WorldWideScience

Sample records for algorithm including vein

  1. A fast and robust hepatocyte quantification algorithm including vein processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeyer André

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantification of different types of cells is often needed for analysis of histological images. In our project, we compute the relative number of proliferating hepatocytes for the evaluation of the regeneration process after partial hepatectomy in normal rat livers. Results Our presented automatic approach for hepatocyte (HC quantification is suitable for the analysis of an entire digitized histological section given in form of a series of images. It is the main part of an automatic hepatocyte quantification tool that allows for the computation of the ratio between the number of proliferating HC-nuclei and the total number of all HC-nuclei for a series of images in one processing run. The processing pipeline allows us to obtain desired and valuable results for a wide range of images with different properties without additional parameter adjustment. Comparing the obtained segmentation results with a manually retrieved segmentation mask which is considered to be the ground truth, we achieve results with sensitivity above 90% and false positive fraction below 15%. Conclusions The proposed automatic procedure gives results with high sensitivity and low false positive fraction and can be applied to process entire stained sections.

  2. MAVEN: An Algorithm for Multi-Parametric Automated Segmentation of Brain Veins From Gradient Echo Acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Serena; Cocozza, Sirio; Borrelli, Pasquale; Straub, Sina; Ladd, Mark E; Salvatore, Marco; Tedeschi, Enrico; Palma, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    Cerebral vein analysis provides a chance to study, from an unusual viewpoint, an entire class of brain diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and traumatic brain injuries. Manual segmentation approaches can be used to assess vascular anatomy, but they are observer-dependent and time-consuming; therefore, automated approaches are desirable, as they also improve reproducibility. In this paper, a new, fully automated algorithm, based on structural, morphological, and relaxometric information, is proposed to segment the entire cerebral venous system from MR images. The algorithm for multi-parametric automated segmentation of brain VEiNs (MAVEN) is based on a combined investigation of multi-parametric information that allows for rejection of false positives and detection of thin vessels. The method is tested on gradient echo brain data sets acquired at 1.5, 3, and 7 T. It is compared to previous methods against manual segmentation, and its inter-scan reproducibility is assessed. The achieved accuracy and reproducibility are good, meaning that MAVEN outperforms previous methods on both quantitative and qualitative analyses. It is usable at all the field strengths explored, showing comparable accuracy scores, with no need for algorithm parameter adjustments, and thus, it is a promising candidate for the characterization of the venous tree topology.

  3. Geology of uranium vein deposits (including Schwartzwalder Mine) in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Front Range, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voto, R.H. de; Paschis, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is one of many uranium vein occurrences in the Lower Proterozoic metamorphic rocks of the Front Range, Colorado. The principal veins of significant uranium content occur marginal to the Colorado Mineral Belt; are localized by structural dilation zones, vein junctions, fault deflections or branching; and occur dominantly within or at the contact of certain preferred metamorphic-stratigraphic units, particularly the siliceous, garnetiferous gneisses, where these rock units are broken by faults and fractures associated with the north-northwest-trending throughgoing faults. Uranium at the Schwartzwalder mine occurs primarily as open-space brecciated vein filling along the steeply west-dipping Illinois vein and numerous east-dipping subsidiary veins where they cut preferred metamorphic host rocks that are tightly folded. Uraninite occurs with molybdenite, adularia, jordisite, ankerite, pyrite, base-metal sulphides, and calcite in vein-filling paragenetic sequence. Minor wall-rock alteration is mainly hematite alteration and bleaching. Vertical relief on the developed ore deposit is 900 metres and still open-ended at depth. No vertical zonation of alteration, vein mineralogy, density of the subsidiary veins, or ore grade has been detected. The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is of substantial tonnage (greater than 10,000 metric tons of U 3 O 8 ) and grade (averaging 0.57% U 3 O 8 ). Structural mapping shows that the Illinois vein-fault is a Proterozoic structure. Discordant Proterozoic (suggested) and Laramide dates have been obtained from Schwartzwalder ore. The data suggest, therefore, a Proterozoic ancestry of this heretofore presumed Laramide (Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary) hydrothermal uranium deposit. The authors suggest a polygenetic model for the origin of the Schwartzwalder uranium deposit

  4. Emergency Department Management of Suspected Calf-Vein Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Diagnostic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Kitchen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unilateral leg swelling with suspicion of deep venous thrombosis (DVT is a common emergency department (ED presentation. Proximal DVT (thrombus in the popliteal or femoral veins can usually be diagnosed and treated at the initial ED encounter. When proximal DVT has been ruled out, isolated calf-vein deep venous thrombosis (IC-DVT often remains a consideration. The current standard for the diagnosis of IC-DVT is whole-leg vascular duplex ultrasonography (WLUS, a test that is unavailable in many hospitals outside normal business hours. When WLUS is not available from the ED, recommendations for managing suspected IC-DVT vary. The objectives of the study is to use current evidence and recommendations to (1 propose a diagnostic algorithm for IC-DVT when definitive testing (WLUS is unavailable; and (2 summarize the controversy surrounding IC-DVT treatment. Discussion: The Figure combines D-dimer testing with serial CUS or a single deferred FLUS for the diagnosis of IC-DVT. Such an algorithm has the potential to safely direct the management of suspected IC-DVT when definitive testing is unavailable. Whether or not to treat diagnosed IC-DVT remains widely debated and awaiting further evidence. Conclusion: When IC-DVT is not ruled out in the ED, the suggested algorithm, although not prospectively validated by a controlled study, offers an approach to diagnosis that is consistent with current data and recommendations. When IC-DVT is diagnosed, current references suggest that a decision between anticoagulation and continued follow-up outpatient testing can be based on shared decision-making. The risks of proximal progression and life-threatening embolization should be balanced against the generally more benign natural history of such thrombi, and an individual patient’s risk factors for both thrombus propagation and complications of anticoagulation. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(4384-390.

  5. Efficient Algorithms for Electrostatic Interactions Including Dielectric Contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coarse-grained models of soft matter are usually combined with implicit solvent models that take the electrostatic polarizability into account via a dielectric background. In biophysical or nanoscale simulations that include water, this constant can vary greatly within the system. Performing molecular dynamics or other simulations that need to compute exact electrostatic interactions between charges in those systems is computationally demanding. We review here several algorithms developed by us that perform exactly this task. For planar dielectric surfaces in partial periodic boundary conditions, the arising image charges can be either treated with the MMM2D algorithm in a very efficient and accurate way or with the electrostatic layer correction term, which enables the user to use his favorite 3D periodic Coulomb solver. Arbitrarily-shaped interfaces can be dealt with using induced surface charges with the induced charge calculation (ICC* algorithm. Finally, the local electrostatics algorithm, MEMD(Maxwell Equations Molecular Dynamics, even allows one to employ a smoothly varying dielectric constant in the systems. We introduce the concepts of these three algorithms and an extension for the inclusion of boundaries that are to be held fixed at a constant potential (metal conditions. For each method, we present a showcase application to highlight the importance of dielectric interfaces.

  6. Femoral vein thrombophlebitis and septic pulmonary embolism due to a mixed anaerobic infection including Solobacterium moorei: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Claire A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary foci of necrobacillosis infection outside the head and neck are uncommon but have been reported in the urogenital or gastrointestinal tracts. Reports of infection with Solobacterium moorei are rare. Case presentation A 37-year-old male intravenous drug user was admitted with pain in his right groin, fever, rigors and vomiting following a recent injection into the right femoral vein. Admission blood cultures grew Fusobacterium nucleatum, Solobacterium moorei and Bacteroides ureolyticus. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous penicillin and metronidazole. Conclusion This case report describes an unusual case of femoral thrombophlebitis with septic pulmonary embolism associated with anaerobic organisms in a groin abscess. Solobacterium moorei, though rarely described, may also have clinically significant pathogenic potential.

  7. Agenesis of the horizontal segment of the left portal vein demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging including phase-contrast magnetic resonance venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, P.; Oddo, F.; Diaine, B.; Padovani, B.; Baldini, E.; Peten, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    Two cases of agenesis of the horizontal segment of the left portal vein are reported. This very rare vascular anomaly probably corresponds to an embryological variation rather than to an obstruction of the left portal vein. In almost all cases liver ultrasonography is sufficient for identifying such vascular abnormalities. It shows a large aberrant vessel emerging from a right anterior segmental portal branch and running transversely in the quadrate lobe towards the teres ligamentum from which the portal supply to the left lobe arises. It is important to be able to recognize the magnetic resonance imaging features of this vascular variation, as magnetic resonance imaging may be the initial imaging study, and ultrasound may be technically challenging. To our knowledge, we present the first description of these features, including an enhanced gradient-echo T1-weighted sequence, a turbo spin-echo T2-weighted sequence with fat saturation, and a three-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance portography. (orig.)

  8. Algorithms and Programs for Strong Gravitational Lensing In Kerr Space-time Including Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie; Maddumage, Prasad

    2015-05-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python.

  9. ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python

  10. An efficient algorithm for solving coupled Schroedinger type ODE's, whose potentials include δ-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gousheh, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    I have used the shooting method to find the eigenvalues (bound state energies) of a set of strongly coupled Schroedinger type equations. I have discussed the advantages of the shooting method when the potentials include δ-functions. I have also discussed some points which are universal in these kind of problems, whose use make the algorithm much more efficient. These points include mapping the domain of the ODE into a finite one, using the asymptotic form of the solutions, best use of the normalization freedom, and converting the δ-functions into boundary conditions

  11. Varicose veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... varicose veins, and taking birth control pills or hormone replacement can increase your risk) Being born with defective valves Obesity Pregnancy History of blood clots in your legs Standing or ...

  12. Characterization results and Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms including exact simulation for some spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häggström, Olle; Lieshout, Marie-Colette van; Møller, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    The area-interaction process and the continuum random-cluster model are characterized in terms of certain functional forms of their respective conditional intensities. In certain cases, these two point process models can be derived from a bivariate point process model which in many respects...... is simpler to analyse and simulate. Using this correspondence we devise a two-component Gibbs sampler, which can be used for fast and exact simulation by extending the recent ideas of Propp and Wilson. We further introduce a Swendsen-Wang type algorithm. The relevance of the results within spatial statistics...

  13. Accessory hepatic vein: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Rho, Tack Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the MR appearance of the accessory hepatic veins. The study included 87 consecutive patients for whom abdominal MR images were obtained. The subjects who had liver lesion or hepatic vascular abnormalities were excluded. Couinaud classified accessory hepatic veins into inferior and middle right hepatic veins. Our major interests were evaluation of the incidence, morphology, and location of the accessory hepatic vein. Inferior right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 43 out of 87 patients (49%). The morphology was linear in 35 patients (80.5%), and V-shaped in 8 patients (19.5%). In 40 patients (93%), the inferior right hepatic vein was located in the posteroinferior aspect of the right lobe. Middle right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 7 out of 87 patients (8%). All were single linear in morphology, combined with the inferior right hepatic vein, and located between the right hepatic vein and inferior right hepatic vein. The accessory hepatic vein was demonstrated in 49% among the Korean adult population, and was located in posteroinferior portion of the liver, in 93%

  14. A Boundary Condition Relaxation Algorithm for Strongly Coupled, Ablating Flows Including Shape Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2011-01-01

    Implementations of a model for equilibrium, steady-state ablation boundary conditions are tested for the purpose of providing strong coupling with a hypersonic flow solver. The objective is to remove correction factors or film cooling approximations that are usually applied in coupled implementations of the flow solver and the ablation response. Three test cases are considered - the IRV-2, the Galileo probe, and a notional slender, blunted cone launched at 10 km/s from the Earth's surface. A successive substitution is employed and the order of succession is varied as a function of surface temperature to obtain converged solutions. The implementation is tested on a specified trajectory for the IRV-2 to compute shape change under the approximation of steady-state ablation. Issues associated with stability of the shape change algorithm caused by explicit time step limits are also discussed.

  15. Pulmonary vein stenosis and the pathophysiology of "upstream" pulmonary veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hideyuki; Fu, Yaqin Yana; Zhu, Jiaquan; Wang, Lixing; Aafaqi, Shabana; Rahkonen, Otto; Slorach, Cameron; Traister, Alexandra; Leung, Chung Ho; Chiasson, David; Mertens, Luc; Benson, Lee; Weisel, Richard D; Hinz, Boris; Maynes, Jason T; Coles, John G; Caldarone, Christopher A

    2014-07-01

    Surgical and catheter-based interventions on pulmonary veins are associated with pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS), which can progress diffusely through the "upstream" pulmonary veins. The mechanism has been rarely studied. We used a porcine model of PVS to assess disease progression with emphasis on the potential role of endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Neonatal piglets underwent bilateral pulmonary vein banding (banded, n = 6) or sham operations (sham, n = 6). Additional piglets underwent identical banding and stent implantation in a single-banded pulmonary vein 3 weeks postbanding (stented, n = 6). At 7 weeks postbanding, hemodynamics and upstream PV pathology were assessed. Banded piglets developed pulmonary hypertension. The upstream pulmonary veins exhibited intimal thickening associated with features of EndMT, including increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and Smad expression, loss of endothelial and gain of mesenchymal marker expression, and coexpression of endothelial and mesenchymal markers in banded pulmonary vein intimal cells. These immunopathologic changes and a prominent myofibroblast phenotype in the remodeled pulmonary veins were consistently identified in specimens from patients with PVS, in vitro TGF-β1-stimulated cells isolated from piglet and human pulmonary veins, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. After stent implantation, decompression of a pulmonary vein was associated with reappearance of endothelial marker expression, suggesting the potential for plasticity in the observed pathologic changes, followed by rapid in-stent restenosis. Neonatal pulmonary vein banding in piglets recapitulates critical aspects of clinical PVS and highlights a pathologic profile consistent with EndMT, supporting the rationale for evaluating therapeutic strategies designed to exploit reversibility of upstream pulmonary vein pathology. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  16. Verification of a novel atrial fibrillation cryoablation dosing algorithm guided by time-to-pulmonary vein isolation: Results from the Cryo-DOSING Study (Cryoballoon-ablation DOSING Based on the Assessment of Time-to-Effect and Pulmonary Vein Isolation Guidance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryana, Arash; Kenigsberg, David N; Kowalski, Marcin; Koo, Charles H; Lim, Hae W; O'Neill, Padraig Gearoid; Bowers, Mark R; Hokanson, Robert B; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2017-09-01

    There are no recommendations on the optimal dosing for cryoablation of atrial fibrillation (Cryo-AF). The purpose of this study was to develop and prospectively test a Cryo-AF dosing protocol guided exclusively by time-to-pulmonary vein (PV) isolation (TT-PVI) in patients undergoing a first-time Cryo-AF. In this multicenter study, we examined the acute/long-term safety/efficacy of Cryo-AF using the proposed dosing algorithm (Cryo-AF Dosing ; n = 355) against a conventional, nonstandardized approach (Cryo-AF Conventional ; n = 400) in a nonrandomized fashion. Acute PV isolation was achieved in 98.9% of patients in Cryo-AF Dosing (TT-PVI = 48 ± 16 seconds) vs 97.2% in Cryo-AF Conventional (P = .18). Cryo-AF Dosing was associated with shorter (149 ± 34 seconds vs 226 ± 46 seconds; P Cryo-AF Conventional . Adverse events (2.0% vs 2.7%; P = .48), including persistent phrenic nerve palsy (0.6% vs 1.2%; P = .33) and 12-month freedom from all atrial arrhythmias (82.5% vs 78.3%; P = .14), were similar between Cryo-AF Dosing and Cryo-AF Conventional . However, Cryo-AF Dosing was specifically associated with fewer atypical atrial flutters/tachycardias during long-term follow-up (8.5% vs 13.5%; P = .02) as well as fewer late PV reconnections at redo procedures (5.0% vs 18.5%; P Cryo-AF dosing algorithm guided by TT-PVI can help individualize the ablation strategy and yield improved procedural endpoints and efficiency as compared to a conventional, nonstandardized approach. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein ... the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  18. Varicose vein stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stripping; Venous reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/ ...

  19. BROMOCEA Code: An Improved Grand Canonical Monte Carlo/Brownian Dynamics Algorithm Including Explicit Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Carlos J F; Pothula, Karunakar R; Prajapati, Jigneshkumar D; De Biase, Pablo M; Noskov, Sergei Yu; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich

    2016-05-10

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations have a long history of applications studying ion and substrate permeation across biological and artificial pores. While offering unprecedented insights into the underpinning transport processes, MD simulations are limited in time-scales and ability to simulate physiological membrane potentials or asymmetric salt solutions and require substantial computational power. While several approaches to circumvent all of these limitations were developed, Brownian dynamics simulations remain an attractive option to the field. The main limitation, however, is an apparent lack of protein flexibility important for the accurate description of permeation events. In the present contribution, we report an extension of the Brownian dynamics scheme which includes conformational dynamics. To achieve this goal, the dynamics of amino-acid residues was incorporated into the many-body potential of mean force and into the Langevin equations of motion. The developed software solution, called BROMOCEA, was applied to ion transport through OmpC as a test case. Compared to fully atomistic simulations, the results show a clear improvement in the ratio of permeating anions and cations. The present tests strongly indicate that pore flexibility can enhance permeation properties which will become even more important in future applications to substrate translocation.

  20. Deep vein thrombosis: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesieme EB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emeka Kesieme1, Chinenye Kesieme2, Nze Jebbin3, Eshiobo Irekpita1, Andrew Dongo11Department of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 2Department of Paediatrics, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 3Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port-Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is the formation of blood clots (thrombi in the deep veins. It commonly affects the deep leg veins (such as the calf veins, femoral vein, or popliteal vein or the deep veins of the pelvis. It is a potentially dangerous condition that can lead to preventable morbidity and mortality.Aim: To present an update on the causes and management of DVT.Methods: A review of publications obtained from Medline search, medical libraries, and Google.Results: DVT affects 0.1% of persons per year. It is predominantly a disease of the elderly and has a slight male preponderance. The approach to making a diagnosis currently involves an algorithm combining pretest probability, D-dimer testing, and compression ultrasonography. This will guide further investigations if necessary. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological. The goals of treatment are to prevent extension of thrombi, pulmonary embolism, recurrence of thrombi, and the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome.Conclusion: DVT is a potentially dangerous condition with a myriad of risk factors. Prophylaxis is very important and can be mechanical and pharmacological. The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulant therapy. Low-molecular-weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and vitamin K antagonists have been the treatment of choice. Currently anticoagulants specifically targeting components of the common pathway have been recommended for prophylaxis. These include fondaparinux, a selective indirect factor Xa inhibitor and the new oral selective direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran and selective

  1. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have been found in Vedic Mathematics which are dated much before Euclid's algorithm. A programming language Is used to describe an algorithm for execution on a computer. An algorithm expressed using a programming language Is called a program. From activities 1-3, we can observe that: • Each activity is a command.

  2. What Are Varicose Veins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  3. Safety and feasibility of a diagnostic algorithm combining clinical probability, D-dimer test and ultrasonography in suspected upper extremity deep vein thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, A.; Di Nisio, M.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Büller, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ultrasonography is currently used as the reference test for clinically suspected upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) although the diagnostic accuracy of the test for this indication remains less well established compared to DVT of the legs. The safety of withholding

  4. Safety and feasibility of a diagnostic algorithm combining clinical probability, D-dimer and ultrasonography in suspected upper extremity deep vein thrombosis: : A prospective management study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, A.; Di Nisio, M.; Beyer-Westendorf, J.; Cosmi, B.; Camporese, G.; Ghirarduzzi, A.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Otten, H.M.; Porreca, E.; Büller, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, the focus of the diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is on deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the leg and pulmonary embolism. Until recently, upper extremity DVT (UEDVT) was regarded as an uncommon presentation of VTE; however, the more widespread use of central venous

  5. Safety and feasibility of a diagnostic algorithm combining clinical probability, D-dimer and ultrasonography in suspected upper extremity deep vein thrombosis: : A prospective management study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, Ankie; Di Nisio, Marcello; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Cosmi, Benilde; Camporese, Giuseppe; Ghirarduzzi, Angelo; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Otten, Hans-Martin; Porreca, Ettore; Büller, Harry R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Traditionally, the focus of VTE diagnostic is on deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the leg and pulmonary embolism. Until recently, upper extremity DVT (UEDVT) was regarded as an uncommon and relatively benign presentation of venous thromboembolism; however, the more widespread use of

  6. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithms such as synthetic (polynomial) division have been found in Vedic Mathematics which are dated much before Euclid's algorithm. A programming language ... ·1 x:=sln(theta) x : = sm(theta) 1. ~. Idl d.t Read A.B,C. ~ lei ~ Print x.y.z. L;;;J. Figure 2 Symbols used In flowchart language to rep- resent Assignment, Read.

  7. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the previous articles, we have discussed various common data-structures such as arrays, lists, queues and trees and illustrated the widely used algorithm design paradigm referred to as 'divide-and-conquer'. Although there has been a large effort in realizing efficient algorithms, there are not many universally accepted ...

  8. A quasi-static algorithm that includes effects of characteristic time scales for simulating failures in brittle materials

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxing

    2013-04-24

    When the brittle heterogeneous material is simulated via lattice models, the quasi-static failure depends on the relative magnitudes of Telem, the characteristic releasing time of the internal forces of the broken elements and Tlattice, the characteristic relaxation time of the lattice, both of which are infinitesimal compared with Tload, the characteristic loading period. The load-unload (L-U) method is used for one extreme, Telem << Tlattice, whereas the force-release (F-R) method is used for the other, Telem T lattice. For cases between the above two extremes, we develop a new algorithm by combining the L-U and the F-R trial displacement fields to construct the new trial field. As a result, our algorithm includes both L-U and F-R failure characteristics, which allows us to observe the influence of the ratio of Telem to Tlattice by adjusting their contributions in the trial displacement field. Therefore, the material dependence of the snap-back instabilities is implemented by introducing one snap-back parameter γ. Although in principle catastrophic failures can hardly be predicted accurately without knowing all microstructural information, effects of γ can be captured by numerical simulations conducted on samples with exactly the same microstructure but different γs. Such a same-specimen-based study shows how the lattice behaves along with the changing ratio of the L-U and F-R components. © 2013 The Author(s).

  9. Biometric Authentication Using Infrared Imaging of Hand Vein Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Shrotri, A.; Rethrekar, S. C.; Patil, M. H.; Alisherov, Farkhod A.; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Hand vein patterns are unique and universal. Vein pattern is used as biometric feature in recent years. But, it is not very much popular biometric system as compared to other systems like fingerprint, iris etc, because of the higher cost. For conventional algorithm, it is necessary to use high quality images, which demand high-priced collection devices. There are two approaches for vein authentication, these are hand dorsa and hand ventral. Currently we are working on hand dorsa vein patterns. Here we are putting forward the new approach for low cost hand dorsa vein pattern acquisition using low cost device and proposing a algorithm to extract features from these low quality images.

  10. The Role of the Pulmonary Embolism Response Team: How to Build One, Who to Include, Scenarios, Organization, and Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmer, Andrew; Weinberg, Ido; Giri, Jay; Jaff, Michael; Weinberg, Mitchell

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism response teams (PERTs) are multidisciplinary response teams aimed at delivering a range of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities to patients with pulmonary embolism. These teams have gained traction on a national scale. However, despite sharing a common goal, individual PERT programs are quite individualized-varying in their methods of operation, team structures, and practice patterns. The tendency of such response teams is to become intensely structured, algorithmic, and inflexible. However, in their current form, PERT programs are quite the opposite. They are being creatively customized to meet the needs of the individual institution based on available resources, skills, personnel, and institutional goals. After a review of the essential core elements needed to create and operate a PERT team in any form, this article will discuss the more flexible feature development of the nascent PERT team. These include team planning, member composition, operational structure, benchmarking, market analysis, and rudimentary financial operations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tratamento combinado da cirurgia de varizes com a escleroterapia de telangiectasias dos membros inferiores no mesmo ato Combined treatment including varicose vein surgery with sclerotherapy for lower extremity telangiectasias at the same procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Gaspar

    2006-03-01

    , therefore, little efficient treatment. Most of these patients also present insufficient varicose veins, which require phlebectomy and are candidates for surgery. The aim of this paper is to describe the combined treatment including varicose vein surgery and sclerotherapy for telangiectasias at the same procedure. METHODS: From January 1998 to March 2002, 213 patients (426 lower limbs with telangiectasias were treated by means of hypertonic glucose infusion during the varicose vein surgery. RESULTS: More than 90% of the patients reported high indices of aesthetic satisfaction. The complementary sclerotherapy was necessary in 165 patients to have full aesthetic satisfaction during follow-up. Any cases of superficial thrombophlebitis or of deep venous thrombosis were reported. There were no serious complications either. In 10% of cases, small drainage of residual microthrombus was necessary. The index of hyperchromic spots did not exceed 3%. Only one patient developed a small ulcer in the back of the foot (0.2%, which spontaneously healed. CONCLUSIONS: Combined treatment including surgery with sclerotherapy for varicose veins and lower extremity telangiectasias is an alternative for patients who desire faster and painless results. Multiple session sclerotherapy with hypertonic glucose is a safe and efficient procedure.

  12. Modeling a novel CCHP system including solar and wind renewable energy resources and sizing by a CC-MOPSO algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soheyli, Saman; Shafiei Mayam, Mohamad Hossein; Mehrjoo, Mehri

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Considering renewable energy resources as the main prime movers in CCHP systems. • Simultaneous application of FEL and FTL by optimizing two probability functions. • Simultaneous optimization the equipment and penalty factors by CC-MOPSO algorithm. • Reducing fuel consumption and pollution up to 263 and 353 times, respectively. - Abstract: Due to problems, such as, heat losses of equipment, low energy efficiency, increasing pollution and the fossil fuels consumption, combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems have attracted lots of attention during the last decade. In this paper, for minimizing fossil fuel consumption and pollution, a novel CCHP system including photovoltaic (PV) modules, wind turbines, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as the prime movers is considered. Moreover, in order to minimize the excess electrical and heat energy production of the CCHP system and so reducing the need for the local power grid and any auxiliary heat production system, following electrical load (FEL) and following thermal load (FTL) operation strategies are considered, simultaneously. In order to determine the optimal number of each system component and also set the penalty factors in the used penalty function, a co-constrained multi objective particle swarm optimization (CC-MOPSO) algorithm is applied. Utilization of the renewable energy resources, the annual total cost (ATC) and the CCHP system area are considered as the objective functions. It also includes constraints such as, loss of power supply probability (LPSP), loss of heat supply probability (LHSP), state of battery charge (SOC), and the number of each CCHP component. A hypothetical hotel in Kermanshah, Iran is conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. 10 wind turbines, 430 PV modules, 11 SOFCs, 106 batteries and 2 heat storage tanks (HST) are numerical results for the spring as the best season in terms of decreasing cost and fuel consumption. Comparing the results

  13. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the program shown in Figure 1, we have repeated the algorithm. M times and we can make the following observations. Each block is essentially a different instance of "code"; that is, the objects differ by the value to which N is initialized before the execution of the. "code" block. Thus, we can now avoid the repetition of the ...

  14. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithms built into the computer corresponding to the logic- circuit rules that are used to .... For the purpose of carrying ou t ari thmetic or logical operations the memory is organized in terms .... In fixed point representation, one essentially uses integer arithmetic operators assuming the binary point to be at some point other ...

  15. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Demirci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombosis commonly occurs in patient with cirrhosis, malignancy and prothrombotic states. Patients with acute portal vein thrombosis have immediate onset. Patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis have developed portal hypertension and cavernous portal transformation. Portal vein thrombosis is diagnosed with doppler ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin achieves recanalization in more than half of acute cases.

  16. Varicose veins show enhanced chemokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solá, L del Rio; Aceves, M; Dueñas, A I; González-Fajardo, J A; Vaquero, C; Crespo, M Sanchez; García-Rodríguez, C

    2009-11-01

    Leucocyte infiltration in the wall of varicose veins has been reported previously. This study was designed to investigate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in control and in patients with varicose veins and to test the effect of treating varicose vein patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on cytokine expression prior to removal of varices. Sections of vein were removed during operation from both patient groups, and ribonuclease protection assays (RPAs) were performed to assess the expression of chemokines. Group I included non-varicose saphenous veins from healthy patients undergoing amputation for trauma. Varicose veins were obtained from patients with primary varicose undergoing surgical treatment who received no drug (group II) or treatment with 300 mg day(-1) of ASA for 15 days before surgery (group III). Non-varicose veins constitutively expressed low levels of monocyte-chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA. Varicose veins had a distinct chemokine expression pattern, since significant up-regulation of MCP-1 and IL-8 and a marked expression of IP-10, RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta mRNA were detected. Removal of the endothelium did not alter this pattern. Varicose veins obtained from patients treated with ASA showed a consistent decrease in chemokine expression, although it did not reach statistical significance. Varicose veins showed increased expression of several chemokines compared to control veins. A non-significant reduction of activation was observed following treatment with ASA for 15 days.

  17. Effective Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile by a Two-Step Algorithm Including Tests for Antigen and Cytotoxin

    OpenAIRE

    Ticehurst, John R.; Aird, Deborah Z.; Dam, Lisa M.; Borek, Anita P.; Hargrove, John T.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated a two-step algorithm for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile: an enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (Ag-EIA) and then, for antigen-positive specimens, a concurrent cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Antigen-negative results were ≥99% predictive of CCNA negativity. Because the Ag-EIA reduced cell culture workload by ≈75 to 80% and two-step testing was complete in ≤3 days, we decided that this algorithm would be effective. Over 6 months...

  18. Mesenteric vein thrombosis following laparoscopic appendectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Harris; Brian Blackwood; Srikumar Pillai; Bill Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis is an uncommon complication following laparoscopic surgery. A review of the literature has shown that there is a higher incidence of thrombosis following laparoscopic bariatric procedures, including the gastric sleeve procedure and roux-en-y gastric bypass surgery. Additionally, pylephlebitis, thrombosis of portal or mesenteric veins, has been described following perforated appendicitis. However no report has described mesenteric vein thrombosis following laparoscop...

  19. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community.

  20. Spatially Invariant Vector Quantization: A pattern matching algorithm for multiple classes of image subject matter including pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Hipp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Historically, effective clinical utilization of image analysis and pattern recognition algorithms in pathology has been hampered by two critical limitations: 1 the availability of digital whole slide imagery data sets and 2 a relative domain knowledge deficit in terms of application of such algorithms, on the part of practicing pathologists. With the advent of the recent and rapid adoption of whole slide imaging solutions, the former limitation has been largely resolved. However, with the expectation that it is unlikely for the general cohort of contemporary pathologists to gain advanced image analysis skills in the short term, the latter problem remains, thus underscoring the need for a class of algorithm that has the concurrent properties of image domain (or organ system independence and extreme ease of use, without the need for specialized training or expertise. Results: In this report, we present a novel, general case pattern recognition algorithm, Spatially Invariant Vector Quantization (SIVQ, that overcomes the aforementioned knowledge deficit. Fundamentally based on conventional Vector Quantization (VQ pattern recognition approaches, SIVQ gains its superior performance and essentially zero-training workflow model from its use of ring vectors, which exhibit continuous symmetry, as opposed to square or rectangular vectors, which do not. By use of the stochastic matching properties inherent in continuous symmetry, a single ring vector can exhibit as much as a millionfold improvement in matching possibilities, as opposed to conventional VQ vectors. SIVQ was utilized to demonstrate rapid and highly precise pattern recognition capability in a broad range of gross and microscopic use-case settings. Conclusion: With the performance of SIVQ observed thus far, we find evidence that indeed there exist classes of image analysis/pattern recognition algorithms suitable for deployment in settings where pathologists alone can effectively

  1. Effective detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by a two-step algorithm including tests for antigen and cytotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticehurst, John R; Aird, Deborah Z; Dam, Lisa M; Borek, Anita P; Hargrove, John T; Carroll, Karen C

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated a two-step algorithm for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile: an enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (Ag-EIA) and then, for antigen-positive specimens, a concurrent cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Antigen-negative results were > or = 99% predictive of CCNA negativity. Because the Ag-EIA reduced cell culture workload by approximately 75 to 80% and two-step testing was complete in CCNA alone had been performed on all 5,887 specimens.

  2. What Is Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Deep Vein Thrombosis Deep Vein Thrombosis Leer en español What Is Deep vein thrombosis ( ... life-threatening problems if not treated. Deep Vein Thrombosis Only about half of the people who have ...

  3. Corrosion cast study of the canine hepatic veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uršič, M; Vrecl, M; Fazarinc, G

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed description of the distribution, diameters and drainage patterns of hepatic veins on the basis of the corrosion cast analysis in 18 dogs. We classified the hepatic veins in three main groups: the right hepatic veins of the caudate process and right lateral liver lobe, the middle hepatic veins of the right medial and quadrate lobes and the left hepatic veins of both left liver lobes and the papillary process. The corrosion cast study showed that the number of the veins in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and most anatomical textbooks is underestimated. The number of various-sized hepatic veins of the right liver division ranged from 3 to 5 and included 1 to 4 veins from the caudate process and 2 to 4 veins from the right lateral liver lobe. Generally, in all corrosion casts, one middle-sized vein from the right part of the right medial lobe, which emptied separately in the caudal vena cava, was established. The other vein was a large-sized vein from the remainder of the central division, which frequently joined the common left hepatic vein from the left liver lobes. The common left hepatic vein was the largest of all the aforementioned hepatic veins.

  4. Locating critical points on multi-dimensional surfaces by genetic algorithm: test cases including normal and perturbed argon clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Pinaki; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1999-03-01

    It is demonstrated that Genetic Algorithm in a floating point realisation can be a viable tool for locating critical points on a multi-dimensional potential energy surface (PES). For small clusters, the standard algorithm works well. For bigger ones, the search for global minimum becomes more efficient when used in conjunction with coordinate stretching, and partitioning of the strings into a core part and an outer part which are alternately optimized The method works with equal facility for locating minima, local as well as global, and saddle points (SP) of arbitrary orders. The search for minima requires computation of the gradient vector, but not the Hessian, while that for SP's requires the information of the gradient vector and the Hessian, the latter only at some specific points on the path. The method proposed is tested on (i) a model 2-d PES (ii) argon clusters (Ar 4-Ar 30) in which argon atoms interact via Lennard-Jones potential, (iii) Ar mX, m=12 clusters where X may be a neutral atom or a cation. We also explore if the method could also be used to construct what may be called a stochastic representation of the reaction path on a given PES with reference to conformational changes in Ar n clusters.

  5. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nisio, Marcello; van Es, Nick; Büller, Harry R.

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism, constitute a major global burden of disease. The diagnostic work-up of suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism includes the sequential application of a clinical decision rule and D-dimer

  6. Identification of arteries and veins in cerebral angiography fluoroscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra Tache, Irina

    2017-11-01

    In the present study a new method for pixels tagging into arteries and veins classes from temporal cerebral angiography is presented. This need comes from the neurosurgeon who is evaluating the fluoroscopic angiography and the magnetic resonance images from the brain in order to locate the fistula of the patients who suffer from arterio-venous malformation. The method includes the elimination of the background pixels from a previous segmentation and the generation of the time intensity curves for each remaining pixel. The later undergo signal processing in order to extract the characteristic parameters needed for applying the k-means clustering algorithm. Some of the parameters are: the phase and the maximum amplitude extracted from the Fourier transform, the standard deviation and the mean value. The tagged classes are represented into images which then are re-classified by an expert into artery and vein pixels.

  7. Phlebectasia of Internal Jugular Vein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internal jugular phlebectasia (IJP) is a congenital fusiform dilatation of the internal jugular vein that appears as a soft, compressible mass in the neck during straining or is triggered by the Valsalva maneuver. The possible differential diagnosis for the swelling could include a laryngocele, branchial cyst, cystic hygroma, ...

  8. Management of superficial vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmi, B

    2015-07-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is less well studied than deep vein thrombosis (DVT), because it has been considered to be a minor, self-limiting disease that is easily diagnosed on clinical grounds and that requires only symptomatic relief. The most frequently involved sites of the superficial vein system are the lower limbs, especially the saphenous veins, mostly in relation to varicosities. Lower-limb SVT shares the same risk factors as DVT; it can propagate into the deep veins, and have a complicated course with pulmonary embolism. Clinical diagnosis may not be accurate, and ultrasonography is currently indicated for both confirmation and evaluation of SVT extension. Treatment aims are symptom relief and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in relation to the thrombotic burden. SVT of the long saphenous vein within 3 cm of the saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) is considered to be equivalent to a DVT, and thus deserving of therapeutic anticoagulation. Less severe forms of lower-limb SVT not involving the SFJ have been included in randomized clinical trials of surgery, compression hosiery, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, unfractionated heparin, and low molecular weight heparins, with inconclusive results. The largest randomized clinical trial available, on 3004 patients with lower-limb SVT not involving the SFJ, showed that fondaparinux 2.5 mg once daily for 6 weeks is more effective than placebo in reducing the risk of the composite of death from any cause and symptomatic VTE (0.9% versus 5.9%). Further studies are needed to define the optimal management strategies for SVT of the lower limbs and other sites, such as the upper limbs. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  9. Variant Anatomy of the External Jugular Vein | Olabu | Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variant communications noted included facial vein, internal jugular, and a presence of a large anastomotic vein connecting it to the anterior jugular. It was duplicated in 2.2% cases and terminated into internal jugular vein in 7.7% of cases. The most common variations were in origin, course, communications and termination.

  10. PORTAL VEIN THROMBOSIS-ULTRASOUND IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajkovska Meri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Portal venous system, apart from the main portal vein, includes its tributaries: superior and inferior mesenteric vein, as well as splenic vein, so the term portal venous thrombosis encompasses a broad spectrum of pathological conditions. Usually, one or more causative factors can be recognized, either local endothelial/ flow disturbances, or systemic inherited /acquired conditions. Portal vein thrombosis can be associated with benign or malignant disorders. Weather we are speaking about acute or chronic thrombosis, the clinical presentation is different. Acute thrombosis can be presented in a wide range, from mild abdominal discomfort to a state of intestinal ischemia and life-threatening infarction. Chronic thrombosis is usually recognized when variceal bleeding or other symptoms of portal hypertension express. Fast and accurate diagnosis sometimes is a life-saving procedure, especially in acute vascular alterations. Recently, due to the improvement of imaging procedures the number of patients with diagnosed portal vein thrombosis is increasingly growing. With a negative predictive value of 98% color Doppler ultrasound is considered as imaging modality of choice in detecting portal vein thrombosis. Based on large studies it is presumed that overall risk of getting portal vein thrombosis during lifetime is 1% in general population, but much bigger 5%-15% in cirrhotic patients. Existence of specific ultrasound criteria, if fulfilled, has ensured that diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis is fast and non-invasive. Procedure is convenient for the patient and healthcare providers, and above all, allows prompt treatment preventing further deterioration.

  11. Bilateral meandering pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thupili, Chakradhar R.; Udayasankar, Unni [Pediatric Imaging, Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Renapurkar, Rahul [Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Thoracic Imaging, L10, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Meandering pulmonary veins is a rare clinical entity that can be mistaken for more complex congenital syndromes such as hypogenetic lung syndrome. We report imaging findings in a rare incidentally detected case of bilateral meandering pulmonary veins. We briefly discuss the role of imaging in diagnosing this condition, with particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. (orig.)

  12. Focus on Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stagnate (pool) in the legs, leading to high blood pressure in the leg veins. This may result in further enlargement of the ... you can help delay the development of varicose veins or keep them from progressing. Some ... pressure under control. • To temporarily relieve symptoms, lie down ...

  13. Mesenteric vein thrombosis following laparoscopic appendectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Harris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric vein thrombosis is an uncommon complication following laparoscopic surgery. A review of the literature has shown that there is a higher incidence of thrombosis following laparoscopic bariatric procedures, including the gastric sleeve procedure and roux-en-y gastric bypass surgery. Additionally, pylephlebitis, thrombosis of portal or mesenteric veins, has been described following perforated appendicitis. However no report has described mesenteric vein thrombosis following laparoscopy for nonperforated appendicitis in the pediatric population. The cause of this thrombosis is hypothesized to be secondary to venous stasis secondary to insufflation during laparoscopy.

  14. Congenital pulmonary vein stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, Shabih

    2007-06-01

    A case of a newborn infant is described who presented with severe cyanosis at birth with rapid deterioration. The infant died at six hours of life. The diagnosis was determined at autopsy as congenital pulmonary vein stenosis.

  15. Mesenteric vein thrombosis: CT identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, A.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.; Kelvin, F.M.

    1984-07-01

    Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis was identified on computed tomographic scans in six patients. In each case, contrast-enhanced scans showed a high-density superior mesenteric vein wall surrounding a central filling defect. Four fo the six patients had isolated superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. A fifth patient had associated portal vein and splenic vein thrombosis, and the sixth patient had associated portal vein and inferior vena cava thrombosis. One of the six patients had acute ischemic bowel disease. The other five patients did not have acute ischemic bowel symptoms associated with their venous occlusion. This study defines the computed tomographic appearance of mesenteric vein thrombosis.

  16. Mesenteric vein thrombosis: CT identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, A.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.; Kelvin, F.M.

    1984-01-01

    Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis was identified on computed tomographic scans in six patients. In each case, contrast-enhanced scans showed a high-density superior mesenteric vein wall surrounding a central filling defect. Four fo the six patients had isolated superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. A fifth patient had associated portal vein and splenic vein thrombosis, and the sixth patient had associated portal vein and inferior vena cava thrombosis. One of the six patients had acute ischemic bowel disease. The other five patients did not have acute ischemic bowel symptoms associated with their venous occlusion. This study defines the computed tomographic appearance of mesenteric vein thrombosis

  17. Deep vein thrombosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman-Brochu, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a review of the incidence, pathophysiology, and treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in pregnancy, a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. The incidence of DVT in pregnancy varies widely, but it is a leading cause of maternal morbidity in both the United States and the United Kingdom. Risk factors during pregnancy include prolonged bed rest or immobility, pelvic or leg trauma, and obesity. Additional risk factors are preeclampsia, Cesarean section, instrument-assisted delivery, hemorrhage, multiparity, varicose veins, a previous history of a thromboembolic event, and hereditary or acquired thrombophilias such as Factor V Leiden. Heparin is the anticoagulant of choice to treat active thromboembolic disease or to administer for thromboprophylaxis, but low molecular-weight heparin is being used with increasing frequency in the pregnant woman. Perinatal nurses should be aware of the symptoms, diagnostic tools, and treatment options available to manage active thrombosis during pregnancy and in the intrapartum and postpartum periods.

  18. A current approach to superficial vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Martin H; Fajer, Simone

    2013-02-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is an entity commonly encountered in practice. While the clinical diagnosis is reasonably straightforward, care must be taken to exclude concurrent thrombosis of the deep veins, and the possibility of the presence of occult systemic illness such as malignancy should be considered. Recent studies of the epidemiology of SVT demonstrate a high incidence of concurrent deep vein thrombosis emphasizing the need for surveying the deep veins using compression ultrasonography. Treatment decisions are may now be based upon the results of randomized clinical trials and should include a period of anticoagulation using fondaparinux or a low molecular weight heparin. The appropriate doses and duration of therapy are not fully established, and the cost-effectiveness of these drugs for the treatment of SVT needs further evaluation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Measurement of Vein Diameter for Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) Insertion: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Rebecca; Cummings, Melita; Childs, Jessie; Fielder, Andrea; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina; Grech, Carol; Esterman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Choosing an appropriately sized vein reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with peripherally inserted central catheters. This observational study described the diameters of the brachial, basilic, and cephalic veins and determined the effect of patient factors on vein size. Ultrasound was used to measure the veins of 176 participants. Vein diameter was similar in both arms regardless of hand dominance and side. Patient factors-including greater age, height, and weight, as well as male gender-were associated with increased vein diameter. The basilic vein tended to have the largest diameter statistically. However, this was the case in only 55% of patients.

  20. Acquired Jugular Vein Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopsu, Erkki; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Vento, Seija I.; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Venous malformations of the jugular veins are rare findings. Aneurysms and phlebectasias are the lesions most often reported. We report on an adult patient with an abruptly appearing large tumorous mass on the left side of the neck identified as a jugular vein aneurysm. Upon clinical examination with ultrasound, a lateral neck cyst was primarily suspected. Surgery revealed a saccular aneurysm in intimate connection with the internal jugular vein. Histology showed an organized hematoma inside the aneurysmal sac, which had a focally thinned muscular layer. The terminology and the treatment guidelines of venous dilatation lesions are discussed. For phlebectasias, conservative treatment is usually recommended, whereas for saccular aneurysms, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. While an exact classification based on etiology and pathophysiology is not possible, a more uniform taxonomy would clarify the guidelines for different therapeutic modalities for venous dilatation lesions. PMID:20107571

  1. The vein collar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    Randomized studies evaluating the effect of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-grafts show conflicting results. The study of the Joint Vascular Research Group (JVRG) of UK found improved primary patency while the Scandinavian Miller Collar Study (SCAMICOS) found neither any effect on...

  2. Portal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Yogesh K; Bodh, Vijay

    2015-03-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion.

  3. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-05

    This podcast discusses the risk for deep vein thrombosis in long-distance travelers and ways to minimize that risk.  Created: 4/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  4. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Yogesh K.; Bodh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion. PMID:25941431

  5. The vein collar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    Randomized studies evaluating the effect of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-grafts show conflicting results. The study of the Joint Vascular Research Group (JVRG) of UK found improved primary patency while the Scandinavian Miller Collar Study (SCAMICOS) found neither any effect...

  6. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OWNER

    ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized surgical patients. The occurrence of the disease is related to presence of risk factors, which are related primarily to trauma, venous stasis and hyper-coagulability. DVT seems not to be taken seriously ...

  7. Image Quality Enhancement Using the Direction and Thickness of Vein Lines for Finger-Vein Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ho Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the increased emphasis placed on the protection of privacy, biometric recognition systems using physical or behavioural characteristics such as fingerprints, facial characteristics, iris and finger-vein patterns or the voice have been introduced in applications including door access control, personal certification, Internet banking and ATM machines. Among these, finger-vein recognition is advantageous in that it involves the use of inexpensive and small devices that are difficult to counterfeit. In general, finger-vein recognition systems capture images by using near infrared (NIR illumination in conjunction with a camera. However, such systems can face operational difficulties, since the scattering of light from the skin can make capturing a clear image difficult. To solve this problem, we proposed new image quality enhancement method that measures the direction and thickness of vein lines. This effort represents novel research in four respects. First, since vein lines are detected in input images based on eight directional profiles of a grey image instead of binarized images, the detection error owing to the non-uniform illumination of the finger area can be reduced. Second, our method adaptively determines a Gabor filter for the optimal direction and width on the basis of the estimated direction and thickness of a detected vein line. Third, by applying this optimized Gabor filter, a clear vein image can be obtained. Finally, the further processing of the morphological operation is applied in the Gabor filtered image and the resulting image is combined with the original one, through which finger-vein image of a higher quality is obtained. Experimental results from application of our proposed image enhancement method show that the equal error rate (EER of finger-vein recognition decreases to approximately 0.4% in the case of a local binary pattern-based recognition and to approximately 0.3% in the case of a wavelet transform

  8. Collateral veins in left renal vein stenosis demonstrated via CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, H.H.; Lund, G.; Talle, K.

    1983-01-01

    Twelve patients with left renal vein stenosis from tumor compression were studied with CT. All had distended collateral veins in the perirenal space which either formed a radiating or a cobweb pattern or appeared as marked longitudinal veins. Inferior phrenic vein branches were seen in seven patients and were considerably enlarged in two. Other major veins possibly taking part in collateral circulation could not be recognized due to obliteration of fat planes. The renal fascia was thickened in eleven patients, probably due to edema. A close study of the perirenal space with CT may give valuable information about collateral development. (orig.)

  9. Deep Cerebral Vein Thrombosis: A Clinical Masquerader

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Prabhat; Sasmal, Gargi; Mahto, Subodh Kumar; Gupta, Shreya; Gupta, Harish

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral Vein Thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cause of stroke. Thrombosis can occur in superficial veins, deep venous system or cortical veins of brain. The term Deep Cerebral Vein Thrombosis (DCVT) is used for thrombosis of internal cerebral vein, vein of Galen and basal vein of Rosenthal. Only 10% cases of CVT are because of thrombosis of deep cerebral vein. The diagnosis of DCVT is often missed because of its heterogenous presentation. Herein, we present a case of DCVT which was initially ...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of collaborative care including PST and an antidepressant treatment algorithm for the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care; a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekman Aartjan TF

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorder is currently one of the most burdensome disorders worldwide. Evidence-based treatments for depressive disorder are already available, but these are used insufficiently, and with less positive results than possible. Earlier research in the USA has shown good results in the treatment of depressive disorder based on a collaborative care approach with Problem Solving Treatment and an antidepressant treatment algorithm, and research in the UK has also shown good results with Problem Solving Treatment. These treatment strategies may also work very well in the Netherlands too, even though health care systems differ between countries. Methods/design This study is a two-armed randomised clinical trial, with randomization on patient-level. The aim of the trial is to evaluate the treatment of depressive disorder in primary care in the Netherlands by means of an adapted collaborative care framework, including contracting and adherence-improving strategies, combined with Problem Solving Treatment and antidepressant medication according to a treatment algorithm. Forty general practices will be randomised to either the intervention group or the control group. Included will be patients who are diagnosed with moderate to severe depression, based on DSM-IV criteria, and stratified according to comorbid chronic physical illness. Patients in the intervention group will receive treatment based on the collaborative care approach, and patients in the control group will receive care as usual. Baseline measurements and follow up measures (3, 6, 9 and 12 months are assessed using questionnaires and an interview. The primary outcome measure is severity of depressive symptoms, according to the PHQ9. Secondary outcome measures are remission as measured with the PHQ9 and the IDS-SR, and cost-effectiveness measured with the TiC-P, the EQ-5D and the SF-36. Discussion In this study, an American model to enhance care for patients with a

  11. Optimum Design of Braced Steel Space Frames including Soil-Structure Interaction via Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse T. Daloglu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimum design of braced steel space frames including soil-structure interaction is studied by using harmony search (HS and teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO algorithms. A three-parameter elastic foundation model is used to incorporate the soil-structure interaction effect. A 10-storey braced steel space frame example taken from literature is investigated according to four different bracing types for the cases with/without soil-structure interaction. X, V, Z, and eccentric V-shaped bracing types are considered in the study. Optimum solutions of examples are carried out by a computer program coded in MATLAB interacting with SAP2000-OAPI for two-way data exchange. The stress constraints according to AISC-ASD (American Institute of Steel Construction-Allowable Stress Design, maximum lateral displacement constraints, interstorey drift constraints, and beam-to-column connection constraints are taken into consideration in the optimum design process. The parameters of the foundation model are calculated depending on soil surface displacements by using an iterative approach. The results obtained in the study show that bracing types and soil-structure interaction play very important roles in the optimum design of steel space frames. Finally, the techniques used in the optimum design seem to be quite suitable for practical applications.

  12. Interposition vein cuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P; Da Silva, T; How, T

    1996-01-01

    A vein cuff interposed at the distal anastomosis between a prosthetic vascular graft and a recipient infrageniculate artery improves the chances of continued patency of the graft, at least in the short and medium term. The mode of effect appears to be suppression or modification of anastomotic myointimal hyperplasia (MIH). In the event of graft failure the recipient artery and run-off vessels remain free from MIH and their patency is preserved thereby improving the prospects for further vascular reconstruction and limb salvage. The mechanisms by which interposition vein cuffs might modulate MIH are reviewed. Experimental evidence is described to show that the geometry of a cuffed anastomosis promotes a characteristic haemodynamic flow structure with a stable vortex. It is suggested that this vortex exerts greater shear stress upon the wall of the artery than the normal laminar flow observed in conventional anastomoses. High shear stress is known to inhibit MIH.

  13. Yield of Stool Culture with Isolate Toxin Testing versus a Two-Step Algorithm Including Stool Toxin Testing for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile▿

    OpenAIRE

    Reller, Megan E.; Lema, Clara A.; Perl, Trish M.; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L.; Speck, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) C...

  14. Management of reticular veins and telangiectases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip Coleridge

    2015-11-01

    To review the literature related to the management of reticular varices and telangiectases of the lower limbs to provide guidance on the treatment of these veins. Very few randomised clinical trials are available in this field. A European Guideline has been published on the treatment of reticular varices and telangiectases, which is largely based on the opinion of experts. Older accounts written by individual phlebologists contain extensive advice from their own practice, which is valuable in identifying effective methods of sclerotherapy. All accounts indicate that a history should be taken combined with a clinical and ultrasound examination to establish the full extent of the venous disease. Sclerotherapy is commenced by injecting the larger veins first of all, usually the reticular varices. Later in the same session or in subsequent sessions, telangiectases can be treated by direct injection. Following treatment, the application of class 2 compression stockings for a period of up to three weeks is beneficial but not used universally by all phlebologists. Further sessions can follow at intervals of 2-8 weeks in which small residual veins are treated. Resistant veins can be managed by ultrasound-guided injection of underlying perforating veins and varices. Other treatments including RF diathermy and laser ablation of telangiectases have very limited efficacy in this condition. Sclerotherapy, when used with the correct technique, is the most effective method for the management of reticular varices and telangiectases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Characterization of a porcine model of chronic superficial varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory T; Grant, Mark W; Thomson, Ian A; Hill, B Geraldine; van Rij, André M

    2009-06-01

    Previous animal models of venous disease, while inducing venous hypertension and valvular insufficiency, do not produce superficial varicose veins. In this study, we aimed to develop and characterize a pig-based model of superficial varicose veins. Right femoral arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) were surgically fashioned in young adult pigs. Animals were examined at postoperative times up to 15 weeks to determine the development of varicose veins and measurement of both blood pressure and flow velocities within the superficial thigh veins. Histology and vascular corrosion casts were used to characterize the resulting structural venous alterations. Porcine pathophysiological features were compared with those of human primary superficial varicose veins. Gross superficial varicosities developed over the ipsilateral medial thigh region after an initial lag period of 1-2 weeks. Veins demonstrated retrograde filling with valvular incompetence, and a moderate, non-pulsatile, venous hypertension, which was altered by changes in posture and Valsalva. Venous blood flow velocities were elevated to 15-30 cm/s in varicose veins. Structurally, pig varicose veins were enlarged, tortuous, had valvular degeneration, and regions of focal medial atrophy with or without overlying intimal thickening. The superficial varicose veins, which developed within this model, have a pathophysiology that is consistent with that observed in humans. The porcine femoral AVF model is proposed as a suitable experimental model to evaluate the pathobiology of superficial venous disease. It may also be suitable for the evaluation of treatment interventions including drug therapy.

  16. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis after elbow trauma: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... K antagonists was conducted and evaluation by Doppler ultrasonography realized 18 months after trauma showed recanalization of basilica and humeral veins and thrombosis of axillary and subclavian veins. Management of occupational activity was prescribed including eviction of heavy loads handling and repetitive ...

  17. Supraclavicular versus Infraclavicular Subclavian Vein Catheterization in Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Hsien Lu; Mei-Ling Yao; Kai-Sheng Hsieh; Pao-Chin Chiu; Ying-Yao Chen; Chu-Chuan Lin; Ta-Cheng Huang; Chu-Chin Chen

    2006-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is an important procedure for infant patients for a number of different purposes, including nutritional support, surgical operation, hemodynamic monitoring, and multiple lines for critical care medications. Subclavian vein catheterization (SVC) is one of the central vein catheterization techniques. SVC can be performed from 4 different locations: right supraclavicular (RSC), left supraclavicular (LSC), right infraclavicular (RIC), and left infraclavicular (LIC)....

  18. Finger vein recognition based on finger crease location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiying; Ding, Shumeng; Yin, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Finger vein recognition technology has significant advantages over other methods in terms of accuracy, uniqueness, and stability, and it has wide promising applications in the field of biometric recognition. We propose using finger creases to locate and extract an object region. Then we use linear fitting to overcome the problem of finger rotation in the plane. The method of modular adaptive histogram equalization (MAHE) is presented to enhance image contrast and reduce computational cost. To extract the finger vein features, we use a fusion method, which can obtain clear and distinguishable vein patterns under different conditions. We used the Hausdorff average distance algorithm to examine the recognition performance of the system. The experimental results demonstrate that MAHE can better balance the recognition accuracy and the expenditure of time compared with three other methods. Our resulting equal error rate throughout the total procedure was 3.268% in a database of 153 finger vein images.

  19. Vein grafting in fingertip replantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hede; Jackson, William D; Songcharoen, Somjade; Akdemir, Ovunc; Li, Zhijie; Chen, Xinglong; Jiang, Liangfu; Gao, Weiyang

    2009-01-01

    In this retrospective study, the survival rates of fingertip replantation with and without vein grafting were evaluated along with their postoperative functional and cosmetic results. One hundred twenty-one-fingertip amputations were performed in 103 patients between September 2002 and July 2007. Thirty-four amputated fingertips were replanted without vein grafting, while 87 amputated fingertips were replanted with vein grafting for arterial and/or venous repairs. The overall survival rates of the replantations with and without vein grafting were 90% (78/87) and 85% (29/34), respectively. The survival rates were 88% (36/41) with venous repair, 93% (25/27) with arterial repair, and 89% (17/19) with both. Nineteen patients without vein grafting and 48 patients with vein grafting had a follow-up period of more than one year. Good cosmetic and functional outcomes were observed in both groups of patients. The results show that vein grafting is a reliable technique in fingertip replantations, showing no significant difference (P > 0.05) in survival between those with and without vein grafting. Furthermore, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in survival was found between cases with vein grafts for arterial and/or venous repairs. In fingertip replantations with vein grafting, favorable functional and esthetic results can be achieved without sacrificing replantation survival. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Portal vein thrombosis following laparoscopic gastric plication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikabi, S; Chang, A; Durkin, N; Ramar, S

    2017-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) following laparoscopic surgery including Roux-en-Y bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and Nissen’s fundoplication is a rare but recognised complication. Laparoscopic gastric plication in a new procedure that is popular in some parts of the world. We report a case of a patient suffering PVT as a complication of this surgery. PMID:27652795

  1. Portal vein thrombosis following laparoscopic gastric plication

    OpenAIRE

    Som, R; Rikabi, S; Chang, A; Durkin, N; Ramar, S

    2017-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) following laparoscopic surgery including Roux-en-Y bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and Nissen’s fundoplication is a rare but recognised complication. Laparoscopic gastric plication in a new procedure that is popular in some parts of the world. We report a case of a patient suffering PVT as a complication of this surgery.

  2. A Situational-Awareness System For Networked Infantry Including An Accelerometer-Based Shot-Identification Algorithm For Direct-Fire Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    algorithm to compete with Google Earth for system resources. Laboratory development of the code and initial system testing occurred on a Dell XPS desktop...collected from inertial sensors attached to Armalite Rifle 15 (AR15) variant weapons. In spite of under-sampling limitations, the shot-identification...sampling, under sampling, Euler angles, firing azimuth, YEI, GPS, Google Earth, mapping 15 . NUMBER OF PAGES 135 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  3. Creation of operation algorithms for combined operation of anti-lock braking system (ABS) and electric machine included in the combined power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, S. V.; Ivanov, V. G.; Karpukhin, K. E.; Umnitsyn, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The paper considers the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) operation algorithm, which enables the implementation of hybrid braking, i.e. the braking process combining friction brake mechanisms and e-machine (electric machine), which operates in the energy recovery mode. The provided materials focus only on the rectilinear motion of the vehicle. That the ABS task consists in the maintenance of the target wheel slip ratio, which depends on the tyre-road adhesion coefficient. The tyre-road adhesion coefficient was defined based on the vehicle deceleration. In the course of calculated studies, the following operation algorithm of hybrid braking was determined. At adhesion coefficient ≤0.1, driving axle braking occurs only due to the e-machine operating in the energy recovery mode. In other cases, depending on adhesion coefficient, the e-machine provides the brake torque, which changes from 35 to 100% of the maximum available brake torque. Virtual tests showed that values of the wheel slip ratio are close to the required ones. Thus, this algorithm makes it possible to implement hybrid braking by means of the two sources creating the brake torque.

  4. A novel technique of axillary vein puncture involving peripherally inserted central venous catheters for a small basilic vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Fumito; Odaka, Yoshinobu; Mutoh, Mitsuhisa; Katayose, Yu; Tokumura, Hiromi

    2018-03-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheters are some of the most useful devices for vascular access used globally. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters have a low rate of fatal mechanical complications when compared to non-tunnel central venous catheters. However, as peripherally inserted central venous catheter access requires a smaller vein, there is a high risk of thrombosis. The axillary vein (confluence of the basilic and brachial veins) can serve as an access for cannulation. Moreover, as this vein is larger than the basilic or brachial vein, it might be a superior option for preventing thrombosis. The risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection should be considered when the puncture site is at the axillary fossa. The aim of this study was to present our new protocol involving peripherally inserted central venous catheters (non-tunneled/tunneled) and a tunneling technique and assess its feasibility and safety for improving cannulation and preventing thrombosis and infection. The study included 20 patients. The axillary vein in the upper arm was used for peripherally inserted central venous catheters in patients with a small-diameter basilic vein (venous catheter. The observed catheter duration was 645 days (median ± standard deviation, 26 ± 22.22 days). Catheterization was successful in all cases, however, two accidental dislodgements were identified. No fatal or serious complications were observed after catheterization. Our new protocol for axillary peripherally inserted central venous catheters/tunneled axillary peripherally inserted central venous catheters use for a small-diameter basilic vein is safe and feasible.

  5. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Gustavo C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein is a rare tumor of complex diagnosis. We presented a case of renal vein leiomyosarcoma detected in a routine study. The primary treatment was complete surgical removal of the mass. In cases where surgical removal is not possible the prognosis is poor, with high rates of local recurrence and distant spread.

  6. Vein type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Veins are tabular- or sheet-like masses of minerals occupying or following a fracture or a set of fractures in the enclosing rock. They have been formed later than the country rock and fractures, either by filling of the open spaces or by partial or complete replacement of the adjoining rock or most commonly by both of these processes combined. This volume begins with the occurrences and deposits known from old shield areas and the sedimentary belts surrounding them. They are followed by papers describing the European deposits mostly of Variscan age, and by similar deposits known from China being of Jurassic age. The volume is completed by two papers which do not fit exactly in the given scheme. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers in this report

  7. Puzzles in practice: splenic vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Brittany; Marsh, Melanie; Walden, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    This report details a 58-year-old gentleman who presented to his outpatient primary care physician's clinic several times over four weeks for ongoing epigastric pain radiating into his left flank, dry heaving, and constipation. He was presumed to have gastritis at each visit and prescribed escalating doses of proton pump inhibitors. Due to the unrelenting pain, he eventually was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with splenic vein thrombosis after computed tomography imaging of the abdomen. Our literature search revealed that pancreatic pathology is overwhelmingly the contributing factor to splenic vein thrombosis. Our patient had prominent collateral vasculature, suggesting that his splenic vein thrombosis was chronic in nature and likely the cause of his ongoing abdominal pain. Splenic vein thrombosis is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, but one that should be included in the treating physician's differential diagnoses when abdominal pain is ongoing despite medical therapy. Although he had no evidence of initial findings on radiography, our patient was eventually diagnosed with biopsy-proven pancreatic cancer. Our case report demonstrates how patients presenting with persistent or worsening abdominal pain despite the use of proton pump inhibitors or other acid reducing agents and potential 'red flag' findings such as decreased appetite and weight loss should be worked up for other potential sources of abdominal pathology.

  8. Yield of Stool Culture with Isolate Toxin Testing versus a Two-Step Algorithm Including Stool Toxin Testing for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E.; Lema, Clara A.; Perl, Trish M.; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L.; Speck, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The “gold standard” for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing). PMID:17804652

  9. Yield of stool culture with isolate toxin testing versus a two-step algorithm including stool toxin testing for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E; Lema, Clara A; Perl, Trish M; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L; Speck, Kathleen A; Carroll, Karen C

    2007-11-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The "gold standard" for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing).

  10. Solving the competitive facility location problem considering the reactions of competitor with a hybrid algorithm including Tabu Search and exact method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherinejad, Jafar; Niknam, Azar

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a leader-follower competitive facility location problem considering the reactions of the competitors is studied. A model for locating new facilities and determining levels of quality for the facilities of the leader firm is proposed. Moreover, changes in the location and quality of existing facilities in a competitive market where a competitor offers the same goods or services are taken into account. The competitor could react by opening new facilities, closing existing ones, and adjusting the quality levels of its existing facilities. The market share, captured by each facility, depends on its distance to customer and its quality that is calculated based on the probabilistic Huff's model. Each firm aims to maximize its profit subject to constraints on quality levels and budget of setting up new facilities. This problem is formulated as a bi-level mixed integer non-linear model. The model is solved using a combination of Tabu Search with an exact method. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an upper bound that is achieved by applying Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. Computational results show that our algorithm finds near the upper bound solutions in a reasonable time.

  11. Solving the competitive facility location problem considering the reactions of competitor with a hybrid algorithm including Tabu Search and exact method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherinejad, Jafar; Niknam, Azar

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a leader-follower competitive facility location problem considering the reactions of the competitors is studied. A model for locating new facilities and determining levels of quality for the facilities of the leader firm is proposed. Moreover, changes in the location and quality of existing facilities in a competitive market where a competitor offers the same goods or services are taken into account. The competitor could react by opening new facilities, closing existing ones, and adjusting the quality levels of its existing facilities. The market share, captured by each facility, depends on its distance to customer and its quality that is calculated based on the probabilistic Huff's model. Each firm aims to maximize its profit subject to constraints on quality levels and budget of setting up new facilities. This problem is formulated as a bi-level mixed integer non-linear model. The model is solved using a combination of Tabu Search with an exact method. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an upper bound that is achieved by applying Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. Computational results show that our algorithm finds near the upper bound solutions in a reasonable time.

  12. Deep Cerebral Vein Thrombosis: A Clinical Masquerader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prabhat; Sasmal, Gargi; Mahto, Subodh Kumar; Gupta, Shreya; Gupta, Harish

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral Vein Thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cause of stroke. Thrombosis can occur in superficial veins, deep venous system or cortical veins of brain. The term Deep Cerebral Vein Thrombosis (DCVT) is used for thrombosis of internal cerebral vein, vein of Galen and basal vein of Rosenthal. Only 10% cases of CVT are because of thrombosis of deep cerebral vein. The diagnosis of DCVT is often missed because of its heterogenous presentation. Herein, we present a case of DCVT which was initially treated as meningoencephalitis. A timely advised brain imaging helped in making the diagnosis and patient recovered completely after institution of anticoagulation.

  13. Superficial vein thrombosis and deep vein thrombosis – a comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Krasiński, Zbigniew; Aniukiewicz, Krzysztof; Krasińska, Aleksandra; Krasińska, Beata; Gabriel, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Although superficial vein thrombosis is commonly considered a rather minor condition, a number of studies indicate that its consequences can be much more severe. Since the introduction of Doppler ultrasonography to common diagnosis of venous diseases, the approach to threats associated with superficial vein thrombosis has changed, mainly in the context of venous thromboembolism. Superficial thrombosis in varicose veins must be differentiated from that occurring in patients without...

  14. Varicose Vein Treatment (Endovenous Ablation of Varicose Veins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery. Most of the veins treated are effectively invisible even to ultrasound 12 months after the procedure. ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  15. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  16. MDCT of inferior mesenteric vein: normal anatomy and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, E.; Turkbey, B. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Karcaaltincaba, M. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: musturayk@yahoo.com; Karaosmanoglu, D.; Akata, D. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-07-15

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a useful technique for imaging the inferior mesenteric vein. The aim of the present review was to discuss the normal anatomy and the pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein, including partial or total thrombosis secondary to inflammation (pyophlebitis) and malignancy, occlusion, dilatation and reversed flow, which are rarely encountered. Optimal reconstruction techniques are also discussed. The pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein can be clearly demonstrated using MDCT using curved-planar reformatted multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and minimum intensity projection (MIP) images.

  17. MDCT of inferior mesenteric vein: normal anatomy and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpinar, E.; Turkbey, B.; Karcaaltincaba, M.; Karaosmanoglu, D.; Akata, D.

    2008-01-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a useful technique for imaging the inferior mesenteric vein. The aim of the present review was to discuss the normal anatomy and the pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein, including partial or total thrombosis secondary to inflammation (pyophlebitis) and malignancy, occlusion, dilatation and reversed flow, which are rarely encountered. Optimal reconstruction techniques are also discussed. The pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein can be clearly demonstrated using MDCT using curved-planar reformatted multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and minimum intensity projection (MIP) images

  18. Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins. Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on August 26th, 2010 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability, and cost-effectiveness of RFA for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition Varicose veins (VV) are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad

  19. A Vein Map Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fuentes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing demand world-wide, from government agencies and the private sector for cutting-edge biometric security technology that is difficult to breach but userfriendly at the same time. Some of the older tools, such as fingerprint, retina and iris scanning, and facial recognition software have all been found to have flaws and often viewed negatively because of many cultural and hygienic issues associated with them. Comparatively, mapping veins as a human barcode, a new technology, has many advantages over older technologies. Specifically, reproducing a three-dimensional model of a human vein system is impossible to replicate. Vein map technology is distinctive because of its state-of-the-art sensors are only able to recognize vein patterns if hemoglobin is actively flowing through the person

  20. [Management of superficial vein thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappé, Paul; Bertoletti, Laurent; Moulin, Nathalie; Décousus, Hervé

    2015-02-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have highlighted the potential severity of superficial vein thrombosis of the lower limbs (SVT). Diagnosis is based on clinical and Doppler ultrasonography evaluation, and define its therapeutic management. If SVT is associated with objectively confirmed deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, curative anticoagulation is indicated. If SVT is isolated and measured over 5 cm long, prophylactic dosage of fondaparinux may be provided for 45 days.

  1. Shock veins in the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite

    OpenAIRE

    Owocki, Krzysztof; Muszyński, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    A specimen of the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite contains shock-produced veins consisting of recrystallised fine- grained pyroxenes that include small droplets of Ni-rich metal. Non-melted olivines and pyroxenes show planar deformations filled by shock-melted and -polluted metal and troilite. Shock-melted feldspathic glass is present close to the shock veins. Geothermometric estimations indicate that the meteorite locally experienced moderate shock metamorphism with a minimum loc...

  2. Locating difficult veins for venepuncture and cannulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Sally Jane

    2017-02-15

    Vein location and assessment are essential to improve the success rates for vascular access. However, problems remain with first attempt success rates for peripheral cannulation and locating difficult veins. Practitioners may not be aware of developments in technology and aids to assist in the location and assessment of veins to achieve vascular access. This article provides an overview of two vein location aids that can be used to locate difficult veins: the IV-eye vein imager and the Vacuderm tourniquet. It discusses the patient factors that can increase the difficulty of vein assessment and location, and emphasises the importance of vessel health and preservation, and vein palpation. Practitioners should be experienced and skilled in the assessment of veins, and they are encouraged to revisit how they locate and assess veins.

  3. The influence of branch order on optimal leaf vein geometries: Murray's law and area preserving branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A Price

    Full Text Available Models that predict the form of hierarchical branching networks typically invoke optimization based on biomechanical similitude, the minimization of impedance to fluid flow, or construction costs. Unfortunately, due to the small size and high number of vein segments found in real biological networks, complete descriptions of networks needed to evaluate such models are rare. To help address this we report results from the analysis of the branching geometry of 349 leaf vein networks comprising over 1.5 million individual vein segments. In addition to measuring the diameters of individual veins before and after vein bifurcations, we also assign vein orders using the Horton-Strahler ordering algorithm adopted from the study of river networks. Our results demonstrate that across all leaves, both radius tapering and the ratio of daughter to parent branch areas for leaf veins are in strong agreement with the expectation from Murray's law. However, as veins become larger, area ratios shift systematically toward values expected under area-preserving branching. Our work supports the idea that leaf vein networks differentiate roles of leaf support and hydraulic supply between hierarchical orders.

  4. Cephalic vein: Saviour in the microsurgical reconstruction of breast and head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Shankhdhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reconstruction with microvascular free flaps is considered the reconstructive option of choice in cancer of the head and neck regions and breast. Rarely, there is paucity of vessels, especially the veins, at the recipient site. The cephalic vein with its good caliber and constant anatomy is a reliable recipient vein available in such situations. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective study from January 2010 to July 2012 and includes 26 patients in whom cephalic vein was used for free-flap reconstruction in head and neck (3 cases and breast cancers (23 cases. Results: All flaps in which cephalic vein was used survived completely. Conclusion: Cephalic vein can be considered as a reliable source of venous drainage when there is a non-availability/unusable of veins during free-flap reconstruction in the head and neck region and breast and also when additional source of venous drainage is required in these cases.

  5. Sclerotherapy and foam sclerotherapy for varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleridge Smith, P

    2009-12-01

    To review published evidence concerning treatment of varicose veins using ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS) to assess the safety and efficacy of this treatment. Medical literature databases including MedLine, Embase and DH-DATA were searched for recent literature concerning UGFS. Papers describing the early results and later outcome have been assessed and their main findings were included in this summary. Few randomized studies have been published in this field and much of the available data come from clinical series reported by individual clinicians. It is clear that foam sclerotherapy is far more effective than liquid sclerotherapy and that ultrasound imaging allows the treatment to be delivered accurately to affected veins. There is evidence that 3% polidocanol foam is no more effective than 1% polidocanol foam. The optimum ratio of gas to liquid is 4:1, although a range of ratios is reported in the published work. There is a wide variation in the volume used as well as the method by which it is injected. The use of carbon dioxide foam reduces the systemic complications, particularly visual disturbance, as compared with air foams. Very few serious adverse events have been reported in the literature despite the widespread use of this method. Rates of recanalization of saphenous trunks following UGFS are similar to those observed after endovenous laser and endovenous RF ablation of veins, as well as the residual incompetence after surgical treatment. UGFS is a safe and effective method of treating varicose veins. The relative advantages or disadvantages of this treatment in the longer term have yet to be published.

  6. Endovenous saphenous vein ablation in patients with acute isolated superficial-vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradman, Wayne S

    2015-04-01

    The possible benefits of endovenous saphenous ablation (EVSA) as initial treatment in patients presenting with isolated superficial-vein thrombosis (SVT) and saphenous vein reflux include: (1) definitive treatment of the underlying pathology and (2) elimination of the saphenous vein as a path for pulmonary emboli, which (3) may eliminate the need for anticoagulation. In a ten-year review of 115 limbs presenting with acute isolated SVT, 72 limbs (71 patients) with saphenous reflux were given a choice of two treatments following an explanation of the risks and benefits of each. Group I limbs (n = 41) were treated with office EVSA using radiofrequency or laser with or without thrombophlebectomy if performed within 45 days of diagnosis. Post-treatment anticoagulants were not given. Group II limbs (n = 31) were treated with compression hose and repeat Duplex within one week, with added anticoagulants if SVT extended into the thigh. In group I, mean interval from diagnosis to treatment was 13.7 days. One calf deep vein thrombosis was noted. In group II no complications were noted. In late follow-up of group II patients, 12/29 underwent EVSA more than 45 days after initial presentation. The safety and efficacy of EVSA and thrombophlebectomy appear indistinguishable from conservative measures and may be offered as initial treatment to patients presenting with SVT and saphenous reflux. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Commercialization of vein contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal; Vrancken, Carlos; Zhang, Yong; Zeman, Herbert D.; Weinberg, Devin

    2003-07-01

    An ongoing clinical study of an experimental infrared (IR) device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) that visualizes surface veins for medical access, indicates that a commercial device with the performance of the existing VCE would have significant clinical utility for even a very skilled phlebotomist. A proof-of-principle prototype VCE device has now been designed and constructed that captures IR images of surface veins with a commercial CCD camera, transfers the images to a PC for real-time software image processing to enhance the vein contrast, and projects the enhanced images back onto the skin with a modified commercial LCD projector. The camera and projector are mounted on precision slides allowing for precise mechanical alignment of the two optical axes and for measuring the effects of axes misalignment. Precision alignment of the captured and projected images over the entire field-of-view is accomplished electronically by software adjustments of the translation, scaling, and rotation of the enhanced images before they are projected back onto the skin. This proof-of-principle prototype will be clinically tested and the experience gained will lead to the development of a commercial device, OnTarget!, that is compact, easy to use, and will visualize accessible veins in almost all subjects needing venipuncture.

  8. Portal vein and mesenteric vein gas: CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmutz, G.; Fournier, L.; Le Pennec, V.; Provost, N.; Hue, S.; Phi, I.N.

    2001-01-01

    Portal vein and mesenteric vein gas are unusual conditions with a complex and nuclear pathogenesis. Mesenteric ischemia frequently causes such pathological conditions but a variety of other causes are known: inflammatory bowel disease, bowel distension, traumatic and iatrogenic injury, intra-abdominal sepsis, and idiopathic conditions. This pathologic entity is favored by intestinal wall alterations, bowel distension and sepsis. The prognosis is frequently fatal, especially when associated with extended bowel necrosis although in the majority of the cases, outcome is favorable without surgery. (author)

  9. Vortex veins: anatomic investigations on human eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutoglu, Tunc; Yalcin, Bulent; Kocabiyik, Necdet; Ozan, Hasan

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine number of ocular vortex veins, their scleral coordinates, and their relationship with nearby extraocular muscles. Sixty intact cadaver orbits having no history of eye or orbital disorders during life were carefully dissected under stereomicroscopic magnification to expose vortex veins and their exit sites from the eyeball. The number of vortex veins per eye varied from four to eight. Eyes having four (35%) or five (30%) vortex veins were observed most frequently. Three eyes (5%) had eight vortex veins. Although the incidence of the vortex veins was variable, there was at least one vein in each quadrant of the sclera. Knowledge of the approximate location of the vortex vein exit sites is very important for surgeons because damage to these veins during eye surgery could produce potential complications, especially choroidal detachment. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Congenital vascular malformations: the persistence of marginal and embryonal veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J; Daffinger, N

    2006-05-01

    In about 18% of cases with conginental vascular malformations we find a perspective of an atypical truncular vein, located along the outside of the leg, frequently extended from the dorsal foot up to the bottom. In presence of a normally developed system of the deep collecting veins of the lower limb and within the pelvic outflow we are talking about a persisting marginal vein (MV). Hypoplasia or even aplasia of the main deep veins in contrary defines the persisting embryonal vein (EV). Already in childhood these truncular dysplastic veins tend to develop varicose enlargement, causing severe reflux of a huge volume of blood--even more when being associated with av-fistulas (46%). In consequence a rapidly growing chronic venous insufficiency will guide to additional injuries. We have analysed 97 patients showing a persisting MV (n: 92 ) within a total of 102 legs. A persistent embryonal vein (EV) was seen 10 times within this clientel. The persisting truncular veins, associated with phlebectasias and typical clinical symptoms have been examined in a diagnostic "step-by-step" procedure, mainly phlebographically (ascending leg phlebography and varicography), including direct venous blood pressure measurements (phlebodynamometry) and--if needed--by arteriography, showing av-shunting fistulae in 46% of cases. CT and MRI were consulted for the exact therapy planing (frequently initially offered as a non-invasive, however, inadequate key of diagnostic). Actually now these techniques cannot replace pre-operatively the angiographic imaging techniques. The analysis of clinical, morphologic and functional signs, guiding to a specific therapy-relevant classification of MV's and EV's will be presented. And a specific strategy of surgical repair, interventional treatment of av-fistulas and conservative compressive follow-up treatment attempting palliative recompensation of the diseased venous outflow will be discussed also.

  11. C1-esterase inhibitor protects against early vein graft remodeling under arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijnen, Paul A J; Kupreishvili, Koba; de Vries, Margreet R; Schepers, Abbey; Stooker, Wim; Vonk, Alexander B A; Eijsman, Leon; Van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wouters, Diana; van Ham, Marieke; Quax, Paul H A; Niessen, Hans W M

    2012-01-01

    Arterial pressure induced vein graft injury can result in endothelial loss, accelerated atherosclerosis and vein graft failure. Inflammation, including complement activation, is assumed to play a pivotal role herein. Here, we analyzed the effects of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1inh) on early vein graft remodeling. Human saphenous vein graft segments (n=8) were perfused in vitro with autologous blood either supplemented or not with purified human C1inh at arterial pressure for 6h. The vein segments and perfusion blood were analyzed for cell damage and complement activation. In addition, the effect of purified C1inh on vein graft remodeling was analyzed in vivo in atherosclerotic C57Bl6/ApoE3 Leiden mice, wherein donor caval veins were interpositioned in the common carotid artery. Application of C1inh in the in vitro perfusion model resulted in significantly higher blood levels and significantly more depositions of C1inh in the vein wall. This coincided with a significant reduction in endothelial loss and deposition of C3d and C4d in the vein wall, especially in the circular layer, compared to vein segments perfused without supplemented C1inh. Administration of purified C1inh significantly inhibited vein graft intimal thickening in vivo in atherosclerotic C57Bl6/ApoE3 Leiden mice, wherein donor caval veins were interpositioned in the common carotid artery. C1inh significantly protects against early vein graft remodeling, including loss of endothelium and intimal thickening. These data suggest that it may be worth considering its use in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of postoperative main portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis with balloon angioplasty and/or stent placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangshao; Ko, Gi-Young; Sung, Kyu-Bo; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin-Hyoung

    2013-06-01

    Thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy have been used to treat postoperative main portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of balloon angioplasty and/or stent placement without thrombolysis or thrombectomy for treating such thromboses. Fourteen patients with postoperative main portal vein or superior mesenteric vein thrombosis underwent percutaneous transhepatic balloon angioplasty and/or stent placement without thrombolysis or thrombectomy. The rates of technical and clinical success, major complications, and recurrence were evaluated retrospectively. Initial technical success was achieved in 13 of the 14 patients (93%). After the procedures, these 13 patients showed brisk portal inflow, without a significant amount of residual thrombus in the stented lumen or embolism. One patient was considered to be a technical failure despite showing a brisk portal inflow because 50% stenosis and partial residual thrombus remained in the stented lumen. Initial clinical success was achieved in 13 patients. One patient with technical success died of acute respiratory distress syndrome 8 days after the procedure, whereas one patient with technical failure achieved clinical success. One patient experienced acute rethrombosis 8 days after the procedure. During the median follow-up period of 16.3 months, rethrombosis occurred in six patients (43%), including one patient with acute rethrombosis. Balloon angioplasty and/or stent placement without thrombolysis or thrombectomy may be a safe and effective treatment modality for postoperative main portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. © 2013 The Foundation Acta Radiologica.

  13. Preoperative ultrasound mapping of the saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Niels; Schroeder, T

    1997-01-01

    A prospective series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. Sixteen (17%) bypass procedures thrombosed within the first week postoperatively. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was discove...

  14. Management of superficial vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis: status and expert opinion document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, M R; Belcaro, G; Agus, G; Georgiev, M; Errichi, B M; Marinucci, R; Errichi, S; Filippini, A; Pellegrini, L; Ledda, A; Vinciguerra, G; Ricci, A; Cipollone, G; Lania, M; Gizzi, G; Ippolito, E; Bavera, P; Fano, F; Dugall, M; Adovasio, R; Gallione, L; Del Boccio, G; Cornelli, U; Steigerwalt, R; Acerbi, G; Cacchio, M; Di Renzo, A; Hosoi, M; Stuard, S; Corsi, M; Di Ciano, L; Simeone, E; Collevecchio, G; Grossi, M G; Di Giambattista, F; Carestia, F; Zukowski, A

    2007-01-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis is characterized by clotting of superficial veins (ie, following direct trauma) with minimal inflammatory components. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a minimally thrombotic process of superficial veins associated with inflammatory changes and/or infection. Treatments generally include analgesics, elastic compression, anti-inflammatory agents, exercise and ambulation, and, in some cases, local or systemic anticoagulants. It is better to avoid bed rest and reduced mobility. Topical analgesia with nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory creams applied locally to the superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis area controls symptoms. Hirudoid cream (heparinoid) shortens the duration of signs/symptoms. Locally acting anticoagulants/antithrombotics (Viatromb, Lipohep, spray Na-heparin) have positive effects on pain and on the reduction in thrombus size. Intravenous catheters should be changed every 24 to 48 hours (depending on venous flow and clinical parameters) to prevent superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis and removed in case of events. Low molecular weight heparin prophylaxis and nitroglycerin patches distal to peripheral lines may reduce the incidence of superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis in patients with vein catheters. In case of superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis, vein lines should be removed. In neoplastic diseases and hematological disorders, anticoagulants may be necessary. Exercise reduces pain and the possibility of deep vein thrombosis. Only in cases in which pain is very severe is bed rest necessary. Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis should be established in patients with reduced mobility. Antibiotics usually do not have a place in superficial vein thrombosis/superficial thrombophlebitis unless there are documented infections. Prevention of superficial vein thrombosis should be considered on the basis of patient's history and clinical evaluation.

  15. Renal arcuate veins: new microangiogrphic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.L.; Klein, S.

    1983-01-01

    Standard references state that arcuate veins at the corticomedullary junction form continuous arcades. Because some preliminary anatomic observations seemed to disagree with this traditional teaching, the arcuate veins were systematically studied in normal human kidneys. Microangiographic studies indicate that, unlike the occasional anastomoses that exist between proximal interlobar and segmental veins, arcuate venous communications in human are extremely rare. Arcuate veins, like the corresponding arteries, should be considered end vessels

  16. Endovascular Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Julian J

    2014-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Conventional treatment with anticoagulation therapy may undertreat the condition. Patients with VTE are at risk for recurrence with increasing time passage. Endovascular approaches exist for treating VTE, including deep vein thrombosis, but it is unclear which patients are appropriate candidates for endovascular versus medical approaches. Many new endovascular technologies are in development, and new oral anticoagulants are also on the market. Clinicians must be mindful of these new products and use them appropriately to better manage VTE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preoperative mapping of the saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Sillesen, H; Nielsen, Tina G

    1995-01-01

    A consecutive series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was discovered. It was significantly correlated with higher postoperative ankle-brachial pres......-brachial pressure index (ABI) and lesser early postoperative thrombosis. A significant linear regression was found between the pre and postoperative vein diameter....

  18. Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava Associated with Hemiazygos Vein Draining in It and Absence of Left Brachiocephalic Vein, in a Patient with Congenital Heart Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opincariu Diana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent left superior vena cava is an anomalous vein that derives from a malfunction of obliteration of the left common cardinal vein during intrauterine life. The diagnosis can be suggested by a dilated coronary sinus as seen in echocardiography, or other imagistic methods. Due to the lack of hemodynamic impairment, and consequently with few or no symptoms, this vascular anomaly is frequently discovered incidentally. In this brief report we present the case of a 35-year-old male known with a complex congenital cardiovascular malformation that included atrial septum defect, persistent left superior vena cava and anomalous right pulmonary vein drainage in the PLSVC, diagnosed with sinoatrial block that required pacemaker implantation. Due to the patient’s medical history, investigations to decide the best approach needed for pacemaker implantation were performed, including a thoracic CT that incidentally found additional anomalies — the hemiazygos vein draining in PLSVC and the lack of the left brachiocephalic vein.

  19. [Spontaneous dissolution of isolated superior mesenteric vein thrombosis in acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Byung Soo; John, Byung Min; Kim, Ki Bum; Lee, Je Soo; Jo, Hyun Woo; Seock, Chang Hyeon; Kim, Dong Hui; Lee, Ki Sung

    2011-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in many vascular complications in both artery and vein. Venous complication usually occurs as a form of splenic or portal vein thrombosis, and also can simultaneously occur in superior mesenteric vein as well. Rarely, isolated superior mesenteric vein thrombosis occurs as a venous complication. Although it is uncommon, mesenteric vein thrombosis is an important clinical entity because of the possibility of mesenteric ischemia and infarction of small bowel. The treatments of mesenteric venous thrombosis include anticoagulation therapy, transcatheter therapy and surgical intervention. We report a case of 45-year- old man who had acute pancreatitis with isolated superior mesenteric vein thrombosis, which was spontaneously dissolved with the resolution of underlying inflammation without anticoagulation or surgical intervention.

  20. Collateral veins in inferior caval vein occlusion demonstrated via CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, H.H.; Lund, G.

    1983-01-01

    CT-scans of 12 patients with tumour-induced occlusion of the inferior vena cava were studied with regard to collateral veins. A comparison was performed with findings at phlebography in 10 patients and at autopsy in 2. The site and appearance of the main collateral pathway are presented. A close study of vascular structures renders useful information on collateral circulation in occlusion of the inferior vena cava. (orig.)

  1. Interventional treatment of iliofemoral venous obstruction through popliteal vein puncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jianping; He Xu; Lou Wensheng; Chen Liang; Su Haobo; Chen Guoping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical value of popliteal vein puncture in the interventional treatment of iliofemoral venous obstruction. Methods: Popliteal vein puncture and synthetic interventioal therapy were performed in 58 cases, including catheter-directed thrombolysis in 42 cases, transcatheter aspiration in 25 cases, thrombectomy in 49 cases, angioplasty in 41 cases, and stenting in 35 cases, and inferior vena cava filter was inserted in 52 cases. The mean kind of interventional therapy performed in each patient was 5.2. The total efficiency was graded on a scale of 1 (excellent), 2 (good), 3 (mild), and 4 (no changes) according to the follow-up venography and physical sign. Anticoagulation therapy for 1 month and antiplatelet for 6 months were performed after dischargement and follow-up venography was performed after six months. Results: The technical successful rate of popliteal vein puncture was 96.7% (58/60). Two popliteal vein puncture failed without ultrasound or fluoroscopy guidance. The efficiency of 58 cases at discharge was as follows: 19 of grade 1, 30 of grade 2, 8 of grade 3, and 1 of grade 4, respectively. 42 cases had six months follow-up data including 18 grade 1, 20 of grade 2, 1 of grade 3, and 3 of grade 4, respectively. Conclusion: Interventional treatment of iliofemoral venous obstruction by popliteal vein puncture is safe and effective. (authors)

  2. Recurrence of superficial vein thrombosis in patients with varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karathanos, Christos; Spanos, Konstantinos; Saleptsis, Vassileios; Tsezou, Aspasia; Kyriakou, Despina; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2016-08-01

    To investigate which factors other than history of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) are associated with recurrent spontaneous SVT episodes in patients with varicose veins (VVs). Patients with a history of spontaneous SVT and VVs were followed up for a mean period of 55 months. Demographics, comorbidities, and thrombophilia screening test were analyzed. Patients were grouped according to the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology classification. A multiple logistic regression analysis with the forward likelihood ratio method was undertaken. Thirteen patients out of 97 had a recurrence SVT episode during the follow-up period. All those patients were identified to have a thrombophilia defect. Protein C and S, antithrombin, and plasminogen deficiencies were more frequently present in patients without recurrence. Gene mutations were present in 38% in the nonrecurrence group and 77% in the recurrence group. After logistic regression analysis, patients with dislipidemia and mutation in prothrombin G20210A (FII) had an increased risk for recurrence by 5.4-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively. No deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurred. Dislipidemia and gene mutations of F II are associated with SVT recurrence in patients with VVs. A selection of patients may benefit from anticoagulation in the short term and from VVs intervention in the long term. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Unusual termination of the right testicular vein | Woldeyes | Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The testicular veins are formed by the veins emerging from the testis and epididymis forming the pampiniform venous plexus. The right testicular vein drains into inferior vena cava and the left testicular vein to the left renal vein. Testicular veins display a great variability with regard to their number, course and sites of ...

  4. Interventional treatment for the occlusive hepatic veins in Budd-Chiari syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xitong; Xu Ke; Feng Bo; Su Hongying; Li Hong; Zu Maoheng; Cui Jingguo; Yang Xueliang; Zhao Jinxu; Chen Kai

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interventional methods for occlusive hepatic veins in Budd-Chiari syndrome and its mid and long-term effects. Methods: Forty-two patients (male 17 cases and female 25 cases) aged from 18 to 57 years old (mean 34.5 years) were studied. The liver functions were Child A in 23 cases, Child B in 6 cases, and Child C in 13 cases, respectively. A total of 92 hepatic veins were occluded. Among them, 29 left hepatic veins, 24 middle hepatic veins, 36 right hepatic veins, and 3 accessory hepatic veins were occluded. Thirty-four patients were accompanied with the stenotic or occlusive inferior vena cave (IVC) . The interventional methods included: (1) recanalization of occlusive hepatic veins (by transjugular, transfemoral, and percutaneous transhepatic route, or the combination of above three methods); (2) percutaneous transluminal angioplasty; (3) self-expanding stent implantation. The occlusive IVC in 32 patients also accepted PTA and/or stent implantation. Results: The successful recanalization was carried out in forty hepatic veins in 40 patients. PTA of occlusive veins was followed by stent implantation in 8 patients. The pressure of hepatic veins dropped from 34.5 cm H 2 O (25.0-48.0 cm H 2 O) to 22.0 cm H 2 O (12.0-35.0 cm H 2 O) after intervention (T=11.50, P < 0.01). The symptoms and pathological signs improved obviously in 32 cases and improved partly in 8 cases. During the follow-up period from 1 month to 54 months (mean 27.5 months), one cases died of liver function failure at one month after intervention. The re-intervention of occlusive veins in two cases were performed and the better results were acquired again. Five cases didn't accept re-intervention. Neither recurrence of symptoms nor re-occlusion of hepatic veins was found in the other 32 patients. Conclusion: (1) Multiple and synthetical interventional methods for the occlusive hepatic veins in Budd-Chiari syndrome can be utilized. (2) The intervention of hepatic vein is mini

  5. Blood sampling from adrenal gland vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yong; Ni Caifang

    2009-01-01

    Adrenal gland vein sampling is an interventional method to get the blood samples from the adrenal gland vein. The blood is obtained via a catheter which is selectively inserted in the adrenal gland vein. This technique is mainly used to be diagnostic for primary hyperaldosteronism. A full knowledge of the anatomy and variations of the adrenal gland vein, serious preoperative preparation and skilled catheterization manipulation are necessary for obtaining sufficient blood sample and for reducing the occurrence of complications. Providing the physicians with definite diagnostic evidence and being technically feasible, adrenal gland vein sampling should become one of the routine examinations for clarifying the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism. (authors)

  6. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  7. Intravascular lipoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Doyle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are benign neoplasms composed of adipocytes encased in a fibrous capsule. Intravascular lipomas are rare and almost always incidental findings. In the published literature, the majority are described within the inferior vena cava (IVC and less frequently reported in the superior vena cava, brachiocephalic vein, subclavian vein, internal jugular vein, external iliac vein and common femoral vein. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who presented with a symptomatic ureteral calculus and was found to have an intravascular lipoma of the right renal vein with extension into the IVC. To our knowledge, this is the first ever report of an intravascular lipoma in the renal vein. We discuss the imaging characteristics of intravascular lipomas and the differential diagnosis that should be considered.

  8. A Vein Map Biometric System

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Fuentes; Dulal C. Kar

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing demand world-wide, from government agencies and the private sector for cutting-edge biometric security technology that is difficult to breach but userfriendly at the same time. Some of the older tools, such as fingerprint, retina and iris scanning, and facial recognition software have all been found to have flaws and often viewed negatively because of many cultural and hygienic issues associated with them. Comparatively, mapping veins as a human barcode, a new technology, ...

  9. Vein-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, R.A.; Holland, H.D.; Petersen, U.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review is presented of published data bearing on the mineralogy, paragenesis, geochemistry, and origin of veiw-type uranium deposits. Its aim is to serve as a starting point for new research and as a basis for the development of new exploration strategies. During the formation of both vein and sandstone types of deposits uranium seems to have been dissolved by and transported in rather oxidized solutions, and deposited where these solutions encountered reducing agents such as carbon, sulfides, ferrous minerals and hydrocarbons. Granitic rocks abnormally enriched in uranium have apparently been the most common source for uranium in vein-type deposits. Oxidizing solutions have been derived either from the surface or from depth. Surface solutions saturated with atmospheric oxygen have frequently passed through red bed or clean sandstone conduits on their way to and from uranium source rocks. Deep solutions of non-surface origin have apparently become sufficiently oxidizing by passage through and equilibration with red beds. The common association of clean sandstones or red beds with uranium-rich granites in the vicinity of vein-type uranium deposits is probably not fortuitous, and areas where these rock types are found together are considered particularly favorable targets for uranium exploration

  10. Hydraulic tuning of vein cell microstructure in the evolution of angiosperm venation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feild, Taylor S; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2013-08-01

    High vein density (D(V)) evolution in angiosperms represented a key functional transition. Yet, a mechanistic account on how this hydraulic transformation evolved remains lacking. We demonstrate that a consequence of producing high D(V is that veins must become very small to fit inside the leaf, and that angiosperms are the only clade that evolved the specific type of vessel required to yield sufficiently conductive miniature leaf veins. From 111 species spanning key divergences in vascular plant evolution, we show, using analyses of vein conduit evolution in relation to vein packing, that a key xylem innovation associated with high D(V) evolution is a strong reduction in vein thickness and simplification of the perforation plates of primary xylem vessels. Simple perforation plates in the leaf xylem occurred only in derived angiosperm clades exhibiting high D(V) (> 12 mm mm(-2)). Perforation plates in the vessels of other species, including extant basal angiosperms, consisted of resistive scalariform types that were associated with thicker veins and much lower D(V). We conclude that a reduction in within-vein conduit resistance allowed vein size to decrease. We suggest that this adaptation may have been a critical evolutionary step that enabled dramatic D(V) elaboration in angiosperms. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Superficial venous thrombosis: role of inherited deficiency of natural anticoagulants in extension to deep veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milio, G; Siragusa, S; Malato, A; Grimaudo, S; Pinto, A

    2009-08-01

    Superficial venous thrombosis (SVT) has been considered for a long time a limited clinical condition of low importance, but this approach has changed in recent years, when several studies demonstrated that extension to deep veins occurs in 7.3 to 44% of patients, with high prevalence of pulmonary embolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of inherited deficiency of natural coagulation inhibitors in patients suffering from SVT in both normal and varicose veins, and to understand their role in extension to deep veins. The study included 83 patients with SVT, without clinically obvious risk factors. Ultrasound examination was performed, and deficiencies of Protein C, Protein S and Antithrombin (AT) were investigated. In the patients where SVT occurred in normal veins, coagulation inhibitor deficiencies were 6.45% in the absence of extension and 62.5% in patients with extension to deep veins. In the patients with varicose vein SVT, the presence of these factors was less evident, but their prevalence was considerably higher in those with extension to deep veins (36.3%) than in non-extension (6.06%). Present data confirm the role of inherited thrombophilic states related to inhibitor deficiency, considering them as risk factors for SVT in normal veins. Furthermore, an association has been found between their presence and the progression of SVT to deep veins.

  12. Retrospective comparison of clinical outcomes between endovenous laser and saphenous vein-sparing surgery for treatment of varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chih-Yang; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Hsieh, Yung-Kun; Huang, Jih-Hsin

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare management of varicose veins by endovenous laser ablation (EVL) and a vein-sparing procedure (CHIVA: Conservatrice et Hémodynamique de l'Insuffisance Veineuse en Ambulatoire) for management of varicose veins. Data from 82 consecutive patients with great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux and primary varicose veins presenting to the vascular clinic at the Far Eastern Memorial Hospital between June and December 2005 were reviewed. Of these, 74 who met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. CHIVA was performed by a double division of the refluxing saphenous vein (i.e., proximal and distal ligation), and EVL was performed using 10-14 W beginning approximately 4 cm below the saphenofemoral junction to the level of the knee. Phlebectomy for significant branch varicose veins on the leg was routinely performed in all patients. Outcome measures included postoperative thrombophlebitis, bruising, pain, assessment of ultrasonographic and clinical symptoms (measured by the Venous Clinical Severity Score [VCSS]) and comparison of quality of life survey scores obtained preoperatively and postoperatively (measured by the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Score [AVVQ] and RAND-36). Patients were examined one week post-procedurally and again at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Endovenous laser ablation and CHIVA were performed on 54 and 20 patients, respectively. The EVL patients had significantly higher pain scores and bruising than the CHIVA group (pEVL and CHIVA; however, patients treated by EVL had significantly more pain postoperatively than those treated by CHIVA (p=0.003). Twenty-two of 54 (40.7%) and 3 of 17 (17.6%) patients in the EVL and CHIVA groups, respectively, required sclerotherapy for residual varicosities (p=0.026). Both groups benefited significantly from surgery in disease-specific perceptions. The CHIVA patients had less pain postoperatively and a significantly higher sclerotherapy-free period compared to patients in the EVL

  13. Deep venous drainage in great cerebral vein (vein of Galen) absence and malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasjaunias, P.; Garcia-Monaco, R.; Rodesch, G.; Terbrugge, K.

    1991-01-01

    We report two types of venous patterns associated with great cerebral vein (vein of Galen) absence or unavailability. Developmental venous anomalies or vein of Galen arteriovenous malformations (VGAM) serve as an illustrative material. A diencephalic pattern that collects the thalamo-striate veins into the tentorial sinus is recognized in most VGAM. A telencephalic arrangement connecting the striate veins with the rostral afferents to the basal vein is less frequent. Both patterns reproduce embryonic stages preceeding the development of the great cerebral vein, thus confirming Raybaud's hypothesis that in VGAM the pouch is not the vein of Galen but the medial vein of the prosencephalon. The prognostic value of each pattern can then be appreciated and the therapeutic strategies rationalized; some unexplained complications of the venous approach for non-selected VGAM can thus be avoided. (orig.)

  14. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with renal vein involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Hatsuko; Miura, Katsutoshi; Baba, Megumi; Nagata, Masao; Yoshida, Masayuki; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi

    2015-02-01

    The common sites of breast cancer metastases include bones, lung, brain, and liver. Renal metastasis from the breast is rare. We report a case of breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with extension into the renal vein. A 40-year-old woman had undergone left mastectomy for breast cancer at the age of 38. A gastric tumor, which was later proved to be metastasis from breast cancer, was detected by endoscopy. Computed tomography performed for further examination of the gastric tumor revealed a large left renal tumor with extension into the left renal vein. It mimicked a primary renal tumor. Percutaneous biopsy of the renal tumor confirmed metastasis from breast cancer. Surgical intervention of the stomach and the kidney was avoided, and she was treated with systemic chemotherapy. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney may present a solitary renal mass with extension into the renal vein, which mimics a primary renal tumor.

  15. Shock veins in the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owocki, Krzysztof; Muszyński, Andrzej

    2012-08-01

    A specimen of the Sahara 02500 ordinary chondrite contains shock-produced veins consisting of recrystallised fine-grained pyroxenes that include small droplets of Ni-rich metal. Non-melted olivines and pyroxenes show planar deformations filled by shock-melted and -polluted metal and troilite. Shock-melted feldspathic glass is present close to the shock veins. Geothermometric estimations indicate that the meteorite locally experienced moderate shock metamorphism with a minimum local peak temperature above 1400°C, resulting in partial melting of Ca-poor pyroxene and full melting of feldspars, metal and sulphides. The mineral assemblage in the shock veins suggests a pressure during melt recrystallisation below 10 GPa.

  16. Superficial vein thrombosis: a current approach to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Gemma; Mahdi, Ali Jassem; Alikhan, Raza

    2015-03-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) was considered to be a benign and self-limiting condition. However, it is now appreciated that a significant proportion of those presenting with SVT will have concomitant deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, or are at significant risk of developing deep venous thromboembolism. Potential therapeutic options include topical preparations, compression therapy (stockings, bandages), medication such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or anticoagulants (therapeutic or prophylactic doses) and surgery, ligation or stripping, of superficial veins. The treatment of choice is therapeutic/intermediate dose low molecular weight heparin or prophylactic dose fondaparinux administered for 4-6 weeks. The cost-effectiveness of treatment is a concern and more targeted therapy is required. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Twist buckling of veins under torsional loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Justin R; Sanyal, Arnav; Fatemifar, Fatemeh; Mottahedi, Mohammad; Han, Hai-Chao

    2017-06-14

    Veins are often subjected to torsion and twisted veins can hinder and disrupt normal blood flow but their mechanical behavior under torsion is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the twist deformation and buckling behavior of veins under torsion. Twist buckling tests were performed on porcine internal jugular veins (IJVs) and human great saphenous veins (GSVs) at various axial stretch ratio and lumen pressure conditions to determine their critical buckling torques and critical buckling twist angles. The mechanical behavior under torsion was characterized using a two-fiber strain energy density function and the buckling behavior was then simulated using finite element analysis. Our results demonstrated that twist buckling occurred in all veins under excessive torque characterized by a sudden kink formation. The critical buckling torque increased significantly with increasing lumen pressure for both porcine IJV and human GSV. But lumen pressure and axial stretch had little effect on the critical twist angle. The human GSVs are stiffer than the porcine IJVs. Finite element simulations captured the buckling behavior for individual veins under simultaneous extension, inflation, and torsion with strong correlation between predicted critical buckling torques and experimental data (R 2 =0.96). We conclude that veins can buckle under torsion loading and the lumen pressure significantly affects the critical buckling torque. These results improve our understanding of vein twist behavior and help identify key factors associated in the formation of twisted veins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for varicose vein surgery in venous leg ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A H; Bashar, Khalid; Aherne, Thomas; Babiker, Thamir; Naughton, Peter; Moneley, Daragh; Walsh, Stewart R; Leahy, Austin L

    2016-08-01

    Venous leg ulcers affect 1-3% of adults with a significant economic impact, utilizing 1% of annual healthcare budgets in some western European countries. To determine the effects of intervention for incompetent superficial veins on ulcer healing and recurrence in patients with active or healed venous ulcers. In October 2014, we searched Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, the Cochrane library and Web of Science without date or language restriction for relevant randomized or observational studies. Bibliographies of included studies were also searched for additional studies. Observational studies or randomized controlled trials comparing intervention for varicose veins with compression therapy alone for venous leg ulcers were eligible. In addition, studies compared open to endovenous therapy for varicose veins in patients with leg ulcers and those compared treating saphenous and perforating veins to treating saphenous veins only were also included. Studies had to report at least one ulcer-related outcome (healing rate, recurrence or time to healing). Details of potentially eligible studies were extracted and summarized using a data extraction table. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two review authors, and any disagreements resolved by consensus or by arbitration of a third author. Intervention for superficial venous reflux improved ulcer healing (risk ratio = 1.11 [1.00, 1.22], 95% CI, p = 0.04) and reduced recurrence (risk ratio = 0.48 [0.32, 0.67], 95% CI, p venous leg ulcer is at beast weak. A well-structured RCT is required to investigate the role of endovenous ablation of incompetent superficial veins in improving venous leg ulcer outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for the treatment of portal vein thrombus:its current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xingshun; Han Guohong; Fan Daiming

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of portal vein thrombosis in the general population is about 1.1%, while it is about 10%-25% in the cirrhotic patients. The severe clinical complication in patients with acute portal vein thrombosis is ischemic intestinal infarction when the thrombus extends to the mesenteric venous arch. The complications include bleeding due to gastroesophageal varices, ascites and deterioration of live function in the patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis. The recently-published Practice Guidelines indicate that the treatment of portal vein thrombosis includes anticoagulation,thrombolysis, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and surgical thrombectomy. TIPS has some advantages in treating portal vein thrombus. It can directly and effectively re-canalize the occluded portal vein. Moreover, it can accelerate portal flow and prevent recurrent thrombosis after the shunt is well-established. The disadvantages of TIPS include technical difficulties and potential complications. However, percutaneous transhepatic, transsplenic and transmesenteric approaches well facilitate the TIPS procedure. Additionally, preoperative evaluation of portal vein anatomy can provide a safe and effective choice in treating patients with portal cavernoua caver who are going to receive TIPS. Nevertheless, in the absence of relevant prospective studies, the application of TIPS for the management of portal vein thrombosis is still limited. (authors)

  20. Portal vein embolization before liver resection: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lienden, K. P.; van den Esschert, J. W.; de Graaf, W.; Bipat, S.; Lameris, J. S.; van Gulik, T. M.; van Delden, O. M.

    2013-01-01

    This is a review of literature on the indications, technique, and outcome of portal vein embolization (PVE). A systematic literature search on outcome of PVE from 1990 to 2011 was performed in Medline, Cochrane, and Embase databases. Forty-four articles were selected, including 1,791 patients with a

  1. Evaluation of apoptosis in varicose vein disease complicated by superficial vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filis, Konstantinos; Kavantzas, Nikolaos; Dalainas, Ilias; Galyfos, George; Karanikola, Evridiki; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Tsioufis, Constantinos; Sigala, Fragiska

    2014-07-01

    The factors contributing to superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) in patients with varicose vein disease are unclear. Differences in vein wall apoptotic activity could be associated with the pathogenesis of SVT. The aim of the study is to address the role of the programmed cell death in the vein wall by comparing varicose veins with history of SVT to uncomplicated varicose veins. Vein segments from the proximal part of the great saphenous vein (GSV), the distal part of the vein and from a varicose tributary, from 16 patients with varicose vein disease and one episode of SVT, were evaluated for the immunohistochemical expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax, p53, Caspase 3, BCL-6, BCL-xs), anti-apoptotic (BCL-xl and BCL-2) and proliferation (Ki-67) markers. The results of this study were compared to the results from the evaluation of 19 patients suffering from uncomplicated varicose vein disease and 10 healthy GSVs as controls. Overall, there was increased apoptosis in the distal part of GSV compared to the proximal part documented by increased expression of Bax (p veins and patients with a history of SVT showed significant differences among the three different anatomic locations. In the proximal GSV, only BCL-xs was higher in patients with SVT (p = 0.029). In the tributaries, Bax, BCL-xl and Ki-67 were higher in patients with SVT (p thrombosis group compared to uncomplicated veins (p vein wall in SVT shows increased pro-apoptotic activity compared to uncomplicated disease and normal veins. Whether increased vein wall cell apoptosis is a causative factor for SVT in varicose veins disease or a repairing mechanism of the thrombosis itself needs further research.

  2. Compression syndrome of the left renal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justich, E.

    1982-04-01

    Severe compression of the left renal vein produces a pressure gradient between it and the inferior vena cava and results in changes in haemodynamics. The cause of the narrowing is usually the aorta, less commonly the superior mesenteric artery. Compression of the left renal vein may be responsible for a number of abnormalities such as primary varicoceles, primary varices of the ovarian, renal, pelvic and ureteric veins on the left, the more frequent occurrence of unilateral renal vein thrombosis on the left and the development of renovascular hypertension. One hundred and twenty-three selective phlebograms of the left renal vein and CT examinations of this structure in a further 87 patients acting as a control group were carried out. The significance of compression of the left renal vein as an aetiological factor in the development of the above mentioned abnormalities is discussed.

  3. Gold Veins near Great Falls, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John Calvin; Reed, John C.

    1969-01-01

    Small deposits of native gold are present along an anastomosing system of quartz veins and shear zones just east of Great Falls, Montgomery County, Md. The deposits were discovered in 1861 and were worked sporadically until 1951, yielding more than 5,000 ounces of gold. The vein system and the principal veins within it strike a few degrees west of north, at an appreciable angle to foliation and fold axial planes in enclosing rocks of the Wissahickon Formation of late Precambrian (?) age. The veins cut granitic rocks of Devonian or pre-Devonian age and may be as young as Triassic. Further development of the deposits is unlikely under present economic conditions because of their generally low gold content and because much of the vein system lies on park property, but study of the Great Falls vein system may be useful in the search for similar deposits elsewhere in the Appalachian Piedmont.

  4. Interventional treatment for Buddi-Chiari syndrome with occlusive hepatic veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhengran; Shan Hong; Zhu Kangshun; Jiang Zaibo; Shen Xinying; Kang Zhuang; Guan Shouhai; Huang Mingsheng; Zhou Yubin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the interventional methods for Buddi-Chiari syndrome with occlusive hepatic veins and evaluate its therapeutic effects. Methods: Thirty-six patients were included in this study (male 19 cases and female 17 cases). The liver functions were divided into Child A in 9 cases, Child B in 21 cases, and Child C in 6 cases. The interventional methods included recanalization of occlusive hepatic veins (by transjugular, transfemoral, and percutaneous transhepatic routes) and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Results: Successful recanalization of occlusive hepatic veins were carried out in 24 cases. The pressure of hepatic veins decreased from (37.4±5.2) cm H 2 O to (21.4 ±4.6) cmH 2 O after recanalization of occlusive hepatic veins (T=12.34, P 2 O to (20.4±4.12) cmH 2 O after the creation of shunt. Conclusions: There are various interventional methods for treating Buddi-Chiari syndrome with occlusive hepatic veins. Correct selection of interventional methods can significantly decrease the pressures of hepatic vein and portal vein ; and meliorate or eliminate the symptoms and signs

  5. Congenital Agenesis of the Portal Vein: Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta R, Andres F; Vargas B, Maria C; Gomez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Portal vein agenesis is an uncommon anomaly in which the venous drainage from the intestine and spleen bypasses the liver and drains into the systemic veins through shunts. We report a case of a newborn with a prenatal diagnosis of congenital absence of the portal vein, as well as a medical literature review about the main radiological features of this condition and the different associated venous shunts.

  6. A complicated case of deep vein thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cerutti, Elena; Colagrande, Paola; Provera, Edoardo; Giusti, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) associated to portal vein thrombosis (PVT), complicated by hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). The pathogenesis of DVT is multifactorial; among risk factors we can list: transitory situations (surgical interventions, infectious diseases with fever, traumas), acquired conditions (neoplasms, antiphospholipid syndrome) or genetically determined situations (thrombophilia). PVT of the sovrahepatic vein...

  7. Interposition vein cuff in infrainguinal prosthetic bypasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, V; Biancari, F; Catania, A; Di Matteo, F M; Sorrenti, S; Spyrou, M; Dibra, A; Foti, N; Ortensi, A

    1999-01-01

    The Authors describe the interposition vein cuff technique as an adjuvant method to infrainguinal prosthetic bypass grafts. The haemodynamic, mechanical and humoral factors thought to be involved in the beneficial effects of the vein cuff are herein discussed. The results of the main series suggest the use of this method particularly in patients without any available autologous vein conduit requiring a below-knee popliteal or crural reconstruction.

  8. Rational classification of portal vein thrombosis and its clinical significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqin Ma

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is commonly classified into acute (symptom duration <60 days and absence of portal carvernoma and portal hypertension and chronic types. However, the rationality of this classification has received little attention. In this study, 60 patients (40 men and 20 women with PVT were examined using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT. The percentage of vein occlusion, including portal vein (PV and superior mesenteric vein (SMV, was measured on CT image. Of 60 patients, 17 (28.3% met the criterion of acute PVT. Symptoms occurred more frequently in patients with superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT compared to those without SMVT (p<0.001. However, there was no significant difference in PV occlusion between patients with and without symptoms. The frequency of cavernous transformation was significantly higher in patients with complete PVT than those with partial PVT (p<0.001. Complications of portal hypertension were significantly associated with cirrhosis (p<0.001 rather than with the severity of PVT and presence of cavernoma. These results suggest that the severity of PVT is only associated with the formation of portal cavernoma but unrelated to the onset of symptoms and the development of portal hypertension. We classified PVT into complete and partial types, and each was subclassified into with and without portal cavernoma. In conclusion, neither symptom duration nor cavernous transformation can clearly distinguish between acute and chronic PVT. The new classification system can determine the pathological alterations of PVT, patency of portal vein and outcome of treatment in a longitudinal study.

  9. Risk factors for upper limb deep vein thrombosis associated with the use of central vein catheter in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verso, Melina; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Ageno, Walter; Bazzan, Mario; Lazzaro, Antonio; Paoletti, Francesco; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Mosca, Stefano; Bertoglio, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of upper limb is a common complication of CVC in patients with cancer. In these patients the risk factors for CVC-related thrombosis are not completely defined. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for CVC-related thrombosis in patients included in a

  10. Computed tomographic evaluation of the renal vein and inferior vena cava in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Fujio; Nakada, Gyojiro; Onishi, Tetsuo; Higashi, Yoichiro; Machida, Toyohei

    1980-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma not rarely invades the renal vein and inferior vena cava with formation of tumor thrombus. On the other hand, congenital anomalies of these venous channels are occasionally encountered. At the time of surgery of renal cell carcinoma, therefore, preoperative evaluation of the renal vein and inferior vena cava is desirable. In 22 cases of renal cell carcinoma treated at the Jikei University Hospital during 16 months period from Jan. 1979 to apr. 1980, the ranal vein and inferior vena cava were examined by computed tomography (CT). Intravenous tumor thrombus was diagnosed in 4, double inferior vena cava in one and retroaortic left renal vein in one. All these CT diagnosis were confirmed to be correct by surgery. Three of tumor thrombus cases showed involvement of inferior vena cava. CT findings included dilated vein in 4 and filling defect after contrast enhancement in 2. In double inferior vena cava, CT at the level of the upper pole of kidney showed the left inferior vena cava traversing in front of the aorta and conjoining the left inferior vena cava, CT at the level of renal vein the left renal vein draining into the left inferior vena cava and CT at the lower level two round inferior vena cava with the aorta between them. It was a diagnostically useful finding that the left inferior vena cava was markedly stained in CT after contrast enhancement jestas the aorta and the right inferior vena cava. In retroaortic left renal vein, CT showed the left renal vein running behind the aorta and draining into the inferior vena cava. Preoperative information on congenital anomalies of the renal vein and inferior vena cava or tumor thrombus and its extension are very important particularly for radical surgery to be conducted safely without postoperative complications. Computed tomography is quite useful in evaluation of morbid state of the renal vein and inferior vena cava. (author)

  11. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) - Blood Clot Forming in a Vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (DVT/PE) are often underdiagnosed and serious, but preventable medical conditions. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a medical condition that occurs when ...

  12. Cephalic Vein Transposition versus Vein Grafts for Venous Outflow in Free-flap Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward I. Chang, MD

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: The CVT is a reliable alternate venous outflow that can be used as a primary recipient vein or as a salvage option following venous thrombosis. Surgeons should consider a CVT when primary recipient veins are compromised or unavailable.

  13. Progression of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency in the general population in the Edinburgh Vein Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda J; Robertson, Lindsay A; Boghossian, Sheila M; Allan, Paul L; Ruckley, C Vaughan; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Evans, Christine J

    2015-01-01

    The natural history in the general population of chronic venous disease in the legs is not well understood. This has limited our ability to predict which patients will deteriorate and to assign clinical priorities. The aims of this study were to describe the progression of trunk varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in the general population, to identify important lifestyle and clinical prognostic factors, and to determine the relationship between venous reflux and progression. The Edinburgh Vein Study is a population-based cohort study in which randomly selected adults aged 18 to 64 years had an examination at baseline. This included a questionnaire on lifestyle and clinical factors, standardized assessment and classification of venous disease in the legs, and duplex scan to detect venous reflux in eight segments of each leg. A follow-up examination 13 years later included a reclassification of venous disease to ascertain progression in the development or increase in severity of varicose veins and CVI. Among 1566 adults seen at baseline, 880 had a follow-up examination, of whom 334 had trunk varicose veins or CVI at baseline and composed the study sample. The mean (standard deviation) duration of follow-up was 13.4 (0.4) years. Progression was found in 193 (57.8%), equivalent to 4.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-4.9) annually. In 270 subjects with only varicose veins at baseline, 86 (31.9%) developed CVI, with the rate increasing consistently with age (P = .04). Almost all subjects (98%) with both varicose veins and CVI at baseline deteriorated. Progression of chronic venous disease did not differ by gender or leg, but a family history of varicose veins and history of deep venous thrombosis increased risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.85 [95% CI, 1.14-1.30] and 4.10 [95% CI, 1.07-15.71], respectively). Overweight was associated with increased risk of CVI in those with varicose veins (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.10-3.12). Reflux in the superficial system

  14. Algorithming the Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Martina; Uprichard, Emma

    2014-01-01

    changes: it’s not the ocean, it’s the internet we’re talking about, and it’s not a TV show producer, but algorithms that constitute a sort of invisible wall. Building on this assumption, most research is trying to ‘tame the algorithmic tiger’. While this is a valuable and often inspiring approach, we...

  15. Right portal vein embolization by laparoscopic catheterization of the inferior mesenteric vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Martins Cury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Right portal vein embolization is often performed to prevent liver insufficiency after major hepatic resection. The procedure usually involves direct puncture of the portal vein, which requires hepatic hilum manipulation, and may be associated with liver injury, pneumothorax, and hemoperitoneum. This report describes a technique of laparoscopic insertion of a sheath into the inferior mesenteric vein followed by right portal vein embolization.

  16. Clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis and varicose veins at legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerkic, Zoran; Karic, Alen; Karic, Amela

    2009-01-01

    Although superficial thrombophlebitis is a common disorder until recently it was considered as benign disorder. Also it is associated with varicose vein at legs and it was treated effectively with conservative methods, walking and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Aims of our investigation were: determine frequency of clinically silent deep vein thrombosis at legs in patient with and without superficial thrombophlebitis, determine correlation between superficial thrombophlebitis and deep vein thrombosis regardless of localization of superficial thrombophlebitis in superficial veins of legs and determine adequacy and safety vein phlebography in early diagnosis clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis. Using flebography in prospective study was evaluated incidence of clinically silent deep vein thrombosis in 92 patients with varicose veins at legs. By phlebograpy in patients with varicose veins at legs and superficial thrombophlebitis at legs and without clinical signs of DVT at legs of the 49 patients we detected DVT in 12 patients (24, 48%), in three male and nine female. We detected localization of DVT in ilijacofemoral junction in 4,08% patients, although localization of DVT in femoropopliteal region was observed in 6, 12% patients and localization in crural region was in 14.28% patients. Localization of DVT at legs was detected in iliac vein in 16.66% patients, in femoral vein in 25% patients, popliteal vein 8.33% patients, anterior tibial vein 16.66%, posterior tibial vein in 25% and crural veins 8.33% patients. Also we deduced significant difference between two group of patients (chi2 = 10, 76). Such result proves thesis that in most patients with superficial thrombophlebitis and varicose veins is possibility of developing of DVT.

  17. Analysis of the hand vein pattern for people recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Cristóbal, G.; Marcos, J. Victor; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Hurtado Pérez, R.

    2015-09-01

    The shape of the hand vascular pattern contains useful and unique features that can be used for identifying and authenticating people, with applications in access control, medicine and financial services. In this work, an optical system for the image acquisition of the hand vascular pattern is implemented. It consists of a CCD camera with sensitivity in the IR and a light source with emission in the 880 nm. The IR radiation interacts with the desoxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin and water present in the blood of the veins, making possible to see the vein pattern underneath skin. The segmentation of the Region Of Interest (ROI) is achieved using geometrical moments locating the centroid of an image. For enhancement of the vein pattern we use the technique of Histogram Equalization and Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE). In order to remove unnecessary information such as body hair and skinfolds, a low pass filter is implemented. A method based on geometric moments is used to obtain the invariant descriptors of the input images. The classification task is achieved using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and K-Nearest Neighbors (K-nn) algorithms. Experimental results using our database show a percentage of correct classification, higher of 86.36% with ANN for 912 images of 38 people with 12 versions each one.

  18. Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.

  19. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B

    1985-01-01

    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  20. Superficial vein thrombosis and deep vein thrombosis – a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Krasiński

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although superficial vein thrombosis is commonly considered a rather minor condition, a number of studies indicate that its consequences can be much more severe. Since the introduction of Doppler ultrasonography to common diagnosis of venous diseases, the approach to threats associated with superficial vein thrombosis has changed, mainly in the context of venous thromboembolism. Superficial thrombosis in varicose veins must be differentiated from that occurring in patients without varicosities. In the former case, superficial vein thrombosis is usually caused by haemodynamic disorders (slower flow, while in the latter, it is caused by thrombophilia or inflammation, but it can also be a prodromal sign of cancer. Ultrasonography enables one to distinguish deep vein thrombosis caused by superficial vein thrombosis progression (by extension through perforator veins or the great/small saphenous vein ostium into the deep venous system from deep vein thrombosis occurring at a certain distance from the site of superficial vein thrombosis. The authors emphasise that due to the possibility of concomitant deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, our attitude to the diagnostic process, potential complications and treatment of superficial vein thrombosis should be changed.

  1. Clinical Management of Acute Portal/Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sven A.; Loss, Martin; Wohlgemuth, Walter A.; Schlitt, Hans J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute thrombosis of the portal vein (PV) and/or the mesenteric vein (MV) is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease. A multitude of risk factors for acute portal vein thrombosis (PVT)/mesenteric vein thrombosis (MVT) have been identified, including liver cirrhosis, malignancy, coagulation disorders, intra-abdominal infection/inflammation, and postoperative condition. Methods This article analyses the treatment options for acute PVT/MVT. Results Initially, the clinical management should identify patients with an intra-abdominal focus requiring immediate surgical intervention (e.g. bowel ischaemia). Subsequently, emphasis is placed on the recanalization of the PV/MV or at least the prevention of thrombus extension to avoid long-term complications of portal hypertension. Several therapeutic options are currently available, including anticoagulation therapy, local/systemic thrombolysis, interventional or surgical thrombectomy, and a combination of these procedures. Due to the lack of prospective randomized studies, a comparison between these therapeutic approaches regarding the efficacy of PV/MV recanalization is difficult, if not impossible. Conclusion In patients with acute PVT/MVT, an individualized treatment based on the clinical presentation, the underlying disease, the extent of the thrombosis, and the patients' comorbidities is mandatory. Therefore, these patients should be considered for an interdisciplinary therapy in specialized centres with the option to utilise all therapeutic approaches currently available. PMID:26285602

  2. A new technique for complete portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis in a liver transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sanghyun; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Shin, Milljae; Kim, Tae-Seok; Lee, Sanghoon; Moon, Hyung Hwan; Park, Jae Berm; Kim, Sung Joo; Joh, Jae-Won; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2014-02-01

    We describe a deceased-donor liver transplant recipient with grade 3 complete portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thromboses, which was successfully managed with an extensive thrombectomy through the venotomy site of superior mesenteric vein. In this case report, we suggest our method as an option for grade 3 portal vein thromboses, and discuss other options available for recipients with portal vein thromboses.

  3. Infrared Cephalic-Vein to Assist Blood Extraction Tasks: Automatic Projection and Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagüela, S.; Gesto, M.; Riveiro, B.; González-Aguilera, D.

    2017-05-01

    Thermal infrared band is not commonly used in photogrammetric and computer vision algorithms, mainly due to the low spatial resolution of this type of imagery. However, this band captures sub-superficial information, increasing the capabilities of visible bands regarding applications. This fact is especially important in biomedicine and biometrics, allowing the geometric characterization of interior organs and pathologies with photogrammetric principles, as well as the automatic identification and labelling using computer vision algorithms. This paper presents advances of close-range photogrammetry and computer vision applied to thermal infrared imagery, with the final application of Augmented Reality in order to widen its application in the biomedical field. In this case, the thermal infrared image of the arm is acquired and simultaneously projected on the arm, together with the identification label of the cephalic-vein. This way, blood analysts are assisted in finding the vein for blood extraction, especially in those cases where the identification by the human eye is a complex task. Vein recognition is performed based on the Gaussian temperature distribution in the area of the vein, while the calibration between projector and thermographic camera is developed through feature extraction and pattern recognition. The method is validated through its application to a set of volunteers, with different ages and genres, in such way that different conditions of body temperature and vein depth are covered for the applicability and reproducibility of the method.

  4. Interventional treatment of iliac vein compression syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoqiang; Zhou Weiming; Nie Zhonglin; Yu Chaowen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of interventional treatment of iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS). Methods: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed in 40 cases. Thirty-three cases underwent endovascular stent implantation and 27 cases underwent second-stage left saphenous vein ligation and stripping and the valves of left femoral veins narrowing. Thirty-one cases were followed-up postoperatively and the duration was 6-66 months (mean 28 months). Results: The dilation of iliac veins was successful in 36 cases and there were god efficacy in all patients when they discharged from hospital. Followed-up during post-operation, all the limbs ulcers were cured and varicose veins disappeared. The skin pigmentation disappeared in 17 of 19 cases and markedly relieved in 2 cases. Left lower limb swelling disappeared in 15 of 17 cases and relieved in 2 cases. Conclusion: There is good efficacy in the interventional treatment of left iliac vein lesions, but second-stage procedures should be performed in secondary lesions of saphenous veins and valves of femoral veins

  5. 'Closed' in Situ Vein Infrainguinal Bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. van Dijk (Lukas)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe autologous greater saphenous vein is considered to be the best bypass material for below knee femoropopliteal and femorocnual arterial reconstructions . . The history of the greater saphenous vein arterial bypass in humans started in 1949, with its first introduction by Kunlin. Upto

  6. Geology and geochemistry of giant quartz veins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They show imprints of strong brittle to ductile–brittle deformation, and in places are associated with base metal and gold incidences, and pyrophyllite-diaspore mineralization. The geochemistry of giant quartz veins were studied. Apart from presenting new data on the geology and geochemistry of these veins, an attempt has ...

  7. Preoperative mapping of the saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Sillesen, H; Nielsen, Tina G

    1996-01-01

    A series of 124 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. 33 (27%) bypass procedures thrombosed within the first year. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was discovered: 5.0-6.5 mm at mid-thigh lev...

  8. Preoperative mapping of the saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Sillesen, H; Nielsen, Tina G

    1995-01-01

    A consecutive series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was discovered. It was significantly correlated with higher postoperative ankle-brachial pres...

  9. Assessment and management of patients with varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Louise

    Varicose veins are enlarged superficial veins found in the legs. This article explores the anatomy and physiology of the venous system to assist nurses to assess, manage and treat patients with varicose veins.

  10. The veining phenomenon in unalloyed plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the veining phenomenon in unalloyed plutonium. The surface markings, or veins, which are sometimes seen on α-phase plutonium samples, arise as a result of the β→α transformation. As far as is known, this veining is unrivalled in its scale and form as compared with the solid state surface transformation effects shown by any other metal. The phenomenon has been explained by the application of the Le Chatelier principle to the phase change. In this instance, the large (10%) volume contraction associated with the β→α reaction and the anisotropy of the nonoclinic α-phase structure, account for the fact that the veins are so prominent in plutonium. On the basis of the proposed model, the veins can only form at temperatures where the transformation mechanism is non-martensitic. (Auth.)

  11. Ultrasound assessment of great saphenous vein insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander RK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rajiv K Chander,1 Thomas S Monahan1,2 1Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Duplex ultrasonography is the ideal modality to assess great saphenous vein insufficiency. Duplex ultrasonography incorporates both gray scale images to delineate anatomy and color-Doppler imaging that visualizes the flow of blood in a structure. Assessment of great saphenous vein requires definition of the anatomy, augmentation of flow, evaluation for both superficial and deep vein thrombosis, and determining the presence of reflux. Currently, evolution in the treatment of reflux also relies on ultrasound for the treatment of the disease. Understanding the utilization of the ultrasound for the diagnosis and treatment of greater saphenous vein reflux is important for practitioners treating reflux disease. Keywords: duplex ultrasonography, small saphenous vein 

  12. Cavernous transformation of the portal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehotska, V.; Dostalova, K.; Durkovsky, A.; Samal, V.

    1995-01-01

    In this contribution, the authors give an account of a rare case of a cavernous transformation of the portal vein that may have originated secondarily in a proliferative hematogenous disease with a polyglobulia and thrombosis in the periferal blood count as well as development of portal hypertension of a prehepatal type. The state of hyper-coagulation in a myeloproliferative disease may have lead to a chronic thrombosis of the portal vein with a subsequent malformation of the portal vein in terms of a cavernous transformation of the portal vein. The case is an interesting one because of the discrepancy between the gravity of the thrombotic complication and slightness of the symptoms in the clinical picture. The authors point out the importance of ultrasonography and computed tomography examination following the intravenous application of a water solution of a contrast medium in a morphologic diagnosing of a rare complication of a chronic thrombotic clot of the portal vein - the cavernous transformation. (authors)

  13. Retinal vein occlusion: current treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Rosangela; Torres Gimeno, Ana; Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a pathology noted for more than 150 years. Although a lot has been written on the matter, it is still a frequent condition with multifactorial etiopathogenesis with many unclear aspects. The RVO pathogenesis has varied systemic and local implications that make it difficult to elaborate treatment guidelines. The management of the patient with RVO is very complex and a multidisciplinary approach is required in order to identify and correct the associated risk factors. Laser therapy remains the gold standard in RVO, but only modest functional improvement has been shown in branch retinal occlusion forms. Multicenter studies of intravitreal drugs present them as an option to combine with laser. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, corticosteroids and sustained-release implants are the future weapons to stop disease progression and get a better visual outcome. Consequently, it is useful to clarify some aspects of the pathology that allow a better patient management. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Conservative Management of Azygous Vein Rupture in Blunt Thoracic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cian McDermott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of successful conservative management of acute traumatic rupture of the azygous vein. A 48-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle collision. Primary survey revealed acute right intrathoracic haemorrhage. He remained haemodynamically stable with rapid infusion of warmed crystalloid solution and blood. Computed tomographic imaging showed a contained haematoma of the azygous vein. The patient was managed conservatively in the intensive care. Azygous vein laceration resulting from blunt thoracic trauma is a rare condition that carries a universally poor prognosis unless the appropriate treatment is instituted. Clinical features include acute hypovolaemic shock, widened mediastinum on chest radiograph, and a right-sided haemothorax. Haemodynamic collapse necessitates immediate resuscitative thoracotomy. Interest in this injury stems from the severity of the clinical condition, difficulty in diagnosis, the onset of a rapidly deteriorating clinical course all of which can be promptly reversed by timely and appropriate treatment. Although it is a rare cause of intramediastinal haemorrhage, it is proposed that a ruptured azygous vein should be considered in every trauma case causing a right-sided haemothorax or widened mediastinum. All cases described in the literature to date involved operative management. We present a case of successful conservative management of this condition.

  15. In-vivo imaging of the sentinel vein using the near-infrared vascular imaging system in hallux valgus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Ikuta, Yasunari; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Sawa, Mikiya; Tsuyuguchi, Yusuke; Adachi, Nobuo

    2017-11-01

    A high incidence of dorsomedial cutaneous nerve (DMCN) damage in hallux valgus surgery has been reported. Identification of the vein around 1st metatarsal head is reported to be helpful to reduce the DMCN damage during surgery. The near-infrared (NIR) vascular imaging system, the VeinViewer ® Flex, projects the vein onto the skin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of the vein course between normal and hallux valgus foot using the VeinViewer ® Flex, and to validate that the DMCN was accompanied with its vein. Twenty-seven feet with the hallux valgus and 27 feet in healthy subjects were included. The vein was projected onto the skin at the metatarsal head by the VeinViewer ® Flex. The distance between the vein and the mid-line of the metatarsal head was measured. The correlation of the distance and hallux valgus angle or 1-2 intermetatarsal angle (IMA) was analyzed. The vein depicted by the VeinViewer ® Flex and operative findings was compared in 4 patients during surgery. The vein in the hallux valgus patients shifted toward the dorsolateral side on the metatarsal bone head compared to that in healthy subjects. The distance from the midline of the 1st metatarsal bone to the vein in the hallux valgus (12.1 mm) was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (2.7 mm) (p hallux valgus patients shifted toward the dorsolateral on the metatarsal bone and it could be a landmark to identify DMCN. The NIR vascular imaging system would be useful to reduce the risk of nerve damage in great toe surgery. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  17. Transjugular Endovascular Recanalization of Splenic Vein in Patients with Regional Portal Hypertension Complicated by Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xuefeng; Nie, Ling; Wang, Zhu; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Tang, Chengwei; Li, Xiao, E-mail: simonlixiao@126.com [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Gastroenterology (China)

    2013-05-02

    PurposeRegional portal hypertension (RPH) is an uncommon clinical syndrome resulting from splenic vein stenosis/occlusion, which may cause gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from the esophagogastric varices. The present study evaluated the safety and efficacy of transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein in patients with GI bleeding secondary to RPH.MethodsFrom December 2008 to May 2011, 11 patients who were diagnosed with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and had undergone transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein were reviewed retrospectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed splenic vein stenosis in six cases and splenic vein occlusion in five. Etiology of RPH was chronic pancreatitis (n = 7), acute pancreatitis with pancreatic pseudocyst (n = 2), pancreatic injury (n = 1), and isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (n = 1).ResultsTechnical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients via the transjugular approach, including six patients with splenic vein stenosis and two patients with splenic vein occlusion. Two patients underwent splenic vein venoplasty only, whereas four patients underwent bare stents deployment and two covered stents. Splenic vein pressure gradient (SPG) was reduced from 21.5 ± 7.3 to 2.9 ± 1.4 mmHg after the procedure (P < 0.01). For the remaining three patients who had technical failures, splenic artery embolization and subsequent splenectomy was performed. During a median follow-up time of 17.5 (range, 3–34) months, no recurrence of GI bleeding was observed.ConclusionsTransjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein is a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and is not associated with an increased risk of procedure-related complications.

  18. Short-term results of isolated phlebectomy with preservation of incompetent great saphenous vein (ASVAL procedure) in primary varicose veins disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, Igor A; Seliverstov, Evgeny I; Zakharova, Elena A; Kirienko, Alexander I

    2017-10-01

    Objective To establish an effect of isolated phlebectomy in patients with incompetent great saphenous vein (Ambulatory Selective Varices Ablation under Local anesthesia (ASVAL) procedure) on the reflux and diameter of the trunk and to assess recurrence rate of varicose veins at one year. Material and methods We conducted a prospective study on patients with primary varicose veins and with C2 or C2,3 or C2,3,4 or C2,4 classes of chronic venous disease and great saphenous vein incompetence. The study included 67 patients (51 women and 16 men; 75 limbs in total). Age varied from 17 to 71 years; mean age was 46.8 years (SD 13.9). We recorded the presence or absence of reflux in the great saphenous vein with duplex ultrasound before and after surgery. The recurrence of varicose veins was evaluated at 12 months. All the patients underwent isolated phlebectomy with preservation of incompetent great saphenous vein (ASVAL procedure) under local anesthesia. Results At one year after removing of tributaries of the incompetent trunk, 66% of them were competent. Reflux persisted in 17% of great saphenous veins with reflux above mid-thigh and in 61% of trunks with reflux extended below the mid-thigh (p = 0.0004). The diameter of all the veins decreased significantly no matter reflux disappeared or not. Varicose veins reoccurred in 13.5% cases. In 6.5% of limbs with a reflux above the mid-thigh, the recurrence was registered at one year, while in the limbs with the reflux below the mid-thigh at a baseline, the recurrence rate was 25% (p = 0.036). Conclusion Isolated phlebectomy with a preservation of incompetent great saphenous vein leads to disappearance of reflux in a majority of cases and to significant decrease of vein diameter in all the cases. ASVAL procedure could be considered as a less aggressive and less expensive approach in selected cases. Clear indications for isolated phlebectomy need to be established.

  19. Arteries and Veins of the Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delion, Matthieu; Dinomais, Mickael; Mercier, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Surgery of the posterior fossa represents a technical challenge because of the proximity of the vessels of the cerebellum. If the arterial vascularization of the cerebellum is well known, the main arterial variations and the whole venous vascularization are probably under recognized. We describe the vascular organization and the main variations through photographs of colored latex perfused brains, obtained with a surgical microscope. The arterial vascularization of the cerebellum is based on three arteries which all originate from the vertebrobasilar system: the superior cerebellar artery (SCA), the anterior and inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), and the posterior and inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). The main arterial variations involve essentially the origin of these vessels. Concerning the SCA, its origin depends on the embryology. The AICA can arise from a common trunk AICA-PICA. It can be sometimes doubled and rarely absent. The PICA also can arise from a common trunk AICA-PICA and sometimes from the extradural segment of the vertebral artery. Concerning the venous organization, we distinguish the superficial and deep veins. The superficial veins drain the cerebellar cortex and transit on the surface of the cerebellum. The deep veins refer to the veins transiting in the fissures between the cerebellum and the brainstem. All these veins terminate as bridging veins that we can divide in three groups: a superior group emptying into the great vein, a posterior group emptying into the transtentorial sinus, and a lateral group ending into the superior petrosal sinus. The surgical implications are discussed.

  20. Portal vein gas in emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Hind

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Portal vein gas is an ominous radiological sign, which indicates a serious gastrointestinal problem in the majority of patients. Many causes have been identified and the most important was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular accident. The presentation of patients is varied and the diagnosis of the underlying problem depends mainly on the radiological findings and clinical signs. The aim of this article is to show the clinical importance of portal vein gas and its management in emergency surgery. Methods A computerised search was made of the Medline for publications discussing portal vein gas through March 2008. Sixty articles were identified and selected for this review because of their relevance. These articles cover a period from 1975–2008. Results Two hundreds and seventy-five patients with gas in the portal venous system were reported. The commonest cause for portal vein gas was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular pathology (61.44%. This was followed by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (16.26%, obstruction and dilatation (9.03%, sepsis (6.6%, iatrogenic injury and trauma (3.01% and cancer (1.8%. Idiopathic portal vein gas was also reported (1.8%. Conclusion Portal vein gas is a diagnostic sign, which indicates a serious intra-abdominal pathology requiring emergency surgery in the majority of patients. Portal vein gas due to simple and benign cause can be treated conservatively. Correlation between clinical and diagnostic findings is important to set the management plan.

  1. On dynamics of uranium vein mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyan, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of urnaium vein deposits and the essence of consanguinity of the mineralization and wall metasomatites are considered. The formation of uranium mineralization is analysed from the positions of Korzhinsky D. S. : the formation of metasomatite aureole and associated vein ores take place as a result of the development of one solution flow while the formation of mineral vein associations occurs on the background of contineous filtration of the solution during metasomato is due to a repeated (pulse) half-opening of fractures and their filling with a part of filtrating solution. The analysis of the available information on the example of two different uranium manifestations permits to reveal certain relations both in the character of wall rock alterations and between the metasomatosis and the formation of ore minerals in veins. The conclusion is made that spatial-time correlations of vein formations with wall metasomatites attest that the pulse formation of ores in veinlets occurs on the background and in interrelation with a consecutive precipitation of components in the aureole volume. The analysis of element migration dynamics in wall aureole carried out from the positions of the Korzhinsky hypothesis of the advance wave of acid components that takes into account the interaction of continuous and pulse mechanisms of solution movement permits to avoid contradictions when interpreting the processes of wall rock alterations and vein ore-forming, and permits to make a common scheme of vein ore-genesis [ru

  2. Superficial vein thrombosis in non-varicose veins of the lower limbs and thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchi, Gabriella; Bilancini, Salvino; Tucci, Sandro; Lucchi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Superficial vein thrombosis in non-varicose veins of the lower limbs is rather frequent and may be underestimated. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of inherited or acquired thrombophilia in a sample of outpatients with the disease. Method An observational study was conducted on 73 consecutive superficial vein thrombosis patients tested for inherited or acquired thrombophilia. Results Sixty of 73 patients with superficial vein thrombosis completed the testing protocol, while 13 dropped out; 46 of 60 patients were found to have a thrombophilia (76.6%). The types detected were: factor V Leiden (31/60, i.e. 51.6%), prothrombin mutation (2/60, i.e. 3.3%), MTHFR mutation (23/60, i.e. 38.3%), antiphospholipid antibodies (5/60, i.e. 8.3%), protein C deficit (1/60, i.e. 1.6%), protein S deficit (1/60, i.e. 1.6%), and antithrombin deficit (0/60, i.e. 0%). Conclusions Among patients with superficial vein thrombosis in non-varicose veins, testing demonstrated a high prevalence of thrombophilia. The most common form proved to be factor V Leiden. As thrombophilia was found to be a major cause of superficial vein thrombosis in non-varicose veins, the authors recommend that patients with superficial vein thrombosis in non-varicose veins be investigated for thrombophilia.

  3. Losartan ameliorates "upstream" pulmonary vein vasculopathy in a piglet model of pulmonary vein stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiaquan; Ide, Haruki; Fu, Yaqin Yana; Teichert, Anouk-Martine; Kato, Hideyuki; Weisel, Richard D; Maynes, Jason T; Coles, John G; Caldarone, Christopher A

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a relentless disease with a poor prognosis. Although surgical repair can effectively treat "downstream" (near left atrial junction) PVS, residual "upstream" (deep in lung parenchyma) PVS commonly dictates long-term survival. Our initial studies revealed an association between PVS and transforming growth factor-β signaling, which led us to investigate the effect of losartan on upstream pulmonary vein vasculopathy in a piglet model of PVS. Neonatal Yorkshire piglets underwent sham surgical banding (sham, n = 6), staged bilateral pulmonary vein banding of all pulmonary veins except the right middle pulmonary vein (banded, n = 6), and staged pulmonary vein banding with losartan treatment (losartan, 1 mg/kg/d, n = 7). After 7 weeks, the hemodynamic data were obtained and the piglets killed. Pulmonary vein banding (compared with sham) was associated with continuous turbulent flow in banded pulmonary veins, pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary artery/systemic blood pressure ratio 0.51 ± 0.06 vs 0.23 ± 0.02, P < .001), and diffuse pulmonary vein intimal hyperplasia in the upstream pulmonary veins (P < .001). Losartan administration decreased the pulmonary artery/systemic blood pressure ratios compared with those in the banded piglets (0.36 ± 0.08 vs 0.51 ± 0.06, P = .007) but it remained greater than those in the sham group (P = .001). Losartan was also associated with diminished pulmonary vein intimal hyperplasia compared with that in the banded piglets (P < .001) but still remained more than that in the sham group (P = .035). Pulmonary vein banding reduced vascular endothelial-cadherin expression, indicative of diminished endothelial integrity, which was restored with losartan. Losartan treatment improved PVS-associated pulmonary hypertension and intimal hyperplasia and might be a beneficial prophylactic therapy for patients at high risk of developing PVS after pulmonary vein surgery. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for

  4. Factors associated with the development of superficial vein thrombosis in patients with varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karathanos, Christos; Exarchou, Maria; Tsezou, Aspasia; Kyriakou, Despina; Wittens, Cees; Giannoukas, Athanasios

    2013-07-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is a common and controversial clinical entity. Recent studies have demonstrated that SVT should be seen as a venous thromboembolism (VTE). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thrombophilia defects and to estimate the role of age, sex and body mass index (BMI) in patients with varicose veins (VVs) and SVT. A total of 230 patients with VVs, 128 with, and 102 without SVT underwent thrombophilia testing included factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and plasminogen activator inhibitor- 1 mutations, protein C, protein S (PS), anti-thrombin III and plasminogen deficiencies and levels of A2 antiplasmin, activate protein C resistance and lupus anticoagulant. According to Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification patients were categorized in two subgroups: moderate disease (C2,3) and severe disease (C4,5,6). Age and body mass index were also assessed. The prevalence of thrombophilia defects was significantly higher in patients with moderate disease and SVT (p=0.002). In the C2,3 group, SVT was associated with PS deficiency (p=0.018), obesity (p<0.001), male gender (p=0.047) and age (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in patients with severe disease. Age, male sex, obesity and PS deficiency are factors associated with SVT development among patients with VVs having moderate disease (C2,3). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How do leaf veins influence the worldwide leaf economic spectrum? Review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Lawren; Scoffoni, Christine; John, Grace P; Poorter, Hendrik; Mason, Chase M; Mendez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-10-01

    Leaf vein traits are implicated in the determination of gas exchange rates and plant performance. These traits are increasingly considered as causal factors affecting the 'leaf economic spectrum' (LES), which includes the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis, dark respiration, foliar nitrogen concentration, leaf dry mass per area (LMA) and leaf longevity. This article reviews the support for two contrasting hypotheses regarding a key vein trait, vein length per unit leaf area (VLA). Recently, Blonder et al. (2011, 2013) proposed that vein traits, including VLA, can be described as the 'origin' of the LES by structurally determining LMA and leaf thickness, and thereby vein traits would predict LES traits according to specific equations. Careful re-examination of leaf anatomy, published datasets, and a newly compiled global database for diverse species did not support the 'vein origin' hypothesis, and moreover showed that the apparent power of those equations to predict LES traits arose from circularity. This review provides a 'flux trait network' hypothesis for the effects of vein traits on the LES and on plant performance, based on a synthesis of the previous literature. According to this hypothesis, VLA, while virtually independent of LMA, strongly influences hydraulic conductance, and thus stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate. We also review (i) the specific physiological roles of VLA; (ii) the role of leaf major veins in influencing LES traits; and (iii) the role of VLA in determining photosynthetic rate per leaf dry mass and plant relative growth rate. A clear understanding of leaf vein traits provides a new perspective on plant function independently of the LES and can enhance the ability to explain and predict whole plant performance under dynamic conditions, with applications towards breeding improved crop varieties.

  6. Combined jugular and subclavian vein thrombosis following assisted reproductive technology--new observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Ophira; Schiby, Ginette; Heiman, Zehava; Avivi, Kamila; Sigal, Carol; Levran, David; Dor, Jeushua; Itzchak, Yacov

    2009-08-01

    To study the predilection of jugular and subclavian vein thrombosis in patients going through assisted reproductive technology (ART). This technology puts women at high risk of developing the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and thrombotic events. Study cases. Large Academic Medical Center. Five women who developed jugular and subclavian vein thrombosis following ART were included in the study. The deep vein thrombosis was demonstrated by ultrasound Doppler or computerized tomography angiography. All women were interviewed and data obtained from outpatient and hospital medical charts. Magnetic resonance imaging and complete thrombophilic profile workup was performed in each woman. Open biopsy from the lesions was taken from one of the women. Correlation between mechanical branchial cysts filled with fluid during OHSS and jugular and subclavian vein thrombosis. Five women developed jugular and subclavian vein thrombosis following ART. They were found to harbor clusters of rudimentary branchial cysts filled with fluid at the time of OHSS, which compressed the jugular and subclavian veins at their junction at the base of the neck. Four patients (80%) were found to be carriers of factor V Leiden. Predilection of jugular and subclavian vein thrombosis early in pregnancy is the result of mechanical compression mediated by rudimentary branchial cysts filled with fluid during OHSS, particularly in subjects who are carriers of factor V Leiden.

  7. Progression of Thrombus in Portal Vein, Superior Mesenteric Vein, and Splenic Vein Even on Anticoagulation in a Patient with Ascending Colonic Malignancy with Liver Metastasis: Portal Vein Thrombosis versus Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Ashish; Borja, Annamarie; Chin, Tay Jam

    2016-12-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in a setting of liver metastasis is not easy to treat as it may be portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). A 77-year-old male patient was diagnosed as ascending colon carcinoma, underwent right hemicolectomy in 1991 with a recurrence in July 2009. In August 2009, he underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen which showed evidence of superior mesenteric vein thrombosis with no liver metastasis. He was started with anticoagulation and decision was to treat long term. He was admitted with mesenteric artery ischemic symptoms in February 2012 on anticoagulation. CT scan abdomen and pelvis in February 2012 showed tumor thrombus involving the superior mesenteric vein, portal vein, and splenic vein with hepatic metastasis. His tumor marker chorioembryonic antigen was 34 µg/L. He was continued on anticoagulation. A repeat CT scan abdomen after 2 years (in January 2014) showed, increase in size of hepatic metastasis, extensive thrombus involving the superior mesenteric vein, portal vein, and splenic vein with collaterals. Mesentery was congested due to extensive superior mesenteric vein thrombus. He finally succumbed in June 2014. It is very important to differentiate PVT from PVTT as the prognosis is different. PVTT progresses despite of long-term anticoagulation with poor prognosis.

  8. Congenital absence of the portal vein in a boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohda, E.; Hiramatsu, K.; Saeki, Morihiro; Nakano, Miwako; Masaki, Hidekazu; Ogawa, Kenji; Nirasawa, Mali

    1999-01-01

    Congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV) is a malformation that is generally thought to be limited to females. We encountered an 11-year-old boy with this malformation. In 17 previously reported cases of CAPV, 2 were male. Three male patients, including our case, were Abernethy type Ib malformation. They had no associated liver tumour and two had no additional congenital abnormality. Conversely, 13 of the 15 female patients had congenital abnormalities and 6 had liver mass lesions. (orig.)

  9. Approximate iterative algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Almudevar, Anthony Louis

    2014-01-01

    Iterative algorithms often rely on approximate evaluation techniques, which may include statistical estimation, computer simulation or functional approximation. This volume presents methods for the study of approximate iterative algorithms, providing tools for the derivation of error bounds and convergence rates, and for the optimal design of such algorithms. Techniques of functional analysis are used to derive analytical relationships between approximation methods and convergence properties for general classes of algorithms. This work provides the necessary background in functional analysis a

  10. Aneurysm of the vein of Galen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leff, S.L.; Kronfeld, G.; Leonidas, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of a vein of Galen aneurysm in a neonate in which MR imaging provided essentially all pertinent diagnostic information prior to surgery. MR findings correlated well with selective cerebral angiography. (orig./MG)

  11. [Retinal vein occlusion in a young patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Mihail; Ochinciuc, Uliana; Sarbu, Laura; Avram, Corina; Camburu, Raluca; Stamate, Alina

    2013-01-01

    We present a case report of a 27 years old pacient with central retinal vein occlussion and macular edema. The pacient has a significant reduction of the macular aedema with complete recovery of vision after the treatment.

  12. Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cells in the bone marrow (myeloproliferative disorders) Cancers Chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases Infections Inherited (hereditary) or acquired problems with blood clotting Oral contraceptives Pregnancy Hepatic vein blockage is the most common ...

  13. Clinical results of a new strategy (modified CHIVA) for surgical treatment of anterior accessory great saphenous varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Fernández, Nicolás; Linares-Palomino, Jose Patricio; López-Espada, Cristina; Martínez-Gámez, Francisco Javier; Ros-Díe, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, anterior accessory great saphenous vein insufficiency was managed by crossectomy and resection of varicose veins. The aim of this paper is to show the safety and efficacy of a new therapeutic strategy for anterior accessory great saphenous varicose veins. This non-randomised prospective study included 65 patients with varicose veins from the anterior accessory great saphenous vein. The novelty of the technique is to avoid the great saphenous vein crossectomy and perform just flebectomy of the visible veins. Venous duplex studies were performed preoperatively, a month and a year postoperatively. The clinical assessment was done by the Fligelstone scale. The baseline CEAP clinical classification was: 58% C2, 26% C3 and 15% C4-6. The new strategy was applied to all cases. 3 haematomas, 7 cases of asymptomatic partial anterior saphenous thrombosis. Reduction of the initial average diameter was from 6.4 mm anterior saphenous to 3.4 mm by one year (p <0.001). At twelve months a forward flow is maintained in 82% of cases. Recurrence of varicose veins was 8%. All patients improved their clinical status based on the Fligelstone scale. Cases with saphenous diameter bigger than 7.5 mm and obesity were identified as predictors of worse clinical and hemodynamic outcome. This modified surgical strategy for anterior saphenous varicose veins results in better clinical outcomes at one year postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. CT in thrombosed dilated posterior epidural vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammatter, S.; Schnyder, P.; Preux, J. de

    1987-05-01

    The authors report a case of thrombosis of the distal end of an enlarged right posterior epidural vein. The patient had a markedly narrow lumbar canal due to L5 spondylolisthesis. The dilated vein and the thrombosis were displayed by computed tomography but remained unrecognized until surgery. Pathogenesis of this condition is discussed. A review of the English, French and German literature revealed no prior radiological reports of a similar condition.

  15. Varicose Vein And Ecchymosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Yetkin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of varicose vein and chronic venous insufficiency and making a differential diagnosis in patients suffering from a variety of sign and symptoms is sometimes a big challenge in daily clinical practice. Here, we present a female patient with varicose vein symptoms and ecchymosis on her lower extremities. Several irregular shaped ecchymotic lesions on both extremities in different stage of healing with deep purple have been treated by using micronized purified flavonoid fraction.

  16. Varicose Vein And Ecchymosis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ertan Yetkin; Selçuk Öztürk; Mehmet ILeri

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of varicose vein and chronic venous insufficiency and making a differential diagnosis in patients suffering from a variety of sign and symptoms is sometimes a big challenge in daily clinical practice. Here, we present a female patient with varicose vein symptoms and ecchymosis on her lower extremities. Several irregular shaped ecchymotic lesions on both extremities in different stage of healing with deep purple have been treated by using micronized purified flavonoid fraction.

  17. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Raghavendra Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric - inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up.

  18. Efficacy of varicose vein surgery with preservation of the great safenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Cunha Senra Barros

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment of varicose veins with preservation of the great saphenous vein. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 15 female patients between 25 and 55 years of age with clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic (CEAP classification 2, 3 and 4. The patients underwent surgical treatment of primary varicose veins with great saphenous vein (GSV preservation. Doppler ultrasonography exams were carried out in the first and third months postoperatively. The form of clinical severity of venous disease, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS was completed before and after surgery. We excluded patients with history of deep vein thrombosis, smoking or postoperatively use of elastic stockings or phlebotonics. RESULTS: All patients had improved VCSS (p <0.001 and reduction in the diameter of the great saphenous vein (p <0.001. There was a relationship between VCSS and the GSV caliber, as well as with preoperative CEAP. There was improvement in CEAP class in nine patients when compared with the preoperative period (p <0.001. CONCLUSION: The varicose vein surgery with preservation of the great saphenous vein had beneficial effects to the GSV itself, with decreasing caliber, and to the symptoms when the vein had maximum caliber of 7.5 mm, correlating directly with the CEAP. The decrease in GSV caliber, even without complete abolition of reflux, leads to clinical improvement by decreasing the reflux volume.

  19. Individual Pulmonary Vein Atresia in Adults: Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyoung Nam; Kim, Young Tong; Cho, Sung Sik [Cheonan Hospital, SoonchunhyangUniversity College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We present two cases of individual pulmonary vein atresia without vestige of an involved pulmonary vein. On CT, we noted the absence or interruption of normal pulmonary venous structures, and the presence of abnormal vascular structures that represented collaterals for the involved lung parenchyma. On angiography, the artertic pulmonary vein was found to drain into the other ipsilateral pulmonary veins through the collaterals.

  20. Varicose veins: a qualitative study to explore expectations and reasons for seeking treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfreyman, Simon John; Drewery-Carter, Kim; Rigby, Kathryn; Michaels, Jonathan A; Tod, Angela Mary

    2004-03-01

    Patients experience a wide range of symptoms from varicose veins and are seeking treatment from health care providers. However, there is little data on the relative effectiveness of the treatments available. Patients are therefore often confronted with a choice regarding treatment that they are ill-equipped to make. This lack of certainty and the resultant potential for variability in treatment decisions can mean that patients have expectations that are unrealistic or unfulfilled. The aim of our study was to explore patients' expectations and reasons for seeking treatment for varicose veins. Additional aims included the exploration of symptoms associated with varicose veins and their impact on quality of life. Qualitative study conducted in a large NHS Trust. A total of 16 patients, who had been referred to a specialist vascular service for the treatment of varicose veins, were recruited. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the patients' reasons for seeking treatment. Framework analysis was used to analyse the data from the anonymized transcripts. Participants attributed a wide range of symptoms to their varicose veins, and were actively seeking treatment with the expectation that they would gain symptom relief. The symptoms attributed to their varicose veins had a significant negative impact on their quality of life and lifestyle. Improving the cosmetic appearance of their legs was seen as a secondary benefit. The perceived symptoms of varicose veins can impact on lifestyle and quality of life. Patients seek treatment with the expectation of treatment outcomes that are not supported by robust clinical evidence. Appropriate education and management of such expectations are an essential step in caring for this group of patients. Nurses are caring for patients with varicose veins in a range of clinical settings. When caring and providing information for this group of patients, nurses need to be aware of the impact of varicose vein symptoms and to

  1. Deep vein thrombosis as a paraneoplastic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klačar Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several conditions represent the risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT but sometimes it occurs with no apparent reason. DVT usually involve lower extremities. It can be a component of paraneoplastic syndrome, and occasionally it is the first manifestation of malignancy. Case report: Fifty-five years old male reported to his general practitioner with history of painless right leg swelling of three weeks duration. He denied leg trauma or any other hardship. The patient had a long history of hypertension and took his medications irregularly. Family history was positive for cardiovascular diseases but negative for metabolic diseases or malignancies. He was a smoker and physically active. Physical examination revealed right calf swelling without skin discoloration, distention of superficial veins or trophic changes. Pulses of magistral arteries of the leg were symmetrical, Homans' sign was positive on the right leg. The rest of the physical examination was normal, except for the blood pressure. He was referred to vascular surgeon with the clinical diagnosis of femoro- popliteal phlebothrombosis of the right leg. Vascular surgeon performed the Color duplex scan of the lower extremities which confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was treated with low-molecular-weight heparin. The swelling significantly subsided after two weeks of therapy, but then patient fell and fractured left ramus of ischial bone. X-ray examination of pelvis revealed both fracture line and osteoblastic deposits in pelvis and the fracture was pronounced pathological. In order to localize the primary tumor, subsequent tests included chest X-ray, abdominal and pelvic ultrasound and digitorectal examination of prostate were performed. The results of all of the above mentioned examinations were within normal ranges, including routine blood tests. Skeletal scintigraphy revealed multiple secondary deposits in pelvic bones, vertebral column and ribs. Tumor markers' values

  2. Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosa, F.; McNulty, J.G.; Hickey, N.; O'Brien, P.; Tobin, A.; Noonan, N.; Ryan, B.; Keeling, P.W.N.; Kelleher, D.P.; McDonald, G.S.A.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the safety, effectiveness and diagnostic value of transvenous forceps biopsy of the liver in 54 patients with coagulopathy, gross ascites or morbid obesity and suspected liver disease in whom percutaneous liver biopsy was contraindicated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forceps biopsy of the liver via the femoral vein was attempted in 54 adult patients with advanced liver disease of unknown aetiology who had coagulation disorders (41 cases), gross ascites (11 cases) or morbid obesity (two cases). In each patient two to six biopsies (average four) were taken using a radial jaw forceps inserted via the right or left femoral vein. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 53 cases. Hepatic vein catheterization failed in one patient. Adequate liver tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 84% of cases. One patient developed delayed haemorrhage at 12 h from a capsular leak that was undetected during the biopsy procedure. This patient required blood transfusions and laparotomy to control bleeding. There were no deaths in the 53 patients studied. Transient minor chest and shoulder pain was encountered during sheath insertion into a hepatic vein in 23 patients. Three patients developed a femoral vein haematoma, which resolved with conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein is another safe, effective, simple alternative technique of biopsy when the percutaneous route is contraindicated

  3. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  4. Veins Improve Fracture Toughness of Insect Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect’s flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material’s resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m). However, the cross veins increase the wing’s toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically ‘optimal’ solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial ‘venous’ wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species. PMID:22927966

  5. Fire in the vein: Heroin acidity and its proximal effect on users’ health

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccarone, Daniel; Harris, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The loss of functioning veins (venous sclerosis) is a root cause of suffering for long-term heroin injectors. In addition to perpetual frustration and loss of pleasure/esteem, venous sclerosis leads to myriad medical consequences including skin infections, for example, abscess, and possibly elevated HIV/HCV risks due to injection into larger jugular and femoral veins. The etiology of venous sclerosis is unknown and users’ perceptions of cause/meaning unexplored.

  6. Short-Term Effects of Radiotherapy Postquadrantectomy on Internal Mammary Artery and Vein

    OpenAIRE

    Cherubino, Mario; Scamoni, Stefano; Taibi, Dominic; Maggiulli, Francesca; Pellegatta, Igor; Izzo, Matteo; Valdatta, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    When a tumor local recurrence occurs a possible approach can be a mastectomy with simultaneous breast reconstruction with autologous tissue. The area involved by tangential radiation portals includes also the internal mammary artery and veins, considered by the most part of plastic surgeons to be the best recipient vessels for a free flap in breast reconstruction. Internal mammary vessels receives low but not necessary insignificant doses during whole breast irradiation; arteries and veins ar...

  7. The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, G.

    1982-01-01

    The CT appearance of the superior intercostal veins is described. The veins are more frequently seen on the right side. The right superior intercostal vein should not be misinterpreted as a paraspinal mass when it is large or bulges into the contour of the right lung. A case of stenosis of the left brachiocephalic vein is shown, where the left superior intercostal vein serves as a collateral. (orig.)

  8. Induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis in experimental retinal branch vein occlusion.

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, I L; Yu, D Y; Vijayasekaran, S; Barry, C; Constable, I

    1992-01-01

    Iatrogenic retinal vein to choroidal vein anastomoses were created using laser photocoagulation in six of seven dog eyes in which a partial branch retinal vein occlusion had previously been created photochemically. A similar attempt to create an anastomosis was made in six control eyes in which no branch vein occlusion was present. In the eyes in which a branch retinal vein had been created, a venous chorioretinal anastomosis appeared to be present by 3 to 6 weeks. In three control eyes simil...

  9. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Haghighatkhah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC

  10. [Underlying conditions associated with the occurrence of retinal vein occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilleul, J; Glacet-Bernard, A; Coscas, G; Soubrane, G; Souied, E H

    2011-05-01

    Conventional risk factors for retinal vein occlusion (RVO) are well established through large epidemiological studies, but triggering factors remain poorly known. A prospective observational study through a questionnaire was completed between January and October 2009 by patients with RVO and controls. Sixty-one patients, including 42 central retinal vein occlusions (CRVO) and 19 branch vein occlusions (BRVO) as well as 118 controls were included. Of the CRVO patients, 77% discovered visual loss upon awakening in contrast to only 33% of BRVO patients. The comparison between RVO and controls showed a higher proportion in the RVO group for (in order of the highest risk): migraine headache (CRVO, 21 %; BRVO, 47 %; controls, 13 %; p=0.008), hypertension (CRVO, 52%; BRVO, 63%; controls, 37%; p=0.012), glaucoma (CRVO, 33%; BRVO, 22%; controls, 16%; p=0.034), antiplatelet or anticoagulant medication (CRVO, 42%; BRVO, 33%; controls, 26%; p=0.074), hyperlipidemia, ocular trauma, sudden deafness, or vertigo. The prevalence was similar in both groups for body mass index, history of phlebitis or peptic ulcer, smoking habits, stress, fasting, dehydration, vasodilator intake, and altitude stay. In addition to the already known risk factors, this study underlines certain underlying conditions or circumstances related to the onset of RVO, such as migraine. In CRVO, three-quarters of the patients on average discovered visual loss upon awakening, which may indicate that nocturnal events may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of the occlusion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Percutaneous transsplenic catheterization of portal vein: technique and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Kangshun; Huang Mingsheng; Pang Pengfei; Zhou Bin; Xu Changmo; Qian Jiesheng; Li Zhengran; Jiang Zaibo; Shan Hong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of percutaneous transsplenic portal vein catheterization (PTSPC). Methods: Thirty patients with portal hypertension underwent gastroesophageal variceal embolization via PTSPC route, 2 of which simultaneously underwent portal vein stenting. This study included the patients with portal venous obstruction (tumor embolus or thrombus) or the patients with serious liver atrophy caused by liver cirrhosis. The patients who had severe coagulation insufficiency (with prothrombin time > 20 s) were excluded. Of the 30 patients, 17 had primary hepatocellular carcinoma with main portal venous tumor embolus, 13 had cirrhosis with severe liver atrophy and (or)slight or moderate ascite. Before this study, all of 30 patients had a history of variceal bleeding, and 16 patients had a normal coagulation level, 10 patients had a mildly prolonged prothrombin time (14-17 s), 4 patients had a moderately prolonged prothrombin time (18-20 s). All of 30 patients underwent upper abdomen CT enhanced scanning before this procedure, and the site, direction, and depth of splenic vein branch puncture were decided by CT images. The technology of PTSPC, procedure-related complications, and its clinical application were retrospectively analyzed. Results: PTSPC was performed successfully in 28 of 30 patients. Two cases failed because of a small intrasplenic vein. Procedure-related complications occurred in 6 patients (20.0%), which had decrease of hemoglobin concentration (15-50 g/L). Four of them needed blood transfusion. In the six patients, one patient (3.3%) with abdominal cavity hemorrhage had a serious drop of blood pressure 2 hours after procedure, whose clinical symptoms were relieved after four units of packed RBC and a great quantity of fluid were transfused. Twenty-eight patients whose PTSPC were successfully performed underwent variceal embolization, 2 of them were placed with portal vein covered stents. During a median follow-up period of 6 months

  12. Fusion of hand vein, iris and fingerprint for person identity verification based on Bayesian theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Tiegen; Deng, Shichao; Wang, Yunxin

    2009-11-01

    Biometric identification is an important guarantee for social security. In recent years, as the development of social and economic, the more accuracy and safety of identification are required. The person identity verification systems that use a single biometric appear inherent limitations in accuracy, user acceptance, universality. Limitations of unimodal biometric systems can be overcome by using multimodal biometric systems, which combines the conclusions made by a number of unrelated biometrics indicators. Aiming at the limitations of unimodal biometric identification, a recognition algorithm for multimodal biometric fusion based on hand vein, iris and fingerprint was proposed. To verify person identity, the hand vein images, iris images and fingerprint images were preprocessed firstly. The region of interest (ROI) of hand vein image was obtained and filtered to reduce image noises. The multiresolution analysis theory was utilized to extract the texture information of hand vein. The iris image was preprocessed through iris localization, eyelid detection, image normalization and image enhancement, and then the feature code of iris was extracted from the detail images obtained using wavelet transform. The texture feature information represented fingerprint pattern was extracted after filtering and image enhancement. The Bayesian theorem was employed to realize the fusion at the matching score level and the fusion recognition result was finally obtained. The experimental results were presented, which showed that the recognition performance of the proposed fusion method was obviously higher than that of single biometric recognition algorithm. It had verified the efficiency of the proposed method for biometrics.

  13. Human radicular veins: regulation of venous reflux in the absence of valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kuip, M; Hoogland, P V; Groen, R J

    1999-02-01

    In the literature it is generally assumed that venous reflux within the radicular veins is prevented by the presence of bicuspid valves and narrowing of the transdural part of these vessels. Recently, we performed a human cadaver study of the internal vertebral venous plexus. Surprisingly, a large number of radicular and perimedullary veins appeared to be filled with Araldite CY 221 mixture, after injection of this material into the vertebral venous system, implicating reflux via the radicular veins and suggesting insufficiency of the presumed anti-reflux mechanism. Therefore, it was decided to study the radicular veins in order to determine and to investigate the presence or absence of anti-reflux mechanisms within this system. The vertebral venous systems of ten fresh human cadavers, between 64 and 93 years of age, were injected with Araldite CY 221 mixture. After polymerization, all cadavers were dissected and the spinal nerve sheaths, including nerve roots, radicular veins and epidural veins, were excised as a whole. After macroscopical examination, serial sections (40 microm) were cut on a freezing microtome and stained in Von Gieson medium. Every third section was stained immunohistochemically with smooth muscle antigen (SMA), to visualize smooth muscle cells. In all cadavers, a number of intradural radicular veins was filled with Araldite. Employing microscopical examination, no bicuspid valves were found. However, four structures were encountered that might serve as ananti-reflux-mechanism: 1) intravenous dural folds, 2) meandrous configuration, and 3) narrowing of the radicular veins at the point of penetration of the dura mater, and 4) varying numbers of smooth muscle fibers in the walls of the intradural and extradural parts of the radicular veins. Reflux via the radicular veins seems to be a physiological phenomenon. Structural valves have not been encountered during this study. Intravenous dural folds, meandrous configuration and narrowing of the

  14. Sclerotherapy for Reticular Veins in the Lower Limbs: A Triple-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertanha, Matheus; Jaldin, Rodrigo Gibin; Moura, Regina; Pimenta, Rafael Elias Farres; Mariúba, Jamil Victor de Oliveira; Lúcio Filho, Carlos Eduardo Pinheiro; Alcantara, Giovana Piteri; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti; Sobreira, Marcone Lima

    2017-12-01

    Reticular veins are subdermal veins located in the lower limbs and are mainly associated with aesthetic complaints. Although sclerotherapy is the treatment of choice for reticular veins in the lower limbs, no consensus has been reached regarding to the optimal sclerosant. To compare the efficacy and safety of 2 sclerosants used to treat reticular veins: 0.2% polidocanol diluted in 70% hypertonic glucose (HG) (group 1) vs 75% HG alone (group 2). Prospective, randomized, triple-blind, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial with patients randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio between the 2 treatment groups from March through December 2014, with 2 months' follow-up. The study was conducted in a single academic medical center. Eligible participants were all women, aged 18 to 69 years, who had at least 1 reticular vein with a minimum length of 10 cm in 1 of their lower limbs. The patients underwent sclerotherapy in a single intervention with either 0.2% polidocanol plus 70% HG or 75% HG alone to eliminate reticular veins. The primary efficacy end point was the disappearance of the reticular veins within 60 days after treatment with sclerotherapy. The reticular veins were measured on images obtained before treatment and after treatment using ImageJ software. Safety outcomes were analyzed immediately after treatment and 7 days and 60 days after treatment and included serious adverse events (eg, deep vein thrombosis and systemic complications) and minor adverse events (eg, pigmentation, edema, telangiectatic matting, and hematomas). Ninety-three women completed the study, median (interquartile range) age 43.0 (24.0-61.0) years for group 1 and 41.0 (27.0-62.0) years for group 2. Sclerotherapy with 0.2% polidocanol plus 70% HG was significantly more effective than with 75% HG alone in eliminating reticular veins from the treated area (95.17% vs 85.40%; P vein pigmentation length for group 1 and 7.09% for group 2, with no significant difference between the groups (P = .09

  15. Physiological Laterality of Superficial Cerebral Veins on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Gomi, Taku; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether laterality of the superficial cerebral veins can be seen on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in patients with no intracranial lesions that affect venous visualization. We retrospectively evaluated 386 patients who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging including SWI in our institute. Patients with a lesion with the potential to affect venous visualization on SWI were excluded. Two neuroradiologists visually evaluated the findings and scored the visualization of the superficial cerebral veins. Of the 386 patients, 315 (81.6%) showed no obvious laterality on venous visualization, 64 (16.6%) showed left-side dominant laterality, and 7 (1.8%) showed right-side dominant laterality. Left-side dominant physiological laterality exists in the visualization of the superficial cerebral veins on SWI. Therefore, when recognizing left-side dominant laterality of the superficial cerebral veins on SWI, the radiologist must also consider the possibility of physiological laterality.

  16. Case report: Limb-threatening femoral vein thrombosis in a healthy carpet fitter: Carpet fitter's thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothnie, Alex; Aga, Sarah; Vijayaragahavan, Santhosh; Nyamekye, Isaac

    2016-07-01

    To report a case of femoral vein thrombosis in a carpet fitter and to highlight this as an occupational hazard. Case presentation and literature review. An otherwise fit 21-year-old carpet fitter with no past medical history presented with acute thrombosis of his left common femoral, superficial femoral and great saphenous veins. Attempted catheter directed thrombolysis was unsuccessful. Due to severe pain and the threat of venous gangrene he was treated by emergency surgical thrombectomy with excision of chronic venous scarring and vein-patch repair that led to resolution of his symptoms. Deep vein thrombosis is typically associated with factors such as increasing age and prolonged periods of immobility; however, certain 'active' occupations can increase its risk. Crouched and cramped working conditions including repetitive active movement with flexed hips and knees can predispose to increased risk of venous thromboembolism. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Results of Infrainguinal Bypass with a Composite Graft Combining Polytetrafluoroethylene and Vein Graft in Absence of Appropriate Saphenous Vein Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Myung Jae; Park, Ui Jun; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Roh, Young-Nam

    2017-06-01

    Use of a composite graft combining a polytetrafluoroethylene graft with an autogenous vein is an option for limb salvage in the absence of an adequate single segment vein graft. We aimed to investigate the results of infrainguinal bypass with a composite graft. We retrospectively reviewed 11 infrainguinal arterial bypasses on 11 limbs which underwent surgery from March 2012 to November 2016. Critical limb ischemia was common (63.6%) indication of bypass surgery and most (90.9%) of the patients had history of failed previous treatment including endovascular treatment (36.4%) and bypass surgery (72.7%). At the 2 years after graft implantations, primary patency and amputation-free survival of below-knee bypasses using composite graft were 73% and 76%, respectively. Infrainguinal arterial bypasses with composite graft had an acceptable patency. In patients without other alternative conduits for revascularization, bypass with a composite graft can be an option.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of superficial vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauersachs, R M

    2013-08-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is a common disease, characterized by an inflammatory-thrombotic process in a superficial vein. Typical clinical findings are pain and a warm, tender, reddish cord along the vein. Until recently, no reliable epidemiological data were available. The incidence is estimated to be higher than that of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) (1/1000). SVT shares many risk factors with DVT, but affects twice as many women than men and frequently occurs in varicose veins. Clinically, SVT extension is commonly underestimated, and patients may have asymptomatic DVT. Therefore, ultrasound assessment and exclusion of DVT is essential. Risk factors for concomitant DVT are recent hospitalization, immobilization, autoimmune disorders, age > 75 years, prior VTE, cancer and SVT in non-varicose veins. Even though most patients with isolated SVT (without concomitant DVT or PE) are commonly treated with anticoagulation for a median of 15 days, about 8% experience symptomatic thromboembolic complications within three months. Risk factors for occurrence of complications are male gender, history of VTE, cancer, SVT in a non-varicose vein or SVT involving the sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ). As evidence supporting treatment of isolated SVT was sparse and of poor quality, the large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled CALISTO trial was initiated assessing the effect of fondaparinux on symptomatic outcomes in isolated SVT. This study showed that, compared with placebo, 2.5 mg fondaparinux given for 45 days reduced the risk of symptomatic thromboembolic complications by 85% without increasing bleeding. Based on CALISTO and other observational studies, evidence-based recommendations can be made for the majority of SVT patients. Further studies can now be performed in higher risk patients to address unresolved issues.

  19. Portal vein embolization induces more liver regeneration than portal vein ligation in a standardized rabbit model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Esschert, Jacomina W.; van Lienden, Krijn P.; de Graaf, Wilmar; Maas, Martinus A. W.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Heger, Michal; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Portal vein ligation (PVL) and portal vein embolization (PVE) are used to induce hypertrophy of the future remnant liver before major liver resection. The aim of our study was to compare the hypertrophy response of the liver after PVL versus PVE in a rabbit model. Methods. Twenty rabbits

  20. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Luis, E-mail: lmeneseq@gmail.com; Fava, Mario; Diaz, Pia; Andia, Marcelo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazabal, Pablo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Uribe, Sergio, E-mail: suribe@med.puc.cl [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile)

    2013-02-15

    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  1. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, Luis; Fava, Mario; Diaz, Pía; Andía, Marcelo; Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazabal, Pablo; Uribe, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  2. [Cost-effectiveness of the deep vein thrombosis diagnosis process in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes Camps, Eva; Luis del Val García, José; Bellmunt Montoya, Sergi; Hmimina Hmimina, Sara; Gómez Jabalera, Efren; Muñoz Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-04-01

    To analyse the cost effectiveness of the application of diagnostic algorithms in patients with a first episode of suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in Primary Care compared with systematic referral to specialised centres. Observational, cross-sectional, analytical study. Patients from hospital emergency rooms referred from Primary Care to complete clinical evaluation and diagnosis. A total of 138 patients with symptoms of a first episode of DVT were recruited; 22 were excluded (no Primary Care report, symptoms for more than 30 days, anticoagulant treatment, and previous DVT). Of the 116 patients finally included, 61% women and the mean age was 71 years. Variables from the Wells and Oudega clinical probability scales, D-dimer (portable and hospital), Doppler ultrasound, and direct costs generated by the three algorithms analysed: all patients were referred systematically, referral according to Wells and Oudega scale. DVT was confirmed in 18.9%. The two clinical probability scales showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 85.1 to 100) and a specificity of about 40%. With the application of the scales, one third of all referrals to hospital emergency rooms could have been avoided (P<.001). The diagnostic cost could have been reduced by € 8,620 according to Oudega and € 9,741 according to Wells, per 100 patients visited. The application of diagnostic algorithms when a DVT is suspected could lead to better diagnostic management by physicians, and a more cost effective process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Some controversies in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins addressed by optical-thermal mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poluektova, Anna A; Malskat, Wendy S J; van Gemert, Martin J C; Vuylsteke, Marc E; Bruijninckx, Cornelis M A; Neumann, H A Martino; van der Geld, Cees W M

    2014-03-01

    Minimally invasive treatment of varicose veins by endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) becomes more and more popular. However, despite significant research efforts performed during the last years, there is still a lack of agreement regarding EVLA mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. The aim of this article is to address some of these controversies by utilizing optical-thermal mathematical modeling. Our model combines Mordon's light absorption-based optical-thermal model with the thermal consequences of the thin carbonized blood layer on the laser fiber tip that is heated up to temperatures of around 1,000 °C due to the absorption of about 45% of the laser light. Computations were made in MATLAB. Laser wavelengths included were 810, 840, 940, 980, 1,064, 1,320, 1,470, and 1,950 nm. We addressed (a) the effect of direct light absorption by the vein wall on temperature behavior, comparing computations by using normal and zero wall absorption; (b) the prediction of the influence of wavelength on the temperature behavior; (c) the effect of the hot carbonized blood layer surrounding the fiber tip on temperature behavior, comparing wall temperatures from using a hot fiber tip and one kept at room temperature; (d) the effect of blood emptying the vein, simulated by reducing the inside vein diameter from 3 down to 0.8 mm; (e) the contribution of absorbed light energy to the increase in total energy at the inner vein wall in the time period where the highest inner wall temperature was reached; (f) the effect of laser power and pullback velocity on wall temperature of a 2-mm inner diameter vein, at a power/velocity ratio of 30 J/cm at 1,470 nm; (g) a comparison of model outcomes and clinical findings of EVLA procedures at 810 nm, 11 W, and 1.25 mm/s, and 1,470 nm, 6 W, and 1 mm/s, respectively. Interestingly, our model predicts that the dominating mechanism for heating up the vein wall is not direct absorption of the laser light by the vein wall but, rather, heat flow to the

  4. Animal Model of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Sumit; Laerum, Frode; Brosstad, Frank; Kvernebo, Knut; Sakariassen, Kjell S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an animal model of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Methods: In part I of the study nine juvenile domestic pigs were used. Each external iliac vein was transluminally occluded with a balloon catheter. Thrombin was infused through a microcatheter in one leg according to one of the following protocols: (1) intraarterial (IA): 1250 U at 25 U/min in the common femoral artery (n= 3); (2) intravenous (IV): 5000 U in the popliteal vein at 500 U/min (n= 3), or at 100 U/min (n= 3). Saline was administered in the opposite leg. After the animals were killed, the mass of thrombus in the iliofemoral veins was measured. The pudendoepiploic (PEV), profunda femoris (PF), and popliteal veins (PV) were examined. Thrombosis in the tributaries of the superficial femoral vein (SFVt) was graded according to a three-point scale (0, +, ++). In part II of the study IV administration was further investigated in nine pigs using the following three regimens with 1000 U at 25 U/min serving as the control: (1) 1000 U at 100 U/min, (2) 250 U at 25 U/min, (3) 250 U at 6.25 U/min. Results: All animals survived. In part I median thrombus mass in the test limbs was 1.40 g as compared with 0.25 g in the controls (p= 0.01). PEV, PFV and PV were thrombosed in all limbs infused with thrombin. IV infusion was more effective in inducing thrombosis in both the parent veins (mass 1.32-1.78 g) and SVFt (++ in 4 of 6 legs), as compared with IA infusion (mass 0.0-1.16 g; SFVt ++ in 1 of 3 legs). In part II thrombus mass in axial veins ranged from 1.23 to 2.86 g, and showed no relationship with the dose of thrombin or the rate of infusion. Tributary thrombosis was less extensive with 250 U at 25 U/min than with the other regimens. Conclusion: Slow distal intravenous thrombin infusion in the hind legs of pigs combined with proximal venous occlusion induces thrombosis in the leg veins that closely resembles clinical DVT in distribution

  5. Natural fracking and the genesis of five-element veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Gregor; Burisch, Mathias; Neumann, Udo

    2016-08-01

    Hydrothermal Ag-Co-Ni-Bi-As (five-element vein type) ore deposits show very conspicuous textures of the native elements silver, bismuth, and arsenic indicating formation from a rapid, far-from-equilibrium process. Such textures include up to dm-large tree- and wire-like aggregates overgrown by Co-Ni-Fe arsenides and mostly carbonates. Despite the historical and contemporary importance of five-element vein type deposits as sources of silver, bismuth, and cobalt, and despite of spectacular museum specimens, their process of formation is not yet understood and has been a matter of debate since centuries. We propose, based on observations from a number of classical European five-element vein deposits and carbon isotope analyses, that "natural fracking," i.e., liberation of hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon-bearing fluids during break up of rocks in the vicinity of an active hydrothermal system and mixing between these hydrocarbons (e.g., methane and/or methane-bearing fluids) and a metal-rich hydrothermal fluid is responsible for ore precipitation and the formation of the unusual ore textures and assemblages. Thermodynamic and isotope mixing calculations show that the textural, chemical, and isotopic features of the investigated deposits can entirely be explained by this mechanism.

  6. Saphenous vein thrombophlebitis (SVT): a deceptively benign disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J N; Ascher, E; DePippo, P; Lorensen, E; Scheinman, M; Yorkovich, W; Hingorani, A

    1998-04-01

    The association between deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the hypercoagulable state is a well-established entity. However, the association between saphenous vein thrombophlebitis and coagulation abnormalities has not been investigated. Although thrombosis of varicose veins typically runs a benign course, phlebitis of the saphenous system may propagate to the deep system or saphenofemoral junction that requires more aggressive therapy. Given the potential similarity in clinical outcome between saphenous vein thrombophlebitis (SVT) and DVT, we have investigated the coagulation profile of patients presenting with isolated SVT. Seventeen consecutive patients who presented to our vascular laboratory with isolated SVT had a coagulation profile performed that included antithrombin III (AT III), protein C (PC), protein S (PS) antigen and activity levels, activated protein C (APC) resistance, factor V DNA mutation, and coagulation factors II and X. All patients had duplex scans performed on both the superficial and deep venous systems. Patients with SVT only were treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and warm soaks as outpatients, whereas those patients found to have DVT or a clot at the saphenofemoral junction were fully anticoagulated with heparin and coumadin therapy. All 17 patients had at least one repeat coagulation profile performed up to 5 months after their SVT occurrence to ensure that the results of hypercoagulability were not transient. Ten (59%) of the 17 patients with SVT had abnormal coagulation profiles on initial presentation. All 10 patients who were hypercoagulable had repeat tests and 6 (35%) remained abnormal. Four patients who had abnormal results converted to normal values. Seven patients with normal coagulation profiles on initial presentation had repeat tests and all remained normal. The incidence of the hypercoagulable state in patients with SVT is high. Thirty-five percent of patients with isolated SVT had consistently abnormal

  7. Vein-type and similar uranium deposits of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipanicic, P.

    1982-01-01

    Some vein-type and similar uranium deposits and occurrences are briefly described to show different models identified in Argentina. Practically all of them were formerly thought to be related to hydrothermal-magmatic processes, but at present few are considered to be so; some are classified as typically exogenous and opinions differ about the genesis of the remaining ones, especially because of a lack of sufficient research on the matter since this group of accumulations only contributes less than 10% to the entire uranium resources of Argentina. The typical vein-type ore bodies are small (including less than 200t U) with grades varying from 0.1 to near 1%U. Other deposits, resolved as stockworks, could be from small to medium size (more than 200t U to 2000t U) with a uranium content from 0.7 to 0.03%, respectively. The mineralogical associations are variable, from complex ones in veins considered as magmatic-endogenous (with U, Ni, Co, Pb, Cu, Zn, etc.) to very simple ones in the exogenetic accumulations, which only comprise uranium minerals. The paragenetic studies available are not complete enough to define the possible relation of uranium with the other metals in the complex ores. The age of the mineralization has been defined in some cases, but not in others. There are examples of mineralizing processes occurring from Palaeozoic to very recent times. Some of the uranium deposits mentioned here have been exploited in the past; one of them will be re-opened very shortly; and a new one will be put into operation in 1981. The geological composition of Argentina is not favourable for uranium deposits related to the Proterozoic unconformity, and the best possibilities for finding interesting accumulations of vein and similar type are in the large Hercynian granitic environments which have outcrops that cover more than 150,000km 2 (Pampean Hills and North Patagonian Massif). (author)

  8. A new approach for sclera vein recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N. L.; Du, Yingzi; Zhou, Zhi

    2010-04-01

    The vein structure in the sclera is stable over time, unique to each person, and well suited for human identification. A few researchers have performed sclera vein pattern recognition and reported promising initial results. Sclera recognition poses several challenges: the vein structure moves and deforms with the movement of the eye; images of sclera patterns are often defocused and/or saturated; and, most importantly, the vein structure in the sclera is multi-layered and has complex non-linear deformation. In this paper, we proposed a new method for sclera recognition: First, we developed a color-based sclera region estimation scheme for sclera segmentation. Second, we designed a Gabor wavelet-based sclera pattern enhancement method, and an adaptive thresholding method to emphasize and binarize the sclera vein patterns. Third, we proposed a line descriptor-based feature extraction, registration, and matching method that is illumination-, scale-, orientation-, and deformation-invariant, and can mitigate the multi-layered deformation effects exhibited in the sclera and tolerate segmentation error. It is empirically verified using the UBIRIS database that the proposed method can perform accurate sclera recognition.

  9. Haemorrhoids are associated with internal iliac vein reflux in up to one-third of women presenting with varicose veins associated with pelvic vein reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdstock, J M; Dos Santos, S J; Harrison, C C; Price, B A; Whiteley, M S

    2015-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of haemorrhoids in women with pelvic vein reflux, identify which pelvic veins are associated with haemorrhoids and assess if extent of pelvic vein reflux influences the prevalence of haemorrhoids. Females presenting with leg varicose veins undergo duplex ultrasonography to assess all sources of venous reflux. Those with significant reflux arising from the pelvis are offered transvaginal duplex ultrasound (TVS) to evaluate reflux in the ovarian veins and internal Iliac veins and associated pelvic varices in the adnexa, vulvar/labial veins and haemorrhoids. Patterns and severity of reflux were evaluated. Between January 2010 and December 2012, 419 female patients with leg or vulvar varicose vein patterns arising from the pelvis underwent TVS. Haemorrhoids were identified on TVS via direct tributaries from the internal Iliac veins in 152/419 patients (36.3%) and absent in 267/419 (63.7%). The prevalence of the condition increased with the number of pelvic trunks involved. There is a strong association between haemorrhoids and internal Iliac vein reflux. Untreated reflux may be a cause of subsequent symptomatic haemorrhoids. Treatment with methods proven to work in conditions caused by pelvic vein incompetence, such as pelvic vein embolisation and foam sclerotherapy, could be considered. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Transformation of Serpentinite to Listvenite as Recorded in the Vein History of Rocks From Oman Drilling Project Hole BT1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C. E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Michibayashi, K.; Harris, M.; Urai, J. L.; de Obeso, J. C.; Jesus, A. P. M.; Zeko, D.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project Hole BT1B intersected 191 m of listvenite (magnesite + quartz rock) and serpentinite in the hanging wall of the basal thrust of the Oman ophiolite. Recovery was 100%. Listvenite is the dominant lithology in the upper plate rocks (166 m). Its shows wide color and textural variation, including pseudomorphic replacement of serpentinized peridotite. Serpentinite was encountered in two main contiguous intervals totaling 25 m. In light of the strongly metasomatic nature for the origin of listvenite, a substantial portion of the core description effort was dedicated to characterization of the complex veining history recorded in the hole. Dense veining is recorded in both lithologies. The density of 200/m. The density of veins >1 mm was 50-100/m, with somewhat higher densities recorded in serpentinite than in listvenite. In order of oldest to youngest, the main vein types in serpentinite are microscopic mesh-textured serpentine veins, macroscopic serpentine veins, carbonate-oxide veins, and carbonate veins. The vein paragenesis in listvenite is: early carbonate-oxide veins, followed by carbonate and carbonate-quartz veins, then late carbonate veins. The carbonate-oxide and carbonate veins are shared by the lithologies and hold clues to the transformation of ultramafic rocks to listvenite. Carbonate-oxide veins form a distinctive set that is interpreted to be the earliest record of carbonate formation in serpentinite. They contain Fe-oxide, usually hematite, on a medial line, with antitaxial magnesite crystals growing outward and showing terminations against wall rock minerals. Antitaxial textures may be evidence of positive reaction volumes. In serpentinite, secondary serpentine after earlier serpentine is common at vein margins. Carbonate-oxide veins are the earliest observed in listvenite, where they may form isolated veins to dense, aligned networks that impart a foliated texture. In some cases, they appear to predate replacement of serpentine by

  11. Algorithmic cryptanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joux, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Illustrating the power of algorithms, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis describes algorithmic methods with cryptographically relevant examples. Focusing on both private- and public-key cryptographic algorithms, it presents each algorithm either as a textual description, in pseudo-code, or in a C code program.Divided into three parts, the book begins with a short introduction to cryptography and a background chapter on elementary number theory and algebra. It then moves on to algorithms, with each chapter in this section dedicated to a single topic and often illustrated with simple cryptographic applic

  12. The diagnostic management of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijpoel, Noémie; van Es, Nick; Porreca, Ettore; Büller, Harry R; Di Nisio, Marcello

    2017-08-01

    Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) accounts for 4% to 10% of all cases of deep vein thrombosis. UEDVT may present with localized pain, erythema, and swelling of the arm, but may also be detected incidentally by diagnostic imaging tests performed for other reasons. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is crucial to prevent pulmonary embolism and long-term complications as the post-thrombotic syndrome of the arm. Unlike the diagnostic management of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities, which is well established, the work-up of patients with clinically suspected UEDVT remains uncertain with limited evidence from studies of small size and poor methodological quality. Currently, only one prospective study evaluated the use of an algorithm, similar to the one used for DVT of the lower extremities, for the diagnostic workup of clinically suspected UEDVT. The algorithm combined clinical probability assessment, D-dimer testing and ultrasonography and appeared to safely and effectively exclude UEDVT. However, before recommending its use in routine clinical practice, external validation of this strategy and improvements of the efficiency are needed, especially in high-risk subgroups in whom the performance of the algorithm appeared to be suboptimal, such as hospitalized or cancer patients. In this review, we critically assess the accuracy and efficacy of current diagnostic tools and provide clinical guidance for the diagnostic management of clinically suspected UEDVT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasound monitoring in cannulation of the internal jugular vein: anatomic and technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, B; So, C B; Saliken, J C; Gray, R R

    1996-06-01

    To examine the effect of variations in anatomic features and operator experience on the success and complication rates of sonographically monitored cannulation of the internal jugular vein. The authors prospectively collected data for ultrasound-monitored cannulation of the internal jugular vein in 150 patients. In all cases the radiologist recorded the side of puncture, the number of passes needed, the number of vein punctures (one or two), whether the walls were opposed during puncture and any complications. For the last 80 patients the following information was also recorded: the distance from the skin to the internal jugular vein, the diameter of the vein with the Valsalva manoeuvre and the location of the vein relative to the carotid artery. All but three of the cannulations were performed by one of three radiologists, all of whom had at least 5 years of experience. Cannulation was successful in all of the patients, and the first pass was successful in 133 (88.7%). These results are better than those of blind placement techniques reported in the literature. The only complications were hematoma and carotid puncture, which both occurred in the same two patients (1.3%). There was no significant difference among the radiologists in the number of passes needed (one-way analysis of variance, p > 0.05). The number of passes was independent of anatomic factors, including depth from skin, vein diameter or relative location. However, significantly more passes were needed for left-side punctures than for right-side punctures (Student t-test, p < 0.05). Real-time ultrasound monitoring is superior to blind techniques in cannulation of the internal jugular vein because of its ease, accuracy and safety. Sonographic real-time monitoring minimizes the impact of anatomic factors on success and complication rates. It is a safe and efficacious approach that should be preferred in the placement of central lines.

  14. Migration of central lines from the superior vena cava to the azygous vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haygood, T.M., E-mail: tamara.haygood@mdanderson.org [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1475, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Malhotra, K., E-mail: kmalhotra@mdanderson.org [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1475, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Ng, C., E-mail: cng@mdanderson.org [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1475, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Chasen, B., E-mail: beth.chasen@mdanderson.org [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1475, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); McEnery, K.W., E-mail: kmcenery@mdanderson.org [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1475, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Chasen, M., E-mail: mchasen@mdanderson.org [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Unit 1475, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To report 11 cases of central venous access catheters migrating from the superior vena cava to the azygos vein in order to raise radiologists' awareness of this possibility. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective review of the clinical history and imaging of 11 patients whose central line migrated from the superior vena cava to the azygos vein. The time course of migration, access route of the catheters, outcome, and depth of placement in the superior vena cava were evaluated. Results: All of these catheters were placed from the left; six through the subclavian vein, four as PICC lines, and one from the left internal jugular vein. Seven of the catheters were originally positioned in the superior vena cava. Four of the catheters were originally positioned in the azygos vein and were repositioned into the superior vena cava at the time of placement. The time to migration ranged from 2 to 126 days, average 43 days. In three cases, the migration was not reported at the first opportunity, resulting in a delay in diagnosis ranging from 10 to 27 days. All but one of the catheters extended at least 3.5 cm (range 1.8-7 cm) below the top of the right mainstem bronchus when in the superior vena cava. Conclusion: Risk factors for migration into the azygos vein include placement from a left-sided approach and original positioning in the azygos vein with correction at placement. The depth of placement in the superior vena cava was not a protective factor. It is important to recognize migration because of the elevated risk of complications when central lines are placed in the azygos vein.

  15. Migration of central lines from the superior vena cava to the azygous vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haygood, T.M.; Malhotra, K.; Ng, C.; Chasen, B.; McEnery, K.W.; Chasen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To report 11 cases of central venous access catheters migrating from the superior vena cava to the azygos vein in order to raise radiologists’ awareness of this possibility. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective review of the clinical history and imaging of 11 patients whose central line migrated from the superior vena cava to the azygos vein. The time course of migration, access route of the catheters, outcome, and depth of placement in the superior vena cava were evaluated. Results: All of these catheters were placed from the left; six through the subclavian vein, four as PICC lines, and one from the left internal jugular vein. Seven of the catheters were originally positioned in the superior vena cava. Four of the catheters were originally positioned in the azygos vein and were repositioned into the superior vena cava at the time of placement. The time to migration ranged from 2 to 126 days, average 43 days. In three cases, the migration was not reported at the first opportunity, resulting in a delay in diagnosis ranging from 10 to 27 days. All but one of the catheters extended at least 3.5 cm (range 1.8–7 cm) below the top of the right mainstem bronchus when in the superior vena cava. Conclusion: Risk factors for migration into the azygos vein include placement from a left-sided approach and original positioning in the azygos vein with correction at placement. The depth of placement in the superior vena cava was not a protective factor. It is important to recognize migration because of the elevated risk of complications when central lines are placed in the azygos vein.

  16. Quantitative study of the hemodynamic changes of portal vein in hepatocellular carcinoma with arterioportal shunts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xinying; Shan Hong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To measure the changes of portal venous pressure before and after APS by percutaneous portal vein catheterization and to quantitatively analyse the correlation between portal pressure and portal hypertension. Methods: All the 18 central arterioportal shunts (APS) patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were treated with embolization of APS and TACE, and the pressure of portal vein was measured by percutaneous portal vein catheterization pre- and post-embolization of APS. Color doppler sonography and endoscopy were employed to investigate before and 2 weeks after embolization in all patients. Results: The pressure of portal vein decreased significantly after embolization, and the decreased rate was 5.4%-33.3% with the mean rate 20.1%. After the embolization, the width of portal vein decreased and the blood flow velocity of portal vein increased significantly, P<0.01. Hepatofugal portal venous flow was seen in 13 patients before embolization, and restored to hepatopetal flow in 7 patients after embolization. In the 10 patients with more than 20% decrease in portal venous pressure, the portal hypertension improved markedly; while in other 8 patients with less than 20 percent decrease in portal venous pressure, the clinical symptoms of portal hypertension did not improve as much. Conclusions: Embolization of APS can decrease portal venous pressure, with the mean decreasing rate over 20%. Decreasing by 20% or more of portal venous pressure can improve effectively the portal hypertension symptoms including ascites, variceal bleeding, and diarrhea. (authors)

  17. Superficial vein thrombosis with hemorrhagic cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-wei CONG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Cerebral superficial vein thrombosis was rare and often misdiagnosed or missed for its various etiological factors, and complicated and nonspecific clinical manifestations. This paper reported one case of superficial vein thrombosis in right fronto-parietal lobe with hemorrhagic infarction. The anatomy of superficial vein, pathophysiological points, diagnosis and treatment of superficial vein thrombosis were reviewed to help to reduce missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Methods and Results A 18-year-old male patient had suffered from progressive headache for 4 years and weakness of left limbs for 2 d. Head MRI showed circular space-occupying lesion in right fronto-parietal lobe. Magnetic resonance venography (MRV examination showed the front two-thirds of the superior sagittal sinus was not clear. The lesions were removed and decompressive craniectomy was conducted, showing the brain tissue was pale, partly yellow or dark red, and superficial venous engorgement. Histological observation showed pial superficial vein thrombosis and subpial encephalomalacia, and multifocal hemorrhage of cerebral cortex and local parenchymal hemorrhage. A large number of "grid cells" and vascular "cuff" phenomenan were visible in surrounding tissue, and the parenchymal blood vessel proliferation was obvious. Left hand activity of the patient was obviously limited after the operation. Conclusions Clinical diagnosis of superficial vein thrombosis with hemorrhagic infarction is difficult, and brain imaging and serological examination can provide certain help. Much attention should be paid to the multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment to reduce misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis, and gather clinical experience. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.01.007

  18. Postpartum Ovarian Vein Thrombophlebitis with Staphylococcal Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parino, Eduardo; Mulinaris, Eric; Saccomano, Edgardo; Gallo, Juan Cruz; Kohan, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old female patient presented with fever and right flank pain ten days after uncomplicated vaginal delivery. CT examination revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from blood cultures. No other source of bacteremia was found. Antibiotic therapy and anticoagulation with enoxaparin were instituted. Fourteen days after admission, she was discharged in good condition. Although a very uncommon complication after spontaneous vaginal delivery, septic ovarian vein thrombophlebitis should be suspected in cases of persistent puerperal fever when other diagnostic possibilities have been excluded. PMID:26221549

  19. Surgical treatment of central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berker, Nilufer; Batman, Cosar

    2008-05-01

    The treatment of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is still a subject of debate. Medical therapy efforts, as well as retinal laser photocoagulation, have mostly dealt with management of the sequelae of CRVO, and have shown limited success in improving visual acuity. The unsatisfactory results of such therapeutic efforts led to the development of new treatment strategies focused on the surgical treatment of the occluded retinal vein. The purpose of this review is to summarize the outcomes of commonly reported surgical treatment strategies and to review different opinions on the various surgical approaches to the treatment of CRVO.

  20. Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis complicating appendicular masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echitibi, Salma S.; Bashir, Masoud O.; Ahmad, Misba U.

    2003-01-01

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis (MVT) is rare. Its diagnosis is usually difficult and delayed. We report two patients who developed MVT as a complication of an appendicular mass. One of them had appendectomy and developed fever 10 days postoperatively. The other was treated conservatively. An abdominal computerized tomography(CT) scan with intravenous contrast was helpful in diagnosing superior MVT in both patients, which were not suspected. Intravenous contrast should be used when performing CT of an appendicular mass. Special interest should be directed at studying the superior mesenteric vein. Early diagnosis of our patients helped to start early medical treatment with anticoagulation. (author)

  1. [Idiopathic thrombosis of the renal vein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović, I; Ilić, M; Marković, N; Stamenić, T

    1995-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis (TVR) is not a common disease especially when is not associated with renal parenchymal nephropathy. TVR has no characteristic symptoms, so it is often late recognised. The main procedures for diagnosis of TVR are: echotomography, CT and phlebography. All these procedures, although very informative, have certain limits in the clinical use. Therapy of TVR trombolytic, anticoagulant or surgical: thrombectomy or nephrectomy. In cases where the underlying parenchymal disease exists, aggresive therapeutic approach is not recommended, but in acute idiopathic TVR immediate recanalisation of the renal vein is the most effective.

  2. Automated integer programming based separation of arteries and veins from thoracic CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Christian; Pienn, Michael; Bálint, Zoltán; Shekhovtsov, Alexander; Talakic, Emina; Nagy, Eszter; Olschewski, Andrea; Olschewski, Horst; Urschler, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Automated computer-aided analysis of lung vessels has shown to yield promising results for non-invasive diagnosis of lung diseases. To detect vascular changes which affect pulmonary arteries and veins differently, both compartments need to be identified. We present a novel, fully automatic method that separates arteries and veins in thoracic computed tomography images, by combining local as well as global properties of pulmonary vessels. We split the problem into two parts: the extraction of multiple distinct vessel subtrees, and their subsequent labeling into arteries and veins. Subtree extraction is performed with an integer program (IP), based on local vessel geometry. As naively solving this IP is time-consuming, we show how to drastically reduce computational effort by reformulating it as a Markov Random Field. Afterwards, each subtree is labeled as either arterial or venous by a second IP, using two anatomical properties of pulmonary vessels: the uniform distribution of arteries and veins, and the parallel configuration and close proximity of arteries and bronchi. We evaluate algorithm performance by comparing the results with 25 voxel-based manual reference segmentations. On this dataset, we show good performance of the subtree extraction, consisting of very few non-vascular structures (median value: 0.9%) and merged subtrees (median value: 0.6%). The resulting separation of arteries and veins achieves a median voxel-based overlap of 96.3% with the manual reference segmentations, outperforming a state-of-the-art interactive method. In conclusion, our novel approach provides an opportunity to become an integral part of computer aided pulmonary diagnosis, where artery/vein separation is important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. En-face optical coherence tomography angiography of neovascularization elsewhere in hemicentral retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogawa K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Sogawa, Taiji Nagaoka, Akihiro Ishibazawa, Atsushi Takahashi, Tomofumi Tani, Akitoshi Yoshida Department of Ophthalmology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Japan Purpose: To evaluate how the growth of neovascularization elsewhere (NVE was delineated in an eye with hemicentral retinal vein occlusion (CRVO using optical coherence tomography (OCT angiography. Patients and methods: We examined a 64-year-old man diagnosed with hemi-CRVO. The area around the occluded vein was scanned using a spectral-domain OCT device (RTVue XR Avanti. Blood flow was detected using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA algorithm. Color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA, and OCT angiography examinations were performed at the first visit and at 3 and 6 months postpresentation. Results: At the first visit, FA revealed delayed retinal venous filling and extensive areas of capillary nonperfusion. The patient underwent a trial of intravitreal ranibizumab injection (0.5 mg/0.05 mL for the treatment of macular edema. At 3 months postpresentation, there was no NVE around the occluded vein in the en-face SSADA image, but at 6 months, NVE appeared on the occluded veins. The en-face SSADA image showed the NVE structure in the fibrovascular membrane on the occluded vein more clearly than FA images. Conclusion: OCT angiography clearly visualized the sprouting of NVE in an eye with hemi-CRVO. New findings of the vascular structure of NVE in hemi-CRVO were revealed using the en-face SSADA algorithm. Keywords: OCT angiography, hemi-CRVO, NVE

  4. Algorithmic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hougardy, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

  5. An unusual case: right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein and distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Serin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 32-years old woman presented to the emergency room of Bozok University Research Hospital with right renal colic. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT showed compression of the proximal ureter by the right ovarian vein and compression of the right distal ureter by the right external iliac vein. To the best of our knowledge, right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein together with distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein have not been reported in the literature. Ovarian vein and external iliac vein compression should be considered in patients presenting to the emergency room with renal colic or low back pain and a dilated collecting system.

  6. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  7. Superficial vein thrombosis in patients with varicose veins: role of thrombophilia factors, age and body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karathanos, Ch; Sfyroeras, G; Drakou, A; Roussas, N; Exarchou, M; Kyriakou, D; Giannoukas, A D

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the association of various risk factors including thrombophilia defects, in patients with varicose veins (VVs) and history of episodes of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT). Two hundred and thirty patients with primary VVs were included in this prospective study. A total of 128 (43 men, age 56 ± 13) had an acute episode or a previous history of SVT, while 102 patients (27 men, age 48 ± 12) did not. Coagulation profile investigation included serum levels of protein C (PC), protein S (PS), anti-thrombin III (AT III), plasminogen (Plg), A(2) antiplasmin (A(2)Apl) and activated protein C resistance (APCR). This was performed at least 3 months after the SVT episode to ensure that the results were not altered. Age and body mass index (BMI) were also assessed. PC deficiency was detected in 3/128 (2.3%), PS deficiency in 19/128 (14.8%), AT III deficiency in 29/128 (22.7%), Plg deficiency in 9/128 (7%), A(2)Apl excess in 3/128 (2.3%) and APCR in 9/128 (7%) patients with SVT and 0/102 (0%), 3/102 (2.9%), 15/102 (14.7%), 6/102 (5.8%), 0/102 (0%) and 1/102 (0.9%) in the control group, respectively. BMI greater than 30 kg m(-2) was associated with SVT. In logistic regression analysis SVT was associated with PS deficiency (odds ratio (OR) 6.7, p = 0.004, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.83-24.53), obesity (OR 3.5, p = 0.003, 95% CI 1.53-8.05) and age (OR 1.038, p = 0.001, 95% CI 1.01-1.06). Obesity, age and PS deficiency were found as factors associated with SVT episodes in patients with VVs. Copyright © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidental retroaortic left innominate vein in adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Semionov, MD, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Retro-aortic left innominate vein is a rare vascular abnormality, usually associated with congenital heart disease. Here we report a case of isolated retro-aortic left innominate vein in an adult female.

  9. Varicose Veins: Role of Mechanotransduction of Venous Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Hussein M.

    2012-01-01

    Varicose veins affect approximately one-third of the adult population and result in significant psychological, physical, and financial burden. Nevertheless, the molecular pathogenesis of varicose vein formation remains unidentified. Venous hypertension exerted on veins of the lower extremity is considered the principal factor in varicose vein formation. The role of mechanotransduction of the high venous pressure in the pathogenesis of varicose vein formation has not been adequately investigated despite a good progress in understanding the mechanomolecular mechanisms involved in transduction of high blood pressure in the arterial wall. Understanding the nature of the mechanical forces, the mechanosensors and mechanotransducers in the vein wall, and the downstream signaling pathways will provide new molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of varicose veins. This paper summarized the current understanding of mechano-molecular pathways involved in transduction of hemodynamic forces induced by blood pressure and tries to relate this information to setting of venous hypertension in varicose veins. PMID:22489273

  10. Venous Thromboembolic Events After Cerebral Vein Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, Bruno; Ferro, José M.; Canhão, Patrícia; Stam, Jan; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Barinagarrementeria, Fernando; Scoditti, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose-After cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis (CVT), there is an increased risk of further venous thromboembolic events (VTEs). Time to a second cerebral or systemic venous thrombotic event and risk factors for recurrence have not been investigated in large prospective

  11. Portal vein thrombosis complicating appendicitis | Ayantunde | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appendicitis is still the most common acute surgical abdomen all over the world and its complications may be grave. We report an adult case of acute appendicitis complicated by Portal Vein Thrombosis (PVT) and ascending portomesenteric phlebitis treated successfully with antibiotics and anticoagulation with no residual ...

  12. Combined central retinalartery and vein occlusion complicating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orbital Cellulitis is a dreaded ophthalmologic disease. Itmay destroy vision and the eye andmay even become life threatening. Often visual loss is the result of exposure and subsequent destruction of ocular tissue commonly the cornea and the uvea. We report a case of combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion ...

  13. Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation; Anatomical Surface Markings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She had undergone numerous central venous cannulations and unsuccessful peripheral vein cut-downs in the past. On two separate occasions she had central venous catheters (CVCs) inserted in theatre using the surface landmark technique and ultrasound-guided technique. This paper describes these procedures and ...

  14. Endovascular vein harvest: systemic carbon dioxide absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew M; Schwartz, Carl S; Bert, Arthur; Hurlburt, Peter; Gough, Jeffrey; Stearns, Gary; Singh, Arun K

    2006-06-01

    Endovascular vein harvest (EDVH) requires CO(2) insufflation to expand the subcutaneous space, allowing visualization and dissection of the saphenous vein. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of CO(2) absorption during EDVH. Prospective observational study. Single tertiary care hospital. Sixty patients (30 EDVH and 30 open-vein harvest) undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Hemodynamic, procedural, and laboratory data were collected prior to (baseline), during, and at it the conclusion (final) of vein harvesting. Data were also collected during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Data were compared by using t tests, analysis of variance, and correlation statistics when needed. There were significant increases in arterial CO(2) (PaCO(2), 35%) and decreases in pH (1.35%) during EDVH. These were associated with increases in heart rate, mean blood pressure, and cardiac output. Within the EDVH group, greater elevations (>10 mmHg) in PaCO2 were more likely during difficult harvest procedures, and these patients exhibited greater increase in heart rate. Elevated CO(2) persisted during CPB, requiring higher systemic gas flows and greater use of phenylephrine to maintain desired hemodynamics. EDVH was associated with systemic absorption of CO(2). Greater absorption was more likely in difficult procedures and was associated with greater hemodynamic changes requiring medical therapy.

  15. Preduodenal portal vein: A potential laparoscopic cholecystectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations of biliary anatomy are well described. Those of most relevance to the operative surgeon are the variations of the extrahepatic ducts and their relationships to the right hepatic artery and its branches. We describe another even rarer congenital anomaly of a preduodenal portal vein. Its embryological derivation and ...

  16. Portal vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Köckritz, Leona; De Gottardi, Andrea; Trebicka, Jonel

    2017-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is frequent in patients with liver cirrhosis and possible severe complications such as mesenteric ischemia are rare, but can be life-threatening. However, different aspects of clinical relevance, diagnosis and management of PVT are still areas of uncertainty...

  17. New Optimization Algorithms in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Alexander K

    2004-01-01

    Many physicists are not aware of the fact that they can solve their problems by applying optimization algorithms. Since the number of such algorithms is steadily increasing, many new algorithms have not been presented comprehensively until now. This presentation of recently developed algorithms applied in physics, including demonstrations of how they work and related results, aims to encourage their application, and as such the algorithms selected cover concepts and methods from statistical physics to optimization problems emerging in theoretical computer science.

  18. Isolated thrombosis of the external jugular vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, M J; Godet, C; Bagó, J; Pellisé, F; Puig, O; Villanueva, C

    2000-08-01

    Thrombosis of the external jugular vein (EJV) is an infrequent clinical condition that has been associated with central venous catheterization, head and neck infections, intravenous drug abuse, and compression at the affected site. The authors report a case of thrombotic obstruction of the EJV in the late postoperative period after laparoscopic anterior lumbar interbody fusion. A 40-year-old morbidly obese woman with a depressive syndrome was diagnosed with L5-S1 discopathy and was submitted to laparoscopic anterior isthmic fusion. The operation lasted approximately 6 hours, during which the patient remained in a supine decubitus and Trendelenburg position. The left radial artery, peripheral veins, and right internal jugular vein were canalized. The internal jugular vein catheter was electively withdrawn 24 hours after the intervention. The postoperative period was satisfactory, and the patient was started on prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin. She sat up and began walking at 24 hours and was discharged to her home 4 days after the procedure. Eight days after discharge she returned, experiencing right cervical pain. Palpation revealed a painful induration and erythematous area under the anterior edge of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Results of otoscopy and laryngoscopy were normal. Cervical echo-Doppler disclosed an image consistent with EJV thrombosis. The most frequent causes of jugular vein thrombosis are mentioned above. A higher incidence has been described after upper abdomen and pelvic surgery; other contributing factors are age, obesity, and associated illness. There are few references in the literature to position-induced EJV thrombosis in the late postoperative period. The authors' patient presented signs and symptoms of EJV thrombosis (probably because of various factors), which was confirmed by echo-Doppler study and treated with 10 days of calcic heparin.

  19. Biometric analysis of the palm vein distribution by means two different techniques of feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Solís-Villarreal, J.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Castro-Ramos, J.

    2014-09-01

    Vein patterns can be used for accessing, identifying, and authenticating purposes; which are more reliable than classical identification way. Furthermore, these patterns can be used for venipuncture in health fields to get on to veins of patients when they cannot be seen with the naked eye. In this paper, an image acquisition system is implemented in order to acquire digital images of people hands in the near infrared. The image acquisition system consists of a CCD camera and a light source with peak emission in the 880 nm. This radiation can penetrate and can be strongly absorbed by the desoxyhemoglobin that is presented in the blood of the veins. Our method of analysis is composed by several steps and the first one of all is the enhancement of acquired images which is implemented by spatial filters. After that, adaptive thresholding and mathematical morphology operations are used in order to obtain the distribution of vein patterns. The above process is focused on the people recognition through of images of their palm-dorsal distributions obtained from the near infrared light. This work has been directed for doing a comparison of two different techniques of feature extraction as moments and veincode. The classification task is achieved using Artificial Neural Networks. Two databases are used for the analysis of the performance of the algorithms. The first database used here is owned of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the second one is our own database.

  20. Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein presenting as deep vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Kyun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein is a rare condition. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with painless swelling in her left lower leg that resembled deep vein thrombosis. She underwent femoral exploration and excision of the cystic wall. The presentation, investigation, treatment, and pathology of this condition are discussed with a literature review.

  1. Comparative analysis of distributed power control algorithms in CDMA

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulhamid, Mohanad F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents comparative analysis of various algorithms of distributed power control used in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems. These algorithms include Distributed Balancing power control algorithm (DB), Modified Distributed Balancing power control algorithm (MDB), Fully Distributed Power Control algorithm (FDPC), Distributed Power Control algorithm (DPC), Distributed Constrained Power Control algorithm (DCPC), Unconstrained Second-Order Power Control algorithm (USOPC), Con...

  2. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters). (b...

  3. Prevalence of Isolated Asymptomatic Deep Vein Thrombosis in Varicose Vein Patients with Superficial Thrombophlebitis: A Single Center Experience in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasugi, Nozomu; Horiguchi, Sadaaki; Shirato, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Toshimitsu; Ono, Hisako; Yabuki, Shiho; Jojima, Kumiko; Niimi, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with primary varicose veins remains unclear. Here, we conducted a retrospective study to clarify the incidence of asymptomatic DVT in patients with varicose veins, especially focusing on those with superficial thrombophlebitis (STP). Among 431 patients with primary varicose veins with saphenous vein incompetence, 20 (4.64%) had asymptomatic DVT. The presence of STP was a significant risk factor for asymptomatic DVT as 10 of the 24 (41.7%) patients with STP had asymptomatic DVT, and all cases having calf muscle vein thrombosis. In contrast, of the patients with primary varicose veins without STP only 2.46% had asymptomatic DVT. In patients with primary varicose veins with STP, significant risk factors for DVT were being over C3 on the clinical, etiological, anatomical, and pathophysiological (CEAP) classification. (This article is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2014; 25: 13-19.).

  4. Perivenous support reduces early changes in human vein grafts : Studies in whole blood perfused human vein segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stooker, W; Niessen, HWM; Baidoshvili, A; Wildevuur, WR; Van Hinsbergh, VWH; Fritz, J; Wildevuur, CRH; Eijsman, L

    Background: Patency of vein grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting procedures is generally less favorable than those of selected arterial grafts. However, vein grafts still are needed in cardiac operations. It would be desirable to find measures to improve the patency of vein grafts next to

  5. ClariVein® - Early results from a large single-centre series of mechanochemical endovenous ablation for varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T Y; Kam, J W; Gaunt, M E

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study assessed the effectiveness and patient experience of the ClariVein® endovenous occlusion catheter for varicose veins from a large single-centre series in the UK. Methods A total of 300 patients (371 legs) underwent ClariVein® treatment for their varicose veins; 184 for great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence, 62 bilateral GSV, 23 short saphenous vein (SSV), 6 bilateral SSV and 25 combined unilateral great saphenous vein and SSV. Patients were reviewed at an interval of two months post procedure and underwent Duplex ultrasound assessment. Postoperative complications were recorded along with patient satisfaction. Results All 393 procedures were completed successfully under local anaesthetic. Complete occlusion of the treated vein was initially achieved in all the patients, but at eight weeks' follow-up, there was only partial obliteration in 13/393 (3.3%) veins. These were all successfully treated with ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy. Procedures were well tolerated with a mean pain score of 0.8 (0-10). No significant complications were reported. Conclusions ClariVein® can be used to ablate long and short saphenous varicose veins on a walk-in-walk-out basis. Bilateral procedures can be successfully performed, and these are well tolerated as can multiple veins in the same leg. Early results are promising but further evaluation and longer term follow-up are required.

  6. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...

  7. Clinical course and effective treatment of varicose vein of lower limb in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.O. Syniachenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 is a risk factor for arteriosclerosis of the lower extremities, and the relationship with the state of the feet venous vascular territory remains insufficiently studied, the effectiveness of surgical treatment of patients with varicose veins is not defined. Objective: to analyze the clinical course of foot varicose veins and the effectiveness of medical measures on the background of DM2. Materials and methods. The study included 302 patients (227 men and 75 women aged 29–72 years old, 16 % of which had previous phlebothrombosis and the prevalece of II, III, IV, V and VI class of venous insufficiency was 10, 14, 37 16 and 23 %, respectively. 263 patients underwent endovenous laser coagulation, and 39 — the traditional phlebectomy and ligation of perforating veins. Results. Among the examined patients with varicose veins of lower extremities DM2 was diagnosed in 9 % of cases, more often in males and elderly patients on the background of atherosclerosis of the foot vessels (iliac, femoral, tibial, popliteal artery, which was accompanied by more frequent involvement of the great saphenous vein in the process and its gate extension, the prevalence of severe grades of venous insufficiency, significantly worse the results of surgical treatment of varicose veins and greater frequency of complications, despite more frequent using of rivaroxaban and low molecular weight heparins, and the effectiveness of endovenous laser ablation after four weeks of its implementation is inferior to that in the group without DM2, while glycemic index inversely correlated with the surface tension of the venous blood, which has prognostic significance in the context of future medical interventions. Conclusions. The presence of DM2 is a risk factor for more severe feet varicose veins, is a negative predictive factor in the effectiveness of surgical treatment of the disease and the complications number.

  8. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Sonography of the lower extremity veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Małek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article has been prepared on the basis of the Ultrasonography Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011 and updated based on the latest findings and reports. Ultrasound examination of the lower extremity veins is relatively easy and commonly used to confirm or rule out venous thrombosis. However, a relatively easy compression test frequently requires experience, particularly in situations when imaging is difficult (due to lymphedema, dressing or thick tissues. The technique is time-consuming and requires assessment of each deep vein every 1 cm. Lesions in the deep veins cannot be ruled out when the vessels are assessed in only 2–3 points – a full examination is needed. The value of the method is the highest when the proximal section is assessed and the lowest when crural veins are evaluated. Doppler sonography is the basic method used when patients are prepared for a surgery of varicose veins. The assessment of the superficial veins prior to this procedure is tedious and requires knowledge of anatomy together with numerous variants. A considerable challenge is posed by re-assessment of recurrent varicose veins following a previous surgery. The Standards include anatomic nomenclature proposed by the Polish Society for Vascular Surgery and Polish Society of Phlebology, which should facilitate communication with clinicians. The most beneficial patient positions have been thoroughly discussed in terms of safety and effectiveness of the examination. Sometimes during such an examination, no venous pathology is found, but other changes with symptoms that suggest deep thrombophlebitis are detected. In such a situation, it is necessary to conduct an initial (or complete, if possible assessment of lesions as well as provide recommendations connected with further, more detailed diagnosis.

  9. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Sonography of the lower extremity veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    This article has been prepared on the basis of the Ultrasonography Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011) and updated based on the latest findings and reports. Ultrasound examination of the lower extremity veins is relatively easy and commonly used to confirm or rule out venous thrombosis. However, a relatively easy compression test frequently requires experience, particularly in situations when imaging is difficult (due to lymphedema, dressing or thick tissues). The technique is time-consuming and requires assessment of each deep vein every 1 cm. Lesions in the deep veins cannot be ruled out when the vessels are assessed in only 2–3 points – a full examination is needed. The value of the method is the highest when the proximal section is assessed and the lowest when crural veins are evaluated. Doppler sonography is the basic method used when patients are prepared for a surgery of varicose veins. The assessment of the superficial veins prior to this procedure is tedious and requires knowledge of anatomy together with numerous variants. A considerable challenge is posed by re-assessment of recurrent varicose veins following a previous surgery. The Standards include anatomic nomenclature proposed by the Polish Society for Vascular Surgery and Polish Society of Phlebology, which should facilitate communication with clinicians. The most beneficial patient positions have been thoroughly discussed in terms of safety and effectiveness of the examination. Sometimes during such an examination, no venous pathology is found, but other changes with symptoms that suggest deep thrombophlebitis are detected. In such a situation, it is necessary to conduct an initial (or complete, if possible) assessment of lesions as well as provide recommendations connected with further, more detailed diagnosis. PMID:26675992

  10. Nomenclature of the veins of the lower limb: extensions, refinements, and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiati, Alberto; Bergan, John J; Gloviczki, Peter; Eklof, Bo; Allegra, Claudio; Partsch, Hugo

    2005-04-01

    The relative deficiency of the official Terminologia Anatomica with regard to the veins of the lower limbs was responsible for a nonuniform anatomic nomenclature in the clinical literature. In 2001, an International Interdisciplinary Committee updated and refined the official Terminologia Anatomica regarding the veins of the lower limbs. Recommendations for terminology were included in an updating document that appeared in the Journal of Vascular Surgery (2002;36:416-22). To enhance further the use of a common scientific language, the committee worked on the present document, which includes (1) extensions and refinements regarding the veins of the lower limbs; (2) the nomenclature of the venous system of the pelvis; (3) the use of eponyms; and (4) the use of terms and adjectives of particular importance in clinical vascular anatomy.

  11. Embolization of incompetent pelvic veins for the treatment of recurrent varicose veins in lower limbs and pelvic congestion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Luis; Fava, Mario; Diaz, Pía; Andía, Marcelo; Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Irarrazabal, Pablo; Uribe, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  12. Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Alain; Bailly, Laurent; André, Anne-Sylvie; Monié, Patrick; Cassard, Daniel; Tajada, Fernando Llosa; Vargas, Juan Rosas; Tuduri, Johann

    2006-07-01

    The epithermal Shila-Paula Au-Ag district is characterized by numerous veins hosted in Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Western Cordillera (southern Peru). Field studies of the ore bodies reveal a systematic association of a main E-W vein with secondary N55-60°W veins—two directions that are also reflected by the orientation of fluid-inclusion planes in quartz crystals of the host rock. In areas where this pattern is not recognized, such as the Apacheta sector, vein emplacement seems to have been guided by regional N40°E and N40°W fractures. Two main vein-filling stages are identified. stage 1 is a quartz-adularia-pyrite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-electrum-Mn silicate-carbonate assemblage that fills the main E-W veins. stage 2, which contains most of the precious-metal mineralization, is divided into pre-bonanza and bonanza substages. The pre-bonanza substage consists of a quartz-adularia-carbonate assemblage that is observed within the secondary N45-60°W veins, in veinlets that cut the stage 1 assemblage, and in final open-space fillings. The two latter structures are finally filled by the bonanza substage characterized by a Fe-poor sphalerite-chalcopyrite-pyrite-galena-tennantite-tetrahedrite-polybasite-pearceite-electrum assemblage. The ore in the main veins is systematically brecciated, whereas the ore in the secondary veins and geodes is characteristic of open-space crystallization. Microthermometric measurements on sphalerite from both stages and on quartz and calcite from stage 2 indicate a salinity range of 0 to 15.5 wt% NaCl equivalent and homogenization temperatures bracketed between 200 and 330°C. Secondary CO2-, N2- and H2S-bearing fluid inclusions are also identified. The age of vein emplacement, based on 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained on adularia of different veins, is estimated at around 11 Ma, with some overlap between adularia of stage 1 (11.4±0.4 Ma) and of stage 2 (10.8±0.3 Ma). A three-phase tectonic model has been constructed to explain the

  13. Gold grade distribution within an epithermal quartz vein system, Kestanelik, NW Turkey: implications for gold exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyuz, Nilay; Shipton, Zoe; Gulyuz, Erhan; Lord, Richard; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Kuscu, İlkay

    2017-04-01

    Vein-hosted gold deposits contribute a large part to the global gold production. Discovery of these deposits mainly include drilling of hundreds of holes, collecting thousands of soil and rock samples and some geophysical surveys which are expensive and time consuming. Understanding the structures hosting the veins and the variations in gold concentrations within the veins is crucial to constrain a more economic exploration program. The main aim of this study is to investigate the gold grade distribution in the mineralized quartz veins of a well exposed epithermal gold deposit hosted by Paleozoic schist and Eocene quartz-feldspar-hornblende porphyry in Lapseki, NW Turkey. We have constructed 3D architecture of the vein surfaces by mapping their outcrop geometries using a highly sensitive Trimble GPS, collecting detailed field data, well-logs and geochemistry data from 396 drill holes (255 diamond cut and 141 reverse circulation holes). Modelling was performed in MOVE Structural Modelling and Analysis software granted by Midland Valley's Academic Software Initiative, and GIS application softwares Global Mapper and Esri-ArcGIS. We envisaged that while fluid entering the conduit ascents, a sudden thickness increase in the conduit would lead to a drop in the fluid pressure causing boiling (the most dominant gold precipitation mechanism) and associated gold precipitation. Regression analysis was performed between the orthogonal thickness values and gold grades of each vein, and statistical analyses were performed to see if the gold is concentrated at specific structural positions along dip. Gold grades in the alteration zones were compared to those in the adjacent veins to understand the degree of mineralization in alteration zones. A possible correlation was also examined between the host rock type and the gold grades in the veins. These studies indicated that gold grades are elevated in the adjacent alteration zones where high gold grades exist in the veins. Schist

  14. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlin Tang

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The lessons we learned are (1 Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2 Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3 Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4 It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival.

  15. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of varicose veins among female hairdressers: a cross sectional study in north-east of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Amanpour, Farzaneh; Bolbol Haghighi, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Venous diseases including varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency are one of the most important pathogenic factors worldwide. High prevalence of varicose veins and its complications is an emerging problem in the twenty-first century. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of varicose veins in female hairdressers in Shahroud, north of Iran in 2012. In this cross-sectional study, 197 employed hairdressers, licensed by the Health Department of Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Iran, were studied. Standard physical examination was used to check the condition of varicose veins of the lower extremities of participants. Data were collected by demographic information form. Proportional odds model for ordinal logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between risk factors and status of varicose disease in subjects. Prevalence of varicose veins was 47.7%. Varicose veins were significantly associated with age (OR=1.08; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.13); family history of varicose disease (OR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.82), blood pressure (OR=4.41; 95% CI: 1.63, 11.90); and duration of standing (OR=2.34; 95% CI: 1.05, 5.22). Varicose veins in the legs of female hairdressers had a high prevalence, and it was associated with increasing age, family history of varicose disease, high blood Pressure, and prolonged standing.

  17. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...... at the national referral hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark, from 2009 to 2012. RESULTS: In total, five cases of absent right superior caval vein were reviewed. No significant associated cardiac, extra-cardiac, or genetic anomalies were found. Postnatal echocardiographies confirmed the diagnosis and there were...

  18. Lower extremity dep vein thrombosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlmutt, L.; Fellows, K.E.; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

    1983-01-01

    Of 113 leg venograms performed in patients of all ages between 1969 and 1982, 68 were in children 16 years old or less. The patients were all studied on a tilt table (method of Rabinov and Paulin) in a head-up, 40-50 0 incline without tourniquets, supporting their weight on the unaffected leg. Among the 68 venograms, 12 (18%) were positive for deep vein thrombosis. The clinical settings for thrombosis in children were post-catheterization (two patients), post surgery (two), tumor/tumor therapy (three), drug abuse (one), and idiopathic (three). There were no long-term clinical sequelae in five patients. Pulmonary infarction occurred in three, and three patients required either long-term anticoagulation or IVC clipping. Clinical diagnosis is no more accurate for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in children than it is in adults. Venography is the best method for making an accurate diagnosis and directing subsequent therapy.(orig.)

  19. Deep Vein Thrombosis after Coronary Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Singh Guleria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is a rare but potentially serious complication of coronary angiography (CAG, incidence being just 0.05%. Only a few clinical cases of DVT after diagnostic transfemoral catheterization have been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 54-year-old woman who developed significant DVT after CAG without venous thromboembolism (VTE and, which was treated with anticoagulants.

  20. Brucellosis associated with deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolaj, Ilir; Mehmeti, Murat; Ramadani, Hamdi; Tolaj, Jasmina; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Fejza, Hajrullah

    2014-11-19

    Over the past 10 years more than 700 cases of brucellosis have been reported in Kosovo, which is heavily oriented towards agriculture and animal husbandry. Here, brucellosis is still endemic and represents an uncontrolled public health problem. Human brucellosis may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations; among them, vascular complications are uncommon. Hereby we describe the case of a 37-year-old male patient with brucellosis complicated by deep vein thrombosis on his left leg.

  1. Brucellosis associated with deep vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Tolaj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 10 years more than 700 cases of brucellosis have been reported in Kosovo, which is heavily oriented towards agriculture and animal husbandry. Here, brucellosis is still endemic and represents an uncontrolled public health problem. Human brucellosis may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations; among them, vascular complications are uncommon. Hereby we describe the case of a 37-year-old male patient with brucellosis complicated by deep vein thrombosis on his left leg.

  2. Angiographic investigation of the male gonadal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Boehm, K.; Horvath, L.; Molnar, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Retrograde angiography of the gonadal vein was carried out in 110 cases. Because of valve-insufficience the left vena spermatica interna filled spontaneously from the vena renalis in the majority (88%) of the cases. In the cases of well functioning valves superselective angiography was carried out. The examination is advised in cases of the following syndromes: varicokele, abdominal tumours, determination of the place of non-palpable testes, Klinefelter syndrome. (L.E.)

  3. Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Praxedes, Marcia da; Malheiros, Noemia Reis; Machado, Dianne Melo; Carvalho, Ana Alice Vidal de; Marchiori, Edson; Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ; Santos, Alair Augusto S.M.

    1995-01-01

    A case of superior mesenteric mesenteric vein thrombosis diagnosed by computed tomography in 29 year-old man with abdominal pain, without any predisposing pathologic disorders is reported. This patient had a chronic evolution, had not resulting in mesenteric infarction. He was treated conservatively with anticoagulant therapy and recanalization of the involved vessels was demonstrated by another computed tomography. The patient is asymptomatic now. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  4. Deep vein thrombosis: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, W.P.; Youngswick, F.D.

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a dangerous complication that may present after elective foot surgery. Because of the frequency with which DVT occurs in the elderly patient, as well as in the podiatric surgical population, the podiatrist should be acquainted with this entity. A review of the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and the role of podiatry in the management of DVT is discussed in this paper.

  5. Correlation of Peripheral Vein Tumour Marker Levels, Internal Iliac Vein Tumour Marker Levels and Radical Prostatectomy Specimens in Patients with Prostate Cancer and Borderline High Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrelly, Cormac, E-mail: farrellycormac@gmail.com [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Lal, Priti [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (United States); Trerotola, Scott O.; Nadolski, Gregory J.; Watts, Micah M. [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Gorrian, Catherine Mc. [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, University College Dublin School of Medicine & Medical Science (Ireland); Guzzo, Thomas J. [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Urology and Surgery (United States)

    2016-05-15

    PurposeTo correlate prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free to total PSA percentage (fPSA%) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) levels from peripheral and pelvic venous samples with prostatectomy specimens in patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and borderline elevation of PSA.Materials and MethodsIn this prospective institutional review board approved study, 7 patients with biopsy proven prostate cancer had a venous sampling procedure prior to prostatectomy (mean 3.2 days, range 1–7). Venous samples were taken from a peripheral vein (PVS), the right internal iliac vein, a deep right internal iliac vein branch, left internal iliac vein and a deep left internal iliac vein branch. Venous sampling results were compared to tumour volume, laterality, stage and grade in prostatectomy surgical specimens.ResultsMean PVS PSA was 4.29, range 2.3–6 ng/ml. PSA and PAP values in PVS did not differ significantly from internal iliac or deep internal iliac vein samples (p > 0.05). fPSA% was significantly higher in internal iliac (p = 0.004) and deep internal iliac (p = 0.003) vein samples compared to PVS. One of 7 patients had unilateral tumour only. This patient, with left–sided tumour, had a fPSA% of 6, 6, 6, 14 and 12 in his peripheral, right internal iliac, deep right internal iliac branch, left internal iliac and deep left internal iliac branch samples respectively. There were no adverse events.ConclusionfPSA%, unlike total PSA or PAP, is significantly higher in pelvic vein compared to peripheral vein samples when prostate cancer is present. Larger studies including patients with higher PSA values are warranted to further investigate this counterintuitive finding.

  6. Correlation of Peripheral Vein Tumour Marker Levels, Internal Iliac Vein Tumour Marker Levels and Radical Prostatectomy Specimens in Patients with Prostate Cancer and Borderline High Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrelly, Cormac; Lal, Priti; Trerotola, Scott O.; Nadolski, Gregory J.; Watts, Micah M.; Gorrian, Catherine Mc.; Guzzo, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo correlate prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free to total PSA percentage (fPSA%) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) levels from peripheral and pelvic venous samples with prostatectomy specimens in patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and borderline elevation of PSA.Materials and MethodsIn this prospective institutional review board approved study, 7 patients with biopsy proven prostate cancer had a venous sampling procedure prior to prostatectomy (mean 3.2 days, range 1–7). Venous samples were taken from a peripheral vein (PVS), the right internal iliac vein, a deep right internal iliac vein branch, left internal iliac vein and a deep left internal iliac vein branch. Venous sampling results were compared to tumour volume, laterality, stage and grade in prostatectomy surgical specimens.ResultsMean PVS PSA was 4.29, range 2.3–6 ng/ml. PSA and PAP values in PVS did not differ significantly from internal iliac or deep internal iliac vein samples (p > 0.05). fPSA% was significantly higher in internal iliac (p = 0.004) and deep internal iliac (p = 0.003) vein samples compared to PVS. One of 7 patients had unilateral tumour only. This patient, with left–sided tumour, had a fPSA% of 6, 6, 6, 14 and 12 in his peripheral, right internal iliac, deep right internal iliac branch, left internal iliac and deep left internal iliac branch samples respectively. There were no adverse events.ConclusionfPSA%, unlike total PSA or PAP, is significantly higher in pelvic vein compared to peripheral vein samples when prostate cancer is present. Larger studies including patients with higher PSA values are warranted to further investigate this counterintuitive finding.

  7. A multiparametric and multiscale approach to automated segmentation of brain veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, S; Palma, G; Borrelli, P; Tedeschi, E; Cocozza, S; Salvatore, M; Mancini, M

    2015-08-01

    Cerebral vein analysis provides a fundamental tool to study brain diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders or traumatic brain injuries. In order to assess the vascular anatomy, manual segmentation approaches can be used but are observer-dependent and time-consuming. In the present work, a fully automated cerebral vein segmentation method is proposed, based on a multiscale and multiparametric approach. The combined investigation of the R2(*)- and a Vesselness probability-map was used to obtain a fast and highly reliable classification of venous voxels. A semiquantitative analysis showed that our approach outperformed the previous state-of-the-art algorithm both in sensitivity and specificity. Inclusion of this tool within a parametric brain framework may therefore pave the way for a quantitative study of the intracranial venous system.

  8. Quantitative Doppler measures in coiled vessels: investigation on excised umbilical veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiot, C; Roatta, S; Piccoli, E; Saccomandi, F; Todros, T

    1999-11-01

    Quantitative assessment of umbilical venous blood velocity with Doppler ultrasound (US) must cope with the coiled structure of the vein inside the cord. Both an experimental and a theoretical approach showed remarkable variations in the insonation angle when the probe was moved along the vein, provided the inclination between the Doppler probe and the cord was kept constant. Inaccurate signal processing, stochastic variability and flow disturbances could, however, mask the influence of the geometry. The above hypotheses were assessed by investigating five cords in vitro a few hours after delivery from normal pregnancies at term. The Doppler signal was sampled at different sites along each cord and the mean Doppler shift estimated by FFT spectral analysis, both directly and through the noise rejection D'Alessio's algorithm, which proved effective in improving the Doppler shift estimate in condition of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

  9. A complicated case of deep vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cerutti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient with deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE associated to portal vein thrombosis (PVT, complicated by hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP. The pathogenesis of DVT is multifactorial; among risk factors we can list: transitory situations (surgical interventions, infectious diseases with fever, traumas, acquired conditions (neoplasms, antiphospholipid syndrome or genetically determined situations (thrombophilia. PVT of the sovrahepatic veins is responsible for 5-10% of portal hypertension cases in adults and can be associated to local or systemic infections. PVT is present in 10% of patients with cirrhosis and often associated to cancers. It can also complicate a surgery abdominal intervention. HAP is defined as pneumonia that appears for the first time within 48 h of hospital admission. In Internal Medicine Departments the incidence is 7-10 cases/1.000 of hospital admissions, with an important impact in terms of both mortality and morbility. An early diagnosis, together with a correct identification of microbiologic agents in cause, allows a suitable antibiotic therapy with consequent improvement of clinical prognosis and a meaningful reduction of mortality. Main risk factors are: age, hospital and department. An important variable to be considered is the onset of pneumonia. The later is the onset of HAP (5 or more days from the admission to hospital, the more often is associated to multidrug resistant (MRD microorganisms, poorly responsive to antibiotic.

  10. Compressed sensing approach for wrist vein biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantsov, Aleksey; Ryabko, Maxim; Shchekin, Aleksey

    2017-10-13

    The work describes features of the compressed sensing (CS) approach utilized for development of a wearable system for wrist vein recognition with single-pixel detection; we consider this system useful for biometrics authentication purposes. The CS approach implies use of a spatial light modulation (SLM) which, in our case, can be performed differently-with a liquid crystal display or diffusely scattering medium. We show that compressed sensing combined with above-mentioned means of SLM allows us to avoid using an optical system-a limiting factor for wearable devices. The trade-off between the 2 different SLM approaches regarding issues of practical implementation of CS approach for wrist vein recognition purposes is discussed. A possible solution of a misalignment problem-a typical issue for imaging systems based upon 2D arrays of photodiodes-is also proposed. Proposed design of the wearable device for wrist vein recognition is based upon single-pixel detection. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Distal anastomotic vein adjunct usage in infrainguinal prosthetic bypasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, James T; Goodney, Philip P; Schanzer, Andres; Shaykevich, Shimon; Belkin, Michael; Menard, Matthew T

    2013-04-01

    Single-segment saphenous vein remains the optimal conduit for infrainguinal revascularization. In its absence, prosthetic conduit may be used. Existing data regarding the significance of anastomotic distal vein adjunct (DVA) usage with prosthetic grafts are based on small series. This is a retrospective cohort analysis derived from the regional Vascular Study Group of New England as well as the Brigham and Women's hospital database. A total of 1018 infrainguinal prosthetic bypass grafts were captured in the dataset from 73 surgeons at 15 participating institutions. Propensity scoring and 3:1 matching was performed to create similar exposure groups for analysis. Outcome measures of interest included: primary patency, freedom from major adverse limb events (MALEs), and amputation free survival at 1 year as a function of vein patch utilization. Time to event data were compared with the log-rank test; multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the adjusted association between vein cuff usage and the primary end points. DVA was defined as a vein patch, cuff, or boot in any configuration. Of the 1018 bypass operations, 94 (9.2%) had a DVA whereas 924 (90.8%) did not (no DVA). After propensity score matching, 88 DVAs (25%) and 264 no DVAs (75%) were analyzed. On univariate analysis of the matched cohort, the DVA and no DVA groups were similar in terms of mean age (70.0 vs 69.0; P = .55), male sex (58.0% vs 58.3%; P > .99), and preoperative characteristics such as living at home (93.2% vs 94.3%; P = .79) and independent ambulatory status (72.7% vs 75.7%; P = .64). The DVA and no DVA groups had similar rates of major comorbidities such as hypertension chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and dialysis dependence (P > .05 for all). Likewise, they had similar rates of distal origin grafts (13.6% vs 12.5%; P = .85), critical limb ischemia indications (P = .53), and prior arterial bypass (58% vs 47%; P = .08

  12. Comparison between mechanical properties of human saphenous vein and umbilical vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamedani Borhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a main cause of mortality in developed countries, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is known as silent killer with a considerable cost to be dedicated for its treatment. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG is a common remedy for CAD for which different blood vessels are used as a detour. There is a lack of knowledge about mechanical properties of human blood vessels used for CABG, and while these properties have a great impact on long-term patency of a CABG. Thus, studying these properties, especially those of human umbilical veins which have not been considered yet, looks utterly necessary. Methods Umbilical vein, as well as human Saphenous vein, are respectively obtained after cesarean and CABG. First, histological tests were performed to investigate different fiber contents of the samples. Having prepared samples carefully, force-displacement results of samples were rendered to real stress–strain measurements and then a fourth-order polynomial was used to prove the non-linear behavior of these two vessels. Results Results were analyzed in two directions, i.e. circumferentially and longitudinally, which then were compared with each other. The comparison between stiffness and elasticity of these veins showed that Saphenous vein’s stiffness is much higher than that of umbilical vein and also, it is less stretchable. Furthermore, for both vessels, longitudinal stiffness was higher than that of circumferential and in stark contrast, stretch ratio in circumferential direction came much higher than longitudinal orientation. Conclusion Blood pressure is very high in the region of aorta, so there should be a stiff blood vessel in this area and previous investigations showed that stiffer vessels would have a better influence on the flow of bypass. To this end, the current study has made an attempt to compare these two blood vessels’ stiffness, finding that Saphenous vein is stiffer than umbilical vein which is somehow as stiff as

  13. Fast magnetic reconstruction of the portal vein with allogeneic blood vessels in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Pei; Yan, Xiao-Peng; Xue, Fei; Dong, Ding-Hui; Zhang, Xu-Feng; Ma, Feng; Wang, Hao-Hua; Lv, Yi

    2015-06-01

    The resection and reconstruction of large vessels, including the portal vein, are frequently needed in tumor resection. Warm ischemia before reconstruction might have deleterious effects on the function of some vital organs and therefore, how to reconstruct the vessels quickly after resection is extremely important. The present study was to introduce a new type of magnetic compression anastomosis (MCA) device to establish a quick non-suture anastomosis of the portal vein after resection in canines. The new MCA device consists of a pair of titanium alloy and neodymium-ferrum-boron magnet (Ti-NdFeB) composite rings. The NdFeB magnetic ring as a core of the device was hermetically sealed inside the biomedical titanium alloy case. Twelve canines were divided into two groups: a MCA group in which the end-to-end anastomoses was made with a new device after resection in the portal vein and a traditional manual suture (TMS) group consisted of 6 canines. The anastomosis time, anastomotic patency and quality were investigated at week 24 postoperatively. The portal vein was reconstructed successfully in all of the animals and they all survived. The duration of portal vein anastomosis was significantly shorter in the MCA group than in the TMS group (8.16+/-1.25 vs 36.24+/-2.17 min, PNdFeB composite MCA device was applicable in reconstruction of large vessels after resection. This device was easy to use and the anastomosis was functionally better than the traditional sutured anastomosis.

  14. A novel technique for distal fingertip replantation: Polypropylene suture guided interpositional vein graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaci, Mehmet; Ince, Bilsev; Altuntas, Zeynep; Bitik, Ozan; Uzun, Hakan; Bilgen, Fatma

    2015-05-04

    Despite current advances in microsurgery, fingertip replantation is still controversial, mainly due to its difficulty and cost. The purpose of this study is to describe a new technique of interposition vein graft guided by polypropylene suture in distal fingertip replantation. A total of eight consecutive Tamai zone 1 fingertip replantations performed by the same author were included. All replantations were performed using interposition vein graft guided by polypropylene suture. This technique involved a vein graft of ∼ 2 cm, with appropriate calibration, obtained from the volar part of the forearm and a 2-0 polyprolene suture passed through the interposition vein graft. Then, a polypropylene suture guide carrying the vein graft was inserted into the artery. The anastomosis was easily performed with the aid of 10-0 or 11-0 nylon in a bloodless medium and without encountering the posterior wall problem. Average surgery time was 2.5 hours (range = 2-3 hours). Among eight Tamai zone 1 replantations, six were successful (75%). There were two replantations lost because of arterial failure. This technique may ease fingertip replantations and increase the success rate for Tamai zone 1 injuries.

  15. [Indications for the Greenfield filter at the distal side of renal veins. 15 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, J; Balmat, P; Philippe, P M; Combe, M; Milleret, P

    1986-05-01

    Analysis of results of short- and medium-term use of 15 Greenfield's filters (GF) introduced distal to renal veins confirmed the good nephrologic tolerance and efficacy of partial interruption of suprarenal inferior vena cava. The surgical technic necessarily involves use of internal jugular vein (with the exclusion of femoral vein) and it is recommended to insert the GF in the retro-hepatic vena cava at a distance from renal veins. Review of 53 cases reported in the world literature indicates cases suitable for this procedure as being patients with severe thromboembolic accidents unable to be treated by direct surgery, fibrinolysis or by effective anticoagulation. Indications for use of a suprarenal GF include suprarenal extension of a caval thrombus or lack of efficacy of an anterior caval block proximal to renal veins. In these cases, that are rare and should remain so, the suprarenal Greenfield filter is the most satisfactory solution at the present time for ensuring the very poor vital prognosis of this very particular group of patients.

  16. Superficial vein ablation for the treatment of primary chronic venous ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufian, S; Lakhanpal, S; Marquez, J

    2011-10-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to review our experience with ablation of superficial veins with significant reflux, using VNUS ClosureFAST RF (radiofrequency) or laser 980 nm, in patients with primary chronic venous ulcers, and also determine its effects in ulcer healing and ulcer recurrence. Included were 25 limbs (18 patients with chronic primary venous ulcers (clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological elements [CEAP] classification C6), who underwent endovenous ablation with RF for the axial veins or laser for the perforating veins during a two-year period. Of the 18 patients, there were eight men and 10 women. The median age of the group was 68 (range 37-89) years. The number of ablations done in each leg with an ulcer varied from one to eight, with a median of three. During a follow-up period of 6-12 months, one patient failed ulcer healing despite sequential ablations of refluxing veins. There was one case that developed recurrence of a small ulcer after six months and was successfully treated with a perforator ablation. Endovenous ablation of incompetent superficial veins improves the healing of chronic primary venous ulcers and decreases the recurrence rates.

  17. ABDUCENS NERVE PALSY AND THROMBOSIS OF THE CEREBRAL VEINS AND SINUSES - A DIAGNOSTIC PITFALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J. Tzoukeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses is an infrequent cerebrovascular disorder. Because the highly variable symptoms, recent neuroimaging plays a key role in the diagnosis. Abducens nerve palsy as a focal neurological deficit is a rare clinical manifestation in these patients. We present two cases with sudden onset of diplopia and headache. Case 1: A 3-year old girl with B cell lymphoblastic leukemia developed bilateral abducens deficit and bilateral optic disc edema after treatment including L-asparaginase. Thrombosis of the right jugular vein, sagittal and right sigmoid sinuses was visualized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance venography (MRV. Symptoms gradually resolved after treatment with enoxiparine and MRV demonstrated recanalization.Case 2: A 75-year old female with medical history of arterial hypertension presented with headache and sudden left abduction deficit. Computerized tomography (CT scan was normal. MRI and MRV revealed aging brain and disruption of venous flow at the left internal jugular vein, suspecting thrombosis. Extracranial colour duplex sonography and CT angiography proved haemodinamic equivalent of left internal jugular vein thrombosis due to sclerotic pathology of aortic arch.Our first case illustrates the role of improved neuroimaging techniques as the best method for diagnosis of cerebral veins and sinuses thrombosis, presenting with abducens nerve palsy. With second case the potential neuroimaging pitfalls concerning the accurate diagnosis of these cerebrovascular disorders with neuro-ophthalmologic manifestation are discussed.

  18. Firefly Mating Algorithm for Continuous Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarita Ritthipakdee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a swarm intelligence algorithm, called firefly mating algorithm (FMA, for solving continuous optimization problems. FMA uses genetic algorithm as the core of the algorithm. The main feature of the algorithm is a novel mating pair selection method which is inspired by the following 2 mating behaviors of fireflies in nature: (i the mutual attraction between males and females causes them to mate and (ii fireflies of both sexes are of the multiple-mating type, mating with multiple opposite sex partners. A female continues mating until her spermatheca becomes full, and, in the same vein, a male can provide sperms for several females until his sperm reservoir is depleted. This new feature enhances the global convergence capability of the algorithm. The performance of FMA was tested with 20 benchmark functions (sixteen 30-dimensional functions and four 2-dimensional ones against FA, ALC-PSO, COA, MCPSO, LWGSODE, MPSODDS, DFOA, SHPSOS, LSA, MPDPGA, DE, and GABC algorithms. The experimental results showed that the success rates of our proposed algorithm with these functions were higher than those of other algorithms and the proposed algorithm also required fewer numbers of iterations to reach the global optima.

  19. Association between superficial vein thrombosis and deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Barbara; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Salmhofer, Wolfgang; Kroemer, Susanne; Custovic, Jasmina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with superficial vein thrombosis (SVT). A prospective study in patients with sonographically proven SVT. Outpatient department of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz. Patients Forty-six consecutive patients with superficial vein thrombosis were enrolled. Intervention Every patient underwent color-coded duplex sonography of both lower extremities at the beginning of the study. Important risk factors (eg, history of thromboembolic events, recent immobilization, active malignant disease, and the use of oral contraceptives) were investigated. In 24% of our patients, a concomitant, mostly asymptomatic DVT was found. In 73% of these patients, the DVT occurred in the affected leg, in 9% in the contralateral leg, and in 18% in both legs. The calf muscle veins were most commonly involved. In all patients with DVT, the SVT was located on the lower leg and the D-dimer findings were positive. Superficial vein thrombosis is not a life-threatening disease, but the risk of concomitant DVT cannot be ignored. Color-coded duplex sonography should be performed in patients with SVT to rule out DVT.

  20. Development of Thrombus in a Systemic Vein after Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimatsu, Rika; Yamagami, Takuji; Tanaka, Osamu; Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Okuda, Kotaro; Hashiba, Mitsuoki [Fukuchiyama City Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the frequency and risk factors for developing thrombus in a systemic vein such as the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the iliac vein, in which a balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) catheter was indwelled. Forty-nine patients who underwent B-RTO for gastric varices were included in this study. The B-RTO procedure was performed from the right femoral vein, and the B-RTO catheter was retained overnight in all patients. Pre- and post-procedural CT scans were retrospectively compared in order to evaluate the development of thrombus in the systemic vein in which the catheter was indwelled. Additionally, several variables were analyzed to assess risk factors for thrombus in a systemic vein. In all 49 patients (100%), B-RTO was technically successful, and in 46 patients (94%), complete thrombosis of the gastric varices was achieved. In 6 patients (12%), thrombus developed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the right common-external iliac vein. All thrombi lay longitudinally on the right side of the inferior vena cava or the right iliac vein. One of the aforementioned 6 patients required anticoagulation therapy. No symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism were observed. Prothrombin time-international normalized ratio and the addition of 5% ethanolamine oleate iopamidol, on the second day, were related to the development of thrombus. Development of a thrombus in a systemic vein such as the inferior vena cava or iliac vein, caused by indwelling of the B-RTO catheter, is relatively frequent. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of pulmonary embolism due to iliocaval thrombosis.

  1. Towards Robot-Assisted Retinal Vein Cannulation: A Motorized Force-Sensing Microneedle Integrated with a Handheld Micromanipulator †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonenc, Berk; Chae, Jeremy; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell H.; Iordachita, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Retinal vein cannulation is a technically demanding surgical procedure where therapeutic agents are injected into the retinal veins to treat occlusions. The clinical feasibility of this approach has been largely limited by the technical challenges associated with performing the procedure. Among the challenges to successful vein cannulation are identifying the moment of venous puncture, achieving cannulation of the micro-vessel, and maintaining cannulation throughout drug delivery. Recent advances in medical robotics and sensing of tool-tissue interaction forces have the potential to address each of these challenges as well as to prevent tissue trauma, minimize complications, diminish surgeon effort, and ultimately promote successful retinal vein cannulation. In this paper, we develop an assistive system combining a handheld micromanipulator, called “Micron”, with a force-sensing microneedle. Using this system, we examine two distinct methods of precisely detecting the instant of venous puncture. This is based on measured tool-tissue interaction forces and also the tracked position of the needle tip. In addition to the existing tremor canceling function of Micron, a new control method is implemented to actively compensate unintended movements of the operator, and to keep the cannulation device securely inside the vein following cannulation. To demonstrate the capabilities and performance of our uniquely upgraded system, we present a multi-user artificial phantom study with subjects from three different surgical skill levels. Results show that our puncture detection algorithm, when combined with the active positive holding feature enables sustained cannulation which is most evident in smaller veins. Notable is that the active holding function significantly attenuates tool motion in the vein, thereby reduces the trauma during cannulation. PMID:28946634

  2. The protective effect of vein cuffed anastomoses is not mechanical in origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberto, J J; Sidawy, A N; Trad, K S; Jones, B A; Neville, R F; Najjar, S F; Sidawy, M K; DePalma, R G

    1995-04-01

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) is a proliferative process of vascular smooth muscle cells that occurs after an arterial injury, particularly at outflow anastomoses of prosthetic bypass grafts. IH causes stenosis that leads ultimately to graft flow reduction and thrombosis. We have demonstrated previously that vein cuff interposition between an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) graft and artery at distal anastomoses diminished IH formation in the arterial outflow as compared with noncuffed anastomoses. Improved long-term patency rates associated with the placement of an interposition vein cuff at the distal anastomosis of e-PTFE grafts to infrageniculate arteries have also been demonstrated clinically. This study examined the mechanical factors that may contribute to the protective effect of cuffed anastomoses. These factors include the expansibility of the vein cuff as compared with e-PTFE, as well as the angle of the cuffed anastomosis. Compatible animals were selected by use of platelet aggregation studies. Nine dogs, group A, received a 4 mm e-PTFE graft plus a 1 cm long interposition vein cuff at the distal anastomosis in the left carotid artery. The same procedure was done on the right side, and in addition the vein cuff was encircled by an e-PTFE jacket incorporated into the anastomosis to prevent the expansion of the vein cuff with arterial pulsation. To study the effect of distal anastomotic angle and geometry on the formation of IH, five dogs, group B, received a 4 mm e-PTFE graft in both sides. On the left, the distal anastomosis was performed between the graft and the artery at an acute angle as it is commonly done when a bypass graft is placed. On the right side a 1 cm long, 6 mm diameter e-PTFE segment was interposed between the artery and the graft at a perpendicular angle. This geometry mimicked the right angle of a vein cuff-to-artery anastomosis. After 10 weeks the grafts were harvested, and the thickness of IH was measured with an ocular

  3. Abnormal portal vein waveform as an indicator of constrictive pericarditis – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ścieszka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 17-year-old patient referred to our outpatient Doppler Department due to clinical suspicion of liver cirrhosis. The patient presented with non-specifi c symptoms, such as malaise, pain in the right subcostal region, peripheral oedema. Until then, diagnostic imaging, including echocardiography was inconclusive. We performed the Doppler sonography of the portal system, which revealed normal diameter of the portal vein with abnormal, phasic and markedly pulsatile waveform. Hepatic veins distention with pathological reverse fl ow during systole was reported. Additionally, inferior vena cava was dilated and remained unchanged through the respiratory cycle. Basing on the above image a heart disease, which had not been taken into differential diagnosis before, was suggested. The following echocardiography, together with computed tomography, enabled a diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis. Successful pericardiotomy was performed. Such a complicated diagnostics happened to demonstrate an uncommon example of the use of portal vein waveform in making the proper cardiologic diagnosis.

  4. Portal Vein Embolization: State-of-the-Art Technique and Options to Improve Liver Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Steven Y; Aloia, Thomas A

    2017-12-01

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is associated with a high technical and clinical success rate for induction of future liver remnant hypertrophy prior to surgical resection. The degree of hypertrophy is variable and depends on multiple factors, including technical aspects of the procedure and underlying chronic liver disease. For patients with insufficient liver volume following PVE, adjunctive techniques, such as intra-portal administration of stem cells, dietary supplementation, transarterial embolization, and hepatic vein embolization, are available. Our purpose is to review the state-of-the-art technique associated with high-quality PVE and to discuss options to improve hypertrophy of the future liver remnant.

  5. Pulmonary Embolism following Endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA of the Great Saphenous Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi Nwaejike

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    A 70yr old lady presented to accident and emergency with sudden onset pleuritic chest pain. A pulmonary embolus (PE was diagnosed by CTPA. Ten days earlier she had bilateral EVLA for recurrent long saphenous vein disease. Confounding risk factors for pulmonary embolism included bilateral ligation and stripping of the long saphenous vein a year earlier, malignancy, EVLA and phlebitic tributary varices. EVLA has been shown to be an effective treatment for superficial venous insufficiency with low morbidity and high patient satisfaction. The investigation of confounding risk factors and possible causes should not compromise the initial treatment of PE.

  6. An unusual case of fistula formation and thrombosis between arteriovenous graft and a native vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sub Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous graft for hemodialysis vascular access is a widely used technique with many advantages. However, it has crucial complications with graft thrombosis and infection. We recently experienced an unusual case of arteriovenous graft complication involving graft thrombosis related to fistula formation between the graft and the natural vein with infection. We diagnosed this condition using Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography angiography. Successful surgical treatment including partial graft excision and creation of a secondary arteriovenous fistula using an inadvertently dilated cephalic vein was performed. The dialysis unit staff should keep this condition in mind and try to prevent this complication.

  7. Unsupervised learning algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Aydin, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in unsupervised learning. The contributors discuss how with the proliferation of massive amounts of unlabeled data, unsupervised learning algorithms, which can automatically discover interesting and useful patterns in such data, have gained popularity among researchers and practitioners. The authors outline how these algorithms have found numerous applications including pattern recognition, market basket analysis, web mining, social network analysis, information retrieval, recommender systems, market research, intrusion detection, and fraud detection. They present how the difficulty of developing theoretically sound approaches that are amenable to objective evaluation have resulted in the proposal of numerous unsupervised learning algorithms over the past half-century. The intended audience includes researchers and practitioners who are increasingly using unsupervised learning algorithms to analyze their data. Topics of interest include anomaly detection, clustering,...

  8. Quantification of deep medullary veins at 7 T brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Viergever, Max A.; Vincken, Koen L. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bouvy, Willem H.; Razoux Schultz, Tom B.; Biessels, Geert Jan [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    Deep medullary veins support the venous drainage of the brain and may display abnormalities in the context of different cerebrovascular diseases. We present and evaluate a method to automatically detect and quantify deep medullary veins at 7 T. Five participants were scanned twice, to assess the robustness and reproducibility of manual and automated vein detection. Additionally, the method was evaluated on 24 participants to demonstrate its application. Deep medullary veins were assessed within an automatically created region-of-interest around the lateral ventricles, defined such that all veins must intersect it. A combination of vesselness, tubular tracking, and hysteresis thresholding located individual veins, which were quantified by counting and computing (3-D) density maps. Visual assessment was time-consuming (2 h/scan), with an intra-/inter-observer agreement on absolute vein count of ICC = 0.76 and 0.60, respectively. The automated vein detection showed excellent inter-scan reproducibility before (ICC = 0.79) and after (ICC = 0.88) visually censoring false positives. It had a positive predictive value of 71.6 %. Imaging at 7 T allows visualization and quantification of deep medullary veins. The presented method offers fast and reliable automated assessment of deep medullary veins. (orig.)

  9. A vein display system based on three-dimensional reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danting; Zhou, Ya; Hu, Xiaoming; Wu, Zhaoguo; Dai, Xiaobin

    2014-10-01

    Venipuncture is the most common way of all invasive medical procedures. A vein display system can make vein access easier by capturing the vein information and projecting a visible vein image onto the skin, which is correctly aligned with the subject's vein. The existing systems achieve correct alignment by the design of coaxial structure. Such a structure causes complex optical and mechanical design and big physical dimensions inevitably. In this paper, we design a stereovision- based vein display system, which consists of a pair of cameras, a DLP projector and a near-infrared light source. We recover the three-dimensional venous structure from image pair acquired from two near-infrared cameras. Then the vein image from the viewpoint of projector is generated from the three-dimensional venous structure and projected exactly onto skin by the DLP projector. Since the stereo cameras get the depth information of vessels, the system can make sure the alignment of projected veins and the real veins without a coaxial structure. The experiment results prove that we propose a feasible solution for a portable and low-cost vein display device.

  10. Cardiovascular System Sonographic Evaluation Algorithm: A New Sonographic Algorithm for Evaluation of the Fetal Cardiovascular System in the Second Trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León-Luis, Juan; Bravo, Coral; Gámez, Francisco; Ortiz-Quintana, Luis

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility and feasibility of the new cardiovascular system sonographic evaluation algorithm for studying the extended fetal cardiovascular system, including the portal, thymic, and supra-aortic areas, in the second trimester of pregnancy (19-22 weeks). We performed a cross-sectional study of pregnant women with healthy fetuses (singleton and twin pregnancies) attending our center from March to August 2011. The extended fetal cardiovascular system was evaluated by following the new algorithm, a sequential acquisition of axial views comprising the following (caudal to cranial): I, portal sinus; II, ductus venosus; III, hepatic veins; IV, 4-chamber view; V, left ventricular outflow tract; VI, right ventricular outflow tract; VII, 3-vessel and trachea view; VIII, thy-box; and IX, subclavian arteries. Interobserver agreement on the feasibility and exploration time was estimated in a subgroup of patients. The feasibility and exploration time were determined for the main cohort. Maternal, fetal, and sonographic factors affecting both features were evaluated. Interobserver agreement was excellent for all views except view VIII; the difference in the mean exploration time between observers was 1.5 minutes (95% confidence interval, 0.7-2.1 minutes; P cardiovascular system sonographic evaluation algorithm is a reproducible and feasible approach for exploration of the extended fetal cardiovascular system in a second-trimester scan. It can be used to explore these areas in normal and abnormal conditions and provides an integrated image of extended fetal cardiovascular anatomy. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Computed tomographic evaluation of the portal vein in the hepatomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Hyung; Lee, Seung Chul; Bae, Man Gil; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk; Park, Kyung Nam

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography and pornographic findings of 63 patients with hepatoma, undergone hepatic angiography and superior mesenteric pornography for evaluation of tumor and thrombosis of portal vein and determination of indication of transcatheter arterial embolization for palliative treatment of hepatoma from April, 85 to June, 86 in Hanyang university hospital, were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. In 36 cases, portal vein thrombosis was detected during photography. Nineteen of 37 cases which revealed localized hepatoma in the right lobe of the liver showed portal vein thrombosis; 9 of 11 cases of the left lobe; 8 of 14 cases which were involved in entire liver revealed thrombosis. One case localized in the caudate lobe showed no evidence of invasion to portal vein. 2. Twenty-four of 34 cases with diffuse infiltrative hepatoma revealed portal vein thrombosis and the incidence of portal vein thrombosis in this type were higher than in the cases of the nodular type. 3. The portal vein thrombosis appeared as filling defects of low density in the lumen of the portal veins in CT and they did not reveal contrast enhancement. 4. CT revealed well the evidence of obstructions in the cases of portal vein thrombosis and the findings were well-corresponded to the findings of the superior mesenteric photography. 5. Five of the cases of the portal vein thrombosis were missed in the CT and the causes were considered as due to partial volume effect of enhanced portal vein with partial occlusion or arterioportal shunts. 6. Six of 13 cases with occlusion of main portal vein showed cavernous transformation and they were noted as multiple small enhanced vascularities around the porta hepatis in the CT. According to the results, we conclude that CT is a useful modality to detect the changes of the portal veins in the patients of the hepatoma.

  12. Computed tomographic evaluation of the portal vein in the hepatomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kee Hyung; Lee, Seung Chul; Bae, Man Gil; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk; Park, Kyung Nam [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Computed tomography and pornographic findings of 63 patients with hepatoma, undergone hepatic angiography and superior mesenteric pornography for evaluation of tumor and thrombosis of portal vein and determination of indication of transcatheter arterial embolization for palliative treatment of hepatoma from April, 85 to June, 86 in Hanyang university hospital, were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. In 36 cases, portal vein thrombosis was detected during photography. Nineteen of 37 cases which revealed localized hepatoma in the right lobe of the liver showed portal vein thrombosis; 9 of 11 cases of the left lobe; 8 of 14 cases which were involved in entire liver revealed thrombosis. One case localized in the caudate lobe showed no evidence of invasion to portal vein. 2. Twenty-four of 34 cases with diffuse infiltrative hepatoma revealed portal vein thrombosis and the incidence of portal vein thrombosis in this type were higher than in the cases of the nodular type. 3. The portal vein thrombosis appeared as filling defects of low density in the lumen of the portal veins in CT and they did not reveal contrast enhancement. 4. CT revealed well the evidence of obstructions in the cases of portal vein thrombosis and the findings were well-corresponded to the findings of the superior mesenteric photography. 5. Five of the cases of the portal vein thrombosis were missed in the CT and the causes were considered as due to partial volume effect of enhanced portal vein with partial occlusion or arterioportal shunts. 6. Six of 13 cases with occlusion of main portal vein showed cavernous transformation and they were noted as multiple small enhanced vascularities around the porta hepatis in the CT. According to the results, we conclude that CT is a useful modality to detect the changes of the portal veins in the patients of the hepatoma.

  13. Investigation of gold-bearing veins using magnetics and TEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.; Groom, R.

    2012-12-01

    Gold-bearing fractures have been mined at Charters Towers, Queensland for a century. The ore occurs in quartz-sulfide veins hosted in granitoids. The gold is found in lenses within the veins. The purpose of our work was to determine if geophysical methods could be used to identify and delineate known lode-bearing veins. The study site is around the Warrior Mine immediately south of the town. Two structures are being mined at 100-300 m depth: Warrior and Sons of Freedom. While IP is typically used to locate disseminated sulfides, we used a different approach: we integrated airborne magnetic data with ground TEM data to map the geometries of the gold-bearing fracture zones. TEM is advantageous because it does not involve injection of current into the ground with the uncertainty of current flow patterns in such resistive, fractured rocks. Fixed loop TEM surveying was utilized as this approach is much faster to perform than moving loop surveys. Although TEM is commonly used for mapping layered structures and strong conductors, it is much less used for detecting weak conductors, such as those found in gold exploration, contaminant plumes, or geotechnical applications. Here the fracture zones are highly weathered and wet thus producing weak conductors. Upon mapping the vertical derivative of the RTP magnetic data, many linear anomalies were noted, including over both mined structures. These anomalies all indicate negative susceptibility, as would be expected because the structures are depleted in magnetite with respect to the granitoids. Modeling of the RTP total field and derivatives confirms a negative susceptibility. The RTP data indicate the approximate dip, which agrees with known information. Depth resolution is limited in standard 3D inversions, which utilize orthogonal grids with the normal axis in the vertical direction. In this study, we use a dipping grid which strikes and dips according to known information, and have obtained good results. TEM surveying at

  14. Disc edge veins of Kraupa: rare exit anomalies of the retinal vein.

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso, L; Hoyt, W F; Narahara, M

    1992-01-01

    Disc edge veins of Kraupa are anomalies of the retinal venous system in which blood flows from the retina through a single venous trunk at or near the edge of the disc instead of at its centre. We report two examples of patients with these anomalies and illustrate the appearance of the anomalies with fundus photographs and a fluorescein angiogram. In one patient the retinal vein exited the eye through the sclera at the margin of the optic disc; in the other it disappeared into the disc tissue...

  15. Mesenteric vein thrombosis after percutaneous transhepatic portal vein catheterisation for the localisation of an insulinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luska, G.; Langer, H.E.; Le Blanc, S.

    1984-07-01

    The authors report on a fatal mesenteric vein thrombosis following an uncomplicated percutaneous transhepatic portal vein catheterisation for the localisation of an insulinoma. Several hours after the procedure the patient developed an acute abdomen. An emergency laparotomy revealed a haemorrhagic infarct of the ileum. The resected specimen showed an acute phlebitis with fresh thrombus. The cause of the phlebothrombosis was thought to be intimal damage from high osmolar contrast medium. There was no evidence of damage due to the catheder, either on the phlebogram or pathologically. 1 fig.

  16. Mesenteric vein thrombosis after percitaneous transhepatic portal vein catheterisation for the localisation of an insulinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luska, G.; Langer, H.E.; Le Blanc, S.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1984-01-01

    The authors report on a fatal mesenteric vein thrombosis following an uncomplicated percutaneous transhepatic portal vein catheterisation for the localisation of an insulinoma. Several hours after the procedure the patient developed an acute abdomen. An emergency laparotomy revealed a haemorrhagic infarct of the ileum. The resected specimen showed an acute phlebitis with fresh thrombus. The cause of the phlebothrombosis was thought to be intimal damage from high osmolar contrast medium. There was no evidence of damage due to the catheder, either on the phlebogram or pathologically. (orig.) [de

  17. Portal vein and mesenteric vein gas: CT features; Aeroportie ety aeromesenterie: donnees TDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, G.; Fournier, L.; Le Pennec, V.; Provost, N.; Hue, S.; Phi, I.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 14 - Caen (France)

    2001-04-01

    Portal vein and mesenteric vein gas are unusual conditions with a complex and nuclear pathogenesis. Mesenteric ischemia frequently causes such pathological conditions but a variety of other causes are known: inflammatory bowel disease, bowel distension, traumatic and iatrogenic injury, intra-abdominal sepsis, and idiopathic conditions. This pathologic entity is favored by intestinal wall alterations, bowel distension and sepsis. The prognosis is frequently fatal, especially when associated with extended bowel necrosis although in the majority of the cases, outcome is favorable without surgery. (author)

  18. Foundations of genetic algorithms 1991

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Foundations of Genetic Algorithms 1991 (FOGA 1) discusses the theoretical foundations of genetic algorithms (GA) and classifier systems.This book compiles research papers on selection and convergence, coding and representation, problem hardness, deception, classifier system design, variation and recombination, parallelization, and population divergence. Other topics include the non-uniform Walsh-schema transform; spurious correlations and premature convergence in genetic algorithms; and variable default hierarchy separation in a classifier system. The grammar-based genetic algorithm; condition

  19. Parallel Architectures and Bioinspired Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, José; Lanchares, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This monograph presents examples of best practices when combining bioinspired algorithms with parallel architectures. The book includes recent work by leading researchers in the field and offers a map with the main paths already explored and new ways towards the future. Parallel Architectures and Bioinspired Algorithms will be of value to both specialists in Bioinspired Algorithms, Parallel and Distributed Computing, as well as computer science students trying to understand the present and the future of Parallel Architectures and Bioinspired Algorithms.

  20. Modal dynamics in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers with elliptical veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Amit; Leviatan, Yehuda

    2005-08-08

    Modal characteristics of hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers with elliptical veins are studied by use of a recently proposed numerical method. The dynamic behavior of bandgap guided modes, as the wavelength and aspect ratio are varied, is shown to include zero-crossings of the birefringence, polarization dependent radiation losses, and deformation of the fundamental mode.

  1. Studies of the incidence of post-operative deep-vein thrombosis in Sudan, using 125I-fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.A.

    1974-01-01

    Sudanese patients undergoing surgery in Khartoum Civil Hospital were investigated for evidence of post-operative deep vein thrombosis by means of the 125 I-fibrinogen test. An analysis of the results obtained in an initial series of 100 patients undergoing various operations including prostatectomy (transvesical or retropubic), vagotomy and drainage, cholocystectomy, various operations on the urinary bladder, various operations on the hip, splenectomy, herniorrhaphy, nephrectomy and haemorrhoidectomy revealed an incidence of post-operative deep vein thrombosis of 12.0%. There was no significant variation of incidence with age or sex. A subsequent analysis of the results obtained in 104 patients undergoing prostatectomy (transvesical or retropubic) revealed an incidence of deep vein thrombosis of 9.6%. These values differ markedly from the incidences of 21-47% reported in Sweden and UK. It is suggested that the indicence of post-operative deep vein thrombosis is lower in Sudan than in European countries

  2. Algorithms in Singular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schonemann

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Some algorithms for singularity theory and algebraic geometry The use of Grobner basis computations for treating systems of polynomial equations has become an important tool in many areas. This paper introduces of the concept of standard bases (a generalization of Grobner bases and the application to some problems from algebraic geometry. The examples are presented as SINGULAR commands. A general introduction to Grobner bases can be found in the textbook [CLO], an introduction to syzygies in [E] and [St1]. SINGULAR is a computer algebra system for computing information about singularities, for use in algebraic geometry. The basic algorithms in SINGULAR are several variants of a general standard basis algorithm for general monomial orderings (see [GG]. This includes wellorderings (Buchberger algorithm ([B1], [B2] and tangent cone orderings (Mora algorithm ([M1], [MPT] as special cases: It is able to work with non-homogeneous and homogeneous input and also to compute in the localization of the polynomial ring in 0. Recent versions include algorithms to factorize polynomials and a factorizing Grobner basis algorithm. For a complete description of SINGULAR see [Si].

  3. The compression syndrome of the left renal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justich, E.

    1982-01-01

    Severe compression of the left renal vein produces a pressure gradient between it and the inferior vena cava and results in changes in haemodynamics. The cause of the narrowing is usually the aorta, less commonly the superior mesenteric artery. Compression of the left renal vein may be responsible for a number of abnormalities such as primary varicoceles, primary varices of the ovarian, renal, pelvic and ureteric veins on the left, the more frequent occurrence of unilateral renal vein thrombosis on the left and the development of renovascular hypertension. One hundred and twenty-three selective phlebograms of the left renal vein and CT examinations of this structure in a further 87 patients acting as a control group were carried out. The significance of compression of the left renal vein as an aetiological factor in the development of the above mentioned abnormalities is discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. A superior mesenteric vein thrombosis associated with in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorais, Jessie; Jones, Kirtly; Hammoud, Ahmad; Gibson, Mark; Johnstone, Erica; Peterson, C Matthew

    2011-02-01

    To describe a case of superior mesenteric vein thrombosis associated with IVF. Case report. University teaching hospital. A 33-year-old female developed progressive abdominal pain several days after ET in her first IVF cycle. A computed tomography scan 12 days after ET showed a superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. Therapeutic anticoagulation. Resolution of the superior mesenteric vein thrombosis with therapeutic anticoagulation. Early diagnosis and treatment of a superior mesenteric vein thrombosis associated with IVF led to a favorable outcome. Endocrine alterations consequent to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for IVF place patients at risk for thromboembolic events. Thromboembolic events may occur during an IVF cycle in the absence of overt ovarian hyperstimulation, an inherited thrombophilia, or pregnancy. Early diagnosis and treatment of superior mesenteric vein thrombosis can lead to a favorable outcome. Treatment guidelines for superior mesenteric vein thrombosis in setting of IVF are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Internal Jugular Vein Entrapment in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Simka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiple sclerosis patient presenting with compression of the internal jugular vein caused by aberrant omohyoid muscle. Previously this patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the same internal jugular vein. Ten months after this endovascular procedure, Doppler sonography revealed totally collapsed middle part of the treated vein with no outflow detected. Still, the vein widened and the flow was restored when the patient’s mouth opened. Thus, the abnormality was likely to be caused by muscular compression. Surgical exploration confirmed that an atypical omohyoid muscle was squeezing the vein. Consequently, pathological muscle was transected. Sonographic control three weeks after surgical procedure revealed a decompressed vein with fully restored venous outflow. Although such a muscular compression can be successfully managed surgically, future research has to establish its clinical relevance.

  6. Endovenous laser ablation of great saphenous vein and perforator veins improves venous stasis ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Haqq, Ryan; Almaroof, Babatunde; Chen, Brian L; Panneton, Jean M; Parent, F Noel

    2013-10-01

    We sought to compare the outcomes of endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of the great saphenous vein (GSV) to EVLA of the GSV and calf incompetent perforator veins (IPVs) in management of venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). A retrospective review of patients with active VSUs (clinical, etiology, anatomy, and pathophysiology [CEAP] classification C6) that received EVLA of the GSV or combined EVLA of the GSV and IPV between May 2005 and May 2010 was completed. Primary outcomes measured include ulcer healing and a change in the venous clinical severity score (VCSS). Secondary end points included complications, ulcer recurrence rate, and time to ulcer healing. Ninety-five patients (108 limbs) met inclusion criteria with active VSU (CEAP classification C6) before ablation. The average age was 58 years, with a male predominance (61%). Seventy-eight patients (91 limbs) were treated with EVLA of the GSV alone. Subgroup analysis revealed that 46 of 91 limbs (35 patients) had GSV reflux only (group 1) and 45 of 91 limbs (43 patients) had underlying IPV (group 2). Seventeen patients (17 limbs) underwent combined EVLA of the GSV and IPV (group 3). VSU healing (CEAP classification C5) occurred in 21 of 46 limbs (46%) in group 1, 15 of 45 limbs (33%) in group 2, and 12 of 17 limbs (71%) in group 3. A comparison of ulcer healing between groups 1 and 2 and between groups 1 and 3 revealed no significant difference (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.285 and P = 0.095, respectively). However, there was a significant difference in ulcer healing between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.011). Group 1 ulcers healed in an average of 14.8 weeks, group 2 ulcers in 11.2 weeks, and group 3 in 13.2 weeks (analysis of variance; P = 0.918). Postoperative complications occurred in 7 limbs (15%) in group 1, 5 limbs (11%) in group 2, and 3 (18%) limbs in group 3. Recurrence of VSU occurred in 2 limbs (4%) in group 1, 5 limbs in group 2 (11%), and in no limbs in group 3 (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.676). Mean follow-up was 16

  7. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Revealing Coelic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana ZOUBEIDI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thrombosis has been widely reported in coeliac disease (CD but central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is rarely described. Case presentation: A 27-year-old woman presented with acute visual loss and was diagnosed with CRVO. Her protein S and protein C levels were low and CD was diagnosed on the basis of endoscopic, immunological and histological results. A gluten-free diet resulted in favourable evolution. Conclusion: CD should be considered in young patients with thrombosis, especially if in an unusual location. Treatment is based on a gluten-free diet.

  8. [How to do: central vein catheterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgäuer, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    The cannulation of a central vein is a standard acces to the vascular system of critically ill patients. It can be used for administration of medication and parenteral nutrition, haemodynamic monitoring as well as hemodialsis via Shaldon catheter.The technique of implantation of a central venous catheter is described step by step in this article. Moreover, advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques and puncture sites as well as indications and contraindications are critically discussed regarding the most recent literature. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Deep vein thrombosis chemoprophylaxis in plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Alan

    2013-07-01

    The practice of plastic surgery is a unique mixture of art and science, and both must be carefully balanced to provide the best possible care for patients. To do that, clinicians should be practicing evidence-based medicine. This article discusses the prevalence and risks associated with deep vein thrombosis and the reasons and options for its possible chemoprophylaxis. Until evidence-based medicine best-practice recommendations can be developed, it would be prudent for clinicians to empirically select and consistently apply a risk stratification system and prophylaxis regimen of their choice for the benefit of their patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, So Hwa; Kim, Ki Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia is a rare congenital anomaly. Its symptoms begin to manifest in childhood and a broad spectrum of clinical severity has been described, ranging from asymptomatic, recurrent pulmonary infection, severe hemoptysis, to death. Only a few adult cases with this condition, with no or mild symptoms, have been reported. Pulmonary angiography has been typically used for definite diagnosis. However, pulmonary angiography may be replaced with the current developing multidetector CT. This report presents an adult case with mild symptoms, diagnosed by multidetector CT.

  11. Bimodal Biometric Verification Using the Fusion of Palmprint and Infrared Palm-Dorsum Vein Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a reliable and robust biometric verification method based on bimodal physiological characteristics of palms, including the palmprint and palm-dorsum vein patterns. The proposed method consists of five steps: (1 automatically aligning and cropping the same region of interest from different palm or palm-dorsum images; (2 applying the digital wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform to fuse palmprint and vein pattern images; (3 extracting the line-like features (LLFs from the fused image; (4 obtaining multiresolution representations of the LLFs by using a multiresolution filter; and (5 using a support vector machine to verify the multiresolution representations of the LLFs. The proposed method possesses four advantages: first, both modal images are captured in peg-free scenarios to improve the user-friendliness of the verification device. Second, palmprint and vein pattern images are captured using a low-resolution digital scanner and infrared (IR camera. The use of low-resolution images results in a smaller database. In addition, the vein pattern images are captured through the invisible IR spectrum, which improves antispoofing. Third, since the physiological characteristics of palmprint and vein pattern images are different, a hybrid fusing rule can be introduced to fuse the decomposition coefficients of different bands. The proposed method fuses decomposition coefficients at different decomposed levels, with different image sizes, captured from different sensor devices. Finally, the proposed method operates automatically and hence no parameters need to be set manually. Three thousand palmprint images and 3000 vein pattern images were collected from 100 volunteers to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results show a false rejection rate of 1.20% and a false acceptance rate of 1.56%. It demonstrates the validity and excellent performance of our proposed method comparing to other methods.

  12. Bimodal Biometric Verification Using the Fusion of Palmprint and Infrared Palm-Dorsum Vein Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Lung; Wang, Shih-Hung; Cheng, Hsu-Yung; Fan, Kuo-Chin; Hsu, Wei-Lieh; Lai, Chin-Rong

    2015-12-12

    In this paper, we present a reliable and robust biometric verification method based on bimodal physiological characteristics of palms, including the palmprint and palm-dorsum vein patterns. The proposed method consists of five steps: (1) automatically aligning and cropping the same region of interest from different palm or palm-dorsum images; (2) applying the digital wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform to fuse palmprint and vein pattern images; (3) extracting the line-like features (LLFs) from the fused image; (4) obtaining multiresolution representations of the LLFs by using a multiresolution filter; and (5) using a support vector machine to verify the multiresolution representations of the LLFs. The proposed method possesses four advantages: first, both modal images are captured in peg-free scenarios to improve the user-friendliness of the verification device. Second, palmprint and vein pattern images are captured using a low-resolution digital scanner and infrared (IR) camera. The use of low-resolution images results in a smaller database. In addition, the vein pattern images are captured through the invisible IR spectrum, which improves antispoofing. Third, since the physiological characteristics of palmprint and vein pattern images are different, a hybrid fusing rule can be introduced to fuse the decomposition coefficients of different bands. The proposed method fuses decomposition coefficients at different decomposed levels, with different image sizes, captured from different sensor devices. Finally, the proposed method operates automatically and hence no parameters need to be set manually. Three thousand palmprint images and 3000 vein pattern images were collected from 100 volunteers to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results show a false rejection rate of 1.20% and a false acceptance rate of 1.56%. It demonstrates the validity and excellent performance of our proposed method comparing to other methods.

  13. Bimodal Biometric Verification Using the Fusion of Palmprint and Infrared Palm-Dorsum Vein Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Lung; Wang, Shih-Hung; Cheng, Hsu-Yung; Fan, Kuo-Chin; Hsu, Wei-Lieh; Lai, Chin-Rong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a reliable and robust biometric verification method based on bimodal physiological characteristics of palms, including the palmprint and palm-dorsum vein patterns. The proposed method consists of five steps: (1) automatically aligning and cropping the same region of interest from different palm or palm-dorsum images; (2) applying the digital wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform to fuse palmprint and vein pattern images; (3) extracting the line-like features (LLFs) from the fused image; (4) obtaining multiresolution representations of the LLFs by using a multiresolution filter; and (5) using a support vector machine to verify the multiresolution representations of the LLFs. The proposed method possesses four advantages: first, both modal images are captured in peg-free scenarios to improve the user-friendliness of the verification device. Second, palmprint and vein pattern images are captured using a low-resolution digital scanner and infrared (IR) camera. The use of low-resolution images results in a smaller database. In addition, the vein pattern images are captured through the invisible IR spectrum, which improves antispoofing. Third, since the physiological characteristics of palmprint and vein pattern images are different, a hybrid fusing rule can be introduced to fuse the decomposition coefficients of different bands. The proposed method fuses decomposition coefficients at different decomposed levels, with different image sizes, captured from different sensor devices. Finally, the proposed method operates automatically and hence no parameters need to be set manually. Three thousand palmprint images and 3000 vein pattern images were collected from 100 volunteers to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results show a false rejection rate of 1.20% and a false acceptance rate of 1.56%. It demonstrates the validity and excellent performance of our proposed method comparing to other methods. PMID:26703596

  14. Hand veins feature extraction using DT-CNNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Suleyman; Spaanenburg, Lambert

    2007-05-01

    As the identification process is based on the unique patterns of the users, biometrics technologies are expected to provide highly secure authentication systems. The existing systems using fingerprints or retina patterns are, however, very vulnerable. One's fingerprints are accessible as soon as the person touches a surface, while a high resolution camera easily captures the retina pattern. Thus, both patterns can easily be "stolen" and forged. Beside, technical considerations decrease the usability for these methods. Due to the direct contact with the finger, the sensor gets dirty, which decreases the authentication success ratio. Aligning the eye with a camera to capture the retina pattern gives uncomfortable feeling. On the other hand, vein patterns of either a palm of the hand or a single finger offer stable, unique and repeatable biometrics features. A fingerprint-based identification system using Cellular Neural Networks has already been proposed by Gao. His system covers all stages of a typical fingerprint verification procedure from Image Preprocessing to Feature Matching. This paper performs a critical review of the individual algorithmic steps. Notably, the operation of False Feature Elimination is applied only once instead of 3 times. Furthermore, the number of iterations is limited to 1 for all used templates. Hence, the computational need of the feedback contribution is removed. Consequently the computational effort is drastically reduced without a notable chance in quality. This allows a full integration of the detection mechanism. The system is prototyped on a Xilinx Virtex II Pro P30 FPGA.

  15. Study to develop a waiting list prioritization score for varicose vein surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmunt Montoya, Sergi; Sirvent González, Marc; Florit López, Salvador; Dilmé Muñoz, Jaume; Giménez Gaibar, Antonio; Escudero Rodríguez, José Román

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a clear-cut, objective system for prioritization of patients on the waiting list for varicose vein surgery, to enable organization of access to the health service. During earlier phases, we selected which variables should be taken into account for the prioritization scale, such as clinical presentation, varicose vein size, complications, work situation, and influence on quality of life. In the last phase, to determine the relative weight of each variable, structured surveys (personal interviews or by e-mail) were performed of the convenience samples from the groups related to the healthcare process, including patients, relatives, and healthcare professionals. The structured survey we utilized was administered to a sample of 762 subjects that included 290 patients, 99 relatives, 179 general practitioners, 32 nurses, and 162 vascular surgeons. The final score included clinical manifestations (46.1% of relative importance), size of the varicose veins (8.2%), complications (18.3%), influence on quality of life (18.2%), and aggravating work factors (9.2%). The prioritization system agreed upon by all the groups involved could allow for objective and transparent prioritization and lead to the rationalization of access to varicose vein surgery for patients on the waiting list. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vein mechanism simulation study for deep vein thrombosis early diagnosis using cfd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nabilah; Aziz, Nur Shazilah Abd; Manap, Abreeza Noorlina Abd

    2017-04-01

    Using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique, this work focus on the analysis of pressure, velocity, and vorticity of blood flow along the popliteal vein. Since the study of early stage of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) becomes essential to prevent the pulmonary embolism (PE), those three parameters are analysed to assess the effect of different opening between two valves of a normal popliteal vein. When only one valve is simulated, the result of pressure shows that the highest and lowest velocities are 15.45 cm/s and 0.73 cm/s, respectively. From the visualization of observed data, however, the different size of orifice between the first and second valves influencing the velocity and vorticity of the blood flow. The rotational motion of blood particle at the same region increases the probability of blood accumulating which is associated with the development of thrombus. Thus, a series of experiment has been conducted by changing the size of valve orifice for the first and second valves along the vein distribution. The result of the CFD simulation shows a significant variation in blood flow in terms of velocity and vorticity.

  17. Treatment of superficial vein thrombosis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, Iris M.; Di Nisio, Marcello; Büller, Harry R.; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT) concerning the efficacy and safety of medical or surgical treatments of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). A

  18. Image Segmentation Algorithms Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Yuheng, Song; Hao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The technology of image segmentation is widely used in medical image processing, face recognition pedestrian detection, etc. The current image segmentation techniques include region-based segmentation, edge detection segmentation, segmentation based on clustering, segmentation based on weakly-supervised learning in CNN, etc. This paper analyzes and summarizes these algorithms of image segmentation, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different algorithms. Finally, we make a predi...

  19. [Portal perfusion with right gastroepiploic vein flow in liver transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Federico; Javier-Haro, Francisco; Mendoza-Medina, Diego Federico; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Cortés-Lares, José Antonio; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde

    Liver transplantation in patients with liver cirrhosis, portal vein thrombosis, and cavernous transformation of the portal vein, is a complex procedure with high possibility of liver graft dysfunction. It is performed in 2-19% of all liver transplants, and has a significantly high mortality rate in the post-operative period. Other procedures to maintain portal perfusion have been described, however there are no reports of liver graft perfusion using right gastroepiploic vein. A 20 year-old female diagnosed with cryptogenic cirrhosis, with a Child-Pugh score of 7 points (class "B"), and MELD score of 14 points, with thrombosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein, severe portal hypertension, splenomegaly, a history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to oesophageal varices, and left renal agenesis. The preoperative evaluation for liver transplantation was completed, and the right gastroepiploic vein of 1-cm diameter was observed draining to the infrahepatic inferior vena cava and right suprarenal vein. An orthotopic liver transplantation was performed from a non-living donor (deceased on January 30, 2005) using the Piggy-Back technique. Portal vein perfusion was maintained using the right gastroepiploic vein, and the outcome was satisfactory. The patient was discharged 13 days after surgery. Liver transplantation was performed satisfactorily, obtaining an acceptable outcome. In this case, the portal perfusion had adequate blood flow through the right gastroepiploic vein. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Amphibole and felsic veins from the gabbroic oceanic core complex of Atlantis Bank (Southwest Indian Ridge, IODP Hole U1473A): when the fluids meets the melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, A.; Tribuzio, R.; Antonicelli, M.; Zanetti, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a petrological/geochemical investigation of brown amphibole and felsic veins drilled during IODP 360 expedition at Atlantis Bank, a gabbroic oceanic core complex from Southwest Indian Ridge. The main purpose of this study is to unravel the role of seawater and magmatic components in the origin of these veins. Brown amphibole veins were collected at 90-170 mbsf. These veins typically include minor modal amounts of plagioclase and are associated with alteration halos made up of brown amphibole and whitish milky plagioclase in host gabbros. Two sets of late magmatic felsic veins, which mostly consist of plagioclase and minor brown amphibole, were selected. Amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry (Holland and Blundy, 1994) documents that crystallization of brown amphibole and felsic veins occurred in the 850-700 °C interval. In the brown amphibole veins, amphibole and plagioclase have relatively low concentrations of incompatible trace elements and significant Cl (0.2-0.3 wt%). The development of these veins at near surface levels is therefore attributed to seawater-derived fluids migrating downward through cracks developing in the exhuming gabbro. To explain the high temperature estimates for the development of these shallow veins, however, the seawater-derived fluids must have interacted not only with the gabbros, but also with a high temperature magmatic component. This petrogenetic hypothesis is consistent with oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of amphiboles from shallow veins in adjacent Hole 735B gabbros (Alt and Bach, 2006). Trace element compositions of amphibole and plagioclase from the felsic veins show formation by silicate melts rich in incompatible elements. In addition, Cl concentrations in amphibole from the felsic veins are low, thereby indicating that the melts feeding these veins had low or no seawater component. We cautiously propose that: (i) the felsic veins were generated by SiO2-rich melts residual after crystallization of Fe

  1. Can deep vein thrombosis be predicted after varicose vein operation in women in rural areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Warot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Chronic venous disease is a group of symptoms caused by functional and structural defects of the venous vessels. One of the most common aspects of this disease is the occurrence of varicose veins. There are many ways of prevention and treatment of varicose veins, but in Poland the leading one is still surgery. As in every medical procedure there is the possibility of some complications. One of them is deep vein thrombosis (DVT. The diagnosis of DVT can be difficult, especially when access to a specialist is limited, such as in case of rural patients. [b]The aim of the study.[/b] The aim of the study was estimation of the influence of LMWH primary prophylaxis on the formation of postoperative DVT, as well as sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination and D-dimer value in diagnosis of postoperative DVT in women. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. The study was conducted in a group of 93 women operated on in the Department of General, Vascular Surgery and Angiology at the Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The patients had undergone a varicose vein operation and were randomly divided into two groups: A – 48 women receiving LMWH during two days of the perioperative period, B – 45 women receiving LMWH during seven days of the perioperative period. [b]Results[/b]. There was no significant difference in the postoperative DVT complications in both groups. The value of D-dimer > 0.987 mcg/ml and swelling > 1.5 cm of shin (in comparison to the preoperative period plays a significant role in diagnosis of DVT. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The extended primary prophylaxis with LMWH does not affect the amount or quality of thrombotic complications after varicose vein operation. If the DVT occurs, the evaluation of the D – dimer and careful clinical examination can be a useful method for its diagnosis.

  2. Algorithms in combinatorial design theory

    CERN Document Server

    Colbourn, CJ

    1985-01-01

    The scope of the volume includes all algorithmic and computational aspects of research on combinatorial designs. Algorithmic aspects include generation, isomorphism and analysis techniques - both heuristic methods used in practice, and the computational complexity of these operations. The scope within design theory includes all aspects of block designs, Latin squares and their variants, pairwise balanced designs and projective planes and related geometries.

  3. A mathematical model for adaptive vein formation during exploratory migration of Physarum polycephalum: routing while scouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenz, Daniel; Shima, Yasuaki; Kuroda, Shigeru; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Kei-Ichi

    2017-11-01

    Exploring free space (scouting) efficiently is a non-trivial task for organisms of limited perception, such as the amoeboid Physarum polycephalum. However, the strategy behind its exploratory behaviour has not yet been characterised. In this organism, as the extension of the frontal part into free space is directly supported by the transport of body mass from behind, the formation of transport channels (routing) plays the main role in that strategy. Here, we study the organism’s exploration by letting it expand through a corridor of constant width. When turning at a corner of the corridor, the organism constructed a main transport vein tracing a centre-in-centre line. We argue that this is efficient for mass transport due to its short length, and check this intuition with a new algorithm that can predict the main vein’s position from the frontal tip’s progression. We then present a numerical model that incorporates reaction-diffusion dynamics for the behaviour of the organism’s growth front and current reinforcement dynamics for the formation of the vein network in its wake, as well as interactions between the two. The accuracy of the model is tested against the behaviour of the real organism and the importance of the interaction between growth tip dynamics and vein network development is analysed by studying variants of the model. We conclude by offering a biological interpretation of the well-known current reinforcement rule in the context of the natural exploratory behaviour of Physarum polycephalum.

  4. Suitability of Varicose Veins for Endovenous Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, S. D.; Kuhan, G.; Altaf, N.; Simpson, R.; Beech, A.; Richards, T.; MacSweeney, S. T.; Braithwaite, B. D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), and foam sclerotherapy (FS) for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (VVs). The study comprised 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs. Data on 577 legs from 403 consecutive patients with symptomatic VVs were collected for the year 2006. Median patient age was 55 years (interquartile range 45-66), and 62% patients were women. A set of criteria based on duplex ultrasonography was used to select patients for each procedure. Great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux was present in 77% (446 of 577) of legs. Overall, 328 (73%) of the legs were suitable for at least one of the endovenous options. Of the 114 legs with recurrent GSV reflux disease, 83 (73%) were suitable to receive endovenous therapy. Patients with increasing age were less likely to be suitable for endovenous therapy (P = 0.03). Seventy-three percent of patients with VVs caused by GSV incompetence are suitable for endovenous therapy.

  5. VEIN-TYPE URANIUM MINERALIZATION IN THE EASTERN DESERT OF EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ghoneim

    2018-03-01

    0.17 to 1.56 wt.% and CaO contents from 3.8 to 7.6 wt.%. Also, minor amounts of LREE and Y are present. Under reducing conditions, uraninite may be altered to coffinite, with loss of radiogenic Pb and Y with HREE. The main characteristics of El Sela veintype including mineral paragenesis and regional tectonic control show that it belongs to granite-related vein-type polymetallic deposits.

  6. Essential algorithms a practical approach to computer algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2013-01-01

    A friendly and accessible introduction to the most useful algorithms Computer algorithms are the basic recipes for programming. Professional programmers need to know how to use algorithms to solve difficult programming problems. Written in simple, intuitive English, this book describes how and when to use the most practical classic algorithms, and even how to create new algorithms to meet future needs. The book also includes a collection of questions that can help readers prepare for a programming job interview. Reveals methods for manipulating common data structures s

  7. Further evidence of Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus but not of Lettuce big-vein associated virus with big-vein disease in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaya, Takahide; Fujii, Hiroya; Ishikawa, Koichi; Koganezawa, Hiroki

    2008-04-01

    Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV) and Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV) are found in association with big-vein disease of lettuce. Discrimination between the two viruses is critical for elucidating the etiology of big-vein disease. Using specific antibodies to MLBVV and LBVaV for western blotting and exploiting differences between MLBVV and LBVaV in host reaction of cucumber and temperature dependence in lettuce, we separated the two viruses by transfering each virus from doubly infected lettuce plants to cucumber or lettuce plants. A virus-free fungal isolate was allowed to acquire the two viruses individually or together. To confirm the separation, zoospores from MLBVV-, LBVaV-, and dually infected lettuce plants were used for serial inoculations of lettuce seedlings 12 successive times. Lettuce seedlings were infected at each transfer either with MLBVV alone, LBVaV alone, or both viruses together, depending on the virus carried by the vector. Lettuce seedlings infected with MLBVV alone developed the big-vein symptoms, while those infected with LBVaV alone developed no symptoms. In field surveys, MLBVV was consistently detected in lettuce plants from big-vein-affected fields, whereas LBVaV was detected in lettuce plants not only from big-vein-affected fields but also from big-vein-free fields. LBVaV occurred widely at high rates in winter-spring lettuce-growing regions irrespective of the presence of MLBVV and, hence, of the presence of the big-vein disease.

  8. Frequency of superficial and deep vein thrombosis in patients with variations of superficial veins of lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovic, Svetlana; Delic, Jasmin; Ljuca, Farid; Mujanovic, Emir; Custendil-Delic, Sunita; Zabic, Aida; Suljkanovic-Mahmutovic, Ahida

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical variations of veins often play a crucial role in formation of thrombotic changes in superficial and deep veins of lower extremities. THE AIM of this study was to determine the frequency of the dominant type of the lower extremity superficial veins, and to determine the eventual influence of such variations to the formation of superficial and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The sample used in this study consisted of 180 patients subjected to ascedent contrast phlebography of lower extremities. The total sample was divided into following groups: patients with and without variations of the lower extremity superficial veins. Dominant type of the superficial veins (without variation) consisted of 97 patients (53.89%), while the rest of 83 patients showed some kind of anatomical variation (46.11%). The most frequent variation was the duplicated form ofv. saphena magna in 53.85%, while this procentage in women was 57.89%. Most frequent variations of duplicated v. saphena magna were: simple duplicated form, closed loop form, branching form and combined form. Topographical variation of saphenopopliteal junction besides fossa poplitea in the group of men showed procentage of 53.85%, while in the group of women that value accounted 63.16%. The percentage of varicose veins was more frequent in men and women without variations, but deep vein DVT showed higher frequency in patients with anatomical variations of superficial veins of lower extremities.

  9. Portal, superior mesenteric and splenic vein thrombosis secondary to hyperhomocysteinemia with pernicious anemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Prashanth; Shaikh, Nissar; Malmstrom, Mohammad F; Kumar, Vajjala R; Nour, Bakr

    2014-08-25

    Acute portomesenteric vein thrombosis is an uncommon but serious condition with potential sequelae, such as small-bowel gangrene and end-stage hepatic failure. It is known to be caused by various pro-thrombotic states, including hyperhomocysteinemia. We describe what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of concomitant thrombosis of portal, superior mesenteric and splenic veins due to hyperhomocysteinemia secondary to pernicious anemia and no other risk factors. A 60-year-old Indian man presented with epigastric pain, diarrhea and vomiting. An abdominal imaging scan showed that he had concomitant pernicious anemia and concomitant portal, superior mesenteric and splenic vein thrombosis. A work-up for the patient's hypercoagulable state revealed hyperhomocysteinemia, an undetectable vitamin B12 level and pernicious anemia with no other thrombophilic state. He developed infarction with perforation of the small bowel and subsequent septic shock with multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, and he ultimately died due to progressive hepatic failure. This report demonstrates that pernicious anemia, on its own, can lead to hyperhomocysteinemia significant enough to lead to lethal multiple splanchnic vein thrombosis. Our case also underscores the need to (1) consider portomesenteric thrombosis in the differential diagnosis of epigastric abdominal pain, (2) perform a complete thrombotic work-up to elucidate metabolic abnormalities that could be contributing to a pro-thrombotic state and (3) initiate aggressive measures, including early consideration of multi-visceral transplantation, in order to avoid decompensation and a significant adverse outcome.

  10. Interventional treatment for symptomatic acute-subacute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng-Yong; Wang, Mao-Qiang; Fan, Qing-Sheng; Duan, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Song, Peng

    2009-10-28

    To summarize our methods and experience with interventional treatment for symptomatic acute-subacute portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (PV-SMV) thrombosis. Forty-six patients (30 males, 16 females, aged 17-68 years) with symptomatic acute-subacute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis were accurately diagnosed with Doppler ultrasound scans, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. They were treated with interventional therapy, including direct thrombolysis (26 cases through a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt; 6 through percutaneous transhepatic portal vein cannulation) and indirect thrombolysis (10 through the femoral artery to superior mesenteric artery catheterization; 4 through the radial artery to superior mesenteric artery catheterization). The blood reperfusion of PV-SMV was achieved completely or partially in 34 patients 3-13 d after thrombolysis. In 11 patients there was no PV-SMV blood reperfusion but the number of collateral vessels increased significantly. Symptoms in these 45 patients were improved dramatically without severe operational complications. In 1 patient, the thrombi did not respond to the interventional treatment and resulted in intestinal necrosis, which required surgical treatment. In 3 patients with interventional treatment, thrombi re-formed 1, 3 and 4 mo after treatment. In these 3 patients, indirect PV-SMV thrombolysis was performed again and was successful. Interventional treatment, including direct or indirect PV-SMV thrombolysis, is a safe and effective method for patients with symptomatic acute-subacute PV-SMV thrombosis.

  11. YouTube as a source of information on varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Tevfik; Serinken, Mustafa; Alur, İhsan; Beydilli, Halil; Karcioglu, Ozgur; Eken, Cenker

    2016-08-01

    There has been little investigation of videos related to varicose veins in Internet media. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and scientific accuracy of the videos related to varicose veins which were uploaded to the youtube.com website. The YouTube site was searched in October 2014 using the keywords varicose vein, varicose veins, and varicosis with no filter. The contents of the reviewed videos were assigned to three groups as useful, partly useful, and not useful by using the criteria including the scientific contents of the videos, contemporariness and accuracy of the insight, and presentation of the data particularly regarding the visual features. The statistical analysis was based only on the videos rated as 'useful.' In total, 1519 (84.4%) of 1800 videos evaluated were excluded. Many of the sources uploading videos to the website were healthcare professionals (32.7% n = 92). Regarding the source of the upload, those from official institutions/associations were viewed statistically significantly more often than videos uploaded by all others (p = 0.001). The rated usefulness was significantly higher for videos uploaded by official institutions/associations (100%) than those uploaded by others (p = 0.01). Official institutions/associations should be encouraged to produce and upload videos including up-to-date and comprehensive information regarding the disease. Likewise, additional search tools would be useful to locate videos uploaded by academic figures and institutions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Combinatorial algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, T C

    2002-01-01

    Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discusses binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. 153 black-and-white illus. 23 tables.Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable, widely used text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discussed are binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. New to this edition: Chapter 9

  13. Retinal Artery-Vein Classification via Topology Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Rolando; Allingham, Michael J; Mettu, Priyatham S; Cousins, Scott W; Tomasi, Carlo; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-12-01

    We propose a novel, graph-theoretic framework for distinguishing arteries from veins in a fundus image. We make use of the underlying vessel topology to better classify small and midsized vessels. We extend our previously proposed tree topology estimation framework by incorporating expert, domain-specific features to construct a simple, yet powerful global likelihood model. We efficiently maximize this model by iteratively exploring the space of possible solutions consistent with the projected vessels. We tested our method on four retinal datasets and achieved classification accuracies of 91.0%, 93.5%, 91.7%, and 90.9%, outperforming existing methods. Our results show the effectiveness of our approach, which is capable of analyzing the entire vasculature, including peripheral vessels, in wide field-of-view fundus photographs. This topology-based method is a potentially important tool for diagnosing diseases with retinal vascular manifestation.

  14. Thrombosed aneurysm of saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Rodolfo Mendes; Nastri, Rogério; Ferez, Marcus Antônio; Costa, Mauro José Brandão da; Laguna, Claudio Benedini; Valentin, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento

    2017-06-01

    We describe the case of a male patient, aged 76 years, referred for cardiac investigation due to retrosternal chest pain and dyspnea. He had a history of acute myocardial infarction and angioplasties in the last 30 years, including a saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafting (SVCABG). Echocardiogram showed hypoechoic oval formation near the right ventricle, suggesting a pericardial cyst. Computed angiotomography revealed a predominantly fusiform and thrombosed aneurysmal dilation of the SVCABG to the right coronary artery. SVCABG aneurysms are very rare and potentially fatal. They usually appear in the late postoperative period, and patients are often asymptomatic. On radiography, it is frequently presented as enlargement of the mediastinum, with echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging being very useful for diagnosis. Coronary angiography is the gold standard to detect these cases. Our report illustrates a rare situation arising late from a relatively common surgery. Due to its severity, proper recognition in the routine assessment of patients with a similar history is essential.

  15. Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis Secondary to Oral Contraceptive Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT is a rare yet frequently fatal cause of intestinal ischemia. Despite its severe consequences, SMVT often presents with nonspecific symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. It can occur with or without gastrointestinal bleeding, and symptoms may be present for hours to weeks. Physical exam can vary from a benign to an acute abdomen. The are no specific diagnostic laboratory studies for the presence of MVT, and it can be an incidental finding of computed tomography or ultrasound. Patients at risk for MVT include those with a history of a hypercoagulable state or secondary cases such as sepsis, gastrointestinal malignancy, liver disease, pancreatic pathology, abdominal surgery and medications. The authors present a case of a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain and ultimately a SMVT secondary to oral contraceptives by exclusion.

  16. Algorithms for parallel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchhouse, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Until relatively recently almost all the algorithms for use on computers had been designed on the (usually unstated) assumption that they were to be run on single processor, serial machines. With the introduction of vector processors, array processors and interconnected systems of mainframes, minis and micros, however, various forms of parallelism have become available. The advantage of parallelism is that it offers increased overall processing speed but it also raises some fundamental questions, including: (i) which, if any, of the existing 'serial' algorithms can be adapted for use in the parallel mode. (ii) How close to optimal can such adapted algorithms be and, where relevant, what are the convergence criteria. (iii) How can we design new algorithms specifically for parallel systems. (iv) For multi-processor systems how can we handle the software aspects of the interprocessor communications. Aspects of these questions illustrated by examples are considered in these lectures. (orig.)

  17. Algorithmic Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette

    layered set of accounts to help build our understanding of how individuals relate to their devices, search systems, and social network sites. This work extends critical analyses of the power of algorithms in implicating the social self by offering narrative accounts from multiple perspectives. It also...

  18. Autodriver algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bourmistrova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The autodriver algorithm is an intelligent method to eliminate the need of steering by a driver on a well-defined road. The proposed method performs best on a four-wheel steering (4WS vehicle, though it is also applicable to two-wheel-steering (TWS vehicles. The algorithm is based on coinciding the actual vehicle center of rotation and road center of curvature, by adjusting the kinematic center of rotation. The road center of curvature is assumed prior information for a given road, while the dynamic center of rotation is the output of dynamic equations of motion of the vehicle using steering angle and velocity measurements as inputs. We use kinematic condition of steering to set the steering angles in such a way that the kinematic center of rotation of the vehicle sits at a desired point. At low speeds the ideal and actual paths of the vehicle are very close. With increase of forward speed the road and tire characteristics, along with the motion dynamics of the vehicle cause the vehicle to turn about time-varying points. By adjusting the steering angles, our algorithm controls the dynamic turning center of the vehicle so that it coincides with the road curvature center, hence keeping the vehicle on a given road autonomously. The position and orientation errors are used as feedback signals in a closed loop control to adjust the steering angles. The application of the presented autodriver algorithm demonstrates reliable performance under different driving conditions.

  19. Genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefenstette, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    Genetic algorithms solve problems by using principles inspired by natural population genetics: They maintain a population of knowledge structures that represent candidate solutions, and then let that population evolve over time through competition and controlled variation. GAs are being applied to a wide range of optimization and learning problems in many domains.

  20. Host rocks and their alterations as related to uranium-bearing veins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, George W.

    1956-01-01

    This paper, dealing with the different kinds of host rocks and their alterations associated with uranium-bearing veins in the United States, is a chapter of a comprehensive report entitled , "Geology of uranium-bearing vein deposits in the United States," in preparation by George W. Walker, Frank W. Osterwald, and others. The comprehensive report will include detailed information on tectonic and structural setting, kinds of host rocks, wall-rock alteration, mineralogy, physical characteristics, processes of deposition, and concepts of origin of uraniferous veins; but, because it will not be completed until sometime in the future, some chapters of the report are being transmitted as they are finished. Part of an introductory chapter to the comprehensive report entitled, "Classification and distribution of uranium-bearing veins in the United States" (Walker and Osterwald, 1956) has already been transmitted; several of the terms used herein are defined in the introductory chapter. Data included in this chapter demonstrate that uranium-bearing veins are: 1) in rocks of nearly all textural, chemical, and mineralogic types; 2) most abundant in holocrystalline, commonly equigranular, igeneous and metamorphic rocks characterized by a moderate to high silica content and and by similar physical properties. Although some of the physiochemical properties of the host rocks are discussed in terms of favorability or nonfavoribility for uranium deposition, the principal purpose of this chapter is to establish the petroloic environment in which uranium-bearing veins have been found. Because favorability or nonfavorability of host rocks is related complexly to the chemistry of ore solutions and to methods or uranium transport and deposition, several hypothetical processes of transport and deposition have been referred to briefly; these and other hypotheses will be outlines and discussed in greater detail in a subsequent chapter. The compilation of data leading to this report and its

  1. Portal vein thrombosis after splenectomy for beta-thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hawsawi, Zakaria M.; Tarawah, Ahmed M.; Hassan, Ruhul Amin A.; Haouimi, Ammar S.

    2004-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is a recognized complication after splenectomy for beta-thalassemia major due to the chronic hypercoagulable state which has been recognized to exist in childhood thalassemia and contribute to thromboembolic events. We reporting one patient with beta-thalassemia major developed portal vein thrombosis following splenectomy. (author)

  2. Ovarian vein thrombosis | Jenayah | Pan African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosis can be made with confidence using ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment of ovarian vein thrombosis is particularly important in the postpartum patients, with anticoagulation therapy being the current recommendation. Key words: Ovarian vein thrombosis, postpartum, ...

  3. Pressure-diameter relationship in the human greater saphenous vein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stooker, W; Gok, M; Sipkema, P; Niessen, HWM; Baidoshvili, A; Westerhof, N; Jansen, EK; Wildevuur, CRH; Eijsman, L

    2003-01-01

    Background. Compliance of artificial and autologous vascular grafts is related to future patency. We investigated whether differences in compliance exist between saphenous vein grafts derived from the upper or lower leg, which might indicate upper or lower leg saphenous vein preference in coronary

  4. Cerebral Vein Thrombosis Post Cabg Precipitated by Malposition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CASE DETAILS: In this case report, we described the clinical and radiological findings of a patient who developed cerebral vein thrombosis post coronary artery bypass grafting secondary undiagnosed protein C and S deficiency which was precipitated by malposition of subclavian central catheter into internal jugular vein.

  5. Mean Normal Portal Vein Diameter Using Sonography among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Mean portal vein diameter is considered as the best indicator for portal hypertension. However, the cutoff point differs from study to study (above 10-15 mm) despite the existence of normal mean portal vein diameter between 10-15 mm in different settings.This implies the existence of limited evidence on ...

  6. A case of the vein of Galen malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Tchoong Kie; Cha, Seong Sook; Han, Sang Suk; Chung, Duck Hwan

    1986-01-01

    The vein of Galen malformation is a rare midline intracranial arteriovenous malformation. The majority of the malformations were seen in neonate, infancy and childhood, and the clinical symptoms and prognosis depended on age of presentation. The authors report a case of the vein of Galen malformation in 17 month-old female with hydrocephalus, which is confirmed by computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography.

  7. Portal Vein Stenting for Portal Biliopathy with Jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Dongho, E-mail: mesentery@naver.com; Park, Kwang Bo, E-mail: kbjh.park@samsung.com [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Seong Joo [Konyang University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Konyang University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jin Ho [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Sinn, Dong Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Portal biliopathy refers to obstruction of the bile duct by dilated peri- or para-ductal collateral channels following the main portal vein occlusion from various causes. Surgical shunt operation or endoscopic treatment has been reported. Herein, we report a case of portal biliopathy that was successfully treated by interventional portal vein recanalization.

  8. The Short Saphenous Vein: A Viable Alternative Conduit for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This novel position allowed for two members of the surgical team to operate at the same time, thus ... along the ultrasound-marked vein positions similar to when harvesting the LSV. Once the veins were harvested and ... occlusion compared to LSV grafts utilized in the same procedure,[8] it was brought back to prominence ...

  9. Antenatal Deep Vein Thrombosis with an Underlying Thrombophilia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antenatal Deep Vein Thrombosis with an Underlying Thrombophilia. Emmanuel K Srofenyoh, Ali Samba, Enyonam Y Kwawukume. Abstract. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can cause severe morbidity in the puerperium and, less commonly, during pregnancy. A woman who developed DVT as a result of thrombophilia was ...

  10. Foam treatment for varicose veins; efficacy and safety | Kotb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Lower extremity varicose vein is a common disease. Sclerotherapy can be used to treat truncal varices of the superficial venous system. This involves injecting a sclerosant intraluminally in order to cause fibrosis and eventual obliteration of the vein. Objective: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of foam ...

  11. The fifth pulmonary vein | Kinfemichael | Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cadaver in Myungsung Medical College (MMC) had a 3rd pulmonary vein originating from the middle lobe of the right lung. Such anatomical variations are very rare. People with this variation have a total of five pulmonary veins entering left atrium. It has clinical implications especially for thoracic surgeons and radiologists ...

  12. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion AssociatedWith Sildenafil (Viagra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    His left fundus showed marked, diffuse disc edema, extensive retinal hemorrhages in all quadrants, engorged retinal veins and cotton wool spots on the macula. His intraocular pressures were 27mmHg right eye and 25mmHg left eye. Results Fundus fluoresceine angiography confirmed left ischemic central retinal vein ...

  13. Thrombolysis for acute upper extremity deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinberg, Joshua; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Jakobsen, Janus C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About 5% to 10% of all deep vein thromboses occur in the upper extremities. Serious complications of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis, such as post-thrombotic syndrome and pulmonary embolism, may in theory be avoided using thrombolysis. No systematic review has assessed the effect...

  14. Early Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Deep Vein Thrombosis - A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: The importance of early diagnosis and treatment of deep vein thrombosis in patients with fractures of long bones. INTRODUCTION: Associated injury to deep-veins in limb fractures presents a serious pathology. It results not only to localized venous occlusion but also to death from pulmonary embolism.

  15. A study of images of Projective Angles of pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jue [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhaoqi, Zhang [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)], E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com; Yu Wei; Miao Cuilian; Yan Zixu; Zhao Yike [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Aims: In images of magnetic resonance and computed tomography (CT) there are visible angles between pulmonary veins and the coronary, transversal or sagittal section of body. In this study these angles are measured and defined as Projective Angles of pulmonary veins. Several possible influential factors and characters of distribution are studied and analyzed for a better understanding of this imaging anatomic character of pulmonary veins. And it could be the anatomic base of adjusting correctly the angle of the central X-ray of the angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Method: Images of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) and contrast enhanced computer tomography (CECT) of the left atrium and pulmonary veins of 137 health objects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are processed with the technique of post-processing, and Projective Angles to the coronary and transversal sections are measured and analyzed statistically. Result: Project Angles of pulmonary veins are one of real and steady imaging anatomic characteristics of pulmonary veins. The statistical distribution of variables is relatively concentrated, with a fairly good representation of average value. It is possible to improve the angle of the central X-ray according to the average value in the selective angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of AF.

  16. Geology and geochemistry of giant quartz veins from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They show imprints of strong brittle to ductile–brittle deformation, and in places are associated with base metal and gold incidences, and pyrophyllite-diaspore mineralization. The geochemistry of giant quartz veins were studied. Apart from presenting new data on the geology and geochemistry of these veins, an attempt has ...

  17. HIV Associated Deep Vein Thrombosis: Case Reports from Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has been reported to be 2-10 times commoner in HIV infected patients than in the general population. We report two cases of extensive unilateral deep vein thrombosis involving the lower limb in HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Doppler ultrasound in the two ...

  18. The management of mesenteric vein thrombosis: a single institution's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanar, Fatih; Ağcaoğlu, Orhan; Gök, Ali Fuat Kaan; Sarıcı, Inanç Samil; Ozçınar, Beyza; Aksakal, Nihat; Aksoy, Murat; Ozkurt, Enver; Kurtoğlu, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis occurs rarely and is responsible for approximately 5-15% of all cases of acute mesenteric ischemia. The aim of this report was to discuss the management of mesenteric vein thrombosis based on our experience with 34 patients. In the present study, 34 patients who were admitted to our emergency surgery department between January 2007 and January 2010 with a diagnosis of acute mesenteric vein thrombosis were assessed retrospectively. Patients with peritoneal signs first underwent diagnostic laparoscopy to rule out perforation or bowel gangrene. We performed a second-look laparoscopy within 72 hours of the first operation. All patients were administered 100 mg/kg of the anticoagulant enoxaparin twice daily. In the 6th and 12th months of follow up, CT angiography was performed to evaluate recanalization of the veins. CT angiography revealed superior mesenteric vein thrombosis in 25 (73%) patients, portal vein thrombosis in 24 (70%) patients, and splenic vein thrombosis in 12 (35%) patients. Eleven patients with peritoneal signs underwent diagnostic laparoscopy; eight of the patients underwent small bowel resection, anastomosis, and trocar insertion. During second-look laparoscopy, small bowel ischemia was found in two patients and re-resection was performed. Early diagnosis with CT angiography, surgical and non-surgical blood flow restoration, proper anticoagulation, and supportive intensive care are the cornerstones of successful treatment of mesenteric vein thrombosis.

  19. A Tight Spot After Pulmonary Vein Catheter Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, Rabia; Yeh, Lu; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Saraf, Rabya; Matyal, Robina; Mahmood, Feroze

    2016-01-01

    A 52-YEAR-OLD woman with a history of embolic stroke due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was referred to the authors’ institution for epicardial surgical pulmonary vein isolation with left atrial appendage resection. The patient had 2 previous failed pulmonary vein catheter ablations. Dense

  20. Ovarian vein thrombosis – a rare but important complication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When associated with parturition, ovarian vein thrombosis usually becomes apparent within the first week after delivery,[4] with significant clinical symptoms often mimicking appendicitis.[5]. The morbidity of ovarian vein thrombosis arises from complications such as sepsis, extension of the thrombus to the inferior vena cava ...

  1. Ultrasound guidance versus anatomical landmarks for internal jugular vein catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Patrick; Hellmich, Martin; Kolodziej, Laurentius; Schick, Guido; Smith, Andrew F

    2015-01-09

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) can help with diagnosis and treatment of the critically ill. The catheter may be placed in a large vein in the neck (internal jugular vein), upper chest (subclavian vein) or groin (femoral vein). Whilst this is beneficial overall, inserting the catheter risks arterial puncture and other complications and should be performed with as few attempts as possible. Traditionally, anatomical 'landmarks' on the body surface were used to find the correct place in which to insert catheters, but ultrasound imaging is now available. A Doppler mode is sometimes used to supplement plain 'two-dimensional' ultrasound. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of two-dimensional (imaging ultrasound (US) or ultrasound Doppler (USD)) guided puncture techniques for insertion of central venous catheters via the internal jugular vein in adults and children. We assessed whether there was a difference in complication rates between traditional landmark-guided and any ultrasound-guided central vein puncture.Our secondary objectives were to assess whether the effect differs between US and USD; whether the effect differs between ultrasound used throughout the puncture ('direct') and ultrasound used only to identify and mark the vein before the start of the puncture procedure (indirect'); and whether the effect differs between different groups of patients or between different levels of experience among those inserting the catheters. We searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to 15 January 2013), EMBASE (1966 to 15 January 2013), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 15 January 2013 ), reference lists of articles, 'grey literature' and dissertations. An additional handsearch focused on intensive care and anaesthesia journals and abstracts and proceedings of scientific meetings. We attempted to identify unpublished or ongoing studies

  2. Deep Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Deep Vein Thrombosis Deep Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH Research Past ... Symptoms The signs and symptoms of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) may be related to DVT itself or ...

  3. Design of a clinical vein contrast enhancing projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

    2001-06-01

    A clinical study has been initiated to compare an experimental IR device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE), with standard techniques for finding veins for venipuncture. The aims of this proposal are (1) to evaluate the performance of the VCE in a clinical setting, specifically by comparing its sensitivity of detection with existing vein-finding techniques used by experienced nurses or phlebotomists, (2) to study its usefulness in subjects who are obese, who have difficult venous access or thrombosed veins, or whose veins are not visible or difficult to palpate, and (3) to show that it performs as well on subjects with darkly pigmented skin as on subjects with lightly pigmented skin. The VCE will first be studied in adult subjects, and then in pediatric subjects.

  4. Leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old male patient presented with a complaint of two painful, hard, palpable nodules in the right lower limb. A Doppler ultrasound scan revealed the presence of nodules, likely to be neoplastic. Computed angiography showed two solid hypervascular nodules in the right great saphenous vein, fed by branches of the posterior tibial artery. Embolization of the nodules using surgical cyanoacrylate was performed, followed by an excisional biopsy. Anatomical pathology and immunohistochemical analysis identified the nodule as a high-grade leiomyosarcoma, characterized by ten mitotic figures per ten high-power fields, necrosis and cell pleomorphism. Immunohistochemical analysis results were positive for caldesmon and desmin labeling. A second surgical procedure was performed to enlarge the free margins.

  5. On the dragnosis of deep vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, C.-G.

    1979-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory diagnostic methods were studied in 301 consecutive patients with suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Unexpectedly, phlebography (the reference method) was found to cause DVT in estimated 48 % of patients without initial DVT. Using a new type of contrast medium, however, no thrombotic complications were found. - Neither clinical examination nor plethysmography were found to give reliable results. Using a modified technique for radioisotope detection, high sensitivity to DVT was found with the 125 I-fibrinogen uptake test (within 2 days) and a newly developed 99 Tcsup(m)-plasmin test (within one hour). Since both tests showed low specificity, they are reliable as screening tests to exclude DVT, but not as independent diagnostic methods. (author)

  6. Thrombosis of the Abdominal Veins in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riten Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal venous thrombosis is a rare form of venous thromboembolic disease in children. While mortality rates are low, a significant proportion of affected children may suffer long-term morbidity. Additionally, given the infrequency of these thrombi, there is lack of stringent research data and evidence-based treatment guidelines. Nonetheless, pediatric hematologists and other subspecialists are likely to encounter these problems in practice. This review is therefore intended to provide a useful guide on the clinical diagnosis and management of children with these rare forms of venous thromboembolic disease. Herein, we will thus appraise the current knowledge regarding major forms of abdominal venous thrombosis in children. The discussion will focus on the epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of (1 inferior vena cava, (2 portal, (3 mesenteric, (4 hepatic, and (5 renal vein thrombosis.

  7. Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis following Oropharyngeal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Bostanci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT is a rare condition which may lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis and pulmonary embolism. Prolonged central venous catheterization, intravenous (IV drug use, trauma, and radiotherapy are the most frequent causes of the IJVT. IJVT that develops after the oropharyngeal infection is a quite rare situation today. In this paper, a 37-year-old woman was presented; swelling occurred on her neck after acute tonsillitis and she was diagnosed with IJVT through Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed without complications. Early diagnosis and conservative treatment with broad-spectrum IV antibiotics and anticoagulant agents have a critical importance for the prevention of fatal complications.

  8. Doppler spectral characteristics of infrainguinal vein bypasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; von Jessen, F; Sillesen, H

    1993-01-01

    of arteriovenous fistulas the initially antegrade diastolic velocity was replaced by a retrograde flow within 3 months, whereas a forward flow in diastole was sustained in grafts with patent fistulas. Abnormal Duplex findings in 31 patients led to angiography and revision in 13 cases. Four revised grafts failed......, while nine remained patent at follow-up 1-12 months later. Ten (56%) of 18 non-revised bypasses with abnormal Duplex findings failed within 9 months compared to 1 (1%) of 76 bypasses with a normal velocity profile (p ... valuable information concerning haemodynamics of infrainguinal vein bypasses and identifies grafts at risk of thrombosis. Inclusion of low resistance index (detection of stenoses appears to improve the sensitivity of Duplex scanning....

  9. Dual compression is not an uncommon type of iliac vein compression syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wan-Yin; Gu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Chang-Jian; Lou, Wen-Sheng; He, Xu

    2017-09-01

    Typical iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS) is characterized by compression of left common iliac vein (LCIV) by the overlying right common iliac artery (RCIA). We described an underestimated type of IVCS with dual compression by right and left common iliac arteries (LCIA) simultaneously. Thirty-one patients with IVCS were retrospectively included. All patients received trans-catheter venography and computed tomography (CT) examinations for diagnosing and evaluating IVCS. Late venography and reconstructed CT were used for evaluating the anatomical relationship among LCIV, RCIA and LCIA. Imaging manifestations as well as demographic data were collected and evaluated by two experienced radiologists. Sole and dual compression were found in 32.3% (n = 10) and 67.7% (n = 21) of 31 patients respectively. No statistical differences existed between them in terms of age, gender, LCIV diameter at the maximum compression point, pressure gradient across stenosis, and the percentage of compression level. On CT and venography, sole compression was commonly presented with a longitudinal compression at the orifice of LCIV while dual compression was usually presented as two types: one had a lengthy stenosis along the upper side of LCIV and the other was manifested by a longitudinal compression near to the orifice of external iliac vein. The presence of dual compression seemed significantly correlated with the tortuous LCIA (p = 0.006). Left common iliac vein can be presented by dual compression. This type of compression has typical manifestations on late venography and CT.

  10. Refractory Pulmonary Edema Caused by Late Pulmonary Vein Thrombosis After Lung Transplantation: A Rare Adverse Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Eve J; Rischin, Adam; McGiffin, David; Williams, Trevor J; Paraskeva, Miranda A; Westall, Glen P; Snell, Greg

    2016-09-01

    After lung transplantation, pulmonary vein thrombosis is a rare, potentially life-threatening adverse event arising at the pulmonary venous anastomosis that typically occurs early and presents as graft failure and hemodynamic compromise with an associated mortality of up to 40%. The incidence, presentation, outcomes, and treatment of late pulmonary vein thrombosis remain poorly defined. Management options include anticoagulant agents for asymptomatic clots, and thrombolytic agents or surgical thrombectomy for hemodynamically significant clots. We present a rare case highlighting a delayed presentation of pulmonary vein thrombosis occurring longer than 2 weeks after lung transplantation and manifesting clinically as graft failure secondary to refractory pulmonary edema. The patient was treated successfully with surgical thrombectomy and remains well. We recommend a high index of suspicion of pulmonary vein thrombosis when graft failure after lung transplantation occurs and is not responsive to conventional therapy, and consideration of investigation with transesophageal echocardiography or computed tomography with venous phase contrast in such patients even more than 2 weeks after lung transplantation. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-Cost Bicycle Lights vs. Cold Lights for Visualizing Neonatal Veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Neal J; Bassett, Paul; Chang, John

    2017-08-10

    Difficult intravenous (IV) access can compromise patient care in neonatal practice, and transillumination is often used to improve the visibility of veins. Current devices are expensive, prone to bacterial contamination and unaffordable in low-resource settings. We conducted a study comparing the quality of transillumination provided by "cold lights" that are currently in use with low-cost (lights. Photographs of the hands and feet of neonates were taken with parental consent: first without transillumination (control group), second by transillumination with a cold light, and third with a bicycle light. Thirty photographs were sent in a survey to pediatric doctors who were blinded to the method of transillumination. Survey respondents then rated the visibility of the veins (easily visible, moderately visible, barely visible and invisible). Completed surveys of 114 respondents were included in the analysis. The majority (94.8%) of respondents rated the veins moderately to easily visible with the bicycle light compared with 87.6% with the cold light, and 42.6% in the control group with no transillumination. There was a strong evidence of an improvement in visibility with bicycle lights compared with cold lights ( p  lights were found to improve visibility of veins in neonates. Given their quality of transillumination, portability and reduced cost, they may provide a useful method of transillumination in all settings, but particularly in low-income settings, where there is currently no affordable alternative. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Percutaneous retrieval of PICC fractures via the femoral vein in six cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xiong, Bin; Zheng, ChuanSheng; Feng, GanSheng; Liang, Ming; Liang, HuiMin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of the interventional technique of retrieving the fractured peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) segments within the vessels via the femoral vein. From July 2007 to January 2012, we performed percutaneous retrieval of PICC fractures in six cancer patients who accepted chemotherapy via PICC. The fractures occurred during the traction of the catheter and were diagnosed with chest plain film radiography and/or computed tomography. The patients included four cases of ovarian cancer, one case of breast cancer and one case of cervical cancer. The fractures were retained in the vessels of the patients for 1 to 10 days. According to the location of the ends of the PICC fractures, three methods were employed using the most commonly used interventional devices in the digital subtraction angiography suite. The PICC fractures were located in the subclavian vein, superior vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle or pulmonary arteries. During the procedures, a goose neck snare, pigtail catheter and stone basket catheter were used individually or in combination. The PICC fractures were removed successfully in all six patients via unilateral or bilateral femoral vein access. No major complications occurred during the operation or the follow-up period of 7 to 10 days. Via femoral vein access, PICC fractures could be removed with common interventional instruments such as a goose snare, basket catheter and pigtail catheter. The interventional retrieval is a safe, convenient and minimally invasive method for the removal of PICC fractures.

  13. Prevalence of hyperdense paraspinal vein sign in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension without dural CSF leak on standard CT myelography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael S; Diehn, Felix E; Verdoorn, Jared T; Lehman, Vance T; Liebo, Greta B; Morris, Jonathan M; Thielen, Kent R; Wald, John T; Kumar, Neeraj; Luetmer, Patrick H

    2018-01-01

    A recently identified and treatable cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-venous fistula, and a recently described computed tomography myelogram (CTM) finding highly compatible with but not diagnostic of this entity is the hyperdense paraspinal vein sign. We aimed to retrospectively measure the prevalence of the hyperdense paraspinal vein sign on CTMs in SIH patients without dural CSF leak, in comparison with control groups. Three CTM groups were identified: 1) SIH study group, which included dural CSF leak-negative standard CTMs performed for SIH, with early and delayed imaging; 2) Early control CTMs, which were performed for indications other than SIH, with imaging shortly after intrathecal contrast administration; 3) Delayed control CTMs, which included delayed imaging. CTMs were retrospectively reviewed for the hyperdense paraspinal vein sign by experienced neuroradiologists, blinded to the group assignment. All CTMs deemed by a single reader to be positive for the hyperdense paraspinal vein sign were independently reviewed by two additional neuroradiologists; findings were considered positive only if consensus was present among all three readers. For positive cases, noncontrast CTs and prior CTMs, if available, were reviewed for the presence of the sign. Seven of 101 (7%) SIH patients had contrast in a spinal/paraspinal vein consistent with the hyperdense paraspinal vein sign; no patient in either control group (total n=54) demonstrated the hyperdense paraspinal vein sign (P = 0.0463). The finding occurred only at thoracic levels. Each patient had a single level of involvement. Six (86%) occurred on the right. Four occurred in female patients (57%). The sign was seen on early images in 3 of 7 cases (43%) and on both early and delayed images in 4 of 7 cases (57%). In 2 of 7 patients (29%), a noncontrast CT covering the relevant location was available and negative for the sign. A prior CTM was available in 2 of 7

  14. Ovarian vein thrombosis mimicking acute abdomen: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadopoulos Nikolaos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT is a rare, but serious condition that affects mostly postpartum women. A high index of suspicion is required in order to diagnose this unusual cause of abdominal pain. Case presentation A 19-year-old woman at three days postpartum was admitted to our hospital because of severe right lower quandrant abdominal pain and fever 38.5'C. Physical examination revealed an acutely ill patient and right lower quadrant tenderness with positive rebound and Giordano signs. The patient underwent appendectomy which proved to be negative for acute appendicitis. Postoperatively fever and pain persisted and abdominal CT-scan with intravenous contrast agent demonstrated a thrombosed right ovarian vein. The patient was initiated on low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH and antibiotic treatment and a month later a new abdominal CT-scan showed a patent right ovarian vein. Discussion Pathophysiologically, OVT is explained by Virchow's triad, because pregnancy is associated with a hypercoagulable state, venous stasis due to compression of the inferior vena cava by the uterus and endothelial trauma during delivery or from local inflammation. Common symptoms and signs of OVT include lower abdomen or flank pain, fever and leukocytosis usually within the first ten days after delivery. The reported incidence of OVT ranges 0,05-0,18% of pregnancies and in most cases the right ovarian vein is the one affected. Anticoagulation and antibiotics is the mainstay of treatment of OVT. Complications of OVT include sepsis, extension of the thrombus to the inferior vena cava and renal veins, and pulmonary embolism. The incidence of pulmonary embolism is reported to be 13.2% and represents the main source of mortality due to OVT. Conclusions OVT is a rare condition, usually in the postpartum period. A high index of suspicion is required for the prompt diagnosis and management especially in cases that mimic acute abdomen.

  15. Randomized trial comparing cyanoacrylate embolization and radiofrequency ablation for incompetent great saphenous veins (VeClose).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Nick; Gibson, Kathleen; McEnroe, Scott; Goldman, Mitchel; King, Ted; Weiss, Robert; Cher, Daniel; Jones, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Whereas thermal ablation of incompetent saphenous veins is highly effective, all heat-based ablation techniques require the use of perivenous subfascial tumescent anesthesia, involving multiple needle punctures along the course of the target vein. Preliminary evidence suggests that cyanoacrylate embolization (CAE) may be effective in the treatment of incompetent great saphenous veins (GSVs). We report herein early results of a randomized trial of CAE vs radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of symptomatic incompetent GSVs. Two hundred twenty-two subjects with symptomatic GSV incompetence were randomly assigned to receive either CAE (n = 108) with the VenaSeal Sapheon Closure System (Sapheon, Inc, Morrisville, NC) or RFA (n = 114) with the ClosureFast system (Covidien, Mansfield, Mass). After discharge, subjects returned to the clinic on day 3 and again at months 1 and 3. The study's primary end point was closure of the target vein at month 3 as assessed by duplex ultrasound and adjudicated by an independent vascular ultrasound core laboratory. Statistical testing focused on showing noninferiority with a 10% delta conditionally followed by superiority testing. No adjunctive procedures were allowed until after the month 3 visit, and missing month 3 data were imputed by various methods. Secondary end points included patient-reported pain during vein treatment and extent of ecchymosis at day 3. Additional assessments included general and disease-specific quality of life surveys and adverse event rates. All subjects received the assigned intervention. By use of the predictive method for imputing missing data, 3-month closure rates were 99% for CAE and 96% for RFA. All primary end point analyses, which used various methods to account for the missing data rate (14%), showed evidence to support the study's noninferiority hypothesis (all P ecchymosis in the treated region was present after CAE compared with RFA (P ecchymosis. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular

  16. Endovenous Laser Ablation of the Small Saphenous Vein Sparing the Saphenopopliteal Junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janne d'Othee, Bertrand; Walker, T. Gregory; Kalva, Sanjeeva P.; Ganguli, Suvranu; Davison, Brian

    2010-01-01

    To assess outcomes after endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of the small saphenous vein (SSV). Retrospective review was performed of all consecutive EVLA procedures performed over a 39-month period at three neighboring vein practices for symptomatic, duplex ultrasound-proven incompetence of the SSV. EVLA was performed under ultrasound guidance with an 810- or 980-nm diode laser in continuous mode using the pullback method while sparing the deep, most cephalad segment of the SSV near the saphenopopliteal junction. Follow-up after EVLA included patient symptoms, physical examination, and duplex ultrasound. Pretreatment variables were similar across all three practices. EVLA was performed to treat 67 incompetent SSVs in 63 patients (86% women; mean age and 95% confidence interval, 50 ± 3 years; range, 20-82 years). Average energy delivered was 92 J/cm. Immediate technical success and occlusion of the treated vein at 1-2 weeks was 100%. Imaging follow-up length was 243 ± 65 days (range, 3-893 days). Clinical follow-up (243 ± 66 days) showed symptomatic improvement in 66 (99%) of 67 patients; one patient had recanalization with recurrent reflux by ultrasound (2%). Complications included one case of paresthesias lasting beyond 1 month of follow-up (2%) and three cases of superficial phlebitis (4%), but no deep vein thrombosis, skin burns, or other complications. Although ablation involved only the superficial portion of the SSV and spared its deep segment in the popliteal fossa, SSV occlusion typically extended up to the saphenopopliteal junction or to a gastrocnemial collateral, without popliteal vein involvement. EVLA of the SSV is safe and effective when the saphenopopliteal junction and popliteal fossa are avoided. This approach may help reduce the risk of paresthesias or other complications while maintaining low recanalization rates.

  17. Mineral vein dynamics modelling (FRACS II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urai, J.; Virgo, S.; Arndt, M.

    2016-08-01

    The Mineral Vein Dynamics Modeling group ''FRACS'' started out as a team of 7 research groups in its first phase and continued with a team of 5 research groups at the Universities of Aachen, Tuebingen, Karlsruhe, Mainz and Glasgow during its second phase ''FRACS 11''. The aim of the group was to develop an advanced understanding of the interplay between fracturing, fluid flow and fracture healing with a special emphasis on the comparison of field data and numerical models. Field areas comprised the Oman mountains in Oman (which where already studied in detail in the first phase), a siliciclastic sequence in the Internal Ligurian Units in Italy (closed to Sestri Levante) and cores of Zechstein carbonates from a Lean Gas reservoir in Northern Germany. Numerical models of fracturing, sealing and interaction with fluid that were developed in phase I where expanded in phase 11. They were used to model small scale fracture healing by crystal growth and the resulting influence on flow, medium scale fracture healing and its influence on successive fracturing and healing, as well as large scale dynamic fluid flow through opening and closing fractures and channels as a function of fluid overpressure. The numerical models were compared with structures in the field and we were able to identify first proxies for mechanical vein-hostrock properties and fluid overpressures versus tectonic stresses. Finally we propose a new classification of stylolites based on numerical models and observations in the Zechstein cores and continued to develop a new stress inversion tool to use stylolites to estimate depth of their formation.

  18. Acute mesenteric vein thrombosis: factors associated with evolution to chronic mesenteric vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietti Violi, Naïk; Fournier, Nicolas; Duran, Rafael; Schmidt, Sabine; Bize, Pierre; Guiu, Boris; Denys, Alban

    2014-07-01

    Acute mesenteric venous thrombosis signs at MDCT are well described, but the literature lacks studies assessing their evolution. We aimed to describe the radiologic evolution of isolated acute mesenteric venous thrombosis and associated prognostic factors. Patients with isolated acute mesenteric venous thrombosis with follow-up for a minimum of 1 month with MDCT were selected. Images at the acute phase and on follow-up were reviewed in consensus reading. For acute mesenteric venous thrombosis, we searched for low-attenuated intraluminal filling defect. For chronic mesenteric venous thrombosis, we searched for vessel stenosis or occlusion associated with collateral mesenteric veins. Treatment, thrombosis risk factor, symptoms, location, and length and diameter of mesenteric venous thrombosis were reported and correlated with evolution over time. Twenty patients (nine women and 11 men; mean age, 52 years) were selected. Four patients recovered without radiologic sequelae, and 16 developed chronic mesenteric venous thrombosis signs. Anticoagulation did not influence recovery (p = 1). Patients with recovery compared with patients with chronic mesenteric venous thrombosis showed more frequent central lesions (p = 0.03). At diagnosis, the thrombosed segment was shorter and larger in the complete radiologic recovery group compared with the chronic mesenteric venous thrombosis signs group: mean length (± SD) 6.25 ± 3.21 cm and 12.81 ± 5.96 cm, respectively (p = 0.01); mean transverse diameter 1.82 ± 0.42 cm and 1.12 ± 0.34 cm, respectively (p = 0.01). Mesenteric fat infiltration at diagnosis was more frequent in the chronic mesenteric venous thrombosis signs group than in the complete recovery group (p = 0.03). Most cases of acute mesenteric venous thrombosis evolve toward the chronic form with vein stenosis or occlusion and development of collateral veins. Location, length of mesenteric venous thrombosis, transverse diameter of the vein, and mesenteric fat

  19. Supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection with a descending vertical vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sejal; Singh, Mukesh; John, Colin; Maheshwari, Sunita

    2009-10-01

    The commonly used Darling classification for total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) consists of supracardiac, cardiac, infracardiac, and mixed types (Craig et al., Lab Invest 6:44-64, 1967). In supracardiac TAPVC, the common pulmonary vein drains superiorly into the left innominate vein, the superior vena cava, or the azygos vein by way of an ascending vertical vein. We describe a case of supracardiac TAPVC draining into the azygos vein atypically by way of a descending vertical vein.

  20. The history and historical treatments of deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanaud, J-P; Laroche, J-P; Righini, M

    2013-03-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common disease. However, unlike that of varicose veins, which have been depicted since antiquity in art and literature, its description was more recent in the history of medicine. The first well-documented case of DVT was reported during the Middle Ages: in 1271, Raoul developed a unilateral edema in the ankle, which then extended to the leg. The number of reported DVT cases steadily increased thereafter, particularly in pregnant and postpartum women. During the first half of the 20th century, well before the discovery of anticoagulants, many therapeutic approaches were used, and arose from the pathologic hypotheses that prevailed at their time. Despite the development of anticoagulants, and the fact that they were thought to dramatically decrease DVT mortality, numerous complementary treatments have also been developed during the last 50 years: they include vena cava clips and surgical thrombectomy, and are intended to decrease mortality or to prevent late complications. Most of these treatments have now been abandoned, or even forgotten. In this review, we recall also the discovery and the use of vitamin K antagonists and heparin, which have constituted the mainstay of treatment for decades. We also bring some perspective to historical aspects of this disease and its treatment, notably regarding elastic compression and early mobilization, but also abandoned and complementary treatments. In these times of change regarding DVT treatment, mainly marked by the arrival of new oral anticoagulants, efforts of physicians through the ages to treat this common disease provide a beautiful example of the history of knowledge. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  1. Deep Vein Thrombosis as Initial Manifestation of Whipple Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Souza de Miranda Henriques

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wipple disease (WD is a rare chronic disease caused by the bacillus Tropheryma whipplei. Constitutive, rheumatologic, gastrointestinal, cardiac, cerebral, lymphatic, cutaneous, and ophthalmological signs are possible systemic symptoms. However, thrombotic manifestations are rarely described as “stroke-like syndrome” or arterial thrombosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations and pathological examination. Laboratory findings may include anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis. Objective: We report a case of venous thrombosis as initial manifestation of WD. Case Report: We describe the case of a 53-year-old male with iliofemoral vein thrombosis followed by intermittent diarrhea, loss of appetite, abdominal distension, and bloating. A mild malnutrition state with a weight loss of 13 kg, pallor (+/4 +, presence of lower-limb edema (+/4 +, and hypertympanic distended abdomen occurred. Laboratory tests on admission revealed anemia, positive inflammatory activity tests, and normal coagulation. Endoscopic examination showed villous edema with white dotted infiltrates in the second duodenal portion and intestinal lymphangiectasia in the terminal ileum. Pathological examination revealed numerous macrophages with positive periodic acid-Schiff inclusions. Venous Doppler ultrasound showed extensive deep thrombosis on the left lower limb and recanalization of the femoral vein in the right lower limb. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone and enoxaparin sodium, which led to an improvement of gastrointestinal and thrombosis symptoms. Comments: Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, vasculitis, and blood stasis are present in T. whipplei infection, which are associated with the activation of inflammatory mechanisms as well as procoagulant and thromboembolic events. WD should be part of the differential diagnosis of diseases that cause venous thrombosis of unknown origin.

  2. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in interrupted inferior caval vein through femoral vein approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endale Tefera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous closure of the patent arterial duct in patients with interrupted inferior caval vein poses a technical challenge. A 12-year-old girl with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA and interrupted inferior caval vein is described in this report. The diagnosis of interrupted inferior caval vein and azygos continuation was made in the catheterization laboratory. A catheter was advanced and snared in the descending aorta. An exchange wire was advanced through the catheter and snared in the descending aorta. Then, an Amplatzer TorqVue 2 delivery sheath was advanced over the wire from the venous side and again snared in the descending aorta. An Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO size 8/6 was advanced through the sheath while still holding the sheath with a snare. The device was opened. The sheath was then unsnared once the aortic disc was completely out. The sheath and the device were pulled back into the duct and the device was successfully implanted. The device was then released and it attained a stable position. An aortic angiogram was performed which showed complete occlusion.

  3. Contralateral Deep Vein Thrombosis after Iliac Vein Stent Placement in Patients with May-Thurner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trong Binh; Lee, Taeg Ki; Park, Keun-Myoung; Jeon, Yong Sun; Hong, Kee Chun; Cho, Soon Gu

    2018-04-25

    To investigate the incidence and potential causes of contralateral deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after common iliac vein (CIV) stent placement in patients with May-Thurner syndrome (MTS). Data of 111 patients (women: 73%) who had CIV stent implantation for symptomatic MTS at a single center were retrospectively analyzed. Mean patient age was 63.1 ± 15.2 years. Median follow-up was 36 months (range, 1-142 months). Stent location was determined by venogram and classified as extended to the inferior vena cava (IVC), covered the confluence, or confined to the iliac vein. Potential causes of contralateral DVT were presumed based on venographic findings. The relationship between stent location and contralateral DVT was analyzed. Ten patients (9%, men/women: 4/6) exhibited contralateral DVT at a median timing of 40 months (range, 6-98 months). Median age was 69 years (range, 42-85 years). Median follow-up was 73.5 months (range, 20-134 months). Potential causes were venous intimal hyperplasia (VIH) (n = 7), "jailing" (n = 2), and indeterminate (n = 1). All patients with VIH had previous CIV stents overextended to the IVC. Overextension of CIV stent was associated with contralateral DVT (P VIH should be considered a potential cause. Copyright © 2018 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomical variations of the iliolumbar vein with application to the anterior retroperitoneal approach to the lumbar spine: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Kenneth P; Camp, Christopher L; Zietlow, Scott P; Huddleston, Paul M

    2008-10-01

    Objectives of this study include identification of lumbosacral venous variations, designation of a critical area of dissection for surgical exposure, and comparison between both male/female and right/left-sided anatomy. Attempts were made to provide anatomic nomenclature that accurately describes these structures. Thirty-eight iliolumbar venous systems in 20 cadavers (11 females/9 males) were dissected. Each system was identified as one of three patterns of variation: common venous trunk (combining ascending lumbar and iliolumbar venous systems) with distal veins, common venous trunk without distal veins, and venous systems without a common venous trunk. Dimensions including distances to the inferior vena cava (IVC) confluence, the obturator nerve, and the lumbosacral trunk, and venous stem length were obtained to aid surgical dissection. Differences between males and females and those between right and left sides were compared. Anterior lumbosacral venous variations could be organized into three groups. A Type 1 venous system (common venous trunk with distal veins) was most common (53% of systems). The anatomical name "lateral lumbosacral veins" adequately describes the anatomical location of these veins and does not assume a direction of venous flow or the lack of individual distal veins. A critical area bordered by the obturator nerve anteriorly, the psoas muscle laterally, the spinal column medially, and sacrum posteriorly within 8.2 cm of the IVC confluence should be defined to adequately dissect the lateral lumbosacral veins. Differences in male and female lateral lumbosacral venous anatomy do not alter surgeon's approach to the anterior lumbar spine. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Aneurysmal dilatation of persistent vitelline vein with thrombus in a neonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kun Woo; Sung, Deuk Jae; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Cho, Sung Bum [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The paired vitelline veins selectively involute and form a part of the portal vein during embryonic development. The presence of a persistent vitelline vein segment after birth is very rare and can be confused with anomalies of the portal and umbilical veins. We present sonographic, CT and MRI findings of aneurysmal dilatation of a persistent vitelline vein with thrombus in a neonate; this case was first misdiagnosed as an umbilical vein varix by prenatal US. MRI was used to identify the persistent vitelline vein segment and the remnant umbilical vein segment. (orig.)

  6. Handbook of Memetic Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Cotta, Carlos; Moscato, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Memetic Algorithms (MAs) are computational intelligence structures combining multiple and various operators in order to address optimization problems.  The combination and interaction amongst operators evolves and promotes the diffusion of the most successful units and generates an algorithmic behavior which can handle complex objective functions and hard fitness landscapes.   “Handbook of Memetic Algorithms” organizes, in a structured way, all the the most important results in the field of MAs since their earliest definition until now.  A broad review including various algorithmic solutions as well as successful applications is included in this book. Each class of optimization problems, such as constrained optimization, multi-objective optimization, continuous vs combinatorial problems, uncertainties, are analysed separately and, for each problem,  memetic recipes for tackling the difficulties are given with some successful examples. Although this book contains chapters written by multiple authors, ...

  7. Applications of algorithmic differentiation to phase retrieval algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurling, Alden S; Fienup, James R

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we generalize the techniques of reverse-mode algorithmic differentiation to include elementary operations on multidimensional arrays of complex numbers. We explore the application of the algorithmic differentiation to phase retrieval error metrics and show that reverse-mode algorithmic differentiation provides a framework for straightforward calculation of gradients of complicated error metrics without resorting to finite differences or laborious symbolic differentiation.

  8. The study of multi-detector CT on the grouping and measuring of the hepatic veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xianliang; Dong Guang; Geng Hai; Wang Wengang; Li Linkun; Gao Wei; Wang Rongfang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the three-dimensional topography of the hepatic vein (HV), the inferior vena cava(IVC) and the inferior right hepatic vein(IRHV) in the retrohepatic and pre-IVC tunnel in human beings, and to provide an anatomic reference for liver surgery. Methods: One hundred and ten volunteers underwent CT scanning at 60 to 75 s after injection of contrast medium, and their HV, IVC and IRHV were reconstructed into MPR and 3D-MIP images. The hepatic veins were grouped according to the way by which the hepatic vein enters IVC. The angle between the right hepatic vein and the middle hepatic vein or the trunk of hepatic vein was measured, and the width from right hepatic vein to middle hepatic vein or to the trunk of hepatic vein on IVC was recorded. The frequency of IRHV was observed, and the length of the tunnel was measured. Results: Among the 110 volunteers, there were 6 cases (5.45%) with three hepatic veins respectively entering IVC, 98 cases (89.10%) with right hepatic vein and a common trunk of the middle hepatic vein and the left hepatic vein entering IVC, and 6 cases (5.45%) with left hepatic vein and a common trunk of the right hepatic vein and the middle hepatic vein entering IVC. The mean value of the angles between the right hepatic vein and the middle hepatic vein or the mink of hepatic vein was (55 ± 18) degree. The width from the right hepatic vein to the middle hepatic vein or to the trunk of hepatic vein was (21 ± 7)mm. The IRHV was observed in 30 cases(27.27%). The mean value of the tunnel length was (53 ± 11) mm. Conclusion: The parameters of the retrohepatic and pre-IVC tunnel in human beings can be measured accurately by the imaging of MPR, which can provide an anatomic reference for the liver surgery. (authors)

  9. Treatment algorithm based on the multivariate survival analyses in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with trans-arterial chemoembolization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmukh J Prajapati

    Full Text Available To develop the treatment algorithm from multivariate survival analyses (MVA in patients with Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC C (advanced Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients treated with Trans-arterial Chemoembolization (TACE.Consecutive unresectable and non-tranplantable patients with advanced HCC, who received DEB TACE were studied. A total of 238 patients (mean age, 62.4yrs was included in the study. Survivals were analyzed according to different parameters from the time of the 1st DEB TACE. Kaplan Meier and Cox Proportional Hazard model were used for survival analysis. The SS was constructed from MVA and named BCLC C HCC Prognostic (BCHP staging system (SS.Overall median survival (OS was 16.2 months. In HCC patients with venous thrombosis (VT of large vein [main portal vein (PV, right or left PV, hepatic vein, inferior vena cava] (22.7% versus small vein (segmental/subsegmental PV (9.7% versus no VT had OSs of 6.4 months versus 20 months versus 22.8 months respectively (p<0.001. On MVA, the significant independent prognostic factors (PFs of survival were CP class, eastern cooperative oncology group (ECOG performance status (PS, single HCC<5 cm, site of VT, metastases, serum creatinine and serum alpha-feto protein. Based on these PFs, the BCHP staging system was constructed. The OSs of stages I, II and III were 28.4 months, 11.8 months and 2.4 months accordingly (p<0.001. The treatment plan was proposed according to the different stages.On MVA of patients with advanced HCC treated with TACE, significant independent prognostic factors (PFs of survival were CP class, ECOG PS, single HCC<5 cm or others, site of VT, metastases, serum creatinine and serum alpha-feto protein. New BCHP SS was proposed based on MVA data to identify the suitable advanced HCC patients for TACE treatments.

  10. Spontaneous bilateral subclavian vein thrombosis in a 40-year-old man: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Wu, Yen-Hung; Yeh, I-Jeng; Chen, Yun-Yi; Kung, Fung-Ya

    2018-04-01

    Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS) is an uncommon condition that refers to primary (spontaneous) thrombosis of the deep veins that drain the upper extremities because of anatomical anomalies or repetitive strenuous arm activity. Bilateral spontaneous upper extremity deep-vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is an extremely rare phenomenon in adults, which may be misdiagnosed by physicians in acute settings. A 40-year-old man presented to our emergency department because of progressive left upper arm swelling for 1 day. He denied fever, chest pain, dyspnea, trauma, or any other systemic disease before. The swollen left arm also had no local heat or redness with normal radius pulsation. He was a laborer who lifted heavy objects. Blood examination included tests for complete blood count, renal function, liver function, blood coagulation profile, cardiac enzyme levels, and D-dimer level. Results showed that the white blood cell count, renal and liver functions, and cardiac enzyme levels were all within their normal ranges, except for the elevated D-dimer level (1.93 mg/L). Chest radiography and electrocardiography were performed with nonspecific findings. Subsequently, computed tomographic angiography was recommended for the suspected deep-vein thrombosis. The report showed venous thrombosis involving the bilateral subclavian and internal jugular veins. Heparin and enoxaparin were prescribed for this patient, with loading and maintenance doses. He was then admitted to our cardiovascular ward for further treatment. The patient was discharged 9 days later in a stable condition. Emergency physicians should consider the rare condition of UEDVT when a healthy patient presents with acute arm swelling. Patient history taking should be thorough, especially concerning the risk factors of secondary causes and possible frequent vigorous heavy lifting and overhead motion. Without secondary risk factors, primary upper deep-vein thrombosis might be suspected. Further laboratory tests and imaging

  11. Mechanics of the formation of orthogonal sets of solution seams, and solution seams and veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Aydin, A.

    2011-12-01

    Orthogonal pressure solution seam (PSS) sets, orthogonal PSS-vein sets, and parallel PSS-vein sets are three fundamental structural assemblages forming networks that are frequently observed in nature. In this study, we investigated stress distributions around PSSs idealized as localized volume reduction structures (LVRSs) to identify the conditions for the formation of these three commonly observed assemblages. Various geometries of LVRSs are taken into account, including elliptical LVRSs with smooth flanks, LVRSs with triangular and rectangular asperities on their flanks, and LVRSs with overall columnar and conical geometries. The modeling results indicate that when PSSs have elliptical shapes with perfectly smooth flanks, the conditions for generating the above fundamental assemblies are highly restrictive, mostly because of relatively large average aspect ratios of PSSs in the field. However, both laboratory and field observations have shown that PSS surfaces are extremely rough. We find that PSSs with roughflanks and PSSs with overall irregular geometry are much more favorable for generating these structural assemblages. Based on a series of stress domain maps obtained from our mechanical model, we evaluated the stress, strain, and geometric conditions for the formation of each class of assemblages. It turns out that there are a wide variety of loading and geometric factors favoring the formation of a specific type of assemblage. Generally, orthogonal PSS-vein sets are likely to form under lower or negative ratios of vertical and horizontal remote stresses (tensile stress being negative), orthogonal PSS sets are likely to form under higher ratios of vertical and horizontal remote stresses, whereas parallel PSS-vein assemblage is favored by higher internal plastic strains within PSSs. However, with triangular asperities on PSS flanks, two orthogonal PSS sets can even form at relatively low ratios of remote stresses. In contrast, high internal plastic strains

  12. Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, C Kevin; Brodribb, Tim J; Feild, Taylor S; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2009-05-22

    The veins that irrigate leaves during photosynthesis are demonstrated to be strikingly more abundant in flowering plants than in any other vascular plant lineage. Angiosperm vein densities average 8 mm of vein per mm(2) of leaf area and can reach 25 mm mm(-2), whereas such high densities are absent from all other plants, living or extinct. Leaves of non-angiosperms have consistently averaged close to 2 mm mm(-2) throughout 380 million years of evolution despite a complex history that has involved four or more independent origins of laminate leaves with many veins and dramatic changes in climate and atmospheric composition. We further demonstrate that the high leaf vein densities unique to the angiosperms enable unparalleled transpiration rates, extending previous work indicating a strong correlation between vein density and assimilation rates. Because vein density is directly measurable in fossils, these correlations provide new access to the physiology of extinct plants and how they may have impacted their environments. First, the high assimilation rates currently confined to the angiosperms among living plants are likely to have been unique throughout evolutionary history. Second, the transpiration-driven recycling of water that is important for bolstering precipitation in modern tropical rainforests might have been significantly less in a world before the angiosperms.

  13. Palm Vein Verification Using Multiple Features and Locality Preserving Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohsin Al-juboori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person’s skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP, and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%.

  14. Preliminary Study for Designing a Novel Vein-Visualizing Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Yujin; Yoon, Siyeop; Lee, Deukhee

    2017-02-07

    Venipuncture is an important health diagnosis process. Although venipuncture is one of the most commonly performed procedures in medical environments, locating the veins of infants, obese, anemic, or colored patients is still an arduous task even for skilled practitioners. To solve this problem, several devices using infrared light have recently become commercially available. However, such devices for venipuncture share a common drawback, especially when visualizing deep veins or veins of a thick part of the body like the cubital fossa . This paper proposes a new vein-visualizing device applying a new penetration method using near-infrared (NIR) light. The light module is attached directly on to the declared area of the skin. Then, NIR beam is rayed from two sides of the light module to the vein with a specific angle. This gives a penetration effect. In addition, through an image processing procedure, the vein structure is enhanced to show it more accurately. Through a phantom study, the most effective penetration angle of the NIR module is decided. Additionally, the feasibility of the device is verified through experiments in vivo. The prototype allows us to visualize the vein patterns of thicker body parts, such as arms.

  15. Use of the term "superficial femoral vein" in ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajah, Ramya; Venkatanarasimha, Nanda; Freeman, Simon

    2011-01-01

    To determine the frequency of use of the term "superficial femoral vein" (SFV) in the radiologic reports from a sample of sonographic investigations for suspected deep vein thrombosis and to assess the potential for clinical error in their interpretation. Retrospective review of 425 consecutive reports from medical patients attending the Imaging Department over a 6-month period for the presence of the term "superficial femoral vein" and for the presence of thrombus. A questionnaire was sent to a sample of referring clinicians to assess their understanding of the anatomy of the deep venous system of the leg and indications for anticoagulant treatment. Of the 425 sonographic investigations reviewed, 90 (21.2%) used the term "superficial femoral vein," and 12 (13.3%) were positive for SFV thrombus. Among 87 clinicians, 74.7% believed the SFV to be part of the superficial venous system and that its thrombosis did not require anticoagulant treatment, although anticoagulation is now indicated in selected cases of superficial venous thrombosis. Seventy-five percent of clinicians do not recognize the SFV as being part of the deep venous system and that its thrombosis requires anticoagulant treatment. In this study, 13% of SFV examined were positive for thrombus, and four patients (4.4%) had an isolated SFV thrombus that could have been left untreated due to this misunderstanding. Use of the term "superficial femoral vein" is prone to misinterpretation by clinicians and potentially hazardous to patients. It should be replaced by "common femoral vein" and "femoral vein" in reports.

  16. Diseases of the veins of the lower extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, F.J.; Koppers, B.

    1988-01-01

    The vena saphena magna is the most important arterial vascular substitute in today's vascular surgery. That is why modern varicose vein surgery is performed very carefully and cautiously with an aim to preserve the vessels as much as possible. This can be done only if the radiologist visualises both the healthy and the diseased superficial and deep venous systems as completely and a easily appreciable as possible when diagnosing varicosis. It is not enough to merely produce contrast images of the deep venous system when attempting to clarify varicosis via phlebography. The conditions obtaining at the points where the great saphenous vein and the small saphenous vein open into the femoral and popliteal veins, respectively, must be clearly visible. The maximum possible number of insufficient venae perforantes must be shown and the side branches of the great saphenous vein that have undergone varicose changes, must be visualised. It goes without saying that the deep venous system must be shown in a manner that it can be safely assessed. An extended thrombosis of the deep veins of the leg and pelvis does not present any diagnostic pitfalls when assessing the phlebogram. On the other hand, a beginning deep leg thrombosis is easily overlooked. Phlebographically it is quite difficult to clarify a relapsing thrombosis. This requires detailed knowledge of the patterns of signs in deep leg vein thrombosis. (orig.) [de

  17. Diseases of the veins of the lower extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, F.J.; Koppers, B.

    1988-07-01

    The vena saphena magna is the most important arterial vascular substitute in today's vascular surgery. That is why modern varicose vein surgery is performed very carefully and cautiously with an aim to preserve the vessels as much as possible. This can be done only if the radiologist visualises both the healthy and the diseased superficial and deep venous systems as completely and a easily appreciable as possible when diagnosing varicosis. It is not enough to merely produce contrast images of the deep venous system when attempting to clarify varicosis via phlebography. The conditions obtaining at the points where the great saphenous vein and the small saphenous vein open into the femoral and popliteal veins, respectively, must be clearly visible. The maximum possible number of insufficient venae perforantes must be shown and the side branches of the great saphenous vein that have undergone varicose changes, must be visualised. It goes without saying that the deep venous system must be shown in a manner that it can be safely assessed. An extended thrombosis of the deep veins of the leg and pelvis does not present any diagnostic pitfalls when assessing the phlebogram. On the other hand, a beginning deep leg thrombosis is easily overlooked. Phlebographically it is quite difficult to clarify a relapsing thrombosis. This requires detailed knowledge of the patterns of signs in deep leg vein thrombosis.

  18. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Anatomic Variations of the Femoral Vein and Popliteal Vein in Relation to the Accompanying Artery by Using CT Venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Ah; Chung, Jin Wook; Lee, Whal; Yin, Yong Hu; Ha, Jung Won; Kim, Sang Joon; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospita, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We wanted to describe the three-dimensional (3D) anatomic variations of the femoral vein (FV) and popliteal vein (PV) in relation to the accompanying artery using CT venography. We performed a retrospective review of 445 bilateral (890 limbs) lower limb CT venograms. After the 3D relationship between the FV and PV and accompanying artery was analyzed, the presence or absence of variation was determined and the observed variations were classified. In each patient, the extent and location of the variations and the location of the adductor hiatus were recorded to investigate the regional frequency of the variations. There were four distinct categories of variations: agenesis (3 limbs, 0.3%), multiplication (isolated in the FV: 190 limbs, 21%; isolated in the PV: 14 limbs, 2%; and in both the FV and PV: 51 limbs, 6%), anatomical course variation (75 limbs, 8%) and high union of the tibial veins (737 limbs, 83%). The course variations included medial malposition (60 limbs, 7%), anterior rotation (11 limbs, 1%) and posterior rotation (4 limbs, 0.4%). Mapping the individual variations revealed regional differences in the pattern and frequency of the variations. CT venography helps to confirm a high incidence of variations in the lower limb venous anatomy and it also revealed various positional venous anomalies in relation to the respective artery.

  19. Mechanics of the formation of orthogonal sets of solution seams, and solution seams and veins and parallel solution seams and veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxian; Aydin, Atilla

    2012-04-01

    Commonly observed networks of pressure solution seams (PSSs) and PSSs and veins can be broken down to three basic assemblages: orthogonal PSS sets, orthogonal PSS/vein sets, and parallel PSS/vein sets. We investigate stress distributions around PSSs idealized as localized volume reduction structures (LVRSs) to identify the conditions for forming these three fundamental assemblages. Various geometries of LVRSs are taken into account, including elliptical LVRSs with smooth flanks, LVRSs with triangular and rectangular asperities on their flanks, and LVRSs with overall irregular geometries, such as columnar and conical shapes. The modeling results indicate that if the first PSS set has elliptical shapes with smooth flanks, the conditions for generating the fundamental assemblages listed above are highly restrictive, primarily due to relatively large average aspect ratios of PSSs as measured in the field, which indicate lower stresses around PSSs as they grow. However, both laboratory and field observations have shown that PSS surfaces are extremely rough. We find that PSSs with relatively rough flanks and PSSs with overall irregular trace geometry such as sutured and zig-zag or wiggly are much more favorable for generating the stresses for the formation of these fundamental structural assemblages. Based on a series of stress domain maps from our mechanical model, we evaluated the stress, strain, and geometric conditions for the formation of each of the three assemblages. It turns out that there are a wide variety of loading and geometric factors favoring the formation of a particular type of assemblage.

  20. Arrhythmia-free survival and pulmonary vein reconnection patterns after second-generation cryoballoon and contact-force radiofrequency pulmonary vein isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Thomas J; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Smit, Jaap Jan J; Ramdat Misier, Anand R; Elvan, Arif

    2018-02-06

    The aim of this study was to compare second-generation cryoballoon and contact-force radiofrequency point-by-point pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with regard to pulmonary vein reconnection and arrhythmia-free survival. Altogether, 269 consecutive patients with drug-refractory AF undergoing PVI were included and randomly allocated to second-generation cryoballoon or contact-force point-by-point radiofrequency ablation. Median follow-up duration was 389 days (interquartile range 219-599). Mean age was 59 years (71% male); 136 patients underwent cryoballoon and 133 patients underwent radiofrequency ablation. Acute electrical PVI was 100% for both techniques. Procedure duration was significantly shorter in cryoballoon vs radiofrequency (166.5 vs 184.13 min P = 0.016). Complication rates were similar (6.0 vs 6.7%, P = 1.00). Single procedure freedom of atrial arrhythmias was significantly higher in cryoballoon as compared to radiofrequency (75.2 vs 57.4%, P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, persistent AF, AF duration, and cryoballoon ablation were associated with freedom of atrial tachyarrhythmias. The number of repeat ablation procedures was significantly lower in the cryoballoon compared to radiofrequency (15.0 vs 24.3%, P = 0.045). At repeat ablation, pulmonary vein reconnection rate was significantly lower after cryoballoon as compared to radiofrequency ablation (36.8 vs 58.1%, P = 0.003). Improved arrhythmia-free survival and more durable pulmonary vein isolation is seen after PVI using second-generation cryoballoon as compared to contact-force radiofrequency, in patients with drug-refractory paroxysmal AF. Complication rates for both ablation techniques are low.

  1. Bilateral retinal vein occlusion and rubeosis irides: lessons to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Noh, Umi Kalthum; Ahem, Amin; Mustapha, Mushawiahti

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled hypertension is well- known to give rise to systemic complications involving multiple central organs. Artherosclerosis leads to damage of the retinal vessels wall, contributing to venous stasis, thrombosis and finally, occlusion. Retinal vein occlusions compromise vision through development of ischaemic maculopathy, macular oedema, and rubeotic glaucoma. Laser photocoagulation remains the definitive treatment for ischaemic vein occlusion with secondary neovascularization. Timely treatment with anti- vascular endothelial growth factor prevents development of rubeotic glaucoma. We hereby report an unusual case of bilateral retinal vein occlusion complicated by rubeosis irides, which was successfully managed to improve vision and prevent rubeotic glaucoma.

  2. The radiology of the right superior intercostal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, D.; Pagliari, U.; Lapiccirella, G.

    1989-01-01

    The right superior intercostal vein is visualised on CT examination as a circular opacity laterally at the right aspect of the vertebral body at the T 4 -T 5 level. In venographic examination the RSIV appears to be formed by the confluence of the venous channels, the right second third and fourth intercostal veins. In superior vena cava obstruction the RSIV is an important collateral pathway: the flow through the vein depends on the site of the obstruction, anterograde if the obstruction is superior or parallel to the level of the vena azygos, and retrograde if the obstruction is below the vena azygos. (orig.) [de

  3. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection to the Portal Vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyttenbach, Marina; Carrel, Thierry; Schuepbach, Peter; Tschaeppeler, Heinz; Triller, Juergen

    1996-01-01

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return represents a rare congenital anomaly with wide anatomic and physiologic variability. We report a case of a newborn with a rare form of total infracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). The pulmonary veins draining both lungs formed two vertical veins, which joined to a common pulmonary trunk below the diaphragm. This venous channel connected to the portal vein through the esophageal hiatus. The diagnosis was suggested by color Doppler sonography and confirmed by intravenous digital subtraction angiography, which allowed definition of the anatomy

  4. CT imaging of collaterals in stenoses of large mediastinal veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerich, J.; Flentje, M.; Gueckel, F.; Beyer-Enke, S.A.; Kaick, G. van; Heidelberg Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Scans of angio-computed tomography (CT) of 53 patients suffering from mediastinal space-occupying growths were reviewed: 16 patients showed stenosis of mediastinal veins with demonstration of subcutaneous venous channels, 17 showed an obstruction without collateral pathways and 20 patients had normal mediastinal vessels. Two thirds of the cases with external vein compression were caused by bronchogenic carcinoma. The degree of obstruction in patients showing collateral circulation was between 70 and 100 percent and significantly greater than in patients without collaterals (40%). The most important collaterals bypassing the upper mediastinal veins are discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Parallel algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Henri; Robert, Yves

    2008-01-01

    ""…The authors of the present book, who have extensive credentials in both research and instruction in the area of parallelism, present a sound, principled treatment of parallel algorithms. … This book is very well written and extremely well designed from an instructional point of view. … The authors have created an instructive and fascinating text. The book will serve researchers as well as instructors who need a solid, readable text for a course on parallelism in computing. Indeed, for anyone who wants an understandable text from which to acquire a current, rigorous, and broad vi

  6. Formation of the external jugular vein in the brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregório Corrêa Guimarães

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira is a brown-greyish short-haired wild ruminant living in Central and South Americas. This paper aimed at describing the formation of the external jugular vein in a male specimen which died due to run-over. The facial and cervical regions were dissected so as to allow the visualization of the external jugular vein and its tributaries. This vein was formed by the union of the maxillary and linguofacial veins. The first originated from the superficial and transverse facial temporal veins, and it received along its length the angular vein of the eye, as well as the dorsal and lateral veins of the nose and upper lip. The second was formed after the anastomosis of the lingual and facial veins. The facial vein was originated by the union of the lower lip and deep facial veins, in the middle third of the face, rostral to the masseter muscle. This vascular arrangement differs from that usually observed in domestic ruminants, in which the transverse facial vein is underdeveloped and the facial vein receives the angular vein of the eye, the dorsal and lateral veins of the nose, besides the upper lip vein. The external jugular vein in the brown brocket deer presented the same tributaries than domestic ruminants, however, with a different vessel arrangement of the facial and facial transverse veins.

  7. Analysis and Improvement of Fireworks Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Xi-Guang Li; Shou-Fei Han; Chang-Qing Gong

    2017-01-01

    The Fireworks Algorithm is a recently developed swarm intelligence algorithm to simulate the explosion process of fireworks. Based on the analysis of each operator of Fireworks Algorithm (FWA), this paper improves the FWA and proves that the improved algorithm converges to the global optimal solution with probability 1. The proposed algorithm improves the goal of further boosting performance and achieving global optimization where mainly include the following strategies. Firstly using the opp...

  8. Parallel Algorithms and Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation on parallel algorithms and patterns. A parallel algorithm is a well-defined, step-by-step computational procedure that emphasizes concurrency to solve a problem. Examples of problems include: Sorting, searching, optimization, matrix operations. A parallel pattern is a computational step in a sequence of independent, potentially concurrent operations that occurs in diverse scenarios with some frequency. Examples are: Reductions, prefix scans, ghost cell updates. We only touch on parallel patterns in this presentation. It really deserves its own detailed discussion which Gabe Rockefeller would like to develop.

  9. Role of Transthoracic Echocardiography in the Evaluation of Patients with Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsoon Fazlinezhad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Retinal vein occlusion  is a common vascular disorder disrupting vision. Two basic types of RVO are branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO.  Retinal vein occlusion is a multifactor process including systemic illness and local retinal factors.RVO may be associated with atherosclerotic risk factors. We analyzed the role of 2 dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE for detecting the cardiac disease in patients with retinal veins occlusion. Materials and Methods:In this cross-sectional study 70 recently diagnosed patients with RVO enrolled in the study. The clinical diagnosis of retinal vein occlusion and its type was confirmed by a vitreoretinal specialist. The Patients were then referred for performing complete TTE. Results: The prevalence of RVO increased with age, but did not vary by sex. The most frequent cardiovascular risk factor was hypertension. The findings of our study revealed that a variety of echocardiographic abnormalities may be presented in patients with RVO. Diastolic dysfunction was the most frequent echocardiographic finding and we found positive correlation between diastolic dysfunction with increasing age and the presence of hypertension. Other findings included mitral regurgitation (52.9%, mitral stenosis (2.9%, mitral annulus calcification (1.4%, mitral valve prolapse (8.6%, aortic insufficiency (22.9%, sclerotic aortic valve (27.1%, tricuspid regurgitation (45.7%, pulmonary insufficiency (8.6%, mild pulmonary hypertension (8.6%, and moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension (4.3% Mild LVH (11.4%, Moderate LVH (8.6%. Abnormality on IAS was defined in these patients, including paten foramen ovale, lipomatosis IAS, exaggerated motion of IAS, and aneurysm of IAS. Conclusion: In our study, the most common echocardiographic finding was diastolic dysfunction which was compatible with the patients' age and the fact that the most prevalent risk factor was hypertension. Other

  10. Ultrasonographic finding of internal jugular vein during anti-G straining maneuver: is it associated with gravity-induced loss of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Seok; Sul, Jin Gon; Yi, Kyung Sik; Seo, Jeong-Min; Chung, Ki Young

    2010-07-01

    Gravity-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) is caused by loss of cerebral blood flow during high +Gz (head-to-foot inertial forces). The resistance of the jugular vein is a significant factor in decrease in cerebral blood flow. Ultrasonography of thoracic inlet veins, including internal jugular vein, is feasible to visualize the internal jugular vein and hemodynamic information. Anti-gravity straining maneuver (AGSM) was widely recognized as one of the important factors in preventing G-LOC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the ultrasonographic shape and size of internal jugular vein during AGSM and G-LOC. 47 trainee pilots who participated in human centrifuge education program were enrolled. They were all men, and their mean age was 23.9 +/- 1.38 years. Questionnaire sheets were used to collect information about well-being sensation, smoking, drinking, height, and weight. Using ultrasonography, we monitored shape and size of internal jugular vein during AGSM. After ultrasonographic examination, 47 subjects underwent human centrifuge on the same day. The protocol of human centrifuge training was maximal 6G with sustaining time of 30 s. G-LOC occurred to ten out of 47 subjects in human centrifuge. To find presumptive variable associated with G-LOC, we performed logistic regression analysis. Concave contour and smaller cross-sectional area of internal jugular vein during AGSM were associated with G-LOC.

  11. The Aristotelian account of "heart and veins".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Ardalan, Mohammad R

    2008-04-25

    The exploration of the cardiovascular (CV) system has a history of at least five millennia. The model of the heart and veins represented by Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) is one of the earliest and accurate descriptions of the CV system. With his own specific metaphysical approach, Aristotle discussed why there might be a vascular tree composed of two vessels and also why these vessels must extend throughout the entire body. Herein, the authors present a history of the original account of the CV system based on the studies and teachings of Aristotle who made detailed observations and experimented upon animals and human corpses to explore the anatomy of the heart and vessels and thus provided the basis for modern CV medicine. The Aristotelian CV model consisted of two related but slightly dissimilar passages based on experimentation and tradition, which could be perceived as the morphology and metaphysical accounts of physiology, respectively. Restricted by his own methodology of dissecting dead animals, Aristotle was the first to describe the anatomy of the heart and blood vessels. A thorough reading of his Historia Animalium showed that he was able to morphologically delineate the right atrium in addition to three distinct heart cavities corresponding to the left atrium and right and left ventricles. The authors conclude that when interpreting Aristotelian doctrine, the methodology and terminology should be taken into account in order to prevent potential misconceptions. It is the early work of such scientists as Aristotle on which we base our current understanding of the CV system.

  12. Nitroprusside modulates pulmonary vein arrhythmogenic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yao-Chang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary veins (PVs are the most important sources of ectopic beats with the initiation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, or the foci of ectopic atrial tachycardia and focal atrial fibrillation. Elimination of nitric oxide (NO enhances cardiac triggered activity, and NO can decrease PV arrhythmogensis through mechano-electrical feedback. However, it is not clear whether NO may have direct electrophysiological effects on PV cardiomyocytes. This study is aimed to study the effects of nitroprusside (NO donor, on the ionic currents and arrhythmogenic activity of single cardiomyocytes from the PVs. Methods Single PV cardiomyocytes were isolated from the canine PVs. The action potential and ionic currents were investigated in isolated single canine PV cardiomyocytes before and after sodium nitroprusside (80 μM, using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results Nitroprusside decreased PV cardiomyocytes spontaneous beating rates from 1.7 ± 0.3 Hz to 0.5 ± 0.4 Hz in 9 cells (P Conclusion Nitroprusside regulates the electrical activity of PV cardiomyocytes, which suggests that NO may play a role in PV arrhythmogenesis.

  13. Intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion: 12-month results

    OpenAIRE

    Demir M; Oba E; Gulkilik G; Odabasi M; Ozdal E

    2011-01-01

    Mehmet Demir, Ersin Oba, Gökhan Gulkilik, Mahmut Odabasi, Erhan OzdalSisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Sisli, Istanbul, TurkeyPurpose: To present the functional and anatomic changes after intravitreal bevacizumab in eyes with macular edema (ME) due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).Design: The study was a retrospective study.Materials and methods: The study included 31 patients with ME due to BRVO. We compared the examination findings of patients with ME b...

  14. Assessment of nursing problems for patients after leg vein varicose surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ardavičiūtė, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Patients, who suffer from chronic venous blood flow deficiency, feel pain, discomfort, fatigue and other symptoms that disturb the quality of life, emotional wellbeing, and it is a common reason for incapacity and disability. Surgical treatment of venous deficiency includes not only the patient, but also nursing staff. It requires considering post-operative symptoms and needs of the patient. Keywords: leg veins, surgery, nursing, patient, nurse. The aim of research work: to determine and asse...

  15. Occurrence and Partial Characterization of Lettuce big vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big vein virus in Lettuce in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Alemzadeh, E.; Izadpanah, K.

    2012-01-01

    Mirafiori lettuce big vein virus (MiLBVV) and lettuce big vein associated virus (LBVaV) were found in association with big vein disease of lettuce in Iran. Analysis of part of the coat protein (CP) gene of Iranian isolates of LBVaV showed 97.1–100 % nucleotide sequence identity with other LBVaV isolates. Iranian isolates of MiLBVV belonged to subgroup A and showed 88.6–98.8 % nucleotide sequence identity with other isolates of this virus when amplified by PCR primer pair MiLV VP. The occurren...

  16. Automated detection and classification of major retinal vessels for determination of diameter ratio of arteries and veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hatanaka, Yuji; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities of retinal vasculatures can indicate health conditions in the body, such as the high blood pressure and diabetes. Providing automatically determined width ratio of arteries and veins (A/V ratio) on retinal fundus images may help physicians in the diagnosis of hypertensive retinopathy, which may cause blindness. The purpose of this study was to detect major retinal vessels and classify them into arteries and veins for the determination of A/V ratio. Images used in this study were obtained from DRIVE database, which consists of 20 cases each for training and testing vessel detection algorithms. Starting with the reference standard of vasculature segmentation provided in the database, major arteries and veins each in the upper and lower temporal regions were manually selected for establishing the gold standard. We applied the black top-hat transformation and double-ring filter to detect retinal blood vessels. From the extracted vessels, large vessels extending from the optic disc to temporal regions were selected as target vessels for calculation of A/V ratio. Image features were extracted from the vessel segments from quarter-disc to one disc diameter from the edge of optic discs. The target segments in the training cases were classified into arteries and veins by using the linear discriminant analysis, and the selected parameters were applied to those in the test cases. Out of 40 pairs, 30 pairs (75%) of arteries and veins in the 20 test cases were correctly classified. The result can be used for the automated calculation of A/V ratio.

  17. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion AssociatedWith Sildenafil (Viagra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H C Obiudu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion - Central retinal vein occlusion is a possible adverse effect of sildenafil use. Physicians should be vigilant while prescribing thismedication and avoid its use in patients with elevated intraocular pressure

  18. Fuzzy based finger vein recognition with rotation invariant feature matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhilmaran, D.; Joseph, Rose Bindu

    2017-11-01

    Finger vein recognition is a promising biometric with commercial applications which is explored widely in the recent years. In this paper, a finger vein recognition system is proposed using rotation invariant feature descriptors for matching after enhancing the finger vein images with an interval type-2 fuzzy method. SIFT features are extracted and matched using a matching score based on Euclidian distance. Rotation invariance of the proposed method is verified in the experiment and the results are compared with SURF matching and minutiae matching. It is seen that rotation invariance is verified and the poor quality issues are solved efficiently with the designed system of finger vein recognition during the analysis. The experiments underlines the robustness and reliability of the interval type-2 fuzzy enhancement and SIFT feature matching.

  19. Two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in severely burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen H

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hanghui Cen, Xiaojie HeDepartment of Burn, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Here we present two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in burn patients, with diagnosis, risk factor analysis, and treatment approaches. Severely burned patients have high risk of deep vein thrombosis occurrence due to multiple surgeries. The deep vein catheter should be carefully performed. Once deep vein thrombosis is detected, a wide ultrasonography helps to find other thrombosis sites. During the acute phase, low molecular weight heparin can be used. Upon long-term anti-thrombosis treatment, combined use of herbal medicine during rehabilitation is helpful.Keywords: burn, heparin, combined treatment

  20. Ovarian vein thrombosis | Jenayah | Pan African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... surgery, pelvic inflammatory disease, or malignancy. Diagnosis can be made with confidence using ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment of ovarian vein thrombosis is particularly important in the postpartum patients, with anticoagulation therapy being the current recommendation.

  1. Management Strategy for Patients With Chronic Subclavian Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Graham; Marshall, M Blair

    2017-02-01

    We performed a systematic review to determine best practice for the management of patients with chronic or subacute subclavian vein thrombosis. This condition is best managed with surgical excision of the first rib followed by long-term anticoagulation. Interventional techniques aimed at restoring patency are ineffective beyond 2 weeks postthrombosis. Additional therapeutic options should be made based on the severity of symptoms as well as vein status. Patients with milder symptoms are given decompression surgery followed by anticoagulation whereas patients with more severe symptoms are considered for either a jugular vein transposition or saphenous patch based on the vein characteristics. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ovarian vein thrombosis – a rare but important complication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case study highlights the clinical importance of ovarian vein thrombosis in the context of pelvic surgery for benign gynaecological conditions and the role of imaging, particularly computed tomography with reformatting, in confirming the diagnosis.

  3. Plantar vein thrombosis: a rare cause of plantar foot pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, Daniel S.; Wu, Jim S.; Brennan, Darren D.; Hochman, Mary G. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Challies, Tracy [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Plantar vein thrombosis is a rare condition, with only a handful of cases reported in the literature. The cause is unknown; however, the disease has been attributed to prior surgery, trauma, and paraneoplastic conditions. We present a case of a 32-year-old female runner with plantar vein thrombosis diagnosed on contrast-enhanced MRI and confirmed on ultrasound. The symptoms resolved with conservative treatment and evaluation revealed the presence of a prothrombin gene mutation and use of oral contraceptive pills. To our knowledge, this is the first case of plantar vein thrombosis diagnosed initially by MRI. Moreover, this case suggests that plantar vein thrombosis should be considered in patients with hypercoagulable states and plantar foot pain. (orig.)

  4. Plantar vein thrombosis: a rare cause of plantar foot pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, Daniel S.; Wu, Jim S.; Brennan, Darren D.; Hochman, Mary G.; Challies, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Plantar vein thrombosis is a rare condition, with only a handful of cases reported in the literature. The cause is unknown; however, the disease has been attributed to prior surgery, trauma, and paraneoplastic conditions. We present a case of a 32-year-old female runner with plantar vein thrombosis diagnosed on contrast-enhanced MRI and confirmed on ultrasound. The symptoms resolved with conservative treatment and evaluation revealed the presence of a prothrombin gene mutation and use of oral contraceptive pills. To our knowledge, this is the first case of plantar vein thrombosis diagnosed initially by MRI. Moreover, this case suggests that plantar vein thrombosis should be considered in patients with hypercoagulable states and plantar foot pain. (orig.)

  5. How to Spot and Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May Help More People After Stroke Transplant Reverses Sickle Cell Disease Avoiding Anemia When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Clues of a Clot Seek treatment if you have these symptoms. They may signal a deep vein clot or ...

  6. Extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis : aetiology and determinants of survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, HLA; Haagsma, EB; van Uum, SHM; van Nieuwkerk, CMJ; Adang, RP; Chamuleau, RAFM; van Hattum, J; Vleggaar, FP; Hansen, BE; Rosendaal, FR; van Hoek, B

    2001-01-01

    Background-Malignancy, hypercoagulability, and conditions leading to decreased portal flow have been reported to contribute to the aetiology of extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis (EPVT). Mortality of patients with, EPVT may be associated with these concurrent medical conditions or with

  7. Extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis: aetiology and determinants of survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.A. Janssen (Harry); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); B. van Hoek (Bart); F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); E.B. Haagsma (Els); S.H. van Uum; C.M. van Nieuwkerk; R.P.R. Adang (Rob); R.A. Chamuleau; J. van Hattum (Jan); F.P. Vleggaar (Frank); A.D. Wijnhoud (Annemarie)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Malignancy, hypercoagulability, and conditions leading to decreased portal flow have been reported to contribute to the aetiology of extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis (EPVT). Mortality of patients with EPVT may be associated with these concurrent medical

  8. Portal vein thrombosis; risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogaard, Kirstine K; Astrup, Lone B; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is increasingly frequently being diagnosed, but systematic descriptions of the natural history and clinical handling of the condition are sparse. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe risk factors, clinical presentation, complications...

  9. Geology and geochemistry of giant quartz veins from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone) extend- ... ure 3d) suggesting that the veins underwent brittle deformation. The maximum outcrop length of the giant ... as ridges similar to walls within host granitoids, various workers have suggested contrasting mod-.

  10. Stent Recanalization of Chronic Portal Vein Occlusion in a Child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cwikiel, Wojciech; Solvig, Jan; Schroder, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy with a 21/2 year history of portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from esophageal varices, was referred for treatment. The 3.5-cm-long occlusion of the portal vein was passed and the channel created was stabilized with a balloon-expandable stent; a portosystemic stent-shunt was also created. The portosystemic shunt closed spontaneously within 1 month, while the recanalized segment of the portal vein remained open. The pressure gradient between the intrahepatic and extrahepatic portal vein branches dropped from 17 mmHg to 0 mmHg. The pressure in the portal vein dropped from 30 mmHg to 17 mmHg and the bleedings stopped. The next dilation of the stent was performed 12 months later due to an increased pressure gradient; the gastroesophageal varices disappeared completely. Further dilation of the stent was planned after 2, 4, and 6 years

  11. Postpartum Ovarian Vein Thrombosis: Two Cases and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos A. Akinbiyi

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion. Ovarian vein thrombosis is rare, but could present late, and difficult to diagnose, hence, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in a postpartum woman with fever and tender pelvic mass.

  12. Where are the parallel algorithms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    Four paradigms that can be useful in developing parallel algorithms are discussed. These include computational complexity analysis, changing the order of computation, asynchronous computation, and divide and conquer. Each is illustrated with an example from scientific computation, and it is shown that computational complexity must be used with great care or an inefficient algorithm may be selected.

  13. Rat inferior caval vein (ICV) ligature and particular new insights with the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukojević, Jakša; Siroglavić, Marko; Kašnik, Katarina; Kralj, Tamara; Stanćić, Duje; Kokot, Antonio; Kolarić, Darko; Drmić, Domagoj; Sever, Anita Zenko; Barišić, Ivan; Šuran, Jelena; Bojić, Davor; Patrlj, Masa Hrelec; Sjekavica, Ivica; Pavlov, Katarina Horvat; Vidović, Tinka; Vlainić, Josipa; Stupnišek, Mirjana; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikirić, Predrag

    2018-03-03

    Rat inferior caval vein (ICV) ligation (up to the right ovarian vein (ROV)) commonly represents a recapitulation of Virchow: with ligation leading to vessel injury, stasis, thrombosis and hemodynamic changes. We revealed that BPC 157's therapy collectively attenuated or counteracted all these events and the full syndrome. We applied BPC 157 (10 μg, 10 ng/kg) as an early regimen or as a delayed therapy. Assessment includes gross assessment by microcamera; microscopy, venography, bleeding, blood pressure, ECG, thermography, MDA and NO-level in plasma and ICV, and gene expression. Direct vein injury, thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, prolonged bleeding were all counteracted. Also, rapid presentation of collaterals and redistribution of otherwise trapped blood volume (bypassing through the left ovarian vein (LOV) and other veins), with venous hypertension, arterial hypotension and tachycardia counteraction were shown. BPC 157-rats presented raised plasma NO-values, but normal MDA-values; in ICV tissue reverted low NO-values and counteracted increased MDA-levels. Altered expression of EGR, NOS, SRF, VEGFR and KRAS in ICV, ROV and LOV revealed increased or decreased levels, while some genes continuously remained unchanged. As a new insight, BPC 157 application largely attenuated or even completely eliminated all consequences of ICV ligation in rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rivaroxaban for the treatment of saphenous vein graft thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus formafigtion plays a significant role in disease of saphenous vein bypass grafts. Use of oral anticoagulants has not been tested in treatment of thrombotic occlusion of saphenous vein graft (SVG) disease. Here we describe the use of the novel oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban in the treatment of occlusive SVG disease with intraluminal thrombus, leading to successful recanalization. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Calcification of an aneurysm of the vein of Galen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, S.; Hockley, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    A 3 1/2 month old boy was diagnosed as having hydrocephalus secondary to an aneurysm of the vein of Galen. Cerebral angiography 2 1/2 years later showed the aneurysm to be completely occluded and CT demonstrated it to be thrombosed and completely calcified. Complete calcification of an aneurysm of the vein of Galen has only been described on two previous occasions and never in a child this young. (orig.)

  16. Predictors of Luminal Loss in Pulmonary Veins After Radiofrequency Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Garre, Susana; Pérez-Castellano, Nicasio; Quintanilla, Jorge G; Ferreiros, Joaquín; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián

    2015-12-01

    The reported incidences of stenosis after radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary veins are highly variable. Moreover, most studies have focused on severe stenosis and have overlooked mild stenosis. Our aims were to study postablation morphological changes in the pulmonary veins and to evaluate preablation magnetic resonance imaging predictors for stenosis. Eighty consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging before undergoing radiofrequency ablation. Magnetic resonance imaging was repeated a median of 95 days after ablation. Ostium area/ellipticity and atrial volume were blindly assessed. We evaluated the presence of stenosis and classified it as mild ( 70%). Postablation stenosis was identified in 78 of 322 veins (24.2%). The stenosis was mild in 66 (84.6%), moderate in 11 (14.1%), and severe in 1 (1.3%). All of them were asymptomatic. The left inferior pulmonary vein showed the highest frequency of stenosis, which was detected in 26% of them (P < .001). A multiple regression analysis revealed that left inferior pulmonary vein (odds ratio = 3.089; P = .02) and a greater preablation ostium area (odds ratio = 1.009; P < .001) were independent predictors for postablation stenosis. Age (odds ratio = 1.033) showed a strong trend to statistical significance (P = .06). After ablation, vein ostia size is reduced and stenosis is detected in less than one third of patients. Most cases are mild, and severe stenosis is rare. Postablation stenosis is more likely to develop in older patients, those with larger vein ostia, and in the left inferior pulmonary veins. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Visualisation of the left superior intercostal vein in MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrea, M.; Meydam, K.; Schmitt, W.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of 56 MRT chest examinations showed the left intercostal vein in its horizontal trajectory in 3 patients with left mediastinal masses compressing the superior vena cava. In 2 patients the posterior trajectory of the horizontal segment was clearly visualised. In the third case the anterior part, namely the insertion of the left superior intercostal vein into the left brachiocephalic trunk, was demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  18. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: anatomy and basic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography.

  19. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with quetiapine fumarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion in a young adult with bipolar mood disorder treated with quetiapine fumarate. Case Presentation A 29 years old gentleman who was taking quetiapine fumarate for 3 years for bipolar mood disorder, presented with sudden vision loss. He was found to have a superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion associated with hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have metabolic side effects which require regular monitoring and prompt treatment.

  20. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: Anatomy and basic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ahn, Kyung Sik; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography.

  1. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: Pathogenesis, Visual Prognosis, and Treatment Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Rehak, Jiri; Rehak, Matus

    2008-01-01

    In branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), abnormal arteriovenous crossing with vein compression, degenerative changes of the vessel wall and abnormal hematological factors constitute the primary mechanism of vessel occlusion. In general, BRVO has a good prognosis: 50?60% of eyes are reported to have a final visual acuity (VA) of 20/40 or better even without treatment. One important prognostic factor for final VA appears to be the initial VA. Grid laser photocoagulation is an established treatm...

  2. Adult adrenal haemorrhage: an unrecognised complication of renal vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loke, T.K.L. E-mail: lokekl@ha.org.hk

    2001-07-01

    There are many predisposing factors for neonatal adrenal haemorrhage but the causative factors are different in adults. Several cases of neonatal adrenal haemorrhage have been reported in association with renal vein thrombosis. This complication has not been documented in the adults. The presence of an adrenal mass in the setting of renal vein thrombosis should raise the possibility of adrenal haemorrhage even though this is extremely uncommon in adults.

  3. Embolisation of External Jugular Vein Aneurysm: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajadurai, Arvin; Aziz, Aida Abdul; Daud, Noor Aida Mat; Wahab, Abdul Fatah Abdul; Muda, Ahmad Sobri

    2017-12-01

    Venous aneurysms are not as common as their arterial counterpart. The choice of management is debatable. Case Report: We present the case of a teenage boy with left external jugular vein aneurysm treated by endovascular technique. Embolisation was done using pushable microcoils with access via the femoral vein and direct puncture. This form of treatment provides a less-invasive option with a more concrete evaluation of the venous abnormality and its drainage during venous aneurysm occlusion.

  4. Sciatica caused by a dilated epidural vein: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Petre, C.; Wilms, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Plets, C. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium)

    1999-02-01

    We report the MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman presenting with sudden low back pain and sciatica. At surgery a dilated epidural vein was found compressing the nerve root. The MR findings may suggest the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of a dilated epidural vein or varix causing sciatica has not been reported until now. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  5. CAUSES OF ADULT SPLANCHNIC VEIN THROMBOSIS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio De Stefano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The term splanchnic vein thrombosis encompasses Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS, extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO, and mesenteric vein thrombosis. Risk factors can be local or systemic. A local precipitating factor is rare in BCS, while it is common in  patients with portal vein thrombosis. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN are the leading systemic cause of splanchnic vein thrombosis, and are diagnosed in half BCS patients and one-third of EHPVO patients; the molecular marker JAK2 V617F is detectable in a large majority of patients with overt MPN and up to 40% of patients without overt MPN. Inherited thrombophilia is present in at least one-third of patients, and the factor V Leiden or the prothrombin G20210A mutations are the most common mutations found in BCS or EHPVO patients, respectively. Multiple factors are present in approximately one-third of patients with BCS and two- thirds of patients with portal vein thrombosis. In a few patient series from the Southern Mediterranean area the high prevalence of MPN and thrombophilia as underlying cause of BCS is confirmed, although the data should be considered preliminary. Peculiar risk factors present in the area are Behcet’s disease and hydatidosis; moreover, the presence of membraneous webs, typically found in Asian patients, can be found in a significant portion of cases.

  6. CAUSES OF ADULT SPLANCHNIC VEIN THROMBOSIS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Betti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The term splanchnic vein thrombosis encompasses Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS, extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO, and mesenteric vein thrombosis.

    Risk factors can be local or systemic. A local precipitating factor is rare in BCS, while it is common in  patients with portal vein thrombosis. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN are the leading systemic cause of splanchnic vein thrombosis, and are diagnosed in half BCS patients and one-third of EHPVO patients; the molecular marker JAK2 V617F is detectable in a large majority of patients with overt MPN and up to 40% of patients without overt MPN. Inherited thrombophilia is present in at least one-third of patients, and the factor V Leiden or the prothrombin G20210A mutations are the most common mutations found in BCS or EHPVO patients, respectively. Multiple factors are present in approximately one-third of patients with BCS and two- thirds of patients with portal vein thrombosis.

    In a few patient series from the Southern Mediterranean area the high prevalence of MPN and thrombophilia as underlying cause of BCS is confirmed, although the data should be considered preliminary. Peculiar risk factors present in the area are Behcet’s disease and hydatidosis; moreover, the presence of membraneous webs, typically found in Asian patients, can be found in a significant portion of cases.

  7. Seasonal variation in the superficial vein thrombosis frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappé, Paul; Bertoletti, Laurent; Presles, Emilie; Buchmuller-Cordier, Andréa; Merah, Adel; Le Hello, Claire; Peycelon, Déborah; Tardy, Bernard; Décousus, Hervé

    2015-12-01

    A seasonal variation of venous thromboembolic disease frequency is subject to discussion, and has been recently suggested for superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) in a small retrospective study. Our aim was to search for a seasonal variation of SVT frequency according to the data of larger studies. We analyzed the data of three French prospective multicenter studies with different designs which have included patients with SVT (STENOX, POST, and STEPH studies). Seasonal variation of SVT frequency was evaluated by comparing the observed seasonal frequency of SVT to a theoretical frequency of 25% for each season. The analysis included 1395 patients and 4.75 seasonal cycles. The difference to a theoretical frequency of 25% was statistically significant in one study (POST, p = 0.044). The higher risk difference was -6.1% (95% CI -11.7–−0.5) in summer in STENOX, +7.1% (95% CI +2.7-+11.5) in winter in POST and 4.2% (95% CI -5.2-+13.7) in spring in STEPH, corresponding to a relative risk of 0.80, 1.40 and 1.20, respectively. A seasonal variation was found in only one study which has the weakest methodology to warrant completeness. Variation pattern was

  8. The clinical efficacy observation of fluoroscopy-guided foam sclerotherapy with lauromacrogol for varicose veins of the lower extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yongqiang; Xu Jingxuan; Chen Junying; Wu Yan; Zhang Chuanhong; Li Liang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical efficacy of foam sclerotherapy with lauromacrogol for varicose veins of the lower extremities. Methods: During the period from February to July 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 20 patients with varicose veins of the lower extremities, who were treated with lauromacrogol foam sclerosing agent injected directly at varicose veins, and in 5 extremities injected at the great saphenous vein (GSV) through a catheter at the same time. Elastic bandages were applied at the site of the injected varicosities after the therapy. The clogging of the varicose veins, the improvement of the clinical symptoms and the adverse reaction were observed. Results: Lauromacrogol foam sclerosing agent was successfully injected under the guidance of fluoroscopy in 20 patients with 28 affected extremities. The average volume of foam sclerosing agent in each affected extremity was 7.8 ml. All patients presented self limiting minor complications, including swelling and pain, which was obviously alleviated by the externally applied Mucopolysaccharide Polysulfate Cream. Two patients presented cough that was relieved after inhaling oxygen. Most of treated varicosities demonstrated pigmentation after the first week, which gradually disappeared after the four-month use of vitamin E capsule. A second foam sclerotherapy was carried out for 3 affected extremities of 3 patients two months after the first therapy. Two cases of leg venous ulcer were healed within a few weeks. All patients could walk immediately with no deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, anaphylaxis, or transient visual disturbance. Obvious abnormal varicose veins as well as the soreness and fatigue of the lower extremities disappeared in all patients at the 10th-month follow-up. The grading of the disease was significantly improved by the treatment (Z=5.103, P<0.01). Conclusions: The efficacy of lauromacrogol foam sclerosing agent in the treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities is

  9. Quantum Algorithms and Protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huntsman, Steve

    2001-01-01

    .... Foremost among the efforts in this vein is quantum information, which, largely on the basis of startling results on quantum teleportation and polynomial-time factoring, has evolved into a major scientific initiative...

  10. Impact of anthropometrical parameters on portal vein diameter and liver size in a subset of Karachi based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Siddiqui, Tanya; Hassan, Nuzhat; Gul, Pashmina

    2014-03-01

    The purpose was to study the impact of anthropometrical parameters on portal vein diameter and liver size by ultrasound in a subset of Karachi population. Four hundred and fifty nine apparently healthy subjects were included in this cross sectional study. After recording weight and height of each subject, Portal vein diameter and both liver lobes were measured by gray scale ultrasonography. Students T test and ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses. With increasing age, portal vein diameter and right lobe of liver increased significantly (p value Sizes of right and left liver lobes also increased with a rise in body mass index (p value size. Age and body mass index are reliable parameters to consider for avoiding false positive diagnosis of hepatomegaly and portal hypertension. Knowing the right and left liver size with respect to anthropometrical measurements also assist a clinician in selecting a subject for liver transplantation.

  11. Leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava involving bilateral renal veins: Surgical challenges and reconstruction with upfront saphenous vein interposition graft for left renal vein outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Nayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava (IVC involving bilateral renal veins presents a surgical challenge. Herein, we report the successful management of two such cases using restoration of left renal venous outflow by saphenous vein interposition graft as first step of surgery. Then radical resection of tumor and right kidney was done. IVC was lastly reconstructed using Gore-Tex graft. This report highlights the surgical challenges to ensure radical resection. Furthermore, the importance of restoring left renal outflow in presence of concomitant right nephrectomy is discussed. Both the patients were disease free at six months with no loss of left renal glomerular filtration rate.

  12. Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaraa Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein. Conclusion This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.

  13. Functional design space of single-veined leaves: role of tissue hydraulic properties in constraining leaf size and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Boyce, C Kevin; Holbrook, N Michele

    2004-10-01

    Morphological diversity of leaves is usually quantified with geometrical characters, while in many cases a simple set of biophysical parameters are involved in constraining size and shape. One of the main physiological functions of the leaf is transpiration and thus one can expect that leaf hydraulic parameters can be used to predict potential morphologies, although with the caveat that morphology in turn influences physiological parameters including light interception and boundary layer thickness and thereby heat transfer and net photosynthesis. An iterative model was used to determine the relative sizes and shapes that are functionally possible for single-veined leaves as defined by their ability to supply the entire leaf lamina with sufficient water to prevent stomatal closure. The model variables include the hydraulic resistances associated with vein axial and radial transport, as well as with water movement through the mesophyll and the leaf surface. The four parameters included in the model are sufficient to define a hydraulic functional design space that includes all single-veined leaf shapes found in nature, including scale-, awl- and needle-like morphologies. This exercise demonstrates that hydraulic parameters have dissimilar effects: surface resistance primarily affects leaf size, while radial and mesophyll resistances primarily affect leaf shape. These distinctions between hydraulic parameters, as well as the differential accessibility of different morphologies, might relate to the convergent evolutionary patterns seen in a variety of fossil lineages concerning overall morphology and anatomical detail that frequently have evolved in linear and simple multi-veined leaves.

  14. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    From an extensive literature search and field examination of 96 nonsandstone radioactive occurrences, the author compiled an annotated bibliography of over 600 citations and a list of 327 radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico. The citations are indexed by individual radioactive occurrence, geographic area, county, fluorspar deposits and occurrences, geochemical analyses, and geologic maps. In addition, the geology, mineralization, and uranium and thorium potential of 41 geographic areas in New Mexico containing known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks or that contain host rocks considered favorable for uranium or thorium mineralization are summarized. A list of aerial-radiometric, magnetic, hydrogeochemical, and stream-sediment survey reports is included

  15. Use of the Amplatzer ASD Occluder for Closing a Persistent Left Vertical Vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanchetta, Mario; Zennaro, Marco; Zecchel, Roberto; Mancuso, Daniela; Pedon, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a very large anomalous connection of the veins draining the upper lobe of the left lung to both the left-sided vertical vein and the left atrium, associated with mild rheumatic mitral valve stenosis, in which the atrial septum was intact and the remaining venous system, including the coronary sinus, was otherwise normal (a variant of Lutembacher's syndrome). In order to abolish the left-to-right shunting, a transcatheter approach to close this venous structure was successfully attempted using an Amplatzer ASD Occluder device. The technical aspects and the alternative options of performing a procedure with a device for a purpose outside the scope of its approved label are discussed.

  16. Controversies in venous thromboembolism: to treat or not to treat superficial vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer-Westendorf, Jan

    2017-12-08

    The management of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is poorly defined and remains controversial overall. SVT has long been considered a benign, self-limited disease, but recent studies show that SVT carries a nonnegligible risk for recurrence, deep vein thrombosis, or pulmonary embolism. Current guidelines recommend the use of low-molecular-weight heparin or fondaparinux, but results of several surveys indicate that the majority of patients with SVT receive nonanticoagulant therapy only, which includes compression stockings or bandages, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical application of heparin gel, or surgical interventions. However, several recent observational and interventional studies provide better insight into the optimal treatment of patients with SVT who are at different risks for thromboembolic complications. This educational review summarizes the available evidence and aims to provide practical guidance based on a clinical decision pathway. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of vascular access ports in femoral veins of dogs and cats with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalane, Alane Kosanovich; Rassnick, Kenneth M; Flanders, James A

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate long-term function of vascular access ports (VAPs) implanted in the femoral vein of dogs and cats undergoing cancer treatment. Prospective clinical study. 3 dogs and 6 cats treated via chemotherapy or radiation. VAPs were surgically implanted in the left femoral vein of 3 dogs and 6 cats over a 1-year period. Injection port location was alternated to either a caudal thoracic or ilial location in each patient. Duration of VAP function, ease of infusion, and ease of aspiration through the VAPs were recorded, and associated complications were assessed at each VAP use. Client satisfaction with VAP placement was evaluated by use of a questionnaire. Primary uses of the VAPs included blood sampling and delivering sedative or chemotherapeutic drugs. Median duration of successful infusion was 147 days (range, 60 to 370 days), and median duration of successful aspiration was 117 days (range, 10 to 271 days). The frequency of signs of VAP-related discomfort was low (7% of patient observations). Clients were satisfied with their decision to use VAPs. Complications included partial (n = 7) or complete (2) VAP occlusion, port migration (1), and presumptive infection (1). Results suggested that VAP implantation into the femoral vein provides an acceptable means of chronic venous access in dogs and cats undergoing cancer treatment.

  18. Comparing study with two venous approaches of antegrade catheterization for thrombolysis in acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Haobo; Gu Jianping; Lou Wensheng; He Xu; Chen Liang; Chen Guoping; Song Jinhua; Wang Tao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of catheterization via the great saphenous vein for thrombolysis in acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (IFVT). Methods: Patients with documented acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis were divided into two groups. Patients in group A received CDT with venous access through the ipsilateral great saphenous vein. The patients in group B received CDT via the ipsilateral popliteal vein. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by measuring the circumferences between the normal and affected limbs before and after treatment; the venous patency score, the rate of patency improvement based on venographic results; and the clinical results including the limbs edema reduction rate, the mean punctuation duration and complications; were all compared between the two groups. Results: The total effective rates between group A and group B showed no significant difference (95.2% vs 96%, P = 0.549); including the limbs edema reduction rates(86.6 ± 20.0% vs 85.7 ± 14.6%, P=0.868), likewise, the rates of venous patency improvement(57.9 ± 19.4% vs 57.7 ± 19.3%, P=0.968). The mean punctuation duration of group A was remarkable less than that of group B (7.3 minutes vs 16.7 minutes, P<0.05). The incidence of complications at the site of insertion in group A was lower than that in group B (P<0.05). Conclusions: The great saphenous vein is a new alternative access site for antegrade catheterization in catheter-directed thrombolysis for treatment of acute IFVT; more convenient and safe than popliteal venous approach. (authors)

  19. DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS IN PATIENT WITH VON WILLEBRAND DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Elykomov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the possible factors of thrombogenic risk and ways of its prevention in patients with von Willebrand disease.Case description. Patient X., 42 years old, who suffers from von Willebrand disease type 3 with 5-years of age. Asked on reception to the traumatologist in the polyclinic of the Regional Hospital with pain in the left hip joint. Recommended planned operative treatment in the Altai Regional Clinical Hospital. Preoperative preparation included the infusion of concentrate of von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor VIII. Operation – cement total arthroplasty of the left hip joint. In the postoperative period analgesic treatment, elastic compression of the lower extremities, iron supplements, also conducted infusion of concentrate of von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor VIII for 20 days and thromboprophylactic with dabigatran. On the 3rd day after the operation the patient revealed deep vein thrombosis of the femoral segment (floating clot.Results. The patient was operated for emergency indications in the Department of endovascular surgery – installation of venous cava filter “Volan”. Dabigatran is cancelled, appointed clexane for 3 months. In our clinical example the patient lacked risk factors of pulmonary embolism as obesity, age, smoking, prolonged immobilization, estrogen therapy. Overdose of factor VIII were not observed – the level of factor did not exceed 135 % on transfusions. At the same time, the patient was found polymorphisms in the genes ITGA2, FGB, MTHFR, MTR – heterozygote, MTRR – mutant homozygote, which may indicate the genetic factors of thrombogenic risk. Also a significant risk factor was massive surgical intervention (total hip replacement. Despite preventive measures (elastic compression, thromboprophylactic dabigatran, early activation we cannot to avoid thrombotic complications.Conclusion. This article presents a case demonstrating a thrombotic complication in patients

  20. Recursive Algorithm For Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, S. V.

    1988-01-01

    Order of model determined easily. Linear-regression algorithhm includes recursive equations for coefficients of model of increased order. Algorithm eliminates duplicative calculations, facilitates search for minimum order of linear-regression model fitting set of data satisfactory.

  1. Thrombosed aneurysm of saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Rodolfo Mendes; Nastri Filho, Rogerio; Ferez, Marcus Antonio; Costa, Mauro Jose Brandao da; Laguna, Claudio Benedini; Valentin, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento, E-mail: rod_queiroz@hotmail.com [Documenta - Hospital Sao Francisco, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem; Hospital Sao Francisco, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Centro de Terapia Intensiva

    2017-06-15

    We describe the case of a male patient, aged 76 years, referred for cardiac investigation due to retrosternal chest pain and dyspnea. He had a history of acute myocardial infarction and angioplasties in the last 30 years, including a saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafting (SVCABG). Echocardiogram showed hypoechoic oval formation near the right ventricle, suggesting a pericardial cyst. Computed angiotomography revealed a predominantly fusiform and thrombosed aneurysmal dilation of the SVCABG to the right coronary artery. SVCABG aneurysms are very rare and potentially fatal. They usually appear in the late postoperative period, and patients are often asymptomatic. On radiography, it is frequently presented as enlargement of the mediastinum, with echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging being very useful for diagnosis. Coronary angiography is the gold standard to detect these cases. Our report illustrates a rare situation arising late from a relatively common surgery. Due to its severity, proper recognition in the routine assessment of patients with a similar history is essential. (author)

  2. Thrombosed aneurysm of saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Mendes Queiroz

    Full Text Available Summary We describe the case of a male patient, aged 76 years, referred for cardiac investigation due to retrosternal chest pain and dyspnea. He had a history of acute myocardial infarction and angioplasties in the last 30 years, including a saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafting (SVCABG. Echocardiogram showed hypoechoic oval formation near the right ventricle, suggesting a pericardial cyst. Computed angiotomography revealed a predominantly fusiform and thrombosed aneurysmal dilation of the SVCABG to the right coronary artery. SVCABG aneurysms are very rare and potentially fatal. They usually appear in the late postoperative period, and patients are often asymptomatic. On radiography, it is frequently presented as enlargement of the mediastinum, with echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging being very useful for diagnosis. Coronary angiography is the gold standard to detect these cases. Our report illustrates a rare situation arising late from a relatively common surgery. Due to its severity, proper recognition in the routine assessment of patients with a similar history is essential.

  3. Thrombosed aneurysm of saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Rodolfo Mendes; Nastri Filho, Rogerio; Ferez, Marcus Antonio; Costa, Mauro Jose Brandao da; Laguna, Claudio Benedini; Valentin, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento; Hospital Sao Francisco, Ribeirao Preto, SP

    2017-01-01

    We describe the case of a male patient, aged 76 years, referred for cardiac investigation due to retrosternal chest pain and dyspnea. He had a history of acute myocardial infarction and angioplasties in the last 30 years, including a saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafting (SVCABG). Echocardiogram showed hypoechoic oval formation near the right ventricle, suggesting a pericardial cyst. Computed angiotomography revealed a predominantly fusiform and thrombosed aneurysmal dilation of the SVCABG to the right coronary artery. SVCABG aneurysms are very rare and potentially fatal. They usually appear in the late postoperative period, and patients are often asymptomatic. On radiography, it is frequently presented as enlargement of the mediastinum, with echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging being very useful for diagnosis. Coronary angiography is the gold standard to detect these cases. Our report illustrates a rare situation arising late from a relatively common surgery. Due to its severity, proper recognition in the routine assessment of patients with a similar history is essential. (author)

  4. Sarpogrelate hydrochloride reduced intimal hyperplasia in experimental rabbit vein graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Akio; Komori, Kimihiro; Hattori, Keisuke; Yamanouchi, Dai; Kajikuri, Junko; Itoh, Takeo

    2009-05-01

    The selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist sarpogrelate has been clinically used for treatment in atherosclerotic diseases. However, it remains unknown whether administration of sarpogrelate inhibits intimal hyperplasia seen in autologous vein grafts. Therefore, we sought to clarify this question using an experimental rabbit vein graft model. Male rabbits were divided into two groups: a control group and a sarpogrelate-treated group. The jugular vein was interposed in the carotid artery in reversed fashion for 4 weeks and intimal hyperplasia of the grafted vein was measured (n = 8, in each group). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was tested by precontraction with prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha), 5 muM) (n = 5, in each). endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and superoxide production of these veins were also assessed. The suppression of intimal hyperplasia was significantly greater in the sarpogrelate-treated group than in the control group. ACh induced an endothelium-dependent relaxation in the sarpogrelate-treated group (but not in the control group). In endothelium-intact strips from the sarpogrelate-treated group, the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor nitroarginine enhanced the PGF(2alpha)-induced contraction and blocked the ACh-induced relaxation. Immunoreactive eNOS protein expression was similar between the two groups but superoxide production (estimated from ethidium fluorescence) in endothelial cells was significantly smaller in the sarpogrelate-treated group. The present results indicate that in vivo blockade of 5-HT(2A) receptors leads to an inhibition of intimal hyperplasia in rabbit vein graft. It is suggested that an increased function of endothelium-derived NO through a reduction in endothelial superoxide production may be a possible underlying mechanism for this. These novel findings support the clinical usefulness of sarpogrelate for preventing intimal hyperplasia in vein graft after bypass

  5. Medical management of acute superficial vein thrombosis of the saphenous vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovell, Sherry D; Ergul, Emel A; Conrad, Mark F

    2018-01-01

    Acute superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) of the axial veins, such as the great saphenous vein (GSV), is a common clinical condition that carries with it significant risk of propagation of thrombus, recurrence, and, most concerning, subsequent venous thromboembolism (VTE). Conservative therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication and heat does not prevent extension of thrombus or protect against recurrent or future VTE in patients with extensive SVT (thrombotic segment of at least 5 cm in length). To prevent future thromboembolic events, anticoagulation has become the treatment of choice for extensive acute SVT in the GSV. In spite of this, the dose and duration of anticoagulation in the treatment of SVT vary widely. This review summarizes the evidence from large prospective, randomized clinical trials on the treatment of SVT with anticoagulation (vs placebo or different doses and durations of anticoagulation) with respect to the outcome measures of thrombus extension, SVT recurrence, and future VTE. A systematic search was performed using the MEDLINE database to identify all prospective, randomized controlled trials of treatment with anticoagulation in patients with SVT in the GSV. Six prospective, randomized trials were identified that met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed in detail. Treatment of acute SVT was most commonly managed in an outpatient setting using either low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in four studies or, alternatively, a factor Xa inhibitor in one large multicenter trial. LMWH was associated with a lower rate of thrombus extension and subsequent recurrence, especially when an intermediate dose (defined as a dose between prophylactic and therapeutic doses) was used for a period of 30 days. The full effect of treatment with LMWH on the risk of subsequent VTE remains unclear, as do the optimal dose and duration of this drug. Prophylactic doses of fondaparinux, a factor Xa inhibitor, were found to be beneficial in reducing the

  6. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  7. Boosting foundations and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Schapire, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Boosting is an approach to machine learning based on the idea of creating a highly accurate predictor by combining many weak and inaccurate "rules of thumb." A remarkably rich theory has evolved around boosting, with connections to a range of topics, including statistics, game theory, convex optimization, and information geometry. Boosting algorithms have also enjoyed practical success in such fields as biology, vision, and speech processing. At various times in its history, boosting has been perceived as mysterious, controversial, even paradoxical.

  8. Presence of a central vein within white matter lesions on susceptibility weighted imaging: a specific finding for multiple sclerosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummel, Nina; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Schoepf, Veronika [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Burke, Michael [GE Healthcare, Solingen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts the perivenous extent of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions (MS-WML) in vivo by directly visualizing their centrally running vein. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of this finding for MS. Fifteen patients with MS and 15 patients with microangiopathic white matter lesions (mWML) underwent 3T MRI, including a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a susceptibility weighted angiography (SWAN). All WMLs were identified on FLAIR and assigned to one of the following localizations: supratentorial peripheral, supratentorial periventricular, or infratentorial. Subsequently, the presence of a central vein within these lesions was assessed on SWAN. A total of 711 MS-WMLs and 1,119 m-WMLs were identified on FLAIR, all of which could also be visualized on SWAN. A central vein was detectable in 80% of the MS-WMLs and in 78% of the m-WMLs (in 73% and 76% of the peripheral, in 92% and 94% of the periventricular, and in 71% and 75% of the infratentorial MS-WMLs and m-WMLs, respectively). With regard to the supratentorial peripheral lesions, significantly more m-WMLs showed a central vein compared to the MS-WMLs. For the other localizations, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the percentage of lesions with central vein. Our results indicate that the detection of a central vein within a WML should not be considered a specific finding for MS; it is also found in WMLs of other etiologies. (orig.)

  9. Mesenterico-portal vein resection in patients with pancreatico-duodenal cancer is safe and may increase survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkholm, Jan Henrik; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most serious gastrointestinal cancers, and in the US and Europe it is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Radical surgery is the only option available for long-term survival. The aim of this study was to describe the surgical technique and the results of portal vein/superior mesenteric vein resection in patients with pancreatic cancer. Between 1 April 2009 and 1 April 2013, 354 patients underwent resection for pancreatic malignancy. A total of 47 portal vein/superior mesenteric vein resections were performed in 22 men and 25 women. A total of 44 patients (93.7%) had ductal adenocarcinomas. In all, 39 patients (83%) had T3 tumours, and 38 patients (80.9%) had involvement of lymph nodes. Furthermore, 29 patients (62%) had a pancreaticoduodenectomy, 15 patients (32%) a total pancreatectomy and three patients (6%) had a distal pancreatectomy. Six patients (17%) were reconstructed with interposition grafts, and vessels (83%) were reconstructed with an end-to-end anastomosis in the remaining 39 patients. Surgical morbidity was 29.8%, and 19.1% had non-surgical complications. The perioperative mortality (30 days) was 0%. The median survival was 25.2 months (confidence interval: 19-31.4). Resection of the portal vein/superior mesenteric vein is a safe procedure. It is not associated with an increased perioperative morbidity and mortality. This latter finding is in accordance with the findings in other high-volume centres. The median survival was far better than expected, especially since our material included a considerable number of patients with lymph node metastases. not relevant. not relevant.

  10. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of glucocorticoids intravitreal implant therapy in macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Małecka, Katarzyna; Gaborek, Aneta; Nowak, Mariusz; Halat, Tomasz; Pawłowska, Mariola; Śpiewak, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) on macular morphology and functions in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion. Efficacy outcomes of the treatment were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT). Safety outcomes were intraocular pressure and cornea endothelial cell density. The study was conducted by the prospective analysis on 36 patients (17 women and 19 men) aged 28–77 years (the average age was 58±15 years) treated with the injection of dexamethasone implant because of the persistent ME at the Department of Ophthalmology and Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of the University Centre of Ophthalmology and Oncology in Katowice. The studied group included 16 patients with central retinal vein occlusion (16 eyes), and 20 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (20 eyes). We found a significant increase of BCVA after first, second, and third month of treatment. Six months after the treatment, BCVA decreased, although not significantly compared with the value obtained in the third month. Two months after the intravitreal implantation of dexamethasone delivery system, CRT was 338±163 μm and was significantly lower compared with pretreatment value. Between third and sixth month after the treatment, we found insignificant increase of CRT compared with thickness observed in second month. Two months after the treatment, we found an increase in intraocular pressure in 36% of cases and a further decrease during the final visit 6 months after the treatment. During the treatment, there were no significant differences in endothelial cell density in branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion. We found the intravitreal dexamethasone implant to be safe, well tolerated, and likely to lead to fast morphological and functional improvement of the macula and visual rehabilitation in patients with ME due to retinal vein occlusion. PMID

  11. Quantitative comparison between radial and cylindrically diffusing fibers for photothermal treatment of varicose vein disease (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong Van, Gia; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2017-02-01

    For last two decades, endovenous laser therapy (EVLT) is one of the most widely accepted surgical options for treating incompetent great and small saphenous veins. However, due to excessive heating during EVLT, the major complications include pain and burning that often increase the risk of dermatitis disease. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively compare commercially-available radial fibers with newly-developed diffusing applicators for 1470 nm-EVLA in terms of temperature elevation and vein deformation. Rabbit veins were used as an ex vivo model for EVLA. A 5-W 1470 nm laser system in conjunction with the radial and diffusing fibers was employed to thermally coagulate the venous tissue. A goniometric measurement validated uniform and isotropic distribution of laser light in polar and longitudinal directions (i.e., normalized intensity = 0.84±0.08). The diffusing applicator induced a 20 % lower maximum temperature than the radial fiber did (maximum temperature = 79.2 °C for radial vs. 63.3 °C for diffusing). Due to higher irradiance, the radial fiber was associated with a transient temperature change of 5.9 °C/s, which was 1.5-fold faster than the diffusing applicator (i.e., 2.4 °C/s). However, the degree of cross-sectional area reduction in the veins was almost comparable for both the fibers (i.e., 53% for radial vs. 48% for diffusing). Due to longer irradiation length, the diffusing applicator demonstrated wider treatment coverage and less fiber speed-dependent. On account of easy pullback technique and uniform thermal effect, the proposed cylindrically diffusing applicator can be a feasible optical device to effectively treat varicose veins. Further in vivo studies will be performed to identify the complete removal of the vein disease and healing response of the venous tissue.

  12. The feasibility and safety of PICCs accessed via the superficial femoral vein in patients with superior vena cava syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yonghui; Chu, Yuxin; Qiu, Yanru; Chen, Qian; Zhou, Wei; Song, Qibin

    2017-11-10

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of the peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) accessed via the superficial femoral vein in patients with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). From October 2010 to December 2014, 221 cancer patients with SVCS in our center received real-time ultrasound-guidance of the superficial femoral vein inserted central catheters (FICCs) at the mid-thigh. PICC insertion via upper extremity veins had also been investigated in 2604 cancer patients without SVCS as control. The average catheterization time, one-time puncture frequency, catheter duration and complications were compared between two groups. In the FICC group, the mean catheterization time was 31.60 ± 0.15 minutes, one-time puncture frequency was 1.05 ± 0.08, and catheter duration was 168.95 ± 20.47 days. There was no significant difference compared with the upper extremity veins PICC group: 31.11 ± 3.86 minutes, 1.03 ± 0.30, and 173.58 ± 39.81 days, respectively. The major complications included skin allergy to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) dressings, exudation, catheter-related infection, catheter occlusions, unplanned catheter withdrawal, venous thrombosis, mechanical phlebitis, and catheter malposition. It is interesting that a higher rate of catheter malposition was observed in the upper extremity veins PICC group than in the FICC group (2.15% vs. 0.00%). There were no significant differences in other complications between the two groups. Real-time ultrasound-guided PICCs accessed via the superficial femoral vein at the mid-thigh is a new modified technique with low complications, which can be a feasible and safe alternative venous access for patients with SVCS.

  13. Compression stockings for the initial treatment of varicose veins in patients without venous ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingler, Sarah; Robertson, Lindsay; Boghossian, Sheila; Stewart, Marlene

    2013-12-09

    Compression hosiery or stockings are often the first line of treatment for varicose veins in people without either healed or active venous ulceration. Evidence is required to determine whether the use of compression stockings can effectively manage and treat varicose veins in the early stages. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. To assess the effectiveness of compression stockings for the only and initial treatment of varicose veins in patients without healed or active venous ulceration. For this update the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched August 2013) and CENTRAL (2013, Issue 5). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they involved participants diagnosed with primary trunk varicose veins without healed or active venous ulceration (Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification C2 to C4). Included trials assessed compression stockings versus no treatment, compression versus placebo stockings, or compression stockings plus drug intervention versus drug intervention alone. Trials comparing different lengths and pressures of stockings were also included. Trials involving other types of treatment for varicose veins (either as a comparator to stockings or as an initial non-randomised treatment), including sclerotherapy and surgery, were excluded. Two authors assessed the trials for inclusion and quality (SS and LR). SS extracted the data, which were checked by LR. Attempts were made to contact trial authors where missing or unclear data were present. Seven studies involving 356 participants with varicose veins without healed or active venous ulceration were included. Different levels of pressure were exerted by the stockings in the studies, ranging from 10 to 50 mmHg. One study assessed compression hosiery versus no compression hosiery. The other six compared different types or pressures of stockings. The methodological quality of

  14. Parotid Duct Repair by Facial Vein Graft versus Gore-Tex, A Sialographic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheisari, R; Mohamadinezhad, C; Mehravaran, R; Ziaei, M

    2013-06-01

    The most common method for parotid duct anastomosis is suturing. A ductal defect of greater than 1cm may prevent a direct anastomosis. The goal of this study was a sialographic evaluation to compare repairing a parotid duct with facial vein graft versus Gore-Tex tub in 19 dogs. Nineteen dogs were studied in this experimental trial. Extra oral transverse incisions were made in buccal regions bilaterally to expose parotid ducts and a defect (2 cm) was performed in similar areas (right and left). The right resected duct was repaired with facial vein graft and the left anastomosis was performed by using the Gore-Tex tube microscopically. Sialography was used to evaluate the ductal leakage. Statistical analysis was performed, using SPSS software and McNemar's test. Based on the sialography evaluation; the ductal leakage was seen in five cases (26.31%) on the right side and in seven cases (36.84%) in the left side. Statistical analysis using McNemar's test suggested no statistically significant difference between ductal leakages in right and left parotid ducts (p> 0.05). The results of this study suggest that the efficacies of Gore-Tex tube and vein graft in parotid duct anastomosis are similar, but the use of Gore-Tex tube had a number of advantages, including reduced morbidity of the graft and short operation time.

  15. Hepatic VX2 tumor after portal vein occlusion in rabbits: evaluation with DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yueyong; Zou Liguang; Dai Shuhua; Zhang Qichuan; Chen Lin; Huang Xiaobing; Huan Guangqiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of DSA for hepatic vascular anatomy, and to evaluate the efficacy of portal vein occlusion in rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumor. Methods: Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups with 10 in each group, including test group A and positive control group B of ham operation. For the test group A, portal branch ligation (PBL) was performed for the left external branch after 3 weeks of the tumor implantation to the left external lobe. Two weeks later, the DSA of hepatic artery and portal vein were performed in all of the rabbits. Results: The total displaying effectiveness of the branches of hepatic artery by DSA was better than that by vascular perfusion. There was hypovascular blood supply to hepatic artery implantation of the tumor in the test group A, comparing with that of the group B. Conclusion: DSA can clearly display special details of the hepatic vascular anatomy in rabbits, and play an important role in post-procedural evaluation of the portal vein occlusion in rabbits. (authors)

  16. Internal mammary artery and vein as recipient vessels in head and neck reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Adam S; Smith, Mark; Urken, Mark L

    2013-06-01

    Free-tissue transfer for head and neck reconstruction has evolved since the mid-1950s. A variety of different recipient arteries and veins have been described for use in head and neck reconstruction. In our experience, the internal mammary artery (IMA) and internal mammary vein (IMV) have become increasingly important for achieving successful microvascular reconstruction. To illustrate the efficacy of the IMA and IMV recipient vessels in head and neck reconstruction, highlighting the different techniques used to harvest these vessels and outline decision making when approaching a neck where commonly used vessels are unavailable. Retrospective medical record review. Outpatient clinic setting. All free-tissue transfers performed between 2005 and 2011. All patients in whom the IMA or IMV recipient vessels were used were included. Twelve cases were performed with IMA and IMV harvest. Donor site, flap used, recipient artery and vein, success of transfer, flap survival, and presence of donor site complications. The IMA and IMV were harvested in 12 patients, with 11 successful free-tissue transfers. In 1 patient, the vessels were unusable, and a regional tissue transfer was performed. The IMA and IMV are excellent recipient vessels for use in head and neck reconstruction and should be considered for use in challenging reconstructive cases.

  17. [Recent advances in the treatment of superficial vein thrombosis and extracranial carotid artery stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauersachs, R M; Kuhlencordt, P J

    2011-02-01

    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) occurs at least as frequent as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and shares common risk factors with venous thromboembolism. The CALISTO trial was the first to provide specific recommendations for the pharmacologic treatment of SVT. Before treatment is initiated, an accompanying DVT must be excluded and the proximal extension of the SVT assessed. If the proximal extension of the thrombus is closer than 3 cm towards the deep vein system, it should be treated like DVT. Under certain conditions treatment with fondaparinux is indicated in acute symptomatic SVT. Furthermore, compression treatment is recommended. Extracranial carotid artery stenosis can be treated by either surgical thrombarterectomy or catheter based endovascular stent implantation. Trials comparing the two methods have not provided conclusive results on whether the two strategies are equally safe and effective. Considering the latest data from RCTs, careful patient selection (symptoms, comorbidities, age, anatomy, re-stenosis) including individual interdisciplinary discussion appears of ample importance. To date no information is available on whether patients with asymptomatic high grade carotid stenosis receiving "best medical therapy" should be considered for revascularisation in general or only in selected circumstances. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Rock magnetic investigation and its geological significance for vein-type uranium deposits in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Kunpeng; Liu, Qingsong; Deng, Juzhi; Nobes, David; Wang, Yang; Wang, Yanguo; Chen, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    To characterize the metallogenic environment of a typical vein-type uranium deposit, samples from diabase dykes, alteration zones including metamorphic diabase and uranium ore, and granites were systematically investigated for six boreholes from southeastern China. Rock magnetic results indicate that coarse-grained magnetites (pseudosingle domain, PSD, and multidomain, MD) are dominant magnetic carriers in diabase. In contrast, the uranium ore is dominated by fine-grained magnetites (superparamagnetic, SP, and single-domain, SD). The concentration of magnetic particles in fresh granites is low. Magnetic properties of metamorphic diabases exhibit much greater variability of magnetic properties and higher degrees of sulfuration than unaltered diabase and granite, due to contact metasomatism and reduction effects close to the vein. Compared with diabase, magnetic remanence of the uranium ore is much lower, but displays much higher stability. The Koenigsberger ratio Q peaks in the uranium ore with a value of ˜1.00. Using the systematic rock magnetic results to constrain the interpretation, the contribution of the intersection zone of diabase dyke and silicified fault to magnetic anomalies was further modeled, and the effects of the ore body are significant for magnetic exploration. Overall, rock magnetic investigations of vein-type uranium deposit provide a better understanding of the interactions between different rock types, and further facilitate regional magnetic surveys on the ground.

  19. What are the symptoms of varicose veins? Edinburgh vein study cross sectional population survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew; Evans, Christine; Allan, Paul; Lee, Amanda; Ruckley, C Vaughan; Fowkes, F G R

    1999-01-01

    Objective To define the relations between age, sex, lower limb symptoms, and the presence of trunk varicose veins on clinical examination. Design Cross sectional population study. Setting 12 general practices with catchment areas geographically and socioeconomically distributed throughout Edinburgh. Participants An age stratified random sample of 1566 people (699 men and 867 women) aged 18-64 selected from the computerised age-sex registers of participating practices. Main outcome measures Self administered questionnaire on the presence of lower limb symptoms and physical examination to determine the presence and severity of varicose veins. Results Women were significantly more likely than men to report lower limb symptoms such as heaviness or tension, swelling, aching, restless legs, cramps, and itching. The prevalence of symptoms tended to increase with age in both sexes. In men, only itching was significantly related to the presence and severity of trunk varices (linear test for trend, P=0.011). In women there was a significant relation between trunk varices and the symptoms of heaviness or tension (P⩽0.001), aching (P⩽0.001), and itching (P⩽0.005). However, the level of agreement between the presence of symptoms and trunk varices was too low to be of clinical value, especially in men. Conclusions Even in the presence of trunk varices, most lower limb symptoms probably have a non-venous cause. Surgical extirpation of trunk varices is unlikely to ameliorate such symptoms in most patients. Key messagesIn this population survey women were more likely than men to report a wide range of lower limb symptomsIn men, only itching was significantly related to the presence of trunk varicesIn women there was a significant relation between trunk varices and heaviness or tension, aching, and itchingThe level of agreement between the presence of symptoms and trunk varices is probably too low to be clinically usefulA thorough clinical history and examination should be

  20. US-guided placement of central vein catheters in patients with disorders of hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tercan, Fahri [Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ftercan@yahoo.com; Ozkan, Ugur; Oguzkurt, Levent [Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate the technical success and immediate complication rates of temporary central catheter placement in a homogenous patient population with disorders of hemostasis. Materials and methods: One hundred and thirty three temporary central vein catheters inserted under ultrasound guidance in 119 patients with bleeding disorders were analyzed over a 4-year period. Patients were males (n = 51; 43%) and females (n = 68; 57%) with a mean age of 56.6 years (age range 18-95 years). A catheter was inserted in IJV in 129 (97%) procedures, subclavian vein in 2 (1.5%) procedures and femoral vein in 2 (1,5%) procedures. Thirty-three (24.8%) procedures were performed on bedside. Of 119 patients, 106 (89%) had only one catheter placement and the rest had had more than one catheter placement (range 1-3). Results: Technical success was achieved in all patients (100%). Average number of puncture was 1.01 (range 1-2). One hundred and nineteen insertions (89.5%) were single-wall punctures, whereas 14 insertions were double-wall punctures. Eight (6%) minor complications occurred including oozing of blood around the catheter in five (3.8%) procedures, small hematoma in two (1.5%) procedure and both in one patient. There was no inadvertent arterial puncture or major complications like hemothorax or pneumothorax in any patients. Conclusion: US-guided placement of central vein catheters in patients with disorder of hemostasis is safe with high technical success and low complication rates. US guidance for central venous catheterization should be the preferred method in this group of patients, if available in the hospital setting.