstrate the good fitting result. The proposed circuit consists of four TFTs and two capacitors with an additional signal line. The error rates of OLED anode voltage variation are below 0.3% under the threshold voltage deviation of driving TFT (ΔVTH = ±0.33 V). The simulation results show that the pixel design can improve the display image non-uniformity by compensating the threshold voltage deviation of driving TFT and the degradation of OLED threshold voltage at the same time.

  3. Conception and modelling of photo-detection pixels. PIN photodiodes conceived in amorphous silicon for particles detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research done has revealed that the a-Si:H is a material ideally suited for the detection of particles, while being resistant to radiation. It also has a low manufacturing cost, is compatible with existing technology and can be deposited over large areas. Thus, despite the low local mobility of charges (30 cm2/V/s), a-Si:H is a material of particular interest for manufacturing high-energy particle detection pixels. As a consequence of this, we have studied the feasibility of an experimental pixel stacked structure based on a-Si:H as a basic sensor element for an electromagnetic calorimeter. The structure of such a pixel consists of different components. First, a silicon PIN diode in a-Si:H is fabricated, followed by a bias resistor and a decoupling capacitor. Before such a structure is made and in order to optimize its design, it is essential to have an efficient behavioural model of the various components. Thus, our primary goal was to develop a two-dimensional physical model of the PIN diode using the SILVACO finite element calculation software. This a-Si:H PIN diode two-dimensional physical model allowed us to study the problem of crosstalk between pixels in a matrix structure of detectors. In particular, we concentrated on the leakage current and the current generated in the volume between neighbouring pixels. The successful implementation of this model in SPICE ensures its usefulness in other professional simulators and especially its integration into a complete electronic structure (PIN diode, bias resistor, decoupling capacity and low noise amplifier). Thanks to these modelling tools, we were able to simulate PIN diode structures in a-Si:H with different thicknesses and different dimensions. These simulations have allowed us to predict that the thicker structures are relevant to the design of the pixel detectors for high energy physics. Applications in astronomy, medical imaging and the analysis of the failure of silicon integrated circuits, can also be

  4. X-ray radiation damage studies and design of a silicon pixel sensor for science at the XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiaguo

    2013-06-15

    Experiments at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) require silicon pixel sensors which can withstand X-ray doses up to 1 GGy. For the investigation of Xray radiation damage up to these high doses, MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes built on high resistivity n-doped silicon with crystal orientations left angle 100 right angle and left angle 111 right angle produced by four vendors, CiS, Hamamatsu, Canberra and Sintef have been irradiated with 12 keV X-rays at the DESY DORIS III synchrotron-light source. Using capacitance/ conductance-voltage, current-voltage and thermal dielectric relaxation current measurements, the densities of oxide charges and interface traps at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface, and the surface-current densities have been determined as function of dose. Results indicate that the dose dependence of the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density depend on the crystal orientation and producer. In addition, the influence of the voltage applied to the gates of the MOS capacitor and the gate-controlled diode during X-ray irradiation on the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density has been investigated at doses of 100 kGy and 100 MGy. It is found that both strongly depend on the gate voltage if the electric field in the oxide points from the surface of the SiO{sub 2} to the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface. To verify the long-term stability of irradiated silicon sensors, annealing studies have been performed at 60 C and 80 C on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes irradiated to 5 MGy as well, and the annealing kinetics of oxide charges and surface current were determined. Moreover, the macroscopic electrical properties of segmented sensors have slao been investigated as function of dose. It is found that the defects introduced by X-rays increase the full depletion voltage, the surface leakage current and the inter-electrode capacitance of the segmented sensor. An

  5. Uncooled amorphous silicon 160 x 120 IRFPA with 25 μm pixel-pitch for large volume applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, M.; Tissot, J. L.; Legras, O.; Yon, J. J.; Minassian, C.; Fièque, B.; Chiappa, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    This paper reviews the specifications and performances of a 160 × 120 uncooled infrared focal plane array made from amorphous silicon microbolometers with a pixel-pitch of 25 μm, integrated into a LCC TEC-less package. This detector has been specifically designed for large volume production, while keeping the main features of high end developments, at detection pixel level, as well as at ROIC level, like detector configuration by serial link in order to minimize the number of electrical inputs, low power, large dynamic range...) The main particular features of this achievement are the miniaturized very low weight package, along with easy TEC-less operation naturally afforded via the readout architecture, which leads to very low consumption levels, making it well adapted to low end hand held or helmet mounted thermal imaging cameras. We present in the last part of this paper the main electro-optical characteristics and TEC-less operation, demonstrating wide thermal dynamic range and low power, thanks to the simple single-level amorphous silicon technology, coupled with advanced ROIC design.

  6. The Gigatracker: An ultra-fast and low-mass silicon pixel detector for the NA62 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorini, M; Morel, M; Petrucci, F; Marchetto, F; Garbolino, S; Cortina, E; Tiuraniemi, S; Ceccucci, A; Martin, E; Riedler, P; Martoiu, S; Ramusino, A C; Rinella, G A; Mapelli, A; Mazza, G; Noy, M; Jarron, P; Nuessle, G; Dellacasa, G; Kluge, A; Rivetti, A; Kaplon, J

    2011-01-01

    The Gigatracker is a hybrid silicon pixel detector developed to track the highly intense NA62 hadron beam with a time resolution of 150 ps (rms). The beam spectrometer of the experiment is composed of three Gigatracker stations installed in vacuum in order to precisely measure momentum, time and direction of every traversing particle. Precise tracking demands a very low mass of the detector assembly (<0.5\\% X(O) per station) in order to limit multiple scattering and beam hadronic interactions. The high rate and especially the high timing precision requirements are very demanding: two R\\&D options are ongoing and the corresponding prototype read-out chips have been recently designed and produced in 0.13 mu m CMOS technology. One solution makes use of a constant fraction discriminator and on-pixel analogue-based time-to-digital-converter (TDC); the other comprises a delay-locked loop based TDC placed at the end of each pixel column and a time-over-threshold discriminator with time-walk correction techniq...

  7. A wireless beta-microprobe based on pixelated silicon for in vivo brain studies in freely moving rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märk, J.; Benoit, D.; Balasse, L.; Benoit, M.; Clémens, J. C.; Fieux, S.; Fougeron, D.; Graber-Bolis, J.; Janvier, B.; Jevaud, M.; Genoux, A.; Gisquet-Verrier, P.; Menouni, M.; Pain, F.; Pinot, L.; Tourvielle, C.; Zimmer, L.; Morel, C.; Laniece, P.

    2013-07-01

    The investigation of neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the functional specificity of brain regions requires the development of technologies that are well adjusted to in vivo studies in small animals. An exciting challenge remains the combination of brain imaging and behavioural studies, which associates molecular processes of neuronal communications to their related actions. A pixelated intracerebral probe (PIXSIC) presents a novel strategy using a submillimetric probe for beta+ radiotracer detection based on a pixelated silicon diode that can be stereotaxically implanted in the brain region of interest. This fully autonomous detection system permits time-resolved high sensitivity measurements of radiotracers with additional imaging features in freely moving rats. An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) allows for parallel signal processing of each pixel and enables the wireless operation. All components of the detector were tested and characterized. The beta+ sensitivity of the system was determined with the probe dipped into radiotracer solutions. Monte Carlo simulations served to validate the experimental values and assess the contribution of gamma noise. Preliminary implantation tests on anaesthetized rats proved PIXSIC's functionality in brain tissue. High spatial resolution allows for the visualization of radiotracer concentration in different brain regions with high temporal resolution.

  8. High-performance uncooled amorphous silicon VGA and XGA IRFPA with 17μm pixel-pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, J. L.; Tinnes, S.; Durand, A.; Minassian, C.; Robert, P.; Vilain, M.

    2010-10-01

    The high level of accumulated expertise by ULIS and CEA/LETI on uncooled microbolometers made from amorphous silicon with 45μm, 35μm and 25μm, enables ULIS to develop VGA and XGA IRFPA formats with 17μm pixel-pitch to fulfill every applications. These detector keeps all the recent innovations developed on the 25μm pixel-pitch ROIC (detector configuration by serial link, low power consumption and wide electrical dynamic range). The specific appeal of these units lies in the high spatial resolution it provides while keeping the small thermal time constant. The reduction of the pixel-pitch turns the TEC-less VGA array into a product well adapted for high resolution and compact systems and the XGA a product well adapted for high resolution imaging systems. High electro-optical performances have been demonstrated with NETD ROIC design. This technology node paves the way to high end products as well as low end compact smaller formats like 320 x 240 and 160 x 120 or smaller.

  9. Vectors and submicron precision: redundancy and 3D stacking in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, E H M; Wong, W; Idarraga, J; Visser, J; Jakubek, J; Leroy, C; Turecek, D; Visschers, J; Pospisil, S; Ballabriga, R; Vykydal, Z; Vermeulen, J; Plackett, R; Heijne, E H M; Llopart, X; Boltje, D; Campbell, M

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are shown of GeV pions and muons in two 300 mu m thick, Si Medipix pixel detector assemblies that are stacked on top of each other, with a 25 mu m thick brass foil in between. In such a radiation imaging semiconductor matrix with a large number of pixels along the particle trail, one can determine local space vectors for the particle trajectory instead of points. This improves pattern recognition and track reconstruction, especially in a crowded environment. Stacking of sensor planes is essential for resolving directional ambiguities. Signal charge sharing can be employed for measuring positions with submicron precision. In the measurements one notices accompanying `delta' electrons that emerge outside the particle trail, far beyond the boundaries of the 55 mu m pixel cells. The frequency of such corrupted position measurements is similar to one per 2.5mm of traversed Si.

  10. Around ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ On the occasion of CERN's Golden Jubilee, at the Centre culturel Jean Monnet de Saint-Genis-Pouilly Exposition from Monday 11 October to Sunday 24 October. A presentation of CERN and the ALICE experiment with photos, student-made projects, computer animations, virtual reality demonstrations, and more. Saturday 16 October* Planting of a commemorative tree at 16:00 Public presentation at 16:30, followed by a visit to the subterranean site of the ALICE experiment (Number of places limited, reservations at: Service Culturel de la Marie de Saint-Genis-Pouilly, tél 04. 50. 20. 52. 59, Office de Tourisme Saint-Genis-Pouilly, tél: 04. 50. 42. 29. 37) * for the occasion of the Open Day, with 50 sites at CERN, see: http://intranet.cern.ch/Chronological/2004/CERN50/

  11. Around ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On the occasion of CERN's Golden Jubilee at Centre Culturel Jean Monnet de Saint-Genis-Pouilly Exposition from Monday 11 October to Sunday 24 October A presentation of CERN and the ALICE experiment with photos, student-made projects, computer animations, virtual reality demonstrations, and more. Saturday 16 October* Planting of a commemorative tree at 16:00 Public presentation at 16:30, followed by a visit to the subterranean site of the ALICE experiment (Number of places limited, reservations at: Service Culturel de la Marie de Saint-Genis-Pouilly, tel 04 50 20 52 59, or the Office de Tourisme Saint-Genis-Pouilly, tel: 04 50 42 29 37) * for the occasion of the Open Day, with 50 sites at CERN, see: http://intranet.cern.ch/Chronological/2004/CERN50/openday/openday_en.html

  12. SOI monolithic pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, T.; Ahmed, M. I.; Arai, Y.; Fujita, Y.; Ikemoto, Y.; Takeda, A.; Tauchi, K.

    2014-05-01

    We are developing monolithic pixel detector using fully-depleted (FD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) pixel process technology. The SOI substrate is high resistivity silicon with p-n junctions and another layer is a low resistivity silicon for SOI-CMOS circuitry. Tungsten vias are used for the connection between two silicons. Since flip-chip bump bonding process is not used, high sensor gain in a small pixel area can be obtained. In 2010 and 2011, high-resolution integration-type SOI pixel sensors, DIPIX and INTPIX5, have been developed. The characterizations by evaluating pixel-to-pixel crosstalk, quantum efficiency (QE), dark noise, and energy resolution were done. A phase-contrast imaging was demonstrated using the INTPIX5 pixel sensor for an X-ray application. The current issues and future prospect are also discussed.

  13. ALICE Organisation

    CERN Multimedia

    Hadre, J

    2015-01-01

    ALICE is the acronym for A Large Ion Collider Experiment, one of the largest experiments in the world devoted to research in the physics of matter at an infinitely small scale. Hosted at CERN, the European Laboratory for Nuclear Research, this project involves an international collaboration of more than 1400 physicists, engineers and technicians, including around 340 graduate students, from 132 physics institutes in 37 countries across the world.

  14. ALICE Organisation

    CERN Multimedia

    Gouriou, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is the acronym for A Large Ion Collider Experiment, one of the largest experiments in the world devoted to research in the physics of matter at an infinitely small scale. Hosted at CERN, the European Laboratory for Nuclear Research, this project involves an international collaboration of more than 1400 physicists, engineers and technicians, including about 340 graduate students, from 132 physics institutes in 37 countries across the world.

  15. Ultra-thin silicon (UTSi) on insulator CMOS transceiver and time-division multiplexed switch chips for smart pixel integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Sawchuk, Alexander A.

    2001-12-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and functionality of two different 0.5 micron CMOS optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) chips based on the Peregrine Semiconductor Ultra-Thin Silicon on insulator technology. The Peregrine UTSi silicon- on-sapphire (SOS) technology is a member of the silicon-on- insulator (SOI) family. The low-loss synthetic sapphire substrate is optically transparent and has good thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion properties, which meet the requirements for flip-chip bonding of VCSELs and other optoelectronic input-output components. One chip contains transceiver and network components, including four channel high-speed CMOS transceiver modules, pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) generators, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and other test circuits. The transceiver chips can operate in both self-testing mode and networking mode. An on- chip clock and true-single-phase-clock (TSPC) D-flip-flop have been designed to generate a PRBS at over 2.5 Gb/s for the high-speed transceiver arrays to operate in self-testing mode. In the networking mode, an even number of transceiver chips forms a ring network through free-space or fiber ribbon interconnections. The second chip contains four channel optical time-division multiplex (TDM) switches, optical transceiver arrays, an active pixel detector and additional test devices. The eventual applications of these chips will require monolithic OEICs with integrated optical input and output. After fabrication and testing, the CMOS transceiver array dies will be packaged with 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and metal-semiconductor- metal (MSM) or GaAs p-i-n detector die arrays to achieve high- speed optical interconnections. The hybrid technique could be either wire bonding or flip-chip bonding of the CMOS SOS smart-pixel arrays with arrays of VCSELs and photodetectors onto an optoelectronic chip carrier as a multi-chip module (MCM).

  16. The First JFET-based Silicon Carbide Active Pixel Sensor UV Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) imaging is critically important in the fields of space astronomy, national defense, and bio-chemistry. United Silicon Carbide, Inc....

  17. The First JFET-Based Silicon Carbide Active Pixel Sensor UV Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) imaging is needed in the fields of astronomy, national defense, and bio-chemistry. United Silicon Carbide, Inc. proposes to develop a...

  18. Fitting ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The support structures for the detectors inside the ALICE solenoid magnet (the L3 magnet) were finished in December 2003. After commissioning and testing, over the next year, the structures will be lowered into the cavern and installed in the magnet by spring 2005. At first sight you might mistake them for scaffolding. But a closer look reveals unusual features: Two are made of austenitic (non-magnetic) stainless steel with a cross section that looks like an "H". Another is made of 8 centimetre aluminium square tubes. "Them" are the support structures for the detectors and services inside the ALICE solenoid magnet (the L3 magnet) which were finished in December 2003. «The physicists don't want to have a lot of material close to their detectors; it has to be as few as possible,» says Diego Perini, who is responsible for the common support structures of ALICE. «We therefore had the very difficult task to design something relatively light that i...

  19. Charge-sensitive poly-silicon TFT amplifiers for a-Si:H pixel particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype charge-sensitive poly-Si TFT amplifiers have been made for the amplification of signals (from an a-Si:H pixel diode used as an ionizing particle detector). They consist of a charge-sensitive gain stage, a voltage gain stage and a source follower output stage. The gain-bandwidth product of the amplifier is ∼ 300 MHz. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of 0.2 pF, it gives a charge-to-voltage gain of ∼ 0.02 mV/electrons with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec. An equivalent noise charge of the front-end TFT is ∼ 1000 electrons for a shaping time of 1 μsec

  20. Development of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Calderini, G; Bomben, M; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Chauveau, J; Giacomini, G; La Rosa, A; Marchiori, G; Zorzi, N

    2014-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade for the high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment is planning to replace the inner detector with an all-silicon system. The n-in-p bulk technology represents a valid solution for the modules of most of the layers, given the significant radiation hardness of this option and the reduced cost. The large area necessary to instrument the outer layers will demand to tile the sensors, a solution for which the inefficient region at the border of each sensor needs to be reduced to the minimum size. This paper reports on a joint R&D project by the ATLAS LPNHE Paris group and FBK Trento on a novel n-in-p edgeless planar pixel design, based on the deep-trench process available at FBK.

  1. Uncooled amorphous silicon 1/4 VGA IRFPA with 25 μm pixel-pitch for high end applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crastes, A.; Tissot, J. L.; Vilain, M.; Legras, O.; Tinnes, S.; Minassian, C.; Robert, P.; Fieque, B.

    2008-04-01

    The high level of accumulated expertise by ULIS and CEA/LETI on uncooled microbolometers made from amorphous silicon layer enables ULIS to develop 384 x 288 (1/4 VGA) IRFPA formats with 25 μm pixel-pitch designed for high end applications. This detector ROIC design relies on the same architecture as the full TV format ROIC one (detector configuration by serial link, user defined amplifier gain, windowing capability ...). The detector package is identical as the 384 x 288 / 35 μm and 640 x 480 / 25 μm ones, enabling an easier system update or less non recurrent cost for different systems developments. This paper will give results of the IRFPA characterization. NETD in the range of 30 mK (f/1, 300 K, 60 Hz) and operability higher than 99.99 % are routinely achieved.

  2. Investigation of properties of novel silicon pixel assemblies employing thin n-in-p sensors and 3D-integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigell, Philipp

    2013-01-15

    Until the end of the 2020 decade the LHC programme will be defining the high energy frontier of particle physics. During this time, three upgrade steps of the accelerator are currently planned to further increase the luminosity and energy reach. In the course of these upgrades the specifications of several parts of the current LHC detectors will be exceeded. Especially, the innermost tracking detectors are challenged by the increasing track densities and the radiation damage. This thesis focuses on the implications for the ATLAS experiment. Here, around 2021/2, after having collected an integrated luminosity of around 300 fb{sup -1}, the silicon and gas detector components of the inner tracker will reach the end of their lifetime and will need to be replaced to ensure sufficient performance for continued running - especially if the luminosity is raised to about 5 x 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} as currently planned. An all silicon inner detector is foreseen to be installed. This upgrade demands cost effective pixel assemblies with a minimal material budget, a larger active area fraction as compared to the current detectors, and a higher granularity. Furthermore, the assemblies must be able to withstand received fluences up to 2 . 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. A new pixel assembly concept answering the challenges posed by the high instantaneous luminosities is investigated in this thesis. It employs five novel technologies, namely n-in-p pixel sensors, thin pixel sensors, slim edges with or without implanted sensor sides, and 3D-integration incorporating a new interconnection technology, named Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) as well as Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs). n-in-p sensors are cost-effective, since they only need patterned processing on one side. Their performance before and after irradiation is investigated and compared to results obtained with currently used n-in-n sensors. Reducing the thickness of the sensors lowers the amount of multiple scattering

  3. Investigation of properties of novel silicon pixel assemblies employing thin n-in-p sensors and 3D-integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the end of the 2020 decade the LHC programme will be defining the high energy frontier of particle physics. During this time, three upgrade steps of the accelerator are currently planned to further increase the luminosity and energy reach. In the course of these upgrades the specifications of several parts of the current LHC detectors will be exceeded. Especially, the innermost tracking detectors are challenged by the increasing track densities and the radiation damage. This thesis focuses on the implications for the ATLAS experiment. Here, around 2021/2, after having collected an integrated luminosity of around 300 fb-1, the silicon and gas detector components of the inner tracker will reach the end of their lifetime and will need to be replaced to ensure sufficient performance for continued running - especially if the luminosity is raised to about 5 x 1035 cm-2s-1 as currently planned. An all silicon inner detector is foreseen to be installed. This upgrade demands cost effective pixel assemblies with a minimal material budget, a larger active area fraction as compared to the current detectors, and a higher granularity. Furthermore, the assemblies must be able to withstand received fluences up to 2 . 1016 neq/cm2. A new pixel assembly concept answering the challenges posed by the high instantaneous luminosities is investigated in this thesis. It employs five novel technologies, namely n-in-p pixel sensors, thin pixel sensors, slim edges with or without implanted sensor sides, and 3D-integration incorporating a new interconnection technology, named Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) as well as Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs). n-in-p sensors are cost-effective, since they only need patterned processing on one side. Their performance before and after irradiation is investigated and compared to results obtained with currently used n-in-n sensors. Reducing the thickness of the sensors lowers the amount of multiple scattering within the tracking system and leads to higher

  4. Development of Superconducting Tunnel Junction X-ray Detector with High Absorption Yields Utilizing Silicon Pixel Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiki, Shigetomo; Fujii, Go; Ukibe, Masahiro; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2016-07-01

    A superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) array detector along with silicon pixel absorbers (STJ-SPA) is fabricated to achieve high detection efficiency at X-ray energies below 10 keV. The STJ pixels have dimensions of 100 \\upmu m × 100 \\upmu m and are composed of Nb-Al/AlOX/Al-Nb thin layers. The SPAs are also 100 \\upmu m × 100 \\upmu m and have a depth of 400 \\upmu m, and are isolated from each other by a deep trench with a depth of 350 \\upmu m. The detection efficiency of the STJ-SPA exceeds 95 % at X-ray energies below 10 keV, and its energy resolution is 82 eV FWHM, as measured at the Si K\\upalpha line at 1740 eV. By means of the STJ-SPA detector, the X-ray absorption spectrum of the light element sulfur with a concentration of less than 0.1 wt% in a soda-lime glass sample was successfully acquired.

  5. Development of an Indium bump bond process for silicon pixel detectors at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hybrid pixel detectors used in the high-energy physics experiments currently under construction use a vertical connection technique, the so-called bump bonding. As the pitch below 100μm, required in these applications, cannot be fulfilled with standard industrial processes (e.g. the IBM C4 process), an in-house bump bond process using reflowed indium bumps was developed at PSI as part of the R and D for the CMS-pixel detector. The bump deposition on the sensor is performed in two subsequent lift-off steps. As the first photolithographic step a thin under bump metalization (UBM) is sputtered onto bump pads. It is wettable by indium and defines the diameter of the bump. The indium is evaporated via a second photolithographic step with larger openings and is reflowed afterwards. The height of the balls is defined by the volume of the indium. On the readout chip only one photolithographic step is carried out to deposit the UBM and a thin indium layer for better adhesion. After mating both parts a second reflow is performed for self-alignment and obtaining high mechanical strength. For the placement of the chips a manual and an automatic machine were constructed. The former is very flexible in handling different chip and module geometries but has a limited throughput while the latter features a much higher grade of automatization and is therefore much more suited for producing hundreds of modules with a well-defined geometry. The reliability of this process was proven by the successful construction of the PILATUS detector. The construction of PILATUS 6M (60 modules) and the CMS pixel barrel (roughly 800 modules) has started in early 2006

  6. Beam Test Characterization of CMS Silicon Pixel Detectors for the Phase-1 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Korol, Ievgen

    2015-01-01

    a reduced diameter beam pipe, as compared to the present three layer pixel detector in the central region. A new digital version of the front-end readout chip has been designed and tested; it has increased data buffering and readout link speed to maintain high efficiency at increasing occupancy. In addition, it offers lower charge thresholds that will improve the tracking efficiency and position resolution.\\\\ Single chip modules have been evaluated in the DESY electron test beam in terms of charge collection, noise, tracking effici...

  7. ALICE takes its ITS to heart

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    In the study of heavy-ion events, the ALICE Inner Tracking System must use the most delicate materials. A hundred physicists and engineers from around the world witnessed its impressive journey to the centre of the ALICE experiment. ALICE's ITS on its way into the TCP. On 15 March, after 15 years of development, construction, commissioning and testing, the Inner Tracking System (ITS) finally reached its ultimate destination at the heart of ALICE. With almost five square meters of double-sided silicon strip detectors and over one square meter of silicon drift detectors, ALICE's ITS is the largest system built for either type of silicon detector. In ALICE's search for heavy-ion events at the LHC, it is necessary for the ITS to be extremely lightweight and delicate. For this reason the ITS was designed and built using the smallest amounts of only the lightest materials, with the design team developing innovative construction and assembly systems. The team prepared in detail for the final transport from the fi...

  8. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Allport, P.P

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their pro...

  9. Beam test results of 3D silicon pixel sensors for future upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellist, C.; Gligorova, A.; Huse, T.; Pacifico, N.; Sandaker, H.

    2013-12-01

    3D silicon has undergone an intensive beam test programme which has resulted in the successful qualification for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade project to be installed in 2013-2014. This paper presents selected results from this study with a focus on the final IBL test beam of 2012 where IBL prototype sensors were investigated. 3D devices were studied with 4 GeV positrons at DESY and 120 GeV pions at the SPS at CERN. Measurements include tracking efficiency, charge sharing, time over threshold and cluster size distributions as a function of incident angle for IBL 3D design sensors. Studies of 3D silicon sensors in an anti-proton beam test for the AEgIS experiment are also presented.

  10. Compact uncooled amorphous silicon 160x120 IRFPA with 25 μm pixel-pitch for large volume applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, J. L.; Legras, O.; Minassian, C.; Robert, P.; Fieque, B.; Tinnes, S.; Dupont, B.; Yon, J. J.; Arnaud, A.

    2007-10-01

    This paper reviews specifications and performances of a 160 x 120 uncooled infrared focal plane array made from amorphous silicon micro bolometer with a pixel-pitch of 25 μm, integrated in a LCC package. This detector has been specifically designed for being produced in large volume. The detector has kept all the innovations developed on the full TV format ROIC (detector configuration by serial link, low power consumption or wide electrical dynamic range... ) and offers an advanced TEC-less focal plane array well adapted to low end thermal imaging cameras. The specific appeal of this unit lies in the miniaturization of the packaging and its extremely light weight.In the last part of the paper, we will look more closely at electro-optical performances of this TEC-less product 160 x 120 as well as the other 25 μm products like the 384 x 288. We will insist on the wide thermal dynamic range and the low consumption achieved thanks to the mastering of the amorphous silicon technology coupled with the innovation in the ROIC design.

  11. A neural network clustering algorithm for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A novel technique to identify and split clusters created by multiple charged particles in the ATLAS pixel detector using a set of artificial neural networks is presented. Such merged clusters are a common feature of tracks originating from highly energetic objects, such as jets. Neural networks are trained using Monte Carlo samples produced with a detailed detector simulation. This technique replaces the former clustering approach based on a connected component analysis and charge interpolation. The performance of the neural network splitting technique is quantified using data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 and from Monte Carlo simulations. This technique reduces the number of clusters shared between tracks in highly energetic jets by up to a factor of three. It also provides more precise position and error estimates of the clusters in both the transverse and longitudinal impact parameter resolution.

  12. Novel Multi-pixel Silicon Photon Detectors and Applications in T2K

    CERN Document Server

    Beznosko, Dmitriy

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, numerous fields such as High Energy Physics (HEP), medical imaging devices, portable radiation detectors etc., require a robust, miniature, reliable and readily available photon detector that is stable in a variety of environments, such as the presence of strong magnetic fields. The recently available $\\sim$1mm$^{\\textrm{2}}$ active area Multi-pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) sensors, produced by Hamamatsu Photonics, have been found to be reliable and an attractive choice for the HEP applications. The following sensor characteristics have been thoroughly tested by T2K collaboration: gain, dark noise, detection efficiency, reliability. These appear to be stable; in addition, the characteristic spread between numerous devices was assessed. Sensors with larger area are being developed for imaging and direct-to-scintillator coupling purposes.

  13. Characterization of silicon pixel detectors with the $n^{+} n/p^{+}$ and double-sided multiguard ring structure before and after neutron-irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Cho Hyo Sung; Chien, C Y; Liang, G W; Huang, W; Dezillie, B; Eremin, V V; Li, Z

    2000-01-01

    The lifetime of silicon detectors in a severe radiation environment at CERN LHC depends strongly upon careful detector design and material selection, due to the anticipated radiation-induced damage. We fabricated recently more radiation-tolerant CMS forward pixel sensors with new designs of silicon pixel detectors with the n/sup + //n/p/sup +/ and double-sided multiguard ring structure. Electrical characterization of such devices was performed before and after irradiation to neutron fluences (1 MeV equivalent) up to 6*10/sup 14/ n/cm/sup 2/, measuring leakage current, potential distribution over the guard rings and full depletion voltage. Studies on the radiation hardness using oxygen-enriched silicon substrates are being presented separately. (7 refs).

  14. Characterization of silicon pixel detectors with the $n^{+}/n/p^{+}$ and double-sided multiguard ring structure before and after neutron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Cho Hyo Sung; Chien, C Y; Liang, G W; Huang, W; Dezillie, B; Eremin, V V; Li, Z

    2000-01-01

    The lifetime of silicon detectors in a severe radiation environment at CERN LHC depends strongly upon careful detector design and material selection, due to the anticipated radiation-induced damage. We fabricated recently more radiation-tolerant CMS forward pixel sensors with new designs of silicon pixel detectors with the n/sup + //n/p/sup +/ and double-sided multiguard ring structure. Electrical characterization of such devices was performed before and after irradiation to neutron fluences (1 MeV equivalent) up to 6*10/sup 14/ n/cm/sup 2/, measuring leakage current, potential distribution over the guard rings and full depletion voltage. Studies on the radiation hardness using oxygen-enriched silicon substrates are being presented separately. (7 refs).

  15. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Reidt, Felix; Collaboration, for the ALICE

    2014-01-01

    During the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC in 2018/2019, the ALICE experiment plans the installation of a novel Inner Tracking System. It will replace the current six layer detector system with a seven layer detector using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors. The upgraded Inner Tracking System will have significantly improved tracking and vertexing capabilities, as well as readout rate to cope with the expected increased Pb-Pb luminosity of the LHC. The choice of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors has be...

  16. Transverse momentum spectra of hadrons identified with the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Milano, L

    2013-01-01

    The Inner Tracking System is the ALICE detector closest to the beam axis. It is composed of six layers of silicon detectors: two innermost layers of Silicon Pixel Detectors (SPD), two intermediate layers of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) and two outermost layers of Silicon Strip Detectors (SSD). The ITS can be used as a standalone tracker in order to recover tracks that are not reconstructed by the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and to reconstruct low momentum particles with $p_{t}$ down to 100 MeV/c. Particle identification in the ITS is performed by measuring the energy loss signal in the SDD and SSD layers. The ITS allows to extend the charged particle identification capability in the ALICE central rapidity region at low $p_{t}$: it is possible to separate $\\pi/K$ in the range 100 MeV/c $< p_{t} <$ 500 MeV/c and $K/p$ in the range 200 MeV/c $ < p_{t} <$ 800 MeV/c. The identification of hadron in the ITS will be discussed in detail, different methods used to extract the $p_{t}$ spectra of $\\pi, K$...

  17. On the horizon for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    ALICE – the LHC experiment specifically designed to study the physics of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) and, more generally, of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy densities – is planning a series of upgrades during the long shutdowns of the accelerator in the coming years. The new ALICE will have enhanced read-out capabilities and improved efficiency when tracking particles and identifying the vertex of the interactions.     Corrado Gargiulo, ALICE's Project Engineer with ITS prototype. The new ITS will consist of 7 layers of silicon sensors supported by a ultra-light carbon fibre structure.  The LHC has been operated with lead ions for only about two months, but this has been sufficient for ALICE and other LHC experiments to produce results that previous accelerators took several years of operation to produce. “Prior to the start-up of the LHC heavy-ion programme, the nature of the QGP as an almost-perfect liquid had already...

  18. Characterization of a PET detector head based on continuous LYSO crystals and monolithic, 64-pixel silicon photomultiplier matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of a PET detector head based on continuous LYSO crystals and silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays as photodetectors has been carried out for its use in the development of a small animal PET prototype. The detector heads are composed of a continuous crystal and a SiPM matrix with 64 pixels in a common substrate, fabricated specifically for this project. Three crystals of 12 mm x 12 mm x 5 mm size with different types of painting have been tested: white, black and black on the sides but white on the back of the crystal. The best energy resolution, obtained with the white crystal, is 16% FWHM. The detector response is linear up to 1275 keV. Tests with different position determination algorithms have been carried out with the three crystals. The spatial resolution obtained with the center of gravity algorithm is around 0.9 mm FWHM for the three crystals. As expected, the use of this algorithm results in the displacement of the reconstructed position toward the center of the crystal, more pronounced in the case of the white crystal. A maximum likelihood algorithm has been tested that can reconstruct correctly the interaction position of the photons also in the case of the white crystal.

  19. ALICE Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernandez Tellez, A; Martinez Hernandez, M; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE underground cavern provides an ideal place for the detection of high energy atmospheric muons coming from cosmic ray showers. ACORDE detects cosmic ray showers by triggering the arrival of muons to the top of the ALICE magnet.

  20. ALICE HMPID Radiator Vessel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    View of the radiator vessels of the ALICE/HMPID mounted on the support frame. Each HMPID module is equipped with 3 indipendent radiator vessels made out of neoceram and fused silica (quartz) windows glued together. The spacers inside the vessel are needed to stand the hydrostatic pressure. http://alice-hmpid.web.cern.ch/alice-hmpid

  1. A bio-inspired analog silicon retina with Michaelis-Menten auto-adaptive pixels sensitive to small and large changes in light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafrica, Stefano; Godiot, Stéphanie; Menouni, Mohsine; Boyron, Marc; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Marchand, Nicolas; Ruffier, Franck; Viollet, Stéphane

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present: (i) a novel analog silicon retina featuring auto-adaptive pixels that obey the Michaelis-Menten law, i.e. V=V(m) I(n)/I(n)+σ(n); (ii) a method of characterizing silicon retinas, which makes it possible to accurately assess the pixels' response to transient luminous changes in a ±3-decade range, as well as changes in the initial steady-state intensity in a 7-decade range. The novel pixel, called M(2)APix, which stands for Michaelis-Menten Auto-Adaptive Pixel, can auto-adapt in a 7-decade range and responds appropriately to step changes up to ±3 decades in size without causing any saturation of the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) transistors. Thanks to the intrinsic properties of the Michaelis-Menten equation, the pixel output always remains within a constant limited voltage range. The range of the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) was therefore adjusted so as to obtain a Least Significant Bit (LSB) voltage of 2.35mV and an effective resolution of about 9 bits. The results presented here show that the M(2)APix produced a quasi-linear contrast response once it had adapted to the average luminosity. Differently to what occurs in its biological counterparts, neither the sensitivity to changes in light nor the contrast response of the M(2)APix depend on the mean luminosity (i.e. the ambient lighting conditions). Lastly, a full comparison between the M(2)APix and the Delbrück auto-adaptive pixel is provided. PMID:25836794

  2. Technical Design Report for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agostinelli, A; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmed, I; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Aimo, I; Aiola, S; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Anderssen, E C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bairathi, V; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastian Van Beelen, J; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Battistin, M; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Baudot, J; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Benettoni, M; Benotto, F; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Berger, M E; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Besson, A; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatti, A; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielcík, J; Bielcíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Boehmer, F V; Bogdanov, A; Boggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bornschein, J; Borshchov, V N; Bortolin, C; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Böttger, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Carena, F; Carena, W; Cariola, P; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Casula, E A R; 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Zimmermann, M B; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2014-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is preparing a major upgrade of its experimental apparatus, planned for installation in the second long LHC shutdown (LS2) in the years 2018-2019. These plans are presented in the ALICE Upgrade Letter of Intent submitted to the LHCC in September 2012. A key element of the upgrade is the construction of a new, ultra-light, high-resolution Inner Tracking System based on monolithic pixel detectors. This Technical Design Report is an update of the Conceptual Design Report for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System, which was presented to the LHCC in September 2012. The primary focus of the ITS upgrade is on the improved performance for detection of heavy-flavour hadrons, and of thermal photons and low-mass di-electrons emitted by the QGP. The Conceptual Design Report demonstrated that it is possible to build a new silicon tracker with greatly improved features in terms of determination of the distance of closest approach to the primary vertex, tracking efficiency a...

  3. ALICE - ARC integration

    OpenAIRE

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva; Peters, Andreas; Siaz, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructur...

  4. ALICE Physics Theoretical Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Baier, R; Becattini, F; Botje, M; Carminati, F; Csörgö, T; De Cataldo, G; Foka, P Y; Giovannini, Alberto; Giubellino, P; Guillet, J P; Heinz, Ulrich W; Hencken, K; Iancu, E; Kaidalov, A B; Kajantie, Keijo; Karsch, Frithjof; Koch, V; Kopeliovich, B Z; Kurepin, A B; Laine, Mikko; Lednicky, R; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Monteno, M; Paic, G; Pilon, E; Pshenichnov, I A; Rapp, R; Redlich, Krzysztof; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Riggi, F; Safarík, K; Salgado, C A; Schükraft, Jürgen; Sinyukov, Yu M; Tomasik, Boris; Treleani, D; Ugoccioni, R; Venugopalan, R; Vogt, R; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2002-01-01

    ALICE is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the LHC. This note summarises theoretical developments in the field of hot and dense matter and their relevance for observables accessible to ALICE in nucleus-nucleus, proton-nucleus and proton-proton collisions. In addition, aspects of specific interest for proton-proton, proton-nucleus, ultra-peripheral collisions and cosmic-ray physics, which can be addressed by ALICE, are also discussed.

  5. Alignment of the ALICE Inner Tracking System with cosmic-ray tracks

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K; Abeysekara, U; Abrahantes Quintana, A; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, A; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Akimoto, R; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Alt, T; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anelli, G; Angelov, V; Anson, C; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antinori, S; Antipin, K; Antonczyk, D; Antonioli, P; Anzo, A; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arceo, R; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bablok, S; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Bán, J; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Basmanov, V; Bastid, N; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Becker, B; Belikov, I; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belogianni, A; Benhabib, L; Beolé, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdermann, E; Berdnikov, Y; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bianchi, L; Bianchin, C; Bianchi, N; Bielcík, J; Bielcíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bimbot, L; Biolcati, E; Blanc, A; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Bohm, J; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bombonati, C; Bondila, M; Borel, H; Borshchov, V; Bortolin, C; Bose, S; Bosisio, L; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Böttger, S; Bourdaud, G; Boyer, B; Braun, M; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Bruckner, G; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Brun, R; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bugaev, K; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Caines, H; Cai, X; Camacho, E; Camerini, P; Campbell, M; Canoa Roman, V; Capitani, G P; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Caselle, M; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Catanescu, V; Cattaruzza, E; Cavicchioli, C; Cerello, P; Chambert, V; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charpy, A; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chuman, F; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Cobanoglu, O; Coffin, J P; Coli, S; Colla, A; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Conner, E S; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Cussonneau, J; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Dash, A; Dash, S; Das, I; Das, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gaspari, M; de Groot, J; De Gruttola, D; de Haas, A P; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Remigis, R; de Rooij, R; de Vaux, G; Delagrange, H; Dellacasa, G; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; Dénes, E; Deppman, A; D'Erasmo, G; Derkach, D; Devaux, A; Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Dialinas, M; Díaz, L; Díaz, R; Dietel, T; Ding, H; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; do Amaral Valdiviesso, G; Dobretsov, V; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Dönigus, B; Domínguez, I; Don, D M M; Dordic, O; Dubey, A K; Dubuisson, J; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Enokizono, A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Evans, D; Evrard, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabjan, C W; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Fekete, V; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Fini, R; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Fodor, Z; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Formenti, F; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Frolov, A; Fuchs, U; Furano, F; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gadrat, S; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Ganoti, P; Ganti, M S; Garabatos, C; García Trapaga, C; Gebelein, J; Gemme, R; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glasow, R; Glässel, P; Glenn, A; Gomez, R; González Santos, H; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Gorbunov, Y; Gotovac, S; Gottschlag, H; Grabski, V; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J Y; Grosso, R; Guarnaccia, C; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gustafsson, H A; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamblen, J; Han, B H; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Harutyunyan, A; Hasch, D; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Heinz, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Hernández, C; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hiei, A; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hrivnácová, I; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hu, S; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Iwasaki, T; Jachokowski, A; Jacobs, P; Jancurová, L; Jangal, S; Janik, R; Jayananda, K; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jirden, L; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kalinák, P; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kamal, A; Kamermans, R; Kanaki, K; Kang, E; Kang, J H; Kapitan, J; Kaplin, V; Kapusta, S; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kikola, D; Kileng, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kim, J H; Kim, J; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, S; Kim, Y; Kirsch, S; Kiselev, S; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein-Bösing, C; Klein, J; Kliemant, M; Klovning, A; Kluge, A; Kniege, S; Koch, K; Kolevatov, R; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskih, A; Kornas, E; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Kozlov, K; Králik, I; Kral, J; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Kravcáková, A; Krawutschke, T; Krivda, M; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, L; Kumar, N; Kupczak, R; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A N; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kutouski, M; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Lackner, F; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lafage, V; Lal, C; Lara, C; La Rocca, P; Larsen, D T; Laurenti, G; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Le Bris, N; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Listratenko, O; Liu, L; Li, Y; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; López Noriega, M; López-Ramírez, R; López Torres, E; Lopez, X; Løvhøiden, G; Lozea Feijo Soares, A; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Lu, S; Lutz, J R; Luvisetto, M; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, A; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Makhlyueva, I; Ma, K; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malek, M; Mal'Kevich, D; Malkiewicz, T; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Mares, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martínez, M I; Maruyama, Y; Ma, R; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masetti, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Mattos Tavares, B; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mendez Lorenzo, P; Meoni, M; Mercado Pérez, J; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Michalon, A; Miftakhov, N; Milosevic, J; Minafra, F; Mischke, A; Miskowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizoguchi, K; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Mondal, M M; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Moukhanova, T; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Navach, F; Navin, S; 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Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio-Montero, A J; Rui, R; Rusanov, I; Russo, G; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safarík, K; Sahoo, R; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salgueiro Dominques da Silva, R; Salur, S; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schindler, H; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schossmaier, K; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Segato, G; Semenov, D; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serkin, L; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharkov, G; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddi, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simili, E; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singhal, V; Singh, R; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Snow, H; Søgaard, C; Sokolov, O; Soloviev, A; Soltveit, H K; Soltz, R; Sommer, W; Son, C W; Song, M; Son, H S; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Soyk, D; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Staley, F; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, P; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Swoboda, D; Symons, J; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Szuba, M; Tadel, M; Tagridis, C; Takahara, A; Takahashi, J; Tanabe, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Taureg, H; Tauro, A; Tavlet, M; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Tieulent, R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Tolyhy, T; Torcato de Matos, C; Torii, H; Torralba, G; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Tournaire, A; Traczyk, T; Tribedy, P; Tröger, G; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsiledakis, G; Tsilis, E; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Turvey, A; Tveter, T S; Tydesjö, H; Tywoniuk, K; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van den Brink, A; van der Kolk, N; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A; Vassiliev, I; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vetlitskiy, I; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopianov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wallet, L; Wan, R; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Wen, Q; Wessels, J; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Willis, N; Windelband, B; Xu, C; Yang, C; Yang, H; Yasnopolsky, A; Yermia, F; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zagreev, B; Zalite, A; Zampolli, C; Zanevsky, Yu; Zaporozhets, Y; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zepeda, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, S; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zinchenko, A; Zinovjev, G; Zinovjev, M; Zoccarato, Y; Zychácek, V

    2010-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiment devoted to investigating the strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC energies. The ALICE ITS, Inner Tracking System, consists of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors with three different technologies; in the outward direction: two layers of pixel detectors, two layers each of drift, and strip detectors. The number of parameters to be determined in the spatial alignment of the 2198 sensor modules of the ITS is about 13,000. The target alignment precision is well below 10 micron in some cases (pixels). The sources of alignment information include survey measurements, and the reconstructed tracks from cosmic rays and from proton-proton collisions. The main track-based alignment method uses the Millepede global approach. An iterative local method was developed and used as well. We present the results obtained for the ITS alignment using about 10^5 charged tracks from cosmic rays that h...

  6. Performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon Pixel readout for Cherenkov ring detection

    CERN Document Server

    Alemi, M; Bibby, J H; Campbell, M; Duane, A; Easo, S; Gys, Thierry; Halley, A W; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Simmons, B; Snoeys, W; Websdale, David M; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, Ken H

    1999-01-01

    We report on the first test beam performance of a hybrid photon detector prototype, using binary readout electronics, intended for use in the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The detector has been installed in a quarter-scale prototype vessel of the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov system. Focussed ring images produced by 120 GeV/c negative pions traversing an air radiator have been recorded. The observed light yield and Cherenkov angle resolution are discussed.

  7. The (di)muon physics in the ALICE experiment at the LHC: light vector meson analysis (ρ, ω, φ) in pp collisions [√(s)=7 TeV], Pb-Pb collisions [√(sNN)=2.76 TeV] and study of a new silicon tracker in the muon spectrometer acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALICE experiment at LHC studies the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), a particular state of matter where quarks and gluons are deconfined. A probe to explore this state is the study of several resonances (ρ, ω, φ, J/ψ and Υ) through their dimuon decay channel, with a muon spectrometer covering pseudo-rapidity -4 NN)=2.76 TeV. Light vector mesons are powerful tools to probe the QGP due to their short lifetime and their dimuon decay channel. Indeed, leptons have negligible final state interactions. Production rates and spectral functions of those mesons are modified by the hot hadronic and QGP medium. Chiral symmetry restoration study is done thanks to the study of ρ spectral function. Strangeness enhancement is accessed via the ratio of φ over ρ + ω yields as a function of the centrality of the collision. In pp analysis, the emphasis is on background understanding and on first physics results such as φ yield over ρ + ω yield as a function of pT, and pT distributions of φ and ρ + ω. Cross sections and pT-differential cross sections of light mesons will also be shown. The Pb-Pb analysis and its prospects will be presented. The second part of the thesis concerns ALICE upgrade plans of year 2017. A feasibility study for a Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) in Silicon pixels located upstream of the hadronic absorber in the spectrometer acceptance was performed. This upgrade is mainly motivated by the improvement of the dimuon invariant mass resolution and secondary vertex measurement. This gives access to open charm and beauty direct study in single muon channel. Prompt J/ψ can also be distinguished from B feed-down J/ψ, allowing a better study of a QGP signature: the 'J/ψ suppression' in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. MFT performances on those different topics were established in simulations. The track matching algorithm to match MFT tracks with spectrometer tracks (a crucial step for the feasibility of the project) and its results are presented. (author)

  8. ALICE brochure (Norwegian version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2009-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  9. "Alice imedemaal" Vanemuises

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    7. veebr. esietendub Vanemuises tantsulavastus "Alice imedemaal". Etendus põhineb briti kirjaniku L. Carrolli samanimelisel lasteraamatul, koreograaf M. Murdmaa, kunstnik K. Jancis ja muusika on kirjutanud ungari helilooja S. Kall̤s, Alice'i osa tantsib korealanna Hye Min Kim

  10. ALICE brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  11. ALICE brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  12. ALICE brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE studies the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  13. ALICE brochure (French version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  14. ALICE brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2012-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which started up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  15. The ALICE Data Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Baud, J P; Carminati, F; Collignon, M; Collin, F; Divià, R; Durand, J D; Jarp, S; Jouanigot, J M; Panzer, B; Rademakers, F; Saiz, P; Schossmaier, K; Van de Vyvre, P; Vascotto, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    Since 1998, the ALICE experiment and the CERN/IT division have jointly executed several large-scale high throughput distributed computing exercises: the ALICE data challenges. The goals of these regular exercises are to test hardware and software components of the data acquisition and computing systems in realistic conditions and to execute an early integration of the overall ALICE computing infrastructure. This paper reports on the third ALICE Data Challenge (ADC III) that has been performed at CERN from January to March 2001. The data used during the ADC III are simulated physics raw data of the ALICE TPC, produced with the ALICE simulation program AliRoot. The data acquisition was based on the ALICE online framework called the ALICE Data Acquisition Test Environment (DATE) system. The data after event building were then formatted with the ROOT I/O package and a data catalogue based on MySQL was established. The Mass Storage System used during ADC III is CASTOR. Different software tools have been used to mo...

  16. ALICE chip processor

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    This tiny chip provides data processing for the time projection chamber on ALICE. Known as the ALICE TPC Read Out (ALTRO), this device was designed to minimize the size and power consumption of the TPC front end electronics. This single chip contains 16 low-power analogue-to-digital converters with six million transistors of digital processing and 8 kbits of data storage.

  17. ALICE brochure (Spanish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four big experiments for the LHC, the most powerful particle accelerator in the world, which will start up in 2008. ALICE will study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe.

  18. The ALICE Data Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.P.Baud; W.Carena; 等

    2001-01-01

    Since 1998,the ALICE experiment and the CERN/IT division have jointly executed several large-scale high throughput distributed computing exercises:the ALICE data challenges.The goals of these regular exercises are to test hardware and software components of the data acqusition and computing systems in realistic conditions and to execute an early integration of the overall ALICE computing infrastructure.This paper reports on the third ALICE Data Challenge (ADC III) that has been performed at CERN from January to March 2001.The data used during the ADC Ⅲ are simulated physics raw data of the ALICE TPC,produced with the ALICE simulation program AliRoot.The data acquisition was based on the ALICE online framework called the ALICE Data Acquisition Test Environment (DATE) system.The data after event building,were then formatted with the ROOT I/O package and a data catalogue based on MySQl was established.The Mass Storage System used during ADC III is CASTOR.Different software tools have been used to monitor the performances,DATE has demonstrated performances of more than 500 MByte/s.An aggregate data throughput of 85 MByte/s was sutained in CASTOR over several days.The total collected data amounts to 100 TBytes in 100.00 files.

  19. Study of the influence of design parameters of MAPS for the ALICE ITS Upgrade: Project Report

    CERN Document Server

    Munteanu, Laura-Iuliana

    2016-01-01

    This report illustrates the results of measurements performed on various MAPS chips used during the R&D phase for the ALICE ITS Upgrade. It lists the influence that pixel design parameters have on the performance of the chips.

  20. High-performance uncooled amorphous silicon video graphics array and extended graphics array infrared focal plane arrays with 17-μm pixel pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Jean-Luc; Tinnes, Sébastien; Durand, Alain; Minassian, Christophe; Robert, Patrick; Vilain, Michel; Yon, Jean-Jacques

    2011-06-01

    The high level of accumulated expertise by ULIS and CEA/LETI on uncooled microbolometers made from amorphous silicon with 45, 35, and 25 μm enables ULIS to develop video graphics array (VGA) and extended graphics array (XGA) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) formats with 17-μm pixel pitch to fulfill every application. These detectors keep all the recent innovations developed on the 25-μm pixel-pitch read out integrated circuit (ROIC) (detector configuration by serial link, low power consumption, and wide electrical dynamic range). The specific appeal of these units lies in the high spatial resolution it provides while keeping the small thermal time constant. The reduction of the pixel pitch turns the VGA array into a product well adapted for high-resolution and compact systems and the XGA a product well adapted for high-resolution imaging systems. High electro-optical performances have been demonstrated with noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) ROIC design. This technology node paves the way to high-end products as well as low-end, compact, smaller formats, such as 320 × 240 and 160 × 120 or smaller.

  1. Development of novel n{sup +}-in-p Silicon Planar Pixel Sensors for HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unno, Y., E-mail: yoshinobu.unno@kek.jp [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan); Gallrapp, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), CH-1211, Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Hori, R. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan); Idarraga, J. [Institut Universitaire de Technologie d' Orsay, Universite de Paris Sud, plateau de Moulon, 91400 Orsay (France); Mitsui, S. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan); Nagai, R.; Kishida, T. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ishida, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kamada, S.; Inuzuka, T.; Yamamura, K. [Solid-State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1 Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu-shi, Shizuoka 435-8558 (Japan); Hara, K. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Ikegami, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan); Jinnouchi, O. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Lounis, A. [Institut Universitaire de Technologie d' Orsay, Universite de Paris Sud, plateau de Moulon, 91400 Orsay (France); Takahashi, Y. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Takubo, Y.; Terada, S. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan); Hanagaki, K. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka-shi, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); and others

    2013-01-21

    We have been developing highly radiation-tolerant n{sup +}-in-p planar pixel sensors for use in the high-luminosity LHC. Novel n{sup +}-in-p structures were made using various combinations of the bias structures (punch-through or polysilicon resistor), isolation structures (p-stop or p-spray), and thicknesses (320μm or 150μm). The 1-chip pixel modules with thin FE-I4 pixel sensors were evaluated using test beams, before and after 2×10{sup 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} irradiation. The full depletion voltages were estimated to be 44±10 V and 380±70 V, in the non-irradiated and the irradiated modules, respectively. A reduction of efficiency was observed in the vicinity of the four pixel corners and underneath the bias rail after the irradiation. The global efficiencies were >99% and >95% in the non-irradiated and the irradiated modules, respectively. The collected charges were uniform in the depth direction at bias voltages well above the full depletion voltages. The encapsulation of vulnerable edges with adhesive or parylene prevented HV sparking. Bump bonding with the SnAg solder bumps was performed at HPK with 150μm- and 320μm-thick sensors and chips. No disconnection of bumps was observed after 10 thermal cycles between −40 and +50 °C, with a temperature slew rate of >70K/min. -- Highlights: ► Novel n{sup +}-in-p pixel sensors were made of punch-through/poly-Si biasing, p-stop/p-spray isolation, and 320/150μm thickness. ► The thin pixel modules were evaluated in testbeams, before and after 2×10{sup 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} irradiation. ► A reduction of efficiency was observed in the vicinity of four-corners of pixels and underneath the bias rail after irradiation. ► Encapsulating the vulnerable edges with adhesive or parylene achieved prevention of HV sparking up to 1000 V. ► No disconnection of SnAg bump-bonds was observed in dummy modules after 10 thermal cycles with a slew rate of >70K/min.

  2. Overview of ALICE results

    CERN Document Server

    Gagliardi, M

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC studies the hot and dense medium formed in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and the transition to Quark Gluon Plasma. Several observables are used to characterise the medium. In this contribution we report on the main ALICE results on global properties, particle spectra, anisotropies, heavy flavour and quarkonium production, obtained in Pb-Pb collisions at √ s rmNN =2 . 76 TeV. Measurements performed in p-Pb and pp collisions are also part of the ALICE physics program: selected highlights from such measurements are discussed.

  3. Pixel structures to compensate nonuniform threshold voltage and mobility of polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors using subthreshold current for large-size active matrix organic light-emitting diode displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jun-Seok; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2014-01-01

    We propose pixel structures for large-size and high-resolution active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays using a polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistor (TFT) backplane. The proposed pixel structures compensate the variations of the threshold voltage and mobility of the driving TFT using the subthreshold current. The simulated results show that the emission current error of the proposed pixel structure B ranges from -2.25 to 2.02 least significant bit (LSB) when the variations of the threshold voltage and mobility of the driving TFT are ±0.5 V and ±10%, respectively.

  4. Development of CMOS Pixel Sensors with digital pixel dedicated to future particle physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Wang, T.; Pham, H.; Hu-Guo, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Two prototypes of CMOS pixel sensor with in-pixel analog to digital conversion have been developed in a 0.18 μm CIS process. The first design integrates a discriminator into each pixel within an area of 22 × 33 μm2 in order to meet the requirements of the ALICE inner tracking system (ALICE-ITS) upgrade. The second design features 3-bit charge encoding inside a 35 × 35 μm2 pixel which is motivated by the specifications of the outer layers of the ILD vertex detector (ILD-VXD). This work aims to validate the concept of in-pixel digitization which offers higher readout speed, lower power consumption and less dead zone compared with the column-level charge encoding.

  5. ALICE HMPID RICH

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Particle identification plays a key role in the complete understanding of heavy-ion collisions in ALICE at the LHC. . The CsI Photodetector . The Radiator . The Front-End Electronics . Detector performance

  6. ALICE Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Lippmann, C

    2013-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device in the ALICE 'central barrel' for the tracking and identification (PID) of charged particles. It has to cope with unprecedented densities of charges particles.

  7. ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Christensen, C

    2013-01-01

    The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

  8. The ALICE absorbers

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Weighing more than 400 tonnes, the ALICE absorbers and the surrounding support structures have been installed and aligned with a precision of 1-2 mm, hardly an easy task but a very important one. The ALICE absorbers are made of three parts: the front absorber, a 35-tonne cone-shaped structure, and two small-angle absorbers, long straight cylinder sections weighing 18 and 40 tonnes. The three pieces lined up have a total length of about 17 m.

  9. The thousandth ALICE member

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From left to right: Lodovico Riccati, Toru Sugitate and Jurgen Schukraft. On Friday 13 October, the ALICE Collaboration Board accepted, as full members, nine new institutes, bringing the number of scientists from 982 to 1015. To celebrate this event, Lodovico Riccati, Chair of the Collaboration Board, and Jurgen Schukraft, Spokesperson of the ALICE Experiment, presented a small award to the thousandth collaborator, Toru Sugitate, from Hiroshima University.

  10. Installing the ALICE detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The huge iron yoke in the cavern at Point 2 in the LHC tunnel is prepared for the installation of the ALICE experiment. The yoke is being reused from the previous L3 experiment that was located at the same point during the LEP project from 1989 to 2000. ALICE will be inserted piece by piece into the cradle where it will be used to study collisions between two beams of lead ions.

  11. Uncooled amorphous silicon 1/4 VGA IRFPA with 25 μm pixel-pitch for high-end applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minassian, C.; Tissot, J. L.; Vilain, M.; Legras, O.; Tinnes, S.; Crastes, A.; Robert, P.; Fieque, B.

    2008-10-01

    The high level of accumulated expertise by ULIS and CEA/LETI on uncooled microbolometers made from amorphous silicon layer enables ULIS to develop 384 × 288 (1/4 VGA) IRFPA formats with 25 μm pixel-pitch designed for high end applications. This detector ROIC design relies on the same architecture as the full TV format ROIC one (detector configuration by serial link, user defined amplifier gain, windowing capability ...). The detector package is identical as the 384 × 288 / 35 μm and 640 × 480 / 25μm ones, enabling an easier system update or less non recurrent cost for different systems developments. This paper will give results of the IRFPA characterization. NETD in the range of 30mK (f/1, 300 K, 60 Hz) and operability higher than 99.99 % are routinely achieved.

  12. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  13. Design and noise analysis of charge sensitive amplifier for readout of pixelized thin film amorphous silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Poltorak, K; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; 10.1109/NSSMIC.2008.4774982

    2009-01-01

    Future high-energy physics experiments entail the need to improve the existing detection technologies, as well as develop new ones. Larger luminosities of the new accelerators require greater granularity of tracking detectors, which will be exposed to much higher doses of radiation. One of the newly-investigated solutions for tracking detectors is the Thin Film on ASIC (TFA) technology, which allows combining advantages of Monolithic Active Pixel and Hybrid Pixel technologies. In the paper we present noise analysis of a front-end circuit for readout of a TFA sensor. The circuit is based on a charge sensitive preamplifier built around an un-buffered cascode stage with active reset circuit. The feedback capacitance is reset through a transistor biased with a constant current instead of a voltage controlled reset transistor in order to limit parasitic charge injection into a very small feedback capacitance. Detailed analysis of noise in the reset and the readout phase and design optimization based on the Enz-Kru...

  14. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-04-17

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN{sub ch}/d{eta}) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of {radical}(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of {radical}(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  15. ALICE-ARC integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva;

    2008-01-01

    Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The interoperation has two aspects, one is the data......AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic...... management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. dCache provides support for several data management tools (among them for xrootd the tools used by AliEn) using the so called "doors". Therefore, we will concentrate on the second...

  16. ALICE - ARC integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderlik, Csaba; Gregersen, Anders Rhod; Kleist, Josva;

    Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The interoperation has two aspects, one is the data......AliEn or Alice Environment is the Gridware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic...... management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. dCache provides support for several data management tools (among them for xrootd the tools used by AliEn) using the so called "doors". Therefore, we will concentrate on the second...

  17. GEANT4 in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Hrivnacova, I

    1999-01-01

    The smooth way of transition from existing GEANT3 based simulation software to GEANT4 adopted by ALICE will be explained. The AliRoot package as a client of the Monte Carlo interface (pure abstract class) is used in GEANT4 based classes for building GEANT4 objects (geometry physics list, primary generator). We shall also summarise our experience with GEANT4 and give an overview of what parts of GEANT4 are used in the current ALICE GEANT4 simulation prototype, what functionality has been added and what problems have been encountered.

  18. Heavy flavour in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Pillot, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium states are expected to provide essential informa- tion on the properties of the strongly interacting system fo rmed in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy density. Such probes are espe cially promising at LHC energies where heavy quarks (both c and b) are copiously produced. The ALICE detector shall measure the production of open heavy flavours and heavy quarkonium st ates in both proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The expected performances of ALICE for heavy flavour physics is discussed based on the results of simulation studies on a s election of benchmark channels

  19. GRID Activities in ALICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Cerello; T.Anticic; 等

    2001-01-01

    The challenge of LHC computing,with data rates in the range of several PB/year,requires the development of GRID technologies,to optimize the exploitation of distributed computing power and the authomatic access to distributed data storage.In the framework of the EU-DataGrid project,the ALICE experiment is one of the selected test applications for the early development and implementation of GRID Services.Presently,about 15 ALICE sites are makin use of available GRID tools and a large scale test production involving 9 of them was carried out with our simulation program.Results are discussed in detail,as well as future plans.

  20. ALICE Geometry Database

    CERN Document Server

    Santo, J

    1999-01-01

    The ALICE Geometry Database project consists of the development of a set of data structures to store the geometrical information of the ALICE Detector. This Database will be used in Simulation, Reconstruction and Visualisation and will interface with existing CAD systems and Geometrical Modellers.At the present time, we are able to read a complete GEANT3 geometry, to store it in our database and to visualise it. On disk, we store different geometry files in hierarchical fashion, and all the nodes, materials, shapes, configurations and transformations distributed in this tree structure. The present status of the prototype and its future evolution will be presented.

  1. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  2. The ALICE Electronic Logbook

    CERN Document Server

    Altini, V; Carena, W; Chapeland, S; Chibante Barroso, V; Costa, F; Divia, R; Fuchs, U; Makhlyueva, I; Roukoutakis, F; Schossmaier, K; Soos, C; Vande Vyvre, P; Von Haller, B

    2010-01-01

    All major experiments need tools that provide a way to keep a record of the events and activities, both during commissioning and operations. In ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) at CERN, this task is performed by the Alice Electronic Logbook (eLogbook), a custom-made application developed and maintained by the Data-Acquisition group (DAQ). Started as a statistics repository, the eLogbook has evolved to become not only a fully functional electronic logbook, but also a massive information repository used to store the conditions and statistics of the several online systems. It's currently used by more than 600 users in 30 different countries and it plays an important role in the daily ALICE collaboration activities. This paper will describe the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP) based architecture of the eLogbook, the database schema and the relevance of the information stored in the eLogbook to the different ALICE actors, not only for near real time procedures but also for long term data-mining and analy...

  3. ALICE Vzero Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Cheynis, B

    2013-01-01

    ALICE is the only experiment at CERN specifically designed to study the Quark-Gluon Plasma, the hot and dense matter which is created in ultra relativistic heavy-ion collisions. - VZERO-A (CINVESTAV-UNAM Mexico): 2.8 328 cm away from Interaction Point - VZERO-C (IPN Lyon): -3.6 88 cm away from Interaction Point

  4. The ALICE Electronic Logbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All major experiments need tools that provide a way to keep a record of the events and activities, both during commissioning and operations. In ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) at CERN, this task is performed by the Alice Electronic Logbook (eLogbook), a custom-made application developed and maintained by the Data-Acquisition group (DAQ). Started as a statistics repository, the eLogbook has evolved to become not only a fully functional electronic logbook, but also a massive information repository used to store the conditions and statistics of the several online systems. It's currently used by more than 600 users in 30 different countries and it plays an important role in the daily ALICE collaboration activities. This paper will describe the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP) based architecture of the eLogbook, the database schema and the relevance of the information stored in the eLogbook to the different ALICE actors, not only for near real time procedures but also for long term data-mining and analysis. It will also present the web interface, including the different used technologies, the implemented security measures and the current main features. Finally it will present the roadmap for the future, including a migration to the web 2.0 paradigm, the handling of the database ever-increasing data volume and the deployment of data-mining tools.

  5. ALICE installs its TPC

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE time projection chamber has been transported to the experimental cavern. The handling of this extremely fragile detector was a long and delicate process. The lorry transporting the TPC took one hour to travel from the assembly hall to the access shaft...200 metres away.The TPC was lowered into the ALICE experimental cavern with extreme care. The gap between the structure and the shaft wall was only 10 centimetres! For ALICE the year started with a flurry of activity...but at a snail's pace. On 8 January, the day CERN reopened after the end-of-year break, teams from ALICE and the TS Department began the transportation of the experiment's time projection chamber (TPC), the largest ever built. This 5-metre long and 5-m diameter cylinder was transported from the clean room where it had been assembled to the experimental cavern. The 300-metre journey took no less than four days! Since the TPC is an extremely fragile object, the utmost precautions were exercised in its transportation. The TPC, which is d...

  6. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  7. First ALICE detectors installed!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

  8. MAPS development for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-03-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) offer the possibility to build pixel detectors and tracking layers with high spatial resolution and low material budget in commercial CMOS processes. Significant progress has been made in the field of MAPS in recent years, and they are now considered for the upgrades of the LHC experiments. This contribution will focus on MAPS detectors developed for the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade and manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process on wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. Several sensor chip prototypes have been developed and produced to optimise both charge collection and readout circuitry. The chips have been characterised using electrical measurements, radioactive sources and particle beams. The tests indicate that the sensors satisfy the ALICE requirements and first prototypes with the final size of 1.5 × 3 cm2 have been produced in the first half of 2014. This contribution summarises the characterisation measurements and presents first results from the full-scale chips.

  9. MAPS development for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) offer the possibility to build pixel detectors and tracking layers with high spatial resolution and low material budget in commercial CMOS processes. Significant progress has been made in the field of MAPS in recent years, and they are now considered for the upgrades of the LHC experiments. This contribution will focus on MAPS detectors developed for the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade and manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process on wafers with a high resistivity epitaxial layer. Several sensor chip prototypes have been developed and produced to optimise both charge collection and readout circuitry. The chips have been characterised using electrical measurements, radioactive sources and particle beams. The tests indicate that the sensors satisfy the ALICE requirements and first prototypes with the final size of 1.5 × 3 cm2 have been produced in the first half of 2014. This contribution summarises the characterisation measurements and presents first results from the full-scale chips

  10. Central Diffraction at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Lämsä, Jerry W

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  11. Central diffraction at ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laemsae, J W; Orava, R, E-mail: risto.orava@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Insitute of Physics, and Division of Elementary Particle Physics, Department of Physics, PL 64 (Gustaf Haellstroeminkatu 2a), FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-02-01

    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  12. Beam test results of a monolithic pixel sensor in the 0.18 μm tower-jazz technology with high resistivity epitaxial layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiazzo, S., E-mail: serena.mattiazzo@pd.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova IT 35131 (Italy); Aimo, I. [Politecnico di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Torino, Torino IT 10129 (Italy); Baudot, J. [Universitè de Strasbourg, IPHC, Strasbourg F67037 (France); CNRS, MMR7178, Strasbourg F67037 (France); Bedda, C. [Politecnico di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Torino, Torino IT 10129 (Italy); La Rocca, P. [Università di Catania and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Catania, Catania IT 95123 (Italy); Perez, A. [Universitè de Strasbourg, IPHC, Strasbourg F67037 (France); CNRS, MMR7178, Strasbourg F67037 (France); Riggi, F. [Università di Catania and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Sezione di Catania, Catania IT 95123 (Italy); Spiriti, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati and Sezione di Roma 3, Roma IT 00146 (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade in the second Long LHC Shutdown in the years 2018–2019; this upgrade includes the full replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), deploying seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). For the development of the new ALICE ITS, the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel and different silicon wafers (including high resistivity epitaxial layers). A large test campaign has been carried out on several small prototype chips, designed to optimize the pixel sensor layout and the front-end electronics. Results match the target requirements both in terms of performance and of radiation hardness. Following this development, the first full scale chips have been designed, submitted and are currently under test, with promising results. A telescope composed of 4 planes of Mimosa-28 and 2 planes of Mimosa-18 chips is under development at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) in Italy with the final goal to perform a comparative test of the full scale prototypes. The telescope has been recently used to test a Mimosa-22THRb chip (a monolithic pixel sensor built in the 0.18 μm Tower-Jazz process) and we foresee to perform tests on the full scale chips for the ALICE ITS upgrade at the beginning of 2015. In this contribution we will describe some first measurements of spatial resolution, fake hit rate and detection efficiency of the Mimosa-22THRb chip obtained at the BTF facility in June 2014 with an electron beam of 500 MeV.

  13. Beam test results of a monolithic pixel sensor in the 0.18 μm tower-jazz technology with high resistivity epitaxial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Aimo, I.; Baudot, J.; Bedda, C.; La Rocca, P.; Perez, A.; Riggi, F.; Spiriti, E.

    2015-10-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade in the second Long LHC Shutdown in the years 2018-2019; this upgrade includes the full replacement of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), deploying seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). For the development of the new ALICE ITS, the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel and different silicon wafers (including high resistivity epitaxial layers). A large test campaign has been carried out on several small prototype chips, designed to optimize the pixel sensor layout and the front-end electronics. Results match the target requirements both in terms of performance and of radiation hardness. Following this development, the first full scale chips have been designed, submitted and are currently under test, with promising results. A telescope composed of 4 planes of Mimosa-28 and 2 planes of Mimosa-18 chips is under development at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) in Italy with the final goal to perform a comparative test of the full scale prototypes. The telescope has been recently used to test a Mimosa-22THRb chip (a monolithic pixel sensor built in the 0.18 μm Tower-Jazz process) and we foresee to perform tests on the full scale chips for the ALICE ITS upgrade at the beginning of 2015. In this contribution we will describe some first measurements of spatial resolution, fake hit rate and detection efficiency of the Mimosa-22THRb chip obtained at the BTF facility in June 2014 with an electron beam of 500 MeV.

  14. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  15. ALICE comes to life

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 26 March, a first major part of the ALICE detector arrived at CERN: one of the four cylinders in composite material for the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The construction of the TPC 'field cage' (the structure that defines the configuration of the electrical field of the TPC) is the fruit of exceptional collaboration between CERN and the Austrian manufacturer Fischer Advanced Composite Components (Fischer ACC).

  16. Pentaquark searches with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bobulska, Dana

    2016-01-01

    In this report we present the results of the data analysis for searching for possible invariant mass signals from pentaquarks in the ALICE data. Analysis was based on filtered data from real p-Pb events at psNN=5.02 TeV collected in 2013. The motivation for this project was the recent discovery of pentaquark states by the LHCb collaboration (c ¯ cuud resonance P+ c ) [1]. The search for similar not yet observed pentaquarks is an interesting research topic [2]. In this analysis we searched for a s ¯ suud pentaquark resonance P+ s and its possible decay channel to f meson and proton. The ALICE detector is well suited for the search of certain candidates thanks to its low material budget and strong PID capabilities. Additionally we might expect the production of such particles in ALICE as in heavy-ion and proton-ion collisions the thermal models describes well the particle yields and ratios [3]. Therefore it is reasonable to expect other species of hadrons, including also possible pentaquarks, to be produced w...

  17. ALICE-ARC integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a module implementing the functionalities necessary to achieve AliEn job submission and management to ARC enabled sites

  18. ALICE: ARC integration

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlik, C; Kleist, J; Peters, A; Saiz, P

    2008-01-01

    AliEn or Alice Environment is the Grid middleware developed and used within the ALICE collaboration for storing and processing data in a distributed manner. ARC (Advanced Resource Connector) is the Grid middleware deployed across the Nordic countries and gluing together the resources within the Nordic Data Grid Facility (NDGF). In this paper we will present our approach to integrate AliEn and ARC, in the sense that ALICE data management and job processing can be carried out on the NDGF infrastructure, using the client tools available in AliEn. The inter-operation has two aspects, one is the data management part and the second the job management aspect. The first aspect was solved by using dCache across NDGF to handle data. Therefore, we will concentrate on the second part. Solving it, was somewhat cumbersome, mainly due to the different computing models employed by AliEn and ARC. AliEN uses an Agent based pull model while ARC handles jobs through the more 'traditional' push model. The solution comes as a modu...

  19. ALICE on the move

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    A new management, new modules for its sub-detectors and an increased capacity to probe the properties of the quark-gluon plasma. The new year bodes well for ALICE and ion physics as quarks and gluons prepare to unveil their most profound mysteries.   Installation of one of the new EMCal modules in the detector. Paolo Giubellino, the new ALICE spokesperson, talks with enthusiasm about what has already been done by the ALICE collaboration and what is yet to come. He has recently taken over from Jurgen Schukraft, who led the collaboration from its earliest beginnings. “We had a very exciting first year of operation, with many interesting results coming up in a very short space of time,” says Giubellino, a heavy-ion-physics expert from the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (see box for details). “The Christmas technical stop wasn’t a break for us as we upgraded the detector, completing the installation of the electromagnetic calorimeter (E...

  20. Development of SOI pixel detector in Cracow

    OpenAIRE

    Bugiel, Szymon; Dasgupta, Roma; Glab, Sebastian; Idzik, Marek; Moron, Jakub; Kapusta, Piotr Julian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new monolithic Silicon-On-Insulator pixel sensor in $200~nm$ SOI CMOS technology. The main application of the proposed pixel detector is the spectroscopy, but it can also be used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) tracking in particle physics experiments. For this reason few different versions of pixel cells are developed: a source-follower based pixel for tracking, a low noise pixel with preamplifier for spectroscopy, and a self-triggering pixel for t...

  1. Pixel-Level Digital-to-Analog Conversion Scheme for Compact Data Drivers of Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Low-Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae-Wook Kim,; Byong-Deok Choi,

    2010-03-01

    This paper shows that a part of a digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) function can be included in a pixel circuit to save the circuit area of an integrated data driver fabricated with low-temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs). Because the pixel-level DAC can be constructed by two TFTs and one small capacitor, the pixel circuit does not become markedly complex. The design of an 8-bit DAC, which combines a 6-bit resistor-string-based DAC and a 2-bit pixel-level DAC for a 4-in. diagonal VGA format active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED), is shown in detail. In addition, analysis results are presented, revealing that the 8-bit DAC scheme including a 2-bit pixel-level DAC with 1:3 demultiplexing can be applied to very high video formats, such as XGA, for a 3 to 4-in. diagonal AMOLED. Even for a 9- to 12-in. diagonal AMOLED, the proposed scheme can still be applied to the XGA format, even though no demultiplexing is allowed. The total height of the proposed 8-bit DAC is approximately 960 μm, which is almost one-half of that of the previous 6-bit resistor-string-based DAC.

  2. The ALICE cavern and solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE experiment, one of the four major experiments of CERN's LHC project, will be housed in the cavern that once contained the L3 experiment at the LEP accelerator. The huge solenoid is the only remaining piece of the L3 experiment and will be used by ALICE.

  3. ALICE bags data storage accolades

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    ComputerWorld has recognized CERN with an award for the 'Best Practices in Storage' for ALICE's data acquisition system, in the category of 'Systems Implementation'. The award was presented to the ALICE DAQ team on 18 April at a ceremony in San Diego, CA. (Top) ALICE physicist Ulrich Fuchs. (Bottom) Three of the five storage racks for the ALICE Data Acquisition system (Photo Antonio Saba). Between 16 and19 April, one thousand people from data storage networks around the world gathered to attend the biannual Storage Networking World Conference. Twenty-five companies and organizations were celebrated as finalists, and five of those were given honorary awards-among them CERN, which tied for first place in the category of Systems Implementation for the success of the ALICE Data Acquisition System. CERN was one of five finalists in this category, which recognizes the winning facility for 'the successful design, implementation and management of an interoperable environment'. 'Successful' could include documentati...

  4. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  5. ATLAS Pixel Detector Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Di Girolamo, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.9% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  6. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  7. Alice Munro: A Bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    Bigot, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    I. Collections of short stories by Alice Munro Dance of the Happy Shades, Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1968, 224 pp; New York, McGraw Hill, 1973, 224 pp; London, Allen Lane, 1974, 224 pp. Lives of Girls and Women, Toronto, McGraw Hill Ryerson, 1971, 254 pp; New York,McGraw Hill, 1972, 250 pp; London, Allen Lane, 1974, 250 pp. Something I’ve Been Meaning To Tell You, Toronto and New York, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1974, 246 pp. Who Do You Think You Are?, Toronto, Macmillan, 1974, 206 pp. Printed in the ...

  8. Diffraction studies with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Zamora, Pedro González

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of Single and Double Di raction cross-sections in pp collisions by the ALICE Collaboration at p s = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV will be presented. The relevance of di raction to the understanding of inelastic pp interactions will be discussed and the measurement of the inelastic pp cross-section will be presented. A brief status of ALICE’s studies of centrally produced systems, selected with a two-pseudorapidity gap topology, will also be given

  9. Data science in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of Heavy Ion collisions. In particular, the detector features low momentum tracking and vertexing, and comprehensive particle identification capabilities. In a single central heavy ion collision at the LHC, thousands of particles per unit rapidity are produced, making the data volume, track reconstruction and search of rare signals particularly challenging. Data science and machine learning techniques could help to tackle some of the challenges outlined above. In this talk, we will discuss some early attempts to use these techniques for the processing of detector signals and for the physics analysis. We will also highlight the most promising areas for the application of these methods.

  10. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079168

    2015-01-01

    {During the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2018/2019, the ALICE experiment plans the installation of a novel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The upgraded detector will fully replace the current ITS having six layers by seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). The upgraded ITS will have significantly improved tracking and vertexing capabilities, as well as readout rate to cope with the expected increased Pb-Pb luminosity in LHC. The choice of MAPS has been driven by the specific requirements of ALICE as a heavy ion experiment dealing with rare probes at low $p_\\mathrm{T}$. This leads to stringent requirements on the material budget of 0.3$\\%~X/X_{0}$ per layer for the three innermost layers. Furthermore, the detector will see large hit densities of $\\sim 19~\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}/\\mathrm{event}$ on average for minimum-bias events in the inner most layer and has to stand moderate radiation loads of 700 kRad TID and $1\\times 10^{13}$ 1 MeV n$_\\mathrm{eq}/\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$ NIEL at maximum. The MAPS dete...

  11. ALICE pp physics programme

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The physics programme of the ALICE experiment at CERN-LHC comprises besides studies of high-energy heavy-ion collisions measurements of proton-proton interactions at unprecedented energies, too. This paper focuses on the global event characterisation in terms of the multiplicity distribution of charged hadrons and mean transverse momentum. These bulk observables become accessible because the detector features excellent track reconstruction, especially at low transverse momenta. The measurement of strange hadrons is of particular interest since the strange-particle phase-space was found to be suppressed beyond canonical reduction at lower center-of-mass energies and the production mechanism of soft particles is not yet fully understood. Here we benefit in particular from particle identification down to very low transverse momentum, i.e. 100 - 300 MeV/c, giving access to spectra and integrated yields of identified hadrons. Equipped with these features, ALICE will play a complementary role w.r.t. other LHC exper...

  12. ALICE Expert System

    CERN Document Server

    Ionita, C

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in dierent system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by reg...

  13. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste) Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  14. Cooling in the ALICE detector

    OpenAIRE

    Almén, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    At CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland, a new modern particle accelerator called the LHC, Large Hadron Collider, is being projected. One of the four large detectors of the LHC, ALICE, consists of many sub-detectors. Temperature stability in ALICE is of great importance for the experiments performed here.  In the ALICE sub-detector TPC, Time Projection Chamber, there is a great risk for thermal instability.  This will cause false data in the experiments, a...

  15. CERN Open Days 2013, Point 2 - ALICE: ALICE Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Photolab

    2013-01-01

    Stand description: Visitors will be guided through the ALICE experiment, an extraordinary particle physics detector located at a depth of 80 meters below ground.  ALICE started up in 2008 to study the quark-gluon plasma, a state of matter that probably existed in the first moments of the universe. Visitors will also be able to walk inside the LHC tunnel, where superconducting magnets guide the beams of protons at unprecedented energies around the LHC. In addition to the underground visit, several ALICE physicists and engineers will be available to answer visitors' questions. On surface no restricted access  Above ground, scientific  and other kinds of shows will entertain the visitors to ALICE, even the youngest, throughout the day.

  16. Gallium arsenide pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R.; DaVia, C.; O`Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Smith, K. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Campbell, M.; Cantatore, E.; Heijne, E.M.; Middelkamp, P.; Ropotar, I.; Scharfetter, L.; Snoeys, W. [CERN, ECP Div., CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); D`Auria, S.; Papa, C. del [Department of Physics, University of Udine and INFN Trieste, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine (Italy); RD8 Collaboration

    1998-06-01

    GaAs detectors can be fabricated with bidimensional single-sided electrode segmentation. They have been successfully bonded using flip-chip technology to the Omega-3 silicon read-out chip. We present here the design features of the GaAs pixel detectors and results from a test performed at the CERN SpS with a 120 GeV {pi}{sup -} beam. The detection efficiency was 99.2% with a nominal threshold of 5000 e{sup -}. (orig.) 10 refs.

  17. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  18. ALICE Particle Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein Ezzelarab, Nada

    2014-01-01

    During my stay at CERN, I have attended lectures mornings and worked on my research project under orienting guidance of my supervisors afternoons. The lectures were informative and pedagog- ically well-prepared and presented. Their contents was an excellent combination of theoretical and experimental topics in high-energy physics. Furthermore, I was privileged to visit the ALICE, CMS and LHCb detectors and the LINIAC accelerator. I have participated in workshop on ”MadGraph software”. I was furnished with excellent experiences and cultural exchanges with good colleagues from different countries. I got opportunities to know what the other students have done, in which projects they were involved and how they performed their scientific researches, especially regarding LHC data analysis. For my own project, I have to prove excellent experience with C++ and of course LINUX, ROOT and AliROOT. Tools such as Histograms, Graphs, Fitting, trees and many others were very essential. Furthermore, I am very proud getti...

  19. The ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Garabatos, C

    2004-01-01

    We describe the ALICE TPC, with emphasis on the design features which are driven by the physics requirements of the detector. In particular, the gas choice and composition, Ne-CO/sub 2/ Ý90-10¿, as well as the unprecedentedly high gain for a TPC (2*10/sup 40/), are direct consequences of the expected performance in the high- multiplicity environment of heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The characteristics of this mixture are discussed and a viable way of improving the stability of detectors working under these conditions, namely the addition of nitrogen into the mixture, is presented. This results in a more effective Penning transfer of neon excited states onto ionisation of the quencher at no penalty for the charge transport and amplification properties.

  20. First Physics Results from ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. The main purpose of ALICE is to investigate the properties of a state of deconfined nuclear matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma. Heavy flavour measurements will play a crucial role in this investigation. The physics programme of ALICE has started by studying proton-proton collisions at unprecedented high energies. We will present the first results on open heavy flavour and quarkonia in proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV measured by the ALICE experiment at both mid- and forward-rapidities. We will conclude with the prospects for heavy flavour and quarkonium measurements in both proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Also presented are first results of neutral meson reconstruction and its perspectives, as well as further physics studies. (author)

  1. First Physics Results from ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peressounko, Dmitri [Russian Research Centre - RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov sq.1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Castillo Castellanos, Javier [service de physique nucleaire - SPhN, IRFU, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Belikov, Iouri [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien - IPHC, 23 rue du loess - BP28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France)

    2010-07-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. The main purpose of ALICE is to investigate the properties of a state of deconfined nuclear matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma. Heavy flavour measurements will play a crucial role in this investigation. The physics programme of ALICE has started by studying proton-proton collisions at unprecedented high energies. We will present the first results on open heavy flavour and quarkonia in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 7 TeV measured by the ALICE experiment at both mid- and forward-rapidities. We will conclude with the prospects for heavy flavour and quarkonium measurements in both proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Also presented are first results of neutral meson reconstruction and its perspectives, as well as further physics studies. (author)

  2. That’s a matter for ALICE!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    ALICE has launched a new online newsletter to report on developments at the detector: ALICE Matters. The fortnightly newsletter will keep members of the collaboration – and a wider readership – up-to-date with the latest news from the detector.   Screenshot of the ALICE Matters website. The new ALICE Matters newsletter highlights the work of ALICE collaborators through news, interviews and feature articles. Published online every fortnight, it will report the latest developments from the experiment, providing information about operation and data taking, installation work during technical stops, and news from ALICE members. The newsletter is aimed at members of the collaboration, but as an online publication it is also open to the general public. “We often receive questions from people who follow our progress and are interested in what's happening at ALICE,” explains Despina Hatzifotiadou, ALICE Outreach Coordinator. “With ALICE Matters, we can n...

  3. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Jarron, P.; Moraes, D.; Despeisse, M.; Dissertori, G.; Dunand, S.; Kaplon. J.; Miazza, C.; Shah, Arvind; Viertel, G M.; Wyrsch, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS)...

  4. Preparing the ALICE DAQ upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Dénes, E.; Divià, R.; Fuchs, U.; Grigore, A.; Kiss, T.; Rauch, W.; Rubin, G.; Simonetti, G.; Soós, C.; Telesca, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Von Haller, B.

    2012-12-01

    In November 2009, after 15 years of design and installation, the ALICE experiment started to detect and record the first collisions produced by the LHC. It has been collecting hundreds of millions of events ever since with both proton and heavy ion collisions. The future scientific programme of ALICE has been refined following the first year of data taking. The physics targeted beyond 2018 will be the study of rare signals. Several detectors will be upgraded, modified, or replaced to prepare ALICE for future physics challenges. An upgrade of the triggering and readout systems is also required to accommodate the needs of the upgraded ALICE and to better select the data of the rare physics channels. The ALICE upgrade will have major implications in the detector electronics and controls, data acquisition, event triggering and offline computing and storage systems. Moreover, the experience accumulated during more than two years of operation has also lead to new requirements for the control software. We will review all these new needs and the current R&D activities to address them. Several papers of the same conference present in more details some elements of the ALICE online system.

  5. FLUKA Simulation of Particle Fluences to ALICE due to LHC Injection Kicker Failures

    CERN Document Server

    Shetty, N V; Di Mauro, A; Lechner, A; Leogrande, E; Uythoven, J

    2014-01-01

    The counter-rotating beams of the LHC are injected in insertion regions which also accommodate the ALICE and LHCb experiments. An assembly of beam absorbers ensures the protection of machine elements in case of injection kicker failures, which can affect either the injected or the stored beam. In the first years of LHC operation, secondary particle showers due to beam impact on the injection beam stopper caused damage to the MOS injectors of the ALICE silicon drift detector as well as high-voltage trips in other ALICE subdetectors. In this study, we present FLUKA [1,2] simulations of particle fluences to the ALICE cavern for injection failures encountered during operation. Two different cases are reported, one where the miskicked beam is fully intercepted and one where the beam grazes the beam stopper.

  6. Development of SOI pixel detector in Cracow

    CERN Document Server

    Bugiel, Szymon; Glab, Sebastian; Idzik, Marek; Moron, Jakub; Kapusta, Piotr Julian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Turala, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new monolithic Silicon-On-Insulator pixel sensor in $200~nm$ SOI CMOS technology. The main application of the proposed pixel detector is the spectroscopy, but it can also be used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) tracking in particle physics experiments. For this reason few different versions of pixel cells are developed: a source-follower based pixel for tracking, a low noise pixel with preamplifier for spectroscopy, and a self-triggering pixel for time and amplitude measurements. In addition the design of a Successive Approximation Register Analog-to-Digital Converter (SAR ADC) is also presented. A 10-bit SAR ADC is developed for spectroscopic measurements and a lower resolution 6-bit SAR ADC is integrated in the pixel matrix as a column ADC, for tracking applications.

  7. Radiation hard analog circuits for ALICE ITS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajanana, D.; Gromov, V.; Kuijer, P.; Kugathasan, T.; Snoeys, W.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE experiment is planning to upgrade the ITS (Inner Tracking System) [1] detector during the LS2 shutdown. The present ITS will be fully replaced with a new one entirely based on CMOS monolithic pixel sensor chips fabricated in TowerJazz CMOS 0.18 μ m imaging technology. The large (3 cm × 1.5 cm = 4.5 cm2) ALPIDE (ALICE PIxel DEtector) sensor chip contains about 500 Kpixels, and will be used to cover a 10 m2 area with 12.5 Gpixels distributed over seven cylindrical layers. The ALPOSE chip was designed as a test chip for the various building blocks foreseen in the ALPIDE [2] pixel chip from CERN. The building blocks include: bandgap and Temperature sensor in four different flavours, and LDOs for powering schemes. One flavour of bandgap and temperature sensor will be included in the ALPIDE chip. Power consumption numbers have dropped very significantly making the use of LDOs less interesting, but in this paper all blocks are presented including measurement results before and after irradiation with neutrons to characterize robustness against displacement damage.

  8. Characterization of a three side abuttable CMOS pixel sensor with digital pixel and data compression for charged particle tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloux, F.; Değerli, Y.; Flouzat, C.; Lachkar, M.; Monmarthe, E.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2016-02-01

    CMOS monolithic pixel sensor technology has been chosen to equip the new ALICE trackers for HL-LHC . PIXAM is the final prototype from an R&D program specific to the Muon Forward Tracker which intends to push significantly forward the performances of the mature rolling shutter architecture. By implementing a digital pixel allowing to readout of a group of rows in parallel, the PIXAM sensor increases the rolling shutter readout speed while keeping the same power consumption as that of analogue pixel sensors. This paper will describe shortly the ASIC architecture and will focus on the analogue and digital performances of the sensor, obtained from laboratory measurements.

  9. Characterization of a three side abuttable CMOS pixel sensor with digital pixel and data compression for charged particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMOS monolithic pixel sensor technology has been chosen to equip the new ALICE trackers for HL-LHC . PIXAM is the final prototype from an R and D program specific to the Muon Forward Tracker which intends to push significantly forward the performances of the mature rolling shutter architecture. By implementing a digital pixel allowing to readout of a group of rows in parallel, the PIXAM sensor increases the rolling shutter readout speed while keeping the same power consumption as that of analogue pixel sensors. This paper will describe shortly the ASIC architecture and will focus on the analogue and digital performances of the sensor, obtained from laboratory measurements

  10. ALICE presents its first award to Industry

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Behind from left to right (Derrière de gauche à droite): Bernardo Mota, member of the ALTRO design team, Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson, Luciano Musa, leader of the ALTRO Design Team and Coordinator of the ALICE TPC FEE, Roberto Camapagnolo, member of the ALICE TPC FEE team, Jean-Pierre Coffin, Deputy of the ALICE Collaboration Board Chairman, Hans de Groot ALICE Resource Coordinator, Laurent Degoujon, ST - Data Converter Design Manager, Claude Engster, member of the ALICE TPC FEE team, Alain Delpi, ST - Data Converter Business Unit Manager, Carmen Gonzalez, member of the ALICE TPC FEE team, Yiota Foka, ALICE Outreach Coordinator; Front: Fabio Formenti , EP-ED Group Leader, Juan Antonio Rubio, ETT Division Leader.

  11. ALICE rewards one of its suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    On 6 October 2007 the ALICE Collaboration Board awarded one of its prestigious Industrial Awards to Hewlett-Packard for its instrumental role in enabling ALICE physicists to collect and process experimental data on the Grid. From left to right: Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson; Michel Bénard, Hewlett Packard, Director, Technology Programs and University Relations; Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader; Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chairperson; Arnaud Pierson, Hewlett Packard, E.M.E.A Program Manager, University Relations and HP Labs; Latchezar Betev, ALICE Distributed Computing Coordinator.The ALICE DAQ and Offline groups have been collaborating with HP since 1993 in the yearly Computing and GRID physics data challenges programme. These are high-level exercises of readiness of hardware and software frameworks for data acquisition and processing. HP hosted ALICE experts in their "centre de compétences"...

  12. The ALICE time machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferretti Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the Big Bang theory, the Universe was once in an extremely hot and dense state which expanded rapidly. In such a state the normal nuclear matter could not exist: it is believed that a few microsecond after big-bang the matter underwent a phase transition, from a state called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP to a hadron gas. Some of the unexplained features of the Universe could be explained by the QGP properties. One of the aims of the CERN LHC is to recreate (on a smaller scale a QGP state, compressing and heating ordinary nuclear matter by means of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. The ALICE experiment at CERN is dedicated to the study of the medium produced in these collisions : in particular, the study of the heavy quarkonia suppression pattern can give a measure of the temperature reached in these collisions, helping us to understand how close we are getting to the conditions of the starting point of the Universe.

  13. Alice in Danceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ciambella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lo scopo di questo saggio è quello di presentare un ‘case study’ finora inesplorato nel campo degli studi sugli adattamenti: la danza in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865 di Lewis Carroll e le sue trasformazioni in sede di transmodalizzazione. In particolar modo si prenderanno in esame i due adattamenti cinematografici più celebri del romanzo dello scrittore vittoriano: il cartone animato prodotto dalla Disney nel 1951 e il film del 2010 diretto dal regista californiano Tim Burton. Se in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland di Carroll la danza è quella delle aragoste del capitolo (il decimo per l'esattezza che si intitola proprio “The Lobster Quadrille”, nel capolavoro Disney non vi è traccia alcuna né di aragoste, né tanto meno di tartarughe o grifoni. Eppure paradossalmente la danza nel cartone animato è un motivo ricorrente, che fa da sfondo alle peripezie della protagonista dall'inizio alla fine dell'opera. Quel che stupisce ancora di più lo spettatore di Alice di Burton è la presenza della danza in due precisi momenti della pellicola – all'inizio e alla fine – che non sono presenti né nell’ipotesto, né nell'adattamento Disney. In altre parole, sebbene la danza sia presente nelle tre opere, essa non compare mai nello stesso momento o con le stesse modalità.

  14. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...... design it became relevant to investigate the use of LEDs as the physical equivalent of a pixel as a design approach. In this book our interest has been in identifying how the qualities of LEDs can be used in lighting applications. With experiences in the planning and implementation of architectural...... lighting design in practice, one quickly experiences and realises that there are untapped potentials in the attributes of LED technology. In this research, speculative studies have been made working with the attributes of LEDs in architectural contexts, with the ambition to ascertain new strategies...

  15. ALICE tests its digital chain

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    During its 7th data challenge, ALICE successfully tested the infrastructure of its data acquisition, transfer and storage system. The ALICE experiment will need a rock-solid data acquisition, selection, transfer, storage and handling system to analyse the billions of bits of data that will be generated every second. The heavy ion collisions at the LHC will generate 10 times more data per second than proton collisions. The ALICE teams have therefore been hard at it for several years designing a cutting-edge informatics system, whose reliability is regularly put to the test in the annual data challenges. Last December, groups from the Collaboration and the IT Department joined forces, or rather cables, in the 7th of these challenges. The teams of ALICE DAQ (data acquisition), ALICE Offline (data handling), IT-CS-IO (network) and IT-FIO (CASTOR and data storage) all took part in testing the various components of the infrastructure, from data acquisition to transfer and storage. Working in close collaboration,...

  16. ALICE presents its first award to Industry

    CERN Multimedia

    On 19 June, a French company received the first ALICE award to industry. ST Technologies has provided ALICE with a key device for the design of a very sophisticated chip for the readout of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. Behind from left to right (Derrière de gauche à droite): Bernardo Mota, member of the ALTRO design team, Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson, Luciano Musa, leader of the ALTRO Design Team and Coordinator of the ALICE TPC FEE, Roberto Camapagnolo, member of the ALICE TPC FEE team, Jean-Pierre Coffin, Deputy of the ALICE Collaboration Board Chairman, Hans de Groot ALICE Resource Coordinator, Laurent Degoujon, ST - Data Converter Design Manager, Claude Engster, member of the ALICE TPC FEE team, Alain Delpi, ST - Data Converter Business Unit Manager, Carmen Gonzalez, member of the ALICE TPC FEE team, Yiota Foka, ALICE Outreach Coordinator; Front: Fabio Formenti , EP-ED Group Leader, Juan Antonio Rubio, ETT Division Leader The ALICE experiment is setting new demands on readout electronics i...

  17. Industrial collaborators honoured by ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Picture 01 : the winners gather after the ALICE Award ceremony (from left to right): Yuri Saveliev, Stanislav Burachas and Sergei Beloglovsky of North Crystals; Maximilian Metzger, CERN's secretary-general; Rang Cai of ATM; Jürgen Schukraft, ALICE spokesperson; Erich Pamminger and Daniel Gattinger of FACC; and Tiejun Wang of ATM. The ALICE collaboration has presented its second round of awards to three companies for their novel and remarkable contributions to major detector systems: Advance Technology and Materials (ATM), Fischer Advanced Composite Components (FACC) and North Crystals. The awards presented to these three leaders in advanced, modern materials were beautifully sculpted from one of the oldest materials used by mankind to manufacture tools - Mexican Obsidian

  18. Managing Information Flow in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Augustinus, A; Moreno, A; Kurepin, A N; De Cataldo, G; Pinazza, O; Rosinský, P; Lechman, M; Jirdén, L S

    2011-01-01

    ALICE is one of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The ALICE detector control system is an integrated system collecting 18 different detectors’ controls and general services. Is implemented using the commercial SCADA package PVSS. Information of general interest, such as beam and condition data, and data related to shared plants or systems, are made available to all the subsystems via the distribution capabilities of PVSS. Great care has been taken to build a modular and hierarchical system, limiting the interdependencies of the various subsystems. Accessing remote resources in a PVSS distributed environment is very simple and can be initiated unilaterally. In order to improve the reliability of distributed data and to avoid unforeseen and unwished dependencies, the ALICE DCS group has enforced the centralization of global data required by the subsystems. A tool has been developed to monitor the level of interdependency and to understand the ...

  19. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALICE experiment is designed to study the properties of hadron and nucleus collisions in a new energy regime at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A fundamental observable in such collisions is the multiplicity distribution of charged particles. A forward multiplicity detector has been designed to extend the charged particle multiplicity coverage of the ALICE experiment to pseudorapidities of -3.4<η<-1.7 and 1.7<η<5.0. This detector consists of five rings, each containing 10240 Si strips, divided into sectors comprised of Si sensors bonded and glued to hybrid PC boards equipped with radiation hard preamplifiers. The output of these preamplifiers is multiplexed into custom-made fast ADC chips located directly behind the Si sensors on the detector frame. These ADCs are read out, via optical fibers, to a data acquisition farm of commodity PCs. The design and characteristics of the ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector will be discussed

  20. ALICE DCS web feed publication

    CERN Document Server

    Verdu Torres, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE Detector Control System is a complex hardware and software infrastructure and is running in a protected network environment. Monitoring data, announcements and alarms are made accessible to interested users in several different ways: dedicated panels running on operator nodes, web sites, email and sms. The project aims to aggregate information coming from several different systems, categorize according to its nature, reformat and publish on a dedicated web site. For this purpose, I have used "WinCC_OA" software tool, which is the software used by the ALICE DCS group.

  1. Overview of recent ALICE results

    CERN Document Server

    Gunji, Taku

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment explores the properties of strongly interacting QCD matter at extremely high temperatures created in Pb-Pb collisions at LHC and provides further insight into small-system physics in (high-multiplicity) pp and p-Pb collisions. The ALICE collaboration presented 27 parallel talks, 50 posters, and 1 flash talk at Quark Matter 2015 and covered various topics including collective dynamics, correlations and fluctuations, heavy flavors, quarkonia, jets and high $p_{\\rm T}$ hadrons, electromagnetic probes, small system physics, and the upgrade program. This paper highlights some of the selected results.

  2. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Szelezniak, Michal A.

    2008-01-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations of MAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of t...

  3. Alice Views Jupiter and Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This graphic illustrates the pointing and shows the data from one of many observations made by the New Horizons Alice ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) instrument during the Pluto-bound spacecraft's recent encounter with Jupiter. The red lines in the graphic show the scale, orientation, and position of the combined 'box and slot' field of view of the Alice UVS during this observation. The positions of Jupiter's volcanic moon, Io, the torus of ionized gas from Io, and Jupiter are shown relative to the Alice field of view. Like a prism, the spectrometer separates light from these targets into its constituent wavelengths. Io's volcanoes produce an extremely tenuous atmosphere made up primarily of sulfur dioxide gas, which, in the harsh plasma environment at Io, breaks down into its component sulfur and oxygen atoms. Alice observed the auroral glow from these atoms in Io's atmosphere and their ionized counterparts in the Io torus. Io's dayside is deliberately overexposed to bring out faint details in the plumes and on the moon's night side. The continuing eruption of the volcano Tvashtar, at the 1 o'clock position, produces an enormous plume roughly 330 kilometers (200 miles) high, which is illuminated both by sunlight and 'Jupiter light.'

  4. ALICE Time Of Flight Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Alici, A

    2013-01-01

    Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector. The time measurement with the TOF, in conjunction with the momentum and track length measured by the tracking detector, is used to calculate the particle mass.

  5. Alices in a nuclear Wonderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kate

    2014-02-01

    Denise Kiernan's The Girls of Atomic City tells the story of a dozen women who left rural America in the early 1940s and tumbled suddenly, like Alice down the rabbit hole, into the nascent US military-industrial complex, with all its regulations, factory discipline, dangers and surveillance.

  6. ALICE Holds Up to Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's main austenitic stainless steel support structure (the Space Frame) has recently gone through many tests that proved quite challenging: insuring the structure is sound and lowering it horizontally into the ALICE cavern. This structure is constructed to hold the large volume detectors, such as the Time Projection Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time of Flight inside the ALICE solenoid magnet. After the final assembly at CERN, two large mobile cranes were needed for the job of lifting and turning the 14 tonne frame onto its side. Once shifted, it was placed in Building SX2, one of the surface assembly areas designated for ALICE. The structure, which is 8 m in diameter and 7 m long, underwent many tests in its new position. Geometric control tests were performed by measuring each of the 18 cells and placing wooden or metal samples constructed to the same dimensions as the real thing inside the structure. The most important check was the movement of the real Time Projection Chamber from its s...

  7. The ALICE Magnetic System Computation.

    CERN Document Server

    Klempt, W; CERN. Geneva; Swoboda, Detlef

    1995-01-01

    In this note we present the first results from the ALICE magnetic system computation performed in the 3-dimensional way with the Vector Fields TOSCA code (version 6.5) [1]. To make the calculations we have used the IBM RISC System 6000-370 and 6000-550 machines combined in the CERN PaRC UNIX cluster.

  8. Uncooled amorphous silicon TEC-less 1/4 VGA IRFPA with 25μm pixel-pitch for high volume applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, A.; Minassian, C.; Tissot, J. L.; Vilain, M.; Robert, P.; Touvignon, A.; Chiappa, J. M.; Pistre, C.

    2009-05-01

    The high level of accumulated expertise by ULIS on uncooled microbolometers TEC-less operation enables ULIS to develop 384 x 288 (1/4 VGA) IRFPA format with 25μm pixel-pitch especially designed for TEC-less application. This detector, while keeping all the performances and all the innovations developed on previous ULIS ROIC (NETD performance, detector configuration by serial link, low power consumption and wide electrical dynamic range ...), can be operated on a wide range of ambient temperature, with constant settings. We present in this paper the electro-optical performances and the TEC-less capability of this device. The thermal behavior is described in detail.

  9. ALICE moves into warp drive.

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Since its successful start-up in 2010, the LHC has been performing outstandingly, providing to the experiments long periods of stable collisions and an integrated luminosity that greatly exceeds the planned targets. To fully explore these privileged conditions, we aim at maximizing the experiment's data taking productivity during stable collisions. We present in this paper the evolution of the online systems in order to spot reasons of inefficiency and address new requirements. This paper describes the features added to the ALICE Electronic Logbook (eLogbook) to allow the Run Coordination team to identify, prioritize, fix and follow causes of inefficiency in the experiment. Thorough monitoring of the data taking efficiency provides reports for the collaboration to portray its evolution and evaluate the measures (fix...

  10. Development of a CMOS SOI pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ishino, Hirokazu; Hazumi, M; Ikegami, Y; Kohriki, T; Tajima, O; Terada, S; Tsuboyama, T; Unno, Y; Ushiroda, Y; Ikeda, H; Hara, K; Ishino, H; Kawasaki, T; Miyake, H; Martin, E; Varner, G; Tajima, H; Ohno, M; Fukuda, K; Komatsubara, H; Ida, J

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a monolithic radiation pixel detector using silicon on insulator (SOI) with a commercial 0.15 m fullydepleted- SOI technology and a Czochralski high resistivity silicon substrate in place of a handle wafer. The SOI TEG (Test Element Group) chips with a size of 2.5 x 2.5mm2 consisting of 20 x 20 um2 pixels have been designed and manufactured. Performance tests with a laser light illumination and a . ray radioactive source indicate successful operation of the detector. We also brie y discuss the back gate effect as well as the simulation study.

  11. Layout of the ALICE detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE experiment will study the collisions of beams of lead nuclei in an attempt to produce a new state of matter known as 'quark-gluon plasma'. The barrel of the detector will be housed in the solenoid that once contained the L3 experiment when LEP was in operation at CERN, between 1989 and 2000. Outside of the solenoid, a dipole magnet will bend the path of charged particles called muons, allowing their momenta to be measured.

  12. Operational experience of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Marcisovsky, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  13. Operational experience of the ATLAS Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschbuehl, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  14. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost element of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  15. ALICE upgrades its powerful eyes

    CERN Multimedia

    Yuri Kharlov, ALICE Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) is a high-resolution photon detector that measures the photons coming out of the extremely hot plasma created in the lead-lead collisions at the LHC. Taking advantage of the long accelerator shut-down, the ALICE teams are now repairing and upgrading the existing modules and getting ready to install the brand-new module in time for the next run. The upgraded PHOS detector will be faster and more stable with wider acceptance and improved photon identification.   PHOS crystal matrix during repair. The key feature and the main complexity of the ALICE PHOS detector is that it operates at a temperature of -25°C, which makes it the second-coldest equipment element at the LHC after the cryogenic superconducting magnets. Since 2009 when it was installed, the PHOS detector, with its cold and warm volumes, has been immersed in airtight boxes to avoid condensation in the cold volumes. The 10,752 lead tungstate crystals of the PHOS were completely insulated fr...

  16. Conceptual Design Report for the Upgrade of the ALICE ITS

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, L

    2012-01-01

    The present document addresses the question of how to improve the ALICE performance for heavy-flavour detection. It will be shown that it is possible to built a new silicon tracker with greatly improved features in terms of determination of the distance of closest approach (dca) to the primary vertex, standalone tracking efficiency at low pt , momentum resolution and readout rate capabilities. This is a consequence of the spectacular progress made in the field of imaging sensors over the last ten years and also the possibility to install a smaller radius beampipe. Moreover, a tracker with the above features creates an opportunity to develop a topological trigger, which can be used in combination with the TRD and TOF detectors for the selection of events containing rare probes. Such a new silicon tracker will allow ALICE to measure charm and beauty production in Pb-Pb collisions with sufficient statistical accuracy down to very low transverse momentum, measure charm baryons and perform precise measurements of ...

  17. ALICE Awards ceremony on 17 March 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The third annual ALICE Awards ceremony recognizes three companies for their contribution to the experiment's detector. Representatives from the companies accepted their awards at the ceremony, which was also attended by CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger and members of the ALICE Collaboration Board.

  18. NOTE receives the prestigious ALICE Industrial Award

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "NOTE Lund has been given the ALICE Industrial Award due to good co-operation, great capacity for innovation and high quality of work, as a PCB manufacturer in the CERN project ALICE. Only a small number of awards have so far been conferred to a select number of companies."

  19. Proceedings of PIXEL98 -- International pixel detector workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    Experiments around the globe face new challenges of more precision in the face of higher interaction rates, greater track densities, and higher radiation doses, as they look for rarer and rarer processes, leading many to incorporate pixelated solid-state detectors into their plans. The highest-readout rate devices require new technologies for implementation. This workshop reviewed recent, significant progress in meeting these technical challenges. Participants presented many new results; many of them from the weeks--even days--just before the workshop. Brand new at this workshop were results on cryogenic operation of radiation-damaged silicon detectors (dubbed the Lazarus effect). Other new work included a diamond sensor with 280-micron collection distance; new results on breakdown in p-type silicon detectors; testing of the latest versions of read-out chip and interconnection designs; and the radiation hardness of deep-submicron processes.

  20. ALICE gets its first ‘upgrade’

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE experiment has reached another milestone with the successful installation of the first two modules of the electromagnetic calorimeter. Preparations for installing the EMCal in the ALICE cavern. On 17 and 19 March the first two sections of the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) were fitted in the ALICE cavern. The full EMCal, a lead-scintillator sampling calorimeter, will be made up of 12 separate modules plus 2 half modules. Weighing 8 tons each, these modules required a whole new support structure to be built and a sophisticated ‘bridge’ device (pictured) to install them in situ. Project Leader, Tom Cormier from Wayne State University, notes that: "The EMCal is a late addition to ALICE, arriving in effect as a first upgrade. Indeed full approval with construction funds occurred only in early 2008." Although ALICE has excellent momentum measurement and identification capabilities for charged hadrons it previously lac...

  1. Studies for dimuon measurement with ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, D. [Institut de Physique, Orsay (France)

    1995-07-15

    The idea of measuring dimuon in the ALICE detector is not new, since it already appeared in the Aachen Conference. In the meantime studies were aiming at the use of the two detectors of LHC p-p physics, CMS and ATLAS, already dedicated to dimuon measurement, for these same measurements in heavy ion collisions, whereas the detector dedicated to heavy ions physics at LHC, ALICE, was considering all the other observables. Recently, the interest for dimuon measurements in ALICE was renewed by demands from LHC committee, stiring the activities of a working group in the ALICE collaboration, also associated to a more recent move from new groups. In the following the author briefly describes the interest of measuring dimuons in heavy ion collisions, particularly in ALICE, then the experimental strategy and first estimates of the performances that could be reached with the proposed system.

  2. Test System for Standard ALICE DCS Components

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2160773

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the ALICE DCS project is supervising equipment installed in the ALICE experiment site at CERN. Hence, the aim of this project was to provide a test bench in the DCS lab, where a real equipment and software tools will be deployed. Using this test bench, test procedures which exercise the devices under the test in a configurable way and provide logging and trending of the acquired data were implemented. The setup was devised using the ALICE software framework and Siemens SCADA system WINCC OA, providing the same functionality as the systems installed in ALICE, and will be used for the commissioning of the new software and hardware, burn-in tests of new modules and log-term stability tests of ALICE hardware.

  3. Interview with Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    Questions : 1. How does it feel to be the Spokesperson of a large worldwide collaboration as ALICE at the very moment when the LHC is going to produce the first data? 2. Is ALICE ready for data taking? 3. Did you take advantage of the long shut down? 4. What was ALICE designed for? 5. What can you expect to find at 3.5 TeV per beam and later at 7? 6. Is ALICE going to take data only with the lead iron beams from the LHC? 7. Can you tell us more about the primordial soup of gluons and quarks? 8. What is going to happen in the ALICE control room on collision day?

  4. ALICE moves into warp drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Dénes, E.; Divià, R.; Fuchs, U.; Grigore, A.; Simonetti, G.; Soós, C.; Telesca, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; von Haller, B.

    2012-12-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Since its successful start-up in 2010, the LHC has been performing outstandingly, providing to the experiments long periods of stable collisions and an integrated luminosity that greatly exceeds the planned targets. To fully explore these privileged conditions, we aim at maximizing the experiment's data taking productivity during stable collisions. We present in this paper the evolution of the online systems towards helping us understand reasons of inefficiency and address new requirements. This paper describes the features added to the ALICE Electronic Logbook (eLogbook) to allow the Run Coordination team to identify, prioritize, fix and follow causes of inefficiency in the experiment. Thorough monitoring of the data taking efficiency provides reports for the collaboration to portray its evolution and evaluate the measures (fixes and new features) taken to increase it. In particular, the eLogbook helps decision making by providing quantitative input, which can be used to better balance risks of changes in the production environment against potential gains in quantity and quality of physics data. It will also present the evolution of the Experiment Control System (ECS) to allow on-the-fly error recovery actions of the detector apparatus while limiting as much as possible the loss of integrated luminosity. The paper will conclude with a review of the ALICE efficiency so far and the future plans to improve its monitoring.

  5. ALICE moves into warp drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Since its successful start-up in 2010, the LHC has been performing outstandingly, providing to the experiments long periods of stable collisions and an integrated luminosity that greatly exceeds the planned targets. To fully explore these privileged conditions, we aim at maximizing the experiment's data taking productivity during stable collisions. We present in this paper the evolution of the online systems towards helping us understand reasons of inefficiency and address new requirements. This paper describes the features added to the ALICE Electronic Logbook (eLogbook) to allow the Run Coordination team to identify, prioritize, fix and follow causes of inefficiency in the experiment. Thorough monitoring of the data taking efficiency provides reports for the collaboration to portray its evolution and evaluate the measures (fixes and new features) taken to increase it. In particular, the eLogbook helps decision making by providing quantitative input, which can be used to better balance risks of changes in the production environment against potential gains in quantity and quality of physics data. It will also present the evolution of the Experiment Control System (ECS) to allow on-the-fly error recovery actions of the detector apparatus while limiting as much as possible the loss of integrated luminosity. The paper will conclude with a review of the ALICE efficiency so far and the future plans to improve its monitoring.

  6. Soft QGP probes with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Graczykowski, Łukasz Kamil

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC a hot and dense medium of deconfided partons, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), is created. Its global properties can be characterized by the measurements of particles in the low transverse momentum (or "soft") regime, which represent the majority of created particles. In this report we outline a selection of measurements of the soft probes by the ALICE experiment in pp, p--Pb, and Pb--Pb collisions. The paper focuses on recent flow measurements via angular correlations and femtoscopic studies. The first ever preliminary analysis of $\\mathrm{K}^0_{\\rm S}\\mathrm{K}^{\\pm}$ femtoscopy is also presented.

  7. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  8. Diamond pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bognai, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Doroshenko, J; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foster, J; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Gobbi, B; Grim, G P; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lander, R; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Plano, R; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rott, C; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles. (3 refs).

  9. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  10. Upgrade of the Inner Tracking System of ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Kofarago, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The upgrade of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of ALICE is planned for the second long shutdown of the LHC in 2019-2020. The ALICE physics program after the shutdown requires the ITS to have improved tracking capabilities and improved impact parameter resolution at very low transverse momentum, as well as a substantial increase in the readout rate. To fulfill these requirements the current ITS will be replaced by seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors. The new detector will be moved as close as 23 mm to the interaction point and will have a significantly reduced material budget. Several prototypes of the sensor have been developed to test different aspects of the sensor design including prototypes with analog and digital readout, as well as small and final-size sensors. These prototypes have been thoroughly characterized both in laboratory tests and at test beam facilities including studies on the radiation hardness of the sensors. This contribution gives an overview of the current status of the rese...

  11. Studies for the ALICE Inner Tracking System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079168; Musa, Luciano

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC identifies D0 mesons via secondary-vertex reconstruction and topological cuts to reduce the corresponding combinatorial background in heavy-ion collisions. The D0 meson is produced promptly in initial, hard scatterings via the strong interaction or as feed-down from weakly decaying B hadrons. Within this thesis, a novel method for the separation of prompt and feed-down D0 mesons using cut variations was implemented and applied to data from p–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt(s_\\mathrm{NN})=5.02$ TeV. The effectiveness of the secondary-vertex reconstruction strongly depends on the performance and in particular the pointing resolution of the Inner Tracking System. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System for the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC in 2019/2020 will significantly improve its vertex-reconstruction and tracking capabilities. It will be equipped with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors manufactured using the TowerJazz 180nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitax...

  12. ALICE Upgrades: Plans and Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tieulent, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration consolidated and completed the installation of current detectors during LS1 with the aim to accumulate 1 nb$^{-1}$ of Pb-Pb collisions during Run 2 corresponding to about 10 times the Run 1 integrated luminosity. In parallel, the ALICE experiment has a rich detector upgrade programme scheduled during the second LHC long shutdown (LS2, 2018-2019) in order to fully exploit the LHC Runs 3 and 4. The main objectives of this programme are: improving the tracking precision and enabling the read-out of all Pb-Pb interactions at a rate of up to 50 kHz, with the goal to record an integrated luminosity of 10 nb$^{-1}$ after LS2 in minimum-bias trigger mode. This sample would represent an increase by a factor of one hundred with respect to the minimum-bias sample expected during Run 2. The implementation of this upgrade programme, foreseen in LS2, includes: a new low-material Inner Tracking System at central rapidity with a forward rapidity extension to add vertexing capabilities to the current M...

  13. The ALICE analysis train system

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In the ALICE experiment hundreds of users are analyzing big datasets on a Grid system. High throughput and short turn-around times are achieved by a centralized system called the LEGO trains. This system combines analysis from different users in so-called analysis trains which are then executed within the same Grid jobs thereby reducing the number of times the data needs to be read from the storage systems. The centralized trains improve the performance, the usability for users and the bookkeeping in comparison to single user analysis. The train system builds upon the already existing ALICE tools, i.e. the analysis framework as well as the Grid submission and monitoring infrastructure. The entry point to the train system is a web interface which is used to configure the analysis and the desired datasets as well as to test and submit the train. Several measures have been implemented to reduce the time a train needs to finish and to increase the CPU efficiency.

  14. Advanced monolithic pixel sensors using SOI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Mari; Fujita, Yowichi; Hamasaki, Ryutaro; Hara, Kazuhiko; Honda, Shunsuke; Ikegami, Yoichi; Kurachi, Ikuo; Mitsui, Shingo; Nishimura, Ryutaro; Tauchi, Kazuya; Tobita, Naoshi; Tsuboyama, Toru; Yamada, Miho

    2016-07-01

    We are developing advanced pixel sensors using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. A SOI wafer is used; top silicon is used for electric circuit and bottom silicon is used as a sensor. Target applications are high-energy physics, X-ray astronomy, material science, non-destructive inspection, medical application and so on. We have developed two integration-type pixel sensors, FPIXb and INTPIX7. These sensors were processed on single SOI wafers with various substrates in n- or p-type and double SOI wafers. The development status of double SOI sensors and some up-to-date test results of n-type and p-type SOI sensors are shown.

  15. Scale model of the ALICE detector arrives from India.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A 1:10 scale model of the ALICE detector, designed and built in India, has arrived at CERN. Photo 01: Members of the ALICE Technical Board pictured with the detector model in building 40. Photos 02 03: (left to right) Christian Fabjan, ALICE technical coordinator; Yogendra Viyogi, Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) project leader and ALICE representative from the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Calcutta; and Jurgen Schukraft, spokesperson for the ALICE collaboration.

  16. More Than ALICE: Development of an augmented reality mobile application for the ALICE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ouellette, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    More Than ALICE is a mobile application for iOS and Android built in the Unity Engine. This project concerns the development of the second edition of the application, which is meant to completely succeed the original version built in 2014. The purpose of the application is to describe the various components of the ALICE detector and to overlay live collisions to increase public awareness for the research goals of the ALICE collaboration. The application provides an augmented reality (AR) interface via the Vuforia SDK to track images of the ALICE detector or components of the paper model of ALICE that can be purchased at the ALICE secretariat office. For those without access to either images of the detector or the detector model, the app provides a virtual detector model (VR) that contains the same functionality as the augmented reality.

  17. Upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hügging, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector (Phase 1) consists in the construction of a new pixel layer, which will be installed during the 1st long shutdown of the LHC machine (LS1) in 2013/14. The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of about 3.2 cm. The IBL requires the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase of radiation and pixel occupancy as well as to improve the physics performance of the existing pixel detector. The pixel size is reduced and the material budget is minimized by using new lightweight mechanical support materials and a CO2 based cooling system. For Phase 2 upgrade of LHC a complete new 4-layer pixel system is planned as part of a new all silicon Inner Detector. The increase in luminosity to about $5\\cdot 10^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ together with a total expected lifetime of ab...

  18. ALICE event display of a Pb-Pb collision at 2.76A TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)740940; Andronic, Anton

    2015-01-01

    One of the first lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, recorded by the ALICE detector in November 2010. In this collision of lead nuclei at a small impact parameter (central collision), 1209 positively-charged (darker tracks) and 1197 negatively-charged (lighter tracks) particles are produced, about 80 percent are pions. The curvature of a track in the magnetic field of ALICE (0.5 T) is inversely proportional to the momentum of the particle. The cylinder is the Time Projection Chamber of ALICE, with a diameter of 5 m and a length of 5 m, recording the charged particles in three dimensions with the equivalent of 500 million pixels.

  19. ALICE event display of a Pb-Pb collision at 5.02A TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Weber, Steffen Georg

    2016-01-01

    One of the first lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at the top energy of 5.02 per nucleon pair in the center of mass, recorded by the ALICE detector in November 2015. In this collision of lead nuclei at a small impact parameter (central collision), 1582 positively-charged (darker tracks) and 1579 negatively-charged (lighter tracks) particles are produced; about 80 percent of them are pions. The curvature of a track in the magnetic field of ALICE (0.5 T) is inversely proportional to the momentum of the particle. The cylinder is the Time Projection Chamber of ALICE, with a diameter of 5 m and a length of 5 m, recording the charged particles in three dimensions with the equivalent of 500 million pixels.

  20. Proton-Proton Physics with ALICE

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the ALICE experiment at LHC is to study strongly interacting matter at high energy densities as well as the signatures and properties of the quark-gluon plasma. This goal manifests itself in a rich physics program. Although ALICE will mainly study heavy-ion collisions, a dedicated program will concentrate on proton-proton physics. The first part will introduce the ALICE experiment from a pp measurement's point of view. Two unique properties are its low pT cut-off and the excellent...

  1. Combined tracking in the ALICE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Badalà, A; Lo Re, G; Palmeri, A; Pappalardo, G S; Pulvirenti, A; Riggi, F

    2004-01-01

    A neural network based algorithm to perform track recognition in the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) for high transverse momentum particles (p //t greater than 1 GeV/c) is presented. The model is based on the Denby Peterson scheme, with some original improvements which are necessary to cope with the very high track density expected in ALICE. The application is used in combination with the standard tracking procedure for track reconstruction in ALICE in order to increase the efficiency, especially for rapidly decaying particles. Results are shown for a test performed simulating some central Pb-Pb events at 5.5 ATeV in the center of mass system.

  2. Characterization of a Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (DMAPS) prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, T.; Havranek, M.; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Kishishita, T.; Krüger, H.; Marinas, C.; Wermes, N.

    2015-03-01

    New monolithic pixel detectors integrating CMOS electronics and sensor on the same silicon substrate are currently explored for particle tracking in future HEP experiments, most notably at the LHC . The innovative concept of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) is based on high resistive silicon bulk material enabling full substrate depletion and the application of an electrical drift field for fast charge collection, while retaining full CMOS capability for the electronics. The technology (150 nm) used offers quadruple wells and allows to implement the pixel electronics with independently isolated N- and PMOS transistors. Results of initial studies on the charge collection and sensor performance are presented.

  3. Characterization of a Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (DMAPS) prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New monolithic pixel detectors integrating CMOS electronics and sensor on the same silicon substrate are currently explored for particle tracking in future HEP experiments, most notably at the LHC . The innovative concept of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) is based on high resistive silicon bulk material enabling full substrate depletion and the application of an electrical drift field for fast charge collection, while retaining full CMOS capability for the electronics. The technology (150 nm) used offers quadruple wells and allows to implement the pixel electronics with independently isolated N- and PMOS transistors. Results of initial studies on the charge collection and sensor performance are presented

  4. Hadron Correlations Measured with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2013-01-01

    Angular particle correlations are a powerful tool to study collective effects and in-medium jet modification as well as their interplay in the hot and dense medium produced in central heavy-ion collisions. We present measurements of two-particle angular correlations of inclusive charged and identified particles performed with the ALICE detector. The near-side peak in the short-range correlation region is quantitatively analyzed: while the rms of the peak in $\\phi$-direction is independent of centrality within uncertainties, we find a significant broadening in $\\eta$-direction from peripheral to central collisions. The particle content of the near-side peak is studied finding that the $p/\\pi$ ratio of particles associated to a trigger particle is much smaller than the one in the bulk of the particles and consistent with fragmentation of a parton in vacuum.

  5. The ALICE data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, F; Chapeland, S; Chibante Barroso, V; Costa, F; Dénes, E; Divià, R; Fuchs, U; Grigore, A; Kiss, T; Simonetti, G; Soós, C; Telesca, A; Vande Vyvre, P; Von Haller, B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design, the construction, the commissioning and the operation of the Data Acquisition (DAQ) and Experiment Control Systems (ECS) of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The DAQ and the ECS are the systems used respectively for the acquisition of all physics data and for the overall control of the experiment. They are two computing systems made of hundreds of PCs and data storage units interconnected via two networks. The collection of experimental data from the detectors is performed by several hundreds of high-speed optical links. We describe in detail the design considerations for these systems handling the extreme data throughput resulting from central lead ions collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (custom optical links and commercial computing equipment), infrastructure (racks, cooling, power distribution, control room), and software led to many innovative solutions which are described together with ...

  6. ... ALICE forges ahead with further detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Following the installation of the HMPID, the project has progressed swiftly with further detectors being lowered into the ALICE cavern. The first supermodule of the ALICE transition radiation detector was successfully installed on 10 October. The TRD collaborators from Germany standing next to the supermodule mounted in a rotating frame (bottom left corner) in the ALICE cavern. In the final configuration, 18 supermodules that make up the transition radiation detector will cylindrically surround the large time projection chamber in the central barrel of the ALICE experiment. Each supermodule is about 7 metre long and consists of 30 drift chambers in six layers. The construction of the modules is a collaboration between five institutes in Germany (Universities of Frankfurt and Heidelberg and Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH in Darmstadt), Romania (NIPNE Bucharest) and Russia (JINR Dubna) with radiators (See 'Did you know?' section) produced at the University of Muenster, Germany. During the summer, ...

  7. Alice'i imedemaa Pariisis / Isabel Chiang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Chiang, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    1998. a. Pariisis Catherine Alice Mamet' poolt asutatud mööblisalongist, seal tegutsevate disainerite (Pucci de Rossi, Satch, Guy Ferrer, Pablo Pares jt.) loomingunäiteid. Pariisis disaini õppiva tudengi Isabel Chiangi eluloolisi andmeid. 15 illustratsiooni

  8. TAB Bonded SSD Module for the STAR and ALICE Trackers

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Jean Robert; Baudot, J; Bonnet, D; Coffin, J P; Germain, M; Gojak, C; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Suire, C; Tarchini, A; Berst, D; Clauss, G; Colledani, C; Dulinski, W; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Castillo, J; Drancourt, C; Erazmus, B; Guilloux, G; Martin, L; Roy, C

    1999-01-01

    Presentation made at LEB99, 20-24 September 1999A novel compact detector module has been produced by the "IReS"-"Subatech"-"Thomson-CSF-Detexis" collaboration. It includes a Double-Sided (DS) Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) and the related Front End Electronics (FEE) located on two hybrids, one for the N side and one for the P side. Bumpless Tape Automated Bonding (TAB) is used to connect the detector to the hybrids by means of microcables with neither wirebonding nor pitch adapter. Each of the six dedicated ALICE128C FE chip [1], located on the hybrid, is TABed on identical single layer microcables, which connect its inputs to the DS SSD and its outputs to the hybrid [2]. These microcables are bent in order to fold over the two hybrids on the DS SSD. This module meets the specifications of two experiments, ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) on the LHC accelerator at CERN [3] and STAR (Solenoid Tracker At Rhic) on the RHIC accelerator at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory)[4]. It can be used with air cooli...

  9. Physics performance studies for the ALICE inner tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the second long shutdown of the LHC in 2018, the ALICE Collaboration plans to install an upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) in the central barrel with seven layers of silicon detectors starting at 2.2 cm radial distance from the interaction region and a material budget as low as 0.3 % radiation length per layer. A single-hit resolution of 4 μm and a readout rate capability of up to 50 kHz in Pb–Pb collisions will allow new and unique measurements in the heavy-quark sector, i.e. charm and beauty. Using detailed Monte Carlo simulations of pp and Pb–Pb collisions we study the performance for heavy-flavor detection with an upgraded ITS in the following benchmark analyses: Charm meson and baryon production, i.e. D0 → K−π+ and Λ+c → pK−p+, and beauty meson and baryon production, i.e. displaced vertices of B+ → D-bar 0π+ and Λb → Λ+cπ−

  10. Physics performance studies for the ALICE inner tracker upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Stiller, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    During the second long shutdown of the LHC in 2018, the ALICE Collaboration plans to install an upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) in the central barrel with seven layers of silicon detectors starting at 2.2 cm radial distance from the interaction region and a material budget as low as 0.3% radiation length per layer. A single-hit resolution of $\\mathrm{4 \\mu m}$ and a readout rate capability of up to 50 kHz in Pb--Pb collisions will allow new and unique measurements in the heavy-quark sector, i.e. charm and beauty. Using detailed Monte Carlo simulations of pp and Pb--Pb collisions we study the performance for heavy-flavor detection with an upgraded ITS in the following benchmark analyses: Charm meson and baryon production, i.e. $\\mathrm{D^{0} \\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}}$ and $\\mathrm{\\Lambda_{c}^{+} \\rightarrow pK^{-}\\pi^{+}}$, and beauty meson and baryon production, i.e. displaced vertices of $\\mathrm{B^{+} \\rightarrow \\bar{D}^{0}\\pi^{+}}$ and $\\mathrm{\\Lambda_{b} \\rightarrow \\Lambda_{c}^{+}\\pi^...

  11. Prototype ALICE front-end card

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    This circuit board is a prototype 48-channel front end digitizer card for the ALICE time projection chamber (TPC), which takes electrical signals from the wire sensors in the TPC and shapes the data before converting the analogue signal to digital data. A total of 4356 cards will be required to process the data from the ALICE TPC, the largest of this type of detector in the world.

  12. Proton-proton physics in ALICE

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Tapan K.

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE experiment has several unique features which makes it an important contributor to proton-proton physics at the LHC, in addition to its specific design goal of studying the physics of strongly interacting matter in heavy-ion collisions. The unique capabilities include its low transverse momentum (\\pT) acceptance, excellent vertexing, particle identification over a broad \\pT range and jet reconstruction. In this report, a brief review of ALICE capabilities is given for studying bulk p...

  13. The thousandth ALICE member 

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On Friday 13 October, the ALICE Collaboration Board accepted nine new institutes, bringing the number of scientists to 1015. To celebrate this event, the thousandth collaborator, Toru Sugitate, from Hiroshima University, received a small award. From left to right: Lodovico Riccati, Chair of the Collaboration Board, Toru Sugitate and Jurgen Schukraft, Spokesperson of the ALICE Experiment.

  14. ALICE: Simulated lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ALICE detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. ALICE will focus on the study of collisions between nuclei of lead, a heavy element that produces many different particles when collided. It is hoped that these collisions will produce a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma, which existed billionths of a second after the Big Bang.

  15. Commissioning of the ATLAS pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high precision silicon tracking device located closest to the LHC interaction point. It belongs to the first generation of its kind in a hadron collider experiment. It will provide crucial pattern recognition information and will largely determine the ability of ATLAS to precisely track particle trajectories and find secondary vertices. It was the last detector to be installed in ATLAS in June 2007, has been fully connected and tested in-situ during spring and summer 2008, and is ready for the imminent LHC turn-on. The highlights of the past and future commissioning activities of the ATLAS pixel system are presented.

  16. Commissioning the CMS pixel detector with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Heyburn, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of two general purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. The CMS experiment prides itself on an ambitious, all silicon based, tracking system. After almost 20 years of design and construction the CMS tracker detector has been installed and commissioned. The tracker detector consists of ten layers of silicon microstrip detectors while three layers of pixel detector modules are situated closest to the interaction point. The pixel detector consists of 66 million pixels of 100mm 150mm size, and is designed to use the shape of the actual charge distribution of charged particles to gain hit resolutions down to 12mm. This paper will focus on commissioning activities in the CMS pixel detector. Results from cosmic ray studies will be presented, in addition to results obtained from the integration of the pixel detector within the CMS detector and various calibration and alignment analyses.

  17. SOI Pixel Sensor for Gamma-Ray Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shimazoe, Kenji; Yoshihara, Yuri; Koyama, Akihiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Orita, Tadashi; Kamada, Kei; Takeda, Ayaki; Tsuru, Takeshi; Arai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) pixel sensor is promising technology for developing the high position resolution detector by integrating the small pixels and circuits in the monolithic way. The event driven (trigger mode) SOI based pixel sensor has also been developed for the application of X-ray astronomy with the purpose of reducing the noise using anti-coincidence event. This trigger mode SOI pixel sensor working with in the rate of kilo Hz is also a promising scatter detector for advanced Compton imaging to track the Compton recoiled electrons.

  18. Pseudorapidity Dependence of Anisotropic Azimuthal Flow with the ALICE Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Colliander

    In ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions a new state of matter known as the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) is produced. A key observable in the study of the sQGP is anisotropic azimuthal ow. The anisotropies are described by ow harmonics, vn. In this thesis, bias arising from no...... Detector and Silicon Pixel Detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results are compared to other LHC experiments andprevious experiments at lower collision energies....

  19. CMS pixel detector Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Cremaldi, L M

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the compact muon solenoid pixel detector effort is presented. Pixel detectors are being built for use at the large hadron collider beginning in the year 2007. It is reported that a good progress is made in 2002 on the critical issues of readout chip and token bit manager design, bump bonding and sensor testing. (Edited abstract) 8 Refs.

  20. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    On the table, under the scrutiny of some collaboration members, an ISPA tube (upper-left of the table) with some of its application components is shown: they consist of the CERN-developed anode chip, special windows for gamma and x-ray detection, scintillating crystal and fibre arrays for imaging and tracking of ionizing particles.

  1. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Application components of ISPA tubes are shown: the CERN-developed anode chip, special windows for gamma and x-ray detection, scintillating crystal and fibre arrays for imaging and tracking of ionizing particles.

  2. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS) devices. We present results obtained with a-Si:H sensor films deposited on a glass substrate and on ASIC, including the radiation hardness of this material up to a fluence of 3.5x1015 p/cm2

  3. First Results from the Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT)

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a silicon pixel detector dedicated to luminosity measurement at CMS. After a successful pilot run in 2012, the full PLT system, consisting of 48 pixel sensors mounted in 16 telescopes, eight on each side of CMS, was installed during LS1. The PLT provides luminosity measurements by using the ``fast-or'' capability of the pixel readout chips to find events where a hit is registered in all three sensors in a telescope, corresponding to a track from the interaction point. In addition, the full pixel data can be read out at a lower rate, allowing for measurements of efficiency, online monitoring of the data quality, and online analyses such as beamspot reconstruction, as well as enabling alternative techniques of luminosity measurement such as pixel cluster counting.

  4. European Researchers Night, Students on Shift at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Fons Rademakers

    2010-01-01

    During European Researchers' Night, on Friday 24 September 2010, from 17:00 to 24:00, pupils from French and Swiss schools visited ALICE and took shifts in the control room, helping the ALICE physicists run the experiment.

  5. Heavy ion physics with the ALICE experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zampolli, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    ALICE is the experiment at the LHC collider at CERN dedicated to heavy ion physics. In this report, the ALICE detector will be presented, together with its expected performance as far as some selected physics topics are concerned.

  6. The ALICE data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Dénes, E.; Divià, R.; Fuchs, U.; Grigore, A.; Kiss, T.; Simonetti, G.; Soós, C.; Telesca, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; von Haller, B.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we describe the design, the construction, the commissioning and the operation of the Data Acquisition (DAQ) and Experiment Control Systems (ECS) of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The DAQ and the ECS are the systems used respectively for the acquisition of all physics data and for the overall control of the experiment. They are two computing systems made of hundreds of PCs and data storage units interconnected via two networks. The collection of experimental data from the detectors is performed by several hundreds of high-speed optical links. We describe in detail the design considerations for these systems handling the extreme data throughput resulting from central lead ions collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (custom optical links and commercial computing equipment), infrastructure (racks, cooling, power distribution, control room), and software led to many innovative solutions which are described together with a presentation of all the major components of the systems, as currently realized. We also report on the performance achieved during the first period of data taking (from 2009 to 2013) often exceeding those specified in the DAQ Technical Design Report.

  7. The ALICE data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dénes, E. [Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Center, Budapest (Hungary); Divià, R.; Fuchs, U. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Grigore, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Politehnica Univesity of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Kiss, T. [Cerntech Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Simonetti, G. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ‘M. Merlin’, Bari (Italy); Soós, C.; Telesca, A.; Vande Vyvre, P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Haller, B. von, E-mail: bvonhall@cern.ch [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-03-21

    In this paper we describe the design, the construction, the commissioning and the operation of the Data Acquisition (DAQ) and Experiment Control Systems (ECS) of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The DAQ and the ECS are the systems used respectively for the acquisition of all physics data and for the overall control of the experiment. They are two computing systems made of hundreds of PCs and data storage units interconnected via two networks. The collection of experimental data from the detectors is performed by several hundreds of high-speed optical links. We describe in detail the design considerations for these systems handling the extreme data throughput resulting from central lead ions collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (custom optical links and commercial computing equipment), infrastructure (racks, cooling, power distribution, control room), and software led to many innovative solutions which are described together with a presentation of all the major components of the systems, as currently realized. We also report on the performance achieved during the first period of data taking (from 2009 to 2013) often exceeding those specified in the DAQ Technical Design Report.

  8. Commissioning of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Golling, Tobias; ATLAS Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high precision silicon tracking device located closest to the LHC interaction point. It belongs to the first generation of its kind in a hadron collider experiment. It will provide crucial pattern recognition information and will largely determine the ability of ATLAS to precisely track particle trajectories and find secondary vertices. It was the last detector to be installed in ATLAS in June 2007, has been fully connected and tested in-situ during spring and su...

  9. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C.; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Rose, Andrew; Shabetai, Alexandre; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, Jim H.; Valin, Isabelle; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.; Winter, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.

  10. ALICE opens its new nerve centre

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine fully equipped and ergonomic workstations, one meeting area and 11 large format screens in a completely refurbished room: the ALICE Run Control Centre (ARC) implements the best and newest solutions for its shift workers and expert operators, including access for persons with reduced mobility and very soon a magic window for Point 2 visitors.   The ALICE Run Control Centre. “Our initial intention was just to optimise the old layout,” says Federico Ronchetti from Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy), a CERN scientific associate currently appointed as ALICE Run Coordinator and person in charge of the ALICE Consolidation Task Force. “However, during the review process, we carried out a study of all the existing control rooms at CERN and became aware we needed a radical change. Hence we started planning a complete redesign of the workspace.” Designed and equipped over many years, the old ALICE control room did not have enough space to fit al...

  11. Neutral pion measurement with the ALICE EMCal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlmueller, Baldo [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC can be studied via transverse momentum distributions of identified hadrons that are produced through different mechanisms in these collisions. The neutral pion offers a complimentary measurement to the measurement of charged hadrons with the ALICE tracking system, since it can be measured in calorimeters such as the ALICE EMCal via its two-photon-decay. The measurement in p-p collisions is a necessary baseline for interpreting the heavy-ion results. Furthermore, the π{sup 0} can be regarded as a standard candle in the calibration of calorimeters in heavy-ion collisions. Hence, understanding the π{sup 0} measurement is an important test for the detector. We present the status and first results of ongoing π{sup 0} analyses in the ALICE p-p data with the EMCal and compare them with complimentary measurements with the ALICE PHOS and the ALICE tracking system. We focus on technical aspects of the analysis.

  12. From vertex detectors to inner trackers with CMOS pixel sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Besson, A; Spiriti, E; Baudot, J; Claus, G; Goffe, M; Winter, M

    2016-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) for high resolution and low material vertex detectors has been validated with the 2014 and 2015 physics runs of the STAR-PXL detector at RHIC/BNL. This opens the door to the use of CPS for inner tracking devices, with 10-100 times larger sensitive area, which require therefore a sensor design privileging power saving, response uniformity and robustness. The 350 nm CMOS technology used for the STAR-PXL sensors was considered as too poorly suited to upcoming applications like the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), which requires sensors with one order of magnitude improvement on readout speed and improved radiation tolerance. This triggered the exploration of a deeper sub-micron CMOS technology, Tower-Jazz 180 nm, for the design of a CPS well adapted for the new ALICE-ITS running conditions. This paper reports the R&D results for the conception of a CPS well adapted for the ALICE-ITS.

  13. Performance of the ALICE VZERO system

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, E.; Adam, J.; Adamova, D.; Adare, A.M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A.G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Masoodi, A.Ahmad; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S.A.; Ahn, S.U.; Aimo, I.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Molina, R.Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz Avina, E.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anson, C.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshauser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I.C.; Arslandok, M.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T.C.; Aysto, J.; Azmi, M.D.; Bach, M.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y.W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Ban, J.; Baral, R.C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnafoldi, G.G.; Barnby, L.S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P.C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I.G.; Beck, H.; Behera, N.K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A.A.E.; Bertens, R.A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Bottger, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Boggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossu, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T.A.; Browning, T.A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G.E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, W.; Carena, F.; Carlin Filho, N.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Diaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castillo Hernandez, J.F.; Casula, E.A.R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J.L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D.D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C.H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S.U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J.G.; Cormier, T.M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortes Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M.R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M.E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Alaniz, E.Cruz; Albino, R.Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, K.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Dash, A.; De, S.; de Barros, G.O.V.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; De Marco, N.; Denes, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Deppman, A.; Erasmo, G.D.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M.A.; Di Bari, D.; Dietel, T.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Donigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A.K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A.K.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H.A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Feofilov, G.; Fernandez Tellez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M.A.S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F.M.; Fiore, E.M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D.R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, M.; Gheata, A.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glassel, P.; Gomez, R.; Ferreiro, E.G.; Gonzalez-Trueba, L.H.; Gonzalez-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goswami, A.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L.K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J.F.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Han, B.H.; Hanratty, L.D.; Hansen, A.; Harmanova-Tothova, Z.; Harris, J.W.; Hartig, M.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S.T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hess, B.A.; Hetland, K.F.; Hicks, B.; Hippolyte, B.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hrivnacova, I.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T.J.; Hwang, D.S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G.M.; Innocenti, P.G.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P.M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H.J.; Janik, M.A.; Jayarathna, P.H.S.Y.; Jena, S.; Jha, D.M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R.T.; Jones, P.G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kaidalov, A.B.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J.H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, M.M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S.A.; Khan, K.H.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, M.; Kim, T.; Kim, B.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, D.W.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bosing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M.L.; Knospe, A.G.; Kohler, M.K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kompaniets, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Kralik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravcakova, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P.G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, V.; Kushpil, S.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; La Pointe, S.L.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, S.C.; Lee, G.R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R.C.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; Leon, H.; Leoncino, M.; Leon Monzon, I.; Levai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M.A.; Ljunggren, H.M.; Lodato, D.F.; Loenne, P.I.; Loggins, V.R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K.K.; Lopez, X.; Lopez Torres, E.; Lovhoiden, G.; Lu, X.G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, R.; Ma, K.; Madagodahettige-Don, D.M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Margotti, A.; Marin, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N.A.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, M.I.; Martinez Garcia, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazumder, R.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Perez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A.N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mizuno, S.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montano Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D.A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Muller, H.; Munhoz, M.G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B.K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T.K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B.S.; Niida, T.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B.S.; Nilsson, M.S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S.K.; Oleniacz, J.; Da Silva, A.C. Oliveira; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S.K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Park, W.J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D.I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lara, C.E.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Pestov, Y.; Petracek, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D.B.; Planinic, M.; Ploskon, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P.L.M.; Poghosyan, M.G.; Polak, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospisil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S.K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C.A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Raiha, T.S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Rasanen, S.S.; Rascanu, B.T.; Rathee, D.; Rauch, W.; Rauf, A.W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K.F.; Real, J.S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R.J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A.R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R.A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Roed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Rohrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, P.; Roy, C.; Rubio Montero, A.J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P.K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C.A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sandor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, H.R.; Schmidt, C.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Scott, P.A.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, S.; Sharma, N.; Rohni, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Sicking, E.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sinha, B.C.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T.B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.J.M.; Sogaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B.K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J.H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Subieta Vasquez, M.A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Sumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T.J.M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M.A.; J.Tapia Takaki, D.; Peloni, A.Tarantola; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Ter Minasyan, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thader, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A.R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T.S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urciuoli, G.M.; Usai, G.L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Hoorne, J.W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, A.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Volkl, M.A.; Voloshin, S.; Voloshin, K.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, V.; Wagner, B.; Wan, R.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J.P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M.C.S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C.G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, P.; Yang, H.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.K.; Yoon, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I.S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, F.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-01-01

    ALICE is an LHC experiment devoted to the study of strongly interacting matter in proton--proton, proton--nucleus and nucleus--nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. The ALICE VZERO system, made of two scintillator arrays at asymmetric positions, one on each side of the interaction point, plays a central role in ALICE. In addition to its core function as a trigger, the VZERO system is used to monitor LHC beam conditions, to reject beam-induced backgrounds and to measure basic physics quantities such as luminosity, particle multiplicity, centrality and event plane direction in nucleus--nucleus collisions. After describing the VZERO system, this publication presents its performance over more than four years of operation at the LHC.

  14. ALICE physicists receive 2014 Lise Meitner Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On Wednesday, 3 September, four ALICE physicists were presented with the European Physical Society's 2014 Lise Meitner Prize for their outstanding contributions to nuclear physics (see here).   ALICE collaboration members Johanna Stachel (Heidelberg University, Germany), Peter Braun-Munzinger (GSI, Germany), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Turin, Italy, and CERN) and Jürgen Schukraft (CERN) were presented with their awards at a private ceremony held in the Globe of Science and Innovation. In addition to members of the ALICE collaboration, the ceremony was attended by members of the CERN Management including the Director-General, Rolf Heuer, as well as the EPS Nuclear Physics Board Chair, Douglas MacGregor, and the EPS Lise Meitner Prize Committee Chair, Victor Zamfir. For more information, please see "EPS honours CERN's heavy-ion researchers".  From left to right: Douglas MacGregor (EPS); Prize recipients Jürgen Schukraft,&a...

  15. ALICE gives its first thesis awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    For the first time the ALICE collaboration has given two of its doctoral students awards for their outstanding theses. Winners Christian Holm Christensen and Zaida Conesa del Valle holding their awards.On 29 October the ALICE collaboration honoured two students for their outstanding theses at a ceremony held at CERN. The two awards, one of which was given for a physics thesis and the other for a technical thesis, went to Zaida Conesa Del Valle (Laboratoire de physique subatomique et des technologies associées) and Christian Holm Christensen (Niels Bohr Institute) respectively. "It is very gratifying to see that the collaboration appreciates our work," said Zaida Conesa del Valle, winner of the physics award for her thesis: Performance of the ALICE Muon Spectrometer. Weak Boson Production and Measurement in Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC. "I also feel specially thankful to all the people who worked with me," she added. "It was pl...

  16. The pixelated detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Sutton, C

    1990-01-01

    "Collecting data as patterns of light or subatomic particles is vitally important in all the sciences. The new generation of solid-state detectors called pixel devices could transform experimental research at all levels" (4 pages).

  17. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnasco, S.; Barbera, R.; Buncic, P.; Carminati, F.; P. Cerello; Saiz, P.

    2003-01-01

    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Stora...

  18. Small pitch pixel sensors\\\\ for the CMS Phase II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The CMS collaboration has undertaken two sensor R\\&D programs on thin n-in-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. To cope with the increase in instantaneous luminosity, the pixel area has to be reduced to approximately 2500 $\\mu$m$^{2}$ to keep the occupancy at the percent level. Suggested pixel cell geometries to match this requirement are {50$\\times$50 }$\\mu$...

  19. Production of pions, kaons and protons in pp collisions at √s = 900 GeV with ALICE at the LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, K.; Abel, N.; Chojnacki, M.; Christakoglou, P.; van Rooij, R.; Grelli, A.; Ivan, C.G.; Kamermans, R.; Mischke, A.; Nooren, G.J.L.; Peitzmann, T.; Simili, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Verweij, M.; Zynovyev, M.

    2011-01-01

    The production of pi+, pi-, K+, K-, p, and pbar at mid-rapidity has been measured in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 900 GeV with the ALICE detector. Particle identification is performed using the specific energy loss in the inner tracking silicon detector and the time projection chamber. In a

  20. First detector installed inside the ALICE solenoid...

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's emblematic red magnet welcomed its first detector on 23 September, when the array of seven Cherenkov detectors, named HMPID, was successfully installed. ALICE team members standing in front of the completed HMPID detector.The red magnet, viewed from its front opening. The HMPID unit, seen from the back (top right corner of photo) is placed on a frame and lifted onto a platform during the installation. After the installation of the ACORDE scintillator array and the muon trigger and tracking chambers, the ALICE collaboration fitted the first detector inside the solenoid. The HMPID, for High Momentum Particle Identification, was installed at the 2 o'clock position in the central and most external region of the space frame, just below the solenoid yoke. It will be used to extend the hadron identification capability of the ALICE experiment up to 5 GeV/c, thus complementing the reach of the other particle identification systems (ITS, TPC and TOF). The HMPID is a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector in a...

  1. Fibre optic cables for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    These thin fibres will transmit the signal received in detectors at the ALICE experiment when it starts up with the LHC in 2008. The analogue signals produced in the detectors are first converted into digital pulse, which are transported in light down such fibres. Computers then read this digital signal to produce the final set of data.

  2. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), test beam.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Electrons and positrons can be discriminated from other charged particles using the emission of transition radiation - X-rays emitted when the particles cross many layers of thin materials. To develop such a Transition Radiation Detector(TRD) for ALICE many detector prototypes were tested in mixed beams of pions and electrons, as in the example shown here.

  3. Alice Munro: "Wild Swans" and Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, David

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to analyze short stories by Alice Munro. Explains importance of metonymy in reading and teaching these stories. Suggests that the endings of Munro's stories should be examined closely. Concludes that teaching Munro's stories in this way brings students to a greater understanding of her stories. (PM)

  4. Strangeness detection in ALICE experiment at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarik, K. [European Lab. for Particle Physics, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-07-15

    The authors present some parameters of the ALICE detector which concern the detection of strange particles. The results of a simulation for neutral strange particles and cascades, together with estimated rates are presented. They also briefly discuss the detection of charged K-mesons. Finally, they mention the possibility of open charm particle detection.

  5. ALICE physicists receive 2014 Lise Meitner Prize

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneret, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    September 3rd, 2014: ALICE collaboration members Johanna Stachel (Heidelberg University, Germany), Peter Braun-Munzinger (GSI, Germany), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Turin, Italy, and CERN) and Jürgen Schukraft (CERN) were presented the 2014 Lise Meitner Prize at a private ceremony held in the Globe of Science and Innovation.

  6. Alice Sagritsa Imedemaa asus Jaroslavlis / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    21. ja 22. augustil 2009 Karepal Richard Sagritsa majamuuseumis etendunud monoetendusest "Minu kunstnikud", mille pani Richard Sagritsa naise Alice Sagritsa päevikute põhjal kokku Teet Veispak, lavastaja Üllar Saaremäe, osatäitja Liisa Aibel. Tegevus toimub Jaroslavlis, kuhu 1942. a. hakati koondama eesti kunstirahvast

  7. Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch--A Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utting, Ian; Cooper, Stephen; Kolling, Michael; Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel

    2010-01-01

    This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the…

  8. Upgrade Strategy for ALICE at High Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, L

    2012-01-01

    The longterm goal of the ALICE experiment is to provide a precise characterization of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) state. Such a determination of its properties including initial temperature, degrees of freedom, speed of sound, and in general, transport coefficients would be a major achievement. This would go a long way towards a better understanding of QCD as a genuine multi-particle theory. To achieve this goal, high statistics measurements are required, which will give access also to the very rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of this condensed phase of QCD. The general upgrade strategy for the ALICE central barrel is conceived to deal with this challenge with expected Pb-Pb interaction rates of up to 50 kHz, that would provide an accumulated sample of the order of 10 nb^-1 in the period 2019-2023. In this document we sketch the modifications/replacements needed in all ALICE central barrel detectors and online systems (Trigger, DAQ and HLT) for high luminosity running. As the ALICE for...

  9. Round Two for Three ALICE Industrial Awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Excellency in industrial collaboration with the LHC experimental teams is one important contribution to the successful development and realization of the experiments. A few weeks ago the ALICE collaboration presented a second round of awards to industrial collaborators for their novel and remarkable contributions to major detector systems.

  10. Design optimization of pixel sensors using device simulations for the phase-II CMS tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, G.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Eber, R.; Eichorn, T.; Fernandez, M.; Lalwani, K.; Messineo, A.; Palomo, F. R.; Peltola, T.; Printz, M.; Ranjan, K.; Villa, I.; Hidalgo, S.

    2016-07-01

    In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.

  11. ALICE: Physics Performance Report, Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALICE is a general-purpose heavy-ion experiment designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. It currently involves more than 900 physicists and senior engineers, from both the nuclear and high-energy physics sectors, from over 90 institutions in about 30 countries. The ALICE detector is designed to cope with the highest particle multiplicities above those anticipated for Pb-Pb collisions (dNch/dy up to 8000) and it will be operational at the start-up of the LHC. In addition to heavy systems, the ALICE Collaboration will study collisions of lower-mass ions, which are a means of varying the energy density, and protons (both pp and pA), which primarily provide reference data for the nucleus-nucleus collisions. In addition, the pp data will allow for a number of genuine pp physics studies. The detailed design of the different detector systems has been laid down in a number of Technical Design Reports issued between mid-1998 and the end of 2004. The experiment is currently under construction and will be ready for data taking with both proton and heavy-ion beams at the start-up of the LHC. Since the comprehensive information on detector and physics performance was last published in the ALICE Technical Proposal in 1996, the detector, as well as simulation, reconstruction and analysis software have undergone significant development. The Physics Performance Report (PPR) provides an updated and comprehensive summary of the performance of the various ALICE subsystems, including updates to the Technical Design Reports, as appropriate. The PPR is divided into two volumes. Volume I, published in 2004 (CERN/LHCC 2003-049, ALICE Collaboration 2004 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 30 1517-1763), contains in four chapters a short theoretical overview and an extensive reference list concerning the physics topics of interest to ALICE, the experimental conditions at the LHC, a short summary and update of

  12. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapoire, C.; Atlas Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as B-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy is sufficiently low and hit efficiency exceed the design specification.

  13. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschbuehl, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.7% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  14. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  15. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Deluca, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5\\% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, ...

  16. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.8% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  17. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lapoire, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  18. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lapoire, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as B-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification.

  19. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump- bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, a...

  20. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Deluca, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  1. DC-DC powering for the CMS pixel upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Lutz; Fleck, Martin; Friedrichs, Marcel; Hensch, Richard; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David; Sammet, Jan; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC-DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC-DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R&D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to 24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC-DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC-DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  2. DC-DC Powering for the CMS Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Feld, Lutz Werner; Marcel Friedrichs; Richard Hensch; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David Michael; Sammet, Jan Domenik; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC-DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC-DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R and D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC-DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC-DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  3. DC–DC powering for the CMS pixel upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feld, Lutz, E-mail: Lutz.Feld@rwth-aachen.de; Fleck, Martin; Friedrichs, Marcel; Hensch, Richard; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David; Sammet, Jan; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-12-21

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC–DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC–DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R and D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to 24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC–DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC–DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  4. DEPFET--a pixel device with integrated amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Neeser, W; Buchholz, P; Fischer, P; Holl, P; Kemmer, J; Klein, P; Koch, H; Löcker, M; Lutz, Gerhard; Matthäy, H; Strüder, L; Trimpl, M; Ulrici, J; Wermes, N

    2002-01-01

    In the DEPFET pixel concept, the absorbed radiation directly modulates the channel current of a p-JFET transistor being integrated into a fully depleted high ohmic silicon substrate in every pixel cell, offering very low noise operation at room temperature. Hence, DEPFET pixels open new possibilities in biomedical applications, but also have a potential in particle physics and astrophysics. Second prototype 50 mu mx50 mu m single pixels as well as large (64x64) DEPFET matrices have been successfully produced and operated confirming the low noise behavior (12e). Device studies as well as a full DEPFET pixel Bioscope system to be used in real-time digital autoradiography with excellent spatial and energy resolution for X-rays are presented.

  5. Lapis SOI Pixel Process

    CERN Document Server

    Okihara, Masao; Miura, Noriyuki; Kuriyama, Naoya; Nagatomo, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    0.2 um fully-depleted SOI technology has been developed a for X-ray pixel detectors. To improve the detector performance, some advanced process technologies are developing continuously. To utilize the high resistivity FZ-SOI, slow ramp up and ramp down recipes are applied for the thermal processes in both of SOI wafer fabrication and pixel detector process. The suitable backside treatment is also applied to prevent increase of leakage current at backside damaged layer in the case of full depletion of substrate. Large detector chip about 66mm width and 30mm height can be obtained by stitching exposure technique for large detector chip. To improve cross-talk and radiation tolerance, the nested well structure and double- SOI wafer are now under investigation for advanced pixel structure.

  6. Lapis SOI Pixel Process

    OpenAIRE

    Okihara, Masao; Kasai, Hiroki; Miura, Noriyuki; Kuriyama, Naoya; Nagatomo, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    0.2 um fully-depleted SOI technology has been developed a for X-ray pixel detectors. To improve the detector performance, some advanced process technologies are developing continuously. To utilize the high resistivity FZ-SOI, slow ramp up and ramp down recipes are applied for the thermal processes in both of SOI wafer fabrication and pixel detector process. The suitable backside treatment is also applied to prevent increase of leakage current at backside damaged layer in the case of full depl...

  7. Pixel electronics for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, P

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC will use 3 barrel layers and 2*5 disks of silicon pixel detectors as the innermost elements of the semiconductor tracker. The basic building blocks are pixel modules with an active area of 16.4 mm*60.8 mm which include an n/sup +/ on n-type silicon sensor and 16 VLSI front-end (FE) chips. Every FE chip contains a low power, high speed charge sensitive preamplifier, a fast discriminator, and a readout system which operates at the 40 MHz rate of LHC. The addresses of hit pixels (as well as a low resolution pulse height information) are stored on the FE chips until arrival of a level 1 trigger signal. Hits are then transferred to a module controller chip (MCC) which collects the data of all 16 FE chips, builds complete events and sends the data through two optical links to the data acquisition system. The MCC receives clock and data through an additional optical link and provides timing and configuration information for the FE chips. Two additional chips are used to amplify and decode...

  8. The ATLAS pixel detector

    OpenAIRE

    Cristinziani, M.

    2007-01-01

    After a ten years planning and construction phase, the ATLAS pixel detector is nearing its completion and is scheduled to be integrated into the ATLAS detector to take data with the first LHC collisions in 2007. An overview of the construction is presented with particular emphasis on some of the major and most recent problems encountered and solved.

  9. Pixel detector insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of the Pixel Tracker, the 66-million-channel device used to pinpoint the vertex of each colliding proton pair, located at the heart of the detector. The geometry of CMS is a cylinder lying on its side (22 meters long and 15 meters high in dia

  10. Signal and noise of diamond pixel detectors at high radiation fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, J.-W.; Havranek, M.; Hügging, F.; Kagan, H.; Krüger, H.; Wermes, N.

    2012-09-01

    CVD diamond is an attractive material option for LHC vertex detectors mainly because of its strong radiation-hardness causal to its large band gap and strong lattice. In particular, pixel detectors operating close to the interaction point profit from tiny leakage currents and small pixel capacitances of diamond resulting in low noise figures when compared to silicon. On the other hand, the charge signal from traversing high energy particles is smaller in diamond than in silicon by a factor of about 2.2. Therefore, a quantitative determination of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of diamond in comparison with silicon at fluences in excess of 1015 neq cm-2, which are expected for the LHC upgrade, is important. Based on measurements of irradiated diamond sensors and the FE-I4 pixel readout chip design and performance, we determine the signal and the noise of diamond pixel detectors irradiated with high particle fluences. To characterize the effect of the radiation damage on the materials and the signal decrease, the change of the mean free path λe/h of the charge carriers is determined as a function of irradiation fluence. We make use of the FE-I4 pixel chip developed for ATLAS upgrades to realistically estimate the expected noise figures: the expected leakage current at a given fluence is taken from calibrated calculations and the pixel capacitance is measured using a purposely developed chip (PixCap). We compare the resulting S/N figures with those for planar silicon pixel detectors using published charge loss measurements and the same extrapolation methods as for diamond. It is shown that the expected S/N of a diamond pixel detector with pixel pitches typical for LHC, exceeds that of planar silicon pixels at fluences beyond 1015 particles cm-2, the exact value only depending on the maximum operation voltage assumed for irradiated silicon pixel detectors.

  11. Planar pixel sensors in commercial CMOS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Macchiolo, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the high luminosity LHC, an all-silicon tracker is foreseen to cope with the increased rate and radiation levels. Pixel and strip detectors will have to cover an area of up to 200m2. To produce modules in high number at reduced costs, new sensor and bonding technologies have to be investigated. Commercial CMOS technologies on high resistive substrates can provide significant advantages in this direction. They offer cost effective, large volume sensor production. In addition to this, production is done on 8'' wafers allowing wafer-to-wafer bonding to the electronics, an interconnection technology substantially cheaper than the bump bonding process used for hybrid pixel detectors at the LHC. Both active and passive n-in-p pixel sensor prototypes have been submitted in a 150 nm CMOS technology on a 2kΩ cm substrate. The passive sensor design will be used to characterize sensor properties and to investigate wafer-to-wafer bonding technologies. This first prototype is made of a matrix of 36 x 16 pixels of size compatible with the FE-I4 readout chip (i.e. 50 μm x 250 μm). Results from lab characterization of this first submission are shown together with TCAD simulations. Work towards a full size FE-I4 sensor for wafer-to-wafer bonding is discussed.

  12. Development and characterization of the latest X-ray SOI pixel sensor for a future astronomical mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Shinya, E-mail: shinya@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Gando Ryu, Syukyo; Tanaka, Takaaki; Go Tsuru, Takeshi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takeda, Ayaki [Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Graduate School of High Energy Accelerator Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arai, Yasuo [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Imamura, Toshifumi; Ohmoto, Takafumi; Iwata, Atsushi [A-R-Tec Corp., Hiroshima Techno Plaza 405, 3-13-26 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2013-12-11

    We have been developing active pixel sensors based on silicon-on-insulator technology for future X-ray astronomy missions. Recently we fabricated the new prototype named “XRPIX2”, and investigated its spectroscopic performance. For comparison and evaluation of different chip designs, XRPIX2 consists of 3 pixel types: Small Pixel, Large Pixel 1, and Large Pixel 2. In Small Pixel, we found that the gains of the 68% pixels are within 1.4% of the mean value, and the energy resolution is 656 eV (FWHM) for 8 keV X-rays, which is the best spectroscopic performance in our development. The pixel pitch of Large Pixel 1 and Large Pixel 2 is twice as large as that of Small Pixel. Charge sharing events are successfully reduced for Large Pixel 1. Moreover Large Pixel 2 has multiple nodes for charge collection in a pixel. We confirmed that the multi-nodes structure is effective to increase charge collection efficiency. -- Highlights: •We performed the evaluation of the newly fabricated SOI sensor for X-ray astronomy. •The pixel-to-pixel gain variation is small in the 64 ×144 pixel format. •The energy resolution is improved by the optimization of the pixel design. •The multi charge collection nodes improved the charge collection efficiency.

  13. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio ( Q / C ). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q / C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining suf fi cient Q / C , collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Commissioning of the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) of ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Chrisakoglou, Panos

    2009-01-01

    The latest results from the commissioning of the SSD with cosmics are presented in this paper. The hardware status of the detector, the front-end electronics, cooling, data acquisition and issues related to the on-line monitoring are shown. In addition, the procedures implemented and followed to address the alignment with the rest of the ITS sub-detectors along with both on-line and off-line calibration strategies are described. Finally, results from simulations as well as from the reconstruction of cosmic data demonstrating the performance of the detector are presented, proving that the SSD is ready for the forthcoming proton-proton data taking.

  15. Commissioning of the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christakoglou, P.; Botje, M.A.J.; Mischke, A.; van Leeuwen, M.

    2009-01-01

    The latest results from the commissioning of the SSD with cosmics are presented in this paper. The hardware status of the detector, the front-end electronics, cooling, data acquisition and issues related to the on-line monitoring are shown. In addition, the procedures implemented and followed to add

  16. The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Hans-Günther

    2016-09-01

    The Belle II experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will explore heavy flavour physics (B, charm and tau) at the starting of 2018 with unprecedented precision. Charged particles are tracked by a two-layer DEPFET pixel device (PXD), a four-layer silicon strip detector (SVD) and the central drift chamber (CDC). The PXD will consist of two layers at radii of 14 mm and 22 mm with 8 and 12 ladders, respectively. The pixel sizes will vary, between 50 μm×(55-60) μm in the first layer and between 50 μm×(70-85) μm in the second layer, to optimize the charge sharing efficiency. These innermost layers have to cope with high background occupancy, high radiation and must have minimal material to reduce multiple scattering. These challenges are met using the DEPFET technology. Each pixel is a FET integrated on a fully depleted silicon bulk. The signal charge collected in the 'internal gate' modulates the FET current resulting in a first stage amplification and therefore very low noise. This allows very thin sensors (75 μm) reducing the overall material budget of the detector (0.21% X0). Four fold multiplexing of the column parallel readout allows read out a full frame of the pixel matrix in only 20 μs while keeping the power consumption low enough for air cooling. Only the active electronics outside the detector acceptance has to be cooled actively with a two phase CO2 system. Furthermore the DEPFET technology offers the unique feature of an electronic shutter which allows the detector to operate efficiently in the continuous injection mode of superKEKB.

  17. Novel integrated CMOS pixel structures for vertex detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bieser, Fred; Chen, Yandong; Gareus, Robin; Matis, Howard S.; Oldenburg, Markus; Retiere, Fabrice; Ritter, Hans Georg; Wieman, Howard H.; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2003-10-29

    Novel CMOS active pixel structures for vertex detector applications have been designed and tested. The overriding goal of this work is to increase the signal to noise ratio of the sensors and readout circuits. A large-area native epitaxial silicon photogate was designed with the aim of increasing the charge collected per struck pixel and to reduce charge diffusion to neighboring pixels. The photogate then transfers the charge to a low capacitance readout node to maintain a high charge to voltage conversion gain. Two techniques for noise reduction are also presented. The first is a per-pixel kT/C noise reduction circuit that produces results similar to traditional correlated double sampling (CDS). It has the advantage of requiring only one read, as compared to two for CDS, and no external storage or subtraction is needed. The technique reduced input-referred temporal noise by a factor of 2.5, to 12.8 e{sup -}. Finally, a column-level active reset technique is explored that suppresses kT/C noise during pixel reset. In tests, noise was reduced by a factor of 7.6 times, to an estimated 5.1 e{sup -} input-referred noise. The technique also dramatically reduces fixed pattern (pedestal) noise, by up to a factor of 21 in our tests. The latter feature may possibly reduce pixel-by-pixel pedestal differences to levels low enough to permit sparse data scan without per-pixel offset corrections.

  18. The scene is set for ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Now that the electromagnetic calorimeter support and the mini space frame have been installed, practically all ALICE’s infrastructure is in place. The calorimeter support, an austenitic stainless steel shell weighing 30 tonnes, was slid gently inside the detector, in between the face of the magnet and the space frame. With the completion of two major installation projects, the scene is finally set for the ALICE experiment…or at least it nearly is, as a few design studies, minor installation jobs and measurements still need to be carried out before the curtain can finally be raised. The experiment’s chief engineer Diego Perini confirms: "All the heavy infrastructure for ALICE has been in place and ready for the grand opening since December 2007." The next step will be the installation of additional modules on the TOF and TRD detectors between January and March 2008, and physicists have already started testing the equipment with co...

  19. Performance optimisations for distributed analysis in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Betev, L; Gheata, M; Grigoras, C; Hristov, P

    2014-01-01

    Performance is a critical issue in a production system accommodating hundreds of analysis users. Compared to a local session, distributed analysis is exposed to services and network latencies, remote data access and heterogeneous computing infrastructure, creating a more complex performance and efficiency optimization matrix. During the last 2 years, ALICE analysis shifted from a fast development phase to the more mature and stable code. At the same time, the framewo rks and tools for deployment, monitoring and management of large productions have evolved considerably too. The ALICE Grid production system is currently used by a fair share of organized and individual user analysis, consuming up to 30% or the available r esources and ranging from fully I/O - bound analysis code to CPU intensive correlations or resonances studies. While the intrinsic analysis performance is unlikely to improve by a large factor during the LHC long shutdown (LS1), the overall efficiency of the system has still to be improved by a...

  20. Energy Loss Signals in the ALICE TRD

    CERN Document Server

    Xian-Guo, Lu

    2013-01-01

    We present the energy loss measurements with the ALICE TRD in the $\\beta\\gamma$ range 1--10$^{4}$, where $\\beta=v/c$ and $\\gamma=1/\\sqrt{1-\\beta^2}$. The measurements are conducted in three different scenarios: 1) with pions and electrons from testbeams; 2) with protons, pions and electrons in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy 7 TeV; 3) with muons detected in ALICE cosmic runs. In the testbeam and cosmic ray measurements, ionization energy loss (dE/dx) signal as well as ionization energy loss plus transition radiation (dE/dx+TR) signal are measured. With cosmic muons the onset of TR is observed. Signals from TeV cosmic muons are consistent with those from GeV electrons in the other measurements. Numerical descriptions of the signal spectra and the $\\beta\\gamma$-dependence of the most probable signals are also presented.

  1. The Wonderland of Operating the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Augustinus, A; Pinazza, O; Rosinský, P; Lechman, M; Jirdén, L; Chochula, P

    2011-01-01

    ALICE is one of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. Composed of 18 sub-detectors each with numerous subsystems that need to be controlled and operated in a safe and efficient way. The Detector Control System (DCS) is the key to this and has been used by detector experts with success during the commissioning of the individual detectors. During the transition from commissioning to operation, more and more tasks were transferred from detector experts to central operators. By the end of the 2010 datataking campaign, the ALICE experiment was run by a small crew of central operators, with only a single controls operator. The transition from expert to non-expert operation constituted a real challenge in terms of tools, documentation and training. A relatively high turnover and diversity in the operator crew that is specific to the HEP experiment environment (as opposed to the more stable operation crews for accelerators) made this challenge even bigger. Thi...

  2. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Belikov, Iouri

    2016-01-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is built to study the properties of the strongly interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. With the upgrade of its Inner Tracking System (ITS), the ALICE experiment is going to increase the rate of data taking by almost two orders of magnitude. At the same time, the precision of secondary vertex reconstruction will become by at least a factor 3 better than it currently is. In this talk, we briefly show some selected physics results motivating the upgrade of the ITS, describe the design goals and the layout of the new detector, and highlight a few important measurements that will be realized after the completion of this upgrade.

  3. ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE Career Networking Event 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Marinov, Andrey; Strom, Derek Axel

    2015-01-01

    A networking event for alumni of the ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE experiments as well as current ATLAS/CMS/LHCb/ALICE postdocs and graduate students. This event offers an insight into career opportunities outside of academia. Various former members of the ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE collaborations will give presentations and be part of a panel discussion and elaborate on their experience in companies in a diverse range of fields (industry, finance, IT,...). Details at https://indico.cern.ch/event/440616

  4. Performance optimisations for distributed analysis in ALICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betev, L.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Grigoras, C.; Hristov, P.

    2014-06-01

    Performance is a critical issue in a production system accommodating hundreds of analysis users. Compared to a local session, distributed analysis is exposed to services and network latencies, remote data access and heterogeneous computing infrastructure, creating a more complex performance and efficiency optimization matrix. During the last 2 years, ALICE analysis shifted from a fast development phase to the more mature and stable code. At the same time, the frameworks and tools for deployment, monitoring and management of large productions have evolved considerably too. The ALICE Grid production system is currently used by a fair share of organized and individual user analysis, consuming up to 30% or the available resources and ranging from fully I/O-bound analysis code to CPU intensive correlations or resonances studies. While the intrinsic analysis performance is unlikely to improve by a large factor during the LHC long shutdown (LS1), the overall efficiency of the system has still to be improved by an important factor to satisfy the analysis needs. We have instrumented all analysis jobs with "sensors" collecting comprehensive monitoring information on the job running conditions and performance in order to identify bottlenecks in the data processing flow. This data are collected by the MonALISa-based ALICE Grid monitoring system and are used to steer and improve the job submission and management policy, to identify operational problems in real time and to perform automatic corrective actions. In parallel with an upgrade of our production system we are aiming for low level improvements related to data format, data management and merging of results to allow for a better performing ALICE analysis.

  5. Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch - A Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Utting, Ian; Cooper, Stephen; Kölling, Michael; Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel

    2010-01-01

    This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the 2010 ACM SIGCSE Symposium on Computer Science Education and continued during the creation of the resulting Special Issue of the ACM Transactions on...

  6. The ALICE Software Release Validation cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzano, D.; Krzewicki, M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most important steps of software lifecycle is Quality Assurance: this process comprehends both automatic tests and manual reviews, and all of them must pass successfully before the software is approved for production. Some tests, such as source code static analysis, are executed on a single dedicated service: in High Energy Physics, a full simulation and reconstruction chain on a distributed computing environment, backed with a sample “golden” dataset, is also necessary for the quality sign off. The ALICE experiment uses dedicated and virtualized computing infrastructures for the Release Validation in order not to taint the production environment (i.e. CVMFS and the Grid) with non-validated software and validation jobs: the ALICE Release Validation cluster is a disposable virtual cluster appliance based on CernVM and the Virtual Analysis Facility, capable of deploying on demand, and with a single command, a dedicated virtual HTCondor cluster with an automatically scalable number of virtual workers on any cloud supporting the standard EC2 interface. Input and output data are externally stored on EOS, and a dedicated CVMFS service is used to provide the software to be validated. We will show how the Release Validation Cluster deployment and disposal are completely transparent for the Release Manager, who simply triggers the validation from the ALICE build system's web interface. CernVM 3, based entirely on CVMFS, permits to boot any snapshot of the operating system in time: we will show how this allows us to certify each ALICE software release for an exact CernVM snapshot, addressing the problem of Long Term Data Preservation by ensuring a consistent environment for software execution and data reprocessing in the future.

  7. One module of the ALICE photon spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first module for the ALICE photon spectrometer has been completed. Each of the five modules will contain 3584 lead-tungstate crystals, a material as transparent as ordinary silica glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, allowing the energy of electrons, positrons and photons to be measured through the 17 920 detection channels.

  8. ALICE: Physics Performance Report, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALICE is a general-purpose heavy-ion experiment designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. It currently includes more than 900 physicists and senior engineers, from both nuclear and high-energy physics, from about 80 institutions in 28 countries. The experiment was approved in February 1997. The detailed design of the different detector systems has been laid down in a number of Technical Design Reports issued between mid-1998 and the end of 2001 and construction has started for most detectors. Since the last comprehensive information on detector and physics performance was published in the ALICE Technical Proposal in 1996, the detector as well as simulation, reconstruction and analysis software have undergone significant development. The Physics Performance Report (PPR) will give an updated and comprehensive summary of the current status and performance of the various ALICE subsystems, including updates to the Technical Design Reports, where appropriate, as well as a description of systems which have not been published in a Technical Design Report. The PPR will be published in two volumes. The current Volume I contains: 1. a short theoretical overview and an extensive reference list concerning the physics topics of interest to ALICE,; 2. relevant experimental conditions at the LHC,; 3. a short summary and update of the subsystem designs, and; 4. a description of the offline framework and Monte Carlo generators. Volume II, which will be published separately, will contain detailed simulations of combined detector performance, event reconstruction, and analysis of a representative sample of relevant physics observables from global event characteristics to hard processes

  9. Performance optimisations for distributed analysis in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance is a critical issue in a production system accommodating hundreds of analysis users. Compared to a local session, distributed analysis is exposed to services and network latencies, remote data access and heterogeneous computing infrastructure, creating a more complex performance and efficiency optimization matrix. During the last 2 years, ALICE analysis shifted from a fast development phase to the more mature and stable code. At the same time, the frameworks and tools for deployment, monitoring and management of large productions have evolved considerably too. The ALICE Grid production system is currently used by a fair share of organized and individual user analysis, consuming up to 30% or the available resources and ranging from fully I/O-bound analysis code to CPU intensive correlations or resonances studies. While the intrinsic analysis performance is unlikely to improve by a large factor during the LHC long shutdown (LS1), the overall efficiency of the system has still to be improved by an important factor to satisfy the analysis needs. We have instrumented all analysis jobs with ''sensors'' collecting comprehensive monitoring information on the job running conditions and performance in order to identify bottlenecks in the data processing flow. This data are collected by the MonALISa-based ALICE Grid monitoring system and are used to steer and improve the job submission and management policy, to identify operational problems in real time and to perform automatic corrective actions. In parallel with an upgrade of our production system we are aiming for low level improvements related to data format, data management and merging of results to allow for a better performing ALICE analysis

  10. Monitoring System for ALICE Surface Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Demirbasci, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    I have been at CERN for 12 weeks within the scope of Summer Student Programme working on a monitoring system project for surface areas of the ALICE experiment during this period of time. The development and implementation of a monitoring system for environmental parameters in the accessible areas where a cheap hardware setup can be deployed were aim of this project. This report explains how it was developed by using Arduino, Raspberry PI, WinCC OA and DIM protocol.

  11. Spectrally tunable pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfelder, G.; Buffa, C.; Longoni, A. F.; Zaraga, F.

    2013-01-01

    They are here reported the developments and experimental results of fully operating matrices of spectrally tunable pixels based on the Transverse Field Detector (TFD). Unlike several digital imaging sensors based on color filter arrays or layered junctions, the TFD has the peculiar feature of having electrically tunable spectral sensitivities. In this way the sensor color space is not fixed a priori but can be real-time adjusted, e.g. for a better adaptation to the scene content or for multispectral capture. These advantages come at the cost of an increased complexity both for the photosensitive elements and for the readout electronics. The challenges in the realization of a matrix of TFD pixels are analyzed in this work. First experimental results on an 8x8 (x 3 colors) and on a 64x64 (x 3 colors) matrix will be presented and analyzed in terms of colorimetric and noise performance, and compared to simulation predictions.

  12. ALICE A Large Ion Collider Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Klein, J; Hristov, P Z; Mager, M; Miskowiec, D C; Selyuzhenkov, I; Bertelsen, H; Kox, S; Cheynis, B; Cheshkov, C V; Hamar, G; Choudhury, S; Agnello, M; Miake, Y; Inaba, M; Maldonado cervantes, I A; Fernandez tellez, A; Kulibaba, V; Zinovjev, G; Martynov, Y; Usenko, E; Pshenichnov, I; Nikolaev, S; Vasiliev, A; Vinogradov, A; Moukhanova, T; Vasilyev, A; Kozlov, Y; Voloshin, K; Kiselev, S; Kirilko, Y; Lyublev, E; Kondratyeva, N; Yin, Z; Zhu, J; Luo, J; Pikna, M; Hasko, J; Pastircak, B; Donigus, B; Rascanu, B T; Mercado-perez, J; Westerhoff, U; Wilde, M R; Feldkamp, L; Scott, H; Hanratty, L D; Marangio, G; Gianotti, P; Muccifora, V; Morando, M; Di liberto, S; Haque, M R; Langoy, R; Lovhoiden, G; Nilsson, M S; Bartke, J G; Sputowska, I A; Ilkiv, I; Christiansen, P; Dodokhov, V; Yurevich, V; Fedunov, A; Malakhov, A; Efremov, A; Feofilov, G; Vinogradov, L; Asryan, A; Kovalenko, V; Piyarathna, D; Myers, C J; Martashvili, I; Scott, R M; Bombara, M; Oh, H; Cherney, M G; Malagalage, K J; D'erasmo, G; Wagner, V; Smakal, R; Lopez, X B; Batista camejo, A; Sambyal, S S; Sharma, R; Sartorelli, G; Xaplanteris karampatsos, L; Mlynarz, J; Garishvili, I; Murray, C J; Oh, S; Srivastava, B K; Utrobicic, A; Becker, B; Usai, G; Razazi, V; Zbroszczyk, H P; Pappalardo, G; Khlebnikov, A; Basmanov, V; Punin, V; Demanov, V; Gotovac, S; Irfan, M; Felea, D; Zgura, S I; Vernet, R; Son, C; Shtejer diaz, K; Hwang, S; Alfaro molina, J R; Jahnke, C; Garcia-solis, E J; Hitchcock, T M; Franz degenhardt, H; Brun, R; Divia, R; Schukraft, J; Riedler, P; Floris, M; Eulisse, G; Von haller, B; Kouzinopoulos, C; Haake, R; Ivanov, M; Malzacher, P; Schweda, K O; Gaardhoeje, J J; Bearden, I G; Borel, H; Pereira da costa, H D A; Faivre, J; Germain, M; Schutz, Y R; Delagrange, H; Batigne, G; Stocco, D; Estienne, M D; Bergognon, A A E; Zoccarato, Y D; Levai, P; Bencedi, G; Mahapatra, D P; Ghosh, P; Das, T K; Alessandro, B; Cerello, P; De marco, N; Fragiacomo, E; Grion, N; Paic, G; Ovchynnyk, V; Karavicheva, T; Kucheryaeva, M; Skuratovskiy, O; Mal kevich, D; Bogdanov, A; Rasanen, S S; Pereira, L G; Cai, X; Zhu, X; Wang, M; Fan, F; Sitar, B; Zagiba, M; Cerny, V; Renfordt, R A E; Reygers, K J; Zimmermann, M B; Gonzalez zamora, P; Loo, K K; Jones, P G; Bianchi, N; Dainese, A; Giubilato, P; Festanti, A; Mazzoni, A M; Torii, H; Hori, Y; Tsuji, T; Herrera corral, G A; Reicher, M; Lodato, D F; Van der maarel, J; Tveter, T S; Batzing, P C; Kowalski, M; Rybicki, A; Kielbowicz, M M; Deloff, A; Petrovici, A; Nomokonov, P; Parfenov, A; Koshurnikov, E; Shahaliyev, E; Rogochaya, E; Kondratev, V; Oreshkina, N; Tarasov, A; Norenberg, M; Bodnya, E; Bogolyubskiy, M; Symons, T; Blanco, F; Madagodahettige don, D M; Umaka, E N; Rana, D B; Schaefer, B; De pasquale, S; Fusco girard, M; Song, M; Kim, T; Jeon, H; Kushpil, V; Porteboeuf, S J; Nandi, B K; Sarkar - sinha, T; Aggarwal, M M; Jena, D; Arcelli, S; Scapparone, E; Shevel, A; Nikulin, V; Komkov, B; Voloshin, S; Hille, P T; Kannan, S; Simatovic, G; Cicalo, C; De falco, A; Graczykowski, L K; Matynia, R M; Barbera, R; Palmeri, A; Vinogradov, Y; Vikhlyantsev, O; Telnov, A; Tumkin, A; Khan, M M; Erdal, H A; Keidel, R; Yeo, I; Vilakazi, Z; Klay, J L; Boswell, B D; Lindenstruth, V; Goel, A; Breitner, T G; Sahoo, R; Roy, A; Lagana fernandes, C; Musa, L; Perini, D; Vande vyvre, P; Fuchs, U; Aglieri rinella, G; Salgueiro domingues da silva, R M; Kalweit, A P; Martinez pedreira, M; Francescon, A; Bond, P M; Marin, A M; Staley, F M; Castillo castellanos, J E; Furget, C; Real, J; Martino, J F; Sahu, P K; Sahu, S K; Baral, R C; Singaraju, R N; Ahammed, Z; Saini, J; Basu, S; Di bari, D; Bruno, G E; Biasotto, M; Giubellino, P; Esumi, S; Sano, M; Drakin, Y; Manko, V; Nikulin, S; Yushmanov, I; Kozlov, K; Kerbikov, B; Stavinskiy, A; Sultanov, R; Zhu, H; Cajko, F; Meres, M; Kralik, I; Glassel, P; Schicker, R M; Grajcarek, R; Evans, D; Tudor jones, G; Kinson, J; Bhattacharjee, B; Rizzi, V; Orlandi, A; Fabris, D; Viesti, G; Lea, R; Kuijer, P G; Nooren, G; Roehrich, D; Lonne, P; Wikne, J; Figiel, J; Gorlich, L M; Shabratova, G; Lobanov, V; Zaporozhets, S; Pocheptsov, T; Ivanov, A; Iglovikov, V; Ochirov, A; Petrov, V; Jacobs, P M; De gruttola, D; Raniwala, R; Corsi, F; Pajares vales, C; Varma, R; Kumar, J; Parmar, S; Bala, R; Gupta, R; Nania, R; Zalite, A; Samsonov, V; Pruneau, C A; Caines, H L; Aronsson, T; Adare, A M; Zwick, S M; Fearick, R W; Ostrowski, P K; Kulasinski, K; La rocca, P; Ilkaev, R; Ilkaeva, L; Pavlov, V; Mikhaylyukov, K; Rybin, A; Naumov, N; Mudnic, E; Cortese, P; Listratenko, O; Stan, I; Song, J; Krawutschke, T; Kim, S Y; Hwang, D S; Lee, S H; Leon monzon, I; Vorobyev, I; Yan, Y; Mazumder, R; Araujo silva figueredo, M; Shahoyan, R; Kluge, A; Safarik, K; Tauro, A; Caffarri, D; Lakomov, I; Van hoorne, J W; Foka, P; Frankenfeld, U M; Masciocchi, S; Schwarz, K E; Hansen, A; Baldisseri, A; Aphecetche, L B; Berenyi, D; Sahoo, S; Nayak, T K; Muhuri, S; Patra, R N; Adhya, S P; Saavedra san martin, O; Scomparin, E; Arnaldi, R; Rui, R; Mizuno, S; Enyo, H; Cuautle flores, E; Potin, S; Zynovyev, M; Kurepin, A; Belyaev, S; Ryabinkin, E; Kiselev, I; Pestov, Y; Hayrapetyan, A; Manukyan, N; Lutz, J; Belikov, I; Roy, C S; Takahashi, J; Tang, S; Szarka, I; Sandor, L; Vrlakova, J; Antonczyk, D W; Bailhache, R M; Anguelov, V; Wilk, A; Ladron de guevara, P; Acero fernandez, A; Diaz corchero, M A; Platt, R J; Kour, R; Scott, P A; Das, S; Di nezza, P; Turrisi, R; Hayashi, S; Van rijn, A J; Bertens, R A; Altinpinar, S; Fehlker, D; Velure, A; Skaali, B; Richter, M R; Milosevic, J; Qvigstad, H; Dordic, O; Zhao, C; Siemiarczuk, T; Petrovici, M; Petris, M; Stenlund, E A; Otterlund, I; Soegaard, C; Malinina, L; Fateev, O; Kolozhvari, A; Altsybeev, I; Sadovskiy, S; Soloviev, A; Ploskon, M A; Mayes, B W; Sorensen, S P; Awes, T; Virgili, T; Pagano, P; Putis, M; Kim, B; Krus, M; Gonzalez ferreiro, E; Vulpescu, B; Sett, P; Sinha, B; Khan, P; Antonioli, P; Scioli, G; Sakaguchi, H; Volkov, S; Ivanov, V; Khanzadeev, A; Malaev, M; Markert, C; Lisa, M A; Salzwedel, J S N; Loggins, V R; Schuster, T R; Hicks, B R; Scharenberg, R P; Planinic, M; Masoni, A; Incani, E; Debski, P R; Oleniacz, J; Yanovskiy, V; Domrachev, S; Smirnova, Y; Zimmermann, S; Ahmad, N; Shestakov, V; Kileng, B; Seo, J; Lopez torres, E; Ceballos sanchez, C; Jang, H J; Buthelezi, E Z; Steyn, G F; Suleymanov, M K O; Belmont moreno, E; Perales, M; Kobdaj, C; Mishra, A N; Keil, M; Morsch, A; Rademakers, A; Soos, C; Zampolli, C; Grigoras, C; Chibante barroso, V M; Schuchmann, S; Grigoras, A G; Berzano, D; Wegrzynek, A T; Braun-munzinger, P; Andronic, A; Arbor, N; Erazmus, B E; Pichot, P; Pillot, P; Grossiord, J; Boldizsar, L; Costanza, S; Botta, E; Gallio, M; Masera, M; Simonetti, L; Prino, F; Oppedisano, C; Toscano, L; Nappi, G; Rachevski, A; Vargas trevino, A D; Naumov, S; Trubnikov, V; Alkin, A; Ivanytskyi, O; Guber, F; Karavichev, O; Nyanin, A; Sibiryak, Y; Peresunko, D Y; Patarakin, O; Aleksandrov, D; Blau, D; Yasnopolskiy, S; Chumakov, M; Vetlitskiy, I; Nedosekin, A; Selivanov, A; Okorokov, V; Grigoryan, A; Papikyan, V; Kuhn, C C; Wan, R; Zhou, D; Mares, J; Zavada, P; Pitz, N; Zimmermann, A; Lu, X; Bock, F; Wilkinson, J J; Rubio montero, A J; Reolon, A R; Antinori, F; Gunji, T; Snellings, R; Mischke, A; Yang, H; Grelli, A; Nystrand, J I; Ullaland, K; Haaland, O S; Matyja, A T; Klusek-gawenda, M J; Schiaua, C C; Andrei, C; Herghelegiu, A I; Tydesjo, H; Panebrattsev, Y; Penev, V; Efimov, L; Zanevskiy, Y; Vechernin, V; Zarochentsev, A; Kolevatov, R; Agapov, A; Polishchuk, B; Loizides, C; Anwar, R; Anticic, T; Kwon, Y; Kim, M; Moon, T; Bielcikova, J; Kushpil, S; Petran, M; Rosnet, P; Ramillien barret, V; Sahoo, B; Das bose, L; Hatzifotiadou, D; Shigaki, K; Jha, D M; Soltz, R A; Mastroserio, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Siddhanta, S; Petta, C; Badala, A; Putevskoy, S; Shapovalova, E; Ahmad, A; Haiduc, M; Mitu, C M; Hetland, K F; Gago medina, A M; Menchaca-rocha, A A; De cuveland, J; Hutter, D; Langhammer, M; Dahms, T; Watkins, E P; Kumar, L; Riegler, W; Telesca, A; Lazaridis, L; Martin, N A; Nielsen, B S; Chojnacki, M; Espagnon, B; Uras, A; Lemmon, R C; Agocs, A G; Viyogi, Y; Pal, S K; Singhal, V; Khan, S A; Alam, S N; Bagnasco, S; Camerini, P; Rodriguez cahuantzi, M; Maslov, M; Kurepin, A; Ippolitov, M; Lebedev, V; Tsvetkov, A; Klimov, A; Agafonov, G; Martemiyanov, A; Loginov, V; Kononov, S; Grigoryan, S; Jangal, S G; Hnatic, M; Kalinak, P; Appelshaeuser, H; Ulery, J G; Luettig, P J; Heckel, S T; Windelband, B S; Wang, Y; Pachmayer, Y C; Lohner, D; Klein-boesing, C; Schmidt, H R; Hess, B A; Trzaska, W H; Kral, J; Lietava, R; Matthews, Z L; Palaha, A S; Raha, S; Calero diaz, L; Segato, G; Scarlassara, F; Canoa roman, V; Cruz albino, R; Botje, M; Huang, M; Gladysz-dziadus, E; Marszal, T; Dobrowolski, T A; Oskarsson, A N E; Ljunggren, H M; Vodopyanov, A; Akichine, P; Kuznetsov, A; Vedeneyev, V; Naumenko, P; Bilov, N; Rogalev, R; Evdokimov, S; Braidot, E; Bellwied, R; De caro, A; Kang, J H; Gorbunov, Y; Lee, J; Ferencei, J; Kucera, V; Pachr, M; Baldit, A; Manso, F; Crochet, P; Dash, S; Roy, P K; Cifarelli, L; Laurenti, G; Margotti, A; Bellini, F; Sugitate, T; Zhalov, M; Pavlinov, A; Harris, J W; Caballero orduna, D; Pluta, J M; Kisiel, A R; Wrobel, D; Zhitnik, A; Nazarenko, S; Zavyalov, N; Miroshnikov, D; Kuryakin, A; Vyushin, A; Mamonov, A; Vickovic, L; Tariq, M; Niculescu, M; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S; Foertsch, S V; Brown, C R; Munzer, R H; Harton, A V; Khosonthongkee, K; Oliveira da silva, A C; Betev, L; Buncic, P; Carena, F; Di mauro, A; Martinengo, P; Gargiulo, C; Grosse-oetringhaus, J F; Costa, F; Baltasar dos santos pedrosa, F; Laudi, E; Lippmann, C; Schmidt, C J; Christensen, C H; Rakotozafindrabe, A M; Conesa balbastre, G; Martinez-garcia, G; Suire, C P; Ducroux, L; Tieulent, R N; Barnafoldi, G G; Pochybova, S; Dubey, A K; Acharya, S; Ricci, R A; Vercellin, E; Beole, S; Chujo, T; Watanabe, K; Onishi, H; Akiba, Y; Vergara limon, S; Tejeda munoz, G; Svistunov, S; Reshetin, A; Maevskaya, A; Antonenko, V; Mishustin, N; Meleshko, E; Korsheninnikov, A; Balygin, K; Zagreev, B; Akindinov, A; Mikhaylov, K; Gushchin, O; Grigoryev, V; Gulkanyan, H; Sanchez castro, X; Peretti pezzi, R; Siska, M; Vokal, S; Beitlerova, A; Kramer, F; Book, J H; Heide, M A; Passfeld, A; Montes prado, E; Rak, J; Jusko, A; Ghosh, S K; Spiriti, E; Ronchetti, F; Casanova diaz, A O; Lunardon, M; Meddi, F; Van leeuwen, M; De rooij, R S; Djuvsland, O; Lindal, S; Aiftimiei, C; Berceanu, I; Kuzmin, N; Melkumov, G; Zinchenko, A; Shklovskaya, A; Bunzarov, Z I; Chernenko, S; Toulina, T; Kompaniets, M; Titov, A; Kharlov, Y; Dantsevich, G; Stolpovskiy, M; Porter, R J; Datskova, O V; Nattrass, C; Mazer, J A; Harmanova, Z; Seger, J E; Kim, J; Kim, D S; Jung, W W; Kim, H; Adamova, D; Bielcik, J; Pospisil, V; Cepila, J; Dupieux, P; Bastid, N; Das, D; Bhati, A K; Gupta, A; Sharma, S; Williams, C; Pesci, A; Roshchin, E; Grounds, A; Humanic, T; Steinpreis, M D; Yaldo, C G; Abelev, B B; Smirnov, N; Heinz, M T; Connors, M E; Barile, F; Fiore, E M; Orzan, G; Wielanek, D H; Servais, E L J; Patecki, M; Zhelezov, S; Morkin, A; Zabelin, O; Hussain, T; Ramello, L; Rogachevskiy, O; Kim, E J; Coccetti, F; Calvo villar, E; Rauf, A W; Sandoval, A; Berger, M E; Cervantes jr, M; Kebschull, U W; Engel, H; Karasu uysal, A; Alarcon do passo suaide, A; Augustinus, A; Carena, W; Chochula, P; Chapeland, S; Dobrin, A F; Reidt, F; Averbeck, R P; Garabatos cuadrado, J; Boggild, H; Gulbrandsen, K H; Hansen, J C; Charvet, J F; Shabetai, A; Hadjidakis, C M; Vertesi, R; Mitra, J; Altini, V; Riccati, L; Ferretti, A; Gagliardi, M; Bufalino, S; Margagliotti, G V; Sakata, D; Niida, T; Martinez hernandez, M I; Karpechev, E; Veselovskiy, A; Konevskikh, A; Finogeev, D; Fokin, S; Karadzhev, K; Kucheryaev, Y; Plotnikov, V; Ryabinin, M; Golubev, A; Kaplin, V; Ter-minasyan, A; Abramyan, A; Hippolyte, B; Zhou, F; Zhang, H; Strmen, P; Kapusta, S; Krivan, F; Reichelt, P S; Marquard, M; Broker, T A; Zyzak, M; Kulakov, I; Sahlmuller, B; Stachel, J; Wessels, J P; Kalliokoski, T E A; Chang, B; Krivda, M; De cataldo, G; Paticchio, V; Fantoni, A; Soramel, F; Bombonati, C; Gomez jimenez, R; Christakoglou, P; Peitzmann, T; Veldhoen, M; Skjerdal, K; Wagner, B; Yang, S; Cyz, A; Wilk, G A; Kurashvili, P; Pop, A; Arefiev, V; Batyunya, B; Kadyshevskiy, V; Lioubochits, V; Zryuev, V; Sokolov, M; Patalakha, D; Pinsky, L; Timmins, A R; Raniwala, S; Kim, D W; Sumbera, M; Petracek, V; Krelina, M; Vasileiou, M; Spyropoulou-stassinaki, M; Koyithatta meethaleveedu, G; Chattopadhyay, S; Potukuchi, B; Basile, M; Falchieri, D; Miftakhov, N; Berdnikov, Y; Garner, R M; Konyushikhin, M; Joseph, N; Browning, T A; Cleymans, J W A; Dietel, T; Pawlak, T J; Kucinski, M; Janik, M A; Surma, K D; Niedziela, J; Riggi, F; Ivanov, A; Selin, I; Budnikov, D; Filchagin, S; Sitta, M; Gheata, M; Danu, A; Diomkin, V; Helstrup, H; Subasi, M; Murray, S; Mathis, A M; Banerjee, S S; Goyal, D; Rist, J A S; Jena, C; Lara martinez, C E

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\ALICE is a general-purpose heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. It currently includes more than 750~physicists and $\\sim$70 institutions in 27 countries.\\\\ \\\\The detector is designed to cope with the highest particle multiplicities anticipated for Pb-Pb reactions (dN/dy~$\\approx$~8000) and it will be operational at the start-up of the LHC. In addition to heavy systems, the ALICE Collaboration will study collisions of lower-mass ions, which are a means of varying the energy density, and protons (both pp and p-nucleus), which provide reference data for the nucleus-nucleus collisions.\\\\ \\\\ALICE consists of a central part, which measures event-by-event hadrons, electrons and photons, and a forward spectrometer to measure muons. The central part, which covers polar angles from 45$^{0} $ to 135$^{0} $ ($\\mid \\eta \\mid $ < 0.9) over the full azimuth, is embedded in the large L3 solenoidal mag...

  13. ALICE: The best is yet to come

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The ALICE wonderland is the ion-ion collisions. However, the proton run was intensely used by the collaboration to get to know its detector in detail and to produce its first results in QCD-related matters. This very successful preparatory phase will now allow ALICE to enter the uncharted territory of the quark-gluon plasma at the extreme energies provided by the LHC.   The ALICE detector is optimized to study ion-ion collisions in which quark-gluon plasma may be formed. This type of matter, which existed a few moments after the Big Bang and appears when quarks and gluons are deconfined to form a highly dense and hot soup, has been studied at CERN’s SPS in the 1990s and later, from 2000 onwards, at much higher energy at RHIC in the US. Now it’s ALICE’s turn. “Quark-gluon plasma is created at very high temperatures but starts to cool down very quickly to become normal matter again. The high energy of the LHC puts us much higher above the threshold of its for...

  14. Physics with the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pachmayer, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) significantly enlarges the scope of physics observables studied in ALICE, because it allows due to its electron identification capability to measure open heavy-flavour production and quarkonium states, which are essential probes to characterize the Quark-Gluon-Plasma created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC. In addition the TRD enables to enhance rare probes due to its trigger contributions. We report on the first results of the electron identification capability of the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV using a one-dimensional likelihood method on integrated charge measured in each TRD chamber. The analysis of heavy flavour production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with this particle identification method, which extends the $p_{t}$ range of the existing measurement from $p_{t}$ = 4 GeV/c to 10 GeV/c and reduces the systematic uncertainty due to particle identification, is presented. The performance of the ...

  15. CERN: ALICE in the looking-glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While proton-proton collisions will provide the main research thrust at CERN's planned LHC high energy collider to be built in the LEP tunnel, its 27-kilometre superconducting magnet ring will also be able to handle all the other high energy beams on the CERN menu, opening up the possibility of both heavy ion and electron-proton collisions to augment the LHC research programme. A major new character in the LHC cast - ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) - has recently published a letter of intent, announcing its intention to appear on the LHC stage. Three letters of intent for major LHC proton-proton experiments were aired last year (January, page 6), and ALICE, if approved, would cohabit with the final solution for the protonproton sector (see box). Only a single major heavy ion experiment is envisaged. The protonproton detectors have some heavy ion capability, but could only look at some very specific signals. (Detailed plans for LHC's electron proton collision option are on hold, awaiting the initial exploration of this field by the new HERA collider which came into operation last year at the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg.) Describing the ALICE detector and its research aims, spokesman Jurgen Schukraft echoes T.D.Lee's observations on the state of particle physics. It is becoming increasingly clear that resolving some of today's particle puzzles require a deeper understanding of the vacuum

  16. Alice Walker’s Womanism in Meridian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Lin

    2015-01-01

    Meridian is one of Alice Walker’s early work. It tells a story that happened in the American south during the 1960s and early 70s’. It describes the life of the main character, Meridian Hill, a black woman from a southern town, who got out of the oppression of white society, and ends up in participate in Civil Rights Movement. The paper firstly illustrates the soul of womanism—anti-sexism, anti-racism, sisiterhood as well as the maternity love, then analyzes how these theories permeated into the novel—Meridian. The paper paid attention to the function of this novel on the improvement of Alice Walker ’s womanism. In proving that womanism not only permeates into Meridian, but also improved womanism from many perspectives, it comes to the conclusion that Meridian is a novel to improve Alice Walker’s womanism, it serves as the good novel to highlight the African Culture, and made a great contribution for the encouragement of black women to seek for freedom in the society.

  17. ALICE's first vacuum bakeout a success

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of April, the ALICE central beryllium beam pipe and absorber beam pipes were successfully conditioned. The installation and bakeout shell surround the beam pipe (lower left), running through the middle of the ITS and TPC. Notice the high-tech cooling system, an additional precaution to avoid overheating the ALICE detection equipment.One end of the vacuum sector during the bakeout and pure gas refill. It is unusual for a vacuum sector to end as it does in the middle of a non-accessible detector and made the installation and cabling of the bakeout equipment a more difficult procedure. Just before Easter, the first bakeout and NEG activation of experimental chambers in the LHC was carried out, followed by ultra pure gas refill. The bakeout consisted of externally heating the chambers under vacuum in order to lower their outgassing. This same heating process also activates the NEG, a coating on the inside surface of the beam vacuum chambers, which pumps the residual gas. ALICE's bakeout was pa...

  18. LS1 Report: ALICE ups the ante

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    SPS up and running... LHC almost cold... CCC Operators back at their desks... all telltale signs of the start of Run 2! For the experiments, that means there are just a few short months left for them to prepare for beams. The CERN Bulletin will be checking in with each of the Big Four to see how they are getting on during these closing months...   It has been a long road for the ALICE LS1 team. From major improvements to the 19 sub-detectors to a full re-cabling and replacement of LEP-era electrical infrastructure, no part of the ALICE cavern has gone untouched.* With the experiment set to close in early December, the teams are making finishing touches before turning their focus towards re-commissioning and calibration. "Earlier this week, we installed the last two modules of the di-jet calorimeter," explains Werner Riegler, ALICE technical coordinator. "These are the final parts of a 60 degree calorimeter extension that is installed opposite the present calorimeter, c...

  19. Digital Calorimetry Using Pixel Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reicher, M.

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a new type of electromagnetic calorimeter, which is not based on proportionality of deposited energy, but instead on counting the number of showering particles. This calorimeter is a proof of principle for a proposed upgrade of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron C

  20. A novel source-drain follower for monolithic active pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Aglieri, G.; Hillemanns, H.; Huang, G.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kim, D.; Kofarago, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Martinengo, P.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Lee, S.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Rousset, J.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Snoeys, W.; Sun, X.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.

    2016-09-01

    Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) receive interest in tracking applications in high energy physics as they integrate sensor and readout electronics in one silicon die with potential for lower material budget and cost, and better performance. Source followers (SFs) are widely used for MAPS readout: they increase charge conversion gain 1/Ceff or decrease the effective sensing node capacitance Ceff because the follower action compensates part of the input capacitance. Charge conversion gain is critical for analog power consumption and therefore for material budget in tracking applications, and also has direct system impact. This paper presents a novel source-drain follower (SDF), where both source and drain follow the gate potential improving charge conversion gain. For the inner tracking system (ITS) upgrade of the ALICE experiment at CERN, low material budget is a primary requirement. The SDF circuit was studied as part of the effort to optimize the effective capacitance of the sensing node. The collection electrode, input transistor and routing metal all contribute to Ceff. Reverse sensor bias reduces the collection electrode capacitance. The novel SDF circuit eliminates the contribution of the input transistor to Ceff, reduces the routing contribution if additional shielding is introduced, provides a way to estimate the capacitance of the sensor itself, and has a voltage gain closer to unity than the standard SF. The SDF circuit has a somewhat larger area with a somewhat smaller bandwidth, but this is acceptable in most cases. A test chip, manufactured in a 180 nm CMOS image sensor process, implements small prototype pixel matrices in different flavors to compare the standard SF to the novel SF and to the novel SF with additional shielding. The effective sensing node capacitance was measured using a 55Fe source. Increasing reverse substrate bias from -1 V to -6 V reduces Ceff by 38% and the equivalent noise charge (ENC) by 22% for the standard SF. The SDF

  1. A new LTPS TFT AC pixel circuit for an AMOLED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a new voltage programmed pixel circuit for an active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display. The proposed pixel circuit consists of six low temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS TFTs), one storage capacitor, and one OLED, and is verified by simulation work using HSPICE software. Besides effectively compensating for the threshold voltage variation of the driving TFT and OLED, the proposed pixel circuit offers an AC driving mode for the OLED, which can suppress the degradation of the OLED. Moreover, a high contrast ratio can be achieved by the proposed pixel circuit since the OLED does not emit any light except for the emission period. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. A new LTPS TFT AC pixel circuit for an AMOLED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yongwen; Chen Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a new voltage programmed pixel circuit for an active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display.The proposed pixel circuit consists of six low temperature polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS TFTs),one storage capacitor,and one OLED,and is verified by simulation work using HSPICE software.Besides effectively compensating for the threshold voltage variation of the driving TFT and OLED,the proposed pixel circuit offers an AC driving mode for the OLED,which can suppress the degradation of the OLED.Moreover,a high contrast ratio can be achieved by the proposed pixel circuit since the OLED does not emit any light except for the emission period.

  3. A radiation tolerant pixel detector system for the ALICE and LHCb experiments at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Dinapoli, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Le travail présenté dans cette thèse a été effectué au sein du groupe Microélectronique du CERN, le laboratoire européen pour la physique des particules. Il s’agit d’un laboratoire situé près de Genève en Suisse, il a été créé dans les années 50 pour donner aux scientifiques européens les moyens d'étudier la physique des hautes énergies (HEP, High Energy Physics). Grâce aux accélérateurs de particules conçus et réalisés au CERN (en particulier le LEP, Large Electron Positron) il a été possible de développer le « Modèle Standard », une théorie qui essaye d'expliquer la matière en termes de forces et de particules. Ce modèle a été testé avec succès par les expériences de physique des particules, cependant il est incomplet, car il ne prend pas en compte la masse des particules fondamentales. L'idée la plus simple pour inclure cette dernière s'appelle le mécanisme de Higgs. Ce mécanisme implique l’existence de une particule additionnelle, appelée le boson de Higgs...

  4. The Kepler Pixel Response Function

    CERN Document Server

    Bryson, Stephen T; Jenkins, Jon M; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Klaus, Todd; Caldwell, Douglas A; Gilliland, Ronald L; Haas, Michael R; Dotson, Jessie L; Koch, David G; Borucki, William J

    2010-01-01

    Kepler seeks to detect sequences of transits of Earth-size exoplanets orbiting Solar-like stars. Such transit signals are on the order of 100 ppm. The high photometric precision demanded by Kepler requires detailed knowledge of how the Kepler pixels respond to starlight during a nominal observation. This information is provided by the Kepler pixel response function (PRF), defined as the composite of Kepler's optical point spread function, integrated spacecraft pointing jitter during a nominal cadence and other systematic effects. To provide sub-pixel resolution, the PRF is represented as a piecewise-continuous polynomial on a sub-pixel mesh. This continuous representation allows the prediction of a star's flux value on any pixel given the star's pixel position. The advantages and difficulties of this polynomial representation are discussed, including characterization of spatial variation in the PRF and the smoothing of discontinuities between sub-pixel polynomial patches. On-orbit super-resolution measurement...

  5. ALICE Diffractive Detector Control System for RUN-II in the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cabanillas-Noris, Juan-Carlos; Monzon, I Leon

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes general characteristics of the deployment and commissioned of the Detector Control System (DCS) AD0 for the second phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The AD0 detector is installed in the ALICE experiment to provide a better selection of diffractive events.

  6. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the “ITk” (Inner Tracker). The pixel detector will comprise the five innermost layers, and will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Four layout options are being investigated at the moment, two with forward coverage to |eta| < 3.2 and two to |eta| < 4. For each coverage option, a layout with long barrel staves and a layout with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region are considered. All potential layouts include modules mounted on ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions...

  7. Uinunud Alice'i toas teeb imesid lavamaagia / Jaanus Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Jaanus

    2004-01-01

    7. veebr. esietendus Vanemuises tantsulavastus "Alice imedemaal". Etendus põhineb briti kirjaniku L. Carrolli samanimelisel lasteraamatul, koreograaf M. Murdmaa, kunstnik K. Jancis ja muusika on kirjutanud ungari helilooja S. Kall̤s, Alice'i osa tantsib korealanna Hye Min Kim

  8. ALICES: advanced software engineering workshop for real-time simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, A.; Rouault, G. [Tractebel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-01

    The ALICES software workshop is presently being applied for the development of a multifunctional simulator for Belgium`s Tihange-1 nuclear power unit. This will be the best validation for all the functions included in the tools. It is believed that ALICES will permit the development of quality realtime simulators at a significantly lower price.

  9. Electrical-modelling, design and simulation of cumulative radiation effects in semiconductor pixels detectors: prospects and limits

    CERN Document Server

    Fourches, Nicolas T; Chipaux, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    Silicon detectors have gained in popularity since silicon became a widely used micro/nanoelectronic semiconductor material. Silicon detectors are used in particle physics as well as imaging for pixel based detecting systems. Over the past twenty years a lot of experimental efforts have been focused on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on silicon pixels. Some of this research was done in the framework of high luminosity particle physics experiments, along with radiation hardness studies of basic semiconductors devices. In its simplest form the semiconductor pixel detectors reduce to a PIN or PN structure partially or totally depleted, or in some MOS and APD (Avalanche PhotoDiode) structures. Bulk or surface defects affect considerably transport of free carriers. We propose guidelines for pixel design, which will be tested through a few pixel structures. This design method includes into the design the properties of defects. The electrical properties reduce to parameters, which can be introduced...

  10. Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Keith; Loudin, James; Goetz, Georges; Huie, Philip; Wang, Lele; Kamins, Theodore I.; Galambos, Ludwig; Smith, Richard; Harris, James S.; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases lead to blindness due to loss of the `image capturing' photoreceptors, while neurons in the `image-processing' inner retinal layers are relatively well preserved. Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight by electrically stimulating the surviving neurons. Most implants are powered through inductive coils, requiring complex surgical methods to implant the coil-decoder-cable-array systems that deliver energy to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which silicon photodiodes in each pixel receive power and data directly through pulsed near-infrared illumination and electrically stimulate neurons. Stimulation is produced in normal and degenerate rat retinas, with pulse durations of 0.5-4 ms, and threshold peak irradiances of 0.2-10 mW mm-2, two orders of magnitude below the ocular safety limit. Neural responses were elicited by illuminating a single 70 µm bipolar pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density.

  11. Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K

    2001-01-01

    expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

  12. Open access for ALICE analysis based on virtualization technology

    CERN Document Server

    Buncic, P; Schutz, Y

    2015-01-01

    Open access is one of the important leverages for long-term data preservation for a HEP experiment. To guarantee the usability of data analysis tools beyond the experiment lifetime it is crucial that third party users from the scientific community have access to the data and associated software. The ALICE Collaboration has developed a layer of lightweight components built on top of virtualization technology to hide the complexity and details of the experiment-specific software. Users can perform basic analysis tasks within CernVM, a lightweight generic virtual machine, paired with an ALICE specific contextualization. Once the virtual machine is launched, a graphical user interface is automatically started without any additional configuration. This interface allows downloading the base ALICE analysis software and running a set of ALICE analysis modules. Currently the available tools include fully documented tutorials for ALICE analysis, such as the measurement of strange particle production or the nuclear modi...

  13. Status and future of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of disks in each forward end-cap. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-on-n silicon substrates. Intensive calibration, tuning, timing optimization and monitoring resulted in the successful five years of operation with good detector performance. The record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 7.7×1033cm−2s−1 recently surpassed at the LHC generated a rapidly increasing particle fluence in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. As the radiation dose accumulated, the first effects of radiation damage became observable in the silicon sensors as an increase in the silicon leakage current and the change of the voltage required to fully deplete the sensor. A fourth pixel layer at a radius of 3.3 cm will be added during the long shutdown (2013–2014) together with the replacement of pixel services. A letter of intent was submitted for a completely new Pixel Detector after 2023, capable to take data with extremely high leveled luminosities of 5×1034cm−2s−1 at the high luminosity LHC. -- Highlights: •The ATLAS Pixel Detector provides hermetic coverage with three layers with 80 million pixels. •Calibration, tuning, timing optimization and monitoring resulted in the successful five years of operation with good detector performance. •First effects of radiation damage became observable in the silicon sensors. •A fourth pixel layer at a radius of 3.3 cm will be added during the long shutdown (2013–2014). •Replacement of pixel services in 2013–2014. •A letter of intent was submitted for new Pixel Detector after 2023 for high luminosity LHC

  14. Hadronic resonances from ALICE in pp collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fragiacomo Enrico

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of resonances in √s = 7 TeV pp collisions provides a test of QCD in a new energy domain as well as a baseline for heavy-ion collisions. The resonances K*(8920, ϕ(1020, Σ(1385±, Λ(1520, and Ξ(15300 have been reconstructed at midrapidity from their hadronic decay using data collected by the ALICE detector. The comparison of ϕ(1020 and Σ(1385 pT-spectra to QCD-inspired models such as PHOJET and different PYTHIA tunes are shown.

  15. The ALICE Inner Tracking System Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A central component of the ALICE Upgrade will be a completely new Inner Tracking System (ITS). The performance of the new ITS will be a significant improvement over that of the present ITS, in particular in the areas of material budget, granularity, a reduced radial distance from the first layer to the beam and rate capability. This will enable many key measurements of the properties of the quark–gluon plasma to be performed, in particular with rare probes such as low momentum charm and beauty mesons and baryons

  16. Inbetriebnahme und Kalibrierung der ALICE-TPC

    OpenAIRE

    Wiechula, Jens

    2010-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment), is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is optimised to reconstruct and identify the particles created in a lead-lead collision with a centre of mass energy of 5.5TeV. The main tracking detector is a large-volume time-projection chamber (TPC). With an active volume of about 88m^3 and a total readout area of 32.5m^2 it is the most challenging TPC ever build. A central electrode divides the 5m long detector in...

  17. The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamodt, K [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Abrahantes Quintana, A [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Madrid/Havana, Spain (Cuba); Achenbach, R [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany BMBF (Germany); Acounis, S [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Universite de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Adamova, D [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez/Prague (Czech Republic); Adler, C [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany BMBF (Germany); Aggarwal, M [Physics Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Agnese, F [IPHC, Universite Louis Pasteur, CNRS/IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Rinella, G Aglieri [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Reasearch, Geneva (Switzerland); Ahammed, Z [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Ahmad, A; Ahmad, N; Ahmad, S [Department of Physics Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Akindinov, A [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Akishin, P [JINR, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, (Russian Federation); Aleksandrov, D [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Alessandro, B; Alfarone, G [Sezione INFN, Torino (Italy); Alfaro, R [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Alici, A [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: Hans-Ake.Gustafsson@hep.lu.se (and others)

    2008-08-15

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a general-purpose, heavy-ion detector at the CERN LHC which focuses on QCD, the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model. It is designed to address the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at extreme values of energy density and temperature in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Besides running with Pb ions, the physics programme includes collisions with lighter ions, lower energy running and dedicated proton-nucleus runs. ALICE will also take data with proton beams at the top LHC energy to collect reference data for the heavy-ion programme and to address several QCD topics for which ALICE is complementary to the other LHC detectors. The ALICE detector has been built by a collaboration including currently over 1000 physicists and engineers from 105 Institutes in 30 countries. Its overall dimensions are 16 x 16 x 26 m{sup 3} with a total weight of approximately 10 000 t. The experiment consists of 18 different detector systems each with its own specific technology choice and design constraints, driven both by the physics requirements and the experimental conditions expected at LHC. The most stringent design constraint is to cope with the extreme particle multiplicity anticipated in central Pb-Pb collisions. The different subsystems were optimized to provide high-momentum resolution as well as excellent Particle Identification (PID) over a broad range in momentum, up to the highest multiplicities predicted for LHC. This will allow for comprehensive studies of hadrons, electrons, muons, and photons produced in the collision of heavy nuclei. Most detector systems are scheduled to be installed and ready for data taking by mid-2008 when the LHC is scheduled to start operation, with the exception of parts of the Photon Spectrometer (PHOS), Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) and Electro Magnetic Calorimeter (EMCal). These detectors will be completed for the high-luminosity ion run expected in 2010

  18. Charged particle detection performances of CMOS pixel sensors produced in a 0.18 um process with a high resistivity epitaxial layer

    OpenAIRE

    Senyukov, Serhiy; Baudot, Jerome; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Gilles; Cousin, Loic; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Goffe, Mathieu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Winter, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The apparatus of the ALICE experiment at CERN will be upgraded in 2017/18 during the second long shutdown of the LHC (LS2). A major motivation for this upgrade is to extend the physics reach for charmed and beauty particles down to low transverse momenta. This requires a substantial improvement of the spatial resolution and the data rate capability of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). To achieve this goal, the new ITS will be equipped with 50 um thin CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) covering eit...

  19. La physique des (di)muons dans ALICE au LHC : analyse en collisions pp $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV) et Pb-Pb ($\\sqrt{s_NN}$ = 2.76 TeV) des résonances de basses masses ($\\rho, \\omega, \\phi$) et étude d'un trajectographe en pixels de Silicium dans l'ouverture du spectromètre

    CERN Document Server

    Massacrier, Laure; Tieulent, Raphaël

    ALICE experiment at LHC studies the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), a particular state of matter where quarks and gluons are deconfined. A probe to explore this state is the study of several resonances ($\\rho$, $\\omega$, $\\phi$, J/$\\psi$ and $\\Upsilon$) through their dimuon decay channel, with a muon spectrometer covering pseudo-rapidity -4 < $\\eta$ < -2.5. In the first part of this thesis, the focus is on light vector mesons ($\\rho$, $\\omega$ and $\\phi$) and their analysis in the 2010 data, in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV. Light vector mesons are powerful tools to probe the QGP due to their short lifetime and their dimuon decay channel. Indeed, leptons have negligible final state interactions. Production rates and spectral functions of those mesons are modified by the hot hadronic and QGP medium. Chiral symmetry restoration study is done thanks to the study of $\\rho$ spectral function. Strangeness enhancement is accessed via the ratio of $\\phi$ over $...

  20. ALICE ITS: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition and recent operational experience

    CERN Document Server

    Colella, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The characterisation of the Quark-Gluon Plasma produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion colli- sions is the main goal of the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. The ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) plays a key role in the study of short-living hadrons through the primary and sec- ondary vertex reconstruction. The system is composed of two innermost layers of pixel detectors, two middle layers of drift detectors and two outermost layers of strip detectors. The ITS covers the central pseudo-rapidity range of | h | < 0.9 and the distance from the beam line ranges from 3.9 cm for the innermost layer to 43 cm for the outermost layer. During the Run1 data taking period, the ITS contributed with tracking and charged particle identification capabilities, as well as a contribution to the definition of the Level 0 trigger signal. In particular at low p T the event reconstruction relies on the ITS performance as tracks do not reach the outer tracking detectors. In this contribution, after a brief description of the de...

  1. AliEn - EDG Interoperability in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnasco, S; Buncic, P; Carminati, F; Cerello, P G; Saiz, P

    2003-01-01

    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a GRID-like system for large scale job submission and distributed data management developed and used in the context of ALICE, the CERN LHC heavy-ion experiment. With the aim of exploiting upcoming Grid resources to run AliEn-managed jobs and store the produced data, the problem of AliEn-EDG interoperability was addressed and an in-terface was designed. One or more EDG (European Data Grid) User Interface machines run the AliEn software suite (Cluster Monitor, Storage Element and Computing Element), and act as interface nodes between the systems. An EDG Resource Broker is seen by the AliEn server as a single Computing Element, while the EDG storage is seen by AliEn as a single, large Storage Element; files produced in EDG sites are registered in both the EDG Replica Catalogue and in the AliEn Data Catalogue, thus ensuring accessibility from both worlds. In fact, both registrations are required: the AliEn one is used for the data management, the EDG one to guarantee the integrity and...

  2. Particle identification in ALICE: a Bayesian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Balasubramanian, Supraja; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Benacek, Pavel; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Grachov, Oleg Anatolievich; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Horak, David; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kostarakis, Panagiotis; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shahzad, Muhammed Ikram; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Sozzi, Federica; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasin, Zafar; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-01-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to particle identification (PID) within the ALICE experiment. The aim is to more effectively combine the particle identification capabilities of its various detectors. After a brief explanation of the adopted methodology and formalism, the performance of the Bayesian PID approach for charged pions, kaons and protons in the central barrel of ALICE is studied. PID is performed via measurements of specific energy loss (dE/dx) and time-of-flight. PID efficiencies and misidentification probabilities are extracted and compared with Monte Carlo simulations using high purity samples of identified particles in the decay channels ${\\rm K}_{\\rm S}^{\\rm 0}\\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-$, $\\phi\\rightarrow {\\rm K}^-{\\rm K}^+$ and $\\Lambda\\rightarrow{\\rm p}\\pi^-$ in p–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}= 5.02$TeV. In order to thoroughly assess the validity of the Bayesian approach, this methodology was used to obtain corrected $p_{\\rm T}$ spectra of pions, kaons, protons, and D$^0$ mesons in pp coll...

  3. Quarkonium production in ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjidakis, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC, the ALICE Collaboration is studying Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) matter at very high energy density where the formation of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) is expected. Quarkonium production is an important probe to characterize the QGP properties. High precision data in pp collisions provide the baseline of Pb-Pb measurements and p-Pb collisions serve to quantify the amount of initial and/or final state effects, related to cold nuclear matter, that are largely unknown at the LHC energy. Since 2010, the LHC provided Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76 TeV, pp collisions at various energies and in 2013 p-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02 TeV. In ALICE, quarkonia can be reconstructed at forward rapidity in the dimuon channel and at mid-rapidity in the dielectron channel, and, for both channels, down to zero transverse momentum. New measurements on inclusive production of J/psi, psi (2S) and Upsilon performed in p-Pb collisions and on the p_T dependence of inclusive J/psi in ...

  4. Characterisation of pALPIDE-1 sensors for the ALICE ITS

    CERN Document Server

    Dietze, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE ITS will be upgraded to allow for high precision measurements of rare decays at low transverse momentum in Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC. The current six layer system will be completely replaced by a seven layer detector consisting of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). A telescope consisting of seven layers of single pALPIDE-1 sensors has been designed at CERN to allow its characterisation. This study investigates the impact of high multiplicity on the association of tracks to hits. It was found that there are clear relations between the amount of hits in the DUT and the fake efficiency for several parameters. Furthermore, the algorithm responsible for the association between hits and tracks was studied and improved.

  5. Performance Studies of Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors for the LHCb RICH Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2004-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  6. Performance studies of pixel hybrid photon detectors for the LHCb RICH counters

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; Piedigrossi, D; Van Lysebetten, A

    2006-01-01

    The Pixel Hybrid Photon Detector is a vacuum tube with a multi-alkali photo cathode, high voltage cross-focused electron optics and an anode consisting of a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a readout CMOS electronic chip fully encapsulated in the device. The Pixel HPD fulfils the requirements of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters of the LHCb experiment at LHC. The performances of the Pixel HPD will be discussed with reference to laboratory measurements, Cherenkov light imaging in recent beam tests, image distortions due to a magnetic field.

  7. Overview of the BTeV Pixel Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BTeV is a new Fermilab beauty and charm experiment designed to operate in the CZero region of the Tevatron collider. Critical to the success of BTeV is its pixel detector. The unique features of this pixel detector include its proximity to the beam, its operation with a beam crossing time of 132 ns, and the need for the detector information to be read out quickly enough to be used for the lowest level trigger. This talk presents an overview of the pixel detector design, giving the motivations for the technical choices made. The status of the current RandD on detector components is also reviewed. Additional Pixel 2002 talks on the BTeV pixel detector are given by Dave Christian[1], Mayling Wong[2], and Sergio Zimmermann[3]. Table 1 gives a selection of pixel detector parameters for the ALICE, ATLAS, BTeV, and CMS experiments. Comparing the progression of this table, which I have been updating for the last several years, has shown a convergence of specifications. Nevertheless, significant differences endure. The BTeV data-driven readout, horizontal and vertical position resolution better than 9 (micro)m with the ± 300 mr forward acceptance, and positioning in vacuum and as close as 6 mm from the circulating beams remain unique. These features are driven by the physics goals of the BTeV experiment. Table 2 demonstrates that the vertex trigger performance made possible by these features is requisite for a very large fraction of the B meson decay physics which is so central to the motivation for BTeV. For most of the physics quantities of interest listed in the table, the vertex trigger is essential. The performance of the BTeV pixel detector may be summarized by looking at particular physics examples; e.g., the Bs meson decay Bs → Ds- K+. For that decay, studies using GEANT3 simulations provide quantitative measures of performance. For example, the separation between the Bs decay point and the primary proton-antiproton interaction can be measured with an rms

  8. Simulation of the ALICE DAQ System with GALSIM

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, J; Skaali, B

    1997-01-01

    We present some of the simulation results for the DAQ system of the ALICE Abstract:experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The simulation is performed by the ALICE DAQ Simulation Program GALSIM. Abstract:GALSIM comprises two software packages; 1)the basic ALICE DAQ simulation Abstract:program ALSIM and 2) a graphic user interface which dynamically displays Abstract:the data transport and synchronization messages in the DAQ system. GALSIM Abstract:is written in MODSIM II and has been developed by the ALICE DAQ group at Abstract:the Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Norway. In the paper, we will first introduce the basic ALICE DAQ system and the sAbstract:imulator GALSIM. We will then concentrate on the simulation of the ALICE Abstract:DAQ topology with various parameters. The results we present can be viewed Abstract:as an extension of the DAQ simulation shown in the ALICE Technical Abstract:Proposal. Among the important results, we emphasize on the following issues, 1. The effect of me...

  9. The ALICE Glance Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Silva, H.; Abreu Da Silva, I.; Ronchetti, F.; Telesca, A.; Maidantchik, C.

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider) studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma. The experiment operation requires a 24 hours a day and 7 days a week shift crew at the experimental site, composed by the ALICE collaboration members. Shift duties are calculated for each institute according to their correlated members. In order to ensure the full coverage of the experiment operation as well as its good quality, the ALICE Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS) is used to manage the shift bookings as well as the needed training. ALICE SAMS is the result of a joint effort between the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and the ALICE Collaboration. The Glance technology, developed by the UFRJ and the ATLAS experiment, sits at the basis of the system as an intermediate layer isolating the particularities of the databases. In this paper, we describe the ALICE SAMS development process and functionalities. The database has been modelled according to the collaboration needs and is fully integrated with the ALICE Collaboration repository to access members information and respectively roles and activities. Run, period and training coordinators can manage their subsystem operation and ensure an efficient personnel management. Members of the ALICE collaboration can book shifts and on-call according to pre-defined rights. ALICE SAMS features a user profile containing all the statistics and user contact information as well as the Institutes profile. Both the user and institute profiles are public (within the scope of the collaboration) and show the credit balance in real time. A shift calendar allows the Run Coordinator to plan data taking periods in terms of which subsystems shifts are enabled or disabled and on-call responsible people and slots. An overview display presents the shift crew present in the control room and allows the Run Coordination team to confirm the presence

  10. Diamond pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Robichaud, A; Potenza, R; Kuleshov, S; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Wermes, N; Dulinski, W; Eremin, V; Smith, S; Sopko, B; Olivero, P; Gorisek, A; Chren, D; Kramberger, G; Schnetzer, S; Weilhammer, P; Martemyanov, A; Hugging, F; Pernegger, H; Lagomarsino, S; Manfredotti, C; Mishina, M; Trischuk, W; Dobos, D; Cindro, V; Belyaev, V; Duris, J; Claus, G; Wallny, R; Furgeri, A; Tuve, C; Goldstein, J; Sciortino, S; Sutera, C; Asner, D; Mikuz, M; Lo Giudice, A; Velthuis, J; Hits, D; Griesmayer, E; Oakham, G; Frais-Kolbl, H; Bellini, V; D'Alessandro, R; Cristinziani, M; Barbero, M; Schaffner, D; Costa, S; Goffe, M; La Rosa, A; Bruzzi, M; Schreiner, T; de Boer, W; Parrini, G; Roe, S; Randrianarivony, K; Dolenc, I; Moss, J; Brom, J M; Golubev, A; Mathes, M; Eusebi, R; Grigoriev, E; Tsung, J W; Mueller, S; Mandic, I; Stone, R; Menichelli, D

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10(16) protons/cm(2) illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel m...

  11. Development and characterization of the latest X-ray SOI pixel sensor for a future astronomical mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Shinya; Gando Ryu, Syukyo; Tanaka, Takaaki; Go Tsuru, Takeshi; Takeda, Ayaki; Arai, Yasuo; Imamura, Toshifumi; Ohmoto, Takafumi; Iwata, Atsushi

    2013-12-01

    We have been developing active pixel sensors based on silicon-on-insulator technology for future X-ray astronomy missions. Recently we fabricated the new prototype named “XRPIX2”, and investigated its spectroscopic performance. For comparison and evaluation of different chip designs, XRPIX2 consists of 3 pixel types: Small Pixel, Large Pixel 1, and Large Pixel 2. In Small Pixel, we found that the gains of the 68% pixels are within 1.4% of the mean value, and the energy resolution is 656 eV (FWHM) for 8 keV X-rays, which is the best spectroscopic performance in our development. The pixel pitch of Large Pixel 1 and Large Pixel 2 is twice as large as that of Small Pixel. Charge sharing events are successfully reduced for Large Pixel 1. Moreover Large Pixel 2 has multiple nodes for charge collection in a pixel. We confirmed that the multi-nodes structure is effective to increase charge collection efficiency.

  12. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Sherwood I. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  13. Recent hadronic resonance measurements at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Knospe, A G

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion physics, measurements of short-lived hadronic resonances allow the properties of the hadronic phase of the collision to be studied. In addition, resonances can be used along with stable hadrons to study parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma and the mechanisms that shape hadron pT spectra at intermediate transverse momenta. Resonance measurements in small systems serve as a reference for heavy-ion collisions and contribute to searches for collective effects. An overview of recent results on hadronic resonance production measured in ALICE is presented. These results include the pT spectra and yields of the rho(770)0, K*(892)0, and phi(1020) mesons in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at different energies as well as the Sigma(1385)+/- and Xi(1530)0 baryons in pp and p-Pb collisions.

  14. Trigger electronics for the ALICE PHOS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Musa, L; Yin, Z; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Sibiryak, Yu; Budnikov, D L

    2004-01-01

    The Photon Spectrometer of ALICE consists of 5 identical modules of 56 multiplied by 64 PWO crystals with a total of 100 degree azimuthal coverage of the barrel. The electronics required for implementing both the L0 trigger for high luminosity p-p physics and the L1 trigger for high p//T Pb+Pb physics has been studied. A full integration of the trigger logic into the detector's enclosure is based on analog transmission of fast trigger sums between stacks of front-end boards and trigger-router units. The latter contain 112 digitizer channels of 10bit, which are mapped into a single FPGA per trigger unit, covering areas of 24 multiplied by 16 crystals. The running modes allow for Level-0 trigger at 800ns and Level-1 at 6200ns trigger latencies. The design and status of the PHOS trigger electronics are outlined.

  15. ALICE & LHCb: refinements for the restart

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Following the previous issue, the Bulletin continues its series to find out what the six LHC experiments have been up to since last September, and how they are preparing for the restart. Previously we looked at CMS and ATLAS; this issue we will round up the past 10 months of activity at ALICE and LHCb. LHCb The cavern of the LHCb experiment. This year has given LHCb the chance to install the 5th and final plane of muon chambers, which will improve the triggering at nominal luminosity. This is the final piece of the experiment to be installed. "Now the detector looks exactly as it does in the technical design report," confirms Andrei Golutvin, LHCb Spokesperson. "We also took advantage of this shutdown to make several improvements. For example, we modified the high voltage system of the electromagnetic calorimeter to reduce noise further to a negligible level. We also took some measures to improve ...

  16. Alice Amsden's impact on Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shapiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On March 15 2012, we lost Professor Alice Amsden, a great intellectual power in development economics. Her work was systematically marked by creativity, originality, relevance and her fearless commitment to always speak truth to power both in academic as well as in policy-making arenas. This In Memoriam concentrates on just one part of her great intellectual legacy: her impact to better understanding Latin America's development challenges, obstacles and policy options. Our paper focuses on three broad areas of her main influence in the region: the role of transnational corporations, the importance of manufactured exports for development, and industrial policy. As we here argue, in all of them, her work is and continues to be a substantial contribution to knowledge that policy makers will be well advised to take into account if the region is to finally enter a path of structural transformation and sustained economic and social development.

  17. Timing in the ALICE trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Lietava, Roman; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jovanovic, P; Jusko, A; Králik, I; Krivda, M; Pastircák, B; Sándor, L; Urbán, J; Villalobos Baillie, O

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss trigger signals synchronisation and trigger input alignment in the ALICE trigger system. The synchronisation procedure adjusts the phase of the input signals with respect to the local Bunch Crossing (BC) clock and, indirectly, with respect to the LHC bunch crossing instant. The synchronisation delays are within one clock period: 0-25 ns. The alignment assures that the trigger signals originating from the same bunch crossing reach the processor logic in the same clock cycle. It is achieved by delaying signals by an appropriate number of full clock periods. We propose a procedure which will allow us to nd alignment delays during the system con guration, and to monitor them during the data taking.

  18. Recent ALICE results on hadronic resonance production

    CERN Document Server

    Badalà, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Hadronic resonances are a valuable tool to study the properties of the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions. In particular, they can provide information on particle-formation mechanisms and on the properties of the medium at chemical freeze-out. Furthermore they contribute to the systematic study of parton energy loss and quark recombination. Measurements of resonances in pp and in p-Pb collisions provide a necessary baseline for heavy-ion data and help to disentangle initial-state effects from medium-induced effects. In this paper the latest ALICE results on mid-rapidity K*(892)^0 and {\\phi}(1020) production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies are presented

  19. Online calibrations and performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately 80 M electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region, thus allowing measuring particle tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. The readout system of the Pixel Detector is based on a bi-directional optical data transmission system between the detector and the data acquisition system with an individual link for each of the 1744 modules. Signal conversion components are located on both ends, approximately 80 m apart. The talk will give an overview of the calibration and performance of both the detector and its optical readout. The most basic parameter to be tuned and calibrated for the detector electronics is the readout threshold of the individual pixel channels. These need to be carefully tuned to optimise position resolution a...

  20. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pan, L.S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W. E-mail: william@physics.utoronto.ca; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G

    1999-11-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 {mu}m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch.

  1. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Fried, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Palmieri, V G; Pan, L S; Peitz, A; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Steuerer, J; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M; Charles, E; Ciocio, A; Dao, K; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fasching, D; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Richardson, J; Sinervo, P K; Zizka, G

    1999-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98565544f the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 mu m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch. (13 refs).

  2. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 μm was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch

  3. Testbeam and Laboratory Characterization of CMS 3D Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Bubna, M; Krzywda, A; Koybasi, O; Arndt, K; Bortoletto, D; Shipsey, I; Bolla, G; Kok, A; Hansen, T -E; Hansen, T A; Jensen, G U; Brom, J M; Boscardin, M; Chramowicz, J; Cumalat, J; Betta, G F Dalla; Dinardo, M; Godshalk, A; Jones, M; Krohn, M D; Kumar, A; Lei, C M; Moroni, L; Perera, L; Povoli, M; Prosser, A; Rivera, R; Solano, A; Obertino, M M; Kwan, S; Uplegger, L; Via, C D; Vigani, L; Wagner, S

    2014-01-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device in CMS, reconstructing interaction vertices and charged particle trajectories. The sensors located in the innermost layers of the pixel detector must be upgraded for the ten-fold increase in luminosity expected with the High- Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) phase. As a possible replacement for planar sensors, 3D silicon technology is under consideration due to its good performance after high radiation fluence. In this paper, we report on pre- and post- irradiation measurements for CMS 3D pixel sensors with different electrode configurations. The effects of irradiation on electrical properties, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution of 3D sensors are discussed. Measurements of various test structures for monitoring the fabrication process and studying the bulk and surface properties, such as MOS capacitors, planar and gate-controlled diodes are also presented.

  4. The Phase-1 Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment features a pixel detector with three barrel layers and two disks per side, corresponding to an active silicon area of 1\\,m$^2$. The detector delivered high-quality data during LHC Run~1. However, the CMS pixel detector was designed for the nominal instantaneous LHC luminosity of $1\\cdot 10^{34}\\,$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. It is expected that the instantaneous luminosity will increase and reach twice the design value before Long Shutdown 3, scheduled for 2023. Under such conditions, the present readout chip would suffer from data loss due to buffer overflow, leading to significant inefficiencies of up to~16\\,\\%. The CMS collaboration is presently constructing a new pixel detector to replace the present device during the winter shutdown 2016/2017. The design of this new detector will be outlined, the construction status summarized and the performance described.

  5. The ALICE DAQ infoLogger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapeland, S.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Dénes, E.; Divià, R.; Fuchs, U.; Grigore, A.; Ionita, C.; Delort, C.; Simonetti, G.; Soós, C.; Telesca, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Von Haller, B.; Alice Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a heavy-ion experiment studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The ALICE DAQ (Data Acquisition System) is based on a large farm of commodity hardware consisting of more than 600 devices (Linux PCs, storage, network switches). The DAQ reads the data transferred from the detectors through 500 dedicated optical links at an aggregated and sustained rate of up to 10 Gigabytes per second and stores at up to 2.5 Gigabytes per second. The infoLogger is the log system which collects centrally the messages issued by the thousands of processes running on the DAQ machines. It allows to report errors on the fly, and to keep a trace of runtime execution for later investigation. More than 500000 messages are stored every day in a MySQL database, in a structured table keeping track for each message of 16 indexing fields (e.g. time, host, user, ...). The total amount of logs for 2012 exceeds 75GB of data and 150 million rows. We present in this paper the architecture and implementation of this distributed logging system, consisting of a client programming API, local data collector processes, a central server, and interactive human interfaces. We review the operational experience during the 2012 run, in particular the actions taken to ensure shifters receive manageable and relevant content from the main log stream. Finally, we present the performance of this log system, and future evolutions.

  6. External access to ALICE controls conditions data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadlovský, J.; Jadlovská, A.; Sarnovský, J.; Jajčišin, Š.; Čopík, M.; Jadlovská, S.; Papcun, P.; Bielek, R.; Čerkala, J.; Kopčík, M.; Chochula, P.; Augustinus, A.

    2014-06-01

    ALICE Controls data produced by commercial SCADA system WINCCOA is stored in ORACLE database on the private experiment network. The SCADA system allows for basic access and processing of the historical data. More advanced analysis requires tools like ROOT and needs therefore a separate access method to the archives. The present scenario expects that detector experts create simple WINCCOA scripts, which retrieves and stores data in a form usable for further studies. This relatively simple procedure generates a lot of administrative overhead - users have to request the data, experts needed to run the script, the results have to be exported outside of the experiment network. The new mechanism profits from database replica, which is running on the CERN campus network. Access to this database is not restricted and there is no risk of generating a heavy load affecting the operation of the experiment. The developed tools presented in this paper allow for access to this data. The users can use web-based tools to generate the requests, consisting of the data identifiers and period of time of interest. The administrators maintain full control over the data - an authorization and authentication mechanism helps to assign privileges to selected users and restrict access to certain groups of data. Advanced caching mechanism allows the user to profit from the presence of already processed data sets. This feature significantly reduces the time required for debugging as the retrieval of raw data can last tens of minutes. A highly configurable client allows for information retrieval bypassing the interactive interface. This method is for example used by ALICE Offline to extract operational conditions after a run is completed. Last but not least, the software can be easily adopted to any underlying database structure and is therefore not limited to WINCCOA.

  7. ALICE installs new hardware in preparation for the 2012 run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin and ALICE Matters

    2012-01-01

    2011 was a fantastic year for the heavy-ion run at ALICE despite unprecedented challenges and difficult conditions. The data collected is at least one order of magnitude greater than the 2010 data. Thanks to a planned upgrade to two subdetectors during the 2011/2012 winter shutdown and a reorganisation of ALICE’s Physics Working Groups that should allow them to better deal with the greater challenges imposed by the LHC, the collaboration is confident that the 2011 run will allow ALICE to extend its physics reach and improve its performance.   Photograph of ALICE taken by Antonio Saba during this year's winter shutdown. The annual winter shutdown has been a very intense period for the ALICE collaboration. In conjunction with the general maintenance, modifications and tests of the experiment, two major projects – the installation of 3 supermodules of the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) and 2 supermodules of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMCal) – hav...

  8. Sampling Lake Alice NWR Fish Populations - 2014, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The USFWS and North Dakota Game and Fish Department sampled Northern pike, walleye, yellow perch and white bass within the boundary of Lake Alice NWR in North...

  9. First Proton-Proton Physics with the ALICE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the status and plans of first measuremen ts in p+p collisions with ALICE. The first part introduces the ALICE experiment with a focus on the subdetectors that are to be used for first physics. The characteristic features of ALICE, its very low-momentum cut-off, the low material budget and the excellent PID and vertexing capabil ities, that make ALICE an important contributor to LHC physics in the realm of soft QCD, are descr ibed. Subsequently, a selection of measurements that are accessible with data taken in a few d ays to 1–2 weeks are discussed: the pseudorapidity density dN ch / d η , the multiplicity distribution and the transverse momentu m distribution dN ch / d p T of charged particles

  10. Heavy flavour measurements with ALICE at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Castellanos, Javier [service de physique nucleaire - SPhN, IRFU, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. The main purpose of ALICE is to investigate the properties of a state of deconfined nuclear matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma. Heavy flavour measurements will play a crucial role in this investigation. The physics programme of ALICE has started by studying proton-proton collisions at unprecedented high energies. We will present the first results on open heavy flavour and quarkonia in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV measured by the ALICE experiment at both mid- and forward-rapidities. We will conclude with the prospects for heavy flavour and quarkonium measurements in both proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions. (author)

  11. From Pixels to Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownston, Lee; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission was launched in 2009 as NASAs first mission capable of finding Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Its telescope consists of a 1.5-m primary mirror and a 0.95-m aperture. The 42 charge-coupled devices in its focal plane are read out every half hour, compressed, and then downlinked monthly. After four years, the second of four reaction wheels failed, ending the original mission. Back on earth, the Science Operations Center developed the Science Pipeline to analyze about 200,000 target stars in Keplers field of view, looking for evidence of periodic dimming suggesting that one or more planets had crossed the face of its host star. The Pipeline comprises several steps, from pixel-level calibration, through noise and artifact removal, to detection of transit-like signals and the construction of a suite of diagnostic tests to guard against false positives. The Kepler Science Pipeline consists of a pipeline infrastructure written in the Java programming language, which marshals data input to and output from MATLAB applications that are executed as external processes. The pipeline modules, which underwent continuous development and refinement even after data started arriving, employ several analytic techniques, many developed for the Kepler Project. Because of the large number of targets, the large amount of data per target and the complexity of the pipeline algorithms, the processing demands are daunting. Some pipeline modules require days to weeks to process all of their targets, even when run on NASA's 128-node Pleiades supercomputer. The software developers are still seeking ways to increase the throughput. To date, the Kepler project has discovered more than 4000 planetary candidates, of which more than 1000 have been independently confirmed or validated to be exoplanets. Funding for this mission is provided by NASAs Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Performance of the ALICE Experiment at the CERN LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny; Adam, Jaroslav; Adamova, Dagmar; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agostinelli, Andrea; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; 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Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2014-01-01

    ALICE is the heavy-ion experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The experiment continuously took data during the first physics campaign of the machine from fall 2009 until early 2013, using proton and lead-ion beams. In this paper we describe the running environment and the data handling procedures, and discuss the performance of the ALICE detectors and analysis methods for various physics observables.

  13. Slovenian trilogy Alice in crazy country by Evald Flisar

    OpenAIRE

    Blažić, Milena Mileva

    2015-01-01

    Evald Flisar (1945) is contemporary Slovenian editor, play writer and writer. He studied Comparative literature at University of Ljubljana and English language and drama at Chiswick Polytechnic in London. He is cosmopolitan oriented adults author who wrote numerous drama and novel for adults. Lewis Carroll The Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865) influenced to Slovenian author. Evald Flisar wrote Alice in Crazy Country as fantasy (2008), Alice in Crazy Country: Ecological Fa...

  14. ALICE takes root in Saint-Genis-Pouilly

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    To celebrate the CERN 50th anniversary and to emphasize the close ties between the community of Saint-Genis-Pouilly, CERN and the ALICE Collaboration, Hubert Bertrand, Mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly and Christian Fabjan, Technical Coordinator of the ALICE Experiment, planted a tree on Saturday 16 October 2004 in front of the Jean Monet Culture Center.

  15. ALICE takes root in Saint-Genis-Pouilly

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To celebrate the CERN 50th anniversary and to emphasize the close ties between the community of Saint-Genis-Pouilly, CERN and the ALICE Collaboration, Hubert Bertrand, Mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly and Christian Fabjan, Technical Coordinator of the ALICE Experiment, planted a tree on Saturday 16 October 2004 in front of the Jean Monet Culture Center.

  16. A comparison between Alice and Elizabeth chatbot systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shawar, BA; Atwell, E.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines two chatter bots systems called ALICE and Elizabeth, which are adapted from ELIZA program. Joseph Weizenbaum implemented ELIZA in 1966 and it was originally designed to emulate a psychotherapist. This report also provides an introduction to the analysis of ALICE and Elizabeth focusing in the knowledge representation and pattern matching algorithms for each one of them. The report then illustrates the main differences between them and concludes that it will be easier to bui...

  17. VHMPID: a new detector for the ALICE experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Agócs, A Gu; Barnaföldi, G G; Bellwied, R; Bencze, Gy; Berényi, D; Boldizsár, L; Cuautle, E; De Cataldo, G; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Dominguez, I; Futó, E; García, E; Hamar, G; Harris, J; Harton, A; Kovács, L; Lévai, P; Lipusz, Cs; Markert, C; Martinengo, P; Martinez, M I; Mastromarco, M; Mayani, D; Molnár, L; Nappi, E; Ortiz, A; Paić, G; Pastore, C; Patino, M E; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peskov, V; Pinsky, L; Piuz, F; Pochybová, S; Smirnov, N; Song, J; Timmins, A; Varga, D; Vargas, A; Vergara, S; Volpe, G; Yi, J; Yoo, I K

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the basic idea of VHMPID, an upgrade detector for the ALICE experiment at LHC, CERN. The main goal of this detector is to extend the particle identification capabilities of ALICE to give more insight into the evolution of the hot and dense matter created in Pb-Pb collisions. Starting from the physics motivations and working principles the challenges and current status of development is detailed.

  18. ALICE91, Particle Spectra from Compound Nucleus Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: Several types of calculations and combinations can be performed including a standard Weisskopf-Ewing evaporation with multiple particle emission, S-wave approximation to give an upper limit to the enhancement of gamma-ray deexcitation due to momentum effects, and an evaporation calculation that can include fission competition via the Bohr-Wheeler approach. ALICE91 calculates precompound decay via Hybrid and GDH models with multiple precompound decay algorithms, single and double differential spectra, and reaction product cross sections. 2 - Method of solution: ALICE/85/300 and later revisions of the ALICE/LIVERMORE 82 computer code do precompound, compound/ statistical fission calculations in the general framework of the Weisskopf-Ewing evaporation model, the Bohr-Wheeler transition state model for fission, and the hybrid/geometry dependent models for precompound decay. ALICE/85/300 allows a variable energy mesh size, excitation energies up to 300 MeV, and incorporates several other improvements in calculational approaches. ALICE91 includes options for shell dependent level densities, and an option to use systematics for angular distribution. The new version also includes gamma-ray competition with particle decay models. The IBM PC version (B) was converted from mainframe ALICE-87, which is a revision of ALICE/85/300. Input default options were included in this version. Refer to comments in the file ALICE1.FOR for information on modifications. ALISO differs only in that it will do calculations for natural isotopic targets, giving weighted results at the end. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Users must refer to comments in the FORTRAN source files for input instructions and information. If running the PC version on 32-bit word-length machines, remove CXXXXX from double precision statements for POW and GAM

  19. ALICE's main austenitic stainless steel support structure (the Space Frame)

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This structure is constructed to hold the large volume detectors, such as the Time Projection Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time of Flight inside the ALICE solenoid magnet. After the final assembly at CERN, two large mobile cranes were needed for the job of lifting and turning the 14 tonne frame onto its side. Once shifted, it was placed in Building SX2, one of the surface assembly areas designated for ALICE.

  20. VHMPID: a new detector for the ALICE experiment at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perini D.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the basic idea of VHMPID, an upgrade detector for the ALICE experiment at LHC, CERN. The main goal of this detector is to extend the particle identification capabilities of ALICE to give more insight into the evolution of the hot and dense matter created in Pb-Pb collisions. Starting from the physics motivations and working principles the challenges and current status of development is detailed.

  1. Pixel detector modules performance for ATLAS IBL and future pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00355104; Pernegger, Heinz

    2015-11-06

    The ATLAS Detector is one of the four big particle physics experiments at CERN’s LHC. Its innermost tracking system consisted of the 3-Layer silicon Pixel Detector (~80M readout channels) in the first run (2010-2012). Over the past two years it was refurbished and equipped with new services as well as a new beam monitor. The major upgrade, however, was the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). It adds ~12M readout channels for improved vertexing, tracking robustness and b-tagging performance for the upcoming runs, before the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC will take place. This thesis covers two main aspects of Pixel detector performance studies: The main work was the planning, commissioning and operation of a test bench that meets the requirements of current pixel detector components. Each newly built ATLAS IBL stave was thoroughly tested, following a specifically developed procedure, and initially calibrated in that setup. A variety of production accompanying measurements as well as preliminary results after integ...

  2. optical links for the atlas pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Optical links are necessary to satisfy the high speed readout over long distances for advanced silicon detector systems. We report on the optical readout used in the newly installed central pixel layer (IBL) in the ATLAS experiment. The off detector readout employs commercial optical to analog converters, which were extensively tested for this application. Performance measurements during installation and commissioning will be shown. With the increasing instantaneous luminosity in the next years, the next layers outwards of IBL of the ATLAS Pixel detector (Layer 1 and Layer 2) will reach their bandwidth limits. A plan to increase the bandwidth by upgrading the off detector readout chain is put in place. The plan also involves new optical readout components, in particular the optical receivers, for which commercial units cannot be used and a new design has been made. The latter allows for a wider operational range in term of data frequency and light input power to match the on-detector sending units on the pres...

  3. Optical links for the ATLAS Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stucci, Stefania Antonia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Optical links are necessary to satisfy the high speed readout over long distances for advanced silicon detector systems. We report on the optical readout used in the newly installed central pixel layer (IBL) in the ATLAS experiment. The off detector readout employs commercial optical to analog converters, which were extensively tested for this application. Performance measurements during installation and commissioning will be shown. With the increasing instantaneous luminosity in the next years, the next layers outwards of IBL of the ATLAS Pixel detector (Layer 1 and Layer 2) will reach their bandwidth limits. A plan to increase the bandwidth by upgrading the off detector readout chain is put in place. The plan also involves new optical readout components, in particular the optical receivers, for which commercial units cannot be used and a new design has been made. The latter allows for a wider operational range in term of data frequency and light input power to match the on-detector sending units on the pres...

  4. The Pixels system: last but not late!

    CERN Multimedia

    Kevin Einsweiler

    The Pixel Detector for ATLAS is one of the smallest, but most challenging components of the experiment. It lives in the dangerous territory directly outside the beampipe, where the radiation environment is particularly fierce, and it must be roughly one million times more radiation-hard than its human designers. Starting at a radius of just 5cm from the interaction point where the proton beams collide, it occupies a volume of slightly more than one meter in length and a half meter in diameter. In this compact region, there are eighty million channels of electronics (most of the electronics channels in ATLAS!), each capable of measuring the charge deposited by a track in a silicon pixel measuring only 50 microns by 400 microns in size (a volume of 0.005 cubic millimeters). A total cooling capacity of 15 KWatts is available to keep it operating comfortably at -5C. This detector is built around, and provides the support for, the central beampipe of ATLAS. It is supported on carbon fiber rails inside of the Pix...

  5. ATLAS Pixel Detector Design For HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running in 2026. The new Inner Detector will be called the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will cover an extended eta-range: at least to |eta|<3.2, and likely up to |eta|<4.0. The ITk will be an all-Silicon based detector, consisting of a Silicon strip detector outside of a radius of 362mm, and a Silicon pixel detector inside of this radius. Several novel designs are being considered for the ITk pixel detector, to cope with high-eta charged particle tracks. These designs are grouped into 'extended' and 'inclined' design-types. Extended designs have long pixel staves with sensors parallel to the beamline. High-eta particles will therefore hit these sensors at shallow angles, leaving elongated charge clusters. The length of such a charge cluster can be used to estimate the angle of the passing particle. This information can then be used in track reconstruction to improve tracking efficiency and reduce fake rates. Inclined designs ...

  6. Open access for ALICE analysis based on virtualization technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buncic, P.; Gheata, M.; Schutz, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Open access is one of the important leverages for long-term data preservation for a HEP experiment. To guarantee the usability of data analysis tools beyond the experiment lifetime it is crucial that third party users from the scientific community have access to the data and associated software. The ALICE Collaboration has developed a layer of lightweight components built on top of virtualization technology to hide the complexity and details of the experiment-specific software. Users can perform basic analysis tasks within CernVM, a lightweight generic virtual machine, paired with an ALICE specific contextualization. Once the virtual machine is launched, a graphical user interface is automatically started without any additional configuration. This interface allows downloading the base ALICE analysis software and running a set of ALICE analysis modules. Currently the available tools include fully documented tutorials for ALICE analysis, such as the measurement of strange particle production or the nuclear modification factor in Pb-Pb collisions. The interface can be easily extended to include an arbitrary number of additional analysis modules. We present the current status of the tools used by ALICE through the CERN open access portal, and the plans for future extensions of this system.

  7. Modeling crosstalk in silicon photomultipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego, L.; Rosado Vélez, Jaime; Arqueros Martínez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Optical crosstalk seriously limits the photon-counting resolution of silicon photomultipliers. In this work, realistic analytical models to describe the crosstalk effects on the response of these photodetectors are presented and compared with experimental data. The proposed models are based on the hypothesis that each pixel of the array has a finite number of available neighboring pixels to excite via crosstalk. Dead-time effects and geometrical aspects of the propagation of crosstalk between...

  8. A Sub Pixel Resolution Method

    CERN Document Server

    Khademi, Siamak; Abbasi, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    One of the main limitations for the resolution of optical instruments is the size of the sensor's pixels. In this paper we introduce a new sub pixel resolution algorithm to enhance the resolution of images. This method is based on the analysis of multi-images which are fast recorded during the fine relative motion of image and pixel arrays of CCDs. It is shown that by applying this method for a sample noise free image one will enhance the resolution with order of error.

  9. Bump bonding of pixel systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, M; Collado, A; Santander, J; Ullán, M

    2001-01-01

    A pixel detector consists of an array of radiation sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. Many different ways of making this connection between these two different devices are currently being used or considered to be used in the next future. Bonding techniques such as flip chip technology can present real advantages because they allow very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. This paper presents a review of the different flip chip technologies available and their suitability for manufacturing pixel detectors. The particular problems concerning testing of pixel detectors and thermal issues related to them are pointed out.

  10. Bump bonding of pixel systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, M. E-mail: manuel.lozano@cnm.es; Cabruja, E.; Collado, A.; Santander, J.; Ullan, M

    2001-11-01

    A pixel detector consists of an array of radiation sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. Many different ways of making this connection between these two different devices are currently being used or considered to be used in the next future. Bonding techniques such as flip chip technology can present real advantages because they allow very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. This paper presents a review of the different flip chip technologies available and their suitability for manufacturing pixel detectors. The particular problems concerning testing of pixel detectors and thermal issues related to them are pointed out.

  11. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus crucial for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via front-end chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-on-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including calibration procedures, detector performance and measurements of radiation damage. The detector performance is excellent: more than 95% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the des...

  12. Local Pixel Bundles: Bringing the Pixels to the People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jay

    2014-12-01

    The automated galaxy-based alignment software package developed for the Frontier Fields program (hst2galign, see Anderson & Ogaz 2014 and http://www.stsci.edu/hst/campaigns/frontier-fields/) produces a direct mapping from the pixels of the flt frame of each science exposure into a common master frame. We can use these mappings to extract the flt-pixels in the vicinity of a source of interest and package them into a convenient "bundle". In addition to the pixels, this data bundle can also contain "meta" information that will allow users to transform positions from the flt pixels to the reference frame and vice-versa. Since the un-resampled pixels in the flt frames are the only true constraints we have on the astronomical scene, the ability to inter-relate these pixels will enable many high-precision studies, such as: point-source-fitting and deconvolution with accurate PSFs, easy exploration of different image-combining algorithms, and accurate faint-source finding and photometry. The data products introduced in this ISR are a very early attempt to provide the flt-level pixel constraints in a package that is accessible to more than the handful of experts in HST astrometry. The hope is that users in the community might begin using them and will provide feedback as to what information they might want to see in the bundles and what general analysis packages they might find useful. For that reason, this document is somewhat informally written, since I know that it will be modified and updated as the products and tools are optimized.

  13. Performance study of new pixel hybrid photon detector prototypes for the LHCb RICH counters

    CERN Document Server

    Moritz, M; Allebone, L; Campbell, M; Gys, Thierry; Newby, C; Pickford, A; Piedigrossi, D; Wyllie, K

    2004-01-01

    A pixel Hybrid Photon Detector was developed according to the specific requirements of the LHCb ring imaging Cerenkov counters. This detector comprises a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary readout chip to achieve a 25 ns fast readout and a high signal-to-noise ratio. The detector performance was characterized by varying the pixel threshold, the tube high voltage, the silicon bias voltage and by the determination of the photoelectron detection efficiency. Furthermore accelerated aging and high pixel occupancy tests were performed to verify the long term stability. The results were obtained using Cerenkov light and a fast pulsed light emitting diode. All measurements results are within the expectations and fulfill the design goals. (8 refs).

  14. Smart readout of silicon drift detector using ON-LINE fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Silicon Drift Detector Front-End and a Smart Readout is proposed for ALICE's ITS readout. It is based on a dedicated Fuzzy Processor. Four main aims can be achieved: a significant reduction of data volume toward mass storage; less matter across the particle trajectories; ON-LINE personalised calibration of the detector against temperature effects; more insensitivity to noise effect compared with traditional systems for both position and charge measurement. The system fulfils the requirement for ALICE Inner Tracker System Silicon Drift Detectors. This paper aims at illustrating to the Physics community the work presently done that has engaged many people for a long time

  15. 160×120 uncooled amorphous silicon TEC-less detector with 25 μm pixel-pitch%像元间距为25 μm、160×120元无热电制冷器的非致冷非晶硅探测器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.L.Tissot

    2007-01-01

    介绍用非晶硅微型辐射热量计制成的160×120元非致冷红外焦平面阵列的特点和性能,该阵列集成在一个无铅芯片载体封装中,像素间距为25 μm,适合于大批量生产.25 μm像元结构得益于较小的热时间常数,该技术使我们能够设计出更高的热隔离性能,从而能以35 μm技术为基础开发出25 μm技术.通过采用新的像素设计和更进一步推动设计方法,在没有采用复杂昂贵的双层结构的前提下,保持了较高填充因子.从读出集成电路结构、封装、可操作性和光电性能入手对该探测器进行了介绍.为该探测器设计了一种新型集成读出电路.可以通过串行链接对增益、图像翻转和积分时间等高级功能进行操控,降低电气对接的数量.研制的小型无铅芯片载体封装便于大规模生产探测器,主要用途为便携式摄像机或头盔摄像机.%This paper reviews characteristics and performance of a 160×120 uncooled infrared focal plane array made from amorphous silicon microbolometers with a pixel-pitch of 25 μm,integrated in a LCC package compatible with mass production.The 25 μm pixel architecture profits from the low thermal time constant which characterizes our technology, to design a higher pixel thermal insulation and therefore to develop a 25 μm version from the well mastered 35 μm technology. Thanks to a new pixel design and by pushing the design rules even further, a high fill factor has been kept, without the use of complex, as well as expensive, two-level structure. The detector is described in terms of ROIC architecture, packaging, operability and electro-optical performances.A new read out integrated circuit structure has been designed for this detector. High level functions like gain, image flip and integration time could be operated through a serial link to minimize the number of electrical interconnections.A small LCC package has been developed enabling a mass production of

  16. Resource-loaded planning for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Gastal, M

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE experimental area management team faces various challenges when it comes to sharing scarce resources, indispensable to any efficient installation in a category one worksite. Space, cranes, jigs, and personnel with key competences have to be carefully allocated to activities so as to avoid slowing down work progress. To this intent, a resource loaded planning has been developed that allows highlighting coactivities and prioritizing critical tasks. It uses the built-in capabilities of Microsoft Project. The use of this scheduling tool leads to a more efficient use of time and a safer work environment. The installation sequence resulting from this schedule is presented in this paper. The first part of the sequence focuses on the revision of the coils in the SX2 building. The dipole has then to be installed in the RB26 side of the UX25 cavern. This complex and resource intensive activity has to be performed in parallel with the services installation inside the L3 magnet. On the RB24 side of the cavern t...

  17. ALICE HLT high speed tracking on GPU

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, Sergey; Aamodt, Kenneth; Alt, Torsten; Appelshauser, Harald; Arend, Andreas; Bach, Matthias; Becker, Bruce; Bottger, Stefan; Breitner, Timo; Busching, Henner; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Cleymans, Jean; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; Djuvsland, Oystein; Engel, Heiko; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Fearick, Roger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hille, Per Thomas; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Kisel, Ivan; Kretz, Matthias; Lara, Camillo; Lindal, Sven; Lindenstruth, Volker; Masoodi, Arshad Ahmad; Ovrebekk, Gaute; Panse, Ralf; Peschek, Jorg; Ploskon, Mateusz; Pocheptsov, Timur; Ram, Dinesh; Rascanu, Theodor; Richter, Matthias; Rohrich, Dieter; Ronchetti, Federico; Skaali, Bernhard; Smorholm, Olav; Stokkevag, Camilla; Steinbeck, Timm Morten; Szostak, Artur; Thader, Jochen; Tveter, Trine; Ullaland, Kjetil; Vilakazi, Zeblon; Weis, Robert; Yin, Zhong-Bao; Zelnicek, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The on-line event reconstruction in ALICE is performed by the High Level Trigger, which should process up to 2000 events per second in proton-proton collisions and up to 300 central events per second in heavy-ion collisions, corresponding to an inp ut data stream of 30 GB/s. In order to fulfill the time requirements, a fast on-line tracker has been developed. The algorithm combines a Cellular Automaton method being used for a fast pattern recognition and the Kalman Filter method for fitting of found trajectories and for the final track selection. The tracker was adapted to run on Graphics Processing Units (GPU) using the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) framework. The implementation of the algorithm had to be adjusted at many points to allow for an efficient usage of the graphics cards. In particular, achieving a good overall workload for many processor cores, efficient transfer to and from the GPU, as well as optimized utilization of the different memories the GPU offers turned out to be cri...

  18. Inbetriebnahme und Kalibrierung der ALICE-TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Wiechula, Jens

    2008-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment), is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is optimised to reconstruct and identify the particles created in a lead-lead collision with a centre of mass energy of 5.5TeV. The main tracking detector is a large-volume time-projection chamber (TPC). With an active volume of about 88m^3 and a total readout area of 32.5m^2 it is the most challenging TPC ever build. A central electrode divides the 5m long detector into two drift regions. Each readout side is subdivided into 18 inner and 18 outer multi-wire proportional read-out chambers. The readout area is subdivide into 557568 pads, where each pad is read out by and electronics chanin. A complex calibration is needed in order to reach the design position-resolution of the reconstructed particle tracks of about 200um. One part of the calibration lies in understanding the electronic-response. The work at hand presents results of the pedestal and noise behaviour of the front-end elect...

  19. Alice-Anne Martin (1926 - 2016)

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Alice-Anne Martin, known as “Schu” from her maiden name Schubert, passed away on 8 January 2016.   (Image: Gérard Bertin) Hired the year CERN was founded, 1954, when the construction of the Laboratory had not even begun, Schu first worked at the Villa de Cointrin (a historic building now within the grounds of Geneva airport) as a secretary. In this role, she typed the convention between CERN and the Swiss Confederation, prepared by Stéphanie Tixier, as well as some of the "Yellow Reports" that have marked key points in the Laboratory’s history. For example, using a special typewriter with two keyboards – Latin and Greek – she typed the Yellow Report on the KAM theorem by Rolf Hagedorn. Schu also worked with Felix Bloch, the first Director-General of CERN, and later became the secretary of Herbert Coblenz, the first CERN librarian. She was head of the team that edited the proceedings of the ...

  20. Track parameter resolution study of a pixel only detector for LHC geometry and future high rate experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blago, Michele Piero; Schoening, Andre [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Recent progress in pixel detector technology in general and in the HV-MAPS technology in particular make it feasible to construct an all-silicon pixel detector for large scale particle experiments like ATLAS or CMS. Previous studies have indicated that six to nine layers of pixel sensors, in comparison to the 14 detector layers planned for Inner Tracker ATLAS upgrade, are sufficient to reliably reconstruct particle trajectories. The performance of an all-pixel detector and the minimum number of required pixel layers is studied based on a full GEANT simulation for high luminosity conditions at the upgraded LHC. Furthermore, the ability of an all-pixel detector to form trigger decisions using a special triplet pixel layer design is studied. Such a design could be used to reconstruct all tracks originating from the proton-proton interaction at the first hardware level at 40 MHz collision frequency.