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Sample records for alibertia macrophylla rubiaceae

  1. Morphology, ecophysiology and germination of seeds of the Neotropical tree Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae

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    Diego Fernando Escobar Escobar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae. Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae is of economic and cultural importance for communities in the Colombian Pacific and Amazon regions, where it is cultivated and mature fruits are highly appreciated and consumed. Since there is a lack of knowledge of the seed physiology of this species, we describe here the germination behavior and morphometry of seeds of Alibertia patinoi, and relate them to its habitat. Fruits were collected from a mixed food crop and a commercial plantation in Guaimía village, Buenaventura, Colombia, a tropical rain forest area. We measured length, width, thickness, mass (n=1 400, and moisture content of seeds (n=252. Primary dormancy tests were conducted (n=200, followed by imbibition (n=252 and germination dynamics, under different conditions of light and temperature specific to understory and forest clearings (n=300 seeds. Finally, seed storage behavior was established (n=100 seeds. We observed that size and mass of seeds had a narrow range of values that did not differ within or among fruits and that the species did not exhibit primary dormancy. The seeds are recalcitrant, and recently harvested seeds exhibited higher seed moisture content (ca. 44% and continuous metabolism. The seed germination percentage was observed to be higher under the specific dense canopy forest light and temperature conditions; furthermore, neither enriched far-red light nor darkness conditions inhibited germination. We concluded that rapid germination could be the establishment strategy of this species. Also, the physiological traits (i.e., rapid germination rate, low germination requirements, absence of primary dormancy, and recalcitrant behavior and seed size and mass, suggest that A. patinoi is adapted to conditions of mature tropical rain forests.

  2. Morphology, ecophysiology and germination of seeds of the neotropical tree Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar Escobar, Diego Fernando; Torres, Alba Marina

    2013-06-01

    Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae) is of economic and cultural importance for communities in the Colombian Pacific and Amazon regions, where it is cultivated and mature fruits are highly appreciated and consumed. Since there is a lack of knowledge of the seed physiology of this species, we describe here the germination behavior and morphometry of seeds of Alibertia patinoi, and relate them to its habitat. Fruits were collected from a mixed food crop and a commercial plantation in Guaimía village, Buenaventura, Colombia, a tropical rain forest area. We measured length, width, thickness, mass (n = 1 400), and moisture content of seeds (n = 252). Primary dormancy tests were conducted (n = 200), followed by imbibition (n=252) and germination dynamics, under different conditions of light and temperature specific to understory and forest clearings (n = 300 seeds). Finally, seed storage behavior was established (n = 100 seeds). We observed that size and mass of seeds had a narrow range of values that did not differ within or among fruits and that the species did not exhibit primary dormancy. The seeds are recalcitrant, and recently harvested seeds exhibited higher seed moisture content (ca. 44%) and continuous metabolism. The seed germination percentage was observed to be higher under the specific dense canopy forest light and temperature conditions; furthermore, neither enriched far-red light nor darkness conditions inhibited germination. We concluded that rapid germination could be the establishment strategy of this species. Also, the physiological traits (i.e., rapid germination rate, low germination requirements, absence of primary dormancy, and recalcitrant behavior) and seed size and mass, suggest that A. patinoi is adapted to conditions of mature tropical rain forests.

  3. Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae

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    Daiane Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Duroia macrophylla (Rubiaceae is endemic from the Amazon Rainforest. Aims: To perform phytochemical profile of Duroia macrophylla extracts and to evaluate them as antioxidant, insecticidal and cytotoxic. Methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves and branches (collected three times were subjected to phytochemical screening by comparative thin layer chromatography and NMR analyses. The extracts were assayed to antioxidant (DPPH and Fe-phenanthroline, at 10 μg/mL, insecticidal on Sitophilus zeamais (by ingestion of stored grains and contact, both at 10 mg/mL and toxic activities on Artemia salina (1000 μg/mL. Results: There were found evidences of terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids and alkaloids, with differences between the vegetal part, collection period and solvent used. Antioxidant evaluations showed three of twelve were active and two were considered moderately active, with a relationship dependently of concentration. All methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids but one showed only phenols. For insecticidal activity, there were three most active extracts, two of which showed only presence of terpenes and the other, besides terpenes, phenolic substances (phenols and flavonoids. For Artemia salina toxicity assay, the five most active were all from the 2nd and 3rd collections. Conclusions: The active extracts of D. macrophylla in each test were different. Three methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity; three extracts showed insecticidal activity and the presence of terpenic substances and five extracts presented cytotoxic activity, but it was not possible to correlate it with any specific secondary metabolite.

  4. Anatomia foliar de Rudgea decipiens Müll. Arg. e R. macrophylla Benth. (Rubiaceae Leaf anatomy of Rudgea decipiens Müll. Arg. and R. macrophylla Benth. [Rubiaceae

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    André Mantovani

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dados sobre a anatomia das folhas de Rudgea decipiens e R. macrophylla (Rubiaceae. Ambas ocorrem na Floresta de Tijuca (Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro. As folhas são hipostomáticas, com estômatos do tipo paralelocítico, dotadas de mesofilo dorsiventral, feixes vasculares do tipo colateral, papilas na epiderme abaxial e cutícula estriada. Em R. macrophylla, destaca-se a ocorrência de estômatos peculiares.Anatomical characteristics of Rudgea decipiens and R. macrophylla leaves were examined. The two species grow in Floresta da Tijuca (Mata Atlântica, Rio de Janeiro municipality. The leaves are hipostomatics, with parallelocytic stomata, dorsiventral mesophyll, colateral vascular bundles, papillae on the lower surface and striate cuticle. The stomata show peculiar aspects in R. macrophylla.

  5. A new antifungal phenolic glycoside derivative, iridoids and lignans from Alibertia sessilis (vell.) K. Schum. (Rubiaceae)

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    Silva, Viviane C. da; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Lopes, Marcia N. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: mnlopes@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria C.M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2007-07-01

    A new antifungal phenolic glycoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-{beta}-D-(5-O-syringoyl)apiofuranosyl-(1 {yields} 6)-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with four known iridoids, geniposidic acid (2), geniposide (3), 6{alpha}-hydroxygeniposide (4) and 6{beta}-hydroxygeniposide (5); two lignans, (+)-lyoniresinol-3{alpha}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (6), (-)-lyoniresinol-3{alpha}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (7); and two phenolic acids, chlorogenic (8) and salicylic acids (9) and D-manitol (10), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the stems of Alibertia sessilis. Structures of 1 and of the known compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for their antifungal activities against two phytopathogenic fungi strains Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum by direct bioautography. (author)

  6. A new antifungal phenolic glycoside derivative, iridoids and lignans from Alibertia sessilis (vell.) K. Schum. (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Viviane C. da; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Lopes, Marcia N.; Young, Maria C.M.

    2007-01-01

    A new antifungal phenolic glycoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-β-D-(5-O-syringoyl)apiofuranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with four known iridoids, geniposidic acid (2), geniposide (3), 6α-hydroxygeniposide (4) and 6β-hydroxygeniposide (5); two lignans, (+)-lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), (-)-lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7); and two phenolic acids, chlorogenic (8) and salicylic acids (9) and D-manitol (10), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the stems of Alibertia sessilis. Structures of 1 and of the known compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for their antifungal activities against two phytopathogenic fungi strains Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum by direct bioautography. (author)

  7. Morphology, ecophysiology and germination of seeds of the Neotropical tree Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae Morfología, ecofisiología y germinación de semillas del árbol neotropical

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    Diego Fernando Escobar Escobar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae. Alibertia patinoi (Rubiaceae is of economic and cultural importance for communities in the Colombian Pacific and Amazon regions, where it is cultivated and mature fruits are highly appreciated and consumed. Since there is a lack of knowledge of the seed physiology of this species, we describe here the germination behavior and morphometry of seeds of Alibertia patinoi, and relate them to its habitat. Fruits were collected from a mixed food crop and a commercial plantation in Guaimía village, Buenaventura, Colombia, a tropical rain forest area. We measured length, width, thickness, mass (n=1 400, and moisture content of seeds (n=252. Primary dormancy tests were conducted (n=200, followed by imbibition (n=252 and germination dynamics, under different conditions of light and temperature specific to understory and forest clearings (n=300 seeds. Finally, seed storage behavior was established (n=100 seeds. We observed that size and mass of seeds had a narrow range of values that did not differ within or among fruits and that the species did not exhibit primary dormancy. The seeds are recalcitrant, and recently harvested seeds exhibited higher seed moisture content (ca. 44% and continuous metabolism. The seed germination percentage was observed to be higher under the specific dense canopy forest light and temperature conditions; furthermore, neither enriched far-red light nor darkness conditions inhibited germination. We concluded that rapid germination could be the establishment strategy of this species. Also, the physiological traits (i.e., rapid germination rate, low germination requirements, absence of primary dormancy, and recalcitrant behavior and seed size and mass, suggest that A. patinoi is adapted to conditions of mature tropical rain forests.La germinación y morfometría de las semillas de Alibertia patinoi se describen y se relacionan con el hábitat de la especie, el Bosque Pluvial Tropical Americano. Se midi

  8. Micropropagation of Alibertia edulis Rich

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    Fernanda Augusta Boato da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a micropropagation protocol for Alibertia edulis, a medicinal Brazilian Cerrado plant. A. edulis seeds were sterilized and germinated in water-agar. Fifteen millimeter long explants from the seedlings cultivated for 50 days were used for the multiplication in three consecutive subcultures. The cytokinin benzyladenine (BA alone or combined with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA was added to ¼ MS medium. The treatments containing combinations of the BA + IBA induced more shoot proliferation than the BA alone, with the optimum concentration of 0.5 mg.L-1 for both growth regulators. A. edulis shoots elongated easily and the presence of growth regulators did have a positive effect on the shoot elongation. Consecutive subcultures also had a positive effect on both sprouting and shoot elongation. Activated charcoal was essential for rooting, and all rooted plants were able to acclimatize.Foi desenvolvido um protocolo de micropropagação para A. edulis, uma espécie arbórea frutífera e medicinal presente no Cerrado brasileiro. Sementes de A. edulis foram esterilizadas e germinadas em ágar-água. Explantes de 15 mm foram retirados das plântulas e cultivados por 50 dias em meio de multiplicação e três subculturas. A citocinina benzilalanina (BA, sozinha ou em combinação com ácido indol butírico (IBA foram adicionados em no meio ¼ MS. Os tratamentos contendo combinações de BA-IBA induziram uma maior proliferação de brotos que aqueles somente com BA, e a concentração ótima desses reguladores de crescimento foi de 0.5 mg.L-1 para cada. Os brotos de A. edulis facilmente se alongaram e a presença de reguladores de crescimento no meio de cultura teve efeito positivo sobre o alongamento. Da mesma forma, as consecutivas subculturas tiveram um efeito positivo tanto sobre a brotação quanto no alongamento. Carvão ativado foi essencial para o enraizamento dos ramos, e todas as plantas foram aclimatadas com sucesso.

  9. Antifungal iridoids, triterpenes and phenol compounds from Alibertia myrciifolia Sprunge Ex. Schum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciano, Joao Henrique S.; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Fernandes, Georgia Sampaio; Souza, Elnatan Bezerra de

    2010-01-01

    The new iridoid glucoside 10-O-vanilloyl-geniposidic acid has been isolated from the aerial parts of Alibertia myrciifolia along with hydroxyhopanone, 3α,22-dihydroxyhopane, ursolic acid, luteolin-3',4'-dimethyl ether, caffeic acid and geniposidic acid. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by means of mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses. The antifungal activities of the iridoids 10-O-vanilloyl-geniposidic acid and geniposidic acid were evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi strains Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani and Aspergillus niger. (author)

  10. Biological Activities and Phytochemicals of Swietenia macrophylla King

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    Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae is an endangered and medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of the World. S. macrophylla has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The review reveals that limonoids and its derivatives are the major constituents of S. macrophylla. There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of S. macrophylla, which exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effects, antimutagenic, anticancer, antitumor and antidiabetic activities. Various other activities like anti-nociceptive, hypolipidemic, antidiarrhoeal, anti-infective, antiviral, antimalarial, acaricidal, antifeedant and heavy metal phytoremediation activity have also been reported. In view of the immense medicinal importance of S. macrophylla, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of S. macrophylla, showing its importance.

  11. Avaliação das atividades antifúngica, antimicobacteriana e larvicida de Duroia macrophylla e D. saccifera

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    Ana Júlia Reis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivos: A vasta biodiversidade amazônica tem sido apontada como uma fonte de produtos naturais candidatos a diversas atividades farmacológicas, principalmente no combate a doenças infecciosas. Algumas espécies, tais como as pertencentes ao gênero Duroia, da família Rubiaceae, têm sido caracterizadas pela produção de metabólitos secundários com propriedades biológicas importantes, porém são escassos os estudos com espécies deste gênero. Desta forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicobacteriana, antifúngica e antiparasitária de extratos de D. macrophylla e D. saccifera. Métodos: Foram coletados materiais vegetais de D. macrophylla e D. saccifera na Reserva Florestal A. Ducke em Manaus- AM, a partir dos quais foram preparados extratos diclorometânico, metanólico e aquoso e determinada a concentração inibitória e concentração larvicida mínima. Resultados: No que diz respeito aos extratos de D. saccifera¸ o extrato diclorometânico dos galhos foi o mais ativo frente às espécies fúngicas e as cepas micobacterianas avaliadas. Por outro lado, o extrato metanólico e o diclorometânico das folhas de D. macrophylla, foram os mais ativos frente a Candida sp. e Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectivamente, porém, nenhum dos seis extratos avaliados apresentaram atividade antiparasitária frente a Toxocara canis. Conclusão: Esses resultados demonstram as propriedades antimicrobianas dessas plantas amazônicas para o desenvolvimento de novas alternativas terapêuticas no tratamento de doenças infecciosas, tais como a tuberculose e candidíase.

  12. Sustained mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) plantation heartwood increment.

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    Frank H. Wadsworth; Edgardo. Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    In a search for an increment-based rotation for plantation mahogany(Swietenia macrophylla King), heartwood volume per tree was regressed on DBH (trunk diameter outside bark at 1.4 m above the ground) and merchantable height measurements. We updated a previous study [Wadsworth, F.H., González González, E., Figuera Colón, J.C., Lugo P...

  13. Antiproliferative Activities of Bouea Macrophylla Seed Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arapoc, D.J.; Mohamed Zaffar Ali Mohamed Amiroudine; Zainah Adam; Rosniza Razali; Shafii Khamis

    2016-01-01

    Bouea macrophylla or commonly known as kundang fruit in Malaysia is a tropical fruit tree native to Southeast Asia. This plant belongs to the family Anacardiaceae which are cultivated for their edible fruits, seeds and medicinal compounds. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti proliferation activities of aqueous, methanolic, chloroform and hexane extracts from the seed of B. macrophylla. The extracts were screened on human squamous cell carcinoma (HTB-43), breast cancer (MCF7) and (MDA-MB-231) cell lines by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Most effective concentration were screened for apoptosis induction in cells using Hoechst stain. Our present study has shown that aqueous, methanolic, chloroform dan hexane extracts exhibited promising inhibition activity against HTB43 cell lines with the IC50 values were 29.32±5.80, 18.65±2.94, 21.14±6.97 and 34.36±16.50 μg/ mL, respectively. Meanwhile, only hexane extract showed inhibition against MCF7 (59.07±5.76) and MDA-MB-231(123.35±28.65). Besides that, the results also indicate that promising anticancer activity and causes loss in cancer cell viability by activating the apoptotic process. These findings suggest that B. macrophylla may have novel therapeutic applications for the treatment of different cancer types. (author)

  14. Potential use of Flemingia macrophylla as mulch for managing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prospects for using Flemingia macrophylla and Mucuna pruriens in combination with manual weeding during the establishment of young cocoa was investigated. The following treatments were compared: Clean weeding three times/annum + F. macrophylla planted in the inter-rows of cocoa and biomass used as mulch; ...

  15. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae)

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    Pabon, Ludy Cristina; Cuca, Luis Enrique, E-mail: lcpabonb@unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Bogota (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) were isolated and characterized as (S)-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1), (S)-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2), (S)-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3) and (S)-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4); alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well. (author)

  16. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae

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    Ludy Cristina Pabon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae were isolated and characterized as (S-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1, (S-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2, (S-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3 and (S-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4; alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well.

  17. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea,

  18. Direct somatic embryogenesis in Swietenia macrophylla King

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    Raúl Collado

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King is difficult to be propagated by tissue culture and there is not an efficient system via organogenesis, due to problems of microbial contamination, phenolic oxidation and death of tissue in the phase of in vitro establishment of explants. In order to establish a protocol for obtaining somatic embryos, zygotic embryos were used as initial plant material. Three combinations of 2,4-D with kinetin were studied, to obtain the formation of somatic embryos. After six weeks of culture, the number of explants with high and low somatic embryogenesis frequency were determined. So that the somatic embryos in globular stage reach the final stages of torpedo and cotyledonal, these were placed in three treatments with 6-BAP (0.2, 0.4 y 0.6 mg.l-1. The number of somatic embryos that reached the torpedo and cotyledonal stages were evaluated after 30 days of culture. Results demonstrated that direct somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos is obtained in the culture medium composed by MS salts with 4.0 mg.l-1 of 2,4-D and 1.0 mg.l-1 of kinetin. Higher percentage of somatic embryos in cotiledonal stage (91.7 %, was obtained with 0.4 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP. Key word: forestry, growth regulator, mahogany, somatic embryo, tissue culture

  19. In vitro effects of aqueous extracts of Zanthoxylum macrophylla roots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro effects of aqueous extracts of Zanthoxylum macrophylla roots on the activities of three ATPases (Na+, K+- ; Ca2+- ; and Mg2+-ATPases) were investigated in membrane preparations from human erythrocytes of HbAA, HbAS and HbSS bloods. The activities of these membrane-bound enzymes were determined in ...

  20. Response of African oil bean (Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Common uses of P. macrophylla include food, salt substitute, edible oil, seed craft, dye, fencing and palings, charcoal, carving bowls, medicine (convulsion, itching, lactogenicity, wound, diarrhea, seed wood and ornamental (Envjiugha and Agbede, 2000; Asoegwu et al., 2006). The spent lubricating oil (waste engine oil) is.

  1. Morfoanatomia foliar de Palicourea longepedunculata Gardiner (Rubiaceae

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    Pereira Zefa Valdivina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Palicourea - tribo Psychotrieae - compreende cerca de 200 espécies e destaca-se por apresentar alcalóides indólicos muitas vezes tóxicos para bovinos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi contribuir para o conhecimento da família Rubiaceae, enfatizando os aspectos da morfoanatomia foliar de Palicourea longepedunculata. O material foi coletado na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso (RFMP, município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, e amostras-testemunha foram depositadas no herbário VIC. Folhas provenientes do quarto nó foram fixadas em FAA50 e conservadas em etanol 70%. Seções transversais e longitudinais do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar foram obtidas em micrótomo de mesa para montagem de lâminas permanentes, conforme metodologia usual. As folhas são simples, opostas, inteiras, ovais lanceoladas, dorsiventrais e hipoestomáticas. A epiderme do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar é uniestratificada, papilosa na face adaxial da folha e recoberta por cutícula delgada. Os estômatos são paracíticos e ocorrem no mesmo nível das demais células epidérmicas. O mesofilo é constituído por uma camada de parênquima paliçádico e de várias de parênquima lacunoso. Na face adaxial e abaxial da nervura mediana e no bordo da lâmina observa-se colênquima subepidérmico. Um feixe vascular do tipo colateral, em forma de "U", distribui-se ao longo do pecíolo e da nervura mediana, acompanhado, invariavelmente, por dois feixes menores localizados lateralmente. No córtex do pecíolo e da nervura mediana observa-se aerênquima. As características anatômicas seguem o padrão descrito para as Rubiaceae, e algumas delas são interpretadas como adaptações a ambientes úmidos e sombreados no qual a espécie ocorre.

  2. Photosensitizing anthraquinones from Heterophyllaea lycioides (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmer, Jesica A; Núñez Montoya, Susana C; Mendoza, Caterine S; Cabrera, José L

    2017-05-01

    Seven anthraquinones were isolated from aerial parts of Heterophyllaea lycioides (Rusby) Sandwith (Rubiaceae), including three derivatives that have not been described before: a hetero-bianthraquinone identified as (R)-2-hydroxymethyl-2'methyl-1,1',6,6'-tetrahydroxy-5,5' bianthraquinone (lycionine), and two mono-chlorinated derivatives related to soranjidiol. One of them is a homo-bianthraquinone: (R)-7-chloro-2,2'-dimethyl-1,1',6,6'-tetrahydroxy-5,5' bianthraquinone (7-chlorobisoranjidiol), whereas the second halogenated derivative corresponds to a monomeric structure: 5-chloro-1,6-dihydroxy-2-methyl anthraquinone (5-chlorosoranjidiol). The four known compounds were already isolated from another species of this genus, H. pustulata, and they were identified as 5,5'-bisoranjidiol, soranjidiol, pustuline and heterophylline. Structural elucidation was performed by means of an extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR data as well as by HRMS analysis. Chemical structures of 7-chlorobisoranjidiol and 5-chlorosoranjidiol were confirmed by their synthesis from 5,5'-bisoranjidiol and soranjidiol, respectively. Type I photosensitizing properties (superoxide anion radical generation, O 2 - ) were assessed by using the nitroblue tetrazolium assay. When lycionine and chlorinated derivatives were irradiated, they enhanced the O 2 - production with respect to the control; 7-chlorobisoranjidiol stood out by generating an increase of 20%, whereas the other anthraquinones only produced a slight increase of 7%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

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    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  4. Hypsipyla grandella in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla): Current Situation and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Lunz, Alexandre Mehl; Thomazini, Marcílio José Thomazini; Moraes, Maria Carolina Blassioli; Neves, Edinelson José Maciel; Batista, Telma Fátima Coelho; Degenhardt, Juliana; Sousa, Lindáurea Alves de; Ohashi, Orlando Shigueo

    2010-01-01

    The mahogany wood, Swietenia macrophylla King, is valued in the international trade market forits beauty and durability for noble uses like furniture and decoration. Any attempt of commercial plantation ofthis specie to diminish the pressure made by its selective exploration fail due to the incidence of the mahoganyshoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller). Although some works have had relative success in presenting controltechniques over the punctual aspects, a strategy of economic, an econo...

  5. Notes on New Guinea Rubiaceae. Versteegia and Maschalodesme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridsdale, C.E.; Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1972-01-01

    Within the rain forests of New Guinea there are many small pachycaul treelets belonging to the Rubiaceae. Generally these are rare in occurrence and poorly represented in the herbarium, due in part to the problem of protecting rami- or cauliflorous flowers and fruits during routine processing and

  6. A new species of Argostemma (Rubiaceae) from Mount Victoria, Myanmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanaka, N.; Ohi-Toma, T.; Murata, J.

    2010-01-01

    Argostemma victorianum (Rubiaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from the Natma Taung (Mt Victoria) National Park, western Myanmar. It is characterized by the combination of solitary or 2-flowered inflorescence with indistinct peduncle, relatively large, white, bell-shaped flowers in

  7. Limonoids and triterpenoid from fruit of Swietenia macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun-Peng; Zhu, Li-Li; Liu, Jin-Song; Yu, Yang; Zhou, Zhong-Yu; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guo-Kai

    2018-03-01

    Five new limonoids, swieteliacates A-E (1-5) and a tirucallane-type triterpenoid, swietesenin (6), together with four known compounds (7-10) were isolated from fruit of Swietenia macrophylla. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. The new compounds were tested in vitro for their cytotoxic effects against five human cancer cell lines. Compound 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against SW480 and HL-60 cancer cell lines with IC 50 values of 30.6 and 32.9μM, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Flavonoids and a neolignan glucoside from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Cristiane; Barreto Junior, Cleber Bomfim; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Simas, Naomi Kato; Sakuragui, Cassia Monica; Porzel, Andrea; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of the methanol extract obtained from leaves of Guarea macrophylla, leading to the isolation and identification of three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and a neolignan glucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-b-D-glucoside. All compounds were identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods ( 1 H, 1D, 2D NMR, 13 C and UV), ESI-MS and comparison with the literature data. This is the first report of flavonoids in the genus Guarea and of a neolignan glucoside in the Meliaceae family. (author)

  9. Flavonoids and a neolignan glucoside from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Cristiane; Barreto Júnior, Cleber Bomfim; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Simas, Naomi Kato; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica; Porzel, Andrea; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of the methanol extract obtained from leaves of Guarea macrophylla, leading to the isolation and identification of three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and a neolignan glucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-β-D-glucoside. All compounds were identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods (¹H, 1D, 2D NMR, 13C and UV), ESI-MS and com...

  10. Flavonoids and a neolignan glucoside from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phytochemical study of the methanol extract obtained from leaves of Guarea macrophylla, leading to the isolation and identification of three flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and a neolignan glucoside, dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-β-D-glucoside. All compounds were identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods (¹H, 1D, 2D NMR, 13C and UV, ESI-MS and comparison with the literature data. This is the first report of flavonoids in the genus Guarea and of a neolignan glucoside in the Meliaceae family.

  11. Potentiel de regeneration naturelle de Neocarya macrophylla et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le présent travail mené dans le sud-ouest du Niger a pour objectif d'étudier le potentiel de régénération naturelle de V. paradaxa et de N. macrophylla, deux espèces oléagineuses des parcs agroforestiers. La population de V. paradaxa présente une densité de 7 pieds adultes/ha et un pied juvénile/ha. L'ensemble de ces ...

  12. Antinociceptive activity of the alkaloid extract from Kopsia macrophylla leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunisa Sengsui

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the alkaloid extract from the leaves of Kopsia macrophylla Hk. f. K. (K. macrophylla on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in mice, were examined. General behavior was also examined using pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. The LD50 value of intraperitoneally injected K. macrophylla extract in mice was 318.46 mg/kg. Oral administration of K. macrophylla extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of contortions and stretchings induced by acetic acid and licking activity of the late phase in the formalin test but not in the heat-induced pain in mice. The K. macrophylla extract (100-400 mg/kg, p.o. had no effect on fever induced by yeast in mice. The alkaloid extract of K. macrophylla prolonged the duration of pentobarbitalinduced sleep in mice. These results suggest that the alkaloid extract of K. macrophylla possesses analgesic action via peripheral pathway but no antipyretic activity.

  13. Screening of Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Rahul; Patil, Chandrashekhar; Borase, Hemant; Narkhede, Chandrakant; Patil, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Rubiaceae and Apocynaceae families are well known for the expression of cyclotides having insecticidal properties. Leaves and flowers extracts of plants from the families Rubiaceae (Ixora coccinea) and Apocynaceae (Allamanda violacea) were evaluated for mosquito larvicidal effect against early IVth instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Two forms of plant extracts, one untreated and the other treated with heat and proteolytic enzyme were used for assay. After primary assay, the extract showing more than 50% inhibition was further used for quantification purpose. LC50 and LC90 values of all the extracts were found to be reduced with the treated form. Phytochemical analysis of plant extracts was performed. Primary confirmation for the presence of cyclotides was done by Lowry test, thin layer chromatography and haemolytic assay. This novel approach merits use of plant extracts in mosquito control programmes.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim

    2014-02-01

    The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties.

  15. Phytochemical study of the wood from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae); Estudo fitoquimico da madeira de Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Roque, Nadia F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    In the present work, the crude ethanol extract from wood of G. macrophylla was submitted to liquid/liquid partition between hexane, CH){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, EtOAc and n-BuOH. Each phase was individually chromatographed over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 or Amberlite XAD-2 to give eight terpene derivatives, such as five sesquiterpenoids (caryophyllene oxide, guai-6-en-10 beta-ol, spathulenol, aromadendrane-4 beta,10 alpha-diol and aloaromadendrane-4 alpha,10 beta-diol) as well as three triterpenoids (cicloart-24-ene-3 beta,23(R*)-diol, cicloart-24-ene-3 beta,23(S*)-diol, and cicloart-23E-ene-3 beta,25-diol). Additionally, were isolated three fatty acids (linolenic, linoleic and stearic), two steroids (sitosterol and stigmasterol) and sacarose. The structures of all these compounds were characterized by spectrometric analysis, mainly mass spectrometry and NMR and comparison of these data described in the literature. (author)

  16. Estudo fitoquímico da madeira de Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae Phytochemical study of the wood from Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique G. Lago

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the crude ethanol extract from wood of G. macrophylla was submitted to liquid/liquid partition between hexane, CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH. Each phase was individually chromatographed over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 or Amberlite XAD-2 to give eight terpene derivatives, such as five sesquiterpenoids (caryophyllene oxide, guai-6-en-10β-ol, spathulenol, aromadendrane-4β,10α-diol and aloaromadendrane-4α,10β-diol as well as three triterpenoids (cicloart-24-ene-3β,23(R*-diol, cicloart-24-ene-3β,23(S*-diol, and cicloart-23E-ene-3β,25-diol. Additionally, were isolated three fatty acids (linolenic, linoleic and stearic, two steroids (sitosterol and stigmasterol and sacarose. The structures of all these compounds were characterized by spectrometric analysis, mainly mass spectrometry and NMR and comparison of these data described in the literature.

  17. Phytochemicals Content, Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibition Activity of Bouea Macrophylla Griff Seed Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainah Adam; Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Rosniza Razali

    2016-01-01

    Bouea macrophylla Griff or locally known as kundang is one of the common fruit plant available in Malaysia. This plant from Anacardiaceae family is native to Southeast Asia particularly in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. Medicinal values of this plant is not yet been explored. The present study was done to evaluate phytochemicals constituents in B. macrophylla seed extract qualitatively and quantitatively. Biological evaluations focusing on antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition were also performed. Qualitative phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavanoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, reducing sugar, steroids, triterpenes, phenolic, coumarine and proteins in B. macrophylla seed extract. Quantitative determination showed that B. macrophylla seed extract contains high amount of phenolic compounds (689.17±37.50 mg GAE/ g extract), but low amount of flavonoids (2.78±0.01 mg QE/ g extract), suggesting that most of the phenolics in B. macrophylla seed extract were non-flavonoids. Antioxidant assays showed that the extract possesses strong reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC 50 : 4.73±0.51 μg/ ml). These activities were almost comparable to that of vitamin C. α-Glucosidase inhibition study showed that the extract inhibited alpha-glucosidase activity potently with the IC 50 value of 0.55±0.04 mg/ ml, suggesting the ability of the plant to delay glucose absorption in small intestine, hence reduces hyperglycemia in diabetic condition. Potent antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extract might be attributed to the presence of high amount of phenolic compounds. In conclusion, this study showed that B. macrophylla seed extract contains various phytochemicals, possess strong antioxidant property and showed promising antidiabetic activity. These results indicate that B. macrophylla might have the potential to be developed as new pharmacological agent targeting on oxidative stress

  18. Phylogenetic position of Guihaiothamnus (Rubiaceae): its evolutionary and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peiwu; Tu, Tieyao; Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G; Zhu, Chengjie; Zhang, Dianxiang

    2014-09-01

    Guihaiothamnus (Rubiaceae) is an enigmatic, monotypic genus endemic to southwestern China. Its generic status has never been doubted because it is morphologically unique by having rosette habit, showy, long-corolla-tubed flowers, and multi-seeded indehiscent berry-like fruits. The genus has been postulated to be a relict in the broad-leaved forests of China, and to be related to the genus Wendlandia, which was placed in the subfamily Cinchonoideae and recently classified in the tribe Augusteae of the subfamily Dialypetalanthoideae. Using combined evidence from palynology, cytology, and DNA sequences of nuclear ITS and four plastid markers (rps16, trnT-F, ndhF, rbcL), we assessed the phylogenetic position of Guihaiothamnus in Rubiaceae. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses placed the genus deeply nested within Wendlandia. This relationship is corroborated by evidence from palynology and cytology. Using a relaxed molecular clock method based on five fossil records, we dated the stem age of Wendlandia to be 17.46 my and, the split between G. acaulis and related Wendlandia species in southwestern China to be 2.11mya. This young age, coupled with the derived position in Wendlandia, suggests an evolutionary derivation rather than an evolutionary relict of G. acaulis. Its rosette habit and large showy flowers, which are very distinctive from other Wendlandias, are interpreted as a result of recent rapid adaptation to rock and cliff habitats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical constiuents from Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cláudia de A. Tomaz

    Full Text Available Amongst the different forms of therapy to prevent and cure illnesses, plants have been, undoubtedly, the most utilized ones since the beginning of mankind. Brazil has a great diversity on plants that possess non-researched medicinal potential and are promising sources of therapeutic and pharmacological innovations. The Rubiaceae family is considered the biggest one of the order Gentianales, presenting around 637 genera and 10,700 species. Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud., known popularly as "ervanço", "poaia" or "ipeca-mirim", has ethnopharmacological indications to use as decoction against hemorrhoids and as vermifuge. Aiming at contributing to the chemotaxonomic study of the family Rubiaceae and considering the absence of data in literature about the chemical constitution of the species Richardia grandiflora, the latter was submitted to a phytochemical study to isolate its chemical constituents, through usual chromatographic methods, and after identifying them by means of spectroscopic methods such as ¹H and 13C NMR, with the add of two-dimensional techniques, besides comparison with literature data. Five constituents were isolated through this first phytochemical study with R. grandiflora: a mixture of the steroids beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, o-hydroxy-benzoic acid, m-methoxy-p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and phaeophitin A, all of them isolated for the first time from the genus Richardia.

  20. Development of carpels and ovules in Dialypetalanthus fuscescens Kuhlm. (Rubiaceae): an enigmatic taxon

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Rogério da Costa; Vieira, Ricardo Cardoso; Mariath, Jorge Ernesto de Araújo; Moço, Maria Cecilia de Chiara; Toni, Karen L. G. De

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dialypetalanthus is a monospecific genus that occurs in the Amazon Basin of Brazil, Bolivia and Peru and occupies a controversial position among the Rubiaceae. We continue this taxonomic discussion with the overall aim of clarifying the systematic position of D. fuscescens within the Rubiaceae. To accomplish this, we analyzed the ontogeny of its gynoecium, in particular the floral meristem, as well as the development of the carpels and cauline placentation. Gynosporogenesis and the d...

  1. Revision of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae in the Marquesas Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Wagner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae have come to light and are described herein: C. fatuhivaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, C. meyeri W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and C. temetiuensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence. Descriptions, illustrations, conservation status, and specimen citations are provided. Amended descriptions of three previously described Marquesan Coprosma species are also provided as well as a key to the species, four of which fall into the Critically Endangered (CR and two into the Endangered (EN category. With the description of these the new species, Coprosma becomes the sixth largest lineage in the Marquesas Islands with six species after Psychotria (one lineage which has 9 spp., Cyrtandra (8 spp., Bidens (8 spp., and Melicope (7 spp., and Ixora (7 spp..

  2. NIRS Identification of Swietenia Macrophylla is Robust Across Specimens from 27 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria C.J. Bergo; Tereza C.M. Pastore; Vera T.R. Coradin; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Jez W.B. Braga

    2016-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany is the world’s most valuable widely traded tropical timber species and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) has been applied as a tool for discriminating its wood from similar species using multivariate analysis. In this study four look-alike timbers of Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany or big-leaf mahogany), Carapa...

  3. Conservative nutrient use by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) planted under contrasting environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Medina; E. Cuevas; A.E. Lugo; E. Terezo; J. Jimenez-Osornio; P.A. Macario-Mendoza; P. Montanez

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the nutritional composition and isotope ratios (C and N) of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) leaves in plantations established on contrasting soils and climates in Central America (State of Quintana Roo, Yucatan, Mexico) and South America (State of Para, Brazil). The objective was to determine the adaptability of this species to large...

  4. Pengolahan Biji Mahoni (Swietenia Macrophylla King) Sebagai Bahan Baku Alternatif Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Damayanti, Astrilia; Bariroh, Siti

    2012-01-01

    Peningkatan kebutuhan minyak bumi yang terus menerus akan mengakibatkan kelangkaan bahan bakar minyak. Sumber energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Bahan baku potensial untuk memproduksi biodiesel yang tidak bersaing dengan bahan baku pangan contohnya adalah biji mahoni (swietenia macrophylla king). Tahapan yang diperlukan dalam percobaan biodiesel adalah proses pengambilan minyak biji mahoni dengan proses penyangraian, degumming, dan proses transesterifikas...

  5. Germination et croissance initiale de Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine) Prance, une espèce oléagineuse du Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Guimbo, I.; Ambouta, KJM.; Mahamane, A.; Larwanou, M.

    2011-01-01

    Germination and Initial Growth of Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine) Prance, a oleaginous Species of Niger. The study conducted in parallel in the real environment, nursery and laboratory to better understand the characteristics of germination and seedling development Neocarya macrophylla, a species of oleaginous Niger. The treatments applied to seed have a waiting time shorter than the untreated seeds. The control has a staggered germination (30 days) and shelling of nuts influenced seed germinat...

  6. Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria beyond legumes: Burkholderia in Rubiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Verstraete

    Full Text Available Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria not only occur in root nodules of legumes but are also found in leaves of certain Rubiaceae. The discovery of bacteria in plants formerly not implicated in endosymbiosis suggests a wider occurrence of plant-microbe interactions. Several ß-proteobacteria of the genus Burkholderia are detected in close association with tropical plants. This interaction has occurred three times independently, which suggest a recent and open plant-bacteria association. The presence or absence of Burkholderia endophytes is consistent on genus level and therefore implies a predictive value for the discovery of bacteria. Only a single Burkholderia species is found in association with a given plant species. However, the endophyte species are promiscuous and can be found in association with several plant species. Most of the endophytes are part of the plant-associated beneficial and environmental group, but others are closely related to B. glathei. This soil bacteria, together with related nodulating and non-nodulating endophytes, is therefore transferred to a newly defined and larger PBE group within the genus Burkholderia.

  7. Flavonoides e atividade antioxidante em Palicourea rigida Kunth, Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa A. da Rosa

    Full Text Available A atividade antioxidante, avaliada pelo método DPPH (1,1-difenil-2-picrilidrazila, e o teor em compostos fenólicos totais do extrato bruto metanólico e frações das folhas da espécie Palicourea rigida Kunth, Rubiaceae, foram quantificadas neste trabalho. Apesar da baixa atividade apresentada pelo extrato bruto (500 ppm, a fração acetato de etila apresentou atividade moderada (192 ppm e o maior teor de fenólicos totais dentre as frações ensaiadas. Assim, a fração acetato de etila foi submetida a procedimentos cromatográficos o que resultou no isolamento dos flavonoides quercetina 3-O-β-D-glicosídeo, quercetina 3-O-soforosídeo e isoraminetina 3-glicosídeo, cujas estruturas foram elucidadas por análise espectroscópica, incluindo RMN (1D e 2D e comparação com os dados da literatura.

  8. Hypsipyla grandella em Mogno (Swietenia macrophylla: Situação Atual e Perspectivas Hypsipyla grandella in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla: Current Situation and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A madeira de mogno, Swietenia macrophylla King, é valorizada no mercado internacional por sua beleza e durabilidade para fins nobres, como mobiliários e decoração. Quaisquer tentativas de plantios comerciais dessa espécie de modo a reduzir a pressão exercida pela sua exploração seletiva invariavelmente fracassam devido à incidência da broca do ponteiro do mogno, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller. Embora alguns trabalhos tenham obtido relativo sucesso em apresentar técnicas de controle sob aspectos pontuais, ainda não foi estabelecida uma estratégia de manejo integrado que seja prática, econômica e eficiente para H. grandella no Brasil. Este trabalho tem como objetivo rever e atualizar informações sobre o inseto e seu hospedeiro, além de indicar as áreas de pesquisa mais promissoras para o seu controle em plantios de S. macrophylla no País. As estratégias de controle de H. grandella mais recomendadas são o uso da resistência da planta, manejo silvicultural, uso de semioquímicos e controle biológico, nas quais há necessidade de incentivos a pesquisas de longo prazo. Ensaios de resistência natural de procedências de S. macrophylla devem ser incentivados, devido às extensas áreas com reservas naturais no Brasil.

     

    Doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.59.45

    The mahogany wood, Swietenia macrophylla King, is valued in the international trade market for
    its beauty and durability for noble uses like furniture and decoration. Any attempt of commercial plantation of
    this specie to diminish the pressure made by its selective exploration fail due to the incidence of the mahogany
    shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller. Although some works have had relative success in presenting control
    techniques over the punctual aspects, a strategy of economic, an economic strategy for efficient and integrated
    management practice was not established yet for H. grandella in Brazil. This study objective is to update

  9. Hypsipyla grandella em Mogno (Swietenia macrophylla): Situação Atual e Perspectivas Hypsipyla grandella in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla): Current Situation and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz; Marcílio José Thomazini Thomazini; Maria Carolina Blassioli Moraes; Edinelson José Maciel Neves; Telma Fátima Coelho Batista; Juliana Degenhardt; Lindáurea Alves de Sousa; Orlando Shigueo Ohashi

    2010-01-01

    A madeira de mogno, Swietenia macrophylla King, é valorizada no mercado internacional por sua beleza e durabilidade para fins nobres, como mobiliários e decoração. Quaisquer tentativas de plantios comerciais dessa espécie de modo a reduzir a pressão exercida pela sua exploração seletiva invariavelmente fracassam devido à incidência da broca do ponteiro do mogno, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller). Embora alguns trabalhos tenham obtido relativo sucesso em apresentar técnicas de controle sob...

  10. Antioxidative and hypolipidemic efficacy of alcoholic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, Kalaivanan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2011-06-17

    The present study was designed to examine the antioxidative potential and antihyperlipidemic activity of Swietenia macrophylla in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The experimental groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg body weight, BW). Rats with glucose levels >200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were divided into five groups. Three groups of diabetic animals were orally administered daily with seed extract (SME) at a dosage of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW. One group of STZ rats was treated as diabetic control and another group orally administered 600 μg/kg BW glibenclamide daily. Repeated daily oral administration of S. macrophylla significantly reduced blood glucose levels after 45 days of treatment. The lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides of SME treated rats decreased in the plasma, liver and kidney. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were significantly increased in SME treated rats. Antioxidants such as reduced glutathione level in the plasma, liver and kidney and vitamins C and E levels in the plasma increased in SME treated rats. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids and lipoproteins levels increased. Altered lipid profile of treated rats lead to normality with treatment of S. macrophylla. Thus, our results indicate that the administration of 100 mg/kg BW SME restores near normal blood glucose, redox status and lipid profile in STZ-diabetic rats.

  11. Bioactive Properties of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch. Rhizomes Growing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parina Asgharian, Abbas Delazar, Farzaneh Lotfipour. Solmaz Asnaashari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study was assigned to evaluate the antioxidant, general toxicity, anti-proliferative and antimicrobial activities of different extracts obtained from rhizomes of Eremostachys macrophylla (Lamiaceae. Methods: All activities were evaluated by obtaining extracts of E. macrophylla in n-hexane, DCM (dichloromethane and MeOH (methanol by soxhlet apparatus. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated in terms of FRST (free radical scavenging activity test by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. BSLT (Brine shrimp lethality tests, MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and disc diffusion method were carried out to determine the general toxicity, anti-proliferative and antibacterial activities of the different extracts, respectively. Results: The findings of the study for antioxidant, anti-proliferative and antibacterial effects showed that DCM extract was the most active fraction, but n-hexane extract indicated the most potent effect against Artemia salina. Conclusion: The results revealed strong bioactive effects of nonpolar fractions of E. macrophylla rhizomes. Thus, it is possible to suggest some new potential antioxidant, cytotoxic and antibacterial agents with no harmful effects on noncancerous cells.

  12. Morfoanatomia de folha e caule de Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Erbano

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Genipa americana L., conhecida como jenipapo, é uma Rubiaceae nativa do Brasil e as suas folhas são utilizadas pela população como antidiarreico e febrífugo, e o caule como anti-hemorrágico, contra luxações e contusões. Com o objetivo de caracterizar macro e microscopicamente folhas adultas e caules jovens para o controle de qualidade farmacognóstico, essa planta medicinal foi analisada segundo a metodologia clássica de morfoanatomia vegetal. Genipa americana apresenta folhas simples, opostas, de formato obovado a oblanceolado e pecíolos curtos. A epiderme foliar é uniestratificada e revestida por cutícula delgada e levemente estriada. Os estômatos são paracíticos e restritos à superfície abaxial. Há tricomas tectores uni e pluricelulares predominantemente na superfície abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral. Em secção transversal, a nervura central é plano-convexa e o pecíolo é circular, ambos apresentando um feixe vascular colateral em disposição cilíndrica e outros menores. O caule possui felogênio localizado nas camadas subepidérmicas, colênquima anelar e um cilindro floemático externo ao de xilema, sendo ambos percorridos por raios parenquimáticos estreitos. Ocorrem idioblastos contendo compostos fenólicos, areia cristalina e drusas de oxalato de cálcio na folha e no caule.

  13. Woodiness within the Spermacoceae–Knoxieae alliance (Rubiaceae): retention of the basal woody condition in Rubiaceae or recent innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Frederic; Groeninckx, Inge; Smets, Erik; Dessein, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The tribe Spermacoceae is essentially a herbaceous Rubiaceae lineage, except for some species that can be described as ‘woody’ herbs, small shrubs to treelets, or lianas. Its sister tribe Knoxieae contains a large number of herbaceous taxa, but the number of woody taxa is higher compared to Spermacoceae. The occurrence of herbaceous and woody species within the same group raises the question whether the woody taxa are derived from herbaceous taxa (i.e. secondary woodiness), or whether woodiness represents the ancestral state (i.e. primary woodiness). Microscopic observations of wood anatomy are combined with an independent molecular phylogeny to answer this question. Methods Observations of wood anatomy of 21 woody Spermacoceae and eight woody Knoxieae species, most of them included in a multi-gene molecular phylogeny, are carried out using light microscopy. Key Results Observations of wood anatomy in Spermacoceae support the molecular hypothesis that all the woody species examined are secondary derived. Well-known wood anatomical characters that demonstrate this shift from the herbaceous to the woody habit are the typically flat or decreasing length vs. age curves for vessel elements, the abundance of square and upright ray cells, or even the (near-) absence of rays. These so-called paedomorphic wood features are also present in the Knoxieae genera Otiophora, Otomeria, Pentas, Pentanisia and Phyllopentas. However, the wood structure of the other Knoxieae genera observed (Carphalea, Dirichletia and Triainolepis) is typical of primarily woody taxa. Conclusions In Spermacoceae, secondary woodiness has evolved numerous times in strikingly different habitats. In Knoxieae, there is a general trend from primary woodiness towards herbaceousness and back to (secondary) woodiness. PMID:19279041

  14. The Philippine Rubiaceae genera: updated synopsis in INTKEY databases of the DELTA system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alejandro, G.D.; Liede, S.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in generic concepts and delimitation resulted in 80 genera (6 of which are cultivated) of Philippine Rubiaceae. Generic descriptions of all genera are coded in DELTA format (Version 2000) and translated by the directive CONFOR into INTKEY database for interactive identification and

  15. Species diversity, vegetation pattern and conservation of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. communities in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadia, S.; Zhang, J.T.; Bai, X.; Shedayi, A.A.; Tariq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Gentiana macrophylla, native to mountainous areas of Central and Southern Asia, is most popular remedy for rheumatism and pains in Traditional Chinese Medicine with an extensive demand in local market. Our study aimed to classify G. macrophylla communities and to find out the impact of topographic and soil factors on their diversity and distribution in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China. Seventy five samples in 15 transects separated by 50m distance in altitude along an elevation gradient (1592-2298m) were established by quadrate method. TWINSAPN and CCA were used for classification and ordination, respectively. Six diversity indices (Species richness, Shannon-Weiner heterogeneity, Simpson’s index, Hill’s index, Pielou evenness and McIntosh evenness) were used to analyze the pattern of species diversity and polynomial regression analysis was used to establish their relationship with environmental variables. TWINSPAN classified G. macrophylla communities into 8 types and CCA indicated that soil pH, soil temperature, soil type, disturbance, total N, total K, Mg and Zn were significantly related to these communities. Elevation was the most significant factor that affecting the diversity and distribution of G. macrophylla communities. Significant effect of environment, topography and disturbance to meadow communities of G. macrophylla highly suggests some important measures such as uprooting restriction, tourism limitation in meadow area, monitoring of functional diversity, fertilization, irrigation, cloning and cultivation to protect and conserve it and its communities to be used in medicine industry. (author)

  16. Leaf blade structure of Verbesina macrophylla (Cass.) F. S. Blake (Asteraceae): ontogeny, duct secretion mechanism and essential oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, L D A; Mangabeira, P A O; de Oliveira, R A; Costa, L C D B; Da Cunha, M

    2018-05-01

    Secretory structures are common in Asteraceae, where they exhibit a high degree of morphological diversity. The species Verbesina macrophylla, popularly known as assa-peixe, is native to Brazil where it is widely used for medicinal purposes. Despite its potential medical importance, there have been no studies of the anatomy of this species, especially its secretory structures and secreted compounds. This study examined leaves of V. macrophylla with emphasis on secretory structures and secreted secondary metabolites. Development of secretory ducts and the mechanism of secretion production are described for V. macrophylla using ultrastructure, yield and chemical composition of its essential oils. Verbesina macrophylla has a hypostomatic leaf blade with dorsiventral mesophyll and secretory ducts associated with vascular bundles of schizogenous origin. Histochemistry identified the presence of lipids, terpenes, alkaloids and mucopolysaccharides. Ultrastructure suggests that the secretion released into the duct lumen is produced in plastids of transfer cells, parenchymal sheath cells and stored in vacuoles in these cells and duct epithelial cells. The essential oil content was 0.8%, and its major components were germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, β-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene and α-cadinol. Secretory ducts of V. macrophylla are squizogenous. Substances identified in tissues suggest that both secretions stored in the ducts and in adjacent parenchyma cells are involved in chemical defence. The essential oil is rich in sesquiterpenes, with germacrene D and its derivatives being notable components. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Molecular Reconstruction of an Old Pedigree of Diploid and Triploid Hydrangea macrophylla Genotypes

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    Peter Hempel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental crop species Hydrangea macrophylla exhibits diploid and triploid levels of ploidy and develops lacecap (wild type or mophead inflorescences. In order to characterize a H. macrophylla germplasm collection, we determined the inflorescence type and the 2C DNA content of 120 plants representing 43 cultivars. We identified 78 putative diploid and 39 putative triploid plants by flow cytometry. In our collection 69 out of 98 flowering plants produced lacecap inflorescences, whereas 29 plants developed mophead inflorescences. Surprisingly, 12 cultivars included diploid as well as triploid plants, while 5 cultivars contained plants with different inflorescence types. We genotyped this germplasm collection using 12 SSR markers that detected 2–7 alleles per marker, and identified 51 different alleles in this collection. We detected 62 distinct fingerprints, revealing a higher genetic variation than the number of cultivars suggested. Only one genotype per cultivar is expected due to the vegetative propagation of Hydrangea cultivars; however we identified 25 cultivars containing 2–4 different genotypes. These different genotypes explained the variation in DNA content and inflorescence type. Diploid and triploid plants with the same cultivar name were exclusively mix-ups. We therefor assume, that 36% of the tested plants were mislabeled. Based on the “Wädenswil” pedigree, which includes 31 of the tested cultivars, we predicted cultivar-specific fingerprints and identified at least 21 out of 31 cultivars by SSR marker-based reconstruction of the “Wädenswil” pedigree. Furthermore, we detected 4 putative interploid crosses between diploid and triploid plants in this pedigree. These interploid crosses resulted in diploid or/and triploid offspring, suggesting that crosses with triploids were successfully applied in breeding of H. macrophylla.

  18. Chemotaxonomy of the Rubiaceae family based on leaf fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongrand, Sébastien; Badoc, Alain; Patouille, Brigitte; Lacomblez, Chantal; Chavent, Marie; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques

    2005-03-01

    With 10,700 species distributed in 637 genera, the Rubiaceae family is one of the largest of the angiosperms. Since it was previously evidenced that the fatty acid composition of photosynthetic tissues can be a tool for chemotaxonomic studies, the fatty acid composition of leaves from 107 Rubiaceae species highly representative of the diversity of the family was determined. Principal component analysis allowed a clear-cut separation of Coffeae, Psychotrieae and Rubieae. The occurrence of C16:3 fatty acid, a marker of the prokaryotic plastidial lipid biosynthetic pathway, concerned at least two branches: Theligoneae/Rubieae and Anthospermeae-Anthosperminae which appeared to be in close relationship. Additional experiments were carried out to ensure the correlation between the presence of C16:3 fatty acid and the prokaryotic biosynthetic pathway.

  19. Ophiorrhiza guizhouensis (Rubiaceae, a new species from Guizhou Province, southwestern China

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    Chuan-Dong Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ophiorrhiza guizhouensis, a new species of Rubiaceae from south-western China, is described and illustrated. The new species is morphologically similar to O. japonica, but differs from the latter by having terete stems which are densely hirtellous, usually persistent ciliate stipules with well-developed colleters inside the base of the stipule, shorter corolla tubes and shorter stamens and styles.

  20. 13C-NMR Spectral Data of Alkaloids Isolated from Psychotria Species (Rubiaceae

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    Almir Ribeiro de Carvalho Junior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Psychotria (Rubiaceae comprises more than 2000 species, mainly found in tropical and subtropical forests. Several studies have been conducted concerning their chemical compositions, showing that this genus is a potential source of alkaloids. At least 70 indole alkaloids have been identified from this genus so far. This review aimed to compile 13C-NMR data of alkaloids isolated from the genus Psychotria as well as describe the main spectral features of different skeletons.

  1. Post-logging loss of genetic diversity in a mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) population in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. André; M.R. Lemes; J. Grogan; R. Gribel

    2008-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) is the most valuable widely traded timber species from the Neotropics. Mahogany has been severely overexploited throughout its natural range, which stretches from southern Mexico through Central and South America as far south as the Bolivian Amazon.We investigated effects of selective logging on the genetic...

  2. Flowering phenology and its implications for management of big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Grogan; M. D. Loveless

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Flowering phenology is a crucial determinant of reproductive success and offspring genetic diversity in plants. We measure the fl owering phenology of big-leaf mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla , Meliaceae), a widely distributed neotropical tree, and explore how disturbance from logging impacts its reproductive biology. • Methods: We use a crown...

  3. Regenerating mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) from seed in Quintana Roo, Mexico: the effects of sowing method and clearing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Negreros-Castilloa; Laura K. Snookb; Carl W. Mize

    2003-01-01

    Honduras or bigleaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) is the most commercially important timber species in the Neotropics, but it often does not regenerate successfully after harvesting. Effective methods are needed to sustain or increase mahogany yields by increasing regeneration. This study evaluates the effects of three treatments (slash, fell and burn; slash,...

  4. Survival, growth and reproduction by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in open clearing vs. forested conditions in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; Mark Schulze; Jurandir Galvao

    2010-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) trees are often retained in agricultural fields and pastures for seed and timber production after selective logging and forest clearing in the Brazilian Amazon. At a forest management site in southeast Para´, we censused trees growing scattered across a large open clearing after forest removal and in heavily disturbed forest...

  5. Dispersing towards Madagascar: Biogeography and evolution of the Madagascan endemics of the Spermacoceae tribe (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrophysiological responses of female and male Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) to Swietenia macrophylla essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marisi G; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Fernandes, João B; Corrêa, Arlene G; da Silva, M Fátima G F; Vieira, Paulo C; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ohashi, Orlando S

    2003-09-01

    The mahogany shoot borer, Hypsipyla grandella, is one of the most economically important Neotropical forest pest insects because it attacks valuable timber of the Meliaceae. Despite detailed information on the life cycle of H. grandella, factors influencing attack by the shoot borer are not well known. Electroantennogram studies of borer antennae indicate that both female and male moths elicited significant antennal responses to essential oil of the terminal shoots, mature and senescent leaves, in three concentrations. Gamma-himachalene, germacrene D, germacrene A, cadina-1,4-diene, hexadecanoic acid, and ethyl hexadecanoate appeared in all essential oils from Swietenia macrophylla. Germacrene-D and gamma-himachalene were also present in the active essential oil of Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. These findings suggest that these compounds play a role in attracting H. grandella to oviposit on the leaves of these plants. The GC-EAD of essential oil from S. macrophylla mature leaves to female H. grandella antennae led to the identification of beta-caryophyllene as the main constituent responsible for the antennae response.

  7. Efficient methods for isolating five phytochemicals from Gentiana macrophylla using high-performance countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Taewoong; Jung, Mila; Lee, Min Won; Chin, Young-Won; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2016-12-01

    Efficient high-performance countercurrent chromatography methods were developed to isolate five typical compounds from the extracts of Gentiana macrophylla. n-Butanol-soluble extract of G. macrophylla contained three hydrophilic iridoids, loganic acid (1), swertiamarin (2) and gentiopicroside (3), and a chromene derivative, macrophylloside D (4) which were successfully isolated by flow rate gradient (1.5 mL/min in 0-60 min, 5.0 mL/min in 60-120 min), and consecutive flow rate gradient HPCCC using n-butanol/0.1% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (1:1, v/v, normal phase mode) system. The yields of 1-4 were 22, 16, 122, and 6 mg, respectively, with purities over 97% in a flow rate gradient high-performance countercurrent chromatography, and consecutive flow rate gradient high-performance countercurrent chromatography gave 1, 2, 3 (54, 41, 348 mg, respectively, purities over 97%) and 4 (13 mg, purity at 95%) from 750 mg of sample. The main compound in methylene chloride soluble extract, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, was successfully separated by n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (4:6:4:6, v/v/v/v, flow-rate: 4 mL/min, reversed phase mode) condition. The structures of five isolates were elucidated by 1 H, 13 C NMR and ESI-Q-TOF-MS spectroscopic data which were compared with previously reported values. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Phytochemical standardization, antioxidant, and antibacterial evaluations of Leea macrophylla: A wild edible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Apurva; Prasad, Satyendra K; Joshi, Vinod Kumar; Hemalatha, Siva

    2016-04-01

    In Ayurveda, Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Hornem. (Leeaceae) is indicated in worm infestation, dermatopathies, wounds, inflammation, and in symptoms of diabetes. The present study aims to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial potential of ethanolic extract and its different fractions of Leea macrophylla root tubers using phytochemical profiling which is still unexplored. Quantitative estimations of different phytoconstituents along with characterization of ethanol extract using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed using chlorogenic acid as a marker compound for the first time. The extract and its successive fractions were also evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity using different models. The extract was further tested against a few Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria for its antibacterial activity. Phytochemical screening and quantitative estimations revealed the extract to be rich in alkaloid, flavonoid, phenols, and tannins, whereas chlorogenic acid quantified by HPLC in ethanol extract was 9.01% w/w. The results also indicated potential antioxidant and antibacterial activity, which was more prominent in the extract followed by its butanol fraction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Germination of somatic embryos of Swietenia macrophylla in semisolid culture media

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    Raúl Collado

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to establish a suitable culture medium and to determine the optimum culture time for the germination of somatic embryos of Swietenia macrophylla King, it was carried out these work. Somatic embryos at the cotyledonal stage were placed in a culture medium formed by the half of the MS salts for their germination . three concentrations of 6-BAP (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg.l-1, two concentrations of AG (1.0 and 2.0 mg.l-1 and a culture medium control without growth regulators were studied. In the culture medium wher3e the best results were obtained, the effect of the culture time on the germination of somatic embryos (30, 60 and 90 days of culture was studied. The major number of somatic embryos with total germination was obtained in the culture medium without growth regulators, with significant differences to the rest of the treatments. The highest value of somatic embryos with secondary embryogenesis was presented when 0.6 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP were added to the culture medium. The increase of the culture time to 60 and 90 days increased significantly the total germination of the somatic embryos. These results allowed to define a culture medium for the germination of somatic embryos of Swietenia macrophylla King composed by the half of the MS salts without growth regulators with a culture time of 60 days. Key words: in vitro culture, Mahogany, regeneration, somatic embryogenesis

  10. Novas espécies de Coussarea Aubl. e Faramea Aubl. (Rubiaceae, tribo Coussareae New species from Coussarea Aubl. and Faramea Aubl. (Rubiaceae, tribe Coussareae

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    Mario Gomes

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novas espécies da família Rubiaceae, relacionadas à tribo Coussareae são descritas e ilustradas. São elas: Coussarea bocainae; Faramea hymenocalyx; F. paratiensis e F. picinguabae. Os táxons aqui apresentados tiveram como base material coletado na Serra do Parati, situada na divisa entre os Estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, nas proximidades do litoral. Essa serra integra o Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina e possui cobertura vegetal predominante da Floresta Pluvial Atlântica, sendo essa a área de distribuição e o hábitat dos novos táxons.Four new species of the Rubiaceae, tribe Coussareae are described and illustrated: Coussarea bocainae; Faramea hymenocalyx; F. paratiensis and F. picinguabae. They are based on the material collected in the Parati Mountains, located on the border between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo States, near the coast. This mountainous area is part of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, which is covered mainly by Atlantic Rain Forest. These new taxa are found in this forest within the Park.

  11. Study of the Volatile Constituents in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and a Substitute by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Chemometric Methods

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    Lan-Fang Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A combined approach of subwindow factor analysis and spectral correlative chromatography was used to analyze the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth, one of its substitutes. After extraction by a water distillation method, the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and Flemingiae Latifolia Benth were detected by GC-MS. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae was completed with the help of subwindow factor analysis resolving two-dimensional original data into mass spectra and chromatograms. Sixty five of 82 separated constituents in the total ion chromatogram of the volatile components in Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae were identified and quantified, accounting for about 88.79% of the total content. Then, spectral correlative chromatography was used to extract correlative constituents in Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. Fifty one correlative components were recognized in essential oil of Flemingiae Latifolia Benth. The result proves the combined approach is powerful in the analysis of complex herbal samples. The developed method can be used to compare the sameness and differences of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae and its substitutes and it can also be used for quality control of Radix Flemingiae Macrophyllae.

  12. Proposal of commercialization of Swietenia macrophylla King seeds genetic improved in the UCTB Experiment Station

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    Alain Puig Pérez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted at the Agroforestry Experimental Station of Guise in 2013, with the aim of establishing a proposal for the marketing of seed of Swietenia macrophylla with high added value. A brief characterization of the entity and description of the species under study was carried out. Internal and external environment was also characterized by identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, noting that the station should take advantage of opportunities and mitigate weaknesses and threats. The macro market segmentation and the action plan for marketing programs of the seeds were performed. With the marketing of seed of high added value of this valuable plantations will increase and latifolia seed growths will be greater.

  13. Licanol, um novo flavanol, e outros constituintes de Licania macrophylla Benth

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    Fernando Antônio de Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of L. macrophylla Benth led to the isolation of a new flavanol named licanol: (--4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin-3'-O-α-L-rhamnoside, along with nine known compounds, identified as: (--4'-O-methyl-epigallocatechin, pheophytin A, 13²-hydroxy-(13²-S-pheophytin A, pheophytin B, sitosterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol-β-O-glucoside, betulinic alcohol and oleanolic acid. The structures were established based on IR, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR spectrometric data analysis with the aid of 2D techniques. The methanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark as well as the compounds licanol, 13²-hidroxi-(13²-S-feofitina A, and betulinic alcohol demonstrated antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains.

  14. Antioxidant and Antityrosinase Activity of Flemingia macrophylla and Glycine tomentella Roots

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    Bor-Sen Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antityrosinase activities of the water extract of Flemingia macrophylla root (WEFM were investigated. The results showed that WEFM exhibited radical scavenging and reducing activities, as well as ferrous ion chelating property. In addition, WEFM also protected phospholipids against oxidation, indicating that WEFM could protect biomolecules from oxidative damage. Meanwhile, in the range of 50–100 μg/mL, the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of WEFM increased with an increase in sample concentration and was superior to that of the water extract of Glycine tomentella root (WEGT. A high performance liquid chromatography analysis was used to determine the phenolic components, revealing that daidzin, daidzein, genistin, and genistein were present in WEFM and WEGT. Acting as an antioxidant and a tyrosinase inhibitor, these bioactive constituents could contribute to the protective effects of WEFM. Overall, the results showed that WEFM might serve as a natural antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor.

  15. Phytochemistry of the fossilized-cuticle frond Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Pennsylvanian seed fern, Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, Erwin L. [Palaeobotanical Laboratory, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia, B1P 6L2 (Canada); D' Angelo, Jose A. [IANIGLA, CCT-CONICET-Mendoza, Avda. Ruiz Leal s/n Parque Gral. San Martin (5500) Mendoza (Argentina); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405-2208 (United States); Cleal, Christopher J. [Department of Biodiversity and Systematic Biology, National Museum of Wales, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3NP (United Kingdom); Keefe, Dale [Molecular Spectroscopy Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2010-11-01

    In Canada's Sydney Coalfield, specimens of the extinct Carboniferous seed fern Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Brongniart) invariably show preservation stages intermediate between compression and fossilized-cuticle, even concerning a single pinnule. In this interdisciplinary approach, we study a ca. 300 to 350 mm long fossilized-cuticle-preserved frond section of M. macrophylla (Brongniart) that represents about one third of the length of a frond that was originally 1 m long. Size and preservation allow us to study the phytochemistry of the cuticle biomacropolymers over the length of the frond to assess what impact, if any, results would have on Carboniferous palaeophytochemotaxonomy. For comparison, the phytochemistry of compressions with their extracted cuticles from the same species and the same sample locality is also investigated. We use solid- and liquid-state, semi-quantitative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical characterization of the frond. Based on our results, we infer an essentially uniform phytochemistry over the fossilized-cuticle frond, suggesting that only a single pinnule needs to be analyzed to get an overall phytochemical picture of the frond, which has been our long-time working hypothesis. We distinguish between phytochemistry and cutinization. The latter is much less pronounced above than below the frond dichotomy, and we suggest a palaeoecological cause, rather than differing pathways of organic matter transformation. Moreover, cuticles below and above the frond dichotomy have essentially the same epidermal pattern, but those from below have features that may have been an adaptation to prevent stomatal flooding during the tropical, rainy season. This study suggests that chemically the fossilized-cuticle is more similar to the compression than to the cuticle obtained from that compression of the same species which invites reevaluation of the classical compression concept. (author)

  16. Potensi Mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla King Pada Hutan Rakyat Sistem Kaliwo di Malimada, Sumba Barat Daya

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    S.Agung Sri Raharjo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Hutan rakyat berpotensi menjadi solusi defisit kebutuhan kayu secara lokal maupun nasional. Optimalisasi peran hutan rakyat memerlukan perencanaan yang tepat dan data yang akurat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan potensi dan komposisi kayu penyusun hutan rakyat di Malimada, Kecamatan Wewewa Utara Kabupaten Sumba Barat Daya, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Penelitian menggunakan pendekatan diskriptif kuantitatif dengan metode sampling kuadrat. Sampel berjumlah 10 plot yang diambil secara puposive. Indeks Nilai Peneting (INP digunakan untuk menggambarkan potency kayu dan komposisi jenis penyusun hutan rakyat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla King mendominasi tegakan dengan nilai INP pada tingkat sapihan, tiang dan pohon berturut-turut adalah 188,28; 211,28 dan 246,04. Struktur tegakan yang ada memiliki karakteristik yang hampir sama dengan hutan alam,  hal ini terlihat dari grafik distribusi tingkat pertumbuhan yang berbentuk (J terbalik (reverse J-shape. Kata kunci : potensi kayu, hutan rakyat, mahoni, analisis vegetasi   ABSTRACT Private forests potentially solve the problem of local and national wood deficit. Optimizing the role of private forests, needs proper plannings and accurate data. This study aimed at determining wood potency and composition on private forest of Malimada, North Wewewa sub district, Southwest Sumba District of East Nusa Tenggara. This research used quantitative descriptive approach. Samplings purposive used quadrat methods with 10 plots were established. Important Value Index (IVI was employed in order to depict wood potency and trees composition of private forest. The research results revealed that standing stock predominantly by mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King. with IVI at saplings, poles, and trees level were 188.28; 211.28 and 246.04 respectively. The existing structure stock has similar characteristics to the nature forest, this was indicated by reverse J-shape level of

  17. Phytochemistry of the fossilized-cuticle frond Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Pennsylvanian seed fern, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, E.L.; D'Angelo, J. A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Cleal, C.J.; Keefe, D.

    2010-01-01

    In Canada's Sydney Coalfield, specimens of the extinct Carboniferous seed fern Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Brongniart) invariably show preservation stages intermediate between compression and fossilized-cuticle, even concerning a single pinnule. In this interdisciplinary approach, we study a ca. 300 to 350 mm long fossilized-cuticle-preserved frond section of M. macrophylla (Brongniart) that represents about one third of the length of a frond that was originally 1 m long. Size and preservation allow us to study the phytochemistry of the cuticle biomacropolymers over the length of the frond to assess what impact, if any, results would have on Carboniferous palaeophytochemotaxonomy. For comparison, the phytochemistry of compressions with their extracted cuticles from the same species and the same sample locality is also investigated. We use solid- and liquid-state, semi-quantitative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical characterization of the frond.Based on our results, we infer an essentially uniform phytochemistry over the fossilized-cuticle frond, suggesting that only a single pinnule needs to be analyzed to get an overall phytochemical picture of the frond, which has been our long-time working hypothesis. We distinguish between phytochemistry and cutinization. The latter is much less pronounced above than below the frond dichotomy, and we suggest a palaeoecological cause, rather than differing pathways of organic matter transformation. Moreover, cuticles below and above the frond dichotomy have essentially the same epidermal pattern, but those from below have features that may have been an adaptation to prevent stomatal flooding during the tropical, rainy season.This study suggests that chemically the fossilized-cuticle is more similar to the compression than to the cuticle obtained from that compression of the same species which invites reevaluation of the classical compression concept. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Germination et croissance initiale de Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine Prance, une espèce oléagineuse du Niger

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    Dan Guimbo, I.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination and Initial Growth of Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine Prance, a oleaginous Species of Niger. The study conducted in parallel in the real environment, nursery and laboratory to better understand the characteristics of germination and seedling development Neocarya macrophylla, a species of oleaginous Niger. The treatments applied to seed have a waiting time shorter than the untreated seeds. The control has a staggered germination (30 days and shelling of nuts influenced seed germination bundled (16 days. Unprocessed nuts are the best germination rate (89.53%. Soaking nuts during 72 h and 120 h is fatal for germination. The shelf life has significant effects on the germination of walnuts and almonds. The observation shows a germinating seed cryptogeal. The low germination rates nuts without water shows that water is a limiting factor to the spread of this tree species. The seedlings are very sensitive to dampingoff and tolerant enough to transplantation with a survival rate of 79%.

  19. POTENSI HUTAN TANAMAN MAHONI (Swietenia macrophylla King DALAM PENGENDALIAN LIMPASAN DAN EROSI (Potential of Swietenia macrophylla King Forest Plantation for Run Off and Erosion Control

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    Mashudi Mashudi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian dilaksanakan pada hutan tanaman mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla King. umur 2, 5 dan 9 tahun yang berlokasi di Resort Polisi Hutan (RPH Getas, Bagian Kesatuan Pemangkuan Hutan (BKPH Monggot, Kesatuan Pemangkuan Hutan (KPH Gundih, Jawa Tengah. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui kondisi komunitas vegetasi tegakan mahoni pada beberapa fase umur dan potensinya dalam pengendalian limpasan dan erosi. Masing-masing umur tanaman dibangun 2 petak ukur pengamatan limpasan dan erosi dengan ukuran 22,1 m x 4 m per petak ukur. Sebagai kontrol dibangun 2 petak ukur dengan ukuran yang sama pada lahan terbuka (tanpa tanaman. Pengamatan vegetasi juga dilakukan di dalam petak ukur pengamatan erosi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengendalian erosi dan limpasan permukaan tegakan mahoni lebih banyak dikendalikan oleh keberadaan seresah dan tumbuhan bawah. Tingkat erosi yang terjadi pada tegakan mahoni umur 2, 5 dan 9 tahun menurun, yaitu masing-masing menjadi 49,4, 15,3 dan 8,7 % dibandingkan dengan control (lahan tanpa tanaman. Besar limpasan air permukaan pada tegakan mahoni umur 2, 5 dan 9 tahun yang dicerminkan oleh nilai koefisien erosi masing-masing sebesar 0,24 (4 % terhadap kontrol, 0,19 (24 % terhadap kontrol dan 0,14 (44 % terhadap kontrol. Kegiatan seleksi pada kegiatan pemuliaan akan menghasilkan benih unggul yang akan meningkatkan produksi kayu (biomasa dan menurunkan laju limpasan dan erosi.   ABSTRACT The research was conducted on mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King. plantations at 2, 5 and 9 years old located in RPH Getas, BKPH Monggot, KPH Gundih, Central Java. This study was carried out to determine the condition of vegetation communities of mahogany stand on several phases of age and its potential in controlling runoff and erosion. Two observation plots including runoff and erosion were set up by the size of 22.1 m x 4 m per plot. Two plots of the same size were also set up on open land (without plants as a control

  20. Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. and Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G. Don: A comparative review on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khyade, Mahendra S; Kasote, Deepak M; Vaikos, Nityanand P

    2014-04-11

    Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. and Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G. Don are two vital medicinal plant species (family: Apocynaceae). In India, the therapeutic use of Alstonia scholaris has been described in both codified and non-codified drug systems for the treatment of malaria, jaundice, gastrointestinal troubles, cancer and in many other ailments. Other species, Alstonia macrophylla has been used in conventional medicines in Thailand, Malaysia and Philippines as a general tonic, aphrodisiac, anticholeric, antidysentery, antipyretic, emmenagogue, and vulnerary agents. In India, Alstonia macrophylla is used as a substitute for Alstonia scholaris in various herbal pharmaceutical preparations. However, one certainly cannot evaluate the truthfulness of a practice (i.e. in scientific terms). In this article we discuss and summarize comparative data about traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicity of Alstonia scholaris and Alstonia macrophylla. Moreover, in order to unfold future research opportunities, lacunae in the present knowledge are also highlighted. Literature about Alstonia scholaris and Alstonia macrophylla was collected by using electronic and library search. Additionally, referred books on traditional medicine and ethnopharmacology were also utilized for receiving traditional records about both the plant species. Both Alstonia scholaris and Alstonia macrophylla are rich in different types of bioactive alkaloids. So far, broad spectrum of in vitro and in vivo biological and pharmacological activities have been reported to both the species. Amongst them, antimicrobial and anticancer activities were promising. The use of Alstonia macrophylla as a substitute for Alstonia scholaris is not at all justifiable as both the species are distinct from each other in their phytochemistry and pharmacology. Further detail chemical fingerprinting and metabolic studies of these two species are warranted to prevent their mutual adulteration most importantly

  1. Determinación de necesidades nutrimentales para las especies Swietenia macrophylla y Cupressus lusitanica en prueba de invernadero

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    A. Paniagua Vásquez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los requerimientos nutrimentales de Swietenia macrophylla y Cupressus lusitanica en un Inceptisol y Ultisol provenientes de la región Huetar Norte de Costa Rica, en una prueba de invernadero utilizando una metodología que involucra tres pasos fundamentales: a análisis preliminar de la muestra original, b estudios de Sorción, c técnicas de invernadero. La muestra del suelo se recolectó en sitios representativos a una profundidad de 0-25 cm. En Inceptisol los requerimentos para Sweitenia macrophylla en orden según las pruebas de invernadero fueron: P> Cu> B> Fe> N, para Cupressus lusitanica fueron: P> K> Mn> Cu> Zn> Fe. En Ultisol los requerimentos nutrimentales para Sweitenia macrophylla fueron: B> Fe> Mn> Zn> N> P> K> Cu. Es importante considerar que son los elementos menores los que tienen mayor respuesta a la aplicación, con las variables de crecimiento los mayores valores se obtuvieron en orden K> N> P, para Cupressus lusitanica resultados fueron: N> P> Mn> Fe> Zn. Con las variables de crecimiento los mayores valores se obtuvieron en orden K> N> P.

  2. Development of carpels and ovules in Dialypetalanthus fuscescens Kuhlm. (Rubiaceae: an enigmatic taxon

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    Rogério da Costa Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dialypetalanthus is a monospecific genus that occurs in the Amazon Basin of Brazil, Bolivia and Peru and occupies a controversial position among the Rubiaceae. We continue this taxonomic discussion with the overall aim of clarifying the systematic position of D. fuscescens within the Rubiaceae. To accomplish this, we analyzed the ontogeny of its gynoecium, in particular the floral meristem, as well as the development of the carpels and cauline placentation. Gynosporogenesis and the differentiation of the carpellary septa and ovules were also described. Dialypetalanthus fuscescens was classified according to evolutionary diagrams found in the literature. The following characteristics were observed in D. fuscescens: 1 permanence of the floral meristem in the central basal part of the early flower bud; 2 dual origin of carpellary septum; 3 trizonate ovular primordia with only one fertile gynospore per ovule; and 4 cellular proliferation in the chalazal region. Embryological results confirm the classification of D. fuscescens in the subfamily Ixoroideae. These results are distinct from any others previously proposed in the evolutionary diagram. Therefore, we conclude that this study has presented evidence strongly suggesting that Dialypetalanthus possesses new morphological-type of ovule we refer to as the Dialypetalanthus-type.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (ESEM OF Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae COLLETERS

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    Sergimar Kennedy de Paiva PINHEIRO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the colleters of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae by using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Two different developmental stages were characterized as well as the chemical composition of secretion. Colleters are secretory structures that produce mucilage protecting the meristems and leaf primordia against desiccation and/or pathogens. Although these secretory structures are common on Rubiaceae, the results reported here is to the best of our knowledge the first record of colleters on Morinda genus. Colleters are present at the stipule adaxial surface, distributed in lines. These secretory structures are standard type and have no base constriction, differently from all studied species until now. In order to better understand the colleters structure and secretion, two phases were distinguished: a secretory phase and a senescence one. On secretory phase standard type colleters were visualized between leaf primordia and stipule, emerge on secretion. They present smooth surface, however was also possible to observe the contours of secretory cells anticlinal walls. In senescent phase colleters morphology was alternated exhibiting rough surface and blunt to point tips. The surface was rough and on stipule sections was possible to observe idioblasts with raphides bundles. The secretion process of M. citrifolia colleters occurs with the disruption of cuticle and the chemical elements are mostly dominated by carbon and oxygen.

  4. A new species, of Aceria neopaederiae (Acari: Eriophyidae), infesting Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceria paederiae (Nalepa) infesting leaves of Paederia foetida L. (Family Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore is reported for the first time. The mite induces small, round galls on both leaf surfaces. The complete descriptions of both males and females, including line drawings and SEM ...

  5. Gomphocalyx and Phylohydrax (Rubiaceae): sister taxa excluded from Spermacoceae s.s., featuring a remarkable case of convergent evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessein, S.; Andersson, L.; Geuten, K.; Smets, E.; Robbrecht, E.

    2005-01-01

    The genera Gomphocalyx and Phylohydrax (Rubiaceae) have been invariably placed in the tribe Spermacoceae s.s. based on the uni-ovulate ovary locules and pluri-aperturate pollen grains. Sequence data from the rps16 intron and the rbcL gene here presented exclude Gomphocalyx and Phylohydrax from

  6. Protocolo para la micropropagación de Furcraea macrophylla Baker

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    Martínez María A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Del género Furcraea hacen parte especies textiles de gran importancia en los mercados nacionales e internacionales, tanto por las características de la fibra como por el contenido de precursores de hormonas, corticoides, azúcares, ácidos grasos y biopesticidas que se encuentran en sus jugos. En esta investigación se desarrolló un protocolo para la micropropagación de Furcraea macrophylla B. a partir de ápices caulinares procedentes de bulbillos. Los cultivos in vitro se realizaron en medio MS modificado y suplementado con BA, TDZ, KIN y 2-IP en forma individual o en combinación con 2,69 μM de ANA. Después de 12 semanas de iniciados los cultivos, en la mayoría de los tratamientos ensayados los explantes desarrollaron brotes axilares. 100% de los brotes producidos enraizaron después de 30 d en medio MS modificado suplementado con  11,42 μM de AIA, con 2,46 μM de AIB o en ausencia de reguladores de crecimiento. Después de la etapa de endurecimiento, 94% de las plántulas sobrevivieron en condiciones ex vitro. El protocolo establecido para la  micropropagación de F. macrophylla es un procedimiento efectivo con el que se podría suplir la demanda comercial de material vegetal seleccionado, en óptimo estado fitosanitario, en periodos relativamente  cortos y a bajos costos.

  7. Morfoanatomia de folha e caule de Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae Leaf and stem morpho-anatomy of Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae

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    Marianna Erbano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Genipa americana L., conhecida como jenipapo, é uma Rubiaceae nativa do Brasil e as suas folhas são utilizadas pela população como antidiarreico e febrífugo, e o caule como anti-hemorrágico, contra luxações e contusões. Com o objetivo de caracterizar macro e microscopicamente folhas adultas e caules jovens para o controle de qualidade farmacognóstico, essa planta medicinal foi analisada segundo a metodologia clássica de morfoanatomia vegetal. Genipa americana apresenta folhas simples, opostas, de formato obovado a oblanceolado e pecíolos curtos. A epiderme foliar é uniestratificada e revestida por cutícula delgada e levemente estriada. Os estômatos são paracíticos e restritos à superfície abaxial. Há tricomas tectores uni e pluricelulares predominantemente na superfície abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral. Em secção transversal, a nervura central é plano-convexa e o pecíolo é circular, ambos apresentando um feixe vascular colateral em disposição cilíndrica e outros menores. O caule possui felogênio localizado nas camadas subepidérmicas, colênquima anelar e um cilindro floemático externo ao de xilema, sendo ambos percorridos por raios parenquimáticos estreitos. Ocorrem idioblastos contendo compostos fenólicos, areia cristalina e drusas de oxalato de cálcio na folha e no caule.Genipa americana L., known as jenipapo, is a Rubiaceae species native to Brazil. Its leaves are used by the population as anti-diarrheic and febrifuge, and its stem as anti-hemorrhagic and for trauma injuries. Aiming to identify macro and microscopically mature leaves and young stems for the pharmacognostic quality control, this medicinal plant was investigated according to standard morpho-anatomical techniques. The leaves are simple, opposite, obovate-oblanceolate, presenting short petiole. The epidermis is uniseriate and coated with thin and slightly striate cuticle. The stomata are paracytic and restricted to the abaxial surface. It

  8. Biologia reprodutiva de Psychotria poeppigiana Mull. Arg. (Rubiaceae em mata de galeria Reproductive biology of Psychotria poeppigiana Mull. Arg. (Rubiaceae in gallery forest

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    Christiano Peres Coelho

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotria L. (Rubiaceae é o gênero com mais espécies heterostílicas dentre as Angiospermas. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a biologia floral, fenologia, o sistema reprodutivo e os polinizadores de Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg. As inflorescências são capitadas terminais, com brácteas vermelhas e flores amarelas apresentando dois morfos distintos: brevistiladas e longistiladas, caracterizadas por flores hermafroditas com diferentes comprimentos de estiletes e posicionamento oposto das anteras (hercogamia recíproca. Encontrou-se diferenças no tamanho das anteras, dos grãos de pólen e da superfície estigmática entre os morfotipos. Polinizações controladas mostraram que os morfotipos apresentam auto-incompatibilidade e intramorfo-incompatibilidade ao nível do estigma e do estilete. Os visitantes são pequenas vespas, abelhas, borboletas e beija-flores, que visitam as flores com maior freqüência no início da manhã. De acordo com a freqüência e eficiência no comportamento de transportar os grãos de pólen entre os morfos florais, o principal polinizador foi o beija-flor Thalurania furcata. O néctar é produzido em pequena quantidade (máximo de 8µl e durante a abertura das flores, que ocorre entre 5 e 7h. A espécie forma agrupamentos devido à existência de reprodução vegetativa.Psychotria L. (Rubiaceae is the genus with the most heterostylous species in the angiosperms. The objective of this study is to describe floral biology, phenology, reproductive system, and pollinators of Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg. The terminal inflorescences are capitate with red bracts and yellow flowers, and presented two different morphs: pin and thrum, characterized by hermaphroditic flowers with different lengths of styles and opposed position of the anthers (reciprocal herkogamy. Dimorphism was also observed in the size of anthers, pollen grains and stigmatic surfaces. Controlled pollination revealed self

  9. Rubiaceae in Brazilian Atlantic Forest remnants: floristic similarity and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Alessandra Marques; Barberena, Felipe Fajardo Villela Antolin; Lopes, Rosana Conrado

    2016-06-01

    Brazil holds most of the Atlantic Forest Domain and is also one of the Rubiaceae diversity centers in the Neotropics. Despite the urban expansion in the state of Rio de Janeiro, large areas of continuous vegetation with high connectivity degree can still be found. Recently, new Rubiaceae species have been described in the Rio de Janeiro flora, which present small populations and very particular distribution. The current paper analyzed the similarity in the floristic composition of the Rubiaceae in eight Atlantic Forest remnants of Rio de Janeiro state protected by Conservation Units. We also surveyed and set guidelines for conservation of microendemic species. The similarity analysis were based on previously published studies in Área de Proteção Ambiental de Grumari, Área de Proteção Ambiental Palmares, Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Parque Nacional de Jurubatiba, Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas, Reserva Biológica do Tinguá and Reserva Ecológica de Macaé de Cima - using the PAST software (“Paleontological Statistics”) with Sørensen coefficient. The floristic similarity analysis revealed two groups with distinct physiographic characteristics and different vegetation types. Group A consisted in two Restinga areas, Área de Proteção Ambiental de Grumari and Parque Nacional de Jurubatiba, which showed strong bootstrap support (98 %). Group B included forest remnants with distinct phytophisiognomies or altitudes, but with moderate bootstrap support. Low similarity levels among the eight areas were found due to the habitats’ heterogeneity. The current study pointed out 19 microendemic species from the Atlantic Forest, they present a single-site distribution or a distribution restricted to Mountain and Metropolitan regions of Rio de Janeiro state. Concerning the conservation status of microendemic species, discrepancies between the Catalogue of Flora of Rio de Janeiro and the Red Book of Brazilian Flora (two of

  10. Atividade da enzima nitrato redutase e crescimento de Swietenia macrophylla king sob efeito de sombreamento

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    Walquíria Fernanda Teixeira

    Full Text Available O mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King possui importância econômica, mas encontra-se em risco de extinção em razão da sua exploração intensiva. Portanto, o cultivo e os estudos que mostrem o comportamento fisiológico dessa espécie tornam-se relevantes. Tendo em vista estes aspectos, foi realizada esta pesquisa com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do sombreamento na atividade da enzima nitrato redutase e no crescimento de mogno em casa de vegetação. O plano para as unidades experimentais foi o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (diferentes níveis de sombreamento e nove repetições. Os dados de fitomassa seca de caule e a atividade da enzima nitrato redutase não diferiram estatisticamente entre os tratamentos. Com relação às raízes e folhas, observou-se um maior acúmulo de fitomassa seca com 20 e 50% de sombreamento. O mogno apresenta menor acúmulo de fitomassa seca sobre 0% de sombreamento; no entanto, a atividade da enzima nitrato redutase não é influenciada pelo sombreamento.

  11. ANATOMIA DO LENHO DO GÊNERO Calycophyllum A. DC. (RUBIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Talita Baldin

    2015-01-01

    Rubiaceae é uma das principais famílias botânicas das Angiospermas Dicotiledôneas, sendo a quarta com o maior número de representantes e, ainda que cosmopolitas, suas espécies encontram-se, preferencialmente, nas regiões mais quentes do globo. Desde sua descrição original a família passou por algumas mudanças taxonômicas, em razão da expressiva diversidade morfológica de suas espécies. O estudo de espécies do gênero Calycophyllum A. DC. (C. spruceanum f. brasiliensis, C. candidissimum, C. mul...

  12. Biodiversity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Uncaria gambier Roxb. (Rubiaceae from West Sumatra

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    MUHAMMAD ILYAS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are specific microbes that live at a specific ecosystem in nature. Various endophytic fungi have been known posses an ability to produce a broad range of biologically active substances. Totally 53 endophytic filamentous fungi were isolated from leaves, stems, fruits and roots of the two plant varieties of Uncaria gambier Roxb. (Rubiaceae, i.e. gambir udang and gambir nasi. Morphological observation of 53 isolated endophytic filamentous fungi was further divide into two classes, Coelomycetes and Hypomycetes. Fifteen fungi isolates are unidentified due to lack of specific morphological characters. Morphologically identified fungi at genera level are: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma and Phomopsis. Chemotaxonomic analysis base on their TLC chromatogram patterns of the ethyl acetate extract are in agreement to morphological grouping.

  13. Development and Characterization of 32 Microsatellite Loci in Genipa americana (Rubiaceae

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    Ricardo O. Manoel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the tree species Genipa americana (Rubiaceae for further population genetic studies. Methods and Results: We identified 144 clones containing 65 repeat motifs from a genomic library enriched for (CT8 and (GT8 motifs. Primer pairs were developed for 32 microsatellite loci and validated in 40 individuals of two natural G. americana populations. Seventeen loci were polymorphic, revealing from three to seven alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.24 to 1.00 and from 0.22 to 0.78, respectively. Conclusions: The 17 primers identified as polymorphic loci are suitable to study the genetic diversity and structure, mating system, and gene flow in G. americana.

  14. Phenological synchrony and seasonality of understory Rubiaceae in the Atlantic Forest, Bahia, Brazil

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    Heitor Scarpati Liuth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests with low seasonality, climatic variables generally exert a weak influence on the phenology of species. The seasonality of phenophases in closely related taxa can be controlled by phylogenetic constraints in such environments. In this study, our aim was to describe the phenology of Rubiaceae in the understory of the Atlantic Forest in the southern part of Bahia, Brazil, as well as to evaluate the seasonality and phenological synchrony of this family. For two years, we observed 90 individuals belonging to 13 species, in an area of 0.2 ha. Leaf flushing and leaf fall did not demonstrate any seasonality, were continuous for most species and correlated with few of the climatic variables. Flowering was seasonal and correlated positively with all climatic variables. Species exhibited seasonality for this phenophase with high flowering overlap among species of Psychotria, indicating an aggregated pattern for this genus. Fruiting was also seasonal and correlated with all the climatic variables, unripe fruit development peaking at the beginning of the season during which humidity is highest and fruit ripening peaking in the season during which humidity is slightly lower. The vegetative and flowering patterns observed in the study area are commonly seen in other tropical forests. The reproductive seasonality of this family can facilitate the attraction of biotic agents, as postulated in the facilitation hypothesis. Our results demonstrate that climatic variables influenced the phenological patterns observed here, although the high reproductive seasonality and interspecific synchrony, especially in congeneric species, raises the possibility that phylogenetic proximity plays a role in the pattern of the family Rubiaceae.

  15. Evaluación de la actividad antioxidante de extractos de Palicourea guianensis (Rubiaceae

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    Lina Marcela Giraldo Vásquez

    Full Text Available Introducción: la proliferación de radicales libres en el cuerpo humano induce daños oxidativos a las biomoléculas que provocan daños a nivel celular y generan diversas anomalías en el organismo, como arterosclerosis, envejecimiento y cáncer. Actualmente, la búsqueda por moléculas con características antioxidantes es cada vez mayor, donde las plantas representan una de las principales fuentes de compuestos. Objetivo: determinar la actividad antioxidante y el contenido de fenoles de los extractos de diferentes polaridades de la parte aérea de la especie Palicourea guianensis (Rubiaceae. Métodos: para la evaluación de la actividad biológica, se calcularon los valores de concentración media inhibitoria (IC50 de los extractos más activos mediante los métodos de captura de electrones DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracilo y ABTS (ácido 2,2'azinobis-(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfónico. Adicionalmente, se determinó la concentración de fenoles totales presentes en los extractos a través del método de Folin-Ciocalteu. Resultados: los extractos en acetato de etilo (PgAEF y en agua (PgAF presentaron mayor actividad antioxidante con valores de IC50 de 5 207 y 3 912 mg/L respectivamente. Asimismo, se observó una relación directamente proporcional entre la concentración de fenoles totales presentes en los extractos y la actividad antioxidante exhibida. Conclusiones: las especies de la familia Rubiaceae, especialmente P. guianensis, son una fuente promisoria e importante de metabolitos secundarios con capacidad antioxidante, por lo cual se requieren de mayores estudios que permitan identificar dichas sustancias e integrarlas a programas de terapia antioxidante en el área de la salud.

  16. Expression and trans-specific polymorphism of self-incompatibility RNases in coffea (Rubiaceae.

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    Michael D Nowak

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility (SI is widespread in the angiosperms, but identifying the biochemical components of SI mechanisms has proven to be difficult in most lineages. Coffea (coffee; Rubiaceae is a genus of old-world tropical understory trees in which the vast majority of diploid species utilize a mechanism of gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI. The S-RNase GSI system was one of the first SI mechanisms to be biochemically characterized, and likely represents the ancestral Eudicot condition as evidenced by its functional characterization in both asterid (Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae and rosid (Rosaceae lineages. The S-RNase GSI mechanism employs the activity of class III RNase T2 proteins to terminate the growth of "self" pollen tubes. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Coffea GSI and specifically examine the potential for homology to S-RNase GSI by sequencing class III RNase T2 genes in populations of 14 African and Madagascan Coffea species and the closely related self-compatible species Psilanthus ebracteolatus. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences aligned to a diverse sample of plant RNase T2 genes show that the Coffea genome contains at least three class III RNase T2 genes. Patterns of tissue-specific gene expression identify one of these RNase T2 genes as the putative Coffea S-RNase gene. We show that populations of SI Coffea are remarkably polymorphic for putative S-RNase alleles, and exhibit a persistent pattern of trans-specific polymorphism characteristic of all S-RNase genes previously isolated from GSI Eudicot lineages. We thus conclude that Coffea GSI is most likely homologous to the classic Eudicot S-RNase system, which was retained since the divergence of the Rubiaceae lineage from an ancient SI Eudicot ancestor, nearly 90 million years ago.

  17. Cytotoxic activity of different polarity fractions obtained from methanolic extracts of Vismia baccifera and Vismia macrophylla (Hypericaceae collected in Venezuela

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    Janne del C. Rojas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cancer is a complex disease involving numerous changes in cell physiology and abnormal cell growth, which lead to malignant tumors. Many investigations are still carrying on in different areas including, natural products, to find a possible break point to this pathology. Aims: To evaluate the cytotoxic activity on different polar extracts from Vismia baccifera and Vismia macrophylla collected in two locations of the Venezuelan Andes. Methods: Cytotoxic activity assay was carried out following the colorimetric (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay. Human tumor cell Lines from breast carcinoma without gene over-expression (MCF-7, breast carcinoma with overexpressed gene (SKBr3, prostate carcinoma (PC3 and cervix epithelial carcinoma (HeLa were tested with different polarity solvent extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, water from the two species under investigation. Human dermis fibroblasts were used as control cells. Mean inhibitory concentration (IC50 was calculated. Results: Extracts from V. macrophylla showed significant inhibition of cervix epithelial carcinoma with values ranging from 6.09 µg/mL to 17.51 µg/mL; breast carcinoma with an overexpressed gene with values from 12.14 µg/mL to 16.90 µg/mL and prostate carcinoma from 10.91 µg/mL to 17.70 µg/mL. V. baccifera extracts showed the strongest activity against prostate carcinoma with an IC50 value of 2.92 µg/mL. Conclusions: The present study showed evidence for the anticancer activity of Vismia baccifera and Vismia macrophylla extracts since caused growth inhibition in different cell lines at low concentrations, thus, it is considered not only an important contribution to the natural products research but bring supportive data for further investigations on cancer research.

  18. Avaliação de substratos na produção de mudas de mogno (Swietenia Macrophylla King

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    Cristiane Ramos Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nem sempre o viveirista pode efetuar grandes investimentos em substrato para a produção de mudas. Por isso, algumas pesquisas têm se dedicado em estudar a utilização de substratos orgânicos na produção em larga escala de espécies florestais rentáveis. Diante disso, realizou-se experimento em viveiro com o objetivo de verificar a combinação de solo, substrato comercial (Plantmax® e cama de frango decomposta, mais propícia na produção de mudas de Swietenia macrophylla King. As mudas de Swietenia macrophylla foram produzidas em tubetes com capacidade para 280 cm³ com sementes colocadas para germinar diretamente nos tratamentos testados. Foram avaliados os efeitos de sete diferentes combinações de substratos: 100% solo; 100% Plantmax®; 50% solo + 50% Plantmax®; 50% solo + 50% cama de frango decomposta; 50% Plantmax® + 50% cama de frango decomposta; 80% cama de frango decomposta + 10% solo + 10% Plantmax® e; 20% cama de frango decomposta + 40% solo + 40% Plantmax®, originando sete tratamentos, dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 10 repetições. A avaliação do crescimento se deu 120 dias após as primeiras germinações, com a medição de altura da parte aérea, diâmetro de coleto, biomassa das folhas, biomassa do caule, biomassa das raízes e, concentrações de macro e de micronutrientes nas folhas das mudas. As combinações de substratos que proporcionaram o maior crescimento das mudas de S. macrophylla foram 50% solo + 50% cama de frango decomposta e 50% Plantmax® + 50% cama de frango decomposta, com a disponibilização de micronutrientes em condições adequadas

  19. β-Selinene-Rich Essential Oils from the Parts of Callicarpa macrophylla and Their Antioxidant and Pharmacological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Mahesh; Prakash, Om; Kumar, Ravendra; Bachheti, Rakesh Kumar; Bhushan, Brij; Kumar, Mahesh; Pant, Anil Kumar

    2017-07-10

    Background: Callicarpa macrophylla (Varbenaceae) is a medicinal shrub and is traditionally used in India, China, and South Asia. Methods: The plant material was collected from lower Himalayan region of Uttarakhand in India. The essential oils from three different aerial parts were analyzed by GC-MS. Antioxidant activity, phenolic assay, and various pharmacological activities were determined by using existing methods which are generally practiced widely. Results: Over 51, 53, and 40 compounds were identified in C. macrophylla leaves essential oil (CMLEO), C. macrophylla pre mature seeds and fruits essential oil (CMEO-I) and C.macrophylla mature seeds and fruits essential oil (CMEO-II), respectively. These oils differ in relative contents of major compounds viz; β-selinene (37.51% in CMLEO, 44.66% in CMEO-I and 57.01% in CMEO-II), phyllocladene (9.76% in CMLEO, 5.80% in CMEO-I and 12.38% in CMEO-II), caryophelline oxide (7.34% in CMLEO, 8.74% in CMEO-I and 5.0% in CMEO-II), 9E-epi-caryophelline (6.23% in CMLEO, 1.27% in CMEO-I and 3.43% in CMEO-II), longipinocarvone (4.96% in CMLEO, 1.17% in CMEO-I and 2.0% in CMEO-II), and 1,8-cineole (2.23% in CMLEO, 3.10% in CMEO-I and 1.62% in CMEO-II). The oils exhibited good in vitro antioxidant activity. The maximum activity was found in CMEO-II with IC 50 values 7.37 ± 0.11, 11.49 ± 0.87, 14.59 ± 0.18, 15.66 ± 0.03, and 17.49 ± 0.13 µl/mL. The essential oils showed qualitative and quantitative diversity in the makeup of essential oils constituents. The oils were found to exhibit anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activity on swiss albino mice compared to the standard drugs, viz; ibuprofen, paracetamol and indomethacin. Conclusion: It is inferred from the study that the plant parts can be used scientifically in traditional systems as folk herbal medicine. Furthermore, we have generated a database for future reference and judicious exploitation of these oils from their natural setting.

  20. Redhead (Rubiaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    15. Schmidt E, Schmidt FW. Manuel d'enzymologie. Clinique. Serie Boehringer Mannheim. Diagnostica, 1973; p 76. 16. Medirabbit.com. Valeurs de référence de biochimie sanguine,. 2004http:// www.medirabbit.com/FR/Hematologie/biochimi e/blood chemistry fr.htm. 17. Founzegue AC, Adama C, N'Guessan JD, Koffi GK,.

  1. Doses crescentes de corretivo na formação de mudas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King Growing doses of liming on mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King seedling formation

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    André Rogério Matos da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A produção de mudas é uma das fases mais importantes do cultivo de espécies arbóreas, sendo essa fase fundamental para o desenvolvimento adequado dessas espécies. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento e a absorção de nutrientes em mudas de mogno sob o efeito de doses crescentes de corretivo. O experimento foi conduzido no período de setembro de 2002 a agosto de 2003. Os tratamentos foram doses crescentes de uma mistura de carbonato de cálcio e carbonato de magnésio p.a., na proporção de 4:1, em doses equivalentes a 0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 e 5,0 t/ha. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, num total de 35 parcelas, cada formada por 3 plantas. O substrato foi adubado com doses equivalentes a 200-500-300 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente e 15 kg.ha-1 de micronutrientes FTE-Br12. As características de crescimento avaliadas foram: altura, diâmetro do colo, matéria seca da parte aérea, raiz e total, relação parte aérea/raiz. Determinaram-se os teores de nutrientes da parte aérea, raiz e total, e em função desta última, estimaram-se os conteúdos. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. A calagem afetou todas as características de crescimento, exceto a altura. O requerimento nutricional obedeceu à ordem decrescente de K>N>Ca>Mg>P>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu. A dose de 0,5 t/ha mostrou-se mais vantajosa economicamente e pode ser recomendada quando se utiliza subsolo ácido e de baixa fertilidade natural como substrato.Seedling production is one of the more important phases on the cultivation of trees, with this phase being essential for their appropriate development. The study had the objective of evaluating the growth and the absorption of nutrients in mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King seedling under the effect of corrective growing doses. The experiment was carried out from September 2002 to August 2003. The treatments were, 0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 2

  2. PENGOLAHAN BIJI MAHONI (Swietenia Macrophylla King SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU ALTERNATIF BIODIESEL

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    Astrilia Damayanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan kebutuhan minyak bumi yang terus menerus akan mengakibatkan kelangkaan bahan bakar minyak. Sumber energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Bahan baku potensial untuk memproduksi biodiesel yang tidak bersaing dengan bahan baku pangan contohnya adalah biji mahoni (swietenia macrophylla king. Tahapan yang diperlukan dalam percobaan biodiesel adalah proses pengambilan minyak biji mahoni dengan proses penyangraian, degumming, dan proses transesterifikasi. Alat yang diperlukan dalam pembuatan biodiesel yaitu: labu alas bulat dilengkapi kondensor, gelas ukur, pengaduk magnetik, alat-alat gelas lab, dan lain sebagainya. Proses pengambilan minyak dilakukan dengan penyangraian yang hasilnya di degumming dengan asam fosfat 5% b/b pada suhu 80ºC selama 15 menit. Degumming bertujuan untuk menghilangkan getah, lendir, protein, resin dan gum. Proses kedua yaitu transesterifikasi dengan metanol 1:6 (minyak dan mtanol dengan KOH 0,1 N pada suhu 60ºC selama 1 jam. Setelah diperoleh metil ester, dilakukan proses pencucian atau penetralan metil ester pada suhu pemanasan 104ºC untuk menghilangkan kadar airnya. Dari hasil percobaan diperoleh rendemen minyak sebesar 86,92%, uji densitas 874,08 kg/m³, viskositas 3,07 mm2/s, dan bilangan asam 0,5601 mg KOH/g. Metil ester yang dihasilkan telah sesuai dengan SNI-04-7182-2006. An increased demand of the fossil fuel would lead to scarcity of the fossil fuel in the future. An alternative of environmentally friendly energy sources is biodiesel. It is accounted that the resources for producing biodiesel should not compete with food raw materials, such as mahogany grain, (swietenia macrophylla king. The necessary steps in the experiment of producing biodiesel are process of taking the mahogany seed-oil by using roasting method, degumming, and transesterification process. The required equipments for producing biodiesel were round-bottom flask equipped with condenser

  3. Conservative nutrient use by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla king planted under contrasting environmental conditions

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    Ernesto Medina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the nutritional composition and isotope ratios (C and N of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King leaves in plantations established on contrasting soils and climates in Central America (State of Quintana Roo, Yucatán, México and South America (State of Pará, Brazil. The objective was to determine the adaptability of this species to large differences in nutrient availability and rainfall regimes. Nutrient concentrations of leaves and soils were determined spectrophotometrically, and isotope ratios were measured using mass spectrometric techniques.In Pará soils were sandier, and acidic, receiving above 2000 mm of rain, whereas in Quintana Roo soils were predominantly clayey, with neutral to alkaline pH due to the underlying calcareous substrate, with about 1300 mm of rain. Leaf area/weight ratio was similar for both sites, but leaves from Quintana Roo were significantly smaller. Average N and K concentrations of adult leaves were similar, whereas Ca concentration was only slightly lower in Pará in spite of large differences in Ca availability. Leaves from this site had slightly higher P and lower Al concentrations. Differences in water use efficiency as measured by the natural abundance of 13C were negligible, the main effect of lower rainfall in Quintana Roo seemed to be a reduction in leaf area. The N isotope signature (δ15N was more positive in Pará than in Quintana Roo, suggesting higher denitrification rates in the former. Results reveal a calciotrophic behavior and a remarkable capacity of mahogany to compensate for large differences in soil texture and nutrient availability.

  4. Foliar potassium nitrate application improves the tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings to drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, V; Díaz-López, L; Simón-Grao, S; Martínez, V; Martínez-Nicolás, J J; García-Sánchez, F

    2014-10-01

    Scarcity of water is a severe limitation in citrus tree productivity. There are few studies that consider how to manage nitrogen (N) nutrition in crops suffering water deficit. A pot experiment under controlled-environment chambers was conducted to explore if additional N supply via foliar application could improve the drought tolerance of Citrus macrophylla L. seedlings under dry conditions. Two-month-old seedlings were subjected to a completely random design with two water treatments (drought stress and 100% water/field capacity). Plants under drought stress (DS) received three different N supplies via foliar application (DS: 0, DS + NH4NO3: 2% NH4NO3, DS + KNO3: 2% KNO3). KNO3-spraying increased leaf and stem DW as compared with DS + NH4NO3 and DS treatments. Leaf water potential (Ψw) was decreased by drought stress in all the treatments. However, in plants from DS + NH4NO and DS + KNO3, this was due to a decrease in the leaf osmotic potential, whereas the decrease in those from the DS treatment was due to a decrease in the leaf turgor potential. These responses were correlated with the leaf proline and K concentrations. DS + KNO3-treated plants had a higher leaf proline and K concentration than DS-treated plants. In terms of leaf gas exchange parameters, it was observed that net assimilation of CO2 [Formula: see text] was decreased by drought stress, but this reduction was much lower in DS + KNO3-treated plants. Thus, when all results are taken into account, it can be concluded that a 2% foliar-KNO3 application can enhance the tolerance of citrus plants to water stress by increasing the osmotic adjustment process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth response by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) advance seedling regeneration to overhead canopy release in southeast Pará, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogana; R. Matthew Landisc; Mark S. Ashtona; Jurandir Galva˜od

    2005-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) is a valuable neotropical timber species whose seedling survival and growth dynamics in natural forests are poorly understood. To document regeneration dynamics of mahogany in seasonal transitional evergreen forests of southeast Pará, Brazil, we followed naturally established seedlings in the forest understory...

  6. What loggers leave behind: Impacts on big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) commercial populations and potential for post-logging recovery in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; Stephen B. Jennings; R. Matthew Landis; Mark Schulze; Anadilza M.V. Baima; do Carmo A. Lopes J.; Julian M. Norghauer; L. Rog& eacute Oliveira; rio; Frank Pantoja; Diane Pinto; Jose Natalino M. Silva; Edson Vidal; Barbara L. Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    The sustainability of current harvest practices for high-value Meliaceae can be assessed by quantifying logging intensity and projecting growth and survival by post-logging populations over anticipated intervals between harvests. From 100%-area inventories of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) covering 204 ha or more at eight logged and unlogged forest sites...

  7. Performance and genetic variation of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in provenance and progeny trials in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevyn E. Wightman; Sheila E. Ward; Jeremy P. Haggar; Bartolo Rodriguez Santiago; Jonathan P. Cornelius

    2008-01-01

    Stocks of the valuable big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) are declining, and trials for growth and pest resistance are needed to select material for plantations. Seeds were collected from 67 open-pollinated trees from five provenances in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico and planted in three provenance/progeny trials in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, in...

  8. Evaluation of plasma H2S levels and H2S synthesis in streptozotocin induced Type-2 diabetes-an experimental study based on Swietenia macrophylla seeds

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    Moumita Dutta

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Although considering a small sample size, it can conclude that the fasting blood glucose levels are inversely related to plasma H2S levels as well as H2S synthesis activity in plasma and the extract of S. macrophylla is associated with increased plasma H2S levels with effective lowering of blood glucose in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  9. Acute toxicity profiling of the ethyl acetate fraction of Swietenia macrophylla seeds and in-vitro neuroprotectio

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    Mustak Sayyad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla (SM is a medicinally important plant found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of S. macrophylla (SMEAF is reported to exhibit potent anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antifeedant activities. Till date, there have been no studies reported on the acute oral toxicity profile of the ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of SM. The objective of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity of SMEAF and evaluate the in-vitro neuroprotective activity of SMEAF using primary neuronal cell cultures. In acute oral toxicity study, the SMEAF did not produce any lethal signs of morbidity and mortality. Histo-pathological findings, support the safety of SMEAF, as there were no significant changes observed in any of the parameters studied. Based on the results obtained in MTT assay, we infer that SMEAF has a significant neuroprotective effect, as it increased the cell viability and exhibited protection to the neuronal cells against TBHP induced oxidative stress. Thus, SMEAF can be suggested for use in the development of herbal drug formulations with neuroprotective potential.

  10. Acute toxicity profiling of the ethyl acetate fraction of Swietenia macrophylla seeds and in-vitro neuroprotection studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyad, Mustak; Tiang, Ning; Kumari, Yatinesh; Goh, Bey Hing; Jaiswal, Yogini; Rosli, Rozita; Williams, Leonard; Shaikh, Mohd Farooq

    2017-02-01

    Swietenia macrophylla (SM) is a medicinally important plant found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of S. macrophylla (SMEAF) is reported to exhibit potent anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antifeedant activities. Till date, there have been no studies reported on the acute oral toxicity profile of the ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of SM. The objective of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity of SMEAF and evaluate the in - vitro neuroprotective activity of SMEAF using primary neuronal cell cultures. In acute oral toxicity study, the SMEAF did not produce any lethal signs of morbidity and mortality. Histo-pathological findings, support the safety of SMEAF, as there were no significant changes observed in any of the parameters studied. Based on the results obtained in MTT assay, we infer that SMEAF has a significant neuroprotective effect, as it increased the cell viability and exhibited protection to the neuronal cells against TBHP induced oxidative stress. Thus, SMEAF can be suggested for use in the development of herbal drug formulations with neuroprotective potential.

  11. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Vismia macrophylla leaves and fruits collected in Táchira-Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Alexis; Rojas, Janne; Rojas, Luis; Velasco, Judith; Morales, Antonio; Peñaloza, Yonel; Díaz, Clara

    2015-02-01

    Hydrodistillation of Vismia macrophylla Kunth (Hypericaceae) leaves (L) and fruits (F) yielded 1.3%, v/w, and 5.6%, v/w, of essential oil, respectively. GC and GC-MS analyses showed the presence of twenty-four (96.4%, L) and thirty-one (96.6%, F) components, respectively. Major compounds identified in the leaf oil were γ-bisabolene (44.4%) and β-bisabolol (14.9%), while those in the fruit oil were germacrene-D (12.1%), 6-cadinene (10.7%) and γ-bisabolene (22.3 %). Oil obtained from the fruits of V. macrophylla showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. aureus ATCC 25923 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212) as well as Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922), with MIC values ranging from 150 μL/mL to 740 μL/mL. Oil obtained from leaves were active only on the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus (100 μL/mL) and E. faecalis (500 μL/mL), but also showed antiyeast activity against Candida albicans CDC-B385 and C. krusei ATCC 6258 (600 μL/mL, each).

  12. MULTIPLICAÇÃO IN VITRO DE Swietenia macrophylla KING (MELIACEAE A PARTIR DE MATERIAL JUVENIL

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    Eliane de Souza Schottz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King (mogno é uma espécie arbórea nativa da Amazônia cuja madeira é considerada uma das mais nobres do mundo. Por esse motivo, vem sofrendo grande pressão de exploração, colocando-a entre as espécies em risco de extinção. Além disso, possui dificuldade de regeneração natural e de estabelecimento em reflorestamentos, sendo atacado por larvas de Hypsipyla grandella Zellar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver a etapa de multiplicação in vitro de mogno. Após a desinfestação, as sementes foram colocadas para germinar em meio de cultura MS completo. Após 6 semanas de germinação, os caules foram cortados em segmentos nodais, cada um contendo uma gema axilar. Foram realizados quatro experimentos com meios de cultura acrescidos de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP (2,5; 5; 10; 20 e 50 μM, 2-isopenteniladenina (2-iP (0; 1,1; 2,2; 4,4 e 8,8 μM e combinações de BAP (0; 2,5; 5; 10; 20 e 50 μM e 2-iP (2,2 μM. Nos dois primeiros tratamentos (BAP e 2-iP isoladamente, o meio de cultura MS foi utilizado como meio básico e, nos últimos tratamentos, utilizaram-se os meios MS e QL. Quando BAP foi testado isoladamente, o ponto máximo da taxa média de multiplicação foi de 23,61 µM, enquanto que não houve multiplicação na presença de 2-iP. O meio de cultura QL, suplementado com as combinações de BAP (0; 2,5; 5; 10 e 20 μM e 2-iP (2,2 μM, não induziu a multiplicação dos brotos. O ponto máximo da taxa média de multiplicação foi de 18,51 µM, obtido com o uso do meio de cultura MS acrescido de BAP e 2,2 µM de 2-iP.

  13. Physiological and Molecular Responses to Excess Boron in Citrus macrophylla W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Quiñones, Ana; Ruiz, Marta; Iglesias, Domingo J.; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, M. Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    This work provides insight into several mechanisms involved in boron (B) regulation pathway in response to high B conditions in Citrus. The study was carried out in Citrus macrophylla W. (Cm) seedlings cultured “in vitro” in media with 50 or 400 μM H3BO3 (control, Ct, and B-excess, +B, plants, respectively). Growth parameters, B concentration, leaf chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, the expression of the main putative genes involved in B transport and distribution, and leaf and root proline and malonaldehyde (MDA) concentrations, were assessed. Excess B led to high B concentration in +B plants (3.8- and 1.4-fold in leaves and roots, respectively) when compared with Ct ones. However, a minor effect was recorded in the plant (incipient visual symptoms, less than 27% reduction in root growth and 26% decrease in Chl b concentration). B toxicity down-regulated by half the expression level of putative B transporter genes NIP5 and PIP1. CmBOR1 gene was not repressed in +B plants and B accumulated in the shoots. High B level increased the transcripts of putative gene TIP5, involved in B transport across the tonoplast, by 3.3- and 2.4-fold in leaves and roots, respectively. The activity of V-PPiase proton pump, related with the electrochemical gradient in the vacuole, was also enhanced in +B organs. B toxicity up-regulated putative BOR4 gene (2.1- and 2.7-fold in roots and leaves, respectively), which codifies for an active efflux B transporter. Accordingly, B was located in +B plants preferently in an insoluble form on cell walls. Finally, excess B caused a significant rise in proline concentration (51% and 34% in roots and leaves, respectively), while the MDA level did not exceed 20%. In conclusion, Cm tolerance to a high B level is likely based on the synergism of several specific mechanisms against B toxicity, including: 1/ down-regulation of NIP5 and PIP1 boron transporters; 2/ activation of B efflux from cells due to the up-regulation of putative BOR4 gene; 3

  14. Morpho-anatomical and morphometric studies of the floral structures of the distylous Oldenlandia salzmannii (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Nuñez Florentin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The genus Oldenlandia (Rubiaceae has a conflicting generic delimitation, with representatives that show different floral syndromes. Oldenlandia salzmannii is a marshy herb that is widespread in South America. It is heterostylous, specifically distylous, and self-compatible. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies found that this species forms a clade that is isolated from the remaining described taxa of Oldenlandia. Information about the floral anatomy and reproductive biology of genera in the Spermacoceae tribe, particularly Oldenlandia, is insufficient, especially among the neotropical species. Accordingly, the present study aimed at contributing information on the reproductive biology of Oldenlandia salzmannii by analyzing its floral morpho-anatomy, morphometrics and phenology of both floral morphs. These analyses were conducted with natural, cultivated and fixed material using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Morphologically, the species is typically heterostylous with two floral morphs, long-styled and short-styled, the main difference being the indument of the corolla. The short-styled flowers have larger anthers and pollen grains. Morphometrics show a high degree of herkogamic reciprocity. The mature ovules have a hemitropous position, which is the first record of this position for the Spermacoceae tribe. This study represents the first comprehensive morphological study of Oldenlandia salzmannii.

  15. The botanical origin of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa; Rubiaceae) available as abused drugs in the Japanese markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Goda, Yukihiro

    2009-07-01

    Kratom is the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae). Recently, kratom has been sold in street shops or on the Internet in Japan for the purpose of abuse due to its opium-like effects. In this study, we investigated the botanical origin of the commercial kratom products using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis of rDNA in preparation for future regulation of this product. In addition, a previously reported method to authenticate the plant, utilizing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied to the same products in order to estimate the method's accuracy and utility. The ITS sequence analysis of the commercial kratoms revealed that most of them were derived from M. speciosa or closely related plants, while the others were made from the same tribe plant as M. speciosa. The reported PCR-RFLP method could clearly distinguish kratoms from the other psychoactive plants available in the Japanese markets and also from related plants. The authentication method is considered to be useful for the practical regulation of the plant due to its wide range of application, high accuracy and simplicity.

  16. Methodology for the identification of tri-terpenes mixtures components by {sup 13} C NMR; Metodologia para identificao dos componentes de misturas de triterpenos por RMN de {sup 13} C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, Roberto S.G.

    1990-12-31

    This work describes a methodology for the identification of tri terpenes complex mixtures by {sup 13} C NMR. The use of {sup 13} C NMR techniques, such as obtention of noise decoupled spectra, DEPT 135 and DEPT 90 sequences, allowed the identification of components of triterpene mixtures with identical functionality through comparison of observed {sup 13} C NMR chemical shifts with {sup 13} C NMR chemical shifts reported in the literature. The method proved to be specially helpful in the identification of triterpenes by analysis of chemical shifts assignable to doubly bonded carbons, since the particular position of such double bonds is characteristic of some triterpene skeletons. Application of this methodology indicated the presence of bauerenol, {alpha}-amyrin and {beta}-amyrin in Acmanthera latifolis Griseb. (Malpighiaceae); of germanicone, lupenone, {alpha}-amyrenone and {beta}-amyrenone in Alibertia macrophylla A. Rich. (Rubiaceae); of {alpha}-amyrin acetate, lupeol acetate and {beta}-amyrin acetate in Vernonia polyanthes Schreb. (Asteraceae); {alpha}-amyrenone, {beta}-amyrenone, boehmerone, friedelin, lupenone, {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin and glutinol in Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae). (author). 37 refs., 93 figs.

  17. Antibacterial Effects of Afzelin Isolated from Cornus macrophylla on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, A Leading Cause of Illness in Immunocompromised Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yeol Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The crude ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Cornus macrophylla showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals. Bioactivity-guided separation led to the isolation of kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (afzelin. The structure was determined based on evaluation of its spectroscopic (UV, MS, and NMR data. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of afzelin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be 31 µg/mL. In addition, the results indicated that a hydroxyl group at C3 of the C-ring of the flavone skeleton and the rhamnose group may act as a negative factor and an enhancing factor, respectively, in the antibacterial activities of afzelin.

  18. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE EXTRACT OF THE BARKS OF Licania macrophylla BENTH: PHYTOCHEMICALS AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS

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    Ryan da Silva Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o perfil fitoquímico, físico-químico da espécie vegetal e determinar a toxicidade do extrato bruto etanólico de L. macrophylla Benth frente às larvas de Artemia salina L. A análise fitoquímica foi realizado por meio do extrato bruto etanólico das cascas do caule e a determinação físico-química foi realizada de acordo com a Farmacopeia Brasileira. As análises fitoquímicas detectaram a presença de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos, açúcares redutores, taninos, antraquinonas, depsídios e depsidonas. Em relação aos parâmetros físico-químicos a planta apresentou pH=4,64, pela ocorrência de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos e taninos; Lipídeos= 0,55% indica que o material vegetal apresenta poucos lipídios de baixo peso molecular; Umidade= 12,09%±0,12, o que relaciona a pouca quantidade de água, fator indispensável para a não ocorrência de desenvolvimento de microrganismo ou degradação enzimática. Os resíduos por incineração (cinzas da espécie se encontra dentro dos padrões farmacognósticos de 8,30%±0,54. O extrato bruto segundo o teste de toxicidade é atóxico com CL50=1253µg/mL, isto é, confirma-se a relação estabelecida entre a taxa de mortalidade e CL50 deve ser superior a 1000µg/mL para serem considerados atóxicos. As análises fitoquímicas confirmaram em parte a utilização da espécie para fins fitoterápicos, porém a forma de tratamento e acondicionamento pode influenciar na determinação de metabólitos secundários. Os parâmetros físico-químicos adotados mostraram que espécie encontra-se livre de agentes decompositores. Palavras-chave: Fitoquímica, L. macrophilla Benth, Toxicidade, Físico-Química. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n1p94-99

  19. Physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla kernel oils

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    Diaby, M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of oils extracted from gingerbread plum kernels grown in two different areas (Niger and Guinea. The oil contents were found to be significantly different (P ≤ 0.05; 56% and 60% for gingerbread plum kernels originated from Niger (GPKN and guinea (GPKG, respectively. GPKG showed the highest levels for physical parameters such as iodine, saponification, free fatty acid, acid and peroxide values when compared with GPKN. The major monounsaturated fatty acid in both GPKN and GPKG was oleic acid (42.46 and 41.43%, respectively while the polyunsaturated fatty acids consisted of linoleic and arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid was at higher levels (17.67 and 21.72% in GPKN and GPKG, respectively than those in common vegetable oils. Results from antioxidant activity essays showed that GPKG is more active than GPKN in DPPH radical scavenging, β-carotene and phenolic contents while GPKN showed the highest values for reducing power and flavonoid. Of the 11 sterol compounds found in this study, 24-hydroxy-24-methyl cholesterol, clerosterol and sitosterol accounted for 68.5% and 66.33% in GPKN and GPKG, respectively. Finally, all tocopherol vitamers (except γ-tocopherol were present in GPKN and GPKG with α-tocopherol being the main element in both samples.En este estudio se examinaron las características físico-químicas y actividad antioxidante de los aceites de semilla de Neocarya macrophylla procedentes de dos regiones distintas, Níger y Guinea. Los contenidos grasos de las dos semillas resultaron ser significativamente (P ≤ 0.05 diferentes: 56% para las semillas procedentes de Níger (GPKN y 60% para las de Guinea (GPKG. El aceite de semillas de Guinea mostraba valores de parámetros químicos tales como índices de iodo, saponificación, peróxidos, y acidez, más elevados que el aceite de semillas de Níger. El ácido oleico resultó ser el ácido graso mono

  20. Association between Soil Fertility and Growth Performance of Planted Shorea macrophylla (de Vriese after Enrichment Planting at Rehabilitation Sites of Sampadi Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Malaysia

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    Mugunthan Perumal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the status of soil properties after enrichment planting in comparison to an adjacent secondary forest and to evaluate the effect of enrichment planting of Shorea macrophylla (de Vriese on the soil fertility status with special reference to Soil Fertility Index (SFI and Soil Evaluation Factor (SEF at Sampadi Forest Reserve, Sarawak. The study sites were stands rehabilitated in different years (1996: SM96; 1997: SM97; 1998: SM98; 1999: SM99 and secondary forest (SF. Findings indicated that the soils at rehabilitation sites and SF were strongly acidic in nature, with pH less than 5.50, poor soil exchangeable bases, and nutrient status. The soils were relatively of sandy clay loam to sandy clay. Principal Component Analysis revealed the three most significant components of the soil properties which explained 76.3% of the total variation. At surface soils, SFI was correlated with tree growth parameters of S. macrophylla, indicating that SFI is an applicable soil quality index as compared to SEF. Notwithstanding, a significant association was found between soil available phosphorus and planted S. macrophylla, indicating that soil phosphorus is a better indicator than SFI. Further studies on other environmental factors influencing tree growth performance, early establishment of experimental reforestation at nursery, and field should be implemented to obtain the initial data on seedling growth performance prior to outplanting.

  1. Some South African Rubiaceae Tree Leaf Extracts Have Antimycobacterial Activity Against Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Mycobacterium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Abimbola O; Dzoyem, Jean P; Hlokwe, Tiny M; Madoroba, Evelyn; Eloff, Jacobus N; McGaw, Lyndy J

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Many plant species contain antimycobacterial compounds, which may serve as template molecules for new anti-TB drugs. The Rubiaceae family is the largest family of trees in southern Africa, and preliminary evidence revealed antimycobacterial activity in several species of the genus, motivating further studies. Leaf extracts of 15 tree species from the Rubiaceae family were screened for antimycobacterial activity against pathogenic M. tuberculosis and non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) using a twofold serial microdilution assay. Cytotoxicity was determined using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay against C3A liver cells and Vero kidney cells. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 0.04 mg/mL against M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis were recorded. Activity against M. aurum was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic M. tuberculosis (correlation coefficient = 0.9). Bioautography indicated at least 40 different antimycobacterial compounds in the extracts. Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and Oxyanthus speciosus had the most promising selectivity index values. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Adubação fosfatada para a produção de mudas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King Phosphated fertilization to produce mohogany seedlings (Swietenia macrophylla King

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    Renata Alexandra Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King, pelo elevado valor comercial da sua madeira, é uma das espécies mais exploradas na Amazônia, sendo ameaçada de extinção por não haver renovação dos estoques através de reflorestamento com a espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adubação fosfatada sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de mogno. O estudo foi conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação e o solo utilizado para compor o substrato foi Latossolo Amarelo de textura muito argilosa. Os tratamentos constituiram-se de doses crescentes de fósforo de 0, 25, 30, 75, 100, 150 e 200 kg.ha-1 de P. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 4 repetições, num total de 28 parcelas. Cada parcela foi formada por 2 mudas, cultivadas em sacos com capacidade de 4 dm³. Verificaram-se respostas positivas às doses de fósforo para todas as características de crescimento, bem como na absorção da maioria dos macronutrientes. Para as características de crescimento a dose de 200 kg.ha-1 de fósforo, foi a que proporcionou máximo crescimento para as mudas de mogno, no intervalo de 90 dias.ABSTRACT Due to the high value of mohogany woods (Swietenia macrophylla King, this specie is one of the most explored in the Amazon region. That explains the reason why mahogany is almost extinct.The present work evaluates the effect of phosphated fertilization on the mahogany seedlings under the increased doses of phosphorus. The experiment happened in a greenhouse and the soil used to compose the substratum was a yellow oxisoil with a very argillaceous texture. The treatments were made by doses of P: 0, 25, 30, 75, 100, 150 and 200 kg.ha-1 of P. The experimental design consisted of four randomized blocks, for a total of 28 parcels. Each parcel was formed by 2 seedlings, cultived in bags with 4 dm³ of soil. It was noticed positive answers by seedlings cultivated species for all the biometric characters analyzed and, in the same way, for the

  3. Rubiaceae Juss. da Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG, Brasil Rubiaceae Juss. from Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Zefa Valdivina Pereira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamento florístico e estudo taxonômico da família Rubiaceae, da Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG. Foram registrados para a Reserva 14 gêneros compreendendo 30 espécies. Destas, 19 apresentaram hábito arbustivo e 11 são herbáceos. Os gêneros com maior número de espécies foram Psychotria (10 espécies, Borreria (quatro, Coccocypselum (três e Coussarea e Palicourea (duas. Bathysa, Chiococca, Coutarea, Diodia, Faramea, Galium, Mitracarpus, Richardia e Rudgea apresentaram uma única espécie cada. São fornecidas neste trabalho chaves analíticas, descrições, ilustrações, comentários taxonômicos e distribuição geográfica para cada espécie.This work consists of a floristic survey and a taxonomical study of the Rubiaceae at the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Fourteen genera comprising thirty species were found in the Reserve. From this total, nineteen were shrubs and eleven were herbs. The genera with larger species numbers were Psychotria (10, Borreria (four, Coccocypselum (three, and Coussarea and Palicourea (two. Bathysa, Chiococca, Coutarea, Diodia, Faramea, Galium, Mitracarpus, Richardia and Rudgea presented one species. Analytic key, descriptions, illustrations, taxonomical comments and geographic distribution of each species were also presented in this paper.

  4. Anatomia do lenho de Uncaria guianensis e U. tomentosa (Rubiaceae do estado do Acre, Brasil Wood anatomy of Uncaria guianensis e U. tomentosa (Rubiaceae from the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy A. Zevallos Pollito

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de Uncaria guianensis e U. tomentosa são lianas trepadeiras, arbustos trepadores ou rasteiros ascendentes que ocorrem em amplas áreas da Amazônia brasileira e países da América Central e do Sul. Possuem excepcional importância medicinal, com sua casca, lenho e folhas utilizadas pelos povos amazônicos e pela indústria farmacêutica. Face a necessidade da identificação das plantas em condições de campo e de laboratório, o presente trabalho descreveu a estrutura anatômica do lenho de Uncaria guianensis e U. tomentosa, ocorrentes no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Os resultados mostraram que o lenho das espécies é característico da família Rubiaceae, a exceção dos vasos arredondados, grandes e solitários, parenquima axial difuso e largura dos raios que são próprios das lianas.Uncaria guianensis and U. tomentosa are climbing lianas, bush lianas occuring in large areas of Brazilian Amazon and Central and South America countries. The species presented exceptional medicinal importance, with its bark, wood and leaves used by Amazon native people and pharmaceutical industries. Considering the importance of the species identification in field and laboratory conditions, the present work described the anatomical structure of Uncaria guianensis and U. tomentosa, which occurs in State of Acre, Brazil. The results showed that the wood of the species was characteristic of the Rubiaceae family, except the rounded vessel, greater and solitary, parenchyma axial diffuse and width of the rays, proper of lianas.

  5. Breeding biology and distyly in Palicourea rigida H. B. & K. (Rubiaceae in the Cerrados of Central Brazil Biologia reprodutiva e distilia em Palicourea rigida H. B. & K. (Rubiaceae em Cerrados do Brasil Central

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    Adriana de Oliveira Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Distyly is a floral polymorphism more common among the Rubiaceae than in any other angiosperm group. Palicourea rigida is a typically distylous species of the Rubiaceae widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrados. This work aimed to study the floral biology and breeding system of P. rigida in order to verify if there wasasymmetry between floral morphs. The work was carried out at Fazenda Água Limpa, Brasília-DF, from 1993 to 1995; and at Serra Caldas Novas State Park-Goias and in Clube Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia-Minas Gerais in 2005 and 2006. Density, height and pin/thrum ratio were assessed for flowering individuals in all areas. Plants were investigated for differences in floral morphology, nectar production, reproductive success and site of self incompatibility reactions. Blooming period was long and concentrated during the rains. Flowers were clearly distylous and with reciprocal herkogamy. They produced nectar and lasted for a single day. In spite of differences in density and height, populations were mostly isoplethic. Nectar production varied in volume and concentration but the differences could not be associated with floral morphs. The species is self-incompatible but reproductive success was always high and independent of floral morphs. There were differences in the site of incompatibility barriers between floral morphs, which were similar to those observed for other Rubiaceae. The main floral visitors and pollinators were the hummingbirds Colibri serrirostris and Eupetomena macroura. High fruit-set indicates that the pollinators transported enough compatible pollen grains between floral morphs, despite their territorial behavior.A distilia é um polimorfismo floral mais freqüente entre as espécies de Rubiaceae do que em qualquer outro grupo das Angiospermas. Palicourea rigida é uma espécie de Rubiaceae, amplamente distribuída nos cerrados brasileiros e em outras áreas de savanas neotropicais. O presente trabalho

  6. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth Seeds for “Ugba” Production

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    C. O. Nwokeleme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis.

  7. Charbeckia macrophylla gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Mississippian Price (Pocono) Formation of southeastern West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus; Upchurch; Gillespie

    2000-08-01

    A fossil plant discovery from the Price (Pocono) Formation of southeastern West Virginia provides new information on the poorly known compression floras of the Lower Mississippian of North America. The new plant described herein consists of long tapering bipinnate fronds with imbricate basal pinnae, planate apical pinnae, and unlobed, elliptical to obovate pinnules with open dichotomous venation. Veins concentrated in the medial region of the pinnule curve toward the lateral margin, suggestive of an early stage in the evolution of a midrib. Pinnules exhibit a distinctly revolute or otherwise reinforced margin. The exceptional length of some fronds (over 1m) and pinnule size (some over 3cm by 2cm) strongly contrast with the generally diffusely branched fronds and small or highly dissected pinnule morphology that typify Early Mississippian leaf taxa. A new generic assignment, Charbeckia macrophylla, is thereby justified. The rigid appearance of the tapering rachis, the imbricate pinnae that appear to have resisted compression, and the reinforced pinnule margins imply thick evergreen leaves, perhaps adapted for drought tolerance. A possible Calamopityalean affinity is indicated by the size of the fronds and the stout petioles, which fall within the expected size range of the Kalymma-type petiole bases described from the nearby New Albany Shale of Tournaisian age.

  8. Non-nodulated bacterial leaf symbiosis promotes the evolutionary success of its host plants in the coffee family (Rubiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verstraete, Brecht; Janssens, Steven; Rønsted, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Every plant species on Earth interacts in some way or another with microorganisms and it is well known that certain forms of symbiosis between different organisms can drive evolution. Within some clades of Rubiaceae (coffee family), a specific plant-bacteria interaction exists in which non......-pathological endo- phytes are present in the leaves of their hosts. It is hypothesized that the bacterial endophytes, either alone or by interacting with the host, provide chemical protection against herbivory or pathogens by pro- ducing toxic or otherwise advantageous secondary metabolites. If the bacteria indeed...... have a direct ben- eficial influence on their hosts, it is reasonable to assume that the endophytes may increase the fitness of their hosts and therefore it is probable that their presence also has an influence on the long-term evolu- tion of the particular plant lineages. In this study, the possible...

  9. Non-nodulated bacterial leaf symbiosis promotes the evolutionary success of its host plants in the coffee family (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Brecht; Janssens, Steven; Rønsted, Nina

    2017-08-01

    Every plant species on Earth interacts in some way or another with microorganisms and it is well known that certain forms of symbiosis between different organisms can drive evolution. Within some clades of Rubiaceae (coffee family), a specific plant-bacteria interaction exists in which non-pathological endophytes are present in the leaves of their hosts. It is hypothesized that the bacterial endophytes, either alone or by interacting with the host, provide chemical protection against herbivory or pathogens by producing toxic or otherwise advantageous secondary metabolites. If the bacteria indeed have a direct beneficial influence on their hosts, it is reasonable to assume that the endophytes may increase the fitness of their hosts and therefore it is probable that their presence also has an influence on the long-term evolution of the particular plant lineages. In this study, the possible origin in time of non-nodulated bacterial leaf symbiosis in the Vanguerieae tribe of Rubiaceae is elucidated and dissimilarities in evolutionary dynamics between species with endophytes versus species without are investigated. Bacterial leaf symbiosis is shown to have most probably originated in the Late Miocene, a period when the savannah habitat is believed to have expanded on the African continent and herbivore pressure increased. The presence of bacterial leaf endophytes appears to be restricted to Old World lineages so far. Plant lineages with leaf endophytes show a significantly higher speciation rate than plant lineages without endophytes, while there is only a small difference in extinction rate. The transition rate shows that evolving towards having endophytes is twice as fast as evolving towards not having endophytes, suggesting that leaf symbiosis must be beneficial for the host plants. We conclude that the presence of bacterial leaf endophytes may also be an important driver for speciation of host plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Crecimiento foliar y radical en plantas de fique (Furcraea castilla y F. macrophylla bajo estrés por encharcamiento

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    Casierra-Posada Fánor

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En regiones tropicales y subtropicales se producen pérdidas en las plantas cultivadas como consecuencia de lluvias estacionales prolongadas. El exceso de agua produce condiciones de anoxia en el suelo en pocas horas. Las raíces sufren hipoxia o anoxia, lo cual tiene como resultado una crisis energética que afecta el crecimiento de la planta. El presente estudio se orientó hacia la determinación de crecimiento foliar y radical en dos especies de fique (Furcraea castilla y F. macrophylla cultivadas en encharcamiento en campo abierto en Tunja, Colombia. Las plantas se desarrollaron a partir de bulbilos, en bolsas plásticas con 3 kg de suelo. Las plantas control se regaron cada 4 días. Las bolsas de las plantas encharcadas se cubrieron con una bolsa plástica adicional para limitar el drenaje y se regaron hasta mantener el agua 1 cm por encima de la superficie del suelo. En ambas especies la materia seca total de la planta, el peso específico de las hojas y el área foliar se redujeron con el encharcamiento, mientras que la longitud total radical se incrementó. La relación raíz:vástago se redujo en F. macrophylla pero se incrementó en Furcraea castilla. A pesar de que ambas especies fueron fuertemente afectadas por el encharcamiento, F. macrophylla mostró mejor adaptación a este factor de estrés que F. castilla.

  11. Desinfestação e germinação in vitro de sementes de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King In vitro sterilization and germination of mahogany seeds (Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Margarido Fonseca Couto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos desenvolver técnicas de regeneração in vitro a partir de segmentos de epicótilo, epicótilo invertido e explantes foliares provenientes de plântulas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla germinadas em meio de cultura; e determinar a melhor concentração e tempo de exposição das sementes ao agente desinfestante, bem como a melhor posição de semeadura para germinação. As sementes foram desinfestadas, após a retirada do tegumento, em soluções com hipoclorito de sódio nas concentrações de 0; 2,5; e 5,0% (v/v, mantidas embebidas por 10, 20, 30 e 40 minutos e colocadas no meio em duas posições, sendo a posição 1 com a concavidade da parte achatada voltada para cima e na posição 2, com a concavidade da parte achatada voltada para baixo. Após a semeadura, foram mantidas em sala de crescimento com temperatura de ±26 ± 2 º C e escuro contínuo. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4 x 2 (níveis de hipoclorito x tempos de embebição x posição de semeadura, totalizando 24 tratamentos com três repetições. As avaliações de germinação e contaminação por microrganismos ocorreram aos 12, 18, 24 e 30 dias. O melhor tratamento foi a desinfestação das sementes embebidas em 2,5 e 5% de hipoclorito de sódio por 30 e 20 minutos, respectivamente, as quais foram colocadas na posição 2, pois apresentaram a maior germinação (48% e baixa contaminação (15 e 10%, respectivamente. Quanto à posição, houve diferença significativa aos 24 e 30 dias após a semeadura, com as maiores médias nas sementes colocadas na posição 2.The objective of this work was to develop techniques of in vitro regeneration for mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, using epicotyl segments, inverted epicotyls and leaf explants from mahogany plantlets germinated in culture medium. Also, the best concentration and time and sterilizing agent for seed sterilization were determined

  12. Detection of anthraquinones and identification of 1,4-naphthohydroquinone in cell suspension cultures of Rudgea jasminoides (Cham.) Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Marisa de Cacia; Negri, Giusepina; Salatino, Antônio; Braga, Márcia Regina

    2007-01-01

    In Rubiaceae, anthraquinones and naphthoquinones are secondary metabolites characteristic of the subfamily Rubioideae, in which Rudgea jasminoides is included. Thin-layer chromatography using specific solvent systems and spray reagents indicated the presence of anthraquinones constitutively produced by cell suspension cultures of R. jasminoides. GC/MS analysis detected 1,4-naphthohydroquinone as a product of biosynthesis only after elicitation of the cells with yeast extract (Saccharomyces ce...

  13. Anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants: A search for new sources of useful alternative antibacterials against MRSA infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Iriti, M; Sharifi-Rad, M; Gibbons, S; Sharifi-Rad, J

    2016-08-29

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of the extracts of the leaves of species from the Rubiaceae (Galium aparine L. and Asperula arvensis L.), Fabaceae (Lathyrus aphaca L. and Vicia narbonensis L.) and Poaceae (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. and Hordeum murinum L.) plant families on a wide and extensive panel of isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). The effects of the methanolic leaf extracts of Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae plants on MRSA were evaluated by the disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Among a total of 177 S. aureus isolates, 92 (51.97%) were found to be methicillin-resistant in an antibiogram and this was confirmed by the presence of the mecA gene in polymerase chain reaction method. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to all extracts. There were dose-dependent inhibitions on tested microorganisms for all plant extracts which showed maximum inhibition zones at a concentration of 300 mg/L. L. aphaca, G. aparine and H. murinum exhibited the highest antibacterial activity on the MRSA strains compared to the positive control (P MRSA isolates ranged from 388.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, in D. sanguinalis, to 5.5 ± 0.1 mg/L, in L. aphaca. The methanolic extracts of L. aphaca (Fabaceae), G. aparine (Rubiaceae), and H. murinum (Poaceae) proved to have high antibacterial activity on MRSA isolates, thus representing promising antimicrobial agents in clinical settings.

  14. Global Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Distinct Aluminum-Tolerance Pathways in the Al-Accumulating Species Hydrangea macrophylla and Marker Identification.

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    Haixia Chen

    Full Text Available Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla is a well known Al-accumulating plant, showing a high level of aluminum (Al tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for detoxification of Al and the roles of Al in blue hydrangea sepals have been reported, the molecular mechanisms of Al tolerance and accumulation are poorly understood in hydrangea. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-response genes in the roots and leaves of hydrangea by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq. The assembly of hydrangea transcriptome provides a rich source for gene identification and mining molecular markers, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR. A total of 401,215 transcripts with an average length of 810.77 bp were assembled, generating 256,127 unigenes. After annotation, 4,287 genes in the roots and 730 genes in the leaves were up-regulated by Al exposure, while 236 genes in the roots and 719 genes in the leaves were down-regulated, respectively. Many transporters, including MATE and ABC families, were involved in the process of Al-citrate complex transporting from the roots in hydrangea. A plasma membrane Al uptake transporter, Nramp aluminum transporter was up-regulated in roots and leaves under Al stress, indicating it may play an important role in Al tolerance by reducing the level of toxic Al. Although the exact roles of these candidate genes remain to be examined, these results provide a platform for further functional analysis of the process of detoxification of Al in hydrangea.

  15. Efeito antinociceptivo e antiinflamatório do extrato aquoso da entrecasca de Coutarea hexandra Schum. (Rubiaceae

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    Josefina E.X. Lucena

    Full Text Available No estado de Sergipe, o chá da entrecasca de Coutarea hexandra Shum. (Rubiaceae é popularmente utilizado no combate à dor e à inflamação. Estes usos etnofarmacológicos vieram motivar os estudos sobre os efeitos antinociceptivo e antiinflamatório, bem como sobre a toxicidade aguda do extrato aquoso liofilizado da entrecasca de Coutarea hexandra. Doses orais do extrato aquoso significativamente reduziram as contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético, aumentaram o tempo de latência ao calor no teste da placa quente, reduziram o edema de pata induzido por carragenina e, na segunda fase do teste da formalina, também reduziram a resposta dos animais à formalina. O efeito detectado no teste da formalina não foi revertido por naloxona ou cafeína. Nos ensaios de toxicidade aguda, não foi observada a morte de nenhum animal até a dose de 5 g/kg. Em conclusão, o extrato aquoso da entrecasca de C. hexandra possui efeitos antiinflamatório e antinociceptivo e não apresenta toxicidade aguda em camundongos. O efeito antinociceptivo não está relacionado à ativação dos sistemas opióide e adenosina e, ao menos parcialmente, é decorrente da atuação do extrato aquoso em nível central.

  16. Contribution to the study of insects (Arthropoda:Insecta associated with the genus Ixora L. (Angiospermae: Rubiaceae in Brazil

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    Thiago Dias Trindade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to register insects (Arthropoda: Insecta associated with genus Ixora L. (Angiospermae: Rubiaceae and contribute the knowledge about this popular tropical ornamental plant in Brazil. For this study, we detected the presence of insects in solid or isolated plants of Ixora spp., and greenhouses, between the period 2004 and 2012. It was pointed out for the first time on I. chinensis Lam.: Syntermes dirus (Burmeister, 1839 (Isoptera: Termitidae, Aspidiotus destructor (Signoret, 1869 and Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae, Praelongorthezia praelonga (Douglas, 1891 (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae and Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Studies registered for the first time on I. coccinea L.: Aleurothrixus aepim (Goeldi, 1886 and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae Eucalymnatus sp., Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner, 1861 and Saissetia olae (Olivier, 1791 (Hemiptera: Coccidae, and Camponotus sp. It was observed first on I. macrothyrsa Teijsm. & Binn. N. E. Br.: Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell, 1895, Aleurotrachelus sp. (Aleyrodidae, Aphis (Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy, 1907 and Myzus (Nectarosiphon persicae (Sulzer, 1778 (Hemiptera: Aphididae Harmonia sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Camponotus sp. This paper contributes to the study of these important ornamental plants, presenting for the first time a list of associated insects. This work also creates conditions for future studies.

  17. A Set of Novel Microsatellite Markers Developed for Luculia yunnanensis (Rubiaceae, an Endangered Plant Endemic to Yunnan, China

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    Ning Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luculia Sweet contains about five species of small trees or shrubs and is a member of the family Rubiaceae (tribe Cinchoneae. Luculia yunnanensis is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to southwest China. Only two natural populations of L. yunnanensis exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that L. yunnanensis is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-sterptavidin capture method, 24 primer sets were identified in two wild populations. Of these primers, 11 displayed polymorphisms and 13 were monomorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four, values for observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.833 and from 0.431 to 0.771, with averages of 0.389 and 0.614, respectively. These markers will be useful for further investigation of conservation of resources, selecting parental types in cross-breeding, evolution of this species at the molecular level and related research in Luculia species.

  18. Role of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplift in the Northern Hemisphere disjunction: evidence from two herbaceous genera of Rubiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Meng, Ying; Volis, Sergei; Sun, Hang; Nie, Ze-Long

    2017-10-17

    To assess the role of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplift in shaping the intercontinental disjunction in Northern Hemisphere, we analyzed the origin and diversification within a geological timeframe for two relict herbaceous genera, Theligonum and Kelloggia (Rubiaceae). Phylogenetic relationships within and between Theligonum and Kelloggia as well as their relatives were inferred using five chloroplast markers with parsimony, Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches. Migration routes and evolution of these taxa were reconstructed using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock and ancestral area reconstruction. Our results suggest the monophyly of each Theligonum and Kelloggia. Eastern Asian and North American species of Kelloggia diverged at ca.18.52 Mya and the Mediterranean species of Theligonum diverged from eastern Asian taxa at ca.13.73 Mya. Both Kelloggia and Theligonum are Tethyan flora relicts, and their ancestors might have been occurred in warm tropical to subtropical environments along the Tethys coast. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau separated the eastern and western Tethyan area may contribute significantly to the disjunct distributions of Theligonum, and the North Atlantic migration appears to be the most likely pathway of expansion of Kelloggia to North America. Our results highlight the importance role of the QTP uplift together with corresponding geological and climatic events in shaping biodiversity and biogeographic distribution in the Northern Hemisphere.

  19. Morphology, secretion composition, and ecological aspects of stipular colleters in Rubiaceae species from tropical forest and savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresmondi, Fernanda; Nogueira, Anselmo; Guimarães, Elza; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Colleters are secretory structures that produce and release mucilage or a mucilage-resin mixture protecting meristems and young structures against desiccation, herbivores, and pathogens. The secretions may vary in colleters of same or different types, indicating that the functionality of colleters may be more specific than previously thought. In this study, we compared 17 Rubiaceae species from savanna and forest environment focusing on colleter secretions and its ecological role. First, we evaluated the morphology, distribution, and histochemistry of stipular colleters using light and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, we investigated the phenology, microclimate, and the proportion of damaged apices in the savanna and forest species. We recorded standard-type colleters, variable in distribution and size, in 14 of the 17 studied species. The secretion varied from predominantly hydrophilic, mixed to predominantly lipophilic. During the budding period, secretion covered the vegetative apices. Savanna species had a prevalence of lipid secretion in habitats with higher luminosity, which had a lower proportion of damaged apices. In contrast, forest species occurred in habitats with lower luminosity and had a higher proportion of damaged apices, in general with the absence of lipids in the colleters. These results highlight that colleters with similar morphology clearly differed in secretions among species, especially between species from savanna and forest, in which the colleters appear potentially associated with protection against irradiation in savanna, but not in the forest environment.

  20. Calogênese e rizogênese em explantes de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla king cultivados in vitro

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    Silvana Rocha Cruz da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate exploitation of tropical trees in a search for economically valuable species leads to the risk of extinction of several species. This is the case of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King in Brazil. The establishment of a method of direct or indirect bud regeneration could help to produce a great number of plantlets and could constitute an alternative to sexual propagation. The latter is limited by the fact that mahogany seeds lose their germinative power soon after harvest. In this work, two kinds of explants were used: leaf and root fragments from in vitro cultured plants. After disinfection, the explants were cultured in petri dishes containing modified Murashige and Skoog (1962 culture medium, with three-quarters of salt concentration, vitamins, 30 g.L-1 sucrose and 7 g.L-1 agar. The combinations of growth substances were: naphthaleneacetic acid (ANA 0.11 uM and 0.54 uM and one type of cytokinin, kinetin (CIN 1.2 uM, 2.3 uM, 4.7 uM and 9.3 uM, 6-benzylaminopurine (BA 2.2 uM, 4.4 uM and 8.8 uM or 2-isopentenyladenine (2-iP 2.5 uM. The variables were the concentration and combinations of the growth regulators and the explant origin.The cultures were evaluated every 30 days, the number of explants forming calluses or roots was recorded and the callus consistency was observed. Calluses were formed in both kinds of explants. In leaf explants, 90% of explants formed callus when culture medium contained 4.4 uM BA with 0.54 uM ANA and 8.9 uM BA with 0.11 or 0.54 uM ANA. For root explants, the combination that gave the highest number of calluses was 2.2 uM BA and 0.54 uM ANA and 55% of them formed callus. Adventitious roots were regenerated from leaf calluses or directly from leaf lamina cultured in media containing CIN and ANA. However, adventitious buds were not obtained with the growth regulator combinations tested in these experiments.

  1. Sucesso reprodutivo de espécies distílicas de psychotria (rubiaceae em sub-bosque de floresta atlântica Reproductive success of distylous species of psychotria (rubiaceae of understory atlantic forest

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    Celice Alexandre Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As espécies distílicas Psychotria conjugens, P. hastisepala e P. sessilis (Rubiaceae são típicas de sub-bosques sombreados. Ocorrem no maior fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Sudeste brasileiro - a Mata do Paraíso, com 194 ha. A distilia caracteriza-se pela presença dos morfos florais longistilos (L e brevistilos (B em indivíduos distintos e pela dependência de polinizações intermorfos (L x B ou B x L para a produção de frutos; é esperada a proporção equilibrada (isopletia dos indivíduos na população. Foram objetivos deste trabalho verificar, nas espécies citadas, a proporção dos morfos florais em uma área de 7 ha e a dependência por polinizadores, testando a incompatibilidade intramorfos (L x L e B x B por meio de polinizações manuais in vivo, a viabilidade dos grãos de pólen e dimorfismo dos grãos entre os morfos florais; e quantificar as produções de frutos e de sementes por morfo. Os morfos florais das espécies se encontram em proporções equilibradas. Houve incompatibilidade e a viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi alta (> 64%. Verificou-se dimorfismo dos grãos, e os maiores diâmetros foram os de B. As produções de frutos e de sementes (uma ou duas dos morfos de P. sessilis e de P. conjugens foram semelhantes e, em P. hastisepala, foram maiores em B. Na Mata do Paraíso, as condições adequadas, como o hábitat, a isopletia e a atuação de polinizadores, são fatores que parecem favorecer o sucesso reprodutivo e, consequentemente, a manutenção local das espécies estudadas.The distylous species of Psychotria conjugens, P. hastisepala e P. sessilis (Rubiaceae are typical of understory shady. It occurs in the largest fragment (194 ha of semideciduous forest in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil, where the present study was carried out. The distyly is characterized by the presence of pin (L and thrum (B floral morphs in different individual and the

  2. Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

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    Luciana B. Mendonça

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae, a common ornithophilous shrub found in the riparian forest understory in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Flowers are distylous and the style-stamen dimorphism is accompanied by other intermorph dimorphisms in corolla length, anther length, and stigma lobe length and form. We did not observe strict reciprocity in the positioning of stigma and anthers between floral morphs. Flowering occurred during the rainy season, October to December. Nectar standing crop per flowerwas relatively constant throughout the day, which apparently resulted in hummingbirds visiting the plant throughout the day. Energetic content of the nectar in each flower (66.5J and that required daily by hummingbird visitors (up to 30kJ would oblige visits to hundreds of flowers each day, and thus movements between plants that should result in pollen flow. Three hummingbird species visited the flowers: the Gilded Sapphire (Hylocharis chrysura, the Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis, and the Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon aureoventris. The frequency of hummingbird visitation, nectar features, and the scarcity of other hummingbird-visited flowers in the study area, indicate that P. crocea is an important nectar resource for short-billed hummingbirds in the study site.Investigamos a morfologia floral, as características do néctar e a visita de beija-flores a Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae, uma espécie ornitófila arbustiva comumente encontrada no sub-bosque da vegetação ripária na planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná, Brasil. As flores são distílicas, sendo o dimorfismo estilete-estames acompanhado por outras variações morfológicas no comprimento da corola, altura das anteras, comprimento das anteras e comprimento e forma das papilas estigmáticas. Não foi observada reciprocidade estrita na posição dos estigmas e

  3. Evolution of growth habit, inflorescence architecture, flower size, and fruit type in Rubiaceae: its ecological and evolutionary implications.

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    Sylvain G Razafimandimbison

    Full Text Available During angiosperm evolution, innovations in vegetative and reproductive organs have resulted in tremendous morphological diversity, which has played a crucial role in the ecological success of flowering plants. Morindeae (Rubiaceae display considerable diversity in growth form, inflorescence architecture, flower size, and fruit type. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, small flower, and multiple fruit are the predominant states, but arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, large flower, and simple fruit states occur in various genera. This makes Morindeae an ideal model for exploring the evolutionary appearances and transitions between the states of these characters. We reconstructed ancestral states for these four traits using a bayesian approach and combined nuclear/chloroplast data for 61 Morindeae species. The aim was to test three hypotheses: 1 self-supporting habit is generally ancestral in clades comprising both lianescent and arborescent species; 2 changes from lianescent to arborescent habit are uncommon due to "a high degree of specialization and developmental burden"; 3 head inflorescences and multiple fruits in Morindeae evolved from non-headed inflorescences and simple fruits, respectively. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, large flower, and multiple fruit are inferred for Morindeae, making arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, small flower, and simple fruit derived within the tribe. The rate of change from lianescent to arborescent habit is much higher than the reverse change. Therefore, evolutionary changes between lianescent and arborescent forms can be reversible, and their frequency and trends vary between groups. Moreover, these changes are partly attributed to a scarcity of host trees for climbing plants in more open habitats. Changes from large to small flowers might have been driven by shifts to pollinators with progressively shorter proboscis, which are associated with shifts in breeding systems towards

  4. Neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous leaf extract and fractions of Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum Rubiaceae in mice

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    Moses W. Bariweni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: In Northern Nigeria, Pavetta crassipes (K. Schum Rubiaceae leaf extracts are used in the treatment of convulsion, pain and mental illness; however, there is paucity of information on its neuropharmacological effects. Aims: To evaluate the neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous leaf extract and fractions of Pavetta crassipes. Methods: Pavetta crassipes leaves were harvested, dried and powdered using an electric mill. Hot aqueous extraction was done with 250 g powdered leaf in 1000 mL distilled water. The dry extract was partitioned in various solvents with only the aqueous fraction (AF, and butanol fraction (BF giving significant yields. Neuropharmacological effects including anticonvulsant, behavioural, antipsychotic, muscle relaxant and sedative effects were evaluated in the extract and fractions at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, using standard methods. Results: The onset of strychnine induced convulsions was significantly (p<0.01 delayed by doses of AE and BF. Pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions were significantly (p<0.01 delayed by doses of AF and BF while AE at 400 mg/kg offered 100% protection. The duration of maximum electroshock induced tonic hind limb extension was reduced significantly (p<0.01 by AE, AF and BF. There were also significant reductions in motor coordination (p<0.01, rearing (p<0.05, locomotor activity (p<0.01, grooming (p<0.01, time of sleep onset (p<0.01, and an increase in sleeping time (p<0.01 by doses of AE, AF and BF. Conclusions: The extract and fractions of P. crassipes possess anxiolytic, sedative, anticonvulsant, antipsychotic and muscle relaxant effects to varying degrees.

  5. Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites from plants of the Rutaceae family, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Salicaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon Castro, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A phytochemical study was conducted of the Zuelania guidonia plants (Salicaceae), croton ovalifolius (Euphorbiaceae) erythrochiton gymnanthus (Rutaceae) and Faramea occidentalis (Rubiaceae). Purification of the compounds was carried out using chromatographic techniques while structural elucidation was performed by experiments using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Of Z. guidonia has been possible the purification and structural elucidation of 22 compounds (Z1-Z22), two labdane type diterpenes and 20 clerodane-type diterpenes. The clerodanes have presented 16 innovative structure, highlighting the presence of a group of 3,6-dihydro -1.2-dioxin and xylose group in some of them. In addition, 11 of the clerodanes were evaluated with cytotoxicity assays in three cancer cell lines CCRF-CEM (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), CEM-ADR5000 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia resistant to doxorubicin) MIA-Paca-2 (metastatic pancreas) and a line of healthy cells PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells). The Z4, Z6 and Z15 compounds stood out as the most cytotoxic, particularly against CCRF-CEM cells with IC 50 values between 1.6 and 2.5 μM. Seven compounds identified as glutarimide alkaloids (C1-C7) were isolated and elucidated, five of which have presented a novel structure from C. ovalifolius. Three compounds (E1-E3) that are triterpenes derivatives of known structure sitosterol, were isolated and elucidated from E. gymnanthus plant. From F. occidentalis was obtained the structure of a pure compound (F1], which is a flavonoid of known structure. (author) [es

  6. Fitossociologia e estrutura diamétrica da mata de galeria do Taquara, na reserva ecológica do IBGE, DF Phytosociology and diametric estructure of Taquara gallery forest, at IBGE ecological reserve, DF

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    Manoel Cláudio da Silva Júnior

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available (Florística e estrutura na mata do Taquara, Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, DF. As matas de Galeria, apesar de legalmente protegidas, vêm sendo sistematicamente substituídas visando a outras finalidades. As árvores (DAP³ 5 cm na mata de Galeria do córrego do Taquara, na Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, no Distrito Federal, foram amostradas pelo método de quadrantes, com 250 pontos, dispostos em linhas estabelecidas ao longo do comprimento do córrego, desde as margens até os limites entre a mata e o cerrado. A amostragem de 1.000 árvores resultou na composição florística, na fitossociologia e na distribuição dos diâmetros dos troncos. No total foram amostradas 110 espécies de 49 famílias. O índice de diversidade de Shannon & Wiener foi estimado em 4,25 nats.ind-1. As famílias mais importantes foram: Leguminosae (lato sensu, Rubiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Sapindaceae, enquanto as espécies principais foram: Tapirira guianensis, Copaifera langsdorffii, Lamanonia ternata, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Piptocarpha macropoda, Alibertia macrophylla, Matayba guianensis, Pera glabrata, Guettarda viburnioides e Ixora warmingii. As estimativas da densidade e da área basal total foram de 1.573 árvores.ha-1, e 38,5 m².ha-1 respectivamente. A distribuição diamétrica indicou uma curva tendendo para o `J' invertido, evidenciando os baixos níveis de distúrbios ocorridos na mata. Uma comparação florística conduzida entre 21 matas de Galeria no Distrito Federal apontou a mata do Taquara como uma área rica, com 110 (29,1% das 378 espécies listadas e similaridade de Sørensen variando entre 0,34 e 0,80, nas matas incluídas.(Floristics and structure of the, IBGE, Federal District, Brazil. Despite been protected by law gallery forests have been systematically replaced by other uses. The study focused on the Taquara gallery forest within the Ecological Reserve of the "Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística" in the

  7. CALOGÊNESE E RIZOGÊNESE EM EXPLANTES DE MOGNO (Swietenia macrophylla King CULTIVADOS IN VITRO

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    Marguerite Quoirin

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A exploração de árvores tropicais realizada de forma indiscriminada, buscando espécies de alto valor econômico, tem levado várias espécies, como o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King, ao perigo de extinção. O desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de regeneração de gemas, direta ou indireta, poderia auxiliar na obtenção de um grande número de mudas e constituir uma perspectiva à propagação sexuada. Essa última é limitada pelo fato das sementes perderem rapidamente a capacidade germinativa. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dois tipos de explantes: fragmentos foliares e de raízes de plantas cultivadas in vitro. Após desinfestação, os explantes foram colocados em meio de cultura de Murashige e Skoog (1962 contendo três quartos da concentração de sais, vitaminas do mesmo meio, 30g.L-1 de sacarose, auxina (ácido naftaleno-acético, ANA, 0,11 M e 0,54 M, citocinina (cinetina, CIN, 1,2 M, 2,3 M, 4,7 M e 9,3 M; 6-benziladenina, BA, 2,2 M, 4,4 M e 8,8 M ou 2-isopenteniladenina, 2-iP, 2,5 M e 7g.L-1 de ágar. As variáveis testadas foram a concentração e o tipo de regulador de crescimento e a origem dos explantes. A cada 30 dias, os explantes foram avaliados pela contagem do número de explantes formando calos ou raízes e a consistência dos calos. Foram obtidos calos a com base nos dois tipos de explantes. Nos explantes foliares, 90% deles formaram calos em meios de cultura contendo BA 4,4 M com ANA 0,54 M e BA 8,9 M com ANA 0,11 ou 0,54 M. Nos explantes de raízes, a maior percentagem de explantes com calos foi de 55%, no meio de cultura com BA 2,2 M e ANA 0,54 M. Raízes adventícias foram obtidas partindo de calos e do limbo dos explantes foliares, em meios de cultura com CIN e ANA. Não foi observada a formação de gemas adventícias.

  8. Calogênese e rizogênese em explantes de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King cultivados in vitro.

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    Silvana Cruz da Rocha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A exploração de árvores tropicais realizada de forma indiscriminada, buscando espécies de alto valor econômico, tem levado várias espécies, como o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King, ao perigo de extinção. O desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de regeneração de gemas, direta ou indireta, poderia auxiliar na obtenção de um grande número de mudas e constituir uma perspectiva à propagação sexuada. Essa última é limitada pelo fato das sementes perderem rapidamente a capacidade germinativa. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dois tipos de explantes: fragmentos foliares e de raízes de plantas cultivadas in vitro. Após desinfestação, os explantes foram colocados em meio de cultura de Murashige e Skoog (1962 contendo três quartos da concentração de sais, vitaminas do mesmo meio, 30g.L-1 de sacarose, auxina (ácido naftaleno-acético, ANA, 0,11 µM e 0,54 µM, citocinina (cinetina, CIN, 1,2 µM, 2,3 µM, 4,7 µM e 9,3 µM; 6-benziladenina, BA, 2,2 µM, 4,4 µM e 8,8 µM ou 2-isopenteniladenina, 2-iP, 2,5 µM e 7g.L-1 de ágar. As variáveis testadas foram a concentração e o tipo de regulador de crescimento e a origem dos explantes. A cada 30 dias, os explantes foram avaliados pela contagem do número de explantes formando calos ou raízes e a consistência dos calos. Foram obtidos calos a com base nos dois tipos de explantes. Nos explantes foliares, 90% deles formaram calos em meios de cultura contendo BA 4,4 µM com ANA 0,54 µM e BA 8,9 µM com ANA 0,11 ou 0,54 µM. Nos explantes de raízes, a maior percentagem de explantes com calos foi de 55%, no meio de cultura com BA 2,2 µM e ANA 0,54 µM. Raízes adventícias foram obtidas partindo de calos e do limbo dos explantes foliares, em meios de cultura com CIN e ANA. Não foi observada a formação de gemas adventícias.

  9. POLEN DE LAS MAGNOLIOPSIDA EN EL VOLCÁN (PAMPLONA, COLOMBIA II: FAMILIAS HYPERICACEAE, LAMIACEAE, LOBELIACEAE, POLYGONACEAE, RHAMNACEAE, ROSACEAE, RUBIACEAE, SCROPHULARIACEAE Y SOLANACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE D. MERCADO-GÓMEZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la morfología polínica de las especies pertenecientes a las familias, Hypericaceae, Lamiaceae, Lobeliaceae, Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae y Solanaceae, encontradas en la zona El Volcán (Pamplona, Colombia. Las observaciones, descripciones y microfotografías de los granos de polen se realizaron con microscopio de luz, contando un mínimo de 25 granos por especie. Todas las familias presentan un carácter euripalinologico, excepto Melastomataceae la cual es estenopalinologica. Asimismo, al realizar comparaciones sobre algunas especies que fueron descritas en otras zonas del bosque altoandino y páramo en la cordillera Central y Occidental, fue posible determinar variaciones en la morfología polínica.

  10. Distribución y uso tradicional de Sagittaria macrophylla Zucc. y S. latifolia Willd. en el Estado de México

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    Carmen Zepeda Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sagittaria macrophylla y S. latifolia son plantas acuáticas emergentes que crecen en las orillas y zonas poco profundas de los cuerpos de agua limpios y de poca corriente. La primera es endémica de México, su distribución se restringe a la región del río Lerma y valle de México y está en peligro de extinción. Sagittarial latifolia se distribuye desde Canadá hasta el noroeste de Sudamérica. En México se localiza al menos en 11 estados. El análisis de la distribución de ambas especies muestra una disminución en el Estado de México; los factores que aparentemente están contribuyendo a este fenómeno son, en general, la explosión demográfica, la pérdida del hábitat y la sobreexplotación. No había registros del uso de S. latifolia en México, actualmente se reconoce que sus tubérculos o ‘papas de agua’ tienen importancia económica en la región del río Lerma. El uso tradicional de ambas especies indica que podrían ser una alternativa más en la dieta humana y animal.

  11. Evaluación ecólogico - silvicultural y socio-económica de las plantaciones de caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King) en la comunidad indigena Sinchi Roca – Ucayali

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra Muñoz, Luis Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Bosques y Gestión de Recursos Forestales Durante los años 2000 y 2001, el Ex Comité de Reforestación de Pucallpa estableció en la CC.II. Sinchi Roca un total de 720 ha de plantaciones forestales en fajas de enriquecimiento con la especie “caoba” Swietenia macrophylla, las mismas que estuvieron divididas en dos sectores, el sector Unihuaqui con 220 ha y el sector Guacamayo con 500 ha respectivamente, con el objeto de b...

  12. Controle biológico de Hypsipyla grandella Zeller (lepidoptera: pyralidae) e novos relatos de ácaros e fungos em mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King) em Brasília/DF

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Marcelo Tavares de

    2017-01-01

    O mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King) é uma espécie florestal extremamente apreciada pela qualidade de sua madeira, plasticidade silvicultural e beleza ornamental. O seu corte em áreas naturais foi tão abusivo que atualmente é uma espécie protegida e ameaçada de extinção. Apesar disso, o cultivo do mogno tem se estabelecido em diversas partes do mundo, inclusive no Brasil, tanto em plantios comerciais, quanto na arborização de diversas cidades. Porém, um dos principais entraves para o estabele...

  13. Hepatoprotective Role of Hydrangea macrophylla against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Mitochondrial-Dependent Oxidative Stress via the Inhibition of MAPK/Caspase-3 Pathways

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    Md Rashedunnabi Akanda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 has been recognized as a worldwide health concern. Hydrangea macrophylla (HM is used as traditional Chinese medicine possessing antioxidant activities. The study was performed to investigate the therapeutic role and underlying molecular mechanism of HM on NaAsO2-induced toxicity in human liver cancer (HepG2 cells and liver in mice. The hepatoprotective role of HM in HepG2 cells was assessed by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. Histopathology, lipid peroxidation, serum biochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and Western blot analyses were performed to determine the protective role of HM against NaAsO2 intoxication in liver tissue. In this study, we found that co-treatment with HM significantly attenuated the NaAsO2-induced cell viability loss, intracellular ROS, and LDH release in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hepatic histopathology, lipid peroxidation, and the serum biochemical parameters alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were notably improved by HM. HM effectively downregulated the both gene and protein expression level of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade. Moreover, HM well-regulated the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax/B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 ratio, remarkably suppressed the release of cytochrome c, and blocked the expression of the post-apoptotic transcription factor caspase-3. Therefore, our study provides new insights into the hepatoprotective role of HM through its reduction in apoptosis, which likely involves in the modulation of MAPK/caspase-3 signaling pathways.

  14. Assessment of the content of phenolics and antioxidant actions of the Rubiaceae, Ebenaceae, Celastraceae, Erythroxylaceae and Sterculaceae families of Mauritian endemic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobrattee, Muhammad A; Bahorun, Theeshan; Neergheen, Vidushi S; Googoolye, Kreshna; Aruoma, Okezie I

    2008-02-01

    There is continued interest in the assessment of the bioefficacy of the active principles in extracts from a variety of traditional medicine and food plants in order to determine their impact on the management of a variety of clinical conditions and maintenance of health. The polyphenolic composition and antioxidant potential of Mauritian endemic plants of the Rubiaceae, Ebenaceae, Celastraceae, Erythroxylaceae and Sterculaceae family were determined. The phenolics level of the plant extracts varied from 1 to 75 mg/g FW, the maximum level measured in Diospyros neraudii (Ebenaceae). Coffea macrocarpa showed the highest flavonoids content with 18+/-0.7 mg/g FW. The antioxidant capacity based on the TEAC and FRAP values were strongly related to total phenolics and proanthocyanidins content, while a weaker correlation was observed with (-) gallic acid. Erythroxylum sideroxyloides showed the highest protective effect in the lipid peroxidation systems with IC(50) of 0.0435+/-0.001 mg FW/ml in the Fe(3+)/ascorbate system and 0.05+/-0.002 mg FW/ml in the AAPH system. Cassine orientalis, E. sideroxyloides, Diospyros mellanida and Chassalia coriancea var. johnstonii were weakly prooxidant only at higher concentration greater of 10 g FW/L indicating potential safety. Mauritian endemic plants, particularly the genus Diospyros, are good sources of phenolic antioxidants and potential candidates for the development of prophylactic agents.

  15. Three new genera and three new species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Rubiaceae from Guadeloupe, French West Indies, and a key to genera of Neotropical Lasiopteridi unplaced to tribe

    OpenAIRE

    Gagné, Raymond J.; Étienne, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Three new genera of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Faramitella Gagné, new genus, Anapeza Gagné, new genus, and Pellacara Gagné, new genus, each with one new species, are described. The new species are from leaf galls on Rubiaceae collected in Guadeloupe, F.W.I.: Faramitella planicauda Gagné, new species, was reared from Faramea occidentalis (L.) A. Rich.; Anapeza tumida Gagné, new species, and Pellacara postica, new species, were both reared from Psychotria mapourioides DC. The three ...

  16. Influência de diferentes tipos de estacas e substratos na propagação assexuada de hortênsia [Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser.] Influence of different types of stem cuttings and substrates on the asexual reproduction of hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser.

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    Petterson Baptista da Luz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A hortênsia (Hydrangea macrophylla é um arbusto semilenhoso de 1,0 a 2,5 m de altura, de folhagem e florescimento decorativos, muito utilizados como flor de vaso e planta para paisagismo. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o enraizamento de estacas de três partes da planta: apical, mediana e basal; em três tipos de substratos: terra, areia e vermiculita, para a formação de mudas. As estacas foram retiradas das plantas matrizes e divididas em segmentos apical, mediano e basal, os quais foram colocados para enraizar em bandejas de isopor, nos substratos areia, terra e vermiculita, em estufa com nebulização. As estacas que apresentaram melhor qualidade de raízes foram as originadas da parte basal do ramo, sendo que o melhor enraizamento foi observado nas estacas colocadas em areia. As estacas obtidas de diferentes partes da planta não se diferenciaram quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento e quanto ao número de brotos formados. Já os substratos que proporcionaram o maior número de brotações foram a areia e a terra. Algumas estacas apresentaram formação de flores, ocorrendo com maior freqüência nas estacas apicais, sem efeito dos substratos. A areia foi o substrato que proporcionou os melhores resultados quanto à qualidade das raízes e porcentagem de enraizamento. O substrato terra foi superior apenas para o número de brotos por estaca, porém não diferenciou estatisticamente da areia. Mudas formadas de estaca da parte basal da planta se mostraram com qualidade superior.The Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla is a semi-ligneous shrub measuring 1.0m to 2.5m in height with decorative foliage and flat-topped or rounded clusters of white, pink, or blue flowers widely used as vase or pot flower as well as landscaping plant. The objective of this research work was to study the rooting of stem cuttings obtained from three different parts of the plant: apical, median and basal portions of the stems, in three different

  17. Cyclotide Discovery in Gentianales Revisited—Identification and Characterization of Cyclic Cystine-Knot Peptides and Their Phylogenetic Distribution in Rubiaceae Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehbach, Johannes; Attah, Alfred F.; Berger, Andreas; Hellinger, Roland; Kutchan, Toni M.; Carpenter, Eric J.; Rolf, Megan; Sonibare, Mubo A.; Moody, Jones O.; Ka-Shu Wong, Gane; Dessein, Steven; Greger, Harald; Gruber, Christian W.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotides are a unique class of ribosomally synthesized cysteine-rich miniproteins characterized by a head-to-tail cyclized backbone and three conserved disulfide-bonds in a knotted arrangement. Originally they were discovered in the coffee-family plant Oldenlandia affinis (Rubiaceae) and have since been identified in several species of the violet, cucurbit, pea, potato, and grass families. However, the identification of novel cyclotide-containing plant species still is a major challenge due to the lack of a rapid and accurate analytical workflow in particular for large sampling numbers. As a consequence, their phylogeny in the plant kingdom remains unclear. To gain further insight into the distribution and evolution of plant cyclotides, we analyzed ~300 species of >40 different families, with special emphasis on plants from the order Gentianales. For this purpose, we have developed a refined screening methodology combining chemical analysis of plant extracts and bioinformatic analysis of transcript databases. Using mass spectrometry and transcriptome-mining, we identified nine novel cyclotide-containing species and their related cyclotide precursor genes in the tribe Palicoureeae. The characterization of novel peptide sequences underlines the high variability and plasticity of the cyclotide framework, and a comparison of novel precursor proteins from Carapichea ipecacuanha illustrated their typical cyclotide gene architectures. Phylogenetic analysis of their distribution within the Psychotria alliance revealed cyclotides to be restricted to Palicourea, Margaritopsis, Notopleura, Carapichea, Chassalia, and Geophila. In line with previous reports, our findings confirm cyclotides to be one of the largest peptide families within the plant kingdom and suggest that their total number may exceed tens of thousands. PMID:23897543

  18. Diversity and endemism in deglaciated areas: ploidy, relative genome size and niche differentiation in the Galium pusillum complex (Rubiaceae) in Northern and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolár, Filip; Lucanová, Magdalena; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomás; Chrtek, Jindrich; Fér, Tomás; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Suda, Jan

    2013-06-01

    Plants endemic to areas covered by ice sheets during the last glaciation represent paradigmatic examples of rapid speciation in changing environments, yet very few systems outside the harsh arctic zone have been comprehensively investigated so far. The Galium pusillum aggregate (Rubiaceae) is a challenging species complex that exhibits a marked differentiation in boreal parts of Northern Europe. As a first step towards understanding its evolutionary history in deglaciated regions, this study assesses cytological variation and ecological preferences of the northern endemics and compares the results with corresponding data for species occurring in neighbouring unglaciated parts of Central and Western Europe. DNA flow cytometry was used together with confirmatory chromosome counts to determine ploidy levels and relative genome sizes in 1158 individuals from 181 populations. A formalized analysis of habitat preferences was applied to explore niche differentiation among species and ploidy levels. The G. pusillum complex evolved at diploid and tetraploid levels in Northern Europe, in contrast to the high-polyploid evolution of most other northern endemics. A high level of eco-geographic segregation was observed between different species (particularly along gradients of soil pH and competition) which is unusual for plants in deglaciated areas and most probably contributes to maintaining species integrity. Relative monoploid DNA contents of the species from previously glaciated regions were significantly lower than those of their counterparts from mostly unglaciated Central Europe, suggesting independent evolutionary histories. The aggregate of G. pusillum in Northern Europe represents an exceptional case with a geographically vicariant and ecologically distinct diploid/tetraploid species endemic to formerly glaciated areas. The high level of interspecific differentiation substantially widens our perception of the evolutionary dynamics and speciation rates in the

  19. Genetic effects of recent habitat fragmentation in the Thousand-Island Lake region of southeast China on the distylous herb Hedyotis chrysotricha (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Na; Comes, Hans Peter; Mao, Yun-Rui; Qi, Xin-Shuai; Qiu, Ying-Xiong

    2012-10-01

    Known-age artificial-lake islands provide ideal model systems to elucidate the genetic and evolutionary consequences of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on very recent time scales. Here, we studied a distylous herb, Hedyotis chrysotricha (Rubiaceae), in the artificially created Thousand-Island Lake (TIL) region of southeast China to explore the genetic consequences of islanding for this species. • Seven microsatellite loci were used to genotype 384 individuals of H. chrysotricha from 18 populations to estimate genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic parameters. • Island populations had significantly lower mean genetic diversity than those from the western/eastern mainland (e.g., H(E) = 0.381 vs. 0.461) and also displayed higher mean subdivision (F(ST) = 0.12 vs. 0.042/0.051). BayesAss analyses indicated moderate levels of migration rates among most populations, whereas Bottleneck did not provide strong evidence for such effects. In consequence, 2MOD strongly favored a gene flow-drift model over a pure drift model in the study area, but concomitantly revealed a relatively greater influence of drift in the island populations as evidenced by their significantly higher probabilities of allelic coancestry (F = 0.184 vs. 0.085). • The observed genetic patterns in H. chrysotricha indicate that recent anthropogenic habitat fragmentation in the TIL region can lead to significant loss of genetic diversity in isolated fragments (islands) due to ongoing drift. By contrast, patterns of random mating, gene flow, and population connectivity have not greatly been modified yet, possibly owing to the species' fruit (seed) dispersal capabilities providing resilience in the face of habitat fragmentation.

  20. Diversity and endemism in deglaciated areas: ploidy, relative genome size and niche differentiation in the Galium pusillum complex (Rubiaceae) in Northern and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolář, Filip; Lučanová, Magdalena; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fér, Tomáš; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants endemic to areas covered by ice sheets during the last glaciation represent paradigmatic examples of rapid speciation in changing environments, yet very few systems outside the harsh arctic zone have been comprehensively investigated so far. The Galium pusillum aggregate (Rubiaceae) is a challenging species complex that exhibits a marked differentiation in boreal parts of Northern Europe. As a first step towards understanding its evolutionary history in deglaciated regions, this study assesses cytological variation and ecological preferences of the northern endemics and compares the results with corresponding data for species occurring in neighbouring unglaciated parts of Central and Western Europe. Methods DNA flow cytometry was used together with confirmatory chromosome counts to determine ploidy levels and relative genome sizes in 1158 individuals from 181 populations. A formalized analysis of habitat preferences was applied to explore niche differentiation among species and ploidy levels. Key Results The G. pusillum complex evolved at diploid and tetraploid levels in Northern Europe, in contrast to the high-polyploid evolution of most other northern endemics. A high level of eco-geographic segregation was observed between different species (particularly along gradients of soil pH and competition) which is unusual for plants in deglaciated areas and most probably contributes to maintaining species integrity. Relative monoploid DNA contents of the species from previously glaciated regions were significantly lower than those of their counterparts from mostly unglaciated Central Europe, suggesting independent evolutionary histories. Conclusions The aggregate of G. pusillum in Northern Europe represents an exceptional case with a geographically vicariant and ecologically distinct diploid/tetraploid species endemic to formerly glaciated areas. The high level of interspecific differentiation substantially widens our perception of the

  1. Pollen morphology of Rubiaceae Juss. species occurring in an area of caatinga (dryland vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil Morfologia polínica de espécies de Rubiaceae ocorrentes em uma área de caatinga no estado da Bahia, Brasil

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    Cristiano Eduardo Amaral Silveira Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The palynology of the following 16 species of Rubiaceae, from Brejinho das Amestistas, was investigated: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigida Kunth, Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart., Richardia grandiflora Steud., Staelia aurea K. Schum., and Staelia galioides DC. The pollen grains were acetolysed to and their morphological characters were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy. They varied in size from small to large; were suboblate to subprolate; inaperturate (P. rigida, colpate and colporate in the remaining species, with an aperture number that varied from three to several. The exines were microreticulate in most species, reticulate (C. hirsutum, C. rigida and P. rigida, bireticulate (D. fruticosa, microechinate-perforated (C. hexandra, echinate-granulate (R. grandiflora, echinate-granulate-perforate (D. apiculata and D. teres, and psilate (P. asparagoides. Based on the results, palynological data can be used to distinguish these species.Rubiaceae foi representada na flora de Brejinho das Ametistas por dezesseis espécies, as quais foram tratadas palinologicamente no presente estudo: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigida Kunth, Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart., Richardia grandiflora Steud., Staelia aurea K. Schum., Staelia galioides

  2. Studies on the Asian sawflies of Formosempria Takeuchi (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, with notes on the suitability of F. varipes Takeuchi as a biological control agent for skunk vine, Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae in Florida

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    David Smith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Formosempria Takeuchi, 1929, is distributed in southeastern Asia from Taiwan and China to Vietnam, Myanmar, and possibly northern India. Three species are included: F. crassicornis Wei & Nie, 2002, F. shanensis Malaise, 1961, and F. varipes Takeuchi, 1929 (= F. annamensis Malaise, 1961, syn. n.; = F. metallica Wei, 2003, syn. n.. Formosempria varipes was reared from larvae feeding on Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae in Hong Kong and was a potential biological agent for the invasive P. foetida in Florida. Larval feeding tests indicate more than one species of Paederia are suitable hosts for F. varipes and further study for use as a biological control agent in Florida is unwarranted. Descriptions and illustration of the species are given, and life history notes on F. varipes are presented.

  3. The effects of sooty mold on photosynthesis and mesophyll structure of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King., Meliaceae Efeitos da fumagina sobre a fotossíntese e a estrutura do mesofilo de mogno

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    José Pires de Lemos Filho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of the sooty mold on anatomy and photochemical activity of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla leaves. The photochemical features of shade-developed leaves with or without sooty mold were compared to those of sun leaves using chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. Leaf anatomy was also evaluated using conventional techniques. The degree of blockage of the photosynthetic active photon flux density (PPFD by sooty mold and its effect on photochemistry were evaluated. Sun leaves showed thick mesophyll with palisade parenchyma disposed in a uniseriate layer, whereas shade leaves showed narrow mesophyll, independently of sooty mold presence. The effective quantum yield (deltaF/Fm' and the apparent electron transport rate (ETR of sun leaves were higher than those of shade leaves. The values of ETR suggested that photochemistry saturation occurred at lower PPFD in shade-grown plants. Lower values of the deltaF/Fm' and, consequently, lower values of ETR were observed in leaves with sooty mold. A reduction of 40% of the incident light was seen due to physical blockage by sooty mold which is presumably responsible for an additional decrease of ETR values. Our data indicated that sooty mold did not directly damage the leaf, but reduce leaf photochemistry capacity, by decreasing light availability.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da fumagina na anatomia e a atividade fotoquímica em folhas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King., Meliaceae. Folhas com e sem fumagina desenvolvidas na sombra foram comparadas com as de folhas de sol, para verificar as diferenças em parâmetros fotoquímicos utilizando-se medidas de fluorescência. As amostras de folhas destinadas a estudos anatômicos foram processadas segundo técnicas convencionais. A intensidade de bloqueio da radiação densidade de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos (DFFA pela fumagina e seu efeito sobre a atividade fotoquímica foram

  4. Avaliação agronômica da rebrota, dinâmica de decomposição e liberação de nutrientes de flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr.

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    Alexandre Porto Salmi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla é uma leguminosa arbustiva, de origem asiática, pouco explorada no Brasil. Em vista disso, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a biomassa da rebrota da espécie, a acumulação de nitrogênio na parte aérea e a decomposição e liberação de nutrientes de folhas e caules de flemingia. Para ambos os experimentos, o delineamento adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. A espécie apresenta excelente capacidade de rebrotar, sendo que os cortes executados a 1,2 m do nível do solo produziram mais de 34 Mg de matéria seca em nove cortes, realizados durante o experimento, equivalendo a 804 kg N ha-1, superando os demais tratamentos, que consistiam em cortes a 0,6 m de altura que produziram 29 Mg MS ha-1, acumulando 691 kg N ha-1, seguido dos cortes a 0,3 m com 18 Mg MS ha-1 , acumulando 329 kg N ha-1 e por fim o corte a 0,0 m, ou seja, ao nível do solo, que produziu 16 Mg MS ha-1, com acúmulo de 211 kg N ha-1. O tempo de meia vida (T1/2 da decomposição foi de 91, 95 e 97 dias para folha, caule, e, caule mais folha, respectivamente. A liberação de N, P, Ca e Mg seguiu o mesmo padrão da decomposição; já o K foi liberado em taxa mais acelerada.

  5. In silico analysis reveals widespread presence of three gene families, MAPK, MAPKK and MAPKKK, of the MAPK cascade from crop plants of Solanaceae in comparison to the distantly-related syntenic species from Rubiaceae, coffee

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    Hira Iftikhar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are an important family of genes which play roles in vital plant processes, and they also help in coping against various kinds of environmental stresses including abiotic as well as biotic factors. The advancement of genomics calls for the annotation, identification, and detailed processing of the essential gene families in plants in order to provide insights into the importance of their central roles as well as for providing the basis for making their growth vigorous even under stressed conditions and, ultimately, to benefit from them by foreseeing the potential threats to their growth. In the current study, MAPK, MAPKK, and MAPKKK families of the MAPK cascade were identified and reported from five different agriculturally and economically important crop species of the Solanaceae and Rubiaceae families based on conserved signature motifs aligned throughout the members of the families under this gene superfamily. Genes reported from the species after strict filtering were: 89, tomato; 108, potato; 63, eggplant; 79, pepper; 64, coffee. These MAPKs were found to be randomly distributed throughout the genome on the chromosomes of the respective species. Various characteristics of the identified genes were studied including gene structure, gene and coding sequence length, protein length, isoelectric point, molecular weight, and subcellular localization. Moreover, maximum likelihood test of phylogeny was conducted on the retrieved sequences for the three MAPK cascade families to determine their homologous relationships which were also analyzed quantitatively by heat plots.

  6. Germinação de sementes de jenipapo: temperatura, substrato e morfologia do desenvolvimento pós-seminal Seed germination of Genipa americana l. - rubiaceae: temperature, substrate and post-seminal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO CARLOS SILVA DE ANDRADE

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos definir o tipo de substrato e a temperatura mais adequados à germinação de sementes de jenipapo (Genipa americana L., conhecer a morfologia das sementes e seu desenvolvimento pós-seminal, caracterizando as plântulas normais, o tipo de germinação e os padrões de anormalidade. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento colocando-se as sementes sobre os seguintes substratos: papel, vermiculita e solo, nas temperaturas constantes de 20°C, 25°C, 30°C, e 35°C e alternada de 20°C-30°C. O delineamento estatístico empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado (5 x 3, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Foram analisados os parâmetros germinação normal (% e velocidade de germinação. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos nas temperaturas constantes de 25°C, 30°C e 35°C, e nos substratos vermiculita e solo.This study aimed to define the best substrate and temperature for germination of genipap (Genipa americana L. - Rubiaceae seeds, and to describe the morphology of its seeds, post-seminal development, normal and abnormal seedlings. The experiment was designed according to a 5 x 3 factorial with constant temperatures of 20°C, 25°C, 30°C and 35°C and alternated 20°C-30°C in filter paper, vermiculite and soil substrates. The following parameters were analyzed: normal percentage germination and speed of germination. The 25°C, 30°C and 35°C temperatures and vermiculite and soil substrates were the best conditions for seed germination.

  7. Bacteria Species Associated with Ugba ( Pentaclethra macrophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative estimation of pentose and hexose sugars which are product of hydrolysis of galacto-oligosaccharide content of the test legume reduced from 1158 ppm – 346.4 ppm and 588 ppm – 516 ppm respectively. Greater loss was observed after boiling of LPU (564 and 486 mg/l) on comparison to TPU (94 and 10 mg/l) ...

  8. Plant Guide: Cutleaf balsamroot: Balsamorhiza macrophylla Nutt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren St. John; Derek Tilley

    2012-01-01

    Livestock and big game utilize cutleaf balsamroot. It is moderately palatable to grazing animals during the spring and early summer but has low protein content (Walter, 2007). Leaves are grazed lightly and flowers are often eaten. Horses are especially fond of the flowers (Plants of Utah, Online). The plant becomes dry and worthless as forage by midsummer (Forest...

  9. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Uncaria (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzman, Mary E; Neto, Catherine C; Winiarz, Elizabeth; Vaisberg, Abraham J; Hammond, Gerald B

    2005-01-01

    The Uncaria genus is an important source of medicinal natural products, particularly alkaloids and triterpenes. The collected information is an attempt to cover the more recent developments in the ethnobotany, pharmacology and phytochemistry of this genus. During the past 20 years, alkaloids, terpenes, quinovic acid glycosides, flavonoids and coumarins have been isolated from Uncaria. Fifty-three novel structures are reported in this review. The species in which the largest number of compounds has been identified is the Peruvian Uncaria tomentosa or 'cat's claw.' Pharmacological studies are described according to cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, immunostimulation, antioxidant, CNS-related response, vascular, hypotensive, mutagenicity and antibacterial properties. The potential for development of leads from Uncaria continues to grow, particularly in the area of immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and vascular-related conditions. The information summarized here is intended to serve as a reference tool to practitioners in the fields of ethnopharmacology and natural products chemistry.

  10. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Young, Maria Claudia Marx

    2005-01-01

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-β-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  11. Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Azlan S. Tengku Mohamad

    Full Text Available Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth. Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabradisplays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and hytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra

  12. Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae); Terpenos isolados de Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francieli Casassa Vieira de; Marques, Fabio Goncalves; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: smoliveira@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia; Zamuner, Maria Lucilia Motinha [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia; Souza, Maria Conceicao de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated. (author)

  13. Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidilhone Hamerski

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

  14. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae); Saponinas triterpenicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2005-07-15

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-{beta}-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  15. Economics of oil bean ( Pentaclethra macrophylla ), seed marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the economics of oil bean marketing in Owerri agricultural zone of Imo state. Forty- five marketers oil bean marketers were randomly selected from three markets of the study area. Primary data were collected using structural questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using statistical tools such as ...

  16. Effects of aqueous extracts of Zanthoxylum macrophylla roots on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood viscosity studies indicated a decrease in viscosity of the HbSS blood by the aqueous extract and this reduction was significantly different (p<0.05) from that for HbAA and HbAS bloods. The plant extract also showed pronounced reversion of 2% sodium metabisulphite-induced sickling, an effect also observed with ...

  17. LIMING AND FERTILIZING FOR MAHOGANI (Switenia macrophylla King. SEEDLING FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of seedlings is one of the most important phases of the cultivation of forest species. Seedlings ofappropriate quality are fundamental in the growth and development of the species. In the production of seedlings, the substratum isfundamental for the good development of the plants. However, the subsoil in general, is acid and it contains low levels of nutritious.The acidity of the soil and the deficiency of nutrients can be corrected through liming and mineral fertilization. The objective of thepresent work was to evaluate the effect of liming and of the fertilization of the soil for the production of mahogany seedlings. Theexperiment was carried out in the period of 120 days, in the Federal University of Amazonas, UFAM. The experimental design wasrandomized complete blocks with statistical analysis in split plot. The plots were composed with eight treatments and four repetitionsand the subplots were eight sampling times of the plants. The treatments were control (natural soil, liming, corrective phosphate,fertilizing with NPK, liming + corrective phosphate, corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK, liming + fertilizing with NPK andliming + corrective phosphate + fertilizing with NPK. It was concluded that the associated liming and corrective phosphate and withthe fertilizing with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium promoted the smallest levels of exchangeable aluminum and the largestlevels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium in the soil. These levels of nutrients in the soil caused larger levels ofnutrients in the plants, providing larger growth rate. The liming, corrective phosphate and fertilizing are a fundamental practices inthe formation of mahogany seedlings.

  18. Borreria sect. Pseudodiodia (Rubiaceae taxonomic and palynological contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa L. Cabral

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy and palynology of the genus Borreria G. Mey. section Pseudodiodia Hassl. are updated. Four species are added to the section, three of them are described and illustrated, raising to ten the number of taxa included in it. Two of them live in Galapagos (B. suberecta Hook. f. and B. dispersa Hook. f. and the other (B. decipiens K. Schum. and B. tocantinsiana E. L. Cabral & Bacigalupo grow in Brazil. Pollen grains of these species were examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The continental species present the typical pollen characteristics of Pseudodiodia (long colpi and tectatespinulate exine, whereas pollen produced by species living in Galapagos have variations in the exine.

  19. Cinchona anderssonii (Rubiaceae), a new overlooked species from Bolivia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Persson, Claes; Albán, Joaquina

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona anderssonii, a new species from the Yungas forests of the Andes in Bolivia, is described and illustrated. It is unique in Cinchona by having the combination of elliptic leaf blades glossy above, distinct circular pit domatia at secondary vein axils, basipetally dehiscent capsules......, and relatively large seeds (8–11 mm long). A taxonomic key for the identification of the Cinchona species occurring in Bolivia is presented....

  20. Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Francieli Casassa Vieira de; Marques, Fabio Goncalves; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Zamuner, Maria Lucilia Motinha; Souza, Maria Conceicao de

    2009-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated. (author)

  1. Two new species of Morinda (Rubiaceae) from Sumatra and Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suratman,

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Morinda from Sumatra and Borneo, M. lanuginosa and M. wongiana, are described and illustrated. The morphological comparison of the new taxa with similar species in the genus is also discussed.

  2. A new species of Coelospermum (Rubiaceae) from New Caledonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    Affinis C. monticoli Baillon ex Guill. sed vulgo fruticosa foliis crassis, plerumque retusis vel emarginatis, calycibus brevibus. – Frutex ad 3 m altus, raro scandens ad 7 m altus. Stipulae 1,3- 4,1 mm longae. Folia 2 ad nodos. Petiolus 3-31 mm longus. Lamina 2,3-15 cm longa, 1-7 cm lata, oblonga

  3. The Wood Anatomy of Rubiaceae tribes Anthospermeae and Paederieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Puff, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed wood anatomical descriptions are given for the genera Anthospermum, Nenax, Phyllis, Carpacoce, Coprosma, Neogaillonia, Crocyllis, Plocama and Spermadictyon, and miscellaneous wood anatomical data on the genera Normandia, Pomax, Opercularia, Leptodermis and Aitchisonia. The wood anatomical

  4. The wood anatomy of Gardenieae, Ixoreae and Mussaendeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, Jifke

    1972-01-01

    The tribe Gardenieae in the restricted delimitation proposed by Bremekamp and Verdcourt is wood anatomically homogeneous. The genera of the Ixoreae studied by me also agree with each other in wood structure. Within the tribe Mussaendeae in the delimitation accepted by Schumann the wood anatomy shows

  5. Cognitive-enhancing properties of Morinda lucida (Rubiaceae) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda lucida and Peltophorum pterocarpum ameliorated scopolamine induced memory deficit in the animals under study. There was no effect of the extract on the histology of the hippocampus. However, there was an increase in the density of cells in the hippocampus of treated group ...

  6. Characterization of 10 Microsatellite Loci for Bathysa australis (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita S. Reis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Bathysa australis is a common subcanopy tree from the Atlantic Forest that is pollinated by bees and wasps and produces autochoric seeds. This species exhibits great phenotypic plasticity along the elevational gradient of Serra do Mar in southeastern Brazil. We expect to assess the genetic diversity and gene flow between populations of this species along the elevational gradient. Methods and Results: We developed a microsatellite-enriched genomic library for B. australis, and 10 microsatellite loci were successfully amplified, ranging from one to 13 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.333 to 0.900 (average: 0.629 and 0.564 to 0.900 (average: 0.742, respectively. Conclusions: These are the first microsatellite markers developed for the genus Bathysa and may be useful in other species of the Condamineeae tribe. These primers will be an important tool for studies of population ecology and conservation genetics.

  7. Terpenos isolados de Coussarea platyphylla Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Casassa Vieira de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and esteroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated.

  8. Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral and Bacigalupo (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Wagner Marques de; Santos, Daniela Pereira dos; Santini, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de; Foglio, Mary Ann [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-05-15

    The paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, b-sitosterol and 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines. (author)

  9. Levantamento florístico das tribos Psychotrieae, Coussareeae e Morindeae (Rubiaceae na região de Porto Rico, alto rio Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4474 Flora survey of tribes Psychotrieae, Coussareeae and Morindeae in the region of Porto Rico, high river Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4474

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição de Souza

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A elevada diversidade florística das regiões tropicais torna-as importantes na busca de novas fontes fitoterápicas e alimentícias, fazendo dos levantamentos florísticos importantes estudos para a ampliação do conhecimento dessa fitodiversidade. Este trabalho foi elaborado buscando ampliar o conhecimento da flora do alto rio Paraná, em especial das tribos Psychotrieae, Coussareeae e Morindeae da família Rubiaceae. A área deste estudo localiza-se a aproximadamente 22º41’-22º51’S e 53º12’-53º28’W, abrangendo parte dos Estados do Paraná e do Mato Grosso do Sul. Coletas de material botânico foram realizadas durante os anos de 1992 a 1995, tendo sido elaboradas chaves de identificação, descrições e ilustrações das espécies. Foram levantados quatro gêneros e seis espécies, Palicourea (P. crocea, Psychotria (P. carthagenensis e P. leiocarpa, Coussarea (C. contracta e C. platyphylla e Cephalanthus (C. glabratus.The great diversity of flora in tropical regions transforms them into very important food and phytotherapy sources. Flora surveys are indispensable for a profounder knowledge of this biodiversity. Research work aimed at improving knowledge on the flora of the high river Paraná with special emphasis to the tribes Psychotrieae, Coussareeae and Morindeae. The area lies in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul at 22º41’-22º51’S and 53º12’-53º28’W. Botanic samplings were carried out from 1992 to 1995 and species identification keys, description and illustrations were elaborated. Four genera and six species were surveyed, or rather, Palicourea (P. crocea, Psychotria (P. carthagenensis and P. leiocarpa, Coussarea (C. contracta and C. platyphylla and Cephalanthus (C. glabratus.

  10. Fructification phenology as an important tool in the recovery of iron mining areas in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L C; Barros, F V; Lemos-Filho, J P

    2009-08-01

    'Canga' is a name given to the ferruginous rocky fields that can be found in the 'Quadrilátero Ferrífero' of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The endemism and species richness make them areas of special biological importance, regarded as high-priority for conservation. Nevertheless, they are being threatened by intense mining activity. Aiming to understand more about this flora, this study was performed in order to determine the maturation or dispersal period of the fruits of four Canga species, Alibertia vaccinioides K.Schum. (Rubiaceae), Coccoloba acrostichoides Cham. (Polygonaceae), Miconia sellowiana Naudin (Melastomataceae), and one probable new species of Calyptranthes Sw. (Myrtaceae). Although fruit maturation or dispersal tended to occur at the end of the dry season, some asynchrony was observed in these species, with food sources being available during most of the year. This shows that these species have the potential to attract animals the whole year round, and planting them for the recovery of iron mining areas may increase the community's self-regeneration capacity, leading to a more successful restoration process.

  11. Fructification phenology as an important tool in the recovery of iron mining areas in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC. Garcia

    Full Text Available "Canga" is a name given to the ferruginous rocky fields that can be found in the "Quadrilátero Ferrífero" of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The endemism and species richness make them areas of special biological importance, regarded as high-priority for conservation. Nevertheless, they are being threatened by intense mining activity. Aiming to understand more about this flora, this study was performed in order to determine the maturation or dispersal period of the fruits of four Canga species, Alibertia vaccinioides K.Schum. (Rubiaceae, Coccoloba acrostichoides Cham. (Polygonaceae, Miconia sellowiana Naudin (Melastomataceae, and one probable new species of Calyptranthes Sw. (Myrtaceae. Although fruit maturation or dispersal tended to occur at the end of the dry season, some asynchrony was observed in these species, with food sources being available during most of the year. This shows that these species have the potential to attract animals the whole year round, and planting them for the recovery of iron mining areas may increase the community's self-regeneration capacity, leading to a more successful restoration process.

  12. Exigências nutricionais e crescimento de plantas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King. Nutritional requirements and growth of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacilda Adélia Sampaio de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de desenvolver pesquisas referentes aos requerimentos nutricionais das espécies florestais, principalmente as essências florestais nativas da Amazônia, como o mogno, é inadiável, visto que as constantes explorações de espécies de alto valor econômico são cada vez maiores. Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e o requerimento nutricional de mudas de mogno, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação com 14 tratamentos. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualisados, com 5 repetições. As características de crescimento avaliadas foram: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro de colo, matéria seca da parte aérea, da raiz e total, relação raiz e parte aérea e conteúdo de nutrientes da matéria seca da parte aérea. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que: é necessária a correção conjunta da acidez e da fertilidade do solo para solos ácidos e de baixa fertilidade natural, mesmo que o teor de matéria orgânica seja considerado alto; dos nutrientes, P é o que mais limita o desenvolvimento da planta, bem como a absorção dos outros nutrientes; não há necessidade de adição de K para o desenvolvimento das plantas quando se realiza calagem; na ausência de calagem a adição de K deve ser recomendada e o requerimento nutricional do mogno em macronutrientes obedece à ordem decrescente de: P>S>K>N.The need for developing research related principally to the nutritional requirements of essential native Amazonian forest species, such as mahogany, is urgent, since the exploration of highly valuable species is continually more frequent. With the objective of evaluating the growth and the nutritional requirement of mahogany plants, an experiment in a vegetation house with 14 treatments was undertaken. The experiment outline was of occasional blocks with 5 repetitions. The growth characteristics evaluated were: height of the aerial part, diameter of the bottom, dry material of the aerial part, root and total, relationship of root and aerial part, relationship and nutrient content of dry material of the aerial part. The results lead to the conclusion that: the conjoint correction of acidity and the fertility of the soil for acid soils and low natural fertility is necessary even if the content of the organic material is considered high; of the nutrients, P is the one which limits most the development of the plant, as well as the absorption of other nutrients; there is no need to add K for developing the plants when liming occurs.; addition of K is recommended when liming does not occur; and the nutritional requirement of mahogany in macronutrients obeys the decreasing order of P>S>K.N.

  13. Constituintes químicos de Galianthe brasiliensis (RUBIACEAE Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng. E.L.Cabral & Bacigalupo (RUBIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Marques de Moura

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and 3-O-beta-glycopiranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines.

  14. Extractive and anatomical wood structure effects on mechanical properties of Caoba wood (Swietenia macrophylla King)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo Fuentes Rosven Libardo; Hernandez Roger

    2008-01-01

    The compression tangential to grain of samples of mahogany wood from Peru was examined at different relative humidity levels at 25 Celsius degrade to determine the influence of both extractives and anatomical structure. Matched samples were used to assess the percentage of extractive components by extraction with solvents of increasing polarity: cyclohexane, dichloromethane, acetone, methanol and hot water. Additionally, fourteen anatomical parameters were determined by image analysis. Stepwise regression analysis concluded that mainly anatomical features, such as rays and vessels, rather than extractives, affect the mechanical behaviour of mahogany. These findings are agree with earlier results showing a negative effect of large and multiseriate rays on the mechanical properties of wood when loaded perpendicularly to their long axis. The influence of lumen located extracts soluble in dichloromethane might disallow deformations. Finally, it is postulated that hot water extracts may play a plasticizing role in this species.

  15. Physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla) kernel oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaby, M.; Amza, T.; Onivogui, G.; Zou, X.Q.; Jin, Q.Z.

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of oils extracted from gingerbread plum kernels grown in two different areas (Niger and Guinea). The oil contents were found to be significantly different (P = 0.05); 56% and 60% for gingerbread plum kernels originated from Niger (GPKN) and guinea (GPKG), respectively. GPKG showed the highest levels for physical parameters such as iodine, saponification, free fatty acid, acid and peroxide values when compared with GPKN. The major monounsaturated fatty acid in both GPKN and GPKG was oleic acid (42.46 and 41.43%, respectively) while the polyunsaturated fatty acids consisted of linoleic and arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid was at higher levels (17.67 and 21.72% in GPKN and GPKG, respectively) than those in common vegetable oils. Results from antioxidant activity essays showed that GPKG is more active than GPKN in DPPH radical scavenging, ß-carotene and phenolic contents while GPKN showed the highest values for reducing power and flavonoid. Of the 11 sterol compounds found in this study, 24-hydroxy-24-methyl cholesterol, clerosterol and sitosterol accounted for 68.5% and 66.33% in GPKN and GPKG, respectively. Finally, all tocopherol vitamers (except ?-tocopherol) were present in GPKN and GPKG with a-tocopherol being the main element in both samples. (Author)

  16. Nutritional and functional characteristics of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla: an underutilized oilseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou, H. M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The In-vitro protein digestibility, protein nutritional quality and functional characteristics (protein solubility, water/oil binding capacity, emulsifying capacity and foaming capacity of gingerbread plum and peanut seed flour were studied. Among the nutritional parameters, the proportion of essential amino acids to total amino acids (E/T, amino acid scores (AAS and protein efficiency ratio (PER were studied. Defatted gingerbread plum seed meal (DGPSM showed a high nutritional quality with PER and AAS values of 2.35 and 65.53 respectively. The solubility profile of DGPSM was similar to that of defatted peanut meal (DPM, with minimum solubility observed at pH 4 and maximum solubility at pH 10 and higher. Water and oil holding capacities were 3.01 and 3.12; 2.96 and 3.11 g/g for DGPSM and DPM respectively. DGPSM showed good foaming capacity (145 mL /100 mL and stability (110 mL /100 mL even after 60 min at room temperature. The emulsifying capacity of DGPSM was 29%. Bulk densities were 0.30 and 0.28 g/mL for DGPSM and DPM respectively. Finally, DGPSM was easily hydrolyzed by trypsin in vitro. These results show that DGPSM has functional properties that may find applications in the food industry.La digestibilidad de proteínas in vitro, la calidad nutricional de proteínas y las características funcionales (solubilidad de proteínas, capacidad de enlace agua/aceite, capacidad emulsionante y capacidad espumante de harina de semillas de ciruela de pan de jengibre y de cacahuete fueron estudiadas. Entre los parámetros nutricionales, la relación aminoácidos esenciales/aminoácidos totales (E/T, el perfil de aminoácidos (AAS y el coeficiente de eficacia proteica (PER fueron estudiadas. Harina de semillas de ciruela de pan de jengibre (DGPSM mostraron una alta calidad nutricional con unos valores de PER y de AAS de 2.35 y 65.53 respectivamente. El perfil de solubilidad de DGPSM fue similar al de la harina desengrasada de cacahuete (DPM, con una mínima solubilidad observada a pH 4 y un máximo de solubilidad a pH 10 y superior. Las capacidad de retención de agua y de aceite fueron 3.01 y 3.12; 2.96 y 3.11 g/g para DGPSM y DPM respectivamente. DGPSM mostró una buena capacidad espumante (145 mL /100 mL and estabilidad (110 mL /100 mL incluso después de 60 min a temperatura ambiente. La capacidad emulsionante de DGPSM fue del 29%. Las densidades fueron 0.30 y 0.28 g/ml para DGPSM y DPM respectivamente. Por último, DGPSM fue fácilmente hidrolizado por tripsina in vitro. Estos resultados mostraron que DGPSM tienen propiedades funcionales que pueden encontrar aplicación en la industria alimentaria.

  17. Big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla population dynamics and implications for sustainable management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; R. Matthew Landis; Christopher M. Free; Mark D. Schulze; Marco Lentini; Mark S. Ashton

    2014-01-01

    Summary 1. The impacts of selective harvesting in tropical forests on population recovery and future timber yields by high-value species remain largely unknown for lack of demographic data spanning all phases of life history, from seed to senescence. In this study, we use an individual- based model parameterized using 15 years of annual census data to simulate...

  18. Isolation and Antimicrobial Activity of Flavonoid Compounds from Mahagony Seeds (Swietenia macrophylla, King)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursiti, S.; Supartono

    2017-02-01

    Flavonoid is one of the secondary metabolites compounds in mahogany seeds. Mahogany seeds can be used as an antimicrobial. This study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of flavonoid compounds from mahogany seeds against Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Bacillus cereus (B.cereus). Isolation of flavonoid compounds done step by step. First, the maceration using n-hexane, then with methanol. The methanol extract was dissolved in ethyl acetate and aquadest, then separated. Ethyl acetate extract evaporated Flavonoid compounds were. The testing of antimicrobial activity of flavonoid compounds using the absorption method. The results showed that the antimicrobial activity of flavonoid compounds from mahogany seeds shows the inhibitory activity and provide clear zone against bacteria E.coli with value Inhibitory Regional Diameter 18.50 mm respectively, and 14.50 mm to the bacteria. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that flavonoid compounds from mahogany seeds have antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.cereus.

  19. Phylogeny Predicts the Quantity of Antimalarial Alkaloids within the Iconic Yellow Cinchona Bark (Rubiaceae: Cinchona calisaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Carla; Barnes, Christopher J.; Cornett, Claus; Holmfred, Else; Hansen, Steen H.; Persson, Claes; Antonelli, Alexandre; Rønsted, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Considerable inter- and intraspecific variation with respect to the quantity and composition of plant natural products exists. The processes that drive this variation remain largely unknown. Understanding which factors determine chemical diversity has the potential to shed light on plant defenses against herbivores and diseases and accelerate drug discovery. For centuries, Cinchona alkaloids were the primary treatment of malaria. Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated genetic profiles of leaf samples from four plastid (trnL-F, matK, rps16, and ndhF) and one nuclear (ITS) DNA regions from twenty-two C. calisaya stands sampled in the Yungas region of Bolivia. Climatic and soil parameters were characterized and bark samples were analyzed for content of the four major alkaloids using HPLC-UV to explore the utility of evolutionary history (phylogeny) in determining variation within species of these compounds under natural conditions. A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the content of two out of four major Cinchona alkaloids (quinine and cinchonidine) and their total content. Climatic parameters, primarily driven by changing altitude, predicted 20.2% of the overall alkaloid variation, and geographical separation accounted for a further 9.7%. A clade of high alkaloid producing trees was identified that spanned a narrow range of altitudes, from 1,100 to 1,350 m. However, climate expressed by altitude was not a significant driver when accounting for phylogeny, suggesting that the chemical diversity is primarily driven by phylogeny. Comparisons of the relative effects of both environmental and genetic variability in determining plant chemical diversity have scarcely been performed at the genotypic level. In this study we demonstrate there is an essential need to do so if the extensive genotypic variation in plant biochemistry is to be fully understood. PMID:28382048

  20. Effects of simulated acid rain on leaf anatomy and micromorphology of Genipa americana L. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Francisco Sant'Anna-Santos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in order to characterize the injuries on leaf structure and micromorphology of G. americana and evaluate the degree of susceptibility of this species to simulated acid rain. Plants were exposed to acid rain (pH 3.0 for ten consecutive days. Control plants were submitted only to distilled water (pH 6.0. Leaf tissue was sampled and fixed for light and scanning electron microscopy. Necrotic interveinal spots on the leaf blade occurred. Epidermis and mesophyll cells collapse, hypertrophy of spongy parenchyma cells, accumulation of phenolic compounds and starch grains were observed in leaves exposed to acid rain. The micromorphological analysis showed, in necrotic areas, plasmolized guard cells and cuticle rupture. Epidermal and mesophyll cells alterations occurred before symptoms were visualized in the leaves. These results showed the importance of anatomical data for precocious diagnosis injury and to determine the sensitivity of G. americana to acid rain.Experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o grau de susceptibilidade e determinar as injúrias causadas pela chuva ácida simulada na anatomia e micromorfologia foliar de Genipa americana. Plantas foram expostas à chuva com pH 3,0 durante 10 dias consecutivos. No tratamento controle utilizou-se apenas água destilada (pH 6,0. Amostras foliares foram coletadas e fixadas para microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Foram observados nas folhas expostas à chuva ácida: necroses pontuais intervenais, colapso das células do mesofilo e da epiderme; hipertrofia do parênquima lacunoso e acúmulo de compostos fenólicos e grãos de amido. A análise micromorfológica evidenciou, nas áreas necrosadas, plasmólise das células-guarda e ruptura da cutícula e da crista estomática. Alterações anatômicas ocorreram antes que sintomas visuais fossem observados nas folhas. Estes resultados comprovam a importância de dados anatômicos na diagnose precoce da injúria e na determinação da sensibilidade de G. americana à chuva ácida.

  1. Kaempferitrin from Uncaria guianensis (Rubiaceae) and its potential as a chemical marker for the species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, Ligia M.M.; Liechocki, Sally; Barboza, Rodolfo S.; Paixao, Djavan da; Bizarri, Carlos H.B.; Almeida, M. Beatriz S.; Benevides, Paulo J.C.; Siani, Antonio C.; Magalhaes, Alvicler

    2009-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. and U. guianensis (Aubl.) Gmel., known as cat's claw, are large woody vines native to the Amazonian and Central American rain forests. The species contain, in different proportions, indole and oxindole alkaloids, triterpenoid glycosides, sterols and proanthocyanidins. U. tomentosa can be chemically identified by its oxindole alkaloid profile and content, whereas U. guianensis has no satisfactorily established chemical markers. This work describes, for the first time, the isolation of kaempferol-3,7-O-(a)-dirhamnoside (kaempferitrin) in Uncaria species. Screening for this compound in leaves, stems or bark of both species through TLC and HPLC-DAD-MS showed the presence of kaempferitrin only in the leaves and stems of U. guianensis, at a ratio almost thirty six times greater in the leaves than in the stems. These results reveal the selectivity of U. guianensis to produce this bioactive flavonoid glycoside, and suggest this compound as a potential chemical marker for the species.(author)

  2. Reproductive studies in ipecac (Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. stockes; Rubiaceae: pollen development and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out the reproductive studies on Brazilian accessions of ipecac, Psychotria ipecacuanha. It presented heterostyly, with brevistylous and longistylous flowers. The pollen development was observed from the sections of the anthers embedded in resin. Anther development was normal as usually observed in dicotyledones, displaying four layers: outer epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and inner tapetum. The pollen was bicellular and filled with starch at the microspore stage. Pollen morphology was studied using SEM, which showed pollen polymorphism within and between the two floral morphs. Five types of pollen with reticulate or perforate exine were identified. The characteristics showed that the sexual process was as important as the vegetative propagation for the reproduction of this species.Foram realizados estudos reprodutivos em acessos brasileiros de poaia, Psychotria ipecacuanha. Poaia apresenta heterostilia, com flores brevistilas e longistilas. O desenvolvimento do pólen foi estudado em cortes de anteras embebidas em resina. O desenvolvimento da antera seguiu o padrão normal para as dicotiledôneas, a qual apresentou quatro camadas: epiderme, endotécio, camada média, e tapete, a mais interna. O pólen apresentou-se bicelular e preenchido com amido no estágio de micrósporo. A morfologia do pólen foi estudada utilizando-se MEV. Foi observado polimorfismo polínico dentro e entre as duas formas florais. Foram identificados cinco tipos de grãos de pólen, com exina reticulada ou perfurada. Em seu hábitat natural, sabe-se que essa espécie apresenta propagação por multiplicação vegetativa, mas as características estudadas demonstraram que o mecanismo sexuado é tão importante para a reprodução dessa espécie quanto à propagação vegetativa.

  3. Floral Scent Chemistry of Luculia yunnanensis (Rubiaceae), a Species Endemic to China with Sweetly Fragrant Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuying; Wan, Youming; Sun, Zhenghai; Li, Taiqiang; Liu, Xiongfang; Ma, Hong; Liu, Xiuxian; He, Rui; Ma, Yan; Li, Zhenghong

    2017-05-25

    Luculia plants are famed ornamentals with sweetly fragrant flowers. Luculia yunnanensis Hu is an endemic plant from Yunnan Province, China. Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the different flower development stages of L. yunnanensis for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. The results showed that a total of 40 compounds were identified at four different stages. The main aroma-active compounds were 3-carene, α-cubebene, α-copaene, δ-cadinene, and isoledene. Floral scent emission had the tendency to ascend first and descend in succession, reaching its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatiles was detected at the full-flowering stage. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed at the whole flower development stage. In comparison with the other two species of Luculia ( L. pinceana and L. gratissima ), the composition and its relative content of floral scent were also different among the tree species.

  4. Monoterpenes with antibacterial activities from a Cameroonian medicinal plant Canthium Multiflorum (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouam, Simeon Fogue; Ngouonpe, Alain Wembe; Bullach, Anke; Lamshöft, Marc; Kuigoua, Guy Merlin; Spiteller, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Investigation of the crude extract obtained from the aerial parts of Canthium multiflorum led to the isolation of a new iridoid (1) together with twelve known compounds. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, accurate mass measurements and comparison with analytical data of previously known analogues. Most of the isolated compounds have been reported for the first time from C. multiflorium. The antimicrobial activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated on five different bacterial strains using agar diffusion technique. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus (DSM 799), and the Gram-negative bacteria Actinobacter calco-aceticus (DSM 30006), Serratia plymuthica (DSM 4540), Pseudomonas stutzeri (DSM 4166) and Escherichia coli (DSM 1116) were employed for this purpose. The new iridoid, named 6-oxo-genipin (1), demonstrated significant inhibitory activity against all microbial strains tested, especially the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the compounds 3, 4 and 9 exhibited antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum strain K1 and weak cytotoxicity against L6 cell lines. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pollen morphological survey of Pentas (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae) and its closest allies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessein; Scheltens; Huysmans; Robbrecht; Smets

    2000-11-01

    Pollen descriptions, based on LM and SEM observations, are provided for the Pentas complex, an African alliance within the Hedyotideae-Spermacoceae alliance, which includes the genera Pentas, Otomeria, Batopedina, Parapentas, and Chamaepentas. The close relationship among these genera is confirmed by pollen morphological data. The observed variation in pollen character states agrees well with the existing genera and subgenera. The combination of small spheroidal pollen grains with narrow, acute endocolpi, and a small apocolpium index distinguishes Batopedina from Otomeria and Pentas. Parapentas differs from Batopedina in having broad endocolpi with vague ends.Two of the three subgenera of Otomeria, Neotomeria and Volubilis, are supported by pollen data. Pollen of the subgenus Otomeria, however, is less differentiated and is similar to pollen of Pentas subgenus Pentas. The exact relationship between the genera Otomeria and Pentas remains unclear, and molecular data are needed to interpret the observed morphological variation. Chamaepentas has pollen that is nearly identical to that of the Pentas subgenus Chamaepentadoides and of the subgenus Megapentas, i.e. large spheroidal pollen grains with three, medium-length colpi and endocolpi with acute ends. Pollen morphology provides additional support for a close affinity between Pentas subgenus Phyllopentas and Pentas subgenus Vignaldiopsis.

  6. Chemical constituents of Galianthe brasiliensis (Spreng.) E.L.Cabral and Bacigalupo (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Wagner Marques de; Santos, Daniela Pereira dos; Santini, Silvana Maria de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from aerial parts of the plant Galianthe brasiliensis. From a methanol extract, the iridoid glycosides asperuloside, deacetylasperuloside, mixture of Z- and E-6-O-p-coumaroylscandoside methyl ester, the triterpene ursolic acid and the steroids stigmasterol, campesterol, b-sitosterol and 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl sitosterol were isolated. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR experiments. The antiproliferative properties of the crude methanolic extract were investigated against a series of nine human cancer cell lines. (author)

  7. Kaempferitrin from Uncaria guianensis (Rubiaceae) and its potential as a chemical marker for the species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Ligia M.M.; Liechocki, Sally; Barboza, Rodolfo S.; Paixao, Djavan da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: valente@iq.ufrj.br; Bizarri, Carlos H.B.; Almeida, M. Beatriz S.; Benevides, Paulo J.C.; Siani, Antonio C. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia em Farmacos; Magalhaes, Alvicler [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. and U. guianensis (Aubl.) Gmel., known as cat's claw, are large woody vines native to the Amazonian and Central American rain forests. The species contain, in different proportions, indole and oxindole alkaloids, triterpenoid glycosides, sterols and proanthocyanidins. U. tomentosa can be chemically identified by its oxindole alkaloid profile and content, whereas U. guianensis has no satisfactorily established chemical markers. This work describes, for the first time, the isolation of kaempferol-3,7-O-(a)-dirhamnoside (kaempferitrin) in Uncaria species. Screening for this compound in leaves, stems or bark of both species through TLC and HPLC-DAD-MS showed the presence of kaempferitrin only in the leaves and stems of U. guianensis, at a ratio almost thirty six times greater in the leaves than in the stems. These results reveal the selectivity of U. guianensis to produce this bioactive flavonoid glycoside, and suggest this compound as a potential chemical marker for the species.(author)

  8. A contribution to the wood anatomy of the Cinchoneae, Coptosapelteae and Naucleeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, Jifke

    1970-01-01

    Wood samples of a number of Cinchoneae and Naucleeae sensu Schumann were studied, and the results compared with data found in the literature. On the whole the representatives of the Cinchoneae appeared to show a rather high degree of similarity among each other with the exception, however, of the

  9. Anthraquinones with antiplasmodial activity from the roots of Rennellia elliptica Korth. (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Che Puteh; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Ahmad, Rohaya; Ahmat, Norizan; Awang, Khalijah; Jaafar, Faridahanim Mohd

    2010-10-20

    Dichloromethane root extract of Rennellia elliptica Korth. showed strong inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro with an IC₅₀ value of 4.04 µg/mL. A phytochemical study of the dichloromethane root extract has led to the isolation and characterization of a new anthraquinone, 1,2-dimethoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (1), and ten known anthraquinones: 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (2), nordamnacanthal (3), 2-formyl-3-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (4), damnacanthal (5), lucidin-ω-methyl ether (6), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (7), rubiadin (8), 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (9), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (10) and 3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone (11). Structural elucidation of all compounds was accomplished by modern spectroscopic methods, notably 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV and HREIMS. The new anthraquinone 1, 2-formyl-3-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (4) and 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone (7) possess strong antiplasmodial activity, with IC₅₀ values of 1.10, 0.63 and 0.34 µM, respectively.

  10. GIBBERELLINS, FUNGICIDES AND STORAGE EFFECTS ON THE GERMINATION OF Genipa americana L. (RUBIACEAE SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida Vieira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to verify the effect of different doses of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg.L-1, of fungicides of the groups chemical benzimidazol (0, 25, 50 and 100 g.L-1 and ditiocarbamato (0, 1,25, 2,50 and 5,00 g.L-1 on seed germination. Viability of those seeds was evaluated through germination tests at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse. The experimental design was fully randomized one, with five replicates per treatment. The traits evaluated were emergence and index of emergence speed. The treatment with GA3 didn't provide significant so much differences among the germination rates as well as for the emergence speed. It was verified that the use of the fungicides in smaller concentrations (25 g.L-1 of benzimidazol and 1,25 g.L-1 of ditiocarbamato promoted a better germination speed. The seeds of G. americana possess viability period relatively short, with germination absence 60 days period of storage, and it could be associated to the humidity tenors presented by the seeds in this period.

  11. Caffeine inheritance in interspecific hybrids of Coffea arabica x Coffea canephora (Gentianales, Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina H.G. Priolli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine inheritance was investigated in F2 and BC1F1 generations between Coffea arabica var. Bourbon Vermelho (BV and Coffea canephora var. Robusta 4x (R4x. The caffeine content of seeds and leaves was determined during 2004 and 2005. Microsatellite loci-markers were used to deduce the meiotic pattern of chromosome pairing of tetraploid interspecific hybrids. Genetic analysis indicated that caffeine content in seeds was quantitatively inherited and controlled by genes with additive effects. The estimates of broad-sense heritability of caffeine content in seeds were high for both generations. In coffee leaves, the caffeine content (BSH from the same populations showed transgressive segregants with enhanced levels and high BSH. Segregation of loci-markers in BC1F1 populations showed that the ratios of the gametes genotype did not differ significantly from those expected assuming random associations and tetrasomic inheritance. The results confirm the existence of distinct mechanisms controlling the caffeine content in seeds and leaves, the gene exchange between the C. arabica BV and C. canephora R4x genomes and favorable conditions for improving caffeine content in this coffee population.

  12. The tuberous epiphytes of the Rubiaceae 1: A new subtribe — The Hydnophytinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huxley, C.R.; Jebb, M.H.P.

    1991-01-01

    The morphology and ant-association of the five genera Hydnophytum Jack, Myrmecodia Jack, Anthorrhiza Huxley & Jebb, Squamellaria Becc. and Myrmephytum Becc. are described. On the basis of shared character states in tuber cavity development and inflorescence structure these five genera are united as

  13. Genetic molecular analysis of Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae hybrids using SRAP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Mishra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Coffea arabica (arabica coffee, the phenotypic as well as genetic variability has been found low because of the narrow genetic basis and self fertile nature of the species. Because of high similarity in phenotypic appearance among the majority of arabica collections, selection of parental lines for inter-varietals hybridization and identification of resultant hybrids at an early stage of plant growth is difficult. DNA markers are known to be reliable in identifying closely related cultivars and hybrids. Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP is a new molecular marker technology developed based on PCR. In this paper, sixty arabica-hybrid progenies belonging to six crosses were analyzed using 31 highly polymorphic SRAP markers. The analysis revealed seven types of SRAP marker profiles which are useful in discriminating the parents and hybrids. The number of bands amplified per primer pair ranges from 6.13 to 8.58 with average number of seven bands. Among six hybrid combinations, percentage of bands shared between hybrids and their parents ranged from 66.29% to 85.71% with polymorphic bands varied from 27.64% to 60.0%. Percentage of hybrid specific fragments obtained in various hybrid combinations ranged from 0.71% to 10.86% and ascribed to the consequence of meiotic recombination. Based on the similarity index calculation, it was observed that F1 hybrids share maximum number of bands with the female parent compared to male parent. The results obtained in the present study revealed the effectiveness of SRAP technique in cultivar identification and hybrid analysis in this coffee species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 607-617. Epub 2011 June 01.

  14. Frugivory and dispersal of Faramea cyanea (Rubiaceae in Cerrado woody plant formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Melo

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe and compare the community of birds that utilize the tree species Faramea cyanea, in contiguous areas of cerradão and gallery forest, and also to characterize the behavioral patterns of the birds. The study was carried out in the Panga Ecological Station (Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, in April and May 2001. Nine individuals of F. cyanea were observed in periods between 06:45-11:30 h for a total of 44.5 hours. There were 204 visits by 13 bird species. Tyrannidae was the most represented family (five species and Turdidae, the most frequent (72.1% of visits. The number of consumed fruits was correlated with the permanence time on the plant. There was no significant difference between the two forests habitats, in terms of foraging tactics or fruit consumption strategies. In spite of the predominance of omnivorous birds (89.5% in both habitats, the swallower strategy (84.2% indicates high seed dispersal potential. Antilophia galeata, a frugivorous bird, presented the greatest rate of consumed fruits per minute in both gallery forest (2.15 and cerradão (1.06.

  15. Frugivory and dispersal of Faramea cyanea (Rubiaceae in Cerrado woody plant formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe and compare the community of birds that utilize the tree species Faramea cyanea, in contiguous areas of cerradão and gallery forest, and also to characterize the behavioral patterns of the birds. The study was carried out in the Panga Ecological Station (Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, in April and May 2001. Nine individuals of F. cyanea were observed in periods between 06:45-11:30 h for a total of 44.5 hours. There were 204 visits by 13 bird species. Tyrannidae was the most represented family (five species and Turdidae, the most frequent (72.1% of visits. The number of consumed fruits was correlated with the permanence time on the plant. There was no significant difference between the two forests habitats, in terms of foraging tactics or fruit consumption strategies. In spite of the predominance of omnivorous birds (89.5% in both habitats, the swallower strategy (84.2% indicates high seed dispersal potential. Antilophia galeata, a frugivorous bird, presented the greatest rate of consumed fruits per minute in both gallery forest (2.15 and cerradão (1.06.

  16. Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium at microsatellite loci in Genipa americana L. (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoel, R O; Freitas, M L M; Tambarussi, E V; Cambuim, J; Moraes, M L T; Sebbenn, A M

    2015-07-27

    Genipa americana is a tropical tree species that is widely distributed in the humid tropical and subtropical regions of Central and South America. This study investigated Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium at six microsatellite loci developed for G. americana. Adult trees (188) and regenerants (163) were sampled and genotyped in a fragmented population of the species. We also genotyped open-pollinated seeds from 12 seed-trees during reproductive events in 2010 and 2011. Significant deviations from the expected 1:1 Mendelian segregation were detected in 29.5% of the tests. Significant genetic linkage between pairwise loci was detected in 54.4% of the tests, but no genotypic disequilibrium was detected between pairwise loci for adult trees and regenerants. Overall, the results indicate that the six loci analyzed may be used in studies of G. americana's genetic diversity and structure, its mating system, and in parentage analyses.

  17. Triterpenoid acids and lactones from the leaves of Fadogia tetraquetra var. tetraquetra (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Dulcie A; Mohammed, Abdelhafeez M A; Coombes, Philip H; Haque, Shafiul; Pohjala, Leena L; Tammela, Päivi S M; Crouch, Neil R

    2011-11-01

    Four triterpenoids isolated from the leaves of Fadogia tetraquetra var. tetraquetra, 3beta-hydroxy-11alpha, 12alpha-epoxyoleanan-28,13beta-olide (1), 3beta-hydroxyurs-11-en-28,13beta-olide (2), oleanolic acid (3), and ursolic acid (4), were evaluated for their antiviral and antibacterial properties. Compound 4 showed potent activity against the Semliki Forest virus with an IC50 of 14.7 microM, but was also found to be significantly cytotoxic (68% reduction in cell viability after 24 hours exposure at 50 microM) towards baby hamster kidney (BHK21) host cells. A viability assay on the mammalian human hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh-7) cell line showed no significant effects on intracellular ATP content after 48 hours exposure to compounds 1-4 at this concentration. Compound 4 also inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 12.5 microM), but was inactive against Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compounds 1-3 were inactive against all tested bacterial strains at 50 microM concentration.

  18. The Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Rubiaceae): A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Quality Control and Pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; He, Jingyu; Tong, Xueli; Tang, Lan; Liu, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    Hedyotis diffusa Willd (H. diffusa) is a well-known Chinese medicine with a variety of activities, especially its anti-cancer effect in the clinic. Up to now, 171 compounds have been reported from H. diffusa, including 32 iridoids, 26 flavonoids, 24 anthraquinones, 26 phenolics and their derivatives, 50 volatile oils and 13 miscellaneous compounds. In vitro and in vivo studies show these phytochemicals and plant extracts to exhibit a range of pharmacological activities of anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibroblast, immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects. Although a series of methods have been established for the quality control of H. diffusa, a feasible and reliable approach is still needed in consideration of its botanical origin, collecting time and bioactive effects. Meanwhile, more pharmacokinetics researches are needed to illustrate the characteristics of H. diffusa in vivo. The present review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and pharmacokinetic characteristics of H. diffusa for its clinical use and further development.

  19. Antifouling property of the fruits of Randia brandisii (Rubiaceae) and Sapindus trifoliatus (Sapindaceae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Methanol extracts of fruits of Randia brandisii (Gamble) and Sapindus trifoliatus (Vah) were assessed for marine antifouling properties. The coatings of these crude extracts on aluminium coupons were found to inhibit settlement of macrofoulers...

  20. Adubação nitrogenada na produção de mudas de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King Nitrogen fertilization in the production of seedlings of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Franco Tucci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre aspectos silviculturais de espécies florestais nativas da Amazônia são escassos, principalmente aqueles que visam a identificar técnicas de cultivo para a produção de mudas. O trabalho foi realizado objetivando avaliar efeitos de doses crescentes de N no desenvolvimento de mudas de mogno. O estudo consistiu de sete tratamentos, correspondentes à doses crescentes e equivalentes a 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 e 120 g N ton-1 de substrato, utilizando-se uréia como fonte de N. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com oito repetições. Noventa dias após a repicagem foram avaliadas as seguintes características: altura de planta, diâmetro do caule, matéria seca das raízes, do caule, das folhas e total. Também se avaliou o conteúdo de N, P, K, Ca e Mg nas folhas. Os resultados mostraram que a dose de máxima eficiência física correspondeu a 61,5 g N ton-1 de substrato; o nível crítico de N para a parte aérea é de 27 g kg-1 e a dose para atingí-lo de 57,5 g N ton-1 de substrato. Observou-se também que na dose de 120 g N ton-1 houve efeito negativo da adubação nitrogenada sobre as características de crescimento avaliadas. Estes resultados indicam que as características de desenvolvimento e de acumulação de nutrientes pelas mudas de mogno foram influenciadas positivamente por doses crescentes de N, contudo na dose máxima utilizada neste estudo 120 g N ton-1, houve efeito negativo; a adubação nitrogenada resultou em aumento no conteúdo de N, P e Ca nas folhas; a dose de N recomendada para a produção de mudas de mogno, em substratos com características semelhantes ao empregado neste estudo, é de 57,5 g N ton-1 de substrato.Studies on silvicultural aspects of native forest species of the Amazon Rainforest are scarce, mainly those that seek to establish cultivation techniques for production of seedlings. The current work had the objective of evaluating the effects of growing levels of N in the development of mahogany seedlings. The treatments were seven growing doses that were equivalent to the application of: 0; 20; 40; 80; 100 and 120 g N ton-1 of the substratum. The source of N was urea. The experimental design was randomized blocks with eight repetitions. Evaluations were accomplished after 90 days of transplanting where it was observed answers to the growing doses of N for the diameter of stem, dry matter of the leaves and for total content of N, P, K, Ca and Mg of the leaves. The recommendation of nitrogen fertilization for the production of mahogany seedlings is of 57,5 g N ton-1 of the substratum as a first approach.

  1. EFFECT OF PRETREATMENTS ON CHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF SKY FRUIT (Swietenia macrophylla SEED OIL [Pengaruh Pra-perlakuan Terhadap Sifat Kimia dan Antioksidan Minyak Biji Buah Tunjuk Langit (Swietenia macrophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Mohd Yusof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pretreatments on chemical and antioxidant properties of sky fruit (Swietenia macrohylla seed oil. The seeds were treated with different heat pretreatments (roasting, steaming, and microwaving and subsequently subjected to oil extraction by using a Bligh and Dyer method. It was found that different pretreatments significantly (p<0.05 affected yield and peroxide value of the extracted oils. However, no significant effect of pretreatment was observed on free fatty acid content of the seed oils. The oils exhibited significantly different levels of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity due to different heat pretreatments. The results revealed that the mean percentages of DPPH scavenging activity of untreated (control seed oil (87.69% and steamed seed oil (83.40% were significantly higher than those of roasted seed oil (75.71% as well as the microwaved one (63.98%. In contrast, the pretreatments did not significantly affect total phenolic content (TPC of the seed oils with the TPC mean values ranging from 0.016 to 0.022 mg/g (as gallic acid. Data gained from this study provided valuable information for edible oil industries in searching for alternative source of edible oil with medicinal benefits.

  2. Effect of fractional crystallization on composition and thermal properties of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla seed fat and cocoa butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanty, N. A.M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The fractional crystallization behaviors of cocoa butter (CB and enkabang fat (EF in acetone were investigated. Melted samples of CB and EF were mixed separately with acetone in 1:2 a (w/v ratio and partitioned into solid and liquid fractions under controlled temperature conditions. The isolated fractions were compared to their respective native samples with respect to various physico-chemical parameters using standard chemical methods as well as instrumental techniques such as gas liquid chromatography (GLC, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. According to the results, partitioning of either CB or EF under solvent assisted crystallization conditions yielded a major solid and a minor liquid fraction. The solid and liquid fractions of both fats were found to display many similarities, but few differences with regard to their composition and thermal properties. While the solid fractions may be useful as a hard stock in hard margarine and cosmetic product formulation, the liquid fraction would be useful as an ingredient for food applications.Se investigan los comportamientos de una cristalización fraccionada de la manteca de cacao (CB y la grasa de enkabang (EF en acetona. Las muestras fundidas de CB y EF se mezclaron por separado con acetona en una relación 1:02 (w/v y se dividen en fracciones sólida y líquida bajo condiciones de temperatura controlada. Las fracciones aisladas se compararon con sus respectivas muestras nativas con respecto a diversos parámetros físico-químicos utilizando métodos químicos estándar, así como técnicas instrumentales, como la cromatografía gas-líquido (GLC, cromatografía líquida de fase inversa de alta resolución (RP-HPLC, y calorimetría de barrido diferencial (DSC. De acuerdo con los resultados, el fraccionamiento tanto de CB como EF bajo condiciones de cristalización asistida con disolvente produjo una fracción sólida mayoritaria y una fracción líquida minoritaria. Ambas fracciones sólidas y líquidas de ambas grasas mostraron muchas similitudes, y pocas diferencias con respecto a su composición y propiedades térmicas. Mientras que las fracciones sólidas pueden ser útiles por su acción de fuerza en una margarina dura y formulaciones cosmética, la fracción líquida sería útil como ingrediente para aplicaciones alimentarias.

  3. Comparação da sensibilidade de bovinos e búfalos à intoxicação por Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae Comparison of the sensibility of cattle and buffaloes to poisoning by Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado para verificar se búfalos são mais resistentes do que bovinos à ação tóxica de Palicourea marcgravii, mediante a administração da planta por via oral, simultaneamente, a bovinos e a búfalos. Foram usados sete búfalos e três bovinos. Verificou-se que em búfalos doses de 0,5 g/kg, 1,0 g/kg e 2,0 g/kg não causaram sintomas de intoxicação. As doses de 3,0 g/kg, 4,0 g/kge 6,0 g/kg causaram a morte dos búfalos. Em bovinos, a dose de 0,25g/kg não causou sinais clínicos de intoxicação, enquanto que doses de 0,5 g/kg e 2,0 g/kg causaram a morte. A influência do exercício sobre o aparecimento dos sintomas, o prazo decorrido desde o começo da administração da planta até o início de sintomas, e os próprios sintomas, foram semelhantes nas duas espécies animais. O curso clínico foi mais longo nos búfalos. Enquanto nos bovinos o período entre o aparecimento dos sintomas graves e a morte foi de 9 a 17 minutos, nos búfalos variou de 10 minutos a 1 hora e 28 minutos. Pode se concluir que os bubalinos são aproximadamente seis vezes mais resistentes do que os bovinos à ação tóxica de P. marcgravii. O menor índice de mortes pela ação de plantas tóxicas na Amazônia em búfalos é, pelo menos em parte, devido à maior resistência do búfalo à intoxicação por essa planta. Outro fator responsável pelo menor número de mortes em búfalos pela intoxicação por plantas, na Amazônia, poderia ser que os búfalos preferem a várzea, que é o habitat de Arrabidaea bilabiata, a segunda planta tóxica mais importante da Amazônia, menos tóxica do que P. marcgravii, e com habitat na terra firme. Em áreas onde ocorre P. marcgravii seria mais prudente, para diminuir os prejuízos, criar búfalos em lugar de bovinos. A causa dessa maior resistência do búfalo merece ser investigada para a eventual elaboração de métodos profiláticos da intoxicação por P. marcgravii em bovinos. Por outro lado, pesquisadores australianos modificaram geneticamente a bactéria ruminal Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, mediante a introdução de um gene, isolado de Moraxella sp, que codifica uma dehalogenase, capaz de hidrolizar fluoroacetato. A transferência de B. fibrisolvens geneticamente modificado para o rúmen de animais ingerindo plantas que contêm fluoroacetato, como é o caso de P. marcgravii, seria um método viável para o controle da intoxicação mediante a detoxificação ruminal do princípio ativo. Em contatos preliminares o diretor responsável do consórcio na Austrália responsável pela modificação da bactéria, declarou o interesse em vender a tecnologia ao nosso país, porém seria necessário saber se é possível importar essa bactéria geneticamente modificada no Brasil. Caso positivo, seria indispensável realizar pesquisas sobre a viabilidade e a metodologia para o uso dessa bactéria em nosso meio.In order to verify if buffaloes are more resistant than cattle to poisoning by Palicourea marcgravii, the plant was given per os simultaneously to buffaloes and cattle. Seven buffaloes and three head of cattle were used. Doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg did not cause signs of poisoning in buffaloes; but doses of 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 g/kg caused death. In cattle 0.25 g/kg did not cause symptoms; but 0.5 and 2.0 g/kg were lethal. The influence of exercise on the onset of symptoms, the time which elapsed from the beginning of the administration of the plant to the appearance of symptoms, and the symptoms themselves, were similar in the two animal species. The clinical course was longer in buffaloes; whilst in cattle the period between the onset of severe symptoms and death lasted 9 to 17 minutes; in buffaloes it varied from 10 minutes to 1 hour 28 minutes. It can be concluded, that buffaloes are about six times more resistant than cattle to the toxic action of P. maracgravii. The lower incidence of deaths in buffaloes by poisonous plants in the Amazon region is, at least in part, due the lower sensibility of buffaloes to poisoning by this plant. Another factor responsible for the smaller number of buffaloes which die due to plant poisoning in the Amazon region, is possibly that buffaloes prefer the lowlands, e.g. temporarily flooded areas, which are the habitat of Arrabidaea bilabiata, the second most important poisonous plant of the Amazon region. This plant is less poisonous than P. marcgravii, and its habitat are the higher not flooded areas. So it would be safer, in order to diminish losses, to breed buffaloes instead of cattle in areas where P. marcgravii occurs. The reason for the greater resistance of buffaloes should be further investigated as a possible prophylactic measure to avoid poisoning by P. marcgravii in cattle. On the other hand, Australian investigators modified genetically the ruminal bacteria Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens by introducing a gene, isolated from a Moraxella sp, which codifies a dehalogenase, capable of hydrolyzing fluoroacetate, the poisonous principle of P. marcgravii. Transferring the genetically modified B. fibrisolvens into the rumen of animals, which consume plants that contain fluoroacetate, would be a viable method to control that poisoning through a ruminal detoxifying process for the toxin. Through preliminary contacts, the director of the consorcium in Australia, responsible for the modification of the bacteria, declared that he is interested to sell the technology to our country, but it would be necessary to know if it is permitted to introduce into Brazil the genetically modified bacteria. If allowed, it would be necessary to perform investigations on the viability and the methodology for using this bacteria to control P. marcgravii poisoning in our country.

  4. Anatomia do lenho de Uncaria guianensis e U. tomentosa (Rubiaceae) do estado do Acre, Brasil Wood anatomy of Uncaria guianensis e U. tomentosa (Rubiaceae) from the State of Acre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Percy A. Zevallos Pollito; Mario Tomazello

    2006-01-01

    As plantas de Uncaria guianensis e U. tomentosa são lianas trepadeiras, arbustos trepadores ou rasteiros ascendentes que ocorrem em amplas áreas da Amazônia brasileira e países da América Central e do Sul. Possuem excepcional importância medicinal, com sua casca, lenho e folhas utilizadas pelos povos amazônicos e pela indústria farmacêutica. Face a necessidade da identificação das plantas em condições de campo e de laboratório, o presente trabalho descreveu a estrutura anatômica do lenho de U...

  5. Substâncias antifúngicas de Xylaria sp., um fungo endofítico isolado de Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae Antifungal compounds of Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C. Cafêu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Five compounds, 2-hexyl-3-methyl-butanodioic acid (1, cytochalasin D (2, 7-dechlorogriseofulvin (3, cytochalasin B (4 and griseofulvin (5, have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp., and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. In the bioautography assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium sphaerospermum, compounds 1 and 2 were found to be active while compounds 3, 4 and 5 did not show antifungal activity.

  6. Chemical constituents and evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of roots of Sabicea brasiliensis Wernh (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos e avaliavao das atividades antioxidante e anti-inflamatoria das raizes de Sabicea brasiliensis Wernh (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jucilene Cavalini; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Schuquel, Ivania T. Albrecht; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da, E-mail: ccsilva@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacologia e Terapeutica; Oliveira, Cecilia Maria Alves de; Kato, Lucilia; Ferreira, Heleno Dias [Universidade Federal de Goais (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Sabicea brasiliensis roots led to the isolation of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinics acids, scopoletin, ursolic acid, a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, daucosterol and saccharose. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods and by comparison with literature data. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions were analyzed. (author)

  7. Biologic Propensities and Phytochemical Profile of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmelin (Rubiaceae: An Underutilized Native Medicinal Food Plant from Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelvana Ramalingum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vangueria madagascariensis (VM, consumed for its sweet-sour fruits, is used as a biomedicine for the management of diabetes and bacterial infections in Africa. The study aims to assess the potential of VM on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, glucose movement, and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant properties were determined by measuring the FRAP, iron chelating activity, and abilities to scavenge DPPH, HOCl, ∙OH, and NO radicals. Leaf decoction, leaf methanol, and unripe fruit methanol extracts were observed to significantly inhibit α-amylase. Active extracts against α-glucosidase were unripe fruit methanol, unripe fruit decoction, leaf decoction, and ripe fruit methanol, which were significantly lower than acarbose. Kinetic studies revealed a mixed noncompetitive type of inhibition. Leaf methanolic extract was active against S. aureus and E. coli. Total phenolic content showed a strong significant positive correlation (r=0.88 with FRAP. Methanolic leaf extract showed a more efficient NO scavenging potential and was significantly lower than ascorbic acid. Concerning ∙OH-mediated DNA degradation, only the methanol extracts of leaf, unripe fruit, and ripe fruit had IC50 values which were significantly lower than α-tocopherol. Given the dearth of information on the biologic propensities of VM, this study has established valuable primary information which has opened new perspectives for further pharmacological research.

  8. Neuroprotective and Antiamnesic Effects of Mitragyna inermis Willd (Rubiaceae on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bougolla Pahaye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess memory improvement and neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of Mitragyna inermis (M. inermis leaf decoction on the central nervous system. Methodology. Leaf decoction of M. inermis was tested on learning and memory in normal and scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice using memory behavioral tests such as the Morris water maze, object recognition task, and elevated plus maze. Oxidative stress enzymes—catalase, superoxide dismutase, and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, a product of lipid peroxidation—were quantified. In each test, mice 18 to 25 g were divided into groups of 5. Results. The extract reversed the effects of scopolamine in mice. The extract significantly increased discrimination index in the object recognition task test and inflexion ratio in the elevated plus maze test. The times spent in target quadrant in MWM increased while the transfer latency decreased in mice treated by M. inermis at the dose of 196.5 mg/kg. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly increased, whereas the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance was significantly decreased after 8 consecutive days of treatment with M. inermis at the dose of 393 mg/kg. Conclusion. These results suggest that M. inermis leaf extract possess potential antiamnesic effects.

  9. Neuroprotective and Antiamnesic Effects ofMitragyna inermisWilld (Rubiaceae) on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahaye, David Bougolla; Bum, Elisabeth Ngo; Taïwé, Germain Sotoing; Ngoupaye, Gwladys Temkou; Sidiki, Neteydji; Moto, Fleur Clarisse Okomolo; Kouemou, Nadège; Njapdounke, Stephanie Jacqueline Kameni; Nkantchoua, Gisele; Kandeda, Antoine; Omam, Jean Pierre Omam; Mairaira, Veronique; Ojong, Josiane Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Aim . To assess memory improvement and neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of Mitragyna inermis ( M. inermis ) leaf decoction on the central nervous system. Methodology . Leaf decoction of M. inermis was tested on learning and memory in normal and scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice using memory behavioral tests such as the Morris water maze, object recognition task, and elevated plus maze. Oxidative stress enzymes-catalase, superoxide dismutase, and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, a product of lipid peroxidation-were quantified. In each test, mice 18 to 25 g were divided into groups of 5. Results . The extract reversed the effects of scopolamine in mice. The extract significantly increased discrimination index in the object recognition task test and inflexion ratio in the elevated plus maze test. The times spent in target quadrant in MWM increased while the transfer latency decreased in mice treated by M. inermis at the dose of 196.5 mg/kg. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly increased, whereas the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance was significantly decreased after 8 consecutive days of treatment with M. inermis at the dose of 393 mg/kg. Conclusion . These results suggest that M. inermis leaf extract possess potential antiamnesic effects.

  10. Comportamiento fenológico del árbol Elaeagia uxpanapensis (Rubiaceae, en un bosque pluvial premontano de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Brenes Cambronero

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la fenología E. uxpanapensis (n = 13, árbol maderable y emergente del dosel de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes, Alajuela, Costa Rica, de marzo 1994 a marzo 1998. Se construyó una plataforma a 25 m de altura para la observación de la transición de floración a fructificación. La caída de follaje y brotes foliares fueron continuas, y la floración (cada 28 meses y la fructificación (cada 25 meses fueron supranuales y prolongadas. La caída de follaje se asoció significativamente con temperatura ambiental (n = 13, r = 0.44, p Phenology of the tree Elaeagia uxpanapensis was studied from March 1994 to March 1998. This species is a canopy emergent in the A.M. Brenes Biological Reserve, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Fifteen mature trees were marked in order of appearance and observed every month using binoculars. A platform was built on one tree to better distinguish the transition from flowering to fruiting. Leaf abscission and budding were continuous throughout the year with several peaks, while flowering and fruit production occurred every 28 and 25 months, respectively. Leaf-fall was positively correlated with air temperature (n = 13, r = 0.44, p < 0.05, and fruiting with precipitation (n = 13, r = 0.37, p < 0.05 and relative humidity (n = 13, r = 0.39, p < 0.02. Bud formation was inversely associated with precipitation (n = 13, r = -0. 66, p <0.05 and relative humidity (n = 13, r = -0.61, p = 0.05

  11. AFLP diversity and spatial structure of Calycophyllum candidissimum (Rubiaceae), a dominant tree species of Nicaragua's critically endangered seasonally dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Lara, A; Affenzeller, M; Tribsch, A; Díaz, V; Comes, H P

    2017-10-01

    The Central American seasonally dry tropical (SDT) forest biome is one of the worlds' most endangered ecosystems, yet little is known about the genetic consequences of its recent fragmentation. A prominent constituent of this biome is Calycophyllum candidissimum, an insect-pollinated and wind-dispersed canopy tree of high socio-economic importance, particularly in Nicaragua. Here, we surveyed amplified fragment length polymorphisms across 13 populations of this species in Nicaragua to elucidate the relative roles of contemporary vs historical factors in shaping its genetic variation. Genetic diversity was low in all investigated populations (mean H E =0.125), and negatively correlated with latitude. Overall population differentiation was moderate (Φ ST =0.109, Pforest regions may be genetically resilient to habitat fragmentation due to species-typical dispersal characteristics, the necessity of broad-scale measures for their conservation notwithstanding.

  12. Biologic propensities and phytochemical profile of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmelin (Rubiaceae): an underutilized native medicinal food plant from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingum, Nelvana; Mahomoodally, M Fawzi

    2014-01-01

    Vangueria madagascariensis (VM), consumed for its sweet-sour fruits, is used as a biomedicine for the management of diabetes and bacterial infections in Africa. The study aims to assess the potential of VM on α -amylase, α -glucosidase, glucose movement, and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant properties were determined by measuring the FRAP, iron chelating activity, and abilities to scavenge DPPH, HOCl, (∙) OH, and NO radicals. Leaf decoction, leaf methanol, and unripe fruit methanol extracts were observed to significantly inhibit α -amylase. Active extracts against α -glucosidase were unripe fruit methanol, unripe fruit decoction, leaf decoction, and ripe fruit methanol, which were significantly lower than acarbose. Kinetic studies revealed a mixed noncompetitive type of inhibition. Leaf methanolic extract was active against S. aureus and E. coli. Total phenolic content showed a strong significant positive correlation (r = 0.88) with FRAP. Methanolic leaf extract showed a more efficient NO scavenging potential and was significantly lower than ascorbic acid. Concerning (∙) OH-mediated DNA degradation, only the methanol extracts of leaf, unripe fruit, and ripe fruit had IC50 values which were significantly lower than α -tocopherol. Given the dearth of information on the biologic propensities of VM, this study has established valuable primary information which has opened new perspectives for further pharmacological research.

  13. Determination of toxicity in rabbits and corresponding detection of monofluoroacetate in four Palicourea (Rubiaceae) species from the Amazonas state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de L Carvalho, Fabricio K; Cook, Daniel; Lee, Stephen T; Taylor, Charlotte M; Soares Oliveira, Jefferson Bruno; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous monofluoroacetate (MFA)-containing plants in Brazil cause sudden death syndrome precipitated by exercise in livestock, which is characterized by loss of balance, ataxia, labored breathing, muscle tremors, and recumbence leading to death. Four species of Palicourea collected at six farms were tested for the presence of MFA and their toxicity to rabbits. Palicourea longiflora and Palicourea barraensis contained MFA and caused sudden death in the rabbits. Palicourea croceoides and Palicourea nitidella did not contain MFA and were not toxic to rabbits. P. longiflora and P. barraensis were collected at three farms with a history of sudden death in their cattle. This is the first report of toxicity in regard to these two species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Remarks on the tropical Asian and Australian taxa included in Diplospora or Tricalysia (Rubiaceae — Ixoroideae — Gardenieae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, S.J.; Robbrecht, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Asian and Australian species generally included in Diplospora or Tricalysia are shown to form an artificial assemblage. A few species even do not belong to the Gardenieae-Diplosporinae and need to be transferred to other tribes of the Ixoroideae. So Diplospora malaccensis, Diplospora minahassae,

  15. Ixora longibracteata Bremek. (Rubiaceae, An Addition to Flora of India, with Notes on its Status and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliyamurthy Karthigeyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ixora longibracteata has been rediscovered after its type collection from Jaldapara National Park, West Bengal, India, earlier known only from its type locality, Chittagong hill tracts in Bangladesh. This species is also reported here as an addition to the flora of India. Besides, hitherto undescribed morphology of fruit of this species is provided here in the description for the first time with photograph. A detailed description, illustration, photograph, distribution map and conservation status of the species are provided here to facilitate its easy identification.

  16. Ethnobotanic study of Randia aculeata (Rubiaceae in Jamapa, Veracruz, Mexico, and its anti-snake venom effects on mouse tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Gallardo-Casas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, medicinal plants are widely used. The use of Randia aculeata by healers against snakebites has never been scientifically tested in relation to possible effects on blood parameters and muscle tissue damage. Interviews were carried out in Jamapa, Veracuz, Mexico, with local residents to collect information about the traditional use of Randia aculeata. In this locality, seven pieces of fruit from the plant are mixed in a liter of alcohol, and then administered orally against snakebites. By using histological techniques and a murine model, we explored its cytoprotective properties against the effects of Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper venoms. Possible protections provided by the plant against tissue damage to skeletal and cardiac muscles and against the typical loss of red blood cells were analyzed. Randia aculeata caused an increase in microhematocrit and total hemoglobin, parameters that are often decremented in association with the loss of red blood cells, which is a characteristic effect of animal venom. Randia aculeata was also shown to protect against the lowering of platelet levels caused by Bothrops asper venom. Finally, Randia aculeata produced a partial inhibition of necrosis following administration of snake venom in skeletal and myocardial muscles. The present results provide solid evidence for the traditional use of Randia aculeata against snakebites, as demonstrated by protection against muscular tissue damage and the diminution of red blood cells.

  17. Potencial de regeneración de Psychotria ipecacuanha (Rubiaceae a partir de capas delgadas de células

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Botero Giraldo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conociendo las propiedades medicinales de la especie vegetal Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. Stokes, su crítico estado de conservación, así como las dificultades que presenta para la propagación efectiva, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar su potencial de propagación por los sistemas de regeneración in vitro, organogénesis y embriogénesis somática. Para este propósito, capas delgadas de células (CDCs de tallos y de hojas, así como segmentos foliares fueron sometidos a diferentes tratamientos con reguladores de crecimiento y condiciones de luz. Además se estableció el efecto de diferentes longitudes de onda vía diodos emisores de luz (LEDs, sobre la regeneración en estos explantes y nudos provenientes de plantas in vitro. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que los segmentos de hoja y las CDCs de tallo sembrados en el medio de cultivo MS suplementado con las combinaciones de los reguladores de crecimiento IBA + BAP e IBA + TDZ formaron embriones somáticos y brotes. Los cortes histológicos realizados corroboraron estos dos tipos de origen. Se encontró que bajo la condición lumínica 16/8, se alcanzaron los mejores resultados de inducción de brotes y embriones. En cuanto al efecto de las diferentes longitudes de onda de luz, se encontró que las correspondientes al rojo, verde y blanca, favorecieron el crecimiento y desarrollo de brotes y la inducción de embriones somáticos. El desarrollo de los brotes a partir de los nudos no presentó diferencias estadísticas entre los tratamientos con LEDs, por lo que se recomienda el uso de la luz blanca continua y con fotoperiodo durante el proceso de multiplicación y desarrollo de estos.

  18. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by Warscewiczia coccinea (Vahl) Kl. (Rubiaceae) ethanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A; Fabbro, R; Maillo, M; Barrios, M; Milano, M B; Fernández, A; Williams, B; Michelangeli, F; Rangel, H R; Pujol, F H

    2011-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to search for natural products capable of inhibiting hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. The research design, methods and procedures included testing hydro-alcoholic extracts (n = 66) of 31 species from the Venezuelan Amazonian rain forest on the cell line HepG2 2.2.15, which constitutively produces HBV. The main outcomes and results were as follows: the species Euterpe precatoria, Jacaranda copaia, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Senna silvestris, Warscewiczia coccinea and Vochysia glaberrima exerted some degree of inhibition on HBV replication. The leaves of W. coccinea showed a significant antiviral activity: 80% inhibition with 100 µg mL⁻¹ of extract. This extract also exerted inhibition on covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid (cccDNA) production and on HIV-1 replication in MT4 cells (more than 90% inhibition with 50 µg mL⁻¹ of extract). Initial fractionation using organic solvents of increasing polarity and water showed that the ethanol fraction was responsible for most of the antiviral inhibitory activities of both the viruses. It was concluded that Warscewiczia coccinea extract showed inhibition of HBV and HIV-1 replication. Bioassay-guided purification of this fraction may allow the isolation of an antiviral compound with inhibitory activity against both viruses.

  19. Liver morphology and morphometry and plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats that received leaf infusion of Rudgea viburnoides Benth. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Castro Monteiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rudgea viburnoides leaves are widely used in popular Brazilian medicine as a diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive and blood depurative tea. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of this infusion on the liver and on the plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats. Two groups received the R. viburnoides leaf infusion at a daily dose of 10 or 20g dry-leaves/L water, during 40 days. The histopathological analysis did not show degenerated areas or infiltration of leucocytes. Hepatic morphometry showed accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes of the treated groups. There was no significant change in the plasma levels of urea, creatinin, uric acid, direct bilirubin, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, gamma glutamyl tranferase (gamma-GT, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, chlorine, phosphate and calcium. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of triacylglycerol (TAG occurred in the group that received the higher dose.As folhas de Rudgea viburnoides Benth. são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, anti-reumáticas, depurativas do sangue e em regimes de emagrecimento. O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas de R. viburnoides nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e na morfologia e morfometria hepática de ratos Wistar adultos. Dois grupos receberam a infusão das folhas, diariamente, nas dosagens de 10 e 20 g de folhas secas/L de água, durante 40 dias. O grupo controle recebeu a mesma quantidade de água. As análises histopatológicas não mostraram áreas degeneradas e infiltrados inflamatórios. A morfometria hepática mostrou acúmulo significativo de gordura nos hepatócitos dos animais tratados, principalmente no grupo que recebeu a maior dose da infusão (8,75% de gotículas lipídicas, comparado com 0,25% delas encontradas nos animais controles. Não foram observadas alterações nos níveis plasmáticos de uréia, creatinina, ácido úrico, bilirrubina direta, colesterol, proteínas totais, albumina, gama-glutamil transferase (GGT, alanina transaminase (ALT, aspartato transaminase (AST, cloro, fósforo e cálcio. Foi observada redução significativa de 20,6% nos níveis plasmáticos de triacilglicerol no grupo que recebeu a infusão mais concentrada, comparada aos animais controle.

  20. Fruit set of distylous Psychotria carthagenensis Jacq. (Rubiaceae mediated by Apis mellifera (Apidae and species of Augochloropsis (Halictidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Rodrigues Faria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterostyly is a floral polymorphism consisting in the presence of two morphs in the population that differ reciprocally in the position of their sexual organs. Heterostylous species depend on visitors to produce fruits, but the efficiency of insect species as pollinators greatly varies and depends on the morph visited. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a single visit by the bees Apis mellifera and species of Augochloropsis on the fruit set of the distylous species Psychotria carthagenensis.After a single visit from each bee species, flowers were bagged to monitor the fruit set. Pollination effectiveness between pollinators and morphs was compared. The results of the experiments were compared with data from manual intermorph cross-pollination using the G test. There were no significant differences in the fruit set between treatments (insect visit and cross-pollination, and between flowers visited by Augochloropsis spp. and flowers visited by A. mellifera. Our results suggest that pollination effectiveness of the studied bees was not related to floral morph, and that both exotic and native bees showed similar performances on the fruit set of P. carthagenensis.

  1. Fruit set of distylous Psychotria carthagenensis Jacq. (Rubiaceae) mediated by Apis mellifera (Apidae) and species of Augochloropsis (Halictidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Rodrigues Faria; Andréa Cardoso Araujo

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly is a floral polymorphism consisting in the presence of two morphs in the population that differ reciprocally in the position of their sexual organs. Heterostylous species depend on visitors to produce fruits, but the efficiency of insect species as pollinators greatly varies and depends on the morph visited. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a single visit by the bees Apis mellifera and species of Augochloropsis on the fruit set of the distylous species P...

  2. 234 Fruiting Efficiency of Pentaclethra Macraphylla Benth: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    macrophylla was investigated in Ekpoma and Onne between 2004 and. 2007. Ten sample trees of P. macrophylla were randomly selected in a traditional agroforestry plantation in Ekpoma. Similarly, another ten sample trees were randomly ...

  3. AVALIAÇÃO DO INCREMENTO EM DIÂMETRO DO MOGNO (Swietenia macrophylla EM UM SAF - RURÓPOLIS-PARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itabira Jaguaraçú Ricardo Sanches

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o incremento em diâmetro da espécie Swietenia machophylla em um sistema Agroflorestal. Em uma área de 1 ha foram alocadas 5 parcelas de 12 x 24 m. As medições foram realizadas em  três ocasiões, sendo: Janeiro de 2014, Janeiro de 2015 e Julho de 2015. Para construção dos histogramas de frequência foram testados os métodos de Sturges e “empírico”. Em um segundo plano histogramas de crescimento foram elaborados tendo em vista a visualização dos diâmetros de cada indivíduo para análise do incremento em diâmetro. O melhor resultado para construção dos histogramas foi o método “empírico”, pois apresentou menor erro. O incremento no DAP médio foi de 0,58 cm entre as três medições, no primeiro período o incremento em diâmetro foi de 11,32, no segundo 11,76 cm e no último 11,90 cm.

  4. Interesterification of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla) fat--canola oil blend with lipase from Candida antarctica to simulate the properties of lard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illiyin, Mohamed Roslan Nur; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed Nazrim; Loke, Mei Key; Shuhaimi, Musthafa; Mahiran, Basri; Miskandar, Mat Saari

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare the composition and thermal properties of lard (LD) and engkabang fat (EF) - canola oil (CaO) blend interesterified with Candida antartica lipase (C. antartica). A fat blend EF-4 (40% EF in CaO) was prepared and interesterified using C. antartica lipase at 60°C for different time intervals (6 h, 12 h and 24 h) with 200 rpm agitation. The fat blends before and after interesterification were compared to LD with respect to their slip melting points (SMP), fatty acid and triacyglycerol (TAG) compositions, melting, solidification and polymorphic properties. Result showed that the slip melting point (SMP) of the fat blend interesterified for 6 h was the closest to that of LD. The solid fat content (SFC) values of fat blends interesterified for 12 and 24 h were found to become equal to those of LD within the temperature range of 0 to 20°C. In addition, all three interesterified blends had SFC values similar to those of LD within the temperature range of 30-40°C. According to thermal analysis, the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 24 h appearing at -2.39°C was similar to the low melting thermal transition of LD and the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 12 h appearing at 26.25°C was similar to the high melting thermal transition of LD. However, there is no compatibility between LD and all three interesterified blends with regard to polymorphic behaviour.

  5. Estimating the number of trees and forest area necessary to supply internationally traded volumes of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Grogan; M. Schulze

    2008-01-01

    requires producer nations to certify that exported supplies were obtained in a manner non-detrimental to the species’ survival in its role in the ecosystem. Non-detriment findings based on annual export quotas should verify that current harvest rates are sustainable with respect to total commercial stocks. In order to assess this impact, a method for converting export...

  6. Molecular identification and safety of Bacillus species involved in the fermentation of African oil beans (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) for production of Ugba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaotu, I; Anyogu, A; Njoku, O H; Odu, N N; Sutherland, J P; Ouoba, L I I

    2013-03-01

    Molecular identification of Bacillus spp. involved in the fermentation of African oil bean seeds for production of Ugba, as well as ability of the Bacillus spp. isolated to produce toxins, were investigated. Forty-nine bacteria were isolated from Ugba produced in different areas of South Eastern Nigeria and identified by phenotyping and sequencing of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes. Genotypic diversities at interspecies and intraspecies level of the isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). The ability of the bacteria to produce toxins was also investigated by detection of genes encoding production of haemolysin BL (HblA, HblC, HblD), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC), cytotoxin K (CytK) and emetic toxin (EM1) using PCR with specific primers. Moreover, a Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) was used to screen ability of the isolates to produce haemolysin in broth and during fermentation of African oil bean seeds. The isolates were characterized as motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming, catalase positive, Gram-positive bacteria. They were identified as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (42), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (3), Bacillus clausii (1), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Bacillus subtilis (1), and Bacillus safensis (1). B. cereus was the predominant Bacillus species and was present in all samples studied. Using ITS-PCR, interspecies diversity was observed among isolates, with six clusters representing each of the pre-cited species. Rep-PCR was more discriminatory (eight clusters) and allowed further differentiation at intraspecies level for the B. cereus and L. xylanilyticus isolates with two genotypes for each species. Genes encoding production of non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and cytotoxin K (CytK) genes were detected in all B. cereus isolates, while Hbl genes (HblA, HblC, HblD) were detected in only one isolate. The emetic-specific gene fragment was not detected in any of the isolates studied. None of the toxin genes screened was detected in isolates belonging to other Bacillus species. Using RPLA, haemolysin production was detected in one isolate of B. cereus, which showed positive amplicons for Hbl genes, both during cultivation in broth and during fermentation of oil bean seeds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Management implications of long-term tree growth and mortality rates: A modeling study of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.M. Free; R.M. Landis; J. Grogan; M.D. Schulze; M. Lentini; O. Dunisch; NO-VALUE

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of tree age-size relationships is essential towards evaluating the sustainability of harvest regulations that include minimum diameter cutting limits and fixed-length cutting cycles. Although many tropical trees form annual growth rings and can be aged from discs or cores, destructive sampling is not always an option for valuable or threatened species. We...

  8. The origin of unique diversity in deglaciated areas: traces of Pleistocene processes in north-European endemics from the Galium pusillum polyploid complex (Rubiaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Filip; Píšová, Soňa; Záveská, E.; Fér, T.; Weiser, M.; Ehrendorfer, F.; Suda, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2015), s. 1311-1334 ISSN 0962-1083 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : glatiation * hybridization * phylogeography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.947, year: 2015

  9. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities evaluation of the leaves extracts of Chomelia obtusa Cham. and Schltdl. (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Michely Pereira de; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Costa, Willian Ferreira da; Vidotti, Gentil Jose; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Souza, Maria Conceicao de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2008-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Chomelia obtusa leaves led to the isolation of four triterpenes (3-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glycopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glycopyranosyl cincholic acid, and a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids), two flavonoids (3-O-β-D-glycopyranosyl quercetin, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside] quercetin), besides bornesitol and a mixture of 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoyl quinic acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were evaluated. This is the first report on the chemical and biological investigation of the Chomelia genus. (author)

  10. The genera Mitchella and Damnacanthus. Evidence for their close alliance; comments on the campylotropy in the Rubiaceae and the circumscription of the Morindeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbrecht, E.; Puff, C.; Igersheim, A.

    1991-01-01

    The two species of Mitchella (Southeast Asian and North American) and several species of the Southeast Asian genus Damnacanthus are investigated. Vegetative character states (growth form, branching pattern, leaves) of the two genera are described and compared. Damnacanthus always exhibits

  11. Pollination ecology and fruiting behavior of Pavetta indica L. (Rubiaceae, a keystone shrub species in the southern Eastern Ghats forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Solomon Raju

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pavetta indica is a massive bloomer for a brief period in May.  The flowers are hermaphroditic, strikingly protandrous, self and cross-compatible, nectariferous and psychophilous.  They possess secondary pollen presentation mechanism as a device to avoid autonomous autogamy but it does not prevent geitonogamy.  The fruit set largely occurs through geitonogamy and xenogamy.  Butterflies, especially papilionids, pierids, nymphalids, and sphingid hawk moth pollinate the flowers while collecting nectar.  Honey bees and blue-banded digger bees feed on pollen and effect only accidental pollination.  The nectar is sucrose-rich and contains essential and non-essential amino acids.  Birds are seed dispersal agents. Seeds are non-dormant and germinate readily during rainy season but their continued growth and establishment is subject to the availability of soil moisture and nutrients.  The plant is not able to populate itself in its natural area.  The local uses of different parts of the plant have been found to be affecting its reproductive success and natural regeneration rate.  Therefore, regulation of the uses of this plant is recommended for its survival and restoration of its population size in the natural areas due to its role as a keystone species for bees and butterflies during dry season. 

  12. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana das partes aéreas (folhas e caules e raízes de Richardia brasiliensis Gomez (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adda Daniela Lima Figueiredo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Richardia brasiliensis é uma planta utilizada popularmente como expectorante, emética, diaforética, vermífuga e para o tratamento de hemorróidas. O presente estudo objetivou realizar a prospecção fitoquímica e avaliar a ação antimicrobiana do extrato bruto das partes aéreas e raízes de R. brasiliensis. O extrato etanólico bruto foi obtido a partir do material botânico dessecado e pulverizado. O pó das partes aéreas e raízes foram submetidos à triagem fitoquímica. A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada contra bactérias Gram-positivas esporuladas e não esporuladas, Gramnegativas e a levedura Candida albicans através da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima por diluição em ágar empregando-se o inoculador de Steers. A triagem fitoquímica evidenciou a presença de esteróides, triterpenóides, cumarinas, resinas, alcalóides e flavonóides. A CIM do extrato das partes aéreas variou de 0,37 a 0,74 mg/mL e das raízes de 0,74 a 11,9 mg/ mL. Concluiu-se que tanto o extrato etanólico bruto das partes aéreas quanto das raízes apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antimicrobiana. CIM. Plantas medicinais.

  13. SUBSTRATOS E NÍVEIS DE LUMINOSIDADE NO CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE MUDAS DE Tocoyena formosa(Cham. & Schltdl. K. Schum. (RUBIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaliny Bonamigo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best substrate type and light conditions for the cultivation of seedlings of Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl. K. Schum. Seeds were planted in Styrofoam trays under 70% shading. Three months after emergence, the seedlings were selected and transplanted in 4-L pots, in two types of substrates: 50% dystroferric Red Latosol + 50% sand (TA and 50% dystroferric Red Latosol + 25% sand + 25% semi-decomposed chicken manure (TACF. After transplanting, the seedlings were placed under three conditions of shading (30, 50 and 70% shade and full sun (0% shade. After acclimation, the physiologic quality of the seedlings was determined monthly, by analysis of growth and Dickson quality index, for 270 days. The experiment was carried out using a randomized block design in a 2 x 4 x 4 factorial scheme (substrate x shading x age of seedling, with three repetitions of three seedlings. There was greater growth and quality of the seedlings in the substrate soil + sand + chicken manure and under conditions of 30% shade and full sun. It is concluded that for the production of seedlings of Tocoyena formosa, the best conditions are 30% shade and full sun for light and TACF for substrate.

  14. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of natural and hemisynthetic flavonoids from Gardenia oudiepe (Rubiaceae) in vitro and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, M D; Paulino Zunini, M; Vera, B; Bouzidi, C; Dumontet, V; Abin-Carriquiry, A; Grougnet, R; Ortega, M G

    2018-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO), an enzyme widely distributed among mammalian tissues, is associated with the oxidation of xanthine and hypoxanthine to form uric acid. Reactive oxygen species are also released during this process, leading to oxidative damages and to the pathology called gout. Available treatments mainly based on allopurinol cause serious side effects. Natural products such as flavonoids may represent an alternative. Thus, a series of polymethoxyflavones isolated and hemisynthesized from the bud exudates of Gardenia oudiepe has been evaluated for in vitro XO inhibitory activity. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were more active than the reference inhibitor, Allopurinol (IC 50  = 0.25 ± 0.004 μM) with IC 50 values of (0.004 ± 0.001) μM, (0.05 ± 0.01) μM and (0.09 ± 0.003) μM, respectively. Structure-activity relationships were established. Additionally, a molecular docking study using MOE™ tool was carried out to establish the binding mode of the most active flavones with the enzyme, showing important interactions with its catalytic residues. These promising results, suggest the use of these compounds as potential leads for the design and development of novel XO inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb. DC. (Rubiaceae, a key nectar source for butterflies during the summer season in the southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wendlandia tinctoria is a semi-evergreen tree species. It shows massive flowering for about a month during March-April. The floral characteristics such as the white colour of the flower, lack of odour, short-tubed corolla with deep seated nectar having 15-18% sugar concentration are well tailored for visitation by butterflies. The nectar is hexose-rich and contains the essential amino acids such as arginine and histidine and the non-essential amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glysine, hydroxyproline, tyrosine, glutamic acid and serine. The inflorescences with clusters of flowers provide an excellent platform for foraging by butterflies. The flowers are long-lived and attractive to butterflies. A variety of butterflies visit the flowers for nectar and in doing so, they pollinate them. Nymphalids are very diverse and utilize the flowers until exhausted. The flowers being small in size with a small amount of nectar compel the butterflies to do a more laborious search for nectar from a greater number of flowers. But, the clustered state of the flowers is energetically profitable for butterflies to reduce search time and also flight time to collect a good amount of nectar; such a probing behaviour is advantageous for the plant to achieve self- and cross-pollination. Therefore, the study shows that the association between W. tinctoria and butterflies is mutual and such an association is referred to as psychophilous. This plant serves as a key nectar source for butterflies at the study site where floral nectar sources are scarce during the summer season.

  16. Phylogeny predicts the quantity of antimalarial alkaloids within the iconic yellow Cinchona bark (Rubiaceae: Cinchona calisaya)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maldonado Goyzueta, Carla Brenda; Barnes, Christopher James; Cornett, Claus

    2017-01-01

    twenty-two C. calisaya stands sampled in the Yungas region of Bolivia. Climatic and soil parameters were characterized and bark samples were analyzed for content of the four major alkaloids using HPLC-UV to explore the utility of evolutionary history (phylogeny) in determining variation within species...

  17. Efeito protetor da acetamida em bovinos indica monofluoroacetato como princípio tóxico de Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago C. Peixoto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar o efeito protetor da acetamida nas intoxicações experimentais por monofluoroacetato (MF e por folhas frescas de Palicourea marcgravii em bovinos, no intuito de confirmar, de forma prática, que esse composto é o princípio tóxico responsável pelo quadro clínico-patológico e pela morte dos animais intoxicados por essa planta. Três bovinos receberam MF, por via oral, na dose de 0,5mg/kg e, em seguida, a dois desses animais administraram-se acetamida, por via oral, nas doses de 0,38 e 2,0g/kg. Outros dois bovinos receberam 1,0g/kg de P. marcgravii, em seguida, a um deles administrou-se 1,0 g/kg de acetamida. Acetamida, quando administrada em quantidades suficientes (maior dose, evitou o aparecimento dos sinais clínicos e a morte de todos os animais que receberam MF ou P. marcgravii. Tal efeito protetor foi, de fato, confirmado após uma semana, quando o mesmo protocolo experimental foi repetido, para cada bovino, porém sem a administração de acetamida. Todos os bovinos não tratados com acetamida manifestaram sinais clínicos e morreram subitamente. O quadro clínico-patológico manifestado pelos bovinos intoxicados por MF ou P. marcgravii foi semelhante e, caracterizou-se por "morte súbita". Os animais em geral, apresentaram taquicardia, taquipnéia, tremores musculares, jugular repleta com pulso venoso positivo, polaquiúria, instabilidade, perda de equilíbrio, por vezes, cambaleavam e apoiavam a cabeça no flanco. Na fase final, todos os animais deitavam-se e levantavam-se com maior frequencia, deitavam ou caíam em decúbito lateral, esticavam os membros, faziam movimentos de pedalagem, apresentavam respiração ofegante, arritmia, opistótono, nistagmo, mugiam e morriam. A duração da "fase dramática" variou de 2 a 26min. À necropsia verificaram-se, em geral, aurículas, jugulares, ázigos e pulmonares leve a moderadamente ingurgitadas, leve a acentuado edema da subserosa da vesícula biliar, sobretudo, na sua inserção no fígado, bem como moderada quantidade de líquido espumoso róseo na traquéia e brônquios. O exame histopatológico revelou, no rim de todos os animais, leve até acentuada degeneração hidrópico-vacuolar das células epiteliais dos túbulos uriníferos contornados distais associada à picnose nuclear; no fígado, havia leve a moderada congestão, discreta a moderada tumefação e moderada vacuolização de hepatócitos, predominantemente, centrolobular, necrose de coagulação individual ou de grupos de hepatócitos e corpúsculos de choque. Os dados obtidos neste trabalho comprovam, de forma prática, que MF é o princípio tóxico de P. marcgravii responsável pelo quadro clínico-patológico e a morte dos animais que ingerem e se intoxicam naturalmente por essa planta, uma vez que a acetamida atua como antídoto eficaz (efeito antagônico de forma idêntica em ambas as intoxicações.

  18. Auxin transport inhibitor induced low complexity petiolated leaves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-15

    Apr 15, 2013 ... Moraceae. Moll. (. 1934. ) which encircles the internode stem. Platanus occidentalis. Platanaceae. Moll. (. 1934. ) to some distance. Rheum rhaponticum. Polygonaceae. Moll. (. 1934. ) Galium cruciata. Rubiaceae. Strasburger et al. (. 1976. ) Dentella repens. Rubiaceae. Strasburger et al. (. 1976. ) Calamus.

  19. Eficiência do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss como barreira natural ao ataque de Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae sobre o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King The efficiency of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss as natural barrier to attack by Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on the Brazilian mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King

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    Maria Clese Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência da espécie Azadirachta indica como barreira natural ao ataque da Hypsipyla grandella sobre o mogno em diferentes arranjos e densidades de plantio foi, avaliada. O estudo foi realizado numa área de pastagem degradada em Vigia, PA. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com cinco repetições, sendo as formas de cultivo do mogno as parcelas, e as épocas de avaliação (meses as subparcelas. A barreira natural formada pelo nim não evitou o ataque de H. grandella sobre o mogno, mas retardou e minimizou o ataque em plantios mistos. Para o maior controle do ataque de H. grandella, o mogno não deve ser plantado simultaneamente com o nim, mas um ano após o plantio do nim, quando este apresenta mais de três metros de altura, formando uma barreira natural mais eficaz ao ataque desta praga.The efficiency of Azadirachta indica as natural barrier against the attack by Hypsipyla grandellaon mahogany in different arrangements and planting densities was evaluated. The study was carried out in degraded pasture in Vigia, Pará. The experimental design was a randomized block in split plot in time with five replications, the forms of cultivation of mahogany as plots and the evaluation periods (months as the subplots. The natural barrier formed by neem did not prevent the attack of H. grandella on mahogany, but delayed and minimized the attack in mixed plantings. It is recommended that mahogany should not be planted simultaneously with the neem, but a year after planting the neem, when it has more than three meters in height, forming a natural barrier more effective to pest attack.

  20. Avaliação do plantio homogêneo de mogno, Swietenia macrophylla King, em comparação com o plantio consorciado com Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, após 40 meses de idade Evaluation of mahogany homogenous stands, Swietenia macrophylla King, compared to mixed stands with Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, 40 months after planting

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    Assis Brasil Guimarães Neto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Na Amazônia, plantios de mogno têm sido limitados por ataques de Hypsiphylla grandella Zeller. No entanto, plantios em áreas urbanas em Brasília vêm apresentando bom desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi observar o comportamento do mogno em plantios homogêneo e consorciado. Para isso foi instalado um experimento na Fazenda Água Limpa, da Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Distrito Federal, com dois tratamentos: plantio homogêneo e plantio misto com eucalipto. O primeiro consistiu no plantio homogêneo de mogno e o segundo, consorciado com eucalipto. Foram medidas as variáveis altura aos 7, 12, 15, 24, 28, 36 e 40 meses de idade e diâmetro aos 7, 24, 28, 36 e 40 meses. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo os tratamentos as parcelas e o tempo, as subparcelas. A altura média aos 40 meses do consórcio foi de 2,28 m e do homogêneo, de 3,45 m, sendo as alturas máximas, respectivamente, de 4,15 e 5,17 m. O diâmetro médio também foi maior no tratamento homogêneo do que no consórcio (4,08 e 6,92 cm, respectivamente. A mortalidade situou-se em torno de 20%, tanto no plantio homogêneo quanto no consorciado, não havendo diferenças significativas. O ataque das larvas de H. grandella foi menor no plantio consorciado, indicando que o eucalipto serve como barreira física, diminuindo o ataque da praga, porém a competição de ambos ocasionou menor crescimento do mogno.In the Amazon, plantations of mahogany have been limited by attacks of Hypsiphylla grandella Zeller. On the other hand, urban plantings in Brasília have developed well. The objective of this work was to observe the development of mahogany in homogenous or in mixed stands with eucalypts planted in the Água Limpa farm at the University of Brasilia - Federal District. The variables height, at 7, 12, 15, 24, 28, 36 and 40 months of age, and diameter, at 7, 24, 28, 36 and 40 months were measured. A split-plot entirely randomized design was used, the treatments being the plot and time the sub-plot. The average height of mahogan 40 months after planting in the mixed stands was of 2.28 m, whereas in homogenous stands it was 3.45 m and the maximum heights recorded were 4.15 m and 5.17 m respectively. The average diameter was also larger in the homogenous stand, with 6.92 cm compared to 4.08 cm for the mixed stands. Mortality was around 20% under both conditions. Attacks by H. grandella larvae was less in mixed stands, indicating that the eucalypts may function as a barrier, reducing the attack.

  1. Chemical constituents of the leaves and anti-inflammatory activity evaluation of extracts of roots and leaves of Guettarda pohliana Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos das folhas e avaliacao da atividade anti-inflamatoria de extratos das raizes e folhas de Guettarda pohliana Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, Glaucio; Oliveira, Paulo Roberto Neves de; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da; Schuquel, Ivania Teresinha Albrecht; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira, E-mail: smoliveira@uem.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Kato, Lucilia; Oliveira, Cecilia Maria Alves de [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Samambaia, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Departamento de Farmacologia e Terapeutica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringa, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This phytochemical investigation of Guettarda pohliana leaves led to the isolation of the triterpenes pomolic acid, rotundic acid, 3b,6a,19a,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, clethric acid, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, the monoterpenoids loliolide and secoxyloganin, besides daucosterol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of NMR data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanolic extracts from leaves and roots, as well as of their fractions, was evaluated. (author)

  2. Biologia reprodutiva de Psychotria spectabilis Steyrm. e Palicourea cf. virens (Poepp & Endl. Standl. (Rubiaceae em uma floresta tropical úmida na região de Manaus, AM, Brasil Reproductive biology of Psychotria spectabilis Steyrm. and Palicourea cf. virens (Poepp. & Endl. Standl. (Rubiaceae in a moist tropical forest at Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilene dos Anjos Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve a fenologia reprodutiva, morfologia e biologia floral, polinização e sucesso reprodutivo de Psychotria spectabilis e Palicourea cf. virens. Psychotria spectabilis floresceu de setembro a dezembro enquanto Palicourea cf. virens floresceu de maio a outubro. As inflorescências de Psychotria spectabilis são inflorescências terminais do tipo capítulo, com brácteas amarelas, flores brancas e heterostilia associada a diferenças na papila estigmática. Palicourea cf. virens apresenta inflorescências terminais do tipo corimbo, com flores amarelas homostílicas. Os recursos florais oferecidos foram néctar e pólen em ambas as espécies. Os beija-flores Phaethornis bourcieri e o macho de Thalurania furcata foram os principais visitantes florais de Psychotria spectabilis. Palicourea cf. virens também foi visitada por Thalurania furcata, com maior freqüência de visitas pela fêmea desta espécie. A abelha Trigona fulviventris visitou as flores das duas espécies, mas se comportou como pilhadora. O sucesso reprodutivo pré-emergente (SRPE das duas espécies foi baixo, embora tenham apresentado um alto potencial reprodutivo.This study describes the reproductive phenology, floral biology, pollination and reproductive success of Psychotria spectabilis and Palicourea cf. virens. Psychotria spectabilis flowered from September to December while P. cf. virens flowered from May to October. The terminal inflorescence of Psychotria spectabilis is of the capitate type with yellow bracts, white flowers and heterostyly associated with differences of stigmatic papillae. The terminal inflorescence of Palicourea cf. virens is a corymb with yellow, homostylous flowers. Flower resources include nectar and pollen for both species. The hummingbirds Phaethornis bourcieri and the male of Thalurania furcata were the main floral visitors of Psychotria spectabilis. Palicourea cf. virens was also visited by T. furcata, but the female was the main visitor. Trigona fulviventris visited flowers of both species, but was considered a thief. Pre-emergent reproductive success (PERS of these two species was low, although they showed high reproductive potential.

  3. Fenologia, morfologia floral e visitantes de Psychotria brachypoda (Müll. Arg. Britton (Rubiaceae em uma área de Floresta Atlântica, Sudeste do Brasil Phenology, floral morphology and visitors of Psychotria brachypoda (Müll. Arg. Britton (Rubiaceae in Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Coutinho Nery Fonseca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foram descritos o padrão fenológico, biologia floral, visitantes florais mais freqüentes e taxa de formação de frutos de Psychotria brachypoda, em uma área de Floresta Atlântica. O padrão de floração foi anual e intermediário, ocorrendo entre agosto e janeiro. A produção de frutos maduros ocorreu de março a julho/2004 e de fevereiro a maio/2005. O comprimento e o diâmetro da corola das flores brevistilas foram maiores que das longistilas. Apesar de não ter havido hercogamia recíproca exata, houve sobreposição entre as alturas dos estigmas das flores longistilas com os estames das brevistilas e vice-versa. O néctar apresentou maior concentração média de açúcares às 06:30 h (33% e menor às 14:30 h (26%. Flores cujo néctar foi coletado ao longo do dia produziram em média três vezes mais néctar que as flores que tiveram o néctar coletado apenas no final do dia. Foram encontrados 24 indivíduos brevistilos e 25 longistilos, indicando que a população é isoplética. Os principais visitantes florais foram machos e fêmeas do beija-flor Thalurania glaucopis, abelhas da tribo Trigonini e do gênero Euglossa, três espécies de lepidópteros, um díptero e um coleóptero. Houve formação de frutos verdes em 13,3% do total de flores marcadas e a taxa de produção de frutos foi similar entre os morfotipos florais. É provável que o principal polinizador de P. brachypoda seja o beija-flor T. glaucopis porque ele visita com freqüência muitas flores de diferentes indivíduos, provavelmente transferindo pólen entre eles.In this paper, the phenological pattern, floral biology, most frequent floral visitors and fruit set of Psychotria brachypoda are described. This study was carried out in Atlantic forest from October 2003 to September 2005. Flowering was annual and intermediate, occurring from August to January. Mature fruit production occurred from March to July 2004 and from February to June 2005. Corolla length and diameter of thrum flowers were larger than those of pin flowers. Although stigma length corresponded approximately to stamen length in each morph, exact reciprocal hercogamy did not occur. The nectar was more concentrated at 06:30h (33% and more diluted at 14:30h (26%. Flowers in which nectar was collected throughout the day had about three times more nectar than flowers in which nectar was collected once at the end of the day. There were 24 plants with thrum flowers and 25 plants with pin flowers, indicating an isopletic population. The main floral visitors were females and males of the hummingbird Thalurania glaucopis, bees of the tribe Trigonini and of the genus Euglossa, three Lepidoptera species, one Diptera species and one Coleoptera. Fruit was produced in 13.7% of the total number of marked flowers, with similar production in both morphs. Thalurania glaucopis is probably the most important pollinator of P. brachypoda, because it often visits many flowers from different individuals of P. brachypoda, probably transferring pollen among them.

  4. Fenologia de Psychotria nuda e P. Brasiliensis (Rubiaceae em uma área de Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil Phenology of Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis (Rubiaceae in an area of the Atlantic Forest, Southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Medeiros de Almeida

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve os padrões fenológicos de duas espécies simpátricas, Psychotria nuda e P. brasiliensis, comparando-as quanto à fenologia e à distribuição espacial e relacionando os eventos fenológicos a fatores abióticos (pluviosidade, temperatura e fotoperíodo e bióticos (freqüência de polinizadores e de frugívoros. O estudo foi realizado entre agosto/1998 e julho/1999 em uma área de Floresta Atlântica pouco perturbada antropicamente, na Ilha Grande, RJ. Foram feitas observações mensais das fenofases, dos visitantes florais e dos consumidores de frutos de ambas as espécies estudadas. A emissão foliar de P. nuda e de P. brasiliensis ocorreu de novembro/1998 a maio/1999, havendo correlação positiva significativa desta fenofase com o fotoperíodo, com a pluviosidade média (normais climatológicas e com a temperatura média (normais climatológicas para ambas as espécies. O período de floração ocorreu entre março e junho/1999 para P. nuda e entre abril e julho/1999 para P. brasiliensis. As flores das duas espécies de Psychotria foram visitadas principalmente por uma espécie de beija-flor, Thalurania glaucopis, cujos machos foram os visitantes florais mais comuns em P. nuda com 47,2% (n=682 das visitas, e as fêmeas em P. brasiliensis com 85,1% (n=1869 das visitas. As duas espécies vegetais floresceram no mesmo período, compartilharam as mesmas espécies de polinizadores, mas não necessariamente devem competir por este recurso, rejeitando-se, portanto, a hipótese do compartilhamento do polinizador. O período de frutificação ocorreu ao longo de todo o ano para as duas espécies. A espécie de ave Lipaugus lanioides (Cotingidae foi o consumidor de frutos mais freqüente em P. brasiliensis. Ambas as espécies de plantas estudadas tiveram padrão de distribuição espacial do tipo agregado e foi evidenciada reprodução vegetativa para um indivíduo de P. nuda. Este estudo sugere que ambas as espécies de Psychotria são importantes recursos para espécies de aves de Floresta Atlântica.We compared two sympatric species of Psychotria (P. brasiliensis and P. nuda, regarding phenology and spatial distribution. The phenological events were associated with abiotic factors (rainfall, temperature and photoperiod and biotic factors (pollinators and frugivores. We carried out the study between August/1998 and July/1999 in an undisturbed area of the Atlantic Forest at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro. We made phenological observations and also recorded the species visiting the flowers and eating the fruits of both plant species. The production of new leaves occurred from November/1998 to May/1999 for both species. There was a positive correlation between photoperiod, rainfall and temperature (climatological means and leafing period. The flowering period was between March and June for P. nuda and, April and July for P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda was visited mainly by males of an species of hummingbird, Thalurania glaucopis (Trochilidae (47,2%; n=682, while P. brasiliensis was visited by females (85,1%; n=1869 of this hummingbird species. Both species flowered in the same period, used the same pollinator, but may not compete for this resource, thus we rejected the "shared-pollinator" hypothesis. The fruiting period ocurred all year round for P. nuda and P. brasiliensis. Lipaugus lanioides, was the most frequent frugivore in P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis had clumped distribution, apparently due to vegetative reproduction, mostly by P. nuda. This study suggests that both species of Psychotria are important resources for Atlantic Rain Forest bird species.

  5. Superfície da lâmina foliar de Psychotria nuda (Cham. & Schltdl. Wawra, P. leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl., P. stenocalyx Müll. Arg. e P. tenuinervis Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae Leaf surface of Psychotria nuda (Cham. & Schltdl. Wawra, P. leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl., P. stenocalyx Müll. Arg. e P. tenuinervis Müll. Arg. [Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardoso Vieira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados dados relativos à micromorfologia da superfície foliar de quatro espécies de Psychotria. O estudo foi realizado em indivíduos que ocorrem na Floresta Pluvial Tropical (Mata Atlântica. Atenção especial é dada ao tipo de cera epicuticular e da escultura da superfície dos estômatos, papilas e demais células epidérmicas.Micromorphology characteristics of foliar surface of Psychotria specimens are presented. The material studied was collected from specimens which grow in Tropical Rain Forest (Mata Atlântica. Special focusing is concentrated on the epicuticular wax type, as well as on the sculpture of the surface of stomata, papillae and other epidermic cells.

  6. Regeneração de Psychotria suterella Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae em uma paisagem fragmentada de Floresta Atlântica no Sudeste do Brasil. Regeneration of Psychotria suterella Müll. Arg. (Rubiaceae in a fragmented landscape of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fessel BERTANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A fragmentação de florestas pode afetar processos demográficos relacionados à regeneração de populações de plantas. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar se a regeneração de populações de Psychotria suterella, espécie arbustiva comum de sub-bosque na área de estudo, difere entre ambientes de floresta contínua e fragmentos de Mata Atlântica. A coleta de dados foi realizada na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande e fragmentos adjacentes nos municípios de Cotia e Ibiúna, SP. Foram amostradas, em parcelas de 0,5 ha, nove populações em três áreas de floresta contínua, três fragmentos conectados e três fragmentos isolados, totalizando 4,5 ha. A densidade de indivíduos e de jovens foi significativamente diferente entre as áreas, independente do grau de isolamento. A densidade de indivíduos jovens foi menor nos fragmentos isolados. A proporção de indivíduos jovens aumentou em áreas com maior intensidade de luz e diminuiu com o aumento do tamanho dos fragmentos. Não houve diferenças nas taxas de germinação entre as populações de mata contínua e dos fragmentos isolados. As variações encontradas na densidade de plântulas não estão relacionadas ao potencial germinativo das sementes. A diminuição de habitat e aumento da disponibilidade de luz estiveram relacionados com a maior proporção de jovens nas populações, o que pode ter efeito futuro na viabilidade destas populações, pela baixa disponibilidade de indivíduos reprodutivos. Esses fatores provavelmente atuam de maneira indireta na estrutura populacional. The forest fragmentation can affect demographic processes related to the regeneration of plant populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether the regeneration of Psychotria suterella populations, common understory species in the study area, differs between environments of continuous forest and fragments. Data collection was carried out in the Morro Grande Forest Reserve and adjacent fragments in the municipalities of Cotia and Ibiúna, São Paulo state. We sampled nine populations of this species in plots of 0.5 ha in three areas of continuous forest, three fragments connected and three isolated fragments totaling 4.5 ha. The density of individuals and juveniles was significantly different between areas regardless of the degree of isolation (continuous forest and fragments. The density of juveniles was lower in isolated fragments. The proportion of young individuals in the population increased in areas with high light intensity and decreased with increasing fragment size. There were no differences in germination rates between the populations of fragments and continuous forests. The variations found in seedling densities were not related to seed germination. The reduction of fragment size and increased understory light availability were related to the higher proportion of juveniles in the populations. Changes in fragments size as well as the availability of light in the fragments are probably factors that act indirectly on population structure. The diminishing habitat and increased light availability were related to the higher proportion of young people in populations, which may have future effect on the viability of these populations, by the low availability of reproductive individuals. These factors probably act indirectly on population structure.

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    and the fixed oil extracted from the seeds are used in the preparation of formulation against ... The African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seeds were purchased from a local market in ... Antimicrobial activities of Pentaclethra macrophylla seed extracts using filter paper disc method. Solvent. Zone of inhibition (mm).

  8. A conspectus of the genus Bhesa (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1958-01-01

    In his Numerical List Wallich inserted four specific epithets in the genus Kurrimia, viz 4334 K. pulcherrima Wall., 4335 K. calophylla Wall., 4336 K. paniculata Wall., and later 7200 K.? macrophylla Wall. The latter one was provided with a question mark; it was a new combination for Itea macrophylla

  9. FILOGEOGRAFÍA DE LA MOSCA FLORÍVORA Zygothrica sp. (DIPTERA: Drosophilidae) EN RELACIÓN CON LA ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL DE SU HOSPEDERO Palicourea padifolia (Rubiaceae) EN MÉXICO.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Acevedo, Vanessa Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    La filogeografía es la rama de la biogeografía que trata de los principios y procesos que rigen las distribuciones geográficas de los linajes de genes, especialmente entre y dentro de especies cercanamente relacionadas (Avise, 1998; Avise, 2000). Este tipo de análisis, y su interpretación, requieren de datos provenientes de disciplinas como la genética molecular y de poblaciones, la demografía, la biología evolutiva, la sistemática filogenética, la paleontología, la geología y ...

  10. Mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials of fruit juices of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of freeze dried fruit juices (FDFJ) of Morinda elliptica Ridl. (Rubiaceae), Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), Averrhoa bilimbi L. (Oxalidaceae), Phyllantus acidus (L.) Skeels (Phyllantaceae) and Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae) in Allium cepa L was evaluated. Testing the ...

  11. Growth of four tropical tree species in petroleum-contaminated soil and effects of crude oil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Hernández, I.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Adams, R.H.; Rivera-Cruz, M.C.; Pérez-Hernández, V.; Jarquín-Sánchez, A.; Geissen, V.; Martínez-Zurimendi, P.

    2017-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, we evaluated establishment of four tree species and their capacity to degrade crude oil recently incorporated into the soil; the species were as follows: Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany), and

  12. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Assessment Proposed SMC Military Family Housing, San Pedro, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Name MORACEAE Broussonetia papyrifera Ficus benjamina Ficus carica Ficus elastica Ficus macrophylla Ficus microcarpa Ficus rubiginosa Morus alba...Magnolia grandiflora magnolia MALVACEAE Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Malva neglecta Malva parviflora Chinese hibiscus common mallow cheeseweed MORACEAE

  13. Evaluation of Chemical Properties of Mistletoe Leaves from Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscum album) growing on three different trees: avocado pear (Persea Americana), African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) and kola (Kola nitida) was undertaken. Fresh mistletoe leaves were obtained from the three different trees and thoroughly ...

  14. Antimycobacterial activity of some medicinal plants in Niger state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten Nigerian medicinal plants Abrus precatorius, Annona senegalensis, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Crateva adansonii, Detarium microcarpum, Faba spp, Neocarya macrophylla, Ocimum gratissimum, Securidaca longpenduculata and Terminalia avicennioides used by traditional medicine practitioners for the management of ...

  15. Antidiabetic, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of Fadogia ancylantha extracts from Malawi

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nyirenda, KK

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance: Communities in Chilumba, Malawi use herbal tea prepared from Fadogia ancylantha Schweinf (Rubiaceae) leaves for the management of diabetes, hypertension and alleviation of symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders...

  16. New floristic records in the Balkans: 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    , 106-108), Linaceae (99, 100), Malvaceae (80), Orchidaceae (47, 48, 62), Plantaginaceae (101), Poaceae (73, 74), Polygalaceae (102, 103), Polypodiaceae (14, 15), Ranunculaceae (30), Rosaceae (104), Rubiaceae (31, 56, 75), Santalaceae (105), Scrophulariaceae (32, 57, 58, 72), Sinopteridaceae (13...

  17. New floristic records in the Balkans: 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    -14, 32, 65), Rosaceae (33, 66, 97), Rubiaceae (56, 73), Salicaceae (50), Scrophulariaceae (51), Valerianaceae (15) and Violaceae (57, 67). First reports for countries are: Bosnia & Herzegovina - Lactuca visianii (72), Potamogeton rutilus (29); Bulgaria - Convolvulus pilosellifolius (36), Deschampsia...

  18. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    Portulaca. Oleraceae. Laibakkundo. Portulacaceae. H. Whole plant. Moyna. Meyna laxiflora. Heibi. Rubiaceae. T. Leaves. Mugwort. Artimisia vulgaris. Laibakgou. Asteraceae. H. Leaves. Nisinda. Vitexnegundo. Urikshibi. Verbenaceae. S. Tender shoot and. Leaves. Nutgall tree. Rhuschinensis. Heimang. Annacardaceae. T.

  19. ALGUNOS HONGOS MELIOLÁCEOS DEL ESTADO DE MATO GROSSO-BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Miguel Vélez Zambrano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como propósito identificar y describir especies de Meliola (Meliolales/Ascomycetes/Ascomycota asociadas a plantas silvestres del Cerrado brasileño. Se analizaron muestras colectadas en la hacienda Pelicano del Parque Estatal Serra Ricardo Franco, situado en Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade en la frontera con Bolivia, y también en Barra do Garças, ambos sitios localizados en el Estado de Mato Grosso. A partir de la visualización de estructuras vegetativas y reproductivas de los hongos fueron montadas láminas de vidrio que contenían lactoglicerol y que fueron selladas con esmalte, para su posterior observación a través de microscopio estereoscópico y microscopio de luz. Se identificaron un total de 5 especies de Meliola, siendo estas M. alibertiae en Alibertia edulis, M. desmodii–laxiflori y M. stizolobii var. eriosematis en Desmodium spp., M. kernii en Casearia sp. Meliola voacangae en Aspidosperma nobile. Cada especie fue identificada basándose en la planta hospedera, morfología del ascoma, forma y dimensión de las ascosporas, ramificación de las hifas, distribución de los apresorios e hifopodios espermáticos en las hifas.

  20. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana do extrato etanólico bruto e frações orgânicas obtidas a partir da casca do caule da espécie Guettarda uruguensis Cham, & Scthdl, (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Schvabe Duarte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano do extrato bruto e frações obtidas das cascas do caule da espécie Guettarda uruguensis, Os ensaios antioxidantes indicaram alto potencial antioxidante, No ensaio de redução de fosfomolibdênio, a fração acetato de etila apresentou atividade antioxidante de 41,67% em relação ao padrão de ácido ascórbico e superou em 35,21% a atividade do padrão rutina, No ensaio de redução do DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, a fração acetato de etila apresentou um IC50 de 10,91 µg mL-1, valor próximo ao do ácido ascórbico (IC50 = 4,78 µg mL-1 e da rutina (IC50 = 6,62 µg mL-1, Pelo ensaio de TBA (acido tiobabitúrico o extrato bruto (IA = 71,48% e a fração hexano (IA = 47,85% apresentaram índices superiores ao controle de BHT (butil hidroxi tolueno (IA = 42,66, Através do ensaio de microdiluição em placas, foi observado que o extrato bruto e frações apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana, O estudo fitoquímico qualitativo revelou a presença de alcaloides, cumarinas, esteroides e/ou triterpenos, heterosídeos saponínicos, taninos e aminogrupos.

  1. Decomposition and Nutrient Release Patterns of Pueraria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report on a study to determine the decomposition and nutrient release patterns of Pueraria phaseoloides and Flemingia macrophylla leaf residues under two rainfall regimes in southern Cameroon. Fresh leaf material of the two legume species were put in litter bags and placed on the soil surface for 120 days at ...

  2. Le pommier de cayor, espece emblematique du Dallol Bosso (Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cayor's apple tree (Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine) Prance) is a popular oleaginous species in Dallol Bosso. The objective of this study is to analyze the various uses, the management method and the advantages and disadvantages of this tree in production systems. The data collection method is based on ethnobotanical ...

  3. [Comparative Study on Morphological Characteristics of Root of Six Species in Sect. Cruciata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-mei; Lin, Li; Wang, Zhen-heng; Ma, Xiao-hui; Zhu, Tian-tian; Jin, Ling

    2015-09-01

    To provide evidences for the identification of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix by comparing the morphological characteristics of six species of Sect. Cruciata (Gentiana macrophylla, G. crassicaulis, G. straminea, G. dahurica, G. officinalis and G. siphonantha). By microscope, the tissue characteristics with freehand section of the upper, middle and lower of root and the powder characteristics with chloral hydrate were studied. The vascular cylinder of G. crassicaulis was not split. The vascular cylinder of G. macrophylla, G. dahurica and G. officinalis, were only split in the upper part. The root of G. straminea and G. siphonantha wre completely divided into several smaller roots twisting together. There were a lot of thick walled cells in the powder of G. dahurica, G. straminea and G. siphonantha, but their shapes were different. No thick walled cells were found in the other three species. There are obviously differences among the microscopic morphological characteristics of root of six species of Sect. Cruciata, which can provide the basis for identification of Gentianae macrophyllae Radix.

  4. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Champion, loc. cit., p. 242). In the “western oak-fir forest”, which is represented at Deoban in the. Chakrata division, Jaunsar, it occurs with Abies Pindrow, Picea Morinda,. Q. dilatata, Acer Caesium, Ilex dipyrena, Rosa macrophylla, Rubus niveus,. Lonicera angustifolia, Viburnum fatens, Salix elegans, Rhamnus purpurea,.

  5. Natural resistance of plantation grown African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis and Khaya senegalensis) from Brazil to wood-rot fungi and subterranean termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tâmara Suely Filgueira Amorim França; Frederico José Nistal França; Rachel A. Arango; Bessie M. Woodward; Marina Donária Chaves Arantes

    2016-01-01

    African mahogany (Khaya spp.) has attracted the interest of the timber market in Brazil because of the quality of the wood and the similarity to the highly demanded, Brazilian mahogany (S. macrophylla King). The goal of this study was to examine natural resistance of plantation-grown African mahogany (

  6. Effect of maturity, cooking, salt and fermentation time on the quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey on the effect of seed maturity, cooking, salt and fermentation time on the quality of fermented African oil bean slices was carried out. The sensory quality of fermented “ukpaka” or “ugba” slices is enhanced when mature and ripened seeds are used for production but reduced when immature macrophylla seeds are ...

  7. Determination of Optimum Tropic Storage and Exposure Sites. Report 2. Empirical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-01

    macrophylla X Calathea A Calathea insz nus X Capparis budacca X Carludovica palmata X Cestru m X Citharexylum caudatum x Clavija x Connarcus turczinaowii x...Avicennia nitida X Calathea A’ x Carludovica palmata x Cyclanthus bipartitus N Geo noma x Laguncalaria raLemosa N L vgo diu m N Gramineae (I specie) N

  8. Nutritional status and specific leaf area of mahogany and tonka bean under two light environments Estado nutricional e área foliar específica de mogno e cumaru sob dois ambientes de luz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco de C. Gonçalves

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on nutritional status and leaf traits were carried out in two tropical tree species Swietenia macrophylla King (mahogany and Dipetryx odorata Aubl. Willd. (tonka bean planted under contrasting light environments in Presidente Figueiredo-AM, Brazil. Leaves of S. macrophylla and D. odorata were collected in three year-old trees grown under full sunlight (about 2000 µmol m-2 s-1 and natural shade under a closed canopy of Balsa-wood plantation (Ochroma pyramidale Cav. Ex. Lam.Urb about 260 µmol m-2 s-1. The parameters analysed were leaf area (LA, leaf dry mass (LDM, specific leaf area (SLA and leaf nutrient contents. It was observed that, S. macrophylla leaves grown under full sunlight showed LA 35% lower than those grown under shade. In D. odorata leaves these differences in LA were not observed. In addition, it was observed that S. macrophylla shade leaves, for LDM, were 50% smaller than sun leaves, while in D. odorata, there differences were not observed. SLA in S. macrophylla presented that sun leaves were three times smaller than those grown under shade. In D. odorata, no differences were observed. Nutrient contents in S. macrophylla, regardless of their light environments, showed higher contents for P and Ca than those found in D. odorata. The N, K, Fe and Mn contents in S. macrophylla leaves decreased under shade. Finally, we suggest that the decreasing in leaf nutrient contents may have a negative influence on leaf growth. The results demonstrated that the tested hypothesis is true for leaf traits, which D. odorata, late-successional species, showed lower plasticity for leaf traits than Swietenia macrophylla, mid-successional species.Estudou-se a nutrição mineral e as características foliares de duas espécies arbóreas tropicais Switenia macrophylla King (mogno e Dipteryx odorata Aubl Willd (cumaru plantadas sob dois ambientes de luz em Presidente Figueiredo - AM, Brasil. Folhas de S. macrophylla e de D. odorata, com três anos

  9. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 82-90 Reflections. The Spirit of Creativity and Innovation in Mathematics · S Ramanan · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 91-91 Information and Announcements. Refresher Course in 'Topics in Mathematics and Physics' · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 95-95 Flowering Trees. Alstonia macrophylla.

  10. Phosphorus fractionation and crop performance on an alfisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Sokoto phosphate rock (PR) and plant residues on soil phosphorus (P) fractions and crop performance was studied in the field on an alfisol in the derived savanna of southwestern Nigeria. The plant residues studied were leaves of Dactyladenia barteri, Flemingia macrophylla, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena ...

  11. The impact of annual and seasonal rainfall patterns on growth and phenology of emergent tree species in Southeastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; Mark Schulze

    2012-01-01

    Understanding tree growth in response to rainfall distribution is critical to predicting forest and species population responses to climate change. We investigated inter-annual and seasonal variation in stem diameter by three emergent tree species in a seasonally dry tropical forest in southeast Pará, Brazil. Annual diameter growth rates by Swietenia macrophylla...

  12. Earthworm abundance and species composition in abandoned tropical croplands: comparisons of tree plantations and secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Gonzalez; X. Zou; S. Borges

    1996-01-01

    We compared patterns of earthworms abundance and species composition in tree plantation and secondary forest of Puerto Rico. Tree plantations included pine (Pinus caribea Morelet) and mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) established in the 1930's; 1960's; and 1970's; secondary forests were naturally regenerated in areas adjacent to these plantations. We...

  13. Animal Production Research Advances - Vol 2, No 4 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cow dung and poultry droppings on plankton abundance and growth of Heterbranchus longifilis x Clarias gariepinus hybrid, reared in concrete ponds. R C Orji, E U Udonwu. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/apra.v2i4.36340 ... Aspects of teh bio-chemical compostion of Anthonotha macrophylla seeds. C S Durunna.

  14. Decomposition and nutrient release patterns of Pueraria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decomposition and nutrient release patterns of Pueraria phaseoloides, Flemingia macrophylla and Chromolaena odorata leaf residues in tropical land use ... The slowest releases, irrespective of type of leaf residue, were in Ca and Mg. The study concluded that among the planted fallows, Pueraria phaseoloides had the ...

  15. Sensory Evaluation of scomber scombrus (Mackerel) Smoked with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory characteristics (taste and appearance) of mackerel (Scomber scombrus) smoked with five different fire types woods obtained from the Tropical Rain Forest Region of Umudike in Abia State of Nigeria were evaluated. Results showed that the best taste was produced from Anthonotha macrophylla, while Dacryodes ...

  16. CHAPTER ONE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    ABSTRACTS: The antimicrobial efficacy of extracts of Pentaclethra macrophylla in ethanol, methanol and water was determined against Escherichia coli, ... problem of emergence of strains that are resistance to most present day antibiotics ..... activity of Tea against. Infection by Vibro Cholera J. Appl. Bacteriol 70:109-112.

  17. Evaluation of the Allelopathic Influence of Selected Multi-purpose Tree Species on Maize (Zea mays under a Simulated Field Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeorike, V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination and growth response of maize (Zea mays that was periodically watered with 200 ml of leaf leachates of three selected multipurpose tree species (MPTs - Inga edulis, Anthonatha macrophylla and Dactyladenia barterii were evaluated under a simulated field condition to determine their allolepathic characteristics and suitability for alley cropping. There was a significant (P <0.05 difference in the germination percentage of the maize seeds among the MPTs studied. Maximum germination percentage (76.7 % of the seeds and seedling growth as indicated by radicle length, shoot length, fresh weight and plant height at taselling were obtained from seeds watered/treated with rainwater as the control treatment. Reduction in germination percentage (33 % was observed in Anthonatha macrophylla leachates while moderate germination percentage of 50 % was observed in Dactyladenia barterii leachate. Anthonatha macrophylla leachate inhibited both radicle and shoot lenght. Similarly Inga edulis leachate had inhibiting effects on radicle and shoot of germinating maize seeds. This resuit suggets that Inga edulis, Anthonatha macrophylla and Dactyladenia barterii produce allelochems which inhibit seed germination and growth of maize under the conditions of the experiment. Investigations on allelopathic characteristics of potential MPTs could be integrated in farm planning strategies in a tropical agroecology especially where alley cropping is contemplated.

  18. CURSO DIÁRIO E SAZONAL DO POTENCIAL HÍDRICO FOLIAR DE MOGNO EM SISTEMAAGROFLORESTAL1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Ribeiro de Morais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o curso diário e sazonal do potencial hídrico foliar de mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae em sistema agroflorestal (SAF. O experimento foi realizado em árvores de S. macrophylla plantadas num sistema agroflorestal instalado no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, Manaus, AM. Avaliou-se o potencial hídrico foliar (Ψf dos cursos diário e sazonal nos anos 2004 e 2005, por meio da utilização de bomba de pressão tipo Scholander. Os resultados indicaram que os valores do Ψf de S. macrophylla, de modo geral, foram superiores no início da manhã e no final da tarde, com redução acentuada ao meio-dia, e que, em relação à sazonalidade de precipitação, as menores taxas foram reportadas para a época menos chuvosa, variando de -26 bar em 2004 para -31bar em 2005. Verificou-se que o potencial hídrico de Swietenia macrophylla em sistema agroflorestal sofreu reduções significativas em razão dos baixos índices pluviométricos entre junho e outubro de 2005.

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 215 ... Vol 17, No 1 (2005), In vitro effects of aqueous extracts of Zanthoxylum macrophylla roots on adenosines triphosphatases from human erythrocytes of ... Vol 18, No 2 (2006), Assessment of the duration of maternal antibodies specific to the homologous peste des petits ruminant vaccine “Nigeria 75/1" in ...

  20. Effect of fertilization and irrigation on nursery production of hydrangea using alternative containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container production of nursery plants using biodegradable containers has been studied in recent years as a sustainable alternative to traditional plastic containers. Plant growth and photosynthetic performance of Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Merritt’s Supreme’ were investigated in this study when they we...

  1. Over-harvesting driven by consumer demand leads to population decline: big-leaf mahogany in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; Arthur G. Blundell; R. Matthew Landis; Ani Youatt; Raymond E. Gullison; Martha Martinez; Roberto Kometter; Marco Lentini; Richard E. Rice

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand for the premier neotropical luxury timber, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), has driven boom-and-bust logging cycles for centuries, depleting local and regional supplies from Mexico to Bolivia. We revise the standard historic range map for mahogany in South America and estimate the extent to which commercial stocks have been depleted using...

  2. In vitro antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of Garhwal Himalaya medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bistorta macrophylla, B.vaccinifolia and Persicaria polystachya are used for the treatment and prevention of many ailments including tuberculosis, inflammation, pyretic, fever, flue, lungs disorders, diarrhea, vomiting, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity and hypertension. This study was aimed to evaluate the possible in vitro antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of B. macrophylla, B.vaccinifolia and P. polystachya. The results of antioxidant activity study of B. macrophylla showed maximum activity in the methanolic extracts at different concentration of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 µg/ml. The percent inhibition of writhing response by the extract was 36.18%, 44.72%, 59.21%. 67.08% and 83.39% respectively. In the present work a potent anti-oxidant activity of methanolic extract of the whole plants of B. macrophylla were demonstrated, validating the ethno pharmacological claims. These experimental findings would further establish the scientific basis of the traditional uses of the plant in the management of different conditions as well as control of different disease.

  3. Agro-science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGRO-SCIENCE

    spp): Mixture of boiled pigeon pea; cracked, soaked, and steamed cocoyama, onion, pepper, salt, fermented and sliced oil bean seed. (Pentaclethra macrophylla), and crayfish. (optional). AK-Akara (Vigna unguiculata): Wet milled dehulled cowpea whipped and mixed with pepper, onions, salt and deep fried in balls in.

  4. Silviculture guide for the mahogany forests of Quintana Roo, Mexico – Criteria and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Negreros-Castillo; L. Cámara-Cabrales; Margaret Devall; M.A. Fajvan; M.A. Mendoza Briseño; C.W. Mize

    2014-01-01

    Silviculture is the art, science and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, health, quality and growth of forests to accomplish a set of management objectives. This publication offers an approach to silviculture of the forests of Quintana Roo in which mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King), the commercially most important tree species in Latin America,...

  5. Silviculture of the mahogany forest of Quintana Roo, Mexico: criteria and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. ​​Negreros-Castillo; L. Camara-Cabrales; MS Devall; Mary Ann Fajvan; M.A. Mendoza Briseno; C.W. Mize; A. Navarro-Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Silviculture is the art, science and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, health, quality and growth of forests to accomplish a set of management objectives. This publication offers an approach to silviculture of the forests of Quintana Roo in which mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King), the commercially most important tree...

  6. Lipase Activity in Fermented Oil Seeds of Africa Locust Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Lipase Activity in Fermented Oil Seeds of Africa Locust Bean, (Parkia Biglobosa),. Castor Seeds (Ricinu Communis) and African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra Macrophylla). A.A. Liman*, P. Egwin, M.A. Vunchi and C. Ayansi. Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Applied Arts and Sciences. Federal Polytechnic ...

  7. In Vivo Evaluation of Antidiarrhoeal Activity of the Seed of Swietenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    A single oral dose of Swietenia macrophylla extract of 100mg/kg body weight produced a significant decrease in the severity of diarrhoea. Extract produced profound decrease in intestinal transit (4.45 - 34.60%) also significantly inhibited castor oil induced enteropooling comparable to that of intraperitoneal injection of.

  8. A Comparative Study Of The Phytochemical And Anti-Microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of the phytochemical and anti-microbial properties of leaves of Loranthus micranthus harvested from six host trees, namely, Irvingia gabonensis, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Kola acuminata, Baphia nitida, Persea americana and Azadirachta indica, was carried out using standard methods. The result ...

  9. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant S. macrophylla is commonly used traditionally for the treatment of diarrhoea, wound, headache, malaria, dysentery and fevers. The overall results confirm the significance of the use of the plant in traditional medicinal treatment of diarrhea, wound, headache, malaria, dysentery and fevers, in line with reported ...

  10. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Vol 6, No 3 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extract from Plants Diospyros peregrina, Coccinia grandis and Swietenia macrophylla · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Dewanjee, M Kundu, A Maiti, R Majumdar, A Majumdar, S C Mandel, 773- ...

  11. A Review of the Bio-Activity Relationship of Mistletoes and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following six host trees and their mistletoes were investigated: Azadirachta indica (neem), Psidium guajava (guava), Pentaclethra macrophylla (oil-bean), Kola acuminata (cola nut), Persea americana (avocado), and Baphia nitida (cam wood). The work showed that of the six host trees and their mistletoes studied, four ...

  12. Activities of selected medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work was designed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of some Cameroonian medicinal plants including Entada abyssinica, Entada africana, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Allexis cauliflora, Anthocleista leibrechtsiana, Carapa procera, Carica papaya and Persea americana against Gram-negative bacteria ...

  13. Storage and Organoleptic Qualities of Clarias Gariepinus Smoked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two weeks comparative studies were conducted on the efficacy of smoking Clarias gariepinus with Pentaclethra macrophylla and Elaeis guineensis using organoleptic indices as parameters. Twenty-four specimens of C. gariepinus, with mean body weight of 320±20 g were divided into two groups of twelve. Each batch ...

  14. Res Dec 07 Final 05-12-07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    client1

    GA). AC power system (4) 69 (GA). Acacia leucophloea(Roxb.)Willd. (11) 93 (FT). Acacia polycantha Willd. (9) 105 (FT). Adaptive control (9) 12 (GA). AFPs (12) 25 (GA). Alkaline ferricyanide (4) 92 (CR). Alstonia macrophylla (DC) Wall (1) (FT).

  15. Effect of Fermentation Methods on the Nutrient Profile and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of fermentation method on the nutrient profile and organoleptic characteristics of African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth). Materials and Methods: Dry and mature African oil bean seeds were cleaned, boiled, dehulled, cooked, sliced/pulverized and fermented to ugba ...

  16. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Some Simple Preservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Some Simple Preservation Methods for 'Ugba' – A Shredded Fermented African Oil Bean ( Pentaclethra macrophylla Bentham) ... Quelques méthodes simples ont été évaluées pour la conservation de l'Ugba, produit obtenu des graines écrasées etfermentées du haricot africain à huile ...

  17. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    client1

    Adaptive control (9) 12 (GA). AFPs (12) 25 (GA). Alkaline ferricyanide (4) 92 (CR). Alstonia macrophylla (DC) .... Hyperbolic tangent (7) 86 (CR). Hyper-plane (8) 76 (CR). Imagination in science Jacobus Henricus van't ... Machine intelligence (7) 61 (GA). Magic numbers (12) 6, (12) 12 (GA). Maria Goeppert Mayer (12) 6 (GA).

  18. A study of the distribution and diversity of the Family Orchidaceae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The mycorrhizae structure of orchids (orchidaceous mycorrhizae) is fairly similar to the vascular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) in that there is extensive growth of ... Cable and Cheek (1998) labelled this family as the second most important family in the region after the Rubiaceae, and the genus Bulbophyllum as the.

  19. Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

  20. In vivo anti-malarial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    of medicine is the emergence of the Peruvian (Cinchona) bark (Rubiaceae) coupled with its pharmacologically active substance, - the quinine. Quinine is a classic ... at optimum humidity for at least three days before being subjected to the experiments (2). All the experiments were carried out in a calm laboratory setting that ...

  1. A Study of the Hepatic Tolerance of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: In this study, the effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of the extract of Morinda morindoides (Baker) Milne-Redhead (Rubiaceae) on the tissue and metabolic integrity of rabbit liver was evaluated. Methods: Thirty rabbits (divided equally between male and female) were randomly distributed into five (5) groups of six (6) ...

  2. In vitro Activity of Ethanol, Cold Water and Hot Water Extracts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro evaluation was performed to determine the efficacy of ethanol, cold water and hot water extracts of the stem bark of Canthium mannii (Rubiaceae) on un-embryonated and embryonated eggs of Ancylostoma caninum obtained from the faeces of naturally infected local dogs. The extracts were diluted in distilled ...

  3. Etude de la diversité, de l'endémisme et de la distribution spatiale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude de la diversité, de l'endémisme et de la distribution spatiale des Rubiaceae de Côte d'Ivoire. Fatou Nanou Tuo, Kouao Jean Koffi, Akossoua Faustine Kouassi, Moussa Kone, Bakayoko Adama, Jan Bogaert ...

  4. Caractérisation de la Biomasse sèche des mosaïques forêt-savane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2 sept. 2013 ... Poaceae et quelques arbustes tels que Bridelia ferruginea,(Euphorbiaceae), Hymenocardia acida. (Euphorbiaceae), Nauclea latifolia (Rubiaceae) (Schnell,. 1976; Letouzey,1968; 1985). Ces bosquets forestiers sont souvent sur les socles granito-gneissique et le long des cours d'eau (White et Abernethy, ...

  5. Mitragyna ciliata and its trypanocidal activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... The trypanocidal activity of different fractions of hydroethanolic root extract of Mitragyna ciliata Aubrev and Pellegr (Rubiaceae) ... activities of oxidative stress enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the infected rats .... radical was measured by reading the absorbance at 517 nm. Vitamin E ...

  6. Diversité floristique et infiltration humaine de la forêt classée de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les familles les plus abondantes sont Fabaceae, les Rubiaceae, les Euphorbiaceae, les Moraceae, les Malvaceae, les Meliaceae, les Moraceae, les Annonaceae, les Sapindaceae et les Poaceae. Parmi ces espèces, 79 % sont des phanérophytes et 3 % des hémicryptophytes. Conclusion: Malheureusement, cette forêt est ...

  7. Assessment of Vegetation Structural Diversity and Similarity Index of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, relative density, diversity and similarity indices. The result showed that the forest reserve has one hundred and ninety species of plants belonging to sixty three families. The dominant plant families recorded in the forest are Leguminosae (12.63%), Rubiaceae (8.42%), ...

  8. The red-blue conundrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Mikkel Johansen

    2017-01-01

    Plants from the Rubiaceae family (Rubia, Galium, and Asperula) are often grouped together as madder because they have been used for dyeing red since at least the Bronze Age. The English plant name madder can be traced through the Germanic language all the way back to Proto-Indo-European (PIE), as...

  9. Palynological studies on five species of Asteraceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... It is therefore likely that the nature of the pollen grains in these species could be an evolutionary modification often ... Fossil records showed that the genus Senecio came into existence first and other genera developed from it in due course. It is likely Asteraceae and Rubiaceae have risen from a common ...

  10. 110 Évaluation de la diversité floristique en herbacées des savanes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    Nom scientifique. Famille. Station et parcelle. Akongo Tsokia Mbobo Aérodrome. P1. P2. P3 P4 P5. Abrus canesceinsWelw. Fabaceae. x x. Aframomum stipulatumK. Schum. Zingiberaceae x. Andropogon schirensisHochst. Poaceae x x x x. Aspilia dewevreiO. Offm. Asteraceae. x x. Borreria scabraK. Schum. Rubiaceae.

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mbaekwe, EI. Vol 9, No 2 (2007) - Articles Phytochemical and proximate analysis of Spermacoce ocymoides Brum F. (Rubiaceae) Abstract · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  13. Les plantes à alcaloïdes utilisées par les populations de la ville de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were distributed in 62 genera belonging to 40 families. The supply is provided from farms, secondary forests, gardens, fallows and markets. Solanaceae, Apocynaceae and Rubiaceae are rich in various alkaloids. Leaves, barks and roots are the plant parts mostly used in recipes for the treatment of various diseases.

  14. Bull.Chem.Soc.Ethiop..3(2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and of natural (6-13) or commercial origin. Many of. the alkaloids (Table 1-3) have been isolated from the following families: Loganiaceae, Rutaceae,. Rubiaceae, Papaveraceae, Leguminasae. Apocynaceae and Solanaceae. Bayluscide. (the ethanolamine salt of niclosamide supplied by Bayer of 1West Germany} was.

  15. Rubisco activity and gene expression of tropical tree species under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Light intensity is associated with the photosynthetic rate and genetic response to moderate ... light intensity. Thus, this study reviews the relationship between the physiological and Rubisco activity changes and gene expression under different light ... being the most dominant family and Rubiaceae and.

  16. Infected wound healing and antimicrobial effects of Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopdiaceae) and Mitracarpus scaber Zucc. (Rubiaceae) are herbal medicinal plants. They are commonly used in Togolese folk medicine to treat skin infections such as infected wounds, dermatoses, and scabies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the wound healing and ...

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of strictosidine synthase, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Accepted 5 August, 2011. Mitragynine is one of the most dominant indole alkaloids present in the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a species of Rubiaceae. This alkaloid is believed to be synthesized via condensation of the amino acid derivative, tryptamine and secologanine by ...

  18. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such

  19. New floristic records in the Balkans: 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    (104), Poaceae (1, 57-60, 78, 93-94), Polypodiaceae (2, 16, 17), Portulacaceae(41), Primulaceae (42), Ranunculaceae (61- 65), Rosaceae (75, 76, 91), Rubiaceae (12, 43, 98), Salviniaceae (72), Sapindaceae (44), Scrophulariaceae (45, 46), Solanaceae (47) and Urticaceae (48). First reports for countries...

  20. Floristic Diversity and Composition of Sheko Forest, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The family Orchidaceae (28) had the highest number of species followed by Rubiaceae (26), Euphorbiaceae (19), Moraceae (18) and Acanthaceae (16). A total of 24,321 individuals of woody plants (16,433 individuals per ha) were counted in the sampled plots. Twenty plant species alone constituted more than 80% of the ...

  1. Métodos alternativos para la extracción y purificación de productos naturales de interés para la industria farmacéutica

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera Vázquez, María Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 2015 Aborda el estudio de métodos de extracción para obtener antraquinonas de los tallos y hojas de Heterophylloe Hook pustulata (Rubiaceae). Estas antraquinonas han manifestado ser altamente bioactivas y potencialmente útiles desde el punto de vista terapeútico, siendo sus posibles usos como agentes antimicrobianos, antivirales, antiparasitarios y/o antitumorales.

  2. Sireeratawong et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2012) 9(4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Bark. Musa (ABB group). MUSACEAE. Root. Allium sativum L. ALLIACEAE. Bulb. Uncaria gambir (Hunter) Roxb. RUBIACEAE. Branch. Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. LEGUMINOSAE. Branch. Lawsonia inermis L. LYTHRACEAE. Leaf. Punica granatum Linn. vas granatum. PUNICACEAE. Leaf. Piper chaba Hunt. PIPERACEAE.

  3. Volatile changes in Hawaiian noni fruit, Morinda citrifolia L., during ripening and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L., Rubiaceae) have been used in traditional medicine in Polynesia, South and Southeast Asia, India, Australia, and the Caribbean, and are now attracting interest in western medicine. Fermented noni juice has been of particular interest for its demonstrated antitumor ...

  4. Gastro-protective effect of Crossopteryx febrifuga in Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparations of Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel.) Benth. (Rubiaceae) are widely used in Northern Nigeria in the therapeutic management of trypanosomiasis, malaria and painful inflammatory disorders. Previous studies have shown that the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga possesses significant ...

  5. A new rust disease on wild coffee (Psychotria nervosa) caused by Puccinia mysuruensis sp. nov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychotria nervosa, commonly called wild coffee (Rubiaceae) is an important ethno-medicinal plant in India. In 2010 a new rust disease of P. nervosa was observed in three regions of Mysore District, Karnataka (India) with disease incidence ranging from 58% to 63%. Typical symptoms of rust disease we...

  6. Lack of Ecotypic Differentiation: Plant Response to Elevation, Population Origin, and Wind in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned Fetcher; Roberto A. Cordero; Janice Voltzow

    2000-01-01

    How important is ecotypic differentiation along elevational gradients in the tropics? Reciprocal transplants of two shrubs, Clibadium erosum (Asteraceae) and Psychotria berteriana (Rubiaceae), and a palm, Prestoea acuminata var. montana (Palmaceae), were used to test for the effect of environment and population origin on growth and physiology in the Luquillo...

  7. Sewani-Rusike., Afr. J. Trad. CAM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    porridge or infusion taken orally. RUBIACEAE. Fadogia ancylantha. Makoni tea. Musvisvinwa (Sh). Root. 3-6 root pieces in zango around the waist a Sh = Shona; Nd = Ndebele. * Poisonous plant continue to use medicinal plants for contraceptive purposes. Furthermore, because abortion is illegal in. Zimbabwe, young girls ...

  8. Tolerance study of aqueous extract of Mitracarpus scaber in rabbits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was to evaluate the cardiac safety of Mitracarpus scaber (Rubiaceae) in rabbit. In this study, different batches of rabbits were injected with increasing doses of aqueous extract of Mitracarpus scaber (encoded) and changes in the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), lactate deshydrogenase ...

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of strictosidine synthase, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitragynine is one of the most dominant indole alkaloids present in the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a species of Rubiaceae. This alkaloid is believed to be synthesized via condensation of the amino acid derivative, tryptamine and secologanine by the action of strictosidine synthase (STR). The cDNA clone encoding STR ...

  10. Herbal gardens of India: A statistical analysis report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... Rubiaceae. 12. 0. 37. 13. 62. Rutaceae. 1. 6. 28. 74. 109. Salvadoraceae. 0. 0. 2. 0. 2. Santalaceae. 0. 0. 0. 27. 27. Sapindaceae. 8. 0. 0. 16. 24. Sapotaceae. 0. 0. 0. 44. 44. Saxifragaceae. 0. 1. 0. 0. 1. Scitaminaceae. 0. 3. 0. 0. 3. Scrophulariaceae. 0. 28. 0. 0. 28. Simarubaceae. 0. 0. 0. 15. 15. Smilacaceae.

  11. New floristic records in the Balkans: 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    , 104), (85), Orchidaceae (3, 30, 45, 68-71, 89, 95), Paeoniaceae (2, 27), Poaceae (14-16, 47-50, 72-74, 93, 94, 105- 109, 116, 117), Rosaceae (28, 41, 62, 102, 115), Rubiaceae (63), Saxifragaceae (64), Scrophulariaceae (86), Solanaceae (87, 88), Thymeleaceae (29), Valerianaceae (103) and Vitaceae (91...

  12. New floristic records in the Balkans: 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    -72), Liliaceae s.l. (34, 89), Onagraceae (15), Ophioglossaceae (18), Orchidaceae (78-81, 90), Papaveraceae (29), Plantaginaceae (37-41, 73), Poaceae (1, 35, 36), Polygalaceae (74), Polygonaceae (30), Primulaceae (31), Ranunculaceae (51, 75, 86), Rubiaceae (16), Rutaceae (52), Santalaceae (32), Scrophulariaceae...

  13. New floristic records in the Balkans: 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    ), (51), (20, 38-40, 54-56, 64-66), (52, 53, 65, 66, 80-84), Rubiaceae (85, 93), Saxifragaceae (57), Scrophulariaceae (21, 86, 100), Urticaceae (58). Cerastium decalvans subsp. decalvans var. kitanovii D. Dimitrov (50) is described as a new for science subsp. var. D. Dimitrov (50) is described as a new...

  14. New floristic records in the Balkans: 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    ), Rhamnaceae (9), (79, 95), (93), (14, 23, 24, 35), (64), Rosaceae (65), Rubiaceae (66), Scrophulariaceae (25, 26, 36, 73, 77, 81), Solanaceae (10, 11, 74), Thymelaeaceae (30, 67, 82), Valerianaceae (37), Verbenaceae (12), Violaceae (27) and Vitaceae (75). (30, 67, 82), (37), (12), (27) and (75).First reports...

  15. Phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatographic profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates the phytochemicals and thin layer chromatographic profile of. Nauclea diderrichii (Rubiaceae) leaf extracts. Phytochemical in the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were determined using standard chemical tests. Thin layer chromatographic techniques were carried out using various ...

  16. PROFILE OF Nauclea diderrichii LEAF EXTRACTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    ABSTRACT. The present study investigates the phytochemicals and thin layer chromatographic profile of. Nauclea diderrichii (Rubiaceae) leaf extracts. Phytochemical in the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were determined using standard chemical tests. Thin layer chromatographic techniques were carried out ...

  17. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources - Vol 8, No 2 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of extract and topical cream formulation of Mitracapus villosus (Rubiaceae) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... Phytochemical analysis and toxicological evaluation of the methanolic extract of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  18. The vegetation of the S.A. Lombard Nature Reserve and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portulaca oleracea L. (r). P. quadri/ida L. (r). Talinum caffrum E. & Z. (r). Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus mucronata Willd. (c). Z. zeyheriana Sond. (a). Rubiaceae: Kohautia cyananchica DC. (r). Anthospermum rigidum E. & Z. (c). Nenax microphylla (Sond.) Salter (a). Saxifragaceae: Vahlia capensis Thunb. (c). Scrophulariaceae:.

  19. Woody Species Composition and Structure of the Gurra Farda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty six woody species belonging to 28 families were recorded in the forest. Moraceae was found to be the dominant family in the forest with 7 species comprising 10.6 % of the total species identified followed by Rubiaceae with 6 species or 9 % of the total woody species identified. From the identified plants five species ...

  20. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) of Kakamega forest, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Sapotaceae, Rubiaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Rosaceae, and Solanaceae, while the Asteraceae provided hosts of most of the flower feeding species. The affinities of the Kakamega forest tephritid fauna with those of other regions, in particular the main central and western African rain forest and the East African coastal forests, ...

  1. Jackiopsis, a new name for Jackia Wall. (Rubiaceea – Jackieae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridsdale, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    Jackia, published by Wallich, in 1824, is a well-known genus of uncertain tribal position within the Rubiaceae. Unfortunately there is an earlier, overlooked, genus published by Blume commemorating W. Jack (1795 – 1822). This has been cited in Index Kewensis 1 (1895) 1245 as being published in 1825,

  2. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Issigoni, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    (14), Malvaceae (15), Orchidaceae (110-115), Paeoniaceae (39), Papaveraceae (40, 122), Poaceae (28-36, 57, 73-79, 140), Polygonaceae (16, 17, 128), Polypodiaceae (82), Ranunculaceae (99, 100), Resedaceae (41), Rhamnaceae (101, 102), Rosaceae (68), Rubiaceae (18, 48, 103), Sapindaceae (69...

  3. New floristic records in the Balkans: 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    , 107), Orobanchaceae (101), Phytolaccaceae (48), Plumbaginaceae (49), Poaceae (16, 17, 91–93, 118–123, 130), Polygalaceae (50), Potamogetonaceae (18), Ranunculaceae (51, 52), Rhamnaceae (10), Rosaceae (11, 12, 53–55, 84, 111, 115–117, 140), Rubiaceae (56, 57), Ruppiaceae (19), Salicaceae (58...

  4. Activité antifongique de quelques plantes de la flore ivoirienne

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    2001) ont montré l'activité antifongique des extraits dichlorométhane, méthanolique, ethanolique de Mitracarpus scaber. (Rubiaceae), sur Aspergillus flavus et C. albicans. Ils ont indiqué la présence d'alcaloïdes et de saponines dans ces extraits ...

  5. 2018-03-01T21:36:58Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    importance des familles (FIV) et la diversité sont significativement différentes dans les trois positions d'écoulement. La prédominance des Rubiaceae dans la zone intermédiaire traduit une meilleure inondation de ce site. La structure des cordons ...

  6. Diversité et structure des cordons ripicoles le long de la sirba (Nord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    importance des familles (FIV) et la diversité sont significativement différentes dans les trois positions d'écoulement. La prédominance des Rubiaceae dans la zone intermédiaire traduit une meilleure inondation de ce site. La structure des cordons ...

  7. Sterculiaceae of Paraguay. II. Waltheria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice G. Saunders

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity and geographical distribution for Waltheria species in Paraguay are presented to accompany the floristic treatment for the rest of the family given separately in Part I. In this work eight species are accepted, described, illustrated, mapped, and a key is given to facilitate their identification. Waltheria operculatabelongs to sect. Stegowaltheria, and the others are from sect. Waltheria: W. albicans, W. carmensarae, W. communis, W. indica s.l., W. macrophylla, W. procumbens, and W. viscosissima. Two species are endemic to Paraguay: W. procumbens, restricted in distribution, and W. macrophylla, collected only once and possibly extinct; both species are in need of local conservation assessment fieldwork.

  8. CCM d'extraits sélectifs de 10 plantes utilisées dans le traitement traditionnel de l'hypertension artérielle en Côte d'Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    N’Guessan , Hugues Alain; Dago , Déliko Camille Evelyne; Mamyrbékova-Békro , Janat Akhanovna; Békro, Yves-Alain

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This work has for objective to contribute to the valorization of Solenostemon monostachyus, Dieresis guineensis, Morinda lucida, Sida acuta, Paullinia pinnata, Ocimum gratissimum, Blighia unijugata, Vernonia colorata, Alchornea cordifolia and Fagara macrophylla, 10 medicinal plants used in Côte d’Ivoire in the treatment of arterial hypertension. The survey was about the phytochemical screening and the tracking of theantioxidant activity by TLC of the selective excerpts...

  9. C:\\Users\\AISA\\Desktop\\D. A. MOU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    adultes de cet insecte à base de fleurs de trois espèces végétales, à savoir Balanites aegyptiaca, Neocarya macrophylla, Acacia seyal et ... les résultats révèlent que plus la taille de la graine est importante plus le nombre d'œufs déposés est élevé. Le taux de survie ..... Reproduction et développement de B. atrolineatus Pic ...

  10. Humus forms in two secondary semi-evergreen tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Loranger, Gladys; Ponge, Jean-François; Lavelle, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The dynamics and function of humus forms in tropical forests are still poorly understood. Humus profiles in two secondary semi-evergreen woodlands in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) were analysed micromorphologically. The humus forms are described under the canopy of five dominant tree species at two sites: under Pisonia subcordata and Bursera simaruba in a secondary forest on a Leptosol (Rendzina), and under Swietenia macrophylla, Tabebuia heterophylla and B. simaruba...

  11. Wood Chemotaxonomy Via Esi-ms Profiles Of Phytochemical Markers: The Challenging Case Of African Versus Brazilian Mahogany Woods

    OpenAIRE

    Fasciotti; Maira; Alberici; Rosana M.; Cabral; Elaine C.; Cunha; Valnei S.; Silva; Paulo R. M.; Darodaa; Romeu J.; Eberlin; Marcos N.

    2015-01-01

    The harvesting of Brazilian mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) is a main cause of the Brazilian Amazon deforestation and has been therefore prohibited. African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis) was then introduced for Amazon reforestation and the commercialization of such wood is legal, thus creating a challenging problem for wood certification. Herein we report that a wood chemotaxonomic method based on distinct profiles of phytochemical markers is able to promptly characterize both the native and fo...

  12. Impact of contour hedgerows on upland maize yields in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Shively, Gerald E.

    1998-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper investigates the impact of contour hedgerows on maize yields. The author applies and agricultural production function to assess data from upland Philippine maize farms and hedgerows of double rows of the nitrogen-fixing species Desmodium rensonii and Flemengia macrophylla. Although the findings show a positive long term impact on maize yields, the short term impact of hedgerows is negative; they reduce land available for cultivation and decrease productivity...

  13. Microbial Biomass Changes during Decomposition of Plant Residues in a Lixisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachaka, SK.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A lixisol was amended with four different alley cropping species: Senna siamea, Leucaena leucocephala, Dactyladenia barteri and Flemingia macrophylla. Soil samples were incubated for 140 days at 25 °C and the soil microbial biomass was determined by the ninhydrin extraction method along the incubation period. The soil microbial biomass values ranged between 80 and 600 mg.kg-1 and followed, in all cases, the decreasing order: Leucaena> Senna> Flemingia> Dactyladenia.

  14. Isolation of Indonesian Cananga oil by instantaneous controlled pressure drop

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The isolation of cananga oil by a new process, Instantaneous Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC), was investigated. This process consists in heating the dry cananga (Cananga odorata Hook. fil. et Thomson,forma macrophylla) flowers for a short time period by steam, followed by an abrupt pressure drop into a vacuum (about 5 kPa). This pressure drop provokes auto-vaporization of the volatile compounds, puffing of flowers, breaking of cell walls and cooling. The effect of the process parameters, namel...

  15. Effect of pressure-drop rate on the isolation of cananga oil using instantaneous controlled pressure-drop process

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiawan, Magdalena; Sobolik, Vaclav; Al Haddad, Mazen; Allaf, Karim

    2008-01-01

    The isolation of Indonesian cananga oil was carried out by a new process, instantaneous controlled pressure drop (DIC). Dry cananga flowers (Cananga odorata Hook. fil. et Thomson, forma macrophylla) were exposed for a short time to saturated steam and then the pressure was abruptly decreased to a vacuum level (about 5 kPa). This abrupt pressure drop provokes auto-vaporization of the superheated volatile compounds, expansion and breaking of the cell walls and instantaneous cooling. In this ...

  16. Etude des potentialites germinatives pour une regeneration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les différents aspects germinatifs du fruit de Neocarya macrophylla, ressource génétique fruitière spontanée du Niger, ont fait l'objet d'analyses. L'étude des performances germinatives de cette espèce a donc porté sur des graines récentes et des graines conservées à la température ambiante dans des flacons en verre ...

  17. 778-IJBCS-Article-Dan Guimbo Iro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    La présente étude conduite dans le sud-ouest du Niger vise à déterminer la diversité, la structure et la régénération des espèces ligneuses des parcs à Vitellaria paradoxa et à Neocarya macrophylla. Les méthodes utilisées pour la collecte des informations sont l'inventaire des ligneux et les enquêtes ethnobotaniques.

  18. [Analysis of ISSR Amplification Results of Six Species in Sect. Cruciata Gaudin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-ping; Zhang, Hui-juan; Wang, Ya-fei; Wang, Zhe-zhi; Cao, Xiao-yan

    2015-07-01

    To identify and analyze the genetic relationship of four species of Gentiana (G. macrophylla, G. straminea, G. dahurica and G. crassicaulis) recorded as Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and two other Gentiana species (G. officinalis and G. siphonantha) often used as substitutes by ISSR, in order to estimate the reasonability of G. officinalis and G. siphonantha used as substitutes from the DNA level. Eight primers ivere screened to amplify all the samples and agarose gel electrophoresis were analyzed. NTSYSpc-2. 10E software was used to calculate similarity coefficient and draw dendrogram. Results: Nine characteristic bands were found in different species on the ISSR fingerprints and which could be used to identify five species except G. dahurica. The substitute G. officinalis firstly clustered with G. dahurica and G. siphonantha showed closer genetic relationship with G. straminea and G. dahurica. G. crassicaulis showed a far genetic relationship with the other five species. The dendrogram based on the ISSR data supports that G. officinalis and G. siphonantha can be used as substitutes of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix.

  19. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  20. CONSTITUYENTES QUÍMICOS, ACTIVIDAD INSECTICIDA Y ANTIFÚNGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Prieto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se determinó la composición química de los aceites esenciales de hojas de Ocotea longifolia y O. macrophylla obtenidos mediante destilación por arrastre con vapor, y se evaluó la actividad antifúngica e insecticida de los aceites esenciales para estimar su uso como posibles plaguicidas. El rendimiento del aceite esencial de O. longifolia fue superior al 0,2%, mientras que el rendimiento del aceite esencial de O. macrophylla fue inferior al 0,1%. El análisis de los aceites por CG/EM permitió la identificación de -terpinoleno (80,91% y -felandreno (4,74% como componentes principales del aceite O. longifolia, y espatulenol (15,91%, -muuroleno (15,4% y biciclogermacreno (14,58% como los principales componentes de O. macrophylla. El aceite esencial de O. longifolia mostró actividad fumigante significativa contra Sitophilus zeamais (CL50 280,5 L/L aire. Adicionalmente se evaluó la actividad antifúngica de los aceites esenciales, encontrándose un bajo efecto inhibidor en el crecimiento de los hongos fitopatógenos Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi y Botrytis cinerea.

  1. Land cover changes affect soil chemical attributes in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Rezende Machado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations may minimize the effects of deforestation in the Amazon. However, there are differences among species in terms of their influences on soil recovery. The effects of monospecific plantations of Acacia mangium, Dipteryx odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Parkia decussata,and Swietenia macrophylla, and areas of pasture and native forest on the chemical soil attributes of the Brazilian Amazon were evaluated. One bulked soil sample was collected per plot (0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.30 m; three plots of 128 m2 in each area. No significant differences in most of the soil attributes were observed among the forest plantations. However, soil K+ and P were higher in the Swietenia macrophylla plantations, while higher values of Ca2+, sum of bases, and pH occurred in Jacaranda copaia plantations. In the native forest, the pH, and P content were lower, whereas the soil organic matter (SOM content, soil organic carbon (SOC content, cation exchange capacity (CEC, N content, H+Al content, and Al3+ content were higher than in the plantations. The lowest values of SOM, SOC, CEC, K+, Mg2+, N, H+Al, and Al3+ occurred in the pasture. None of the forest species led to the return of the original soil chemical attributes of the native forest. However, S. macrophylla and J. copaia plantations presented the highest positive edaphic influences.

  2. Preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the Sub-Andean forest at Cuchilla El Fara (Santander-Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Ruth; Reina, Miriam; Herrera, Edna; Avila, Fabio Andres; Chaparro, Omar; Cortes B, Rocio

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the sub-Andean forest of the Cuchilla El Fara is present ed. El Fara is located at the Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque biological corridor, in the municipalities of Charala, Gambita, and Suaita (Santander-Colombia). Information on habit, local altitudinal range, and collection number is recorded for each species. A total of 409 species of vascular plants included in 226 genera, and 105 families were recorded. The families with the highest number of genera were Rubiaceae (18), Asteraceae (10), Melastomataceae (10), Orchidaceae (10), Euphorbiaceae (8), Arecaceae (7) and Fabaceae (7). At specific level, the best represented families were Rubiaceae (33), Melastomataceae (28), Lauraceae (21), Asteraceae (17), Araceae (17), Orchidaceae (17) and Gesneriaceae (15). The affinities of the flora with other Neotropical sub-Andean forests are discussed. Finally, species of all IUCN threat categories are highlighted so that the information presented here can make a contribution to restoration and conservation programs.

  3. Caractérisation de la flore adventice hypogée dans des agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au total, 39 espèces d'adventices réparties entre 33 genres, appartenant à 15 familles, ont été inventoriées. Les Dicotylédones ont éte les plus représentées, soit 64 % des espèces, les familles dominantes étant au nombre de 5 (Poaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae). Celles-ci ont renfermé, ...

  4. Scopoletin from Hymenodictyon Orixense (Roxb.) Mabb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nu Nu Swe

    2008-03-01

    Hymenodictyon orixense (Roxb). Mabb. (Ku-than) is belonging to the family Rubiaceae. It is widely distributed in Bago, Mandalay and Yangon of Myanmar. The botanical descriptions of this plant was classified, identified to confirm by the literature references. The morphological characters and preliminary phytochemical tests of the samples are described in this study. The main constituent, scopoletin was isolated from the methanolic extract of the stem bark and identified from UV, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectral data.

  5. La flora vascular de la Sierra de Chiribiquete, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés B. Rocio; Franco R. Pilar; Rangel Churio Jesús Orlando

    1998-01-01

    The preliminary checklist of Chiribiquete flora has 549 species of vascular plants, which belong to 315 genera and 107 families. The families with the highest species number were: Rubiaceae (32), Melastomataceae (31), Orchidaceae (25) and Bromeliaceae (24); there were 30% of the families represented by one species. The majar tloristic affinities of the Chiribiquete flora are with the Amazonregion and the Guayana central province. Eleven species (including ten new) are endemic to Chiribiquete ...

  6. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Octacosanol from the Leaves of Sabicea grisea var. grisea in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Anderson Marques; Conserva, Lucia M.; de Souza Ferro, Jamylle N.; de Almeida Brito, Fabíola; Lyra Lemos, Rosângela P.; Barreto, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    Sabicea species are used in the Amazon for treatment of fever and malaria, which suggests that its chemical constituents may have some effect on pain and inflammation. Phytochemical analysis of the hexane fraction obtained from the crude ethanol extract from Sabicea grisea var. grisea Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae), an endemic plant in Brazil, resulted in the isolation of octacosanol. This study investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the octacosanol in different ex...

  7. Effects of gut passage on the germination of seeds ingested by didelphid marsupials in a neotropical savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Lessa, Leonardo Guimarães; Geise, Lena; Costa, Fabiane Nepomuceno

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the effects that passage through the guts of seven didelphid species had on the seed germination of 10 plant species. This study was conducted in an area of riparian woodland in a cerrado (savanna) reserve in southeastern Brazil. We found seeds of 23 angiosperm species in 427 fecal samples obtained from seven didelphid species. The plant families most often represented by the seeds found in the fecal samples were Melastomataceae (5 species) and Rubiaceae (4 species) . Most gut-pas...

  8. Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Laura; Martinot, José Luis Silva; Franceschelli, Silvia; Leone, Arturo; Pizza, Cosimo; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2006-08-11

    Uncaria tomentosa ("Uña de gato") (Rubiaceae) is widely used in South America for treatment of gastritis, arthritis, cancer and inflammatory conditions. Recent literature reports cytostatic, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and anti-mutagenic properties of extracts of the plant. The present study investigates the possible proapoptotic mechanism via the activation of caspase3, in cytostatic effects of root bark extracts of Uncaria tomentosa on three different tumoral cell lines.

  9. Reversible worsening of Parkinson disease motor symptoms after oral intake of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Carlos; Torres, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (UT), also known as cat's claw, isa Peruvian Rubiaceae species widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a wide range of health problems. There is no report about the use, safety, and efficacy of UT in neurological disorders. We describe reversible worsening of motor signs in a patient with Parkinson disease after oral intake of UT, and some possible explanations are discussed.

  10. Grain production, nutrient concentration and utilization in response to the increase of coffee plant density

    OpenAIRE

    Lana Braccini, Maria do Carmo; UNIOESTE; Braccini, Alessandro de Lucca e; Editor Chefe - UEM; Scapim, Carlos Alberto; UEM; Vidigal Filho, Pedro Soares; UEM; Zabini, André Vinicius; UEM

    2008-01-01

    The most efficient means of improving coffee production in the first years is by mean of increasing plant density. This work had the objective of evaluating the fertilizer utilization, nutrients absorption and coffee production in relation to different plant densities. The experiment was implanted in october 1997 using coffee plants, Coffea Arabica L. (Rubiaceae), of ‘IAPAR 59’ variety. The plant densities evaluated were: 3333; 5000; 6666; 10000 and 20000 plants per hectare. The experimental ...

  11. Complex dynamics underlie the evolution of imperfect wing pattern convergence in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Susan D; Briscoe, Adriana D; Mullen, Sean P

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive radiation is characterized by rapid diversification that is strongly associated with ecological specialization. However, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms fueling adaptive diversification requires a detailed knowledge of how natural selection acts at multiple life-history stages. Butterflies within the genus Adelpha represent one of the largest and most diverse butterfly lineages in the Neotropics. Although Adelpha species feed on an extraordinary diversity of larval hosts, convergent evolution is widespread in this group, suggesting that selection for mimicry may contribute to adaptive divergence among species. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted predation studies in Costa Rica using artificial butterfly facsimiles. Specifically, we predicted that nontoxic, palatable Adelpha species that do not feed on host plants in the family Rubiaceae would benefit from sharing a locally convergent wing pattern with the presumably toxic Rubiaceae-feeding species via reduced predation. Contrary to expectations, we found that the presumed mimic was attacked significantly more than its locally convergent model at a frequency paralleling attack rates on both novel and palatable prey. Although these data reveal the first evidence for protection from avian predators by the supposed toxic, Rubiaceae-feeding Adelpha species, we conclude that imprecise mimetic patterns have high costs for Batesian mimics in the tropics. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Stipules in Apocynaceae: an ontogenetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Valle Capelli, Natalie; Alonso Rodrigues, Bruna; Demarco, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Stipules are leaf structures common in many groups of plants that can take a variety of forms. In Gentianales, interpetiolar stipules are considered a synapomorphy of Rubiaceae; however, some reports in the literature refer to their presence in other families. The goal of this study was to analyze the development of leaf primordia to investigate the possible presence of reduced or modified stipules in Apocynaceae. Shoot apices of 12 genera were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy comparatively with one species of Rubiaceae. Early in their development, leaf primordia form two lateral expansions at the base of the petiole (stipules) that give rise to colleters in 11 of the 12 genera of Apocynaceae studied, similarly to the Rubiaceae species. The basal genera have pairs of stipules modified into colleters positioned laterally to the petiole, while other species belonging to the derived subfamilies have interpetiolar stipules that each project towards the opposite stipule and merge, forming a sheathing stipule and from this arc the interpetiolar colleters originate. The ontogenetic study proved for the first time that Apocynaceae is a stipulate family whose stipules are modified into colleters and their absence might be a secondary loss, changing the interpretation of stipule evolution in Gentianales.

  13. Dormancia y tratamientos pregerminativos en las semillas de Leucaena spp. cosechadas en suelo ácido Dormancy and pregerminative treatments in Leucaena spp. seeds harvested on acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda González

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un experimento con semillas de accesiones de Leucaena spp. cosechadas en suelo ácido y almacenadas bajo condiciones ambientales, para determinar el período e intensidad de la dormancia y su ruptura. Para ello se empleó un diseño de clasificación simple y cuatro réplicas, con los siguientes tratamientos: 1 semilla sin tratar (control; 2 corte de cubierta; y 3 agua a 80°C durante 2 minutos. En cada una de las accesiones hubo diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos aplicados y los mayores valores de germinación se encontraron con el corte de cubierta. Todas las accesiones mostraron estado dormático (entre 10 y 98%, el cual se apreció en la germinación del control y en la viabilidad con el corte de cubierta. Los mayores valores de dormancia en las semillas cosechadas en el 2006 se detectaron en L. macrophylla CIAT 17233, L. macrophylla CIAT 17231, L. diversifolia CIAT 17270 y L. leucocephala IH-1140, cuya dureza fue de 98,0; 97,0; 80,0 y 74,7%, respectivamente; en las cosechadas en el 2003 y 2004, los porcentajes de dureza fueron de 89,0; 69,0 y 60,0% para L. lanceolata CIAT 17252, L. macrophylla CIAT 17238 y L. leucocephala cv. K-67, respectivamente. Se concluye que las semillas de las accesiones presentaron dormancia poscosecha, que varió entre 10 y 98%. Además la escarificación térmica provocó su ruptura, por lo que se recomienda aplicar este procedimiento antes de la siembra a las semillas de Leucaena spp. que se cosechen en suelo ácido de Cascajal.A trial was conducted with seeds of Leucaena spp accessions harvested on acid soil and stored under ambient conditions, in order to determine the period and intensity of dormancy and its breaking. For that purpose a simple classification design and four replications were used, with the following treatments: 1 untreated seed (control; 2 coat cut; and 3 water at 80ºC for 2 minutes. In each one of the accessions there were significant differences among the

  14. Gentiopicroside prevents interleukin-1 beta induced inflammation response in rat articular chondrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Ye, Juan; Wu, Guo-Tai; Peng, Xue-Jing; Xia, Peng-Fei; Ren, Yuan

    2015-08-22

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Gentiana macrophylla Pall have been prescribed for the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions. In addition, it is a common Tibetan medicinal herb used for the treatment of tonsillitis, urticaria, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), while the flowers of G. macrophylla Pall have been traditionally treated as an anti-inflammatory agent to clear heat in Mongolian medicine. The secoiridoid glycosides and their derivatives are the primary active components of G. macrophylla and have been demonstrated to be effective as anti-inflammatory agents. Solvent extraction and D101 macroporous resin columns were employed to concentratethe gentiopicroside. Gentiopicroside cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; the toxicity of gentiopicroside in chondrocytes was reconfirmed using Hoechst staining. Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were utilized to explore the protective effects and mechanisms of gentiopicroside prevents interleukin-1 beta induced inflammation response in rat articular chondrocyte. The MTT assay demonstrated that 50, 500, and 1,500 μg/mL of gentiopicroside exhibited no significant toxicity to chondrocytes (P>0.05) after 24h. Using immunohistochemistry, ELISA, RT-PCR, Western blot method to explore the protective effect and mechanism of gentiopicroside on chondrocytes induced by IL-1β. The results showed some pathways of IL-1β signal transduction were inhibited by gentiopicroside in rat chondrocytes: p38, ERK and JNK. Meanwhile, gentiopicroside showed inhibition in the IL-1β-induced release of MMPs while increasing Collagen type II expression. The current study demonstrated that gentiopicroside exhibited a potent protective effect on IL-1β induced inflammation response in rat articular chondrocyte. Thus, gentiopicroside could be a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of OA. Copyright © 2015

  15. Carbono, matéria orgânica leve e frações oxidáveis do carbono orgânico sob sistemas de aléias

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    Roni Fernandes Guareschi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os teores de carbono orgânico (COT do solo, matéria orgânica leve (MOL em água e as frações oxidáveis do COT em uma área de cultivo de milho em aléias de Flemingia macrophylla submetida a diferentes manejos de sua parte aérea. A área de estudo está localizada na “Fazendinha Agroecológica”, no município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O desenho experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 3 tratamentos e 8 repetições, consistindo dos seguintes tratamentos: testemunha (cultivo de milho com ausência de aléias; cultivo de milho em sistema de aléias com poda de 0,6 m de altura e cultivo de milho em sistema de aléias sem poda. Em cada uma das áreas foram coletadas amostras compostas nas profundidades de 0-5 cm. A presença de aléias, bem como, as podas realizadas em Flemingia macrophylla na área que essa encontrava-se associada ao cultivo de milho não alterou o teor de COT do solo. No entanto, a utilização dos caules e das folhas como adubo verde oriunda do tratamento onde se realizou a poda da parte aérea das aléias de Flemingia macrophylla, proporcionou ao solo aumento dos teores de MOL, Conteúdo de C da MOL e da fração F1.

  16. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    OpenAIRE

    Mier Barona Carmen Elena; Valverde Francisco Antonio; Bonilla Correa Carmen Rosa; Sánchez Orozco Manuel Salvador; Osorio Salazar Liliana

    2009-01-01

    En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique), Cyperus rotundus L (coquito), Sorghum bicolor<...

  17. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of ethno-pharmacological important plants of Darjeeling district of West Bengal against different human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Bipransh K; Bihani, Sony; Kumar, Anoop; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Ghosh, Runu

    2015-02-07

    Plant derived components have attracted particular attention as an alternative source to battle several diseases including cancer. The variation in the climate, the geographical location and the rich ethnomedicinal traditions has made the Darjeeling Himalayas an abode of invaluable repository of traditional medicinal plants. In this study, we explored the in vitro anticancer properties of traditionally used medicinal plants from the Darjeeling hills against different human cancer cell lines. The ethanolic leaf extracts of 30 medicinal plants were tested for their cytotoxicity against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF 7), human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2) and human cervix adenocarcinoma cell line (HeLa). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by performing MTT assay, trypan blue exclusion assay and morphological assessment under phase contrast inverted microscope. For the extracts which tested positive, IC50 (the concentration that inhibited cell growth by 50%) was calculated. The extract(s) were further subjected to Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) to determine their phytochemical profile. Out of the 30 plant extracts tested, five plants, Artemisia indica, Eupatorium odoratum, Eupatorium adenophorum, Maesa macrophylla and Phlogacanthus thyrsiformis showed a > 50% growth inhibition of cancer cell lines at a concentration of 50 μg/ml. The sensitivity to different extracts varied according to the cell type under investigation. Of these plants, Maesa macrophylla, exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity against HeLa and MCF7 cell with IC50 values of 9.55 μg/ml and 16.19 μg/ml respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids and terpenes. This is perhaps the first report of screening of traditional medicinal plants from Darjeeling district in West Bengal, India, for their cytotoxic activity against three human cancerous cell lines MCF7, HeLa and HepG2. The extracts of Maesa macrophylla

  18. BOSQUE MESÓFILO DE MONTAÑA Y ESCENARIOS DE CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: UNA EVALUACIÓN EN HIDALGO, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro I. Monterroso-Rivas; Jesús D. Gómez-Díaz; Juan A. Tinoco-Rueda

    2013-01-01

    El hábitat de ocho especies forestales (Liquidambar macrophylla, Alnus arguta, Carpinus caroliniana, Clethra mexicana, Pinus patula, Nectandra sanguínea, Podocarpus reichei y Quercus spp.) representativas del bosque mesófilo de montaña en el estado de Hidalgo se evaluó en condiciones actuales y bajo escenarios de cambio climático. Se utilizó el marco conceptual de nicho ecológico y se evaluaron doce variables: una topográfica, cinco paisajísticas y seis climáticas. Se realizó un análisis fact...

  19. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts and naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Suárez, Jeysson; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Delgado, Gabriela

    2011-02-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of ethanolic extracts and fifteen naturally-occurring compounds (five lignans, eight neolignans, a diterpene and a dihydrochalcone), obtained from Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated on promastigotes of Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. In addition, in order to determine the selective action on Leishmania species as a safety principle, in vitro cytotoxicity on J774 cells was also evaluated for test compounds and extracts. One extract and seven compounds showed activity against Leishmania parasites at different levels. Dihydroflavokawin B (8) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial compound on both parasites, whilst (+)-otobaphenol (14), was found to be the most selective compound on L. panamensis.

  20. Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza M. Coêlho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla, were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species.

  1. Caracterização fitofisionômica e levantamento florístico preliminar no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brasil Vegetation types and preliminary floristic survey in the Mortes-Araguaia Pantanal, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Schwantes Marimon

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo realizou-se no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, extensa planície inundável localizada no municípo de Cocalinho, nordeste de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Efetuou-se uma caracterização fitofisionômica e um levantamento florístico preliminar da região. Foram selecionados três Sítios, com fitofisionomias representativas: proximidades do Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, foz do Rio das Mortes com o Araguaia (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W e porção mediana do Rio Cristalino (12° 52'S; 50° 49'W. O método de amostragem adotado foi o de levantamentos rápidos. Foram identificadas oito fitofisionomias: Mata Inundável, Caapão, Babaçual, Cerradão, Cerrado stricto sensu, Campo de Murunduns, Campo de Byrsonima orbignyana e Campo Cerrado de Vochysia rufa. Foram levantadas 248 espécies de árvores, arbustos, sub-arbustos e lianas, distribuídas em 158 gêneros e 62 famílias. As fitofisionomias apresentaram um padrão heterogêneo, sendo que nenhuma das espécies ocorreu em todas elas. Porém, Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich., Andira cuyabensis Benth., Maprounea guianensis (Aubl. M. Arg., entre outras, ocorreram em seis das oito fitofisionomias. As famílias com maior riqueza foram: Caesalpiniaceae, Annonaceae e Myrtaceae. Ocorreram algumas semelhanças florísticas com o Pantanal do Rio Paraguai, porém, são necessários estudos mais aprofundados para confirmar. Os padrões de heterogeneidade fitofisionômica indicam que a área estudada necessita de medidas conservacionistas.This study was carried out in the Pantanal of the Mortes and Araguaia rivers, a flooded plain located in Cocalinho, northeastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. The objectives of this study were to conduct a preliminary survey of the flora and to characterize the vegetation types. Three representative sites were selected: one near Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, one at the mouth of Araguaia and Mortes rivers (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W and one in the middle portion of

  2. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson M. Paris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus macrophylla, Citrus maxima, Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica. Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla. This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences.

  3. OPÇÕES DE FRUTÍFERAS DO CERRADO PARA PAISAGISMO URBANO EM BAIRROS DA PERIFERIA DE GOIÂNIA-GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL CALIXTO RIBEIRO DE ARAÚJO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide options of cerrado fruitful tree for neighborhoods to the outskirts of Goiânia, Brazil building up the level of satisfaction of the residents in relation to current local urban landscaping. The choice has been to work with fruit due to the large number of these species in the cerrado needing to preserve the existing genetic variability and protect the local flora. Data was collected through 100 questionnaires, from simple random sampling. It was observed that 53% of respondents were classified as partially satisfied with the landscaping where live, 27% dissatisfied, 10% satisfied, 7% and 3% very satisfied totally dissatisfied. Most people never planted fruit tree, however, 87% would like fruit were planted, indicating that the absence or disability of urban arborization is not a result of predation or popular unrest. It was found that 87%do not have allergies to plants, 8% said they do not know and 5% have allergies, and interesting to give preference to trees with restricted flowering period of a few months. It was found that 93% prefer shaded street, thus, it is suggested the use of species with bulky crown and removed from public lighting. It was observed that 68% did not know or had access to proper pruning procedure to be adopted. The species most appropriate are Centrolobium tomentosum, Cassia ferruginea, Pouteria ramiflora, Dimorphandra mollis, Pseudobombax longiflorum, Inga Alba, Curatella American, Hancornia sXXXpeciosa, Alibertia edulis, Erythrina speciosa, Kielmeyera coriácea, Caryocar brasiliense, Minosa laticífera and Bowdichia vigilioides.

  4. Situação amostral e riqueza de espécies das Angiospermas do estado do Ceará, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas,Regina Celli Araújo de; Matias,Lígia Queiroz

    2010-01-01

    O estado do Ceará, situado no nordeste brasileiro, apresenta predomínio do clima semi-árido. Objetivando um delineamento para futuros inventários florísticos, realizou-se uma averiguação preliminar do esforço de coleta em seu território. Para isto, o estudo da amostragem e da riqueza de espécies das famílias Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae e Rubiaceae foram analisadas. Assim como, a distribuição geográfica das amostras foi correlacionada às sete unidades fitoecológicas do estado ...

  5. Gastroprotective Effect of Rubia cordifolia Linn. on Aspirin Plus Pylorus-Ligated Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Deoda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae against experimentally induced gastric ulcer and compare activity with its fractions by employing aspirin plus pylorus-ligated ulcer screening model in Wistar rats. Total acidity, volume of gastric acid secretion, total acid output, and pepsin activity show significant reduction, when compared with the control group. The present study confirmed that chloroform fraction showed the significant activity at lower doses compared to parent extract. The mechanism can be attributed to decrease in gastric acid secretary activity along with strengthening of mucosal defensive mechanism by prostaglandin synthesis and antioxidant potential.

  6. Diversidad florística de la Serranía de las Quinchas, Magdalena medio (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel Churio Jesus Orlando

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An alphabetical list of vascular herborized plants is presented along with the diversity analysis of the called "Las Quinchas" mountain ridge placed on Puerto Boyacá (Boyacá and Yacopí (Cundinamarca, between 380 m (on the Magdalena river shores and 1450 m. 1036 species belonging to 496 genera and 118 families were recorded. 76.4% of this amount are dicots, 16.8% monocots, 6.8% pteridophytes and 0.1% gymnosperms. The families that show the highest number of species are: Polypodiaceae (Pteridophytes; Araceae, Arecaceae, and Poaceae (monocots and Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae, Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Piperaceae, and Moraceae (dícots. It has been observed that the richest families in species number on the tropical region are also important on the Subandean life region. Among the richest families on both life regions figure: Rubiaceae, Araceae, Polypodiaceae, Melastomataceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Piperaceae. The richest genera are: Philodendron, Piper, Anthurium, Psychotria, Inga, and Miconie, This pattern is repeated on both life regions.En la serranía de Las Quinchas, en sectores del municipio de Puerto Boyacá (Boyacá y de Yacopí (Cundinamarca, entre 380 m en las riberas del río Magdalena y 1450 m de altitud, se registraron 1036 especies, distribuidas en 496 géneros y 118 familias; el 76.4% corresponde a dicotiledóneas, el 16.8% a monocotiledóneas, el 6.8% a pteridófitos y el 0.1 % a gimnospermas. Lasfamilias que presentan el mayor número de especies son: Polypodiaceae entre los teridófitos; Araceae, Arecaceae y Poaceae entre las monocotiledóneas, y Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae. Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Piperaceae y Moraceae entre las dicotiledóneas. Las familias más ricas en especies en la región Tropical son igualmente importantes en la región de vida Subandina. Entre las familias más ricas en las dos regiones de vida figuran: Rubiaceae, Araceae, Polypodiaceae, Melastomataceae, Euphorbiaceae y Piperaceae. Los géneros m

  7. 2082-IJBCS -Article-Basseme Emmanuel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    RESUME. La présente étude a pour but d'évaluer l'activité anti-inflammatoire de Morinda geminata. DC, plante de la famille des Rubiaceae largement répandue dans la sous-région d'Afrique de l'Ouest. Des rats de souche wistar ont été répartis en 2 lots de 5 puis gavés aux extraits aqueux de racines de Morinda geminata ...

  8. Mesoscale patterns in the floristic composition of forests in the central Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, B. R.; Venugopal, P. D.; Pélissier, Raphaël; Patil, S. V.; Swaminath, M. H.; Couteron, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We describe the mesoscale floristic patterns in the central Western Ghats of Karnataka, India, through combined analysis of woody species abundance and stand structure data from a network of ninety-six 1-ha sampling plots spread across 22,000 km2. A total of 61,906 individuals (>= 10 cm gbh) comprising 400 plant species from 254 genera and 75 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Moraceae families constituted 23.5 percent of the total number of species encountered. T...

  9. Morphology, anatomy and cytology of critically endangered endemic Asperula daphneola from, West Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Asperula daphneola, which belongs to Rubiaceae family, is only distributed on Nif Mountain. The present study investigates the species anatomically, morphologically and cytologically, laying the basis for future biosystematic studies as well as introducing this endemic taxa. A. daphneola seeds were 1.3-1.8 X 2.3-2.9 mm; ovate; seed surface was prominent and channelled; dorsal type was convex, hispid hairs all over; hylar zone type recessed; yellowish green colour. Type of pollen were stephanocolpate and had 6 colpus with tectate structure. The chromosome number in A. daphneola was counted as 2n=20.

  10. Identification and quantification of components in extracts of Uncaria tomentosa by HPLC-ES/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, P; Carbone, V; Quiroz, J de Dioz Zuniga; De Simone, F; Pizza, C

    2004-01-01

    The two main classes of secondary metabolites, alkaloids and quinovic acid glycosides, of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae), a Peruvian plant commonly known as 'uña de gato', have been analysed. Separation of the alkaloidal fraction was achieved using a solid phase extraction method based on cationic exchange, and an analytical method employing HPLC-ES/MS has been developed. Quantitative data for commercial wild bark, cultivated bark and leaves are reported. The analysis of quinovic acid glycosides was performed directly on the crude extract using both a fast analytical method based on flow injection ES/MS, and a more complete analytical technique using HPLC-MS.

  11. Estudo químico e biológico de Genipa americana L. (Jenipapo)

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Jovelina Samara Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Genipa americana Linnaeus (Rubiaceae), ocorre amplamente na regiãoNordeste e em outras regiões do Brasil, como também em outros países. Sob oponto de vista medicinal, a espécie é usada pela população para diferentes finscomo: catártico, antidiarréico, antigonorréico, antiulceroso, analgésico, emcasos de sífilis, anemia, icterícia, asma, dentre outros. Devido ao reconhecidouso popular e a escassez de estudos químicos e farmacológicos, o principalobjetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar os marcad...

  12. Kratom (Mitragyna Speciosa Korth): Manfaat, Efek Samping dan Legalitas

    OpenAIRE

    Raini, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Kratom or Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae) is tree that is commonly found in Southeast Asia. It has been considered useful as a herbal medication to treat a number of problems such as diarrhea, in the alleviation of pain, coughs, hypertension, and to improve sexual performance. The ingestion of kratom produces a stimulant effect at low dosages and an opioid-like effect at medium to high dosages. Kratom is often misused and easily purchased from the internet. The aim of this study is to re...

  13. FIRST HOST RECORD FOR THE ROOT PARASITE CORYNAEA CRASSA (BALANOPHORACEAE

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    Joel Tupac Otero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Corynaea crassa es una planta hemiparásita de raiz poco común y de la cual sabemos muy poco acerca  de su historia natural y en particular sobre su rango de hospederos. En este estudio escabamos 32 tuberculos de dicha especie y seguimos las raíces que estaban parasitando para determinar su identidad. Encontramos Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae, Verbesina sp. (Asteraceae, Cayaponia sp. (Cucurbitaceae y Palicourea sp.(Rubiaceae. Este es el primer registro de hospederos disponible para la especies y es información de gran utilidad para las conservación de C. crassa en habitats naturales.

  14. Floristic survey of the herbaceous-shrub layer of a gallery forest in Alto Paraíso de Goiás - GO, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves,Eduardo; Soares-Silva,Lucia Helena

    2012-01-01

    Flowering species of the herbaceous and shrubby layer were sampled in a gallery forest at Portal da Chapada, Alto Paraíso de Goiás-GO in the Chapada dos Veadeiros during 12 months growing within 4.5 meters on either side of a raised pathway 2.4 Km long. The collections were included to University of Brasilia Herbarium (UB). A total of 138 species (103 genera and 40 families) were recorded; the most species-rich families were Asteraceae (22), Poaceae (14), Rubiaceae (12), Fabaceae (11) and Mel...

  15. Secondary metabolites and biological activity of Pentas species: A minireview

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    Heba-tollah M. Sweelam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pentas belongs to the Rubiaceae family, which contains approximately 40 species. Several Pentas species were reported to be used as a folk treatment by African indigenous people in treating some diseases such as malaria, tapeworms, dysentery, gonorrhea, syphilis and snake poisoning. This article covers the period from 1962 to 2017 and presents an overview of the biological activity of different Pentas species and describes their phytochemical traits. As a conclusion, the main secondary metabolites from Pentas species are quinones, highly oxygenated chromene-based structures, and iridoids. Pentas species are widely used in folk medicine but they have to be more investigated for their medicinal properties.

  16. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

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    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  17. Leishmanicidal, antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of indole alkaloids from Corynanthe pachyceras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staerk, D; Lemmich, E; Christensen, J

    2000-01-01

    Five indole alkaloids, corynantheidine, corynantheine, dihydrocorynantheine, alpha-yohimbine and corynanthine were isolated from bark of Corynanthe pachyceras K. Schum. (Rubiaceae). The structures were established by spectroscopic methods, including previously unreported assignment of all 1H......-NMR resonances by COSY and NOESY experiments. These and related alkaloids showed pronounced activity against Leishmania major promastigotes (IC50 at the micromolar level) but no significant in vitro antiplasmodial activity (against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum). Cytotoxicity assessed with drug...... sensitive KB-3-1 and multidrug-resistant KB-V1 cell lines was low; the alkaloids are apparently not substrates for the P-glycoprotein (P-170) efflux pump....

  18. Biodiversité floristique du sous–bois et régénération naturelle de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'inventaire du sous-bois des trois îlots révèle 120 espèces et 47 familles dont les Rubiaceae (25,6 à 34,2%) dominent les Fabaceae (5,9 à 13,9%). La densité des espèces caractéristiques varie de 0,7 à 60 arbres.ha-1. L'indice de diversité biologique de Shannon (H') est en moyenne de 1,9 ± 0,3 pour les ligneux, contre 3 ...

  19. Alkaloids as chemotaxonomic markers from the Philippine endemic Uncaria perrottetii and Uncaria lanosa f. philippinensis

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    Jay Edneil Olivar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation on the aerial parts of Uncaria perrottetii led to the isolation of three pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids uncarine A or isoformosanine (1, uncarine E or isopteropodine (2, and rauniticine-allo-oxindole A (3. Five oxindole alkaloids, isomitraphylline (4, mitraphylline (5, uncarine B or formosanine (6, uncarine F (7, corynoxine (8, and uncarine D or speciophylline (9, were isolated from the leaves of Uncaria lanosa f. philippinensis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques and in comparison with the literature data. These compounds proved to be important chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Uncaria. Keywords: Rubiaceae, Uncaria, Oxindole alkaloids, Chemotaxonomy, Uncarine

  20. Understory species richness in an urban forest fragment, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina Ramos de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the floristic composition of the understory of Parque Estadual de Dois Irmãos, (08°01’15.1”S and 34°56’3.2”W, an area of about 370ha characterized as a lowland ombrophilous dense forest. The study included individuals with heights of up to 4.0m, such as treelets, shrubs, sub-bushes and terricolous herb plants, in fertile conditions. The collections were made every two weeks along a period of 24 months. A total of 108 species, belonging to 86 genera and 49 families, were recorded. The families with the highest number of species were Rubiaceae (14, Fabaceae (9 Melastomataceae (8, Asteraceae (8, Myrtaceae (6, and Poaceae (4. The Fabaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae presented the highest number of understory species in this fragment. Generally, among the studies made in the Atlantic forest areas in Pernambuco, the presence of a set of tree species common to these forests is evidenced.

  1. Structure and floristic composition of a tropical rain forest of the National Park Bari Catatumbo, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, Ariel; Betancur, Julio; Galindo, Robinson

    2007-01-01

    The floristic composition and structure of a tropical wet forest in the Natural National Park Catatumbo Bari were characterized. This natural park is located in the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia, Norte de Santander, at 700 m altitude. All individuals with dbh ? 1 cm found in a 0.1 ha plot were sampled. We have found 636 individuals and 109 species with dbh? 1cm, and 432 individuals and 90 species with dbh ? 2.5 cm. The families with the highest number of species were Lauraceae (13), Rubiaceae (10), Melastomataceae (9), and Arecaceae (6). The genera with the higher number of species were Ocotea and Miconia (7), Psychotria (5), and Eschweilera, Inga and Piper (4). The majority of individuals and species corresponded to lowest height range and diametric class. The total basal area was 5.65 m . The most ecologically important species (highest IVI) were, in order, Trattinnickia cf. burserifolia, Calathea inocephala, Brownea ariza, Oenocarpus minor and Euterpe predatoria, and the families were Arecaceae, Rubiaceae, Burseraceae, Lauraceae and Moraceae. This is a relatively heterogeneous forest with low species richness, as a result of its past degradation.

  2. REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL DE ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS EM FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA ESTACIONAL SEMIDECIDUAL MONTANA, NO DOMÍNIO DA MATA ATLÂNTICA, EM VIÇOSA, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cunha Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to analyse the tree species natural regeneration floristic composition in a Mountain Seasonal Semideciduous Forest fragment in the domain of the Atlantic Forest, in southeastern Brazil (20°45¿S, 42°55¿W in order to subsidize secondary natural forest management. Ten sites were selected based on their aspects, slopes and topographic positions. Natural regeneration indexes were estimated for each tree species per size classes to obtain the Total Natural Regeneration Index (TNR for each species. It was sampled a total of 3,516 individuals of 140 tree species varying from 10 cm to 5 m height with diameter at the height of 1.3 m (DBH smaller than 5 cm. The largest numbers of individuals were sampled in the families Rubiaceae, Fabaceae Mimosoideae, Monimiaceae, Fabaceae Papilionoideae, and the richest families were Fabaceae Caesalpinoideae, Fabaceae Papilionoideae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae. Psychotria sessilis, Siparuna guianensis, Anadenanthera peregrina and Piptadenia gonoacantha presented the largest TNR. The comparison of the actual regeneration study with that of prior evaluations suggests a continuous substitution of species from initial to more advanced stages. These results indicate that the protection of the remaining forest fragments is important to maintain or improve the biodiversity in this region.

  3. La flora vascular de la Sierra de Chiribiquete, Colombia

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    Cortés B. Rocio

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary checklist of Chiribiquete flora has 549 species of vascular plants, which belong to 315 genera and 107 families. The families with the highest species number were: Rubiaceae (32, Melastomataceae (31, Orchidaceae (25 and Bromeliaceae (24; there were 30% of the families represented by one species. The majar tloristic affinities of the Chiribiquete flora are with the Amazonregion and the Guayana central province. Eleven species (including ten new are endemic to Chiribiquete and 167 are endemic to the Guayana region.El catálogo preliminar de la flora de Chiribiquete incluye 549 especies de plantas vasculares, pertenecientes a 315 géneros y a 107 familias. Las familias con mayor número de especies son Rubiaceae (32 Melastomataceae (31, Orchidaceae (25 y Bromeliaceae (24; el 30% de las familias están representadas por una especie. Las afinidades florísticas son mayores con la región amazónica y con la provincia Guayana central. Once especies (incluyendo diez novedades  taxonómicas tienen área de distribución endémica de Chiribiquete y 167 están restringidas a la región Guayana.

  4. Plant Family-Specific Impacts of Petroleum Pollution on Biodiversity and Leaf Chlorophyll Content in the Amazon Rainforest of Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arellano

    Full Text Available In recent decades petroleum pollution in the tropical rainforest has caused significant environmental damage in vast areas of the Amazon region. At present the extent of this damage is not entirely clear. Little is known about the specific impacts of petroleum pollution on tropical vegetation. In a field expedition to the Ecuadorian Amazon over 1100 leaf samples were collected from tropical trees in polluted and unpolluted sites. Plant families were identified for 739 of the leaf samples and compared between sites. Plant biodiversity indices show a reduction of the plant biodiversity when the site was affected by petroleum pollution. In addition, reflectance and transmittance were measured with a field spectroradiometer for every leaf sample and leaf chlorophyll content was estimated using reflectance model inversion with the radiative tranfer model PROSPECT. Four of the 15 plant families that are most representative of the ecoregion (Melastomataceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Euphorbiaceae had significantly lower leaf chlorophyll content in the polluted areas compared to the unpolluted areas. This suggests that these families are more sensitive to petroleum pollution. The polluted site is dominated by Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae, suggesting that these plant families are particularly competitive in the presence of pollution. This study provides evidence of a decrease of plant diversity and richness caused by petroleum pollution and of a plant family-specific response of leaf chlorophyll content to petroleum pollution in the Ecuadorian Amazon using information from field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modelling.

  5. Plant Family-Specific Impacts of Petroleum Pollution on Biodiversity and Leaf Chlorophyll Content in the Amazon Rainforest of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Paul; Tansey, Kevin; Balzter, Heiko; Tellkamp, Markus

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades petroleum pollution in the tropical rainforest has caused significant environmental damage in vast areas of the Amazon region. At present the extent of this damage is not entirely clear. Little is known about the specific impacts of petroleum pollution on tropical vegetation. In a field expedition to the Ecuadorian Amazon over 1100 leaf samples were collected from tropical trees in polluted and unpolluted sites. Plant families were identified for 739 of the leaf samples and compared between sites. Plant biodiversity indices show a reduction of the plant biodiversity when the site was affected by petroleum pollution. In addition, reflectance and transmittance were measured with a field spectroradiometer for every leaf sample and leaf chlorophyll content was estimated using reflectance model inversion with the radiative tranfer model PROSPECT. Four of the 15 plant families that are most representative of the ecoregion (Melastomataceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Euphorbiaceae) had significantly lower leaf chlorophyll content in the polluted areas compared to the unpolluted areas. This suggests that these families are more sensitive to petroleum pollution. The polluted site is dominated by Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae, suggesting that these plant families are particularly competitive in the presence of pollution. This study provides evidence of a decrease of plant diversity and richness caused by petroleum pollution and of a plant family-specific response of leaf chlorophyll content to petroleum pollution in the Ecuadorian Amazon using information from field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modelling.

  6. A flórula invasora da cultura do café (Coffea arabica L. no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Weeds in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura de café (Coffea arábica L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 388 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 51 famílias botânicas, representando 182 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Gramineae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae e Verbenaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas, parte delas no PAMG (Herbário da EPAMIG, Belo Horizonte, MG e, a outra parte, no Herbarium ESAL (Herbário do Departamento de Biologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras - ESAL, Lavras - MG.A survey in the cultivation area of coffee in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, has resulted in the determination of 388 weed species, of 182 genera belonging to 51 families; the families presenting a greater number of espécies are: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae and Verbenaceae with 65, 48, 42, 30, 19, 17, 16, 14, 12, 10 species, respectively.

  7. Reserva biológica estadual da Praia do Sul (Ilha Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro: lista preliminar da flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Sue Dunn de Araujo

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A Reserva Biológica Estadual da Praia do Sul está localizada na parte meridional da Ilha Grande - RJ (23º10' S.; 44º17' W.Gr., abrangendo uma área de 3600 ha. Foram identificadas nesta Reserva 5 comunidades vegetais, a saber: psamofila reptante de anteduna, mata de cordão arenoso, mata alagadiça de planície, manguezal e mata de encosta. A fitofisionomia de cada comunidade está descrita, incluindo as espécies mais comuns e a área da Reserva ocupada por cada uma. O levantamento florístico ainda incompleto constitui uma lista de cerca de 300 espécies: as 4 famílias mais importantes são: Leguminose, Rubiaceae, Orchidaceae, BromeliaceaeThe Praia do Sul State Biological Reserve is located on Ilha Grande, State oí Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23º10' S.; 44º17' W.Gr.. Five plant communities were identified within the limits of this 3600 ha tract: creeping foredune psammophytes, beach ridge forest, coastal plain swamp forest, mangrove and montane forest. The physiognomy of each community is described, including the most common species found and the area of occurrence within the Reserve. A list of approximately 300 species has been compiled to date; the 4 most important families are: Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae

  8. A quantitative analysis of plant community structure in an abandoned rubber plantations on Kho-Hong Hill, southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekapong Sripao-raya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to characterize plant community structure of rubber plantations abandoned 26 years previously and now a protected area of Prince of Songkla University on the west slope of Kho-Hong Hill. Trees whose girth at breast high were at least 30 cm were recorded from thirty-one plots (10*10 m which were laid out systematically at every 100 m along three transects. Among native trees, this plant community is dominated by Schima wallichii Choisy, Castanopsis schefferiana Hance, Memecylon edule Roxb., Diospyros frutescens Blume, and Diplospora malaccensis Hook.f. Trees of the families Myrtaceae, Theaceae, Clusiaceae, Fagaceae, and Rubiaceae, and saplings of Clusiaceae, Myrtaceae, Theaceae, Rubiaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the most common. This plant community was characterized as a late seral stage post-cultivation succession. The basal area of rubber trees was positively significantly related to the species richness of native trees but negatively related to the density of native trees in each plot. Although abandoned rubber plantations create environmental conditions which effectively catalyze forest succession, dense rubber trees could slow succession of native trees by competition for resources. Further ecological, educational and recreational studies are discussed. Zoning this area to be a strict nature reserve and a conservation area is recommended.

  9. LEVANTAMENTO DA FLORA MELÍFERA DE INTERESSE APÍCOLA NO MUNICÍPIO DE PETROLINA-PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Francisco Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study had the objective of surveying the apicultural potential in the municipality of Petrolina flora (9o9'S; 40o22'W, aiming at identifying the nectariferous or polliniferous species visited by Apis mellifera. The observations were carried out from January 2004 to May 2005, in areas of hyperxerophilous Caatinga native vegetation and of irrigated fruit crops of Embrapa Tropical Semi-Arid. Fifty one species were observed, belonging to 42 genera and 25 botanic families. The families Leguminosae, Anacardiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae and Sterculiaceae were the most visited species by Apis mellifera, including 47.08% of the total visited plants. Among the species visited by Apis mellifera, 41.17% are herbaceous, showing the importance of this stratum as an apicultural source. Regarding the flora resource used as food source by the bees, it was found that A. mellifera made several visits for exclusive nectar extraction to 72.55% of the plants considered nectariferous. Among the remaining plants, it was found that in 19.60% the bee collecte pollen, being these species considered polliniferous, and in 7.85% there was pollen and nectar withdrawal. Among the herbaceous species, Borreria verticillata (L. G.Mey., Diodia teres Walter (Rubiaceae, Waltheria rotundifolia Schrank (Sterculiaceae, Merremia aegyptia (L. Hallier, Jacquemontia confusa Meisn. (Convolvulaceae, Hypenia salzmanni (Benth. Hanley (Lamiaceae distinguished as nectariferous source during the raining season, while the arboreal species Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. and Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão. are considered apicultural source for the dry season.

  10. Las cargas polínicas en las mariposas (Lepidoptera: Rophalocera de la parte alta de la cuenca del río Roble-Quindío-Colombia

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    Tobar L. Diego

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En 335 cargas de polen provenientes de las proboscides y de los ojos de las mariposas diurnas que frecuentan los pastizales y los interiores de bosque en la parte alta de la cuenca del Río Roble (Quindío-Colombia, se identificaron 31 granos de polen. Las plantas más visitadas por las mariposas pertenecen a los géneros Psychotria (Rubiaceae, Tournefortia (Boraginaceae, Gurania (Cucurbitaceae, Dicliptera (Acanthaceae y a Erato vulcanica (Asteraceae. Se diferenciaron especies de mariposas generalistas entre las cuales figuran Heliconius clysonymus, Dione  uno, Elzunia humboldtii y especialistas como Dismorphia crisia y Phoebis rurina, entre otras. Las mariposas que visitaron el mayor número de plantas fueron Heliconius clysonimus, Oleria cadcana y Godyris quinta.On 335 pollen samples collected from proboscis and eyes of butterflies from the headquarters of the Río Roble atthe departament of Quindío (Colombia, 31 pollen grains were identified. The most visited plants by butterflies belonging to species of Psychotria (Rubiaceae, Tournefortia (Boraginaceae, Gurania (Cucurbitaceae, Dicliptera (Acanthaceae, and Erato vulcanica (Asteraceae. According to the relation between plants and butterflies two groups were differentiated: generalist as Heliconius clysonimus, Dione juno, Elzunia humboldtll and specialist as Dismorphiacrissia and Phoebis rurina. Butterflies with the higher numbers of plants visited were Heliconius clysonimus, Oleria cadcana, and Godyris quinta.

  11. A Functional Trait Approach for Evaluation of Agroforestry Species Adaptation Potentiel to Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, A. D.; Marone, D.; Olivier, A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional agroforestry systems have been used for generations in the Sahel region of Africa to assure local food security. However, an understanding of the functional ecology of these systems is lacking, which would contribute to assessing both the provision of current ecological services, and the potential for adaptation to global change. We have studied five native tree and shrub species across a transect of different soil types in the semi-arid zone of the Niayes region of Senegal, to document changes in above and belowground traits in response to soil and land use change. Root traits in particular influence access to limiting resources such as water and nutrients. We studied fine root depth distribution and specific root length (SRL) with soil depth of Acacia raddiana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Euphorbia balsamifera, Faidherbia albida, Neocarya macrophylla, on three different soil textures for three systems (fallow, parkland and rangeland), in order to understand potential exploitation of soil resources and potential contribution of roots to soil carbon stocks at different depths. The maximum root biomass of four of the species (Acacia raddiana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Euphorbia balsamifera, Neocarya macrophylla) occurred in the 40-60 cm layer, where the two evergreen species (A. raddiana, N. macrophylla) developed the most biomass. Root biomass decreased for all species except F. albida, after 60 cm depth. The Mimosaceae species (A. raddiana, F. albida) developed the most root biomass within the 100 cm sampling depth. The maximum fine root biomass was found in fallow lands and clay soils. For all species, the highest SRL was observed during the hot dry season, in sandy or sandy loam soil. The SRL was lowest in the rainy season on clay soil. Evergreens had higher SRL than deciduous species, regardless of soil texture and growing season conditions. Parkland and rangelands exhibited higher SRL than fallow land, most likely due to higher soil fertility. Differences

  12. Tuning of color contrast signals to visual sensitivity maxima of tree shrews by three Bornean highland Nepenthes species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles; Greenwood, Melinda; Chin, Lijin

    2012-10-01

    Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants (Nepenthes rajah, Nepenthes lowii and Nepenthes macrophylla) specialize in harvesting nutrients from tree shrew excreta in their pitchers. In all three species, nectaries on the underside of the pitcher lid are the focus of the tree shrews' attention. Tree shrews are dichromats, with visual sensitivity in the blue and green wavebands. All three Nepenthes species were shown to produce visual signals, in which the underside of the pitcher lid (the area of highest nectar production) stood out in high contrast to the adjacent area on the pitcher (i.e., was brighter), in the blue and green wavebands visible to the tree shrews. N. rajah showed the tightest degree of "tuning," notably in the green waveband. Conversely, pitchers of Nepenthes burbidgeae, a typical insectivorous species sympatric with N. rajah, did not produce a color pattern tuned to tree shrew sensitivity maxima.

  13. Effect of the calcium in the control of the Hypsipila grandella in young mahogany cultivated in hidroponics system.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sandra Andréa Santos da; Santos, Maria Marly de Lourdes Silva; Silva, George Rodrigues da; Silva Junior, Mário Lopes da; Ohashi, Orlando Shigueo; Ruivo, Maria de Lourdes Pinheiro

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor de cálcio e o efeito do ataque da lagarta H. grandella em plantas jovens de mogno (S. macrophylla), cultivadas em função de diferentes épocas de aplicação de doses crescentes de cálcio no substrato sílica moída, utilizando sistema hidropônico. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA), Belém-PA, de setembro de 2004 a fevereiro de 2005. Utilizou-se cinco doses de cálcio (0, 80, 160, 240, 320...

  14. Sintomas de deficiência nutricional de macronutrientes em mudas de Khaya ivorensis cultivadas em solução nutritiva

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    Graciella Corcioli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O mogno africano (Khaya ivorensis é uma essência florestal de alto valor no comércio internacional e de grande potencial para substituir o mogno brasileiro (Swietenia macrophylla. Atualmente, pouco se conhece a respeito das exigências nutricionais do mogno africano. Assim, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo induzir sintomas visuais de deficiência de macronutrientes (nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio em mudas de mogno africano. Para isso, realizou-se um experimento com solução nutritiva, com os tratamentos: T1-Solução completa; T2-com omissão de N; T3-com omissão de P; T4-com omissão de K e T5-Água deionizada. Os sintomas de deficiências de macronutrientes em mudas de mogno africano foram evidentes, comprometendo o desenvolvimento das mudas.

  15. Revegetating Bagacay Mining Site: A review of potential tropical species for phytoremediation of non-essential heavy metals

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    John Rhey Ymas Dayang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-mining activities in Samar left serious environmental issues. Albeit it is used to provide prosperity to its constituents, mining in the area brought with it negative impacts. Bagacay Mine, an abandoned mining area in the province was left with enourmous amount of heavy metals. This include As (6-693 ppm, Cu (9-5,279, Pb (22-354 ppm, Hg (1-5 ppm, Zn (<1-7,138 ppm and Fe (5,900-373,500 ppm. The area was then reforested with Swietenia macrophylla, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Bambusa blumeana and Thysanolaena maxima but only 1 percent survived. This paper touches the nature and effects of the non-essential heavy metals and metalloids present in the area as well as the mechanism of phytoextraction. Additionally, tropical metallophytes which can be used for phytoremediation activities in the future were introduced and reviewed.

  16. Isotopic footprint: ¿does the forensic analyses improve forest control?

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    Ulrich Melessa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Ecuadorian market a high percentage of timber from tropical forests is of illegal origin. Illegal acts and infringments along the production chain are more frequent if the concern species is valuable such as mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla and cedar (Cedrela odorata. In this regard, one of the most frequently falsified data is the geographical origin of wood. At date there is no forensic scientific method for determining objectively and independently the geographic source stated in the documentation of traded timber. The analysis of the isotope composition, known as a isotope fingerprint, has a clear special pattern and is feasible for this purpose.From Ecuador samples of mahogany and cedar were contributed to build a geo-referenced database and improve the method to make it more operational to serve in control and surveillance programs. This article explains the problems related to the subject, the method and its potential use. 

  17. Chemical Characteristics of Six Woody Species for Alley Cropping

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    Mosango, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of six woody species (Leguminosae for alley cropping have been chemically analysed in order to evaluate their potentiality in the restoration of soil fertility. These species are : Acacia mangium, Cajanus cajan, Flemingia grahamiana, F. macrophylla, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nitrogen, carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, active fraction and ash contents were determined as well as C/N and L/N ratios. AH these species appear to be rich in N and C. Fiber contents (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are globally low but variable from one species to another. C/N and L/N ratios are globally low. Among these species, Leucaena leucocephala and Senna spectabilis show the lowest C/N and LIN ratios. Such low values of C/N and L/N are normally found in species with rapid decomposition of organic matter.

  18. Food potentials of some unconventional oilseeds grown in Nigeria--a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badifu, G I

    1993-05-01

    A brief review of literature on kernels of Citrullus and Cucumeropsis ('egusi' melon) species, Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), Lagenaria (gourd) species of all of Cucurbitaceae family and other oilseeds such as Pentaclethra macrophylla (African oil bean), Parkia spp. (African locust bean) both of Mimosaceae family and Butyrospermum paradoxum (shea butter) of Sapotaceae family which are grown and widely used as food in Nigeria is presented. The kernels of species of Cucurbitaceae form the bulk of unconventional oilseeds used for food in Nigeria. The nutritional value of some of the kernels and the physicochemical properties and storage stability of the oils obtained from them are discussed. The various consumable forms in which they exist are also described. The problems and prospects of these neglected oilseeds in Nigeria are highlighted.

  19. COX, LOX and platelet aggregation inhibitory properties of Lauraceae neolignans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Ericsson David; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Sefkow, Michael

    2009-12-15

    The anti-inflammatory potential of 26 neolignans (14 of the bicyclooctane-type and 12 of the benzofuran-type), isolated from three Lauraceae species (Pleurothyrium cinereum, Ocotea macrophylla and Nectandra amazonum), was evaluated in vitro through inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, 5-LOX and agonist-induced aggregation of rabbit platelets. Benzofuran neolignans were found to be selective COX-2 inhibitors, whereas bicyclooctane neolignans inhibit selectively the PAF-action as well as COX-1 and 5-LOX. The neolignan 9-nor-7,8-dehydro-isolicarin B 15 and cinerin C 7 were found to be the most potent COX-2 inhibitor and PAF-antagonist, respectively. Nectamazin C 10 exhibited dual 5-LOX/COX-2 inhibition.

  20. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases.

  1. Rauvolfianine, a new antimycobacterial glyceroglycolipid and other constituents from Rauvolfia caffra. Sond (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeh Messanga, Robert; Dominique Serge, Ngono Bikobo; Abouem A Zintchem, Auguste; Norbert, Mbabi Nyemeck Ii; Esther Del Florence, Moni Ndedi; Patrick Hervé, Betote Diboué; Maximilienne Ascension, Nyegue; Alex De Théodore, Atchadé; Dieudonné Emmanuel, Pegnyemb; Christian G, Bochet; Koert, Ulrich

    2017-08-16

    The chemical investigation of the extract of the dried leaves of Rauvolfia caffra (Sond) (synonym Rauvolfia macrophylla) (Apocynaceae) led to isolation of a new glycoside derivative, rauvolfianine (1) as well as six known compounds: oleanolic acid (2), sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), betulinic acid (4), vellosimine (5), sarpagine (6) and D-fructofuranosyl-β-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 were evaluated for antitubercular activity. Compounds 1 and 2 were the most active (MIC = 7.8125 and 31.25 μg/mL) towards the Isoniazid resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis AC45. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  2. Caracterización de la calidad nutritiva de 53 accesiones del género Leucaena en condiciones tropicales Characterization of the nutritional quality of 53 accessions from the Leucaena genus under tropical conditions

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    D.E García

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el análisis descriptivo, de componentes principales y de clasificación automática (ACA, se llevó a cabo un experimento para caracterizar la composición nutricional del follaje de 53 accesiones del género Leucaena (37 L. leucocephala, 7 L. macrophylla, 5 L. lanceolata, 2 L. diversifolia, 1 L. glauca y 1 L. esculenta establecidas en Matanzas, Cuba. Se determinó la composición química, los niveles de metabolitos secundarios y la degradabilidad ruminal. En general, las accesiones presentaron excelente composición química para ser utilizadas como suplemento en la alimentación de rumiantes (PC: 25,71 ±3,94%; FDN: 46,91 ±2,09%; cenizas: 7,48 ±0,96%; DMS: 60,24 ±9,90%. Los indicadores que explicaron mejor las variaciones entre las accesiones fueron los componentes de la fracción fibrosa y la polifenólica, la concentración de mimosina y la degradabilidad ruminal. Sin embargo, la fracción proteica, los niveles de materia seca, de fitatos, minerales y las cenizas presentaron pocas fluctuaciones. Mediante el ACA se identificaron tres grupos con características nutricionales diferenciadas entre sí. Las accesiones de L. macrophylla, L. diversifolia y L. esculenta presentaron mayor concentración de metabolitos secundarios y menor degradabilidad ruminal que las pertenecientes a L. leucocephala, L. lanceolata y L. glauca, las cuales mostraron los mejores resultados. La degradación de la MS, PC y FDN se vio afectada por los contenidos de fibra, polifenoles totales, taninos precipitantes y taninos condensados.Through the descriptive analysis, main component analysis and automatic classification, a trial was conducted to characterize the nutritional composition of the foliage of 53 accessions from the Leucaena genus (37 L. leucocephala, 7 L. macrophylla, 5 L. lanceolata, 2 L. diversifolia, 1 L. glauca and 1 L. esculenta established in Matanzas, Cuba. The chemical composition, levels of secondary metabolites and ruminal degradability

  3. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacity of four underutilized fruits from the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andre; Jungfer, Elvira; da Silva, Bruno Alexandre; Maia, Jose Guilherme S; Marx, Friedhelm

    2011-07-27

    The Amazon region comprises a plethora of fruit-bearing species of which a large number are still agriculturally unimportant. Because fruit consumption has been attributed to an enhanced physical well-being, interest in the knowledge of the chemical composition of underexplored exotic fruits has increased during recent years. This paper provides a comprehensive identification of the polyphenolic constituents of four underutilized fruits from the Amazon region by HPLC/DAD-ESI-MS(n). Araçá ( Psidium guineense ), jambolão ( Syzygium cumini ), muruci ( Byrsonima crassifolia ), and cutite ( Pouteria macrophylla ) turned out to be primarily good sources of hydrolyzable tannins and/or flavonols. Additionally, different flavanonols and proanthocyanidins were identified in some fruits. The antioxidant capacity was determined by using the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay. Cutite showed the highest antioxidant capacity followed by jambolão, araçá, and muruci.

  4. Composición de la dieta de otoño del pato mexicano (Anas diazi en el vaso sur de las ciénegas del Lerma, Estado de México Fall diet composition of Mexican duck (Anas diazi at Lerma marsh, South Vessel, México State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Colón-Quezada

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la composición de la dieta del pato mexicano (Anas diazi y su variación en 2 periodos de otoño consecutivos (2004-2005 en el vaso sur de las ciénegas del Lerma, Estado de México, a partir de 24 muestras de patos cazados. El análisis complementario del peso seco agregado y la frecuencia mostraron que durante el otoño el pato mexicano tiene una dieta vegetariana en la que predominan las semillas de plantas acuáticas, malezas, maíz y tubérculos de Sagittaria y un mínimo consumo de invertebrados. Los alimentos que principalmente se consumieron en 2004 fueron semillas de Echinichloa holciformis, Polygonum lapathifolium y P. punctatum, en tanto que en la dieta de 2005, fueron semillas de maíz y tubérculos de Sagittaria macrophylla. El análisis de similitud de dietas de Sorensen, evidenció una variación de 70% entre los 2 años, lo cual puede atribuirse a la disponibilidad anual de alimento.The Mexican duck's diet composition and its variation in 2 consecutive fall periods (2004-2005 was studied at the Lerma marsh, South Basin, Mexico State, including 24 esophageal samples obtained during the hunting season. A complementary analysis using aggregated dry weight and frequency of occurrence showed than the Mexican duck has a vegetarian diet dominated by aquatic plants seeds, weeds seeds, corn seeds and Sagittaria tubes. The main foods in 2004 were Echinochloa holciformis, Polygonum lapathifolium and P. punctatum seeds, whereas corn seeds and Sagittaria macrophylla tubers dominated the 2005 diet. The Sorensen similarity analysis of the diets showed a diet variation of 70% on both years, which could be to attributed to annual food availability.

  5. A TAXONOMIC STUDY OF THE GENUS PADINA (DICTYOTALES, PHAEOPHYCEAE) INCLUDING THE DESCRIPTIONS OF FOUR NEW SPECIES FROM JAPAN, HAWAII, AND THE ANDAMAN SEA(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Ni Ni; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Arai, Shogo; Uchimura, Masayuki; Prathep, Anchana; Draisma, Stefano G A; Phang, Siew Moi; Abbott, Isabella A; Millar, Alan J K; Kawai, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    A taxonomic study of the genus Padina from Japan, Southeast Asia, and Hawaii based on morphology and gene sequence data (rbcL and cox3) resulted in the recognition of four new species, that is, Padina macrophylla and Padina ishigakiensis from Ryukyu Islands, Japan; Padina maroensis from Hawaii; and Padina usoehtunii from Myanmar and Thailand. All species are bistratose and morphologically different from one another as well as from any known taxa by a combination of characters relating to degree of calcification; the structure, position, and arrangement of hairlines (HLs) and reproductive sori; and the presence or absence of rhizoid-like groups of hairs and an indusium. Molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a close relationship between P. ishigakiensis, P. macrophylla, P. maroensis, and Padina australis Hauck. The position of P. usoehtunii, however, was not fully resolved, being either sister to a clade comprising the other three new species and P. australis in the rbcL tree or more closely related to a clade comprising several other recently described species in the cox3 tree. The finding of the four new species demonstrates high species diversity particularly in southern Japan. The following characters were first recognized here to be useful for species delimitation: the presence or absence of small rhizoid-like groups of hairs on the thallus surface, structure and arrangement of HLs on both surfaces either alternate or irregular, and arrangement of the alternating HLs between both surfaces in equal or unequal distance. The evolutionary trajectory of these and six other morphological characters used in species delineation was traced on the phylogenetic tree. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  6. [Medication rules for prescriptions containing Pterocephali Herba based on data mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Fang; Wei, Zhi-Cheng; Tang, Ce; Wang, Wen-Qian; Tong, Dong; Meng, Xian-Li; Zhang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    This study was aimed to discuss and analyze the medication rules for prescriptions containing Pterocephali Herba in Chinese Medical Encyclopedia - Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Prescription Modern Research and Clinical Application, and Interpretation of Common Tibetan Medicines based on the collection of Pterocephali Herba and by using the "Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support system(V2.0.1)",with the use of association rules, apriori algorithm and other data mining methods. The frequency of single drug, the frequency of drug combination, the association rule and the combination of core drugs were analyzed. Through collection of the prescriptions, a total of 215 prescriptions were included, involving a total of 376 herbs. Through the "frequency statistics", the prescriptions containing Pterocephali Herba were commonly used to treat cold fever, distemper virus and arthritis. The highest frequently (frequency≥15) used drugs were Corydalis Herba, Lagotidis Herba, and Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix, et al. The most frequently used drug combinations were "Pterocephali Herba, Corydalis Herba","Pterocephali Herba, Lagotidis Herba", and "Pterocephali Herba, Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix" et al. The prescriptions containing Pterocephali Herba were used to primarily treat disease for Tourette syndrome caused by the dampness heat toxin, fever, arthritis etc, such as pestilent toxicity, pneumonia and influenza, rheumatoid arthritis etc. The drugs in the prescriptions mostly had the effects of heat-clearing and detoxifying, anti-inflammatory, dispelling wind and dampness, often in compatible use with heat-clearing drugs. The drug use was concentrated and reflected the clear thought of prescription statutes. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae plants

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    Ericsson D. Coy-Barrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of seven known lignans and one dihydrochalcone isolated from the leaves of two Lauraceae species (Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated through the inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, 5-LOX and the aggregation of rabbit platelets induced by PAF, AA and ADP. (+-de-4"-O--methylmagnolin 4 was found to be a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor and PAF-antagonist (COX-2 IC50 2.27 µM; 5-LOX IC50 5.05 µM; PAF IC50 2.51 µM. However, all compounds exhibited an activity at different levels, indicating good anti-inflammatory properties to be considered in further structural optimization studies.Os efeitos anti-inflamatórios in vitro de sete conhecidos lignanos e uma dihidrocalcona isolados das folhas de duas espécies da família Lauraceae (Pleurothyrium cinereum e Ocotea macrophylla foram avaliados por meio da inibição da COX1, COX-2, 5-LOX e agregação de plaquetas de coelhos induzida por PAF, AA e ADP. A (+-4"-O-metilmagnolina-4 foi encontrada como mais potente inibidora tanto da COX-2 quanto de 5-LOX e antagonista de PAF (COX-2 IC50 2,27 µM; 5- LOX IC50 5,05 µM; PAF IC50 2,51 µM. Entretanto, todos compostos mostram uma atividade em intensidades diferentes, indicando boas propriedades anti-inflamátorias a serem consideradas para futuros estudos de modificações e otimização estruturais.

  8. Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerenquima Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerénquima

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    González Elena

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available An anatomy study was made of following wood easy-to-root species: Aucuba japonica Thunb., Buddleja  japonica Hemsley,  Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium.  L., Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil.,  Cvdonia oblonga Miller,  Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L., Populus nigra L.,  Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix  viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. and Symphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake.  It was observed the presence or absence of a discontinous sclerenchyma ring so the species studied had not a mechanical barrier to the emergence of adventitious roots. Se realizó un estudio histológico de las siguientes especies leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Aucuba japonica Thumb, Buddleja japonica Hemsley, Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon (L. Burm, fil., Cydonia oblonga Miller, Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L. Populus nigra L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. y Syrnphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake. Se observó la presencia o ausencia de un anillo discontinuo de esclerénquima, por lo tanto dichas especies no poseen ningún impedimento mecánico para la emergencia de las raíces adventicias.

  9. BOSQUE MESÓFILO DE MONTAÑA Y ESCENARIOS DE CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: UNA EVALUACIÓN EN HIDALGO, MÉXICO

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    Alejandro I. Monterroso-Rivas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El hábitat de ocho especies forestales (Liquidambar macrophylla, Alnus arguta, Carpinus caroliniana, Clethra mexicana, Pinus patula, Nectandra sanguínea, Podocarpus reichei y Quercus spp. representativas del bosque mesófilo de montaña en el estado de Hidalgo se evaluó en condiciones actuales y bajo escenarios de cambio climático. Se utilizó el marco conceptual de nicho ecológico y se evaluaron doce variables: una topográfica, cinco paisajísticas y seis climáticas. Se realizó un análisis factorial de nicho ecológico con el software Biomapper, que básicamente es un análisis estadístico de reducción de dimensiones. Para cada especie, se obtuvieron mapas de hábitat potencial al modificar seis variables climáticas por cada modelo de cambio climático aplicado, generando igual número de mapas para condiciones futuras. Se analizaron las diferencias en hábitat potencial para las condiciones actuales y aquéllas previstas por cambio climático, encontrando que es posible que la superficie óptima de crecimiento para seis especies se reduzca. Las especies identificadas como amenazadas por el cambio climático son L. macrophylla, A. arguta, C. caroliniana, C. mexicana, P. patula, y N. sanguínea. Estas especies componen principalmente el estrato arbóreo alto del bosque mesófilo, por lo que se concluye que el ecosistema puede verse seriamente afectado como consecuencia del cambio climático.

  10. Smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes and Microbotryales, Basidiomycota in Panama

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    Meike Piepenbring

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first publication dedicated to the diversity of smut fungi in Panama bases on field work, the study of herbarium specimens, and referentes taken from literatura. It includes smuts parasitizing cultivated and wild plants. The latter are mostly found in rural vegetation. Among the 24 species cites here, 14 species are recorded for the first time for Panama. One of them, Sporisorium ovarium, is observes for the first time in Central America. Entyloma spilanthis is found on the host species Acmella papposa var. macrophylla (Asteraceae for the first time. Entyloma costaricense and Entyloma ecuadorense are considered synonyms of Entyloma compositarum and Entyloma spilanthis respectively. For the new conbination Sponsorium panamensis see note at the end of this publication. Descriptions of the species are complemented by some illustrations, a checklist, and a key.Esta es la primera publicación dedicada a la diversidad de carbones en Panamá. Tiene su base en trabajo de campo, estudio de especímenes herborizados y referencias de la literatura. Se incluyen carbones patógenos de plantas cultivadas y silvestres. Las últimas se encontraron sobre todo en zonas rurales. Entre las 24 especies citadas en este estudio, 14 especies son primeros registros para Panamá y una de éstas, Sporisorium ovarium, para América Central. Se encontró Entyloma spilanthis por primera vez en la planta hospedera Acmella papposa var.macrophylla (Asteraceac. Entyloma costaricense y Entyloma ecuadorense son sinónimos de Entyloma compositarum y Entyloma spilanthis respectivamente. "Sphacelotheca" panamensis es una especie dudosa. Se complementan las descripciones de las especies con algunas ilustraciones, una lista de especies y una clave.

  11. Chuva de sementes em remanescentes florestais de Campo Verde, MT

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    William Pietro-Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em avaliar sazonalmente a produção de sementes provenientes de fragmentos florestais presentes na zona rural de Campo Verde, MT. Essa caracterização ocorreu em termos de produção de sementes e riqueza de espécies vegetais. Foram selecionados três fragmentos florestais caracterizados como Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Em cada fragmento, cinco coletores foram instalados e confeccionados com canos de PVC (1 m²; malha de náilon de 0,001 m e 0,15 m de profundidade do bojo. O material foi coletado mensalmente, cujas sementes foram quantificadas e separadas conforme a síndrome de dispersão, etapa sucessional e forma de vida. Houve a determinação da densidade, frequência absoluta, índice de diversidade e equitabilidade. Ao todo, foram obtidas 3.622 sementes, pertencentes a 74 táxons. Maiores densidades de sementes foram observadas durante os meses de setembro, outubro e novembro. As lianas Gouania sp., Fridericia speciosa, Heteropterys sp. e Distictella sp. responderam com 55,95% do total de sementes aportadas. Das espécies que compuseram a chuva de sementes, 74% não são dispersas pelo vento. Todavia, quando se verificou a quantidade de diásporos coletados, formas dispersas pelo vento foram predominantes, representando 76% do total. Citam-se como táxons arbóreos importantes para a recomposição florestal na região de Campo Verde, situada no Sudeste de Mato Grosso: Tachigali rubiginosa, Siparuna guianensis, Nectandra sp., Cordia alliodora, Alibertia sp., Terminalia brasiliensis e Myrcia sp. Essas espécies devem ser alvo de estudos mais específicos relacionados ao seu potencial para recuperação de ambientes degradados, considerando-se as Áreas de Preservação Permanente e Reservas Legais.

  12. Screening of anti-bacterial activity of medicinal plants from Belize (Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, A; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Morsellino, N; De Simone, F; Tubaro, A

    2003-07-01

    Twenty-one extracts from seven herbal drugs, Aristolochia trilobata (Aristolochiaceae) leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) bark, Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) bark, Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) leaves and Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae) leaves and bark, used in traditional medicine of Belize (Central America) as deep and superficial wound healers, were evaluated for their anti-bacterial properties. Activity was tested against standard strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Almost all the extracts were able to inhibit the growth of one or more of the bacterial strains, except that of Enterococcus faecalis. For the first time an anti-microbial activity is reported for Aristolochia trilobata as well as for Syngonium podophyllum. The hexane extracts of Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark were the most active extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=0.31 and 0.625mg/ml, respectively).

  13. A checklist of the flora of Shanjan protected area, East Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibalani, Ghassem Habibi; Taheri, Elnaz

    2013-01-01

    The flora of protected Shanjan rangeland in Shabestar district, Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran was studied using a 1 m × 1 m quadrate in spring and summer 2011. The climate of this area is cold and dry. In this area 94 plant species belonging to 25 families were identified as constituting the major part of the vegetation. The families in the area are Amaryllidaceae, Boraginaceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophllaceae, Cistaceae, Compositea, Cruciferae, Cyperaceae, Dipesaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Geraniaceae, Hypericaceae, Linaceae, Melvaceae, Orobachaceae, Papaveraceae, Paronychiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Polygolaceae, Ranunculaceae, Resedaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Valerianacea. Floristic composition is Irano-Turanian elements. Detailed analysis showed that Biennial plants were 3.19%, Annual 41.49% and Perennial 55.32%.

  14. In vitro cultivated Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis with determination of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid contents and profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Rita de C.A. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: cassia@cnpat.embrapa.br; Valente, Ligia M.M.; Bezerra, Giselle M.; Alves, Flaviane F.; Santos, Priscila F.P. dos; Gomes, Luiz N.F.; Aquino-Neto, Francisco R. de; Emmerick, Isabel C.M.; Carvalhaes, Sergio F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pinto, Jose E.B.P.; Bertolucci, Suzan K.V. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura; Benevides, Paulo J.C.; Siani, Antonio C.; Rosario, Sandra L. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia em Farmacos; Mazzei, Jose L.; d' Avila, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola do Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. and Uncaria guianensis (Aubl.) Gmel., commercially known as cat's claw, are large woody vines native of the Amazon and Central America rainforests. These Rubiaceae species face nowadays an imminent risk of extinction due to indiscriminate harvesting in the wild as well as to increasing deforestation of their natural habitat. This work describes in vitro cultivation methods for both species with determination, by HPLC, of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid contents and profiles of the plant material. The results have proved that the methods we developed were able to produce plants with alkaloid profiles and contents similar to the wild and in vivo cultivated species, and with the additional advantage of producing suitable young plants in a shorter period of time. The data showed that the in vitro technique can be a feasible tool for the growth of the species, and may thus be important for their commercialization and for their conservation as a forest resource. (author)

  15. Vascular flora of an inselberg in the state of Paraíba, in Northeast Brazil

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    Elisabeth Emília Augusta Dantas Tölke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the floristic composition of an inselberg in the Puxinanã municipality, of Paraíba, in Northeast Brazil. Ninety-seven species were recorded that belong to 35 families: Asteraceae (12 spp., Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae (nine spp. each, Rubiaceae and Convolvulaceae (eight spp. each were the richest families, comprising 47.42% of the total species registered. The herbaceous habit was predominant, occurring in 39% of the species, followed by species of shrubs (22%, vines (20%, rupicolous plants (6%, subshrubs (5%, trees (4% and epiphytes (1%. Passiflora luetzelburgii Harms (Passifloraceae is a new record for the flora of the state. The data from this study provides information that could be used in the conservation and rational use of the study area, and contributes to what is known about the flora and vegetation of the Caatinga.

  16. A perception on health benefits of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sunitha Elizabeth; Ramalakshmi, Kulathooran; Mohan Rao, Lingamallu Jagan

    2008-05-01

    Coffee, consumed for its refreshing and stimulating effect, belongs to the tribe Coffea of the subfamily Cinchonoidea of Rubiaceae family. Coffee is a complex chemical mixture composed of several chemicals. It is responsible for a number of bioactivities and a number of compounds accounting for these effects. Few of the significant bioactivities documented are antioxidant activity, anticarcinogenic activity, antimutagenic activity etc. Various compounds responsible for the chemoprotective effects of coffee are mainly polyphenols including chlorogenic acids and their degradation products. Others include caffeine, kahweol, cafestol, and other phenolics. Coffee also shows protective or adverse effects on various systems like the skeletal (bone) system, the reproductive system, the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the homocysteine levels, the cholesterol levels etc. Harmful effects of coffee are associated with people who are sensitive to stimulants. Overall, with the available information, it can be concluded that the moderate consumption, corresponding to 3 to 4 cups/day with average strength is safer to human health.

  17. Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Callería District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloucek, P; Polesny, Z; Svobodova, B; Vlkova, E; Kokoska, L

    2005-06-03

    Nine ethanol extracts of Brunfelsia grandiflora (Solanaceae), Caesalpinia spinosa (Caesalpiniaceae), Dracontium loretense (Araceae), Equisetum giganteum (Equisetaceae), Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae), Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae), Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae), and Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in Calleria District for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial activity against nine bacterial strains using the broth microdilution method. Among the plants tested, Phyllanthus amarus and Terminalia catappa showed the most promising antibacterial properties, inhibiting all of the strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg/ml. The extract from aerial part of Piper aduncum was significantly more active against Gram-positive (MICs ranging from 1 to 2 mg/ml) than against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 16 mg/ml).

  18. A Review on the Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics and Toxicology of Geniposide, a Natural Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Mingqiu; Yu, Sheng; Yan, Hui; Guo, Sheng; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei; Wu, Qinan; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2017-10-10

    Iridoid glycosides are natural products occurring widely in many herbal plants. Geniposide (C 17 H 24 O 10 ) is a well-known one, present in nearly 40 species belonging to various families, especially the Rubiaceae. Along with this herbal component, dozens of its natural derivatives have also been isolated and characterized by researchers. Furthermore, a large body of pharmacological evidence has proved the various biological activities of geniposide, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-diabetic, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, cholagogic effects and so on. However, there have been some research articles on its toxicity in recent years. Therefore, this review paper aims to provide the researchers with a comprehensive profile of geniposide on its phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology in order to highlight some present issues and future perspectives as well as to help us develop and utilize this iridoid glycoside more efficiently and safely.

  19. Evaluation of anxiolytic and hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extract of Ixora cuneifolia in an animal model

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    Abdullah Al Mahmud

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate anxiolytic and hypoglycemic activity of Ixora cuneifolia (Family: Rubiaceae in an experimental animal model. Methods: Anxiolytic test was performed by elevated plus maze (EPM and hole-board method. Hypoglycemic activity was measured in glucose-loaded Swiss albino mice by glucose tolerance test. Results: The methanol extract of Ixora cuneifolia exhibited dose-dependent and statistically significant (P < 0.05 anxiolytic activity at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Reduction of glucose level was observed with the highest dose 400 mg/kg of the extract in glucose tolerance test. Conclusions: The better anxiolytic and hypoglycemic activities in the present study could be due to the presence of different chemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, saponin, phenols and tannins in this methanolic extract.

  20. Vegetation structure in the mountain forest in the Turquino National Park, province of Granma

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    José Luis Rodríguez Sosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the Jeringa site of the Turquino National Park in order to characterize the vegetation of a mountain forest fragment with Juglans jamaicensis. Floristic composition, vegetation structure, and the index value of importance were evaluated. Diameter at 1.30 m above the ground and height of all trees greater than 5 cm in diameter was measured. Data were analyzed using canonical correspondence analysis. 776 individuals of 43 species and 41 genera belonging to 30 families, reporting the Rubiaceae family as the richest in species, followed by Amigdalaceae, Araliaceae, Cyatheaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Sapindaceae and Poaceae. The tree species with more IVI were the Pseudolmedia spuria, Oxandra laurifolia, Trophis racemosa, Ocotea leucoxylon, Guarea guara, Dendropanax arboreus and Juglans jamaicensis, mainly due to its abundance in the vegetation, but it was found that the main contributor to the organic weight parameter species was the relative frequency.

  1. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Hermes de Oliveira Machado Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  2. In vitro cultivated Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis with determination of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid contents and profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Rita de C.A.; Valente, Ligia M.M.; Bezerra, Giselle M.; Alves, Flaviane F.; Santos, Priscila F.P. dos; Gomes, Luiz N.F.; Aquino-Neto, Francisco R. de; Emmerick, Isabel C.M.; Carvalhaes, Sergio F.; Pinto, Jose E.B.P.; Bertolucci, Suzan K.V.; Benevides, Paulo J.C.; Siani, Antonio C.; Rosario, Sandra L.; Mazzei, Jose L.; d'Avila, Luiz A.

    2008-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. and Uncaria guianensis (Aubl.) Gmel., commercially known as cat's claw, are large woody vines native of the Amazon and Central America rainforests. These Rubiaceae species face nowadays an imminent risk of extinction due to indiscriminate harvesting in the wild as well as to increasing deforestation of their natural habitat. This work describes in vitro cultivation methods for both species with determination, by HPLC, of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid contents and profiles of the plant material. The results have proved that the methods we developed were able to produce plants with alkaloid profiles and contents similar to the wild and in vivo cultivated species, and with the additional advantage of producing suitable young plants in a shorter period of time. The data showed that the in vitro technique can be a feasible tool for the growth of the species, and may thus be important for their commercialization and for their conservation as a forest resource. (author)

  3. Anxiogenic-like effects of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. aqueous extract in an elevated plus maze test in mice: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliani, María Celeste; Rosso, María Celeste; Zunino, Paula M; Baiardi, Gustavo; Ponce, Andrés Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of orally administered Uncaria tomentosa aqueous extracts (UTE) (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) DC. (Rubiaceae) during 7, 15, 30 and 90 days of treatment on the expression of anxiety, as expressed in the elevated plus maze test in male Albino Swiss mice. UTE revealed an anxiogenic effect in relation to the control group at 15 and 30 days, but it was reversed after 90 days of administration, without affecting the locomotor activity or any deleterious effects on the overall performance of the animal, either for its ambulation, or clinical status, and body weight and organ weight/body weight from liver, lung and kidney were unaffected. These biphasic effects are usually indicative of heterogeneity in sites of action due to the presence of many alkaloids (speciophylline, uncarine F and uncarine E) and flavanols (catechin and epigallocatechin) identified and isolated from UTE.

  4. ESTUDIO QUÍMICO DE LA CORTEZA DE Remijia peruviana “Cascarilla”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vargas Arana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realizó el análisis cualitativo de los metabolitos secundarios  y la cuantificación e identificación de los alcaloides presentes en la corteza de Remijia peruviana, la cual forma parte de la familia Rubiaceae, caracterizada por sintetizar  mayoritariamente alcaloides. Se ha aislado y determinado la estructura química de cinco alcaloides quinolínicos: tres nuevos derivados, Quinina acetato (1, Quinina alcohol (2 y N-Etil Quinina (3; y dos reportados anteriormente en la literatura: Quinina (4 y Cinchonina (5. La estructura de los nuevos alcaloides fueron elucidados por análisis básicos de espectroscopía RMN, incluyendo correlaciones homonuclear y heteronuclear (COSY, NOESY, HMBC y HSQC.

  5. Evaluation of 17 medicinal plants from Northern Côte d'Ivoire for their in vitro activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, W Mamidou; Atindehou, K Kamanzi; Kacou-N'douba, A; Dosso, M

    2006-08-28

    Twenty crude extracts from 17 species out of 11 families were assessed for their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus). The selected plants are used in Northern Côte d'Ivoire to treat various infections including respiratory track diseases. From all the tested extracts, only 7 from 6 plants showed a promising in vitro bactericidal activity against Pneumococcus, including strains resistant to penicillin. The most active extracts were from Erythrina senegalensis (Fabaceae), Piliostigma thonningii (Caesalpiniaceae), Waltheria indica (Sterculiaceae), Andira inermis (Fabaceae), Uapaca togoensis (Euphorbiaceae), Keetia hispida (Rubiaceae) and Combretum molle (Combretaceae). This is the first time that the antipneumococcal activity of the tested plants is reported. The results of this preliminary investigation support the traditional use of these plants in the treatment of pneumococcal infections. The most active of them could be candidates for isolation of compounds which could serve as lead structures for the development of new drugs against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  6. Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

    2008-07-09

    Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides.

  7. Atividade antimicrobiana de fungos endofíticos isolados de plantas tóxicas da amazônia: Palicourea longiflora (aubl.) rich e Strychnos cogens bentham

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Antonia Queiroz Lima de; Souza,Afonso Duarte Leão de; Astolfi Filho,Spartaco; Pinheiro,Maria Lúcia Belém; Sarquis,Maria Inez de Moura; Pereira,José Odair

    2004-01-01

    Das plantas tóxicas da Amazônia Palicourea longiflora e Strychnos cogens foram isolados 571 fungos endofíticos e 74 bactérias endofíticas. Palicourea longiflora (Rubiaceae) e outras espécies desse gênero estão relacionadas a 90% das mortes de gado na região Amazônica. Strychnos cogens (Loganiaceae) e outras espécies de Strychnos são utilizadas pelos indígenas na confecção de "curares". Entre os endófitos isolados de P. longiflora foram identificados os fungos: Colletotrichum sp. e seu telemor...

  8. KERAGAMAN VEGETASI POTENSIAL HIJAUAN PAKAN DI AREAL PERSAWAHAN PADA KONDISI KETINGGIAN YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Rochmah Kumalasari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi keragaman dan komposisi vegetasi di areal persawahan yang berpotensi untuk digunakan sebagai hijauan pakan. Penelitian dilaksanakan di 6 kota, yaitu Cianjur, Karanganyar, Malang, Karawang, Brebes dan Gresik. Enam kota tersebut dikategorikan dalam wilayah dataran rendah (kurang dari 100 m dpl dan wilayah dataran menengah (lebih dari 400 m dpl. Penelitian dilaksanakan dalam dua tahap, yaitu pada musim hujan tahun 2011 dan musim kering tahun 2012. Dalam 198 plot penelitian di areal persawahan ditemukan 171 spesies tumbuhan yang umumnya terdiri dari Poaceae, diikuti Asteraceae, Rubiaceae dan Fabaceae. Pada wilayah dengan ketinggian lebih dari 400 m dpl jumlah keragaman spesies dalam plot lebih tinggi dibandingkan pada wilayah dataran rendah. Keragaman spesies meningkat pada musim penghujan.

  9. Field diet of the grasshopper Abracris dilecta Walker (Orthoptera, Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frankl Sperber

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Abracris dilecta Walker, 1870 (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Ommatolampinae ate leafs of at least 14 plant species, in the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Malvales (Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae or Malvaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Verbenaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataccae. Elephantopus mollis H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae comprised 50% of the diet. The diet breadth of A. dilecta was compared to that of other 11 grasshopper species of the same sub-family, with rarefaction curves. The number of plant species eaten by A. dilecta was greater than that of nine other grasshopper species of the same sub-family (Rhachicreagra spp. but was lower then two others (Microptylopteryx hebardi Rehn, 1905 and Rhachicreagra astytophallus Jago & Rowell, 1981. This results are discussed in view of the broad geographical range and possession of developed wings by A. dilecta, which contrasts with most Ommatolampinae grasshoppers.

  10. Modulatory role of alizarin from Rubia cordifolia L. against genotoxicity of mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhjit; Chandel, Madhu; Kumar, Subodh; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Kaur, Satwinderjeet

    2010-01-01

    Rubia cordifolia L. (Rubiaceae) is an important medicinal plant used in the Ayurvedic medicinal system. Its use as a traditional therapeutic has been related to the treatment of skin disorders and cancer. Besides its medicinal value, anthraquinones from this plant are used as natural food colourants and as natural hair dyes. Dyes derived from natural sources have emerged as important alternatives to synthetic dyes. Alizarin (1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone) was isolated and characterized from R. cordifolia L. and evaluated for its antigenotoxic potential against a battery of mutagens viz. 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) and 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) in Ames assay using TA98 tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium; hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) in SOS chromotest using PQ37 strain of Escherichia coli and in Comet assay using human blood lymphocytes. Our results showed that alizarin possessed significant modulatory role against the genotoxicity of mutagens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening of north-east Mexico medicinal plants with activities against herpes simplex virus and human cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Mares, David; Rivas-Galindo, Veronica M; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Pérez-Lopez, Luis Alejandro; Waksman De Torres, Noemí; Pérez-Meseguer, Jonathan; Torres-Lopez, Ernesto

    2018-01-15

    The plants examined in this study have previous biological activity reports indicating the possibility of found activity against herpes and cancer cell. The aim of this contribution was to carry out a screening of Juglans mollis (Juglandaceae), Persea americana (Lauraceae), Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae), Salvia texana (Lamiaceae), Salvia ballotaeflora (Lamiaceae), Ceanothus coeruleus (Rhamnaceae), Chrysactinia mexicana (Asteraceae) y Clematis drummondii (Ranunculaceae), against HeLa cells, VHS-1 and VHS-2. The method MTT was used to determine the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC 50 ), in Vero and HeLa cell lines. To determine the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) against herpes, the plaque reduction method was used. Results showed that none of the plants exhibited activity against HeLa cells. About antiherpetic activity, J. mollis and S. ballotaeflora extracts present antiherpetic activity in terms of their SI, increasingly interest for further studies on the isolation of compounds with antiherpetic activity and about the mechanisms of action that produce this activity.

  12. Uncaria tomentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Valle, Valentina

    2017-12-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (U. tomentosa) or uña de gato, a species of vine of Rubiaceae family, was used from centuries in various medical conditions. Although there are no randomized controlled trials or published human outcome studies, some conditions reportedly improved by U. tomentosa include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, prostatitis, viral illnesses and cancer (acting as a non-specific immunomodulantign agent) and it may also have potential as an immunomodulating adaptogen in cellular aging. The understanding of some specific mechanisms of molecular action leads to the demonstration of various anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating and protective effects. These results bring the strong hypothesis that U. tomentosa could be effective in the topical treatment of dermatological manifestation, namely rosacea.

  13. Review of antiviral and immunomodulating properties of plants of the Peruvian rainforest with a particular emphasis on Una de Gato and Sangre de Grado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J E

    2001-12-01

    Viral diseases, including emerging and chronic viruses, are an increasing worldwide health concern. As a consequence, the discovery of new antiviral agents from plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. A number of native Amazonian medicines of plant origin are known to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, although only a few have been studied for their antiviral properties and immunomodulating effects. Those most studied include: Sangre de Grado (drago) (Croton lechleri) in the Euphorbiaceae family and Una de Gato (Uncaria tomentosa) in the Rubiaceae family. This article reviews the chemical composition, pharmacological properties, state of current research, clinical use, and potential antiviral and immunomodulating activity of these and other plants from the Peruvian Amazon.

  14. Leaf chemistry and foliage avoidance by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis in glasshouse collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison S Scott; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2011-03-01

    Observational studies on foliage avoidance by the polyphagous thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) identified six non-host species (Allagopappus dichotomus (Asteraceae), Gardenia posoquerioides (Rubiaceae), Plectranthus aff. barbatus, Plectranthus strigosus, Plectranthus zuluensis (Lamiaceae), and Sclerochiton harveyanus (Acanthaceae) among plants growing within a major glasshouse botanical collection. The effects of sequentially obtained acetone and aqueous methanol leaf extracts on mortality in first instar Frankliniella occidentalis were assessed. The acetone leaf extract of Sclerochiton harveyanus, which had the highest activity against the thrips, yielded four new iridoids, sclerochitonosides A-C, and sclerochitonoside B 4'-methyl ether. Mortality of F. occidentalis was increased on exposure to all four iridoids, and the most active iridoid was sclerochitonoside A (8-epiloganic acid 4'-hydroxyphenylethyl ester). Choice experiments demonstrated that this compound did not significantly deter H. haemorrhoidalis from treated leaf surfaces. The significance of iridoids in the defense mechanism of plants against thrips is discussed.

  15. Levantamento florístico de um trecho de floresta serrana no planalto de Garanhuns, Estado de Pernambuco - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2120 Flora survey of a mountain forest stretch in Garanhuns, state of Pernambuco - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2120

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    Maria Jesus Nogueira Rodal

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa contribuir para o conhecimento da flora dos brejos de altitude do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Foi realizado o levantamento florístico de um remanescente de floresta estacional semidecidual Montana, localizado na Fazenda Monteiro (8º53’25”S’ e 36º 29’34”W’, Garanhuns, Pernambuco. As coletas de material botânico tiveram início no mês de julho de 1998, representando os diferentes hábitos. O material coletado foi processado segundo os métodos usuais em taxonomia. Foram registradas 69 espécies, acomodadas em 58 gêneros e 31 famílias, com destaque pelo maior número de espécies para: Euphorbiaceae (06, Asteraceae e Caesalpiniaceae (05, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae e Solanaceae (04. Dentre as espécies ocorrentes na área em estudo, verificaram-se: Senna rizzinii Irwin & Barneby, Casearia sylvestris Swartz., Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. MorongThe aim of this paper is to contribute for the flora information of marsh forests in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. A flora survey of a semi-deciduous mountain stationary forest located in Garanhuns plateau, in Monteiro farm (latitude 8º53’25”S and longitude 36º29’34”, in Garanhuns, Pernambuco was carried out. The botanical material collection started in July 1998, representing different habits. The collected material was processed according to methods adopted in plant taxonomy. 69 species were recorded, allocated in 58 genre and 31 families, standing out by the greatest number of species to: Euphorbiaceae (06, Asteraceae and Caesalpiniaceae (05, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae and Solanaceae (04 each. Amongest the species studied, Senna rizzinii Irwin & Barneby, Casearia sylvestris Swartz, Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong were verified

  16. Levantamento florístico de uma mata decídua em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil Floriste survey of an area of deciduous forest in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Luciene Alves Rodrigues

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho consistiu de levantamento florístico em mata mesófila decídua situada em solo raso de origem basáltica em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foram feitas visitas quinzenais à mata, no período de fevereiro/93 a junho/95, para coletas de exemplares botânicos férteis. O material coletado foi incorporado ao Herbário da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (HUFU. Foram identificadas 105 espécies de árvores, arbustos, lianas e herbáceas, distribuídas em 88 gêneros e 43 famílias. As espécies mais freqüentes na mata foram: Anadenanthera colubrina, Bauhinia sp., Croton sp., Myracrodruon urundeuva e Sweetiafruticosa. Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (8, Mimosaceae (6, Myrtaceae (6, Caesalpinaceae (5 e Fabaceae (5 foram as famílias com maior número de espécies identificadas.A floristic survey was carried out in a deciduous forest on a shallow basaltic soil, in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Visits were performed fortnightly from February/93 to June/95. The sampled material was lodged at the Herbarium of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (HUFU. A list is provided with 105 species of trees, shrubs, scandent shrubs, lianas and herbs, belonging to 88 genera and 43 botanic families. The most frequent species were: Anadenanthera colubrina, Bauhinia sp., Croton sp., Myracrodruon urundeuva and Sweetia fruticosa. Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (8, Mimosaceae (6, Myrtaceae (6, Caesalpinaceae (5 e Fabaceae (5 were the families with the largest numbers of identified species.

  17. Levantamento florísitico na Estação Ecológica do Tripuí, Ouro Preto, MG Floristic inventory in the Tripuí Ecological Station, Ouro Preto, MG

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    Gilberto Pedralli

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o levantamento florístico na Estação Ecológica do Tripuí, Ouro Preto, MG (43º34'33" W e 20º23'45"S. O clima da região é do tipo mesotérmico, com inverno seco (Cwb sg. Köppen e com temperaturas médias oscilando entre 14º e 19ºC. A Estação apresenta como principais tipos vegetacionais as florestas mesófilas estacionais, o cerrado, a vegetação aquática (brejos, lagoa artificial e córregos e as formações sucessionais ('candeial'. Para o levantamento florístico utilizou-se o método de parcelas e coletas por trilhas e caminhos, sendo identificadas 101 famílias, 242 gêneros e 462 espécies. As famílias que apresentaram maior riqueza específica foram Asteraceae (10,82%, Melastomataceae (8,22%, Myrtaceae (7,14% e Rubiaceae (4,76%.A floristic inventory was carried out in Tripuí Ecological Station, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state (43º34'33" W and 20º23'45"S. In this region the climate, according to Koppen's classification, is Cwb, i.e., with a mild summer and a dry winter. The main vegetation types identified were semideciduous mesophytic forests, cerrado, aquatic vegetation ('brejos', artificial lake and creeks and secondary formations ('candeial'. Through the floristic inventory in plots, trails and ways were identified 101 families, 242 genera and 462 species. Asteraceae (10,82%, Melastomataceae (8,22%, Myrtaceae (7,14% and Rubiaceae (4,76% were the families with the greatest specific richness.

  18. Regeneração natural de espécies arbóreas em fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, no domínio da Mata Atlântica, em Viçosa, MG

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    Cristina Cunha Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou analisar a composição florística atual da regeneração natural, contrastando-a com levantamentos anteriores pertencentes a um monitoramento iniciado em 1992, em fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana, em Viçosa, MG. Os locais de estudo correspondem a dez sítios escolhidos em função das características fisiográficas declividade, exposição e posição topográfica do terreno. Foram estimados os índices de regeneração natural por espécie para cada classe de tamanho de planta (RNC para obtenção do índice de regeneração natural total (RNT. Foram amostrados 3.516 indivíduos, pertencentes a 140 morfoespécies arbóreas, incluindo indivíduos de 10 cm a 3 m de altura e diâmetro a 1,3 m (DAP menor que 5 cm. O maior número de indivíduos foi amostrado nas famílias Rubiaceae, Fabaceae Mimosoideae, Monimiaceae, Fabaceae Papilionoideae, mas as famílias mais ricas foram Fabaceae Caesalpinoideae, Fabaceae Papilionoideae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae e Rubiaceae. As espécies que apresentaram os maiores RNTs foram: Psychotria sessilis, Siparuna guianensis, Anadenanthera peregrina e Piptadenia gonoacantha. Este monitoramento sugere uma substituição contínua de espécies de estágios iniciais de sucessão por outras de estágios mais avançados, demonstrando a importância da proteção dos fragmentos florestais remanescentes para a manutenção ou aumento da biodiversidade da região.

  19. Estudio fitoquímico de hojas de Uncaria guianensis y evaluación de actividad antibacteriana Phytochemical study of Uncaria guianensis leaves and antibacterial activity evaluation

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    Juliet Angélica Prieto Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto de éter de petróleo de hojas de Uncaria guianensis (Rubiaceae, se aisló un compuesto tipo clorina denominado éster etílico de feoforbida a y una mezcla de esteroles conocidos como β-sitosterol y estigmasterol. Sus estructuras fueron elucidadas por análisis detallado de RMN, incluyendo técnicas bidimensionales, y por comparación con datos reportados en la literatura. Posteriormente, se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana al éster etílico de feoforbida a contra dos cepas Gram(+: S. aureus ATCC 6538 y E. faecalis ATCC 29212 y contra tres cepas Gram (-: E. coli ATCC 25922, S. typhimurium ATCC 14028s y S. typhimurium MS7953. Se encontró actividad significativa contra S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli y S. tiphymurium MS7953.A chlorin compound, pheophorbide a ethyl ester and a mixture of sterols known as β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, were isolated from the petroleum ether extract of Uncaria guianensis (Rubiaceae leaves. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of NMR spectra, including bidimensional techniques and by comparison with literature data. The antibacterial activity for the pheophorbide a ethyl ester was evaluated against two Gram (+ strains: S. aureus ATCC 6538 y E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and three Gram (- strains: E. coli ATCC 25922, S. typhimurium ATCC 14028s y S. typhimurium MS7953S. aureus ATCC 6538 and E. fecalis ATCC 29212, finding significant activity against S. aureus 6538, E. faecalis 29212, S. tiphymurium MS7953 and E. coli 25922.

  20. Caracterização florística, fitossociológica e regeneração natural do sub-bosque da reserva genética florestal Tamanduá, D.F.

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    José Silva Alves da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in the Tamanduá Forest Genetic Reserve, in Brasília, Brazil, comprised mainly by gallery forest. It aimed to assess the floristic composition, natural regeneration and the spatial distribution of the main woody species in the undergrowth. The species were Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott and Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, all considered priorities for in situ conservation. Five transects were used, each 10 meters wide, laid perpendicular to the main watercourse in the studied area. A total of 21,482 regenerants per hectare were found in 69 species, 53 genera and 39 families. The families which had the largest numbers of species as seedlings were, in descending order, Leguminosae (Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae and Meliaceae. Surveying of young individuals, the dominant families with higher importance value (IV were as follows: Meliaceae (32.78 %, Rubiaceae (13.92 %, Burseraceae (13.76 %, Rutaceae (8.54 % and Hippocrateaceae (6.36 %, accounting for 75.36 % of total IV and 78.56 % of cover. All target species studied were represented among regenerants, especially Cariniana estrelllensis. However, only Copaifera langsdorffii and Virola sebifera were found among young individuals. A mixture quotient of 1:3 was calculated and indicates a forest rich in species, when compared to other similar forest formations. The spatial distribution of the regenerant species showed different patterns.

  1. Cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago B C; Costa, Cinara O D'Sousa; Galvão, Alexandre F C; Bomfim, Larissa M; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B da C; Mota, Mauricio C S; Dantas, Alex A; Dos Santos, Tiago R; Soares, Milena B P; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-07-08

    Great biodiversity is a highlight of Brazilian flora. In contrast, the therapeutic potentialities of most species used in folk medicine remain unknown. Several of these species are commonly used to treat cancer. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of 18 plants from 16 families that are found in the northeast region of Brazil. The following species were studied: Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae), Cupania impressinervia Acev. Rodr. var. (revoluta) Radlk (Sapindaceae), Duranta repens Linn. (Verbenaceae), Helicostylis tomentosa (Poepp. & Endl) Rusby (Moraceae), Himatanthus bracteatus (A.DC.) Woodson (Apocynaceae), Ipomoea purga (Wender.) Hayne (Convolvulaceae), Ixora coccinea Linn. (Rubiaceae), Mabea piriri Aubl. (Euphorbiaceae), Miconia minutiflora (Melastomataceae), Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Ocotea glomerata (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae), Ocotea longifolia Kunth (Oreodaphne opifera Mart. Nees) (Lauraceae), Pavonia fruticosa (Mill.) Fawc. & Rendle (Malvaceae), Psychotria capitata Ruiz & Pav. (Rubiaceae), Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin (Araliaceae), Solanum paludosum Moric. (Solanaceae), Xylopia frutescens Aubl. (Annonaceae) and Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae). Their dried leaves, stems, flowers or fruits were submitted to different solvent extractions, resulting in 55 extracts. After incubating for 72 h, the cytotoxicity of each extract was tested against tumor cell lines using the alamar blue assay. The B. sericea, D. repens, H. bracteatus, I. purga, I. coccinea, M. piriri, O. longifolia and P. capitata extracts demonstrated the most potent cytotoxic activity. The chloroform soluble fractions of D. repens flowers and the hexane extract of I. coccinea flowers led to the isolation of quercetin and a mixture of α- and β-amyrin, respectively, and quercetin showed moderate cytotoxic activity. The B. sericea, D. repens, H. bracteatus, I. purga, I. coccinea, M. piriri, O. longifolia and P. capitata plants were

  2. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude plant extracts from Colombian biodiversity

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    Jaime Niño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. In this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae, collected at the Natural Regional Park Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia, were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities were assayed against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram-negative ones named, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the same plant extracts were tested against the yeast Candida albicans and the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani. Overall, the plant extracts examined displayed better bactericide rather than fungicide activities. In general, the best antibacterial activity was showed by the plant extracts from the Rubiaceae family, followed in order by the extracts from the Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae ones. It is important to emphasize the great activity displayed by the methanol extract of Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae that inhibited four out of five bacteria tested (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. Furthermore, the best Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for the extracts with antifungal activities were displayed by the dichloromethane extracts from Acalypha diversifolia and Euphorbia sp (Euphorbiaceae. The most susceptible fungus evaluated was F. Solani since 60% and 20% of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts evaluated inhibited the growth of this phytopathogenic fungus. The antimicrobial activity of the different plant extracts examined in this work could be related to the secondary metabolites contents and their interaction and

  3. Florística, fitossociologia e estrutura diamétrica de um remanescente florestal no município de Gurupi, Tocantins

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    Marcos Alberto Francisco de Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se conhecer a composição florística e fitossociológica da formação florestal cerradão, domínio do Cerrado, Gurupi no estado de Tocantins. Foram demarcadas 2 parcelas de 20x50m2 cada nas quais foram registrados todos os indivíduos arbustivo-arbóreos com circunferência do tronco ≥ a 15 cm, na altura de 1.30m do solo. Os dados coletados foram analisados utilizando os softwares Microsoft Office Excel e Fitopac versão 2.1.2. Foi realizada análise dos valores absolutos e relativos de densidade, frequência, dominância e valor de Importância (VI, Índice de diversidade de Shannon (H’ e equabilidade de Pielou (J’. Foram amostrados 142 indivíduos, destes 133 indivíduos vivos e 9 mortos em pé, distribuídos em 26 espécies e 17 famílias, além do grupo das mortas e uma família indeterminada. A densidade total foi de 710 plantas/hectare-1, com área basal total de 6,787 m²/ha-1. A espécie mais abundante foi Tapirira guianensis (37 Ind. 26 %.. Os indivíduos das espécies Copaifera langsdorffii, Platypodium elegans, Plathymenia reticulata, Bauhinia rufa, Machaerium hirtum e Dalberbia miscolobium, pertencentes à família Fabaceae foram as que apresentaram os maiores números de indivíduos/espécie. As espécies com maior valor de IVI foram Tapirira guianensis (59,51%, Copaifera langsdorffii (24,81%, Protium heptaphyllum (22,27% e Alibertia sessilis (14,87%. O padrão de distribuição dos indivíduos foi no intervalo de 11 classes de diâmetro no formato de “J” invertido. O Índice de Diversidade de Shannon (H' encontrado foi de 2,76, a equabilidade de Pielou apresentou valor de 0,83. Foram encontradas diversas espécies que caracterizaram a fitofisionomia cerradão, onde a mesma encontra-se em processo de regeneração.Floristic, phytosociology and diametric structure of a remnant forest in the municipality of Gurupi, TocantinsAbstract: This study aimed to know the floristic and phytosociological composition of

  4. PEMANFAATAN DAUN TANAMAN BERKAYU SEBAGAI PUPUK ORGANIK TANAMAN SAYURAN DAN JAGUNG - (UTILIZATION OF WOODY PLANT LEAVES AS ORGANIC FERTILIZER FOR VEGETABLES AND CORN

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    Dody Priadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to use woody plant leaves as organic fertilizer (compost and their effects on vegetables and corn. The compost was made from leaves of Samanea saman, Swietenia macrophylla, Nephelium lappaceum and cow dung (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1 using OrgaDec (0.5% w/w, Decomic (0.1% v/w and Dectro (0.1 v/w as bioactivator. The result showed that compost from Samanea saman leaves and cow dung (1:3 using Decomic (0.1% v/w met the organic fertilizer standard. The compost was applied to Ipomoea reptans, Capsicum annuum and Zea mays on a media from compost and latosol soil (1:3, 2:2 and 3:1 using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 3 replications. The analyzed data using ANOVA showed no significant difference in the growth parameter of tested plants. The best media for Ipomoea reptans was the mixture of compost and latosol soil (3:1 meanwhile for Zea mays and Capsicum annuum were 1:3 and 2:2, respectively.Keywords: compost, compost application, organic fertilizer, woody plant leavesABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan daun tumbuhan berkayu menjadi pupuk organik (kompos serta pengaruhnya terhadap tanaman sayuran dan jagung. Kompos dibuat dari daun kihujan (Samanea saman, daun mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla daun rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum dan kotoran sapi (1:3, 2:2 dan 3:1 dengan penambahan bioaktivator OrgaDec (0,5% w/w, Decomic (0,1% v/w dan Dectro (0,1 v/w. Hasil analisis kimia menunjukkan bahwa kompos yang dibuat dari daun kihujan dan kotoran sapi (1:3 yang menggunakan bioaktivator Decomic (0,1% v/w adalah perlakuan yang paling sesuai dengan baku mutu pupuk organik berdasarkan Permentan No.70/Permentan/SR.140/10/2011. Kompos hasil penelitian diujicobakan kepada tanaman kangkung darat (Ipomoea reptans, cabe keriting (Capsicum annuum dan jagung manis (Zea mays pada media campuran kompos dan tanah latosol (1:3, 2:2 dan 3:1 menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 3 ulangan sedangkan data yang diperoleh diolah dengan ANOVA

  5. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Valladolid Ontaneda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de selección de árboles semilleros se realizó en las comunas Olón, Dos Mangas y Salanguillo del cantón Santa Elena, provincia de Santa Elena, Ecuador. El objetivo del estudio fue, identificar, caracterizar y seleccionar árboles semilleros de especies maderables con buenas características morfológicas, y que permitan disponer de semillas para trabajos de propagación de especies forestales en viveros con fines de reforestación. El estudio se inicia con la identificación y ubicación de plantaciones forestales de varias especies forestales establecidas entre los años 2000 a 2005, en las plantaciones se evaluaron las características dasométricas y morfológicas, las que permitieron seleccionar 11 árboles con características morfológicas deseables correspondientes a cinco especies forestales laurel blanco(Cordia alliodora, laurel negro(Cordia megalantha, caoba (Swietenia macrophylla, cedro (Cedrela odorata y melina (Gmelina arbórea; cada árbol fue georreferenciado utilizando coordenadas UTM Datum WGS 1984 Zona 17M. La cantidad de semillas que pueden producir dichas especies forestales es proyectada por año la cual servirá como referencia para establecer programas de reforestación con materiales propios y adaptados a las condiciones ambientales en la provincia de Santa Elena Abstract  The study of selection of seed trees was carried out in the Olón, Dos Mangas and Salanguillo communes of the canton Santa Elena, Santa Elena province, Ecuador. The objective of the study was to identify, characterize and select seedlings of timber species with good morphological characteristics, and to allow seeds to be used for the propagation of forest species in nurseries for reforestation purposes. The study began with the identification and location of forest plantations of several forest species established between 2000 and 2005, on the plantations, the dasometric and morphological characteristics were evaluated, allowing the

  6. Desenvolvimento in vitro do fungo simbionte de Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em meio de cultura com diferentes extratos vegetais Development in vitro of the symbiotic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in culture medium with different plant extracts

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    Marcelo Dias de Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento in vitro de Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, fungo simbionte de Atta sexdens rubropilosa, em meio de cultura acrescido com extratos de 24 espécies vegetais. O fungo foi inoculado no meio BDA, acrescido com os extratos vegetais, além de quatro controles, em placas de Petri. As placas foram mantidas em câmaras climatizadas à temperatura de 25±1°C no escuro, por um período de 42 dias. O crescimento do fungo foi avaliado semanalmente através do diâmetro da colônia. Os resultados mostraram que o fungo simbionte dessas formigas apresenta um crescimento diferenciado em relação aos extratos fornecidos nas placas, sendo que o meio acrescido com os extratos de arica (Physocalymma scaberrimum, cerejeira (Amburana acreana, cedro (Cedrela fissilis, timbó (Magonia pubescens, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e mogno (Swietenia macrophylla prejudicaram o desenvolvimento. No entanto, os extratos de genipapo (Genipa americana, seringueira (Heveaa brasiliensis, ingá (Inga edulis e cambará (Vochysia divergens apresentaram melhores condições de desenvolvimento para o fungo simbionte.The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro development of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of Atta sexdens rubropilosa in culture medium added with extracts of 24 plant species. The fungus was inoculated in PDA added with vegetables extracts and four controls, in Petri dishes. The dishes were maintained in climate chambers at temperature of 25±1°C in the dark, to period of 42 days. The fungal growth was evaluated weekly by diameter of the colony. The results showed that the symbiotic fungus of these ants has differentiated growth when compared to the extracts provided in the dishes, and the medium supplemented with extracts of aricá (Physocalymma scaberrimum, cerejeira (Amburana acreana, cedro (Cedrela fissilis, timbó (Magonia pubescens, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e mogno (Swietenia

  7. Mercado de madeiras tropicais: substituição na demanda de exportação Tropical sawnwood market: substitution export demand

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    Alexandre Nascimento de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi abordado o grau de substituição de seis espécies da Amazônia no mercado internacional de madeira serrada. Utilizou-se como base metodológica o modelo de elasticidade de substituição. Os dados usados no modelo são mensais e foram coletados na Secretaria de Comércio Exterior do Brasil (SECEX para o período de janeiro de 1996 a setembro de 2007. As espécies analisadas foram: mogno (Swietenia macrophylla, cedro (Cedrela spp., virola (Virola surinamensis, louro (Nectandra spp. e Ocotea spp., angico (Anadenanthera spp. e ipê (Tabebuia spp.. As elasticidades estimadas indicaram que todas as espécies são boas substitutas ao mogno. Para as espécies que possuem características físicas diferentes, pode-se inferir que fatores de mercado relacionados à garantia de fornecimento do mogno influenciaram os resultados encontrados. Em geral, os resultados sugeriram uma semelhança entre as espécies consideradas nobres (mogno, ipê e cedro para o mercado internacional, indicando-as como boas substitutas entre si.This work analyzed the level of substitution of six Amazonian species on the international sawnwood market, by employing the substitution elasticity model. Data supplied by the Brazilian Department of Foreign Trade (SECEX was collected monthly from January/1996 to September/2007. The species analyzed were: mogno (Swietenia macrophylla, cedro (Cedrela spp., virola (Virola surinamensis, louro (Nectandra spp. e Ocotea spp., angico (Anadenanthera spp. e ipê (Tabebuia spp.. The elasticities indicated that all of the species as substitutes for mogno. For the species which possess different physical characteristics, market factors probably related to the supply guarantee of mogno have influenced these results. In general, the results suggested a similarity among the species considered noble (mogno, ipê and cedro on the international market indicating them as good substitutes among themselves.

  8. Efeito do cálcio no controle da Hypsipila grandella em mudas de mogno cultivadas em hidroponia Effect of the calcium in the control of the Hypsipila grandella in young mahogany cultivated in hidroponics system

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    Sandra Andréa Santos da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor de cálcio e o efeito do ataque da lagarta H. grandella em plantas jovens de mogno (S. macrophylla, cultivadas em função de diferentes épocas de aplicação de doses crescentes de cálcio no substrato sílica moída, utilizando sistema hidropônico. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA, Belém-PA, de setembro de 2004 a fevereiro de 2005. Utilizou-se cinco doses de cálcio (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 mg Ca.L-1, em solução nutritiva proposta por Hoagland & Arnon, modificada por Epstein (1975. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC, as variáveis utilizadas para avaliação foram a susceptibilidade do mogno ao ataque da broca H. grandella, comprimento da galeria da broca e o teor de cálcio no caule. Foi realizado um DIC com cinco doses de cálcio, cinco repetições cada, e duas épocas de inoculação da broca. Utilizou-se regressões lineares simples para interpretação dos dados. Através da pesquisa, conclui-se que a aplicação de doses de cálcio, em solução nutritiva, reduziu o comprimento da galeria de infecção e exerce eficiente ação no controle do ataque da praga em plantas de mogno.The objective of this research was to evaluate the leaf level of calcium and the effect attack by caterpillar H. grandella to young mahogany (S. macrophylla plants cultivated in a nutritive solution. This solution was that proposed by Hoagland and Arnon modified by Epstein (1975. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse of the Federal Rural University of Amazonas (UFRA, at Belem, Para, from September 2004 to February 2005. A split plot experimental desing with five replicates was used. The plots were five doses of calcium (0, 80, 160, 240, 320 mg Ca.L-1 and the subplots two times of harvesting the plants (189 e 211 days after planting for the variables sensitivity of mahogany seedlings to attack of the drill

  9. Changes in in vitro ruminal and post-ruminal degradation of tropical tannin-rich legumes due to varying levels of polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, M M; Pabón, M L; Hess, H D; Carulla, J E

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of tannins from Flemingia macrophylla (CIAT 17403) and Calliandra calothyrsus (San Ramón CIAT 22310 and Patulul CIAT 22316) on in vitro ruminal and post-ruminal dry matter and apparent protein degradation. For each tannin source (legumes), different dosages of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (8000 Da) in McDougall buffer were added to achieve ratios of 0:3, 1:3, 2:3 and 3:3 PEG:condensed tannin (CT). Ruminal fluid mixed with McDougall buffer (1:4) was added to tubes containing only legume foliage (control) or PEG-treated legume foliage. For both Calliandra varieties, a higher ruminal dry matter degradation was observed at a PEG:CT ratio of 3:3. For F. macrophylla, no differences were found between 2:3 and 3:3 ratios (p > 0.05), indicating that a PEG:CT ratio of 2:3 might be enough to bind tannins. Increasing PEG:CT ratios increased apparent ruminal degraded protein and ammonia concentration (p tannin ratio of 2:3, there was not a significant increase, and for San Ramón, dBCP degradation was higher as PEG:CT ratio increased up to 2:3. For Flemingia, dBCP was higher than PEG:CT ratio of 0:3 but not different among 1:3, 2:3 or 3:3. Low concentration of CT (116 mg/g DM) increased the proportion of protein digested in the abomasum, but higher levels of CT (252 mg/g) clearly reduced the proportion of digested CP. For Flemingia, PEG:CT ratio of 2:3 is enough to inactivate tannins, while PEG:CT ratio of 3:3 was needed for Calliandra and consequently increased ruminal degradation of dry mater (rdDM), and crude protein (rdCP), total degradation of dry matter (tdDM), crude protein (tdCP) and ammonia levels. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Microscopía electrónica para el estudio del Na2Si0(4 en la durabilidad de un compuesto a base de cemento portlánd y refuerzo de caoba Analysis of Na2Si0(4 effect on durability of a portlánd cement matrix and mahogany reinforcement composite through electron microscopy

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    Inocente Bojórque

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la ayuda de la microscopía electrónica, se logra apreciar el trabajo desarrollado por el silicato de sodio como agente mineraüzador de las fibras orgánicas en compuestos polifásicos con matriz de cemento Portland Tipo I. El objetivo de este trabajo fue el estudio de la acción del agente en la durabilidad del material, debido a la incompatibilidad química entre el hidróxido de calcio Ca(OH2 y el refuerzo a base de fibras procedentes de la caoba (Swietenia Macrophylla, en compuestos con características semejantes pero de tres diferentes edades y en compuestos de la misma edad pero elaborados con dos diferentes fracciones volumétricas del ingrediente orgánico. Los ensayos se realizaron en tres diferentes zonas: matriz, refuerzo y transición, empleando un Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB mientras que la composición química se hizo con un Analizador de Rayos "X" (EDS; a través del primer equipo se observó el contraste entre las diversas fases del compuesto por la diferencia entre los números atómicos; con el segundo, se analizó la composición química de las zonas de interés. Los resultados mostraron las bondades del agente en la durabilidad del material y, los beneficios del uso de la microscopía electrónica para visualizar el comportamiento microestructuralNa2Si0(4 behavior as a mineralizer agent on organic fibers composites with Type I Portland Cement matrix is possible to observe it through a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The purpose of this research was to study the role of this agent on this material's durability due to the chemical incompatibility between calcium hydroxide Ca(OH2 and the fiber reinforcement from the mahogany (Swietenia Macrophylla, from composites of three different ages and two different fiber volumetric fraction as well. The tests were made in three different zones: matrix, reinforcement and transition zone, using a SEM, whereas the chemical composition was scanned out with an Energy

  11. Diversidade de angiospermas e espécies medicinais de uma área de Cerrado

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    A.F. SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a diversidade vegetal de uma área de Cerrado em Prudente de Morais, MG, bem como suas indicações medicinais. Foram feitas nove excursões à reserva da Fazenda Experimental Santa Rita da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais (FESR/EPAMIG (19°26’20”’ S e 44°09’15”’ W. O material vegetal coletado foi herborizado, identificado e incorporado ao acervo do Herbário PAMG/EPAMIG. O sistema de classificação utilizado foi o APG III. Após a identificação, realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica buscando dados sobre a utilização medicinal das espécies. Coletaram-se 108 espécies pertencentes a 47 famílias. As famílias mais representativas foram: Fabaceae, com 16 espécies, Myrtaceae com sete espécies, Asteraceae e Rubiaceae com seis espécies cada, Malpighiaceae e Solanaceae com cinco espécies cada, Erythroxylaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Vochysiaceae, com quatro espécies cada, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae e Sapindaceae com três espécies cada, Annonaceae, Arecaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae e Primulaceae com duas espécies cada. Vinte e nove famílias foram monoespecíficas. Das 108 espécies, 39 são árvores (36%, 43 arbustos (40%, seis subarbustos (5,5%, 14 lianas (13% e seis são ervas (5,5%. Sessenta e seis (61% espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias (83% são utilizadas popularmente, para o tratamento de alguma doença. As famílias com maior número de espécies medicinais foram: Fabaceae com oito espécies; Rubiaceae com cinco espécies e Solanaceae com quatro espécies. As espécies que apresentaram mais finalidades terapêuticas foram: Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae, Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Caryocaraceae, Cochlospermum regium (Mart. ex Schrank Pilg. (Bixaceae, Croton urucurana Bail. (Euphorbiaceae, Gomphrena officinalis Mart. (Amaranthaceae, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae, Lithrea molleoides (Vell. Engl. (Anacardiaceae

  12. Análisis florístico del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayucu e Isla Mocagua, Amazonas (Colombia

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    Rudas L. Agustín

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available A floristic study of the Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu and Isla Mocagua shows 1348 species, 574 genera and 128 families of vascular plants; 82% of the species are dicotyledons, 14% monocotyledons, 3.7% ferns and ca. 0.2% gymnosperms. Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae, Moraceae and Annonaceae represent 33% of the dicotyledonous species, whereas Araceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae are the main monocotyledonous families. Most families are Gondwanaland elements with sorne Laurasian elements; others are of unknown origino The main habit is represented by trees and shrubs (47% and 19% of the species, 25% are vines and herbs, 9% epiphytes and hemiepiphytes, and En un estudio florístico en cinco sectores del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu y en la Isla Mocagua, se encontraron 1348 especies de plantas vasculares, distribuidas en 574 géneros y 128 familias; 82% de las especies corresponden a dicotiledóneas, 14% a monocotiledóneas, 3.7% a pteridófitos y ca. de 0.2% a  gimnospermas. Las principales familias fueron Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae, Moraceae y Annonaceae  (dicotiledóneas, y Araceae, Arecaceae y Poaceae (monocotiledóneas. La mayoría de las familias corresponde a elementos de Gondwana con algunos elementos Laurásicos y otros sin origen asignado. El mayor número de las especies tienen hábito arbóreo o arbustivo (47% y 19% respectivamente, ca. del 25% de las especies son lianas y hierbas, 9% epífitas y hemiepífitas, mientras que las parásitas y saprófitas apenas representan < 1%. Los bosques de tierra firme presentan casi el doble de especies de arbustos, hierbas y epífitos que las planicies inundables. Algunos sectores del Parque relativamente distantes entre sí presentan una gran similaridad en cuanto a composición florística, hecho que puede atribuirse principalmente al tipo de agua (blanca, negra o mixta que los irriga. Una comparación con regiones similares en el corredor pacífico, el piedemonte amaz

  13. Potential of Nickel (Ni Phytoremediation of Adaptive Species on Revegetation Land, PT Vale Indonesia (Tbk Pomalaa Site Kolaka Regency

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    Faisal Danu Tuheteru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determinate the type of adaptive plant and its potential of phytoremediations on nickel revegetation land, PT. Vale Indonesia Tbk. Pomalaa site Kolaka Regency. The research was carried out in March - October 2016, with stages of explation and identification of adaptive plant species as well as analysis of nicel leaves and soil content using HNO3 or HClO4 method and (AAS Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometry test. 12 types of adaptive plants from 12 genera and 10 family. That grow naturally on nickel revegetation land PT. Vale Indonesia Tbk. site Pomalaa. Species from tree habitus thet freguently found, namely Gymnostoma sumatrana, Sarcotheca celebica, Parinaria corymbosa, Timonius celebicus, Weinnmania fraxinea, Alstonia macrophylla. Based on analysis result, there four species that was categorized as low acummulator Nepenthes maxima, Cheilanthes tenuifolia, Timonius celebicus, Sarcotheca celebica. The highest absorber is S. celebica with nickel content 595 mg/kg dry weight leaves. S. celebica potential to be developed as nickel phytoremedian.

  14. Especies maderables y no maderables con sustancias colorantes utilizadas para el teñido y pintado de telas en 19 comunidades indígenas de la región Ucayali, Perú

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    Luisa Riveros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo de investigación se llevó a cabo en 19 comunidades indígenas de la etnia Shipibo-Conibo, en la Región Ucayali, con el objetivo de determinar que especies maderables y no  maderables son utilizadas, como materia prima para teñir o dibujar líneas en las telas, con el diseño característico de este grupo étnico.  La metodología utilizada fue descriptiva, con visitas a las diferentes comunidades indígenas, talleres participativos, conversaciones con los artesanos más experimentados y colecta botánica de las especies señaladas por ellos.  Se logró determinar que las especies con sustancias de coloración más utilizadas son Swietenia macrophylla (caoba, Trichilia maynasiana, Trichilia poeppigiana  (Meliaceae, Terminalia oblonga, Terminalia sp., Buchenavia parvifolia (Combretaceae, y Picramnia juniniana (Simaroubaceae. Las tonalidades que proporcionan son rojos, café oscuro, café claro y en el caso de Picramnia juniniana, lila. Los componentes químicos encontrados en las sustancias colorantes fueron taninos, flavonoides, lactonas y quinonas.

  15. Use of grafting to prevent Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage to new world Meliaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Julian; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Hilje, Luko; Tripepi, Robert R; Aguilar, Maria E; Mesen, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The susceptible species Cedrela odorata and Swietenia macrophylla to attack by Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) larvae were grafted onto the resistant species Khaya senegalensis and Toona ciliata. Six-month-old grafted plants were then compared to their reciprocal grafts and to both intact (non-grafted) and autografted plants for damage due to H. grandella larvae and for their effects on larval performance. Two experiments were conducted: one in which the apical bud of the main plant shoot was inoculated with H. grandella eggs, and the other in which the bud was inoculated with third instars. Damage in each experiment was assessed by the number of frass piles, number and length of tunnels, number of damaged leaves, and damage to the apical bud. Larval performance was evaluated in terms of time to reach pupation and pupal weight and length. In both experiments, plant damage differed significantly among treatments (P < 0.03). Resistant rootstocks conferred resistance to susceptible scions. In both experiments, grafting by itself, regardless of the rootstock and scion combination, also reduced damage caused by H. grandella larvae. Scions of autografted susceptible species had similar resistance to susceptible scions grafted on resistant rootstocks. Few larvae reached pupation, and their pupal weight and length were similar.

  16. Expansion of the agricultural frontier on riparian vegetation of Santa Cruz River, Cuba

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    Felipe Carricarte Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was developed in the Los Amaros, the Santa Cruz river, Artemisa, Cuba. The objective was to evaluate how it influences the expansion of the agricultural frontier on riparian vegetation where the semi-deciduous mesophytic forest (BsdMe predominates. A floristic characterization was performed, identifying the effects of disturbances on the structure and composition of these forests and their relation to human disturbance. A semi-structured interview was applied to all landowners in the study area. Species richness, dominance, basal area, total number of individuals, width of the strip covered by trees and shrubs, and area without vegetation on both banks of the river, respectively were considered as variables. There are differences in the structure and patterns of diversity of the studied forest, as a result of disturbances, with the consequent reduction of species; also anthropogenic disturbances, are the main factors that explain changes in the structure of these forests. They are identified as major species: Cupania macrophylla A. Rich., Roystonea regia HBK O. F. Cook., Guarea guidonia L. Sleumer and Trichilia hirta  L. It is proposed to deepen the effect of the expansion of agriculture into other sectors of the river in interaction with local communities.

  17. Long-term trends in nitrogen isotope composition and nitrogen concentration in brazilian rainforest trees suggest changes in nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietz, Peter; Dünisch, Oliver; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2010-02-15

    Direct or indirect anthropogenic effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycles are important components of global change. Recent research has shown that N isotopes in tree rings reflect changes in ecosystem nitrogen sources or cycles and can be used to study past changes. We analyzed trends in two tree species from a remote and pristine tropical rainforest in Brazil, using trees of different ages to distinguish between the effect of tree age and long-term trends. Because sapwood differed from heartwood in delta(15)N and N concentration and N can be translocated between living sapwood cells, long-term trends are best seen in dead heartwood. Heartwood delta(15)N in Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata) and big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) increased with tree age, and N concentrations increased with age in Cedrela. Controlling for tree age, delta(15)N increased significantly during the past century even when analyzing only heartwood and after removing labile N compounds. In contrast to northern temperate and boreal forests where wood delta(15)N often decreased, the delta(15)N increase in a remote rainforest is unlikely to be a direct signal of changed N deposition. More plausibly, the change in N isotopic composition indicates a more open N cycle, i.e., higher N losses relative to internal N cycling in the forest, which could be the result of changed forest dynamics.

  18. ANALISIS VEGETASI DAN VISUALISASI STRUKTUR VEGETASI HUTAN KOTA BARUGA, KOTA KENDARI Vegetation Analysis and Visualization of vegetation Structure Baruga Urban Forest, Kendari City

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    Zulkarnain Zulkarnain

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi, struktur dan tingkat keragaman vegetasi di Hutan Kota Baruga, Kota Kendari. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode sensus. Data dianalisis untuk memperoleh Indeks Nilai Penting (INP dan Index Keanekaragaman Shannon-Wiener (H'. Software Sexi-FS digunakan untuk mendapatkan visualisasi distribusi vegetasi dan stratifikasi lapisan tajuk yang menyerupai kondisi lapangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposisi vegetasi disusun oleh 76 spesies yang terkelompok dalam 29 famili dengan jumlah total 8.296 individu untuk semua spesies. Alstonia macrophylla, Gironniera subaequalis dan Nephelium lappaceum adalah spesies yang mendominasi komunitas vegetasi. Distribusi vegetasi menunjukkan pola distribusi mengelompok, dengan stratifikasi terdiri 4 lapisan tajuk, yang menunjukkan bahwa lokasi-studi disusun oleh lapisan tajuk yang relatif lengkap. Indeks keragaman tergolong tinggi, dengan nilai lebih dari 3 pada tingkat pertumbuhan pohon, tiang dan pancang, kecuali pada tingkat semai dengan H'= 2,89. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa ketahanan ekosistem hutan cukup baik. Kata Kunci : Komposisi vegetasi, Keanekaragaman, Struktur vegetasi, Hutan Kota.

  19. New and remarkable microfungi in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Christiaans, B; Brassmann, M; Balakirew, S

    2004-01-01

    During our investigation on microfungi in North Rhine Westphalia in the years 2002 and 2003 we were able to collect and identify some new and rare species of microfungi as parasites and saprophytes on wild and ornamental plants. Some of these like Erysiphe elevata (BURILL.) U. BRAUN & S. TAKAMATSU COMB. NOV. [=Microsphaera elevata BURILL.] on Catalpa bignonioides WALT., Erysiphe syringae-japonicae (U. BRAUN) U. BRAUN & S. TAKAMATSU [= Microsphaera syringae-japonicae U. BRAUN, M. aceris BUNKINA. KOMAROVSKIE CHTENIYA, Erysiphe acerina U. BRAUN & S. TAKAMATSU] on Acer campestre L. and Acer barinerve L., Mycosphaerella iridis (DESM.) SCHROET., Ectostroma iridis FR. and Volutella melaloma BERK. & BR on Iris pseudacorus L., Puccinia doronicella P. SYD. & SYD. on Doronicum columnae TEN., Ascochyta lamiorum SACC. S.L. I=A. phlomidis BUB. & WROB.) on Phlomis tuberosa L., Colletotrichum gloeosporides (PENZ.) SACC. on Passiflora coerulea L., Oidium hortensiae JOERST on Hydrangea macrophylla (THUNB.) SER., Puccinia horiana P. HENN. on Chrysanthemum vulgare (L.) BERNH., Lophodermium pinastri (SCHRAD.) CHEV., Leptostroma pinorum SACC., Sclerophoma pythiophila (CDA) HOHN., Lichenoconium boreale (KARST.) PETRAK. & SYD., Anthostomella formosa KIRSCHST. and Sphaeropsis sapinae (FR.) DYKO & SUTTON on Pinus nigra L. are new for Germany. All samples are located in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha.

  20. Eficiência nutricional de espécies arbóreas em função da fertilização fosfatada

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    Alexandre Gomes Fontes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre fertilização e nutrição florestal de espécies nativas e exóticas fornecem subsídios para programas de manejo para recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biomassa e a eficiência nutricional de plântulas das espécies arbóreas Swietenia macrophylla (mogno, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (sabiá, Cedrela fissilis (cedro-rosa e Toona ciliata (cedroaustraliano, em resposta à fertilização fosfatada em dois níveis de calagem. Constatouse que as espécies responderam de maneira distinta à aplicação de P. O sabiá apresentou maior produção de matéria seca total e maior eficiência na utilização de P em solos com baixos teores deste elemento e foi mais responsivo à adição do fertilizante fosfatado. O mogno apresentou maior eficiência na translocação e na aquisição de P e maior relação parte aérea/raiz. As doses de P adicionadas para atingir 90% da máxima produção de matéria seca variaram de acordo com a espécie.