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Sample records for algorithm including vein

  1. Huge Trombus including Left Renal Vein, Ovarian Vein, and Inferior Vena Cava Mimicking Renal Colic

    OpenAIRE

    Sakir Ongun; Sermin Coban; Abdullah Katgi; Funda Obuz; Aykut Kefi

    2014-01-01

    A 31-year-old female presented with acute left flank pain; she had a C/S at the postpartum day 24. Ureteral stone was suspected but ultrasound examination was normal. Then Doppler ultrasound revealed a trombus in left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Contrast enhanced MDCT scan showed swelled and nonfunctional left kidney, a trombus including distal part of left ovarian vein, left renal vein, and inferior vena cava. We started anticoagulation treatment. Further examination revealed diagnosi...

  2. Huge Trombus including Left Renal Vein, Ovarian Vein, and Inferior Vena Cava Mimicking Renal Colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakir Ongun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old female presented with acute left flank pain; she had a C/S at the postpartum day 24. Ureteral stone was suspected but ultrasound examination was normal. Then Doppler ultrasound revealed a trombus in left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Contrast enhanced MDCT scan showed swelled and nonfunctional left kidney, a trombus including distal part of left ovarian vein, left renal vein, and inferior vena cava. We started anticoagulation treatment. Further examination revealed diagnosis of chronic myeloproliferative disease. The trombus was completely recanalized at 3-month followup.

  3. Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... varicose veins include venous lakes, reticular veins, and hemorrhoids. Venous lakes are varicose veins that appear on ... flat blue veins often seen behind the knees. Hemorrhoids are varicose veins in and around the anus. ...

  4. Emergency Department Management of Suspected Calf-Vein Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Diagnostic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Kitchen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unilateral leg swelling with suspicion of deep venous thrombosis (DVT is a common emergency department (ED presentation. Proximal DVT (thrombus in the popliteal or femoral veins can usually be diagnosed and treated at the initial ED encounter. When proximal DVT has been ruled out, isolated calf-vein deep venous thrombosis (IC-DVT often remains a consideration. The current standard for the diagnosis of IC-DVT is whole-leg vascular duplex ultrasonography (WLUS, a test that is unavailable in many hospitals outside normal business hours. When WLUS is not available from the ED, recommendations for managing suspected IC-DVT vary. The objectives of the study is to use current evidence and recommendations to (1 propose a diagnostic algorithm for IC-DVT when definitive testing (WLUS is unavailable; and (2 summarize the controversy surrounding IC-DVT treatment. Discussion: The Figure combines D-dimer testing with serial CUS or a single deferred FLUS for the diagnosis of IC-DVT. Such an algorithm has the potential to safely direct the management of suspected IC-DVT when definitive testing is unavailable. Whether or not to treat diagnosed IC-DVT remains widely debated and awaiting further evidence. Conclusion: When IC-DVT is not ruled out in the ED, the suggested algorithm, although not prospectively validated by a controlled study, offers an approach to diagnosis that is consistent with current data and recommendations. When IC-DVT is diagnosed, current references suggest that a decision between anticoagulation and continued follow-up outpatient testing can be based on shared decision-making. The risks of proximal progression and life-threatening embolization should be balanced against the generally more benign natural history of such thrombi, and an individual patient’s risk factors for both thrombus propagation and complications of anticoagulation. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(4384-390.

  5. Emergency Department Management of Suspected Calf-Vein Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Diagnostic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Levi; Lawrence, Matthew; Speicher, Matthew; Frumkin, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Unilateral leg swelling with suspicion of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common emergency department (ED) presentation. Proximal DVT (thrombus in the popliteal or femoral veins) can usually be diagnosed and treated at the initial ED encounter. When proximal DVT has been ruled out, isolated calf-vein deep venous thrombosis (IC-DVT) often remains a consideration. The current standard for the diagnosis of IC-DVT is whole-leg vascular duplex ultrasonography (WLUS), a test that is unavailable in many hospitals outside normal business hours. When WLUS is not available from the ED, recommendations for managing suspected IC-DVT vary. The objectives of the study is to use current evidence and recommendations to (1) propose a diagnostic algorithm for IC-DVT when definitive testing (WLUS) is unavailable; and (2) summarize the controversy surrounding IC-DVT treatment. Discussion The Figure combines D-dimer testing with serial CUS or a single deferred FLUS for the diagnosis of IC-DVT. Such an algorithm has the potential to safely direct the management of suspected IC-DVT when definitive testing is unavailable. Whether or not to treat diagnosed IC-DVT remains widely debated and awaiting further evidence. Conclusion When IC-DVT is not ruled out in the ED, the suggested algorithm, although not prospectively validated by a controlled study, offers an approach to diagnosis that is consistent with current data and recommendations. When IC-DVT is diagnosed, current references suggest that a decision between anticoagulation and continued follow-up outpatient testing can be based on shared decision-making. The risks of proximal progression and life-threatening embolization should be balanced against the generally more benign natural history of such thrombi, and an individual patient’s risk factors for both thrombus propagation and complications of anticoagulation.

  6. Efficient Algorithms for Electrostatic Interactions Including Dielectric Contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coarse-grained models of soft matter are usually combined with implicit solvent models that take the electrostatic polarizability into account via a dielectric background. In biophysical or nanoscale simulations that include water, this constant can vary greatly within the system. Performing molecular dynamics or other simulations that need to compute exact electrostatic interactions between charges in those systems is computationally demanding. We review here several algorithms developed by us that perform exactly this task. For planar dielectric surfaces in partial periodic boundary conditions, the arising image charges can be either treated with the MMM2D algorithm in a very efficient and accurate way or with the electrostatic layer correction term, which enables the user to use his favorite 3D periodic Coulomb solver. Arbitrarily-shaped interfaces can be dealt with using induced surface charges with the induced charge calculation (ICC* algorithm. Finally, the local electrostatics algorithm, MEMD(Maxwell Equations Molecular Dynamics, even allows one to employ a smoothly varying dielectric constant in the systems. We introduce the concepts of these three algorithms and an extension for the inclusion of boundaries that are to be held fixed at a constant potential (metal conditions. For each method, we present a showcase application to highlight the importance of dielectric interfaces.

  7. Therapy Algorithm for Portal Vein Thrombosis in Liver Cirrhosis: The Internist's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössle, Martin; Bausch, Birke; Klinger, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of non-malignant portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with cirrhosis has been neglected in the past because of the fear of bleeding complications when using anticoagulation and due to the technical difficulties associated with the implantation of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). However, PVT has a negative impact on outcome and compromises liver transplantation, warranting treatment by using anticoagulation and TIPS. Methods This review considers studies on the treatment of PVT in cirrhosis published in the last 10 years. Unfortunately, many of these studies are limited by their retrospective design and a small sample size. Results Anticoagulation using low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or vitamin K antagonists is effective in the treatment of patients with limited and recent PVT, resulting in a recanalization in up to 50% of the patients. TIPS (plus local measures) results in a recanalization of up to 100% and reduces the rebleeding rate considerably in patients with recent or chronic PVT. Conclusion Based on the presently limited knowledge, a therapy algorithm is suggested favouring the TIPS as a first-line treatment for PVT in patients with symptomatic portal hypertension. Patients with thus far asymptomatic portal hypertension may first receive anticoagulation, preferably using LMWH. If these patients have a condition where anticoagulation is not promising (complete, extended, chronic PVT) or ineffective, or if they are candidates for liver transplantation, the TIPS may be implanted without delay. PMID:26288607

  8. A practical algorithm for distribution state estimation including renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher [Electronic and Electrical Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Modares Blvd., P.O. 71555-313, Shiraz (Iran); Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani [Islamic Azad University Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy is energy that is in continuous supply over time. These kinds of energy sources are divided into five principal renewable sources of energy: the sun, the wind, flowing water, biomass and heat from within the earth. According to some studies carried out by the research institutes, about 25% of the new generation will be generated by Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the near future. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of RESs on the power systems, especially on the distribution networks. This paper presents a practical Distribution State Estimation (DSE) including RESs and some practical consideration. The proposed algorithm is based on the combination of Nelder-Mead simplex search and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms, called PSO-NM. The proposed algorithm can estimate load and RES output values by Weighted Least-Square (WLS) approach. Some practical considerations are var compensators, Voltage Regulators (VRs), Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) transformer modeling, which usually have nonlinear and discrete characteristics, and unbalanced three-phase power flow equations. The comparison results with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as original PSO, Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO), Neural Networks (NNs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for a test system demonstrate that PSO-NM is extremely effective and efficient for the DSE problems. (author)

  9. Algorithms and Programs for Strong Gravitational Lensing In Kerr Space-time Including Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie; Maddumage, Prasad

    2015-05-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python.

  10. Algorithms And Programs For Strong Gravitational Lensing In Kerr Space-time Including Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Bin; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie; Maddumage, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), a photon's polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program "KERTAP" in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are: a graphic ...

  11. A practical algorithm for optimal operation management of distribution network including fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher; Meymand, Hamed Zeinoddini; Nayeripour, Majid [Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    Fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) have been taken into a great deal of consideration in recent years. The continuing growth of the power demand together with environmental constraints is increasing interest to use FCPPs in power system. Since FCPPs are usually connected to distribution network, the effect of FCPPs on distribution network is more than other sections of power system. One of the most important issues in distribution networks is optimal operation management (OOM) which can be affected by FCPPs. This paper proposes a new approach for optimal operation management of distribution networks including FCCPs. In the article, we consider the total electrical energy losses, the total electrical energy cost and the total emission as the objective functions which should be minimized. Whereas the optimal operation in distribution networks has a nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem, the optimal solution could be obtained through an evolutionary method. We use a new evolutionary algorithm based on Fuzzy Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (FAPSO) to solve the optimal operation problem and compare this method with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Tabu Search (TS) over two distribution test feeders. (author)

  12. Study of Power Flow Algorithm of AC/DC Distribution System including VSC-MTDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, distributed generation and a large number of sensitive AC and DC loads have been connected to distribution networks, which introduce a series of challenges to distribution network operators (DNOs. In addition, the advantages of DC distribution networks, such as the energy conservation and emission reduction, mean that the voltage source converter based multi-terminal direct current (VSC-MTDC for AC/DC distribution systems demonstrates a great potential, hence drawing growing research interest. In this paper, considering losses of the reactor, the filter and the converter, a mathematical model of VSC-HVDC for the load flow analysis is derived. An AC/DC distribution network architecture has been built, based on which the differences in modified equations of the VSC-MTDC-based network under different control modes are analyzed. In addition, corresponding interface functions under five control modes are provided, and a back/forward iterative algorithm which is applied to power flow calculation of the AC/DC distribution system including VSC-MTDC is proposed. Finally, by calculating the power flow of the modified IEEE14 AC/DC distribution network, the efficiency and validity of the model and algorithm are evaluated. With various distributed generations connected to the network at appropriate locations, power flow results show that network losses and utilization of transmission networks are effectively reduced.

  13. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the abdominal veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the time-of-flight effect in 18 normal volunteers and 119 patients with different diseases of the abdominal veins (inferior vena cava, portosplenic systems, renal/hepatic/iliac veins) magnetic resonanced (MR) angiograms were compared with the DSA, CT and US results. The MR technique included a series of 2D gradient-echo (Flash) images obtained which the patients held their breath and projection angiograms (PA) (MIP algorithm). PA of the inferior vena cava and renal veins had a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 88.8%. The results demonstrate that in all cases diseases of the large veins could be detected using all the MR information available. It is suggested that this method is so far not satisfactory in the evaluation of small vessels and slow intravascular flow conditions. (orig.)

  14. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein ...

  15. The Haling Power Depletion For Nuclear Core Analysis Including Genetic Algorithm Optimization Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Haling Power Depletion method is valid for analyzing loading pattern for PWRs provided the two Golden Rules are followed wherein only the cycle length and the maximum NPP are determined. It is essential that filters, basic reactor physics, e.g., the worth technique, and other fast and shortcut methods be incorporated into Genetic Algorithms to enable the solution to be determined within reasonable computer times

  16. Deeper understanding of Flaviviruses including Zika virus by using Apriori Algorithm and Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Youjin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is spreaded by mosquito. There is high probability of Microcephaly. In 1947, the virus was first found from Uganda, but it has broken outall around world, specially North and south America. So, apriori algorithm and decision tree were used to compare polyprotein sequences of zika virus among other flavivirus; Yellow fever, West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Tick borne encephalitis. By this, dissimilarity and similarity about them were found.

  17. Including context in a routing algorithm for the internet of things

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Vítor Bruno Horta

    2010-01-01

    The “Internet of Things” assumes that a large number of devices which are used on a daily basis will eventually become connected to the Internet. This scenario will provide room for a large set of new applications, however the network connections of an enormous set of nodes, which can be connected and disconnected, can move around and which have limitations with regards to their processing and communication capabilities, raises the need for the development of new message routing algorithms, d...

  18. Deep vein thrombosis: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesieme EB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emeka Kesieme1, Chinenye Kesieme2, Nze Jebbin3, Eshiobo Irekpita1, Andrew Dongo11Department of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 2Department of Paediatrics, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 3Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port-Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is the formation of blood clots (thrombi in the deep veins. It commonly affects the deep leg veins (such as the calf veins, femoral vein, or popliteal vein or the deep veins of the pelvis. It is a potentially dangerous condition that can lead to preventable morbidity and mortality.Aim: To present an update on the causes and management of DVT.Methods: A review of publications obtained from Medline search, medical libraries, and Google.Results: DVT affects 0.1% of persons per year. It is predominantly a disease of the elderly and has a slight male preponderance. The approach to making a diagnosis currently involves an algorithm combining pretest probability, D-dimer testing, and compression ultrasonography. This will guide further investigations if necessary. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological. The goals of treatment are to prevent extension of thrombi, pulmonary embolism, recurrence of thrombi, and the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome.Conclusion: DVT is a potentially dangerous condition with a myriad of risk factors. Prophylaxis is very important and can be mechanical and pharmacological. The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulant therapy. Low-molecular-weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and vitamin K antagonists have been the treatment of choice. Currently anticoagulants specifically targeting components of the common pathway have been recommended for prophylaxis. These include fondaparinux, a selective indirect factor Xa inhibitor and the new oral selective direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran and selective

  19. BROMOCEA Code: An Improved Grand Canonical Monte Carlo/Brownian Dynamics Algorithm Including Explicit Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Carlos J F; Pothula, Karunakar R; Prajapati, Jigneshkumar D; De Biase, Pablo M; Noskov, Sergei Yu; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich

    2016-05-10

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations have a long history of applications studying ion and substrate permeation across biological and artificial pores. While offering unprecedented insights into the underpinning transport processes, MD simulations are limited in time-scales and ability to simulate physiological membrane potentials or asymmetric salt solutions and require substantial computational power. While several approaches to circumvent all of these limitations were developed, Brownian dynamics simulations remain an attractive option to the field. The main limitation, however, is an apparent lack of protein flexibility important for the accurate description of permeation events. In the present contribution, we report an extension of the Brownian dynamics scheme which includes conformational dynamics. To achieve this goal, the dynamics of amino-acid residues was incorporated into the many-body potential of mean force and into the Langevin equations of motion. The developed software solution, called BROMOCEA, was applied to ion transport through OmpC as a test case. Compared to fully atomistic simulations, the results show a clear improvement in the ratio of permeating anions and cations. The present tests strongly indicate that pore flexibility can enhance permeation properties which will become even more important in future applications to substrate translocation. PMID:27088446

  20. Retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central retinal vein occlusion; Branch retinal vein occlusion; CRVO; BRVO ... Retinal vein occlusion is most often caused by hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ) and the formation of a blood clot. Blockage ...

  1. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Home For Patients Search FAQs ... Deep Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF Format Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Women's Health What is deep ...

  2. Hand vein recognition based on orientation of LBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Gao, Enying

    2012-06-01

    Vein recognition is becoming an effective method for personal recognition. Vein patterns lie under the skin surface of human body, and hence provide higher reliability than other biometric traits and hard to be damaged or faked. This paper proposes a novel vein feature representation method call orientation of local binary pattern (OLBP) which is an extension of local binary pattern (LBP). OLBP can represent the orientation information of the vein pixel which is an important characteristic of vein patterns. Moreover, the OLBP can also indicate on which side of the vein centerline the pixel locates. The OLBP feature maps are encoded by 4-bit binary values and an orientation distance is developed for efficient feature matching. Based on OLBP feature representation, we construct a hand vein recognition system employing multiple hand vein patterns include palm vein, dorsal vein, and three finger veins (index, middle, and ring finger). The experimental results on a large database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. Tratamento combinado da cirurgia de varizes com a escleroterapia de telangiectasias dos membros inferiores no mesmo ato Combined treatment including varicose vein surgery with sclerotherapy for lower extremity telangiectasias at the same procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Gaspar

    2006-03-01

    , therefore, little efficient treatment. Most of these patients also present insufficient varicose veins, which require phlebectomy and are candidates for surgery. The aim of this paper is to describe the combined treatment including varicose vein surgery and sclerotherapy for telangiectasias at the same procedure. METHODS: From January 1998 to March 2002, 213 patients (426 lower limbs with telangiectasias were treated by means of hypertonic glucose infusion during the varicose vein surgery. RESULTS: More than 90% of the patients reported high indices of aesthetic satisfaction. The complementary sclerotherapy was necessary in 165 patients to have full aesthetic satisfaction during follow-up. Any cases of superficial thrombophlebitis or of deep venous thrombosis were reported. There were no serious complications either. In 10% of cases, small drainage of residual microthrombus was necessary. The index of hyperchromic spots did not exceed 3%. Only one patient developed a small ulcer in the back of the foot (0.2%, which spontaneously healed. CONCLUSIONS: Combined treatment including surgery with sclerotherapy for varicose veins and lower extremity telangiectasias is an alternative for patients who desire faster and painless results. Multiple session sclerotherapy with hypertonic glucose is a safe and efficient procedure.

  4. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ronny Cohen; Thierry Mallet; Michael Gale; Remigiusz Soltys; Pablo Loarte

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left...

  5. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Demirci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombosis commonly occurs in patient with cirrhosis, malignancy and prothrombotic states. Patients with acute portal vein thrombosis have immediate onset. Patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis have developed portal hypertension and cavernous portal transformation. Portal vein thrombosis is diagnosed with doppler ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin achieves recanalization in more than half of acute cases.

  6. A quasi-static algorithm that includes effects of characteristic time scales for simulating failures in brittle materials

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxing

    2013-04-24

    When the brittle heterogeneous material is simulated via lattice models, the quasi-static failure depends on the relative magnitudes of Telem, the characteristic releasing time of the internal forces of the broken elements and Tlattice, the characteristic relaxation time of the lattice, both of which are infinitesimal compared with Tload, the characteristic loading period. The load-unload (L-U) method is used for one extreme, Telem << Tlattice, whereas the force-release (F-R) method is used for the other, Telem T lattice. For cases between the above two extremes, we develop a new algorithm by combining the L-U and the F-R trial displacement fields to construct the new trial field. As a result, our algorithm includes both L-U and F-R failure characteristics, which allows us to observe the influence of the ratio of Telem to Tlattice by adjusting their contributions in the trial displacement field. Therefore, the material dependence of the snap-back instabilities is implemented by introducing one snap-back parameter γ. Although in principle catastrophic failures can hardly be predicted accurately without knowing all microstructural information, effects of γ can be captured by numerical simulations conducted on samples with exactly the same microstructure but different γs. Such a same-specimen-based study shows how the lattice behaves along with the changing ratio of the L-U and F-R components. © 2013 The Author(s).

  7. Assessment of the hepatic veins in poor contrast conditions using dual energy CT. Evaluation of a novel monoenergetic extrapolation software algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel monoenergetic post-processing algorithm (MEI+) in patients with poor intrahepatic contrast enhancement. Materials and Methods: 25 patients were retrospectively included in this study. Late-phase imaging of the upper abdomen, which was acquired in dual-energy mode (100/140 kV), was used as a model for poor intrahepatic contrast enhancement. Traditional monoenergetic images (MEI), linearly weighted mixed images with different mixing ratios (MI), sole 100 and 140 kV and MEI+ images were calculated. MEI+ is a novel technique which applies frequency-based mixing of the low keV images and an image of optimal keV from a noise perspective to combine the benefits of both image stacks. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the intrahepatic vasculature (IHV) and liver parenchyma (LP) were objectively measured and depiction of IHV was subjectively rated and correlated with portal venous imaging by two readers in consensus. Results: MEI+ was able to increase the SNR of the IHV (5.7 ± 0.4 at 40 keV) and LP (4.9 ± 1.0 at 90 keV) and CNR (2.1 ± 0.6 at 40 keV) greatly compared to MEI (5.1 ± 1.1 at 80 keV, 4.7 ± 1.0 at 80 keV, 1.0 ± 0.4 at 70 keV), MI (5.2 ± 1.1 M5:5, 4.8 ± 1.0 M5:5, 1.0 ± 3.5 M9:1), sole 100 kV images (4.4 ± 1.0, 3.7 ± 0.8, 1.0 ± 0.3) and 140 kV images (2.8 ± 0.5, 3.1 ± 0.6, 0.1 ± 0.2). Subjective assessment rated MEI+ of virtual 40 keV superior to all other images. Conclusion: MEI+ is a very promising algorithm for monoenergetic extrapolation which is able to overcome noise limitations associated with traditional monoenergetic techniques at low virtual keV levels and consequently does not suffer from a decline of SNR and CNR at low keV values. This algorithm allows an improvement of IHV depiction in the presence of poor contrast. (orig.)

  8. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community.

  9. Corrosion cast study of the canine hepatic veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uršič, M; Vrecl, M; Fazarinc, G

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed description of the distribution, diameters and drainage patterns of hepatic veins on the basis of the corrosion cast analysis in 18 dogs. We classified the hepatic veins in three main groups: the right hepatic veins of the caudate process and right lateral liver lobe, the middle hepatic veins of the right medial and quadrate lobes and the left hepatic veins of both left liver lobes and the papillary process. The corrosion cast study showed that the number of the veins in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and most anatomical textbooks is underestimated. The number of various-sized hepatic veins of the right liver division ranged from 3 to 5 and included 1 to 4 veins from the caudate process and 2 to 4 veins from the right lateral liver lobe. Generally, in all corrosion casts, one middle-sized vein from the right part of the right medial lobe, which emptied separately in the caudal vena cava, was established. The other vein was a large-sized vein from the remainder of the central division, which frequently joined the common left hepatic vein from the left liver lobes. The common left hepatic vein was the largest of all the aforementioned hepatic veins. PMID:25448906

  10. An independent dose calculation algorithm for MLC-based radiotherapy including the spatial dependence of MLC transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Friedlieb [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim Medical Centre, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Nalichowski, Adrian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Centre, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Rosca, Florin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Centre, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Killoran, Joseph [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Centre, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim Medical Centre, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Zygmanski, Piotr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Centre, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2008-02-07

    An analytical dose calculation algorithm was developed and commissioned to calculate dose delivered with both static and dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) in a homogenous phantom. The algorithm is general; however, it was designed specifically to accurately model dose for large and complex IMRT fields. For such fields the delivered dose may have a considerable contribution from MLC transmission, which is dependent upon spatial considerations. Specifically, the algorithm models different MLC effects, such as interleaf transmission, the tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf ends, MLC scatter, beam hardening and divergence of the beam, which results in a gradual MLC transmission fall-off with increasing off-axis distance. The calculated dose distributions were compared to measured dose using different methods (film, ionization chamber array, single ionization chamber), and the differences among the treatment planning system, the measurements and the developed algorithm were analysed for static MLC and dynamic IMRT fields. It was found that the calculated dose from the developed algorithm agrees very well with the measurements (mostly within 1.5%) and that a constant value for MLC transmission is insufficient to accurately predict dose for large targets and complex IMRT plans with many monitor units.

  11. A single scale retinex based method for palm vein extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chongyang; Peng, Ming; Xu, Lingfeng; Chen, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Palm vein recognition is a novel biometric identification technology. But how to gain a better vein extraction result from the raw palm image is still a challenging problem, especially when the raw data collection has the problem of asymmetric illumination. This paper proposes a method based on single scale Retinex algorithm to extract palm vein image when strong shadow presents due to asymmetric illumination and uneven geometry of the palm. We test our method on a multispectral palm image. T...

  12. An Algorithm for Real-Time Optimal Photocurrent Estimation Including Transient Detection for Resource-Constrained Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemcov, Michael; Crill, Brendan; Ryan, Matthew; Staniszewski, Zak

    2016-06-01

    Mega-pixel charge-integrating detectors are common in near-IR imaging applications. Optimal signal-to-noise ratio estimates of the photocurrents, which are particularly important in the low-signal regime, are produced by fitting linear models to sequential reads of the charge on the detector. Algorithms that solve this problem have a long history, but can be computationally intensive. Furthermore, the cosmic ray background is appreciable for these detectors in Earth orbit, particularly above the Earth’s magnetic poles and the South Atlantic Anomaly, and on-board reduction routines must be capable of flagging affected pixels. In this paper, we present an algorithm that generates optimal photocurrent estimates and flags random transient charge generation from cosmic rays, and is specifically designed to fit on a computationally restricted platform. We take as a case study the Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer (SPHEREx), a NASA Small Explorer astrophysics experiment concept, and show that the algorithm can easily fit in the resource-constrained environment of such a restricted platform. Detailed simulations of the input astrophysical signals and detector array performance are used to characterize the fitting routines in the presence of complex noise properties and charge transients. We use both Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera-3 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to develop an empirical understanding of the susceptibility of near-IR detectors in low earth orbit and build a model for realistic cosmic ray energy spectra and rates. We show that our algorithm generates an unbiased estimate of the true photocurrent that is identical to that from a standard line fitting package, and characterize the rate, energy, and timing of both detected and undetected transient events. This algorithm has significant potential for imaging with charge-integrating detectors in astrophysics, earth science, and remote

  13. Asymptomatic Deep Peroneal Vein Thrombosis During Free Fibula Flap Harvest: A Review of the Literature, Strategies for Preoperative Assessment, and an Algorithm for Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sameer A; Abdollahi, Hamid; Ridge, John A; Chang, Eric I; Lango, Miriam N; Topham, Neal S

    2016-04-01

    The free fibula flap is the preferred reconstructive method for oncologic defects of the mandible. Arterial inflow of the extremity is routinely evaluated with several modalities; however, venous screening is rarely performed. Patients with cancer are at elevated risk of occult deep venous thrombosis (DVT). An asymptomatic thrombus encountered during free fibula reconstruction is a serious concern. Although such cases have been reported, we suspect the incidence of DVT during fibula free flap harvest is underappreciated. This monograph uses a case example to review risk factors for occult DVT, present a strategy for preoperative assessment, and provide a reconstructive algorithm to for mandibular reconstruction in such instances. PMID:25275472

  14. An Algorithm for Real-Time Optimal Photocurrent Estimation including Transient Detection for Resource-Constrained Imaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zemcov, Michael; Ryan, Matthew; Staniszewski, Zak

    2016-01-01

    Mega-pixel charge-integrating detectors are common in near-IR imaging applications. Optimal signal-to-noise ratio estimates of the photocurrents, which are particularly important in the low-signal regime, are produced by fitting linear models to sequential reads of the charge on the detector. Algorithms that solve this problem have a long history, but can be computationally intensive. Furthermore, the cosmic ray background is appreciable for these detectors in Earth orbit, particularly above the Earth's magnetic poles and the South Atlantic Anomaly, and on-board reduction routines must be capable of flagging affected pixels. In this paper we present an algorithm that generates optimal photocurrent estimates and flags random transient charge generation from cosmic rays, and is specifically designed to fit on a computationally restricted platform. We take as a case study the Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer (SPHEREx), a NASA Small Explorer astrophysics...

  15. Effective detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by a two-step algorithm including tests for antigen and cytotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticehurst, John R; Aird, Deborah Z; Dam, Lisa M; Borek, Anita P; Hargrove, John T; Carroll, Karen C

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated a two-step algorithm for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile: an enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (Ag-EIA) and then, for antigen-positive specimens, a concurrent cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Antigen-negative results were > or = 99% predictive of CCNA negativity. Because the Ag-EIA reduced cell culture workload by approximately 75 to 80% and two-step testing was complete in CCNA alone had been performed on all 5,887 specimens. PMID:16517916

  16. An algorithm to include the bremsstrahlung component in the determination of the absorbed dose in electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently used dosimetry protocols for absolute dose determination of electron beams from accelerators in radiation therapy do not account for the effect of the bremsstrahlung contamination of the beam. This results in slightly erroneous doses calculated from ionization chamber measurements. In this report the deviation is calculated and an improved algorithm, which accounts for the effect of the bremsstrahlung component of the beam, is suggested. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  17. Local SIFT analysis for hand vein pattern verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunxin; Wang, Dayong; Liu, Tiegen; Li, Xiuyan

    2009-11-01

    The newly emerging hand vein recognition technology has attracted remarkable attention for its uniqueness, noninvasion, friendliness and high reliability. It is unavoidable to produce small location deviation of human hand in the practical application; however, the existing recognition methods are sensitive to the hand shift or rotation. The test sample is matched with a series of registered images after affine transformation including the shift or rotation by most of researches, this affine transform method can remedy the location deviation to some extent, but the limited range for hand shift and rotation brings users much inconvenience and the computational cost also increases greatly. Aiming at this issue, a hand vein recognition algorithm based on local SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) analysis is developed in this contribution, which has practical significance due to its translation and rotation invariance. First, the hand vein image is preprocessed to remove the background and reduce image noises, and then SIFT features are extracted to describe the gradient information of hand vein. Many one-to-more matching pairs are produced by the common matching method of SIFT features, thus the matching rule is improved by appending a constrained condition to ensure the one-to-one matching, which is achieved by selecting feature point with the nearest distance as the optimal match. Finally the match ratio of features between the registered and test images is calculated as the similarity measurement to verify the personal identification. The experiment results show that FRR (False Rejection Rate) is only 0.93% when FAR (False Acceptance Rate) is 0.002%, and EER (Equal Error Rate) is low to 0.12%, which demonstrate the proposed approach is valid and effective for hand vein authentication.

  18. EndoVascular Laser Therapy (EVLT) of Varicose Veins

    OpenAIRE

    S. Akhlaghpour; M.R. Zafar Ghandi; Ebrahimi, M.; Alinaghizadeh

    2005-01-01

    Introduction & Background: Tens of millions of people – up to 40% of women and 25% of men – suffer from lower limb varicose veins. Several risk factors are also identified including genetics, gender, age, obesity, hor-mones, pregnancy, and occupation. Sclerotheraphy is commonly used to treat small varicose veins. Medium-sized and large varicose veins can be removed by a surgical procedure called Stab avulsion or phlebectomy. EVLT is a new alternative surgical method for varicose veins. Pa...

  19. Focus on Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linked with the presence of varicose veins in women. What are the signs and symptoms? Varicose veins may be entirely symptom-free and cause no immediate health problems. Treatment in such cases is usually considered cosmetic. When symptoms are present, the most common are ...

  20. Bilateral meandering pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thupili, Chakradhar R.; Udayasankar, Unni [Pediatric Imaging, Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Renapurkar, Rahul [Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Thoracic Imaging, L10, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Meandering pulmonary veins is a rare clinical entity that can be mistaken for more complex congenital syndromes such as hypogenetic lung syndrome. We report imaging findings in a rare incidentally detected case of bilateral meandering pulmonary veins. We briefly discuss the role of imaging in diagnosing this condition, with particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. (orig.)

  1. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contrast venography — During contrast venography, a catheter is threaded into a vein and a dye is injected. ... including all US export laws and regulations, in connection with the Licensed Materials. 5. SUBSCRIPTION TERM: You ...

  2. Evaluation of left renal vein entrapment using multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyraz, Ahmet K.; Onur, Mehmet R. [Dept. of Radiology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey)], e-mail: akursadpoyraz@yahoo.com.tr; Firdolas, Fatih [Dept. of Urology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Kocakoc, Ercan [Dept. of Radiology, Bezmialem Vakif Univ., School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    Background: Nutcracker syndrome, also called left renal vein entrapment syndrome, is a cause of non-glomerular hematuria with difficulties in diagnosis. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a powerful tool to prevent unnecessary diagnostic procedures. Purpose: To retrospectively determine the prevalence of nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome seen in MDCT in consecutive patients. Material and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were reviewed from 1000 consecutive patients. MDCT scan assessment included renal vein diameter measurements and evaluation for the presence of anterior or posterior left renal vein entrapment. Electronic medical records and urine analysis reports of patients with left renal vein entrapment were reviewed. Student's t test was used to assess differences in renal vein diameter in patients with left renal vein entrapment. Results: Left renal vein entrapment was observed in 10.9% (109), retroaortic left renal vein in 6.5% (65), entrapment of left renal vein between superior mesenteric artery and aorta in 4.1% (41), and circumaortic left renal vein in 0.3% (3) of patients. Mean diameters of right (8.8 {+-} 1.9 mm) and unentrapped left (8.9 {+-} 1.8 mm) renal veins were not significantly different (P = 0.1). The mean diameter of anterior entrapped left renal veins (10.3 {+-} 2 mm) was significantly greater (P = 0.04) than contralateral renal veins (8.6 {+-} 2.1 mm) in their widest portion. In 8.8% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment, urine analysis showed isomorphic hematuria or proteinuria with no other known cause. Varicocele and pelvic congestion were seen in 5.5% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment. Conclusion: Left renal vein entrapment is not a rare entity and renal nutcracker phenomenon might be underdiagnosed.

  3. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein therapy ... after treatment. Your leg may be checked using ultrasound a few days after treatment to make sure ...

  4. Popliteal vein aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, A; Poncyljusz, W; Zawierucha, D; Kuczmik, W

    2006-06-01

    The incidence of a popliteal vein aneurysm is extremely low. Two cases of this rare venous anomaly are described. The epidemiology, morphology, and diagnostic methods are discussed and the potentially dangerous complications and treatment methods are presented. PMID:16796307

  5. Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery. Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing pelvic veins. Those with positive scans undergo embolisation before surgical treatment of their lower limb varicose veins. A total of 218 women (mean age of 46.3 years) were treated. Parity was documented in the first 60 patients, of whom 47 (78.3%) were multiparous, 11 (18.3%) had had one previous pregnancy, and 2 (3.3%) were nulliparous. The left ovarian vein was embolised in 78%, the right internal iliac in 64.7%, the left internal iliac in 56.4%, and the right ovarian vein in 42.2% of patients. At follow-up TVUS, mild reflux only was seen in 16, marked persistent reflux in 6, and new reflux in 3 patients. These 9 women underwent successful repeat embolisation. Two patients experienced pulmonary embolisation of the coils, of whom 1 was asymptomatic and 1 was successfully retrieved; 1 patient had a misplaced coil protruding into the common femoral vein; and 1 patient had perineal thrombophlebitis. The results of our study showed that pelvic venous embolisation by way of a transjugular approach is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of pelvic vein reflux.

  6. The mechanics of intersecting echelon veins and pressure solution seams in limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyum, Solomon; Pollard, David D.

    2016-08-01

    Many studies that describe the formation of echelon vein arrays relate the causative stresses implicitly to the deformation, reliant on simple shear kinematics, such that the vein-to-array angle and the array width are the primary physical quantities. In contrast, we identify twelve physical quantities to describe echelon veins in two dimensions, including coeval, vein-intersecting, pressure solution seams. A finite element method is used to reproduce vein shapes in linear elastic and elastic-perfectly plastic model limestone. Model vein geometries are designed using values within the range of geometries measured from echelon veins at Raplee Anticline and Comb Monocline, Utah. Four physical quantities are significant for describing echelon vein shapes: vein spacing, vein-array angle, limestone elastic stiffness, and closing of orthogonal pressure solution seams. Pressure solution seam closing influences the mechanical interaction between adjacent veins, and for a range of conditions, causes a nearly linear vein opening distribution (triangular shapes) and encourages straight vein propagation, both of which approximate field measurements. Model results show that small spacing of veins with seams and large vein-array angles promote straight vein traces in limestone with stiffness typical of laboratory measurements, given the physical geologic conditions inferred from the burial history of the limestone strata.

  7. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-05

    This podcast discusses the risk for deep vein thrombosis in long-distance travelers and ways to minimize that risk.  Created: 4/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  8. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptom is leg pain and tenderness in the calf muscles. One may also observe swelling or a ... clotting. To find out more about the Vascular Disease Foundation, call 888.833.4463 or ... chronic respiratory failure, a history of smoking, varicose veins, pregnancy ...

  9. The vein collar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    Randomized studies evaluating the effect of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-grafts show conflicting results. The study of the Joint Vascular Research Group (JVRG) of UK found improved primary patency while the Scandinavian Miller Collar Study (SCAMICOS) found neither any effect on...

  10. Living with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Deep Vein Thrombosis Explore Deep Vein Thrombosis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  11. Image Quality Enhancement Using the Direction and Thickness of Vein Lines for Finger-Vein Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Young Ho Park; Kang Ryoung Park

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the increased emphasis placed on the protection of privacy, biometric recognition systems using physical or behavioural characteristics such as fingerprints, facial characteristics, iris and finger‐vein patterns or the voice have been introduced in applications including door access control, personal certification, Internet banking and ATM machines. Among these, finger‐vein recognition is advantageous in that it involves the use of inexpensive and small devices that are diffic...

  12. Vestibular tributaries to the vein of the vestibular aqueduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Marsner; Qvortrup, Klaus; Friis, Morten

    2010-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The vein of the vestibular aqueduct drains blood from areas extensively lined by vestibular dark cells (VDCs). A possible involvement in the pathogenesis of an impaired endolymphatic homeostasis can be envisioned at the level of the dark cells area. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study...... was to investigate the vascular relationship between the vein of the vestibular aqueduct and the vestibular apparatus, with focus on the VDCs. METHODS: Sixteen male Wistar rats were divided into groups of 6 and 10. In the first group, 2 µm thick sections including the vein of the vestibular aqueduct, utricle...... relation to the VDCs in the utricle and the crista ampullaris of the lateral semicircular canal in the vestibular apparatus. One major vein emanated from these networks, which emptied into the vein of the vestibular aqueduct. Veins draining the saccule and the common crus of the superior and posterior...

  13. New Portal-Superior Mesenteric Vein Reconstructions Using First Jejunal Vein Flap in Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Nobuyuki; Miki, Kenji; Kosuge, Tomoo

    2016-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is the only potential treatment for pancreatic head adenocarcinomas, which are sometimes located close to or invade the portal-superior mesenteric vein (PSMV). Surgeons often attempt to obtain a negative resectional margin after resection of the PSMV. This attempt requires PSMV reconstruction through graft replacements or end-to-end anastomosis; however, possible complications should be concerned including anastomosis stenosis, damage to some of the PSMV branches, prosthetic graft infection, and that associated with autologous graft harvesting. The first jejunal artery and vein are often resected in PD with the intent of lymphadenectomy. In this study, jejunal vein flap was used for PSMV reconstruction without causing damage to any of the PSMV branches in two patients. Here, we describe the new methods of PSMV reconstruction using first jejunal vein flap in PD. PMID:26801505

  14. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  15. Cost-effectiveness of collaborative care including PST and an antidepressant treatment algorithm for the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care; a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekman Aartjan TF

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorder is currently one of the most burdensome disorders worldwide. Evidence-based treatments for depressive disorder are already available, but these are used insufficiently, and with less positive results than possible. Earlier research in the USA has shown good results in the treatment of depressive disorder based on a collaborative care approach with Problem Solving Treatment and an antidepressant treatment algorithm, and research in the UK has also shown good results with Problem Solving Treatment. These treatment strategies may also work very well in the Netherlands too, even though health care systems differ between countries. Methods/design This study is a two-armed randomised clinical trial, with randomization on patient-level. The aim of the trial is to evaluate the treatment of depressive disorder in primary care in the Netherlands by means of an adapted collaborative care framework, including contracting and adherence-improving strategies, combined with Problem Solving Treatment and antidepressant medication according to a treatment algorithm. Forty general practices will be randomised to either the intervention group or the control group. Included will be patients who are diagnosed with moderate to severe depression, based on DSM-IV criteria, and stratified according to comorbid chronic physical illness. Patients in the intervention group will receive treatment based on the collaborative care approach, and patients in the control group will receive care as usual. Baseline measurements and follow up measures (3, 6, 9 and 12 months are assessed using questionnaires and an interview. The primary outcome measure is severity of depressive symptoms, according to the PHQ9. Secondary outcome measures are remission as measured with the PHQ9 and the IDS-SR, and cost-effectiveness measured with the TiC-P, the EQ-5D and the SF-36. Discussion In this study, an American model to enhance care for patients with a

  16. Extracellular matrix remodelling in response to venous hypertension: proteomics of human varicose veins

    OpenAIRE

    Barallobre-Barreiro, Javier; Oklu, Rahmi; Lynch, Marc; Fava, Marika; Baig, Ferheen; Yin, Xiaoke; Barwari, Temo; Potier, David N.; Albadawi, Hassan; Jahangiri, Marjan; Porter, Karen E; Watkins, Michael T.; Misra, Sanjay; Stoughton, Julianne; Mayr, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Aims Extracellular matrix remodelling has been implicated in a number of vascular conditions, including venous hypertension and varicose veins. However, to date, no systematic analysis of matrix remodelling in human veins has been performed. Methods and results To understand the consequences of venous hypertension, normal and varicose veins were evaluated using proteomics approaches targeting the extracellular matrix. Varicose saphenous veins removed during phlebectomy and normal saphenous ve...

  17. Historical Overview of Varicose Vein Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bremer, Jephta; Moll, Frans L.

    2010-01-01

    Varicose veins are as old as Hippocrates. Varicose vein treatments come and go. Surgery for varicose vein disease is one of the commonest elective general surgical procedures. The history of varicose vein surgery has been traced. We note the first descriptions of varicose veins, and we particularly

  18. Factors Associated with Recurrence of Varicose Veins after Thermal Ablation: Results of The Recurrent Veins after Thermal Ablation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Bush

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this retrospective cohort study (REVATA was to determine the site, source, and contributory factors of varicose vein recurrence after radiofrequency (RF and laser ablation. Methods. Seven centers enrolled patients into the study over a 1-year period. All patients underwent previous thermal ablation of the great saphenous vein (GSV, small saphenous vein (SSV, or anterior accessory great saphenous vein (AAGSV. From a specific designed study tool, the etiology of recurrence was identified. Results. 2,380 patients were evaluated during this time frame. A total of 164 patients had varicose vein recurrence at a median of 3 years. GSV ablation was the initial treatment in 159 patients (RF: 33, laser: 126, 52 of these patients had either SSV or AAGSV ablation concurrently. Total or partial GSV recanalization occurred in 47 patients. New AAGSV reflux occurred in 40 patients, and new SSV reflux occurred in 24 patients. Perforator pathology was present in 64% of patients. Conclusion. Recurrence of varicose veins occurred at a median of 3 years after procedure. The four most important factors associated with recurrent veins included perforating veins, recanalized GSV, new AAGSV reflux, and new SSV reflux in decreasing frequency. Patients who underwent RF treatment had a statistically higher rate of recanalization than those treated with laser.

  19. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Gustavo C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein is a rare tumor of complex diagnosis. We presented a case of renal vein leiomyosarcoma detected in a routine study. The primary treatment was complete surgical removal of the mass. In cases where surgical removal is not possible the prognosis is poor, with high rates of local recurrence and distant spread.

  20. Puzzles in practice: splenic vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Brittany; Marsh, Melanie; Walden, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    This report details a 58-year-old gentleman who presented to his outpatient primary care physician's clinic several times over four weeks for ongoing epigastric pain radiating into his left flank, dry heaving, and constipation. He was presumed to have gastritis at each visit and prescribed escalating doses of proton pump inhibitors. Due to the unrelenting pain, he eventually was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with splenic vein thrombosis after computed tomography imaging of the abdomen. Our literature search revealed that pancreatic pathology is overwhelmingly the contributing factor to splenic vein thrombosis. Our patient had prominent collateral vasculature, suggesting that his splenic vein thrombosis was chronic in nature and likely the cause of his ongoing abdominal pain. Splenic vein thrombosis is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, but one that should be included in the treating physician's differential diagnoses when abdominal pain is ongoing despite medical therapy. Although he had no evidence of initial findings on radiography, our patient was eventually diagnosed with biopsy-proven pancreatic cancer. Our case report demonstrates how patients presenting with persistent or worsening abdominal pain despite the use of proton pump inhibitors or other acid reducing agents and potential 'red flag' findings such as decreased appetite and weight loss should be worked up for other potential sources of abdominal pathology. PMID:27157637

  1. Vein type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veins are tabular- or sheet-like masses of minerals occupying or following a fracture or a set of fractures in the enclosing rock. They have been formed later than the country rock and fractures, either by filling of the open spaces or by partial or complete replacement of the adjoining rock or most commonly by both of these processes combined. This volume begins with the occurrences and deposits known from old shield areas and the sedimentary belts surrounding them. They are followed by papers describing the European deposits mostly of Variscan age, and by similar deposits known from China being of Jurassic age. The volume is completed by two papers which do not fit exactly in the given scheme. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers in this report

  2. Non satellite veins in the pelvic limb of the llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, G H; Ríos, C M; Rodríguez Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C L

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the major differences in the venous system of the pelvic limb of the llama (Lama glama) and that of other mammals, including humans. Eight adult llamas, preserved by means of 6% formalin solution at 0 degrees C, were dissected. The venous system was perfused with a solution of 17% coloured industrial gelatin. Two venous systems are recognised, superficial and deep. The veins of the deep system follow the same course as the arteries, except for two important veins located in the femoral, popliteal and crural regions. A more voluminous vein than the femoral originates in a venous tripod in the proximal part of the femoral canal and forms an anastomosis with the femoral vein distally. The popliteal vein gives off an expansion located along the popliteal region. In the leg, it continues with a vein that accompanies the tibial nerve and forms an anastomosis distally with the medial saphenous vein. The described venous distribution represents an interesting complement to the medial saphenous, popliteal and femoral veins, being more important than the last one for its volume. In the thigh it would correspond to the deep femoral vein as in humans and dogs; the homology in the popliteal and leg regions is too difficult because it probably corresponds to the caudal tibial vein of the human, the caudal branch of the medial saphenous vein, and the satellite vein of the tibial nerve in the horse. PMID:10456991

  3. Thrombosis of right ovarian vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian vein thrombosis is a rare postpartum complication (0.1%). It can be fatal, since it can lead to sepsis, pulmonary thromboembolisms and inferior vena cava or renal vein thrombosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the techniques of choice for its diagnosis, while the value of ultrasound is limited due to its low sensitivity and specificity. We report the case of a woman who, during puerperium, developed thrombosis of right ovarian vein that presented clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic features of appendicitis. We describe the radiological sings and stress the fact that this diagnosis should be suspected in puerperal women. (Author) 9 refs

  4. 基于模糊顺序形态学的植物叶片脉络边缘提取%Plant leaf vein edge detection based on fuzzy order morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳蕾; 贾洪雷; 包佳林

    2015-01-01

    植物叶片是作物分类和识别的简单有效方法,叶片的脉络和边缘特征提取是识别叶片的基础步骤。植物叶片图像通常受噪声影响,提取清晰的脉络和边缘比较困难,该文提出了基于模糊顺序形态学的植物叶片脉络边缘特征提取方法。首先,根据像素邻域特性,利用植物叶片脉络边缘及内部区域的差异性,构造了隶属度函数;然后,依据Sugeno模糊模型,定义了能够增大叶片脉络边缘和内部区域差异的模糊规则,进行模糊推理;该文采用了抑制噪声特别有效的顺序形态学边缘检测算子,对图像进行脉络边缘提取,最终得到植物叶片脉络和边缘信息图像。试验结果表明,该文方法克服了自然环境中噪声的影响,提取的植物叶片脉络和边缘更加清晰、定位更加准确。%Leaf is the important part of a plant, and leaf vein and edge feature are often used for classifying the plant. Leaf vein and edge features can also indicate the growing condition of plant. Leaf vein and edge extraction is useful for studying leaf and plant structures. However, it is difficult to obtain the accurate leaf vein and edge because of uncertainties in the process of image acquisition and processing. So the extraction algorithm of leaf vein and edge is required. The traditional algorithms can detect leaf edge and vein, but the interference immunity is poor and is easily affected by noise. So the edge is not complete and it is difficult to detect the complicate edge and small vein. The tradition algorithm is not adequate to feature extraction of plant leaf in complicated conditions. Recently, the new extraction methods are emerging, including neural network, fuzzy theory, and morphology, etc. However, each algorithm has its own limitations the result of extraction is not ideal. In this paper, plant leaf vein and edge extraction based on fuzzy order morphology was proposed. The proposed method

  5. Femoral venous reflux abolished by greater saphenous vein stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J C; Bergan, J J; Beeman, S; Comer, T P

    1994-11-01

    Preoperative venous duplex scanning has revealed unexpected deep venous incompetence in patients with apparently only varicose veins. Acting on the hypothesis that the deep vein reflux was secondary to deep vein dilation caused by reflux volume, the following was done. Between July 1990 and April 1993, 29 limbs in 21 patients (16 females) were examined by color-flow duplex imaging to determine valve closure by the method of van Bemmelen. Instrumentation included high-resolution ATL-9 venous interrogation using a pneumatic cuff deflation stimulus of reflux in the standing, nonweight-bearing limb. All limbs showed greater saphenous vein reflux. Twenty-nine showed superficial femoral vein reflux and of these three showed popliteal vein reflux. Duplex testing was performed by a certified vascular technologist whose interpretation was blinded as to the results of clinical examination and grading of the severity of venous insufficiency. Surgery was performed on an outpatient basis under general anesthesia using groin-to-knee removal of the greater saphenous vein by the vein inversion technique of Van Der Strict. Stab avulsion of varicose tributary veins was accomplished during the same period of anesthesia. In 27 of 29 limbs with preoperative femoral reflux, that reflux was abolished by greater saphenous stripping. In patients with popliteal reflux both femoral and popliteal reflux was abolished. Improvement of deep venous hemodynamics by ablation of superficial reflux supports the reflux circuit theory of venous overload. Furthermore, preoperative evaluation of venous hemodynamics by duplex scanning appears to provide useful pre- and postoperative information regarding venous insufficiency in individual patients. PMID:7865395

  6. Stenting of iliac vein obstruction following catheter-directed thrombolysis in lower extremity deep vein thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-you; LI Xiao-qiang; JIANG Kun; QIAN Ai-min; SANG Hong-fei; RONG Jian-jie; DUAN Peng-fei

    2013-01-01

    Background Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremity has good effect,but whether iliac vein stent placement after thrombolytic therapy is still controversial.The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of stent placement in the iliac vein following CDT in lower extremity DVT.Methods This was a single-center,prospective,randomized controlled clinical trial.After receiving CDT,the major branch of the distal iliac vein was completely patent in 155 patients with lower extremity DVT,and 74 of these patients with iliac vein residual stenosis of >50% were randomly divided into a control group (n=29) and a test group (n=45).In the test group,stents were implanted in the iliac vein,whereas no stents were implanted in the control group.We evaluated the clinical indicators,including patency of the deep vein,C in CEAP classification,Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS),and Chronic Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire (CIVIQ) Score.Results All patients had postoperative follow-up visits for a period of 6-24 months.Venography or color ultrasound was conducted in subjects.There was a significant difference between the patency rate at the last follow-up visit (87.5% vs.29.6%) and the 1-year patency rate (86.0% vs.54.8%) between the test and control groups.The change in the C in CEAP classification pre-and post-procedure was significantly different between the test and control groups (1.61±0.21 vs.0.69±0.23).In addition,at the last follow-up visit,VCSS and CIVIQ Score were both significantly different between the test and control groups (7.57±0.27 vs.0.69±0.23; 22.67±3.01 vs.39.34±6.66,respectively).Conclusion The stenting of iliac vein obstruction following CDT in lower extremity DVT may increase the patency of the deep vein,and thus provides better efficacy and quality of life.

  7. Cephalic vein: Saviour in the microsurgical reconstruction of breast and head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Shankhdhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reconstruction with microvascular free flaps is considered the reconstructive option of choice in cancer of the head and neck regions and breast. Rarely, there is paucity of vessels, especially the veins, at the recipient site. The cephalic vein with its good caliber and constant anatomy is a reliable recipient vein available in such situations. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective study from January 2010 to July 2012 and includes 26 patients in whom cephalic vein was used for free-flap reconstruction in head and neck (3 cases and breast cancers (23 cases. Results: All flaps in which cephalic vein was used survived completely. Conclusion: Cephalic vein can be considered as a reliable source of venous drainage when there is a non-availability/unusable of veins during free-flap reconstruction in the head and neck region and breast and also when additional source of venous drainage is required in these cases.

  8. Laser photocoagulation for retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is one of the leading causes of permanent vision loss. In adults, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO occurs in 1.8% while branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO occurs in 0.2%. Treatment strategy and disease prognosis are determined by RVO type (ischemic/non-ischemic. Despite numerous studies and many current CRVO and BRVO treatment approaches, the management of these patients is still being debated. Intravitreal injections of steroids (triamcinolone acetate, dexamethasone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitors (bevacizumab, ranibizumab were shown to be fairly effective. However, it is unclear whether anti-VEGF agents are reasonable in ischemic RVOs. Laser photocoagulation remains the only effective treatment of optic nerve head and/or retinal neovascularization. Laser photocoagulation is also indicated for the treatment of macular edema. Both threshold and sub-threshold photocoagulation may be performed. Photocoagulation performed with argon (514 nm, krypton (647 nm, or diode (810 nm laser for macular edema provides similar results (no significant differences. The treatment may be complex and include medication therapy and/or surgery. Medication therapy includes anti-aggregant agents and antioxidants, i.e., emoxypine which may be used in acute RVO as well as in post-thrombotic retinopathy. 

  9. Palm Vein Verification Using Gabor Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohsin Al-Juboori

    2013-01-01

    Palm vein authentication is one of the modern biometric techniques, which employs the vein pattern in the human palm to verify the person. The merits of palm vein on classical biometric (e.g. fingerprint, iris, face) are a low risk of falsification, difficulty of duplicated and stability. In this research, a new method is proposed for personal verification based on palm vein features. In the propose method, the palm vein images are firstly enhanced and then the features are extracted by using...

  10. Yield of stool culture with isolate toxin testing versus a two-step algorithm including stool toxin testing for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E; Lema, Clara A; Perl, Trish M; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L; Speck, Kathleen A; Carroll, Karen C

    2007-11-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The "gold standard" for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing). PMID:17804652

  11. Clinical anatomic study of the lower lumbar anterolateral vein: with respect to retroperitoneal endoscopic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sheng; XU Yong-qing; DING Zi-hai; WANG Yue-li; SHI Ji-hong; ZHONG Shi-zhen

    2008-01-01

    To study the anatomy of veins of the lower lumbar spine and provide the anatomic basement for laparoscopic lumbar surgery.Methods:A total of 15 formaldehyde-preserved cadavers were studied with special attention to the variety and surrounding structure of ascending lumbar vein(ALV)and iliolumbar veins(ILV),and their relationship with lumbar plexus.Results:ALV and ILV can be found on every sides,which have four variants including separate entry and common entry. The ascending vein and iliolumbar vein separately enter common iliac vein in 18 cases, and as a common stem enter the common iliac vein in 12 cases. Retracting common iliac vein medially both the ascending lumbar and the iliolumbar veins are always at risk of avulsion on exposure of the disc space. The injury of obturator nerve and lumbosacral trunk of lumbar plexus should be avoided.Conclusion:Awareness of these anatomic variation can prevent the hemorrhage and be helpful for the surgeon in performing a careful ligation of these veins before medial retraction of the common iliac vein. Our findings emphasize the need for proper dissection of ALV and ILV before ligature during exposure of the lower lumbar spine.

  12. Endovascular Treatment of an Iatrogenic Right Internal Jugular Vein- Right Subclavian Artery Fistula and Pseudoaneurysm During the Attempt of a Hemodialysis Catheter Insertion: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eui Min; Kim, Hyun Lee; Kim, Dong Hyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Complications during the placement of a central venous catheter, via the right internal jugular vein puncture include local hematoma, hemothorax, pneumothorax, central vein thrombosis, and hemopericardium. Iatrogenic right internal jugular vein-right subclavian artery fistula with the formation of right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysms is an extremely rare complication in patients undergoing a central vein puncture. We report the case of a patient who developed a local hematoma at the vein puncture site and dyspnea due to a right internal jugular vein-subclavian artery fistula and a right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm at the mediastinum after puncture of right internal jugular vein. The patient was successfully treated by embolization using microcoils.

  13. Development of an HL7 interface engine, based on tree structure and streaming algorithm, for large-size messages which include image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Ki Sung; Kwak, Yun Sik; Cho, Hune; Kim, Il Kon

    2005-11-01

    A basic assumption of Health Level Seven (HL7) protocol is 'No limitation of message length'. However, most existing commercial HL7 interface engines do limit message length because they use the string array method, which is run in the main memory for the HL7 message parsing process. Specifically, messages with image and multi-media data create a long string array and thus cause the computer system to raise critical and fatal problem. Consequently, HL7 messages cannot handle the image and multi-media data necessary in modern medical records. This study aims to solve this problem with the 'streaming algorithm' method. This new method for HL7 message parsing applies the character-stream object which process character by character between the main memory and hard disk device with the consequence that the processing load on main memory could be alleviated. The main functions of this new engine are generating, parsing, validating, browsing, sending, and receiving HL7 messages. Also, the engine can parse and generate XML-formatted HL7 messages. This new HL7 engine successfully exchanged HL7 messages with 10 megabyte size images and discharge summary information between two university hospitals. PMID:16181703

  14. Including adaptation and mitigation responses to climate change in a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm framework for urban water supply systems incorporating GHG emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, F. L.; Maier, H. R.; Dandy, G. C.

    2014-08-01

    Cities around the world are increasingly involved in climate action and mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, in the context of responding to climate pressures in the water sector, very few studies have investigated the impacts of changing water use on GHG emissions, even though water resource adaptation often requires greater energy use. Consequently, reducing GHG emissions, and thus focusing on both mitigation and adaptation responses to climate change in planning and managing urban water supply systems, is necessary. Furthermore, the minimization of GHG emissions is likely to conflict with other objectives. Thus, applying a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA), which can evolve an approximation of entire trade-off (Pareto) fronts of multiple objectives in a single run, would be beneficial. Consequently, the main aim of this paper is to incorporate GHG emissions into a MOEA framework to take into consideration both adaptation and mitigation responses to climate change for a city's water supply system. The approach is applied to a case study based on Adelaide's southern water supply system to demonstrate the framework's practical management implications. Results indicate that trade-offs exist between GHG emissions and risk-based performance, as well as GHG emissions and economic cost. Solutions containing rainwater tanks are expensive, while GHG emissions greatly increase with increased desalinated water supply. Consequently, while desalination plants may be good adaptation options to climate change due to their climate-independence, rainwater may be a better mitigation response, albeit more expensive.

  15. Automatic classification of retinal vessels into arteries and veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    Separating the retinal vascular tree into arteries and veins is important for quantifying vessel changes that preferentially affect either the veins or the arteries. For example the ratio of arterial to venous diameter, the retinal a/v ratio, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as the staging of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents a supervised, automatic method that can determine whether a vessel is an artery or a vein based on intensity and derivative information. After thinning of the vessel segmentation, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. A set of features is extracted from each centerline pixel and using these each is assigned a soft label indicating the likelihood that it is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type we average the soft labels and assign this average label to each centerline pixel in the segment. We train and test the algorithm using the data (40 color fundus photographs) from the DRIVE database1 with an enhanced reference standard. In the enhanced reference standard a fellowship trained retinal specialist (MDA) labeled all vessels for which it was possible to visually determine whether it was a vein or an artery. After applying the proposed method to the 20 images of the DRIVE test set we obtained an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.88 for correctly assigning centerline pixels to either the vein or artery classes.

  16. Automatic determination of the artery vein ratio in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2010-03-01

    A lower ratio between the width of the arteries and veins (Arteriolar-to-Venular diameter Ratio, AVR) on the retina, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as an increased risk of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents an automatic method that detects the location of the optic disc, determines the appropriate region of interest (ROI), classifies the vessels in the ROI into arteries and veins, measures their widths and calculates the AVR. After vessel segmentation and vessel width determination the optic disc is located and the system eliminates all vessels outside the AVR measurement ROI. The remaining vessels are thinned, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. Features are extracted from each centerline pixel that are used to assign them a soft label indicating the likelihood the pixel is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type, the median soft label is assigned to each centerline pixel in the segment. Next artery vein pairs are matched using an iterative algorithm and the widths of the vessels is used to calculate the AVR. We train and test the algorithm using a set of 25 high resolution digital color fundus photographs a reference standard that indicates for the major vessels in the images whether they are an artery or a vein. We compared the AVR values produced by our system with those determined using a computer assisted method in 15 high resolution digital color fundus photographs and obtained a correlation coefficient of 0.881.

  17. Influence of thrombophlebitis on TGF-β1 and its signaling pathway in the vein wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Kowalewski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive extracellular matrix remodeling of the vein wall is involved in varicose veins pathogenesis. Thisprocess is controlled by numerous factors, including peptide growth factors. The aim of the study was to evaluate influenceof thrombophlebitis on TGF-β1 and its signaling pathway in the vein wall. TGF-β1 mRNAlevels, growth factor content andits expression were evaluated by RT-PCR, ELISA, and western blot methods, respectively, in the walls of normal veins, varicoseveins and varicose veins complicated by thrombophlebitis. Western blot analysis was used to assess TGF-β receptortype II (TGF-β RII and p-Smad2/3 protein expression in the investigated material. Unchanged mRNA levels of TGF-β1,decreased TGF-β1 content, as well as decreased expression of latent and active forms of TGF-β1 were found in varicoseveins. Increased expression of TGF-β RII and p-Smad2/3 were found in varicose veins. Thrombophlebitis led to increasedprotein expression of the TGF-β1 active form and p-Smad2/3 in the vein wall compared to varicose veins. TGF-β1 may playa role in the disease pathogenesis because of increased expression and activation of its receptor in the wall of varicose veins.Thrombophlebitis accelerates activation of TGF-β1 and activity of its receptor in the varicose vein wall.

  18. Leiomyosarcoma of the Adrenal Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hung Shao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland is extremely rare in the literature. We present a patient with an adrenal leiomyosarcoma originating from the adrenal vein, the pathologic findings and management. A 66-year-old man who was a hepatitis B virus carrier was found to have a huge left suprarenal mass on sonography and computed axial tomography. A huge tumor in the left suprarenal area with a markedly engorged adrenal vein was found during an adrenalectomy. The tumor thrombus extended into the renal vein, close to the inferior vena cava. The left adrenal gland with the whole tumor thrombus was removed completely. Microscopically, the adrenal gland was compressed but not invaded by the spindle cell tumor, which was composed of interlacing fascicles of neoplastic smooth muscle cells. The tumor was localized within the adrenal vein and arose from the venous wall. The patient had no local recurrence for 18 months after en bloc excision of the tumor. We suggest that en bloc excision with a clear and adequate surgical margin is the most important cure procedure for adrenal leiomyosarcoma.

  19. Preoperative ultrasound mapping of the saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Niels; Schroeder, T

    1997-01-01

    A prospective series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. Sixteen (17%) bypass procedures thrombosed within the first week postoperatively. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was...

  20. Deep vein thrombosis: a clinical review

    OpenAIRE

    Kesieme, Emeka

    2011-01-01

    Emeka Kesieme1, Chinenye Kesieme2, Nze Jebbin3, Eshiobo Irekpita1, Andrew Dongo11Department of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 2Department of Paediatrics, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 3Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port-Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of blood clots (thrombi) in the deep veins. It commonly affects the deep leg veins (such as the calf veins, femo...

  1. Transcutaneous transsplenic catheterization of the splenic vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed a method for transcutaneous transsplenic catheterizaton of the portal vein basin and used this method in clinical studies. This method permits a higher quality of spot splenoportography, selective catheterization and embolization of the gastric veins in bleedings from varicose veins of the esophagus in the patients in whom catheterization of the portal vien basin via the transcutaneous transhepatic approach is impossible because of liver tumors of occulusive stenotic deformation of the portal vein

  2. Mechanical Buckling of Veins under Internal Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Ricky; Fierro, Cesar A.; Shireman, Paula K.; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Venous tortuosity is associated with multiple disease states and is often thought to be a consequence of venous hypertension and chronic venous disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of vein tortuosity are unclear. We hypothesized that increased pressure causes vein buckling that leads to a tortuous appearance. The specific aim of this study was to determine the critical buckling pressure of veins. We determined the buckling pressure of porcine jugular veins and measured the mechanical p...

  3. Vein thromboembolism prevention in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Dejan; Savić Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Having in mind the rate of occurrence and clinical importance, venous thromboembolism implies venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism as a result of embolisation of the thrombotic particles from deep veins or pelvic veins. Venous thrombosis of the deep veins may result in chronic vein insufficiency, but the primary medical problem is the possibility of development of pulmonary embolism which may cause permanent respiratory function damage or even fatal outcome. Venous thromboemb...

  4. Thrombosed portal vein aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Belo-Oliveira, P; Rodrigues, H.; Belo-Soares, P; Teixeira, L; Caseiro-Alves, F

    2006-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman, previously healthy, presented with right upper quadrant pain. She had no history of trauma, surgery, biopsy, or known hepatic disease. On physical examination she had mild tenderness in the right upper quadrant, without hepatosplenomegaly or palpable abdominal masses. Laboratory analyses including liver-associated enzymes were within normal limits.

  5. A Model For Syntectonic Fibrous Vein Growth Inferred From Microtextures. Ouachitas Orogen, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, P.; Wiltschko, D. V.

    2005-12-01

    Veins from the Lower Ordovician Mazarn Formation in the Arkansas' Ouachitas show two processes of vein growth, 1) continuous localized fracturing and filling and 2) recrystallization, tied to the deformation history of the area under study. Evidence for continuous localized fracturing includes the presence of veinlets near or at the vein-host interface. Veinlets are long and narrow features parallel to the main body of the vein, filled mainly with quartz, between 5 and 25 μm wide. Veinlets cut and displaced host grains. Displacement of host grains is evident because the material precipitated on veinlets show different luminescence than host grains. Remnants of these veinlets are observed in completely recrystallized fibers. Evidence for recrystallization includes, 1) wide fibers (more than 100 μm) with fluid inclusion trails parallel to fiber length that span the entire fiber length, 2) luminescence in the central part of the vein is different than luminescence in the external part of the vein (close to host-vein interface), 3) remnants of original luminescence in the central part of the vein suggesting that recrystallization is a later process. We hypothesize that in this region folding followed by flattening gave rise to boudinage of resistant layers accompanying abundant pressure solution providing the vein forming material. Precipitation of material took place along necks of boudins, which fractured repeatedly allowing veins to grow in width and length. Late thrust faults led to open system conditions which gave rise to new vein growth and recrystallization. Recrystallization altered the shape of previously formed veins.

  6. Mineral vein dynamics modeling (FRACS). Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urai, J.; Virgo, S.; Arndt, M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Geologie-Endogene Dynamik] [and others

    2013-07-15

    The Mineral Vein Dynamics Modeling group ''FRACS'' is a team of 7 research groups from the Universities of Mainz, Aachen, Tuebingen, Karlsruhe, Bayreuth, ETH Zuerich and Glasgow working on an understanding of the dynamic development of fracturing, fluid flow and fracture sealing. World-class field laboratories, especially carbonate sequences from the Oman Mountains are studied and classified. State of the art numerical programs are written, expanded and used to simulate the dynamic interaction of fracturing, flow and resealing and the results are compared with the natural examples. Newest analytical technologies including laser scanning, high resolution X-ray microtomography, fluid inclusion and isotope analysis are performed to understand and compare the results of simulations with natural examples. A new statistical program was developed to classify the natural fracture and vein systems and compare them with dynamic numerical simulations and analytical models. The results of the first project phase are extremely promising. Most of the numerical models have been developed up to the stage where they can be used to simulate the natural examples. The models allow a definition of the first proxies for high fluid pressure and tectonic stresses. It was found out that the Oman Mountains are a complex and very dynamic system that constantly fractures and reseals from the scale of small veins up to the scale of large normal and strike slip faults. The numerical simulations also indicate that the permeability of such systems is not a constant but that the system adjusts to the driving force, for ex-ample high fluid pressure. When the system reseals fast a fluctuating behavior can be observed in the models where the system constantly fractures and reseals, which is in accordance with the observation of the natural laboratory.

  7. Mechanical buckling of veins under internal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ricky; Fierro, Cesar A; Shireman, Paula K; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-04-01

    Venous tortuosity is associated with multiple disease states and is often thought to be a consequence of venous hypertension and chronic venous disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of vein tortuosity are unclear. We hypothesized that increased pressure causes vein buckling that leads to a tortuous appearance. The specific aim of this study was to determine the critical buckling pressure of veins. We determined the buckling pressure of porcine jugular veins and measured the mechanical properties of these veins. Our results showed that the veins buckle when the transmural pressure exceeds a critical pressure that is strongly related to the axial stretch ratio in the veins. The critical pressures of the eight veins tested were 14.2 +/- 5.4 and 26.4 +/- 9.0 mmHg at axial stretch ratio 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. In conclusion, veins buckle into a tortuous shape at high lumen pressures or reduced axial stretch ratios. Our results are useful in understanding the development of venous tortuosity associated with varicose veins, venous valvular insufficiency, diabetic retinopathy, and vein grafts. PMID:20094913

  8. FINGER-VEIN RECOGNITION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Haritha Deepthi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the Person‟s/Organization‟s Private information‟s are becoming very easy to access, the demand for a Simple, Convenient, Efficient, and a highly Securable Authentication System has been increased. In considering these requirements for data Protection, Biometrics, which uses human physiological or behavioral system for personal Identification has been found as a solution for these difficulties. However most of the biometric systems have high complexity in both time and space. So we are going to use a Real time Finger-Vein recognition System for authentication purposes. In this paper we had implemented the Finger Vein Recognition concept using MATLAB R2013a. The features used are Lacunarity Distance, Blanket Dimension distance. This has more accuracy when compared to conventional methods.

  9. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imao, Tetsuya; Amano, Toshiyasu; Takemae, Katsurou

    2011-02-01

    A 43-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for evaluation of a left retroperitoneal mass. She presented to our internal medicine department complaining of back pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a left retroperitoneal mass 55 mm in size in the hilum of the left kidney. Enhanced CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a poorly staining mass. Metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy demonstrated no accumulation in the mass; moreover, endocrinologic examination was normal. Laparoscopic resection of the left retroperitoneal tumor was attempted; however, strong adhesion between the tumor and the left renal vein was encountered. Thus, left nephrectomy after open conversion was performed. Histological findings indicated leiomyosarcoma originating from the left renal vein. The postoperative course has been uneventful; neither recurrence nor metastasis is evident 2 years postsurgery. PMID:20694494

  10. EndoVascular Laser Therapy (EVLT of Varicose Veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akhlaghpour

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: Tens of millions of people – up to 40% of women and 25% of men – suffer from lower limb varicose veins. Several risk factors are also identified including genetics, gender, age, obesity, hor-mones, pregnancy, and occupation. Sclerotheraphy is commonly used to treat small varicose veins. Medium-sized and large varicose veins can be removed by a surgical procedure called Stab avulsion or phlebectomy. EVLT is a new alternative surgical method for varicose veins. Patients & Methods: Using 980nm and 940nm diode laser with a 600micron bare-tipped fiber endoluminally under ultrasound and Doppler monitoring, we treated 43 patients in Noor Vein Clinic, Tehran, Iran. Results: The procedure was well tolerated by all patients with just a local anesthesia. No major complications were encountered. We noticed that 980nm and 940nm are the perfect wave lengths causing less post-operational discomfort for patients with enhanced recovery time due to fewer traumas to the adjacent tissues. One small size skin burn and local paresthesia were observed. Conclusion: We concluded that EVLT with diode laser is a safe, fast, and effective method with low recurrence rate.

  11. Management of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydar, Shahram; Sabetian, Golnar; Khalili, Hosseinali; Fallahi, Javad; Tahami, Mohammad; Ziaian, Bizhan; Abbasi, Hamid Reza; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Ghahramani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PTE) are known as venous thromboembolism (VTE). DVT occurs when a thrombus (a blood clot) forms in deep veins of the body, usually in the lower extremities. It can cause swelling or leg pain, but sometimes may occur with no symptoms. Awareness of DVT is the best way to prevent the VTE. Patients with trauma are at increased risk of DVT and subsequent PE because of coagulopathy in patients with multiple trauma, DVT prophylaxis is essential but the VTE prophylaxis strategy is controversial for the trauma patients. The risk factors for VTE includes pelvic and lower extremity fractures, and head injury. PMID:27162921

  12. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for the treatment of portal vein thrombus:its current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevalence of portal vein thrombosis in the general population is about 1.1%, while it is about 10%-25% in the cirrhotic patients. The severe clinical complication in patients with acute portal vein thrombosis is ischemic intestinal infarction when the thrombus extends to the mesenteric venous arch. The complications include bleeding due to gastroesophageal varices, ascites and deterioration of live function in the patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis. The recently-published Practice Guidelines indicate that the treatment of portal vein thrombosis includes anticoagulation,thrombolysis, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and surgical thrombectomy. TIPS has some advantages in treating portal vein thrombus. It can directly and effectively re-canalize the occluded portal vein. Moreover, it can accelerate portal flow and prevent recurrent thrombosis after the shunt is well-established. The disadvantages of TIPS include technical difficulties and potential complications. However, percutaneous transhepatic, transsplenic and transmesenteric approaches well facilitate the TIPS procedure. Additionally, preoperative evaluation of portal vein anatomy can provide a safe and effective choice in treating patients with portal cavernoua caver who are going to receive TIPS. Nevertheless, in the absence of relevant prospective studies, the application of TIPS for the management of portal vein thrombosis is still limited. (authors)

  13. Vein harvesting and techniques for infrainguinal bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albäck, Anders; Saarinen, Eva; Venermo, Maarit

    2016-04-01

    In order to achieve good long term results after bypass surgery, alongside with good inflow and outflow arteries, the bypass graft material also has an important role. The best patency and limb salvage rates are achieved with autologous vein. If great saphenous vein is not available, acceptable long-term results can be achieved with arm veins and lesser saphenous vein. The quality and size of the vein are important. A small-caliber vein, increased wall thickness, postphlebitic changes and varicosities are associated with a risk of early failure. Preoperative vein mapping with ultrasound reduces readmissions and postoperative surgical site infections. During the mapping, the vein to be used and its main tributaries are marked with a permanent marker pen. To reduce wound complication rates we recommend bridged incisions in vein harvesting. Endoscopic vein harvesting seems to have no benefit compared to open techniques in lower limb bypasses, and has been associated with higher risk of primary patency loss at one year. With deep tunneling of the graft the problems caused by wound infection can be avoided. PMID:26837257

  14. Abnormal formation and communication of external jugular vein

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak SB; KV S

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of variations in the origin, course and termination of external jugular vein may be important for surgeons, radiologists, and plastic surgeons. In this report, we present a variation in the origin of the external jugular vein and its abnormal communication with the cephalic vein. The external jugular vein was formed by the union of facial and retromandibular veins. Its course and termination were normal but it communicated with the cephalic vein through a large communicating vein, w...

  15. Preduodenal portal vein: its surgical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, D A; Bowen, J C

    1978-11-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is a rare anatomical variant which may be one of many anomalies in the neonate with duodenal "atresia." Preduodenal portal vein also may be an occasional finding in an adult undergoing biliary, gastric, or pancreatic surgery. Awareness and recognition of the anomaly are essential for the avoidance of injury during such operations. We report here a symptomless patient whose preduodenal portal vein was discovered at cholecystectomy. PMID:715684

  16. Endovenous laser therapy for varicose vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Mulia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Laser has become a useful technology in treating venous incompetence especially superficial venous disease. Introduction of endovenous thermal ablation through endovenous laser therapy helped by duplex ultrasound guidance has provided an alternative for traditional saphenous vein stripping. High success rate, minor complications, and minimally invasive technique provide the advantages over traditional treatment. In this case illustrated, the endovenous laser therapy used for great saphenous varicose vein. Yet, future development in endovenous laser therapy is still needed and only long term follow-up and uniform reporting standards will provide the answers. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:117-20Keywords: Endovenous laser theraphy, great saphenous vein, varicose vein

  17. Analysis of the hand vein pattern for people recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Cristóbal, G.; Marcos, J. Victor; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Hurtado Pérez, R.

    2015-09-01

    The shape of the hand vascular pattern contains useful and unique features that can be used for identifying and authenticating people, with applications in access control, medicine and financial services. In this work, an optical system for the image acquisition of the hand vascular pattern is implemented. It consists of a CCD camera with sensitivity in the IR and a light source with emission in the 880 nm. The IR radiation interacts with the desoxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin and water present in the blood of the veins, making possible to see the vein pattern underneath skin. The segmentation of the Region Of Interest (ROI) is achieved using geometrical moments locating the centroid of an image. For enhancement of the vein pattern we use the technique of Histogram Equalization and Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE). In order to remove unnecessary information such as body hair and skinfolds, a low pass filter is implemented. A method based on geometric moments is used to obtain the invariant descriptors of the input images. The classification task is achieved using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and K-Nearest Neighbors (K-nn) algorithms. Experimental results using our database show a percentage of correct classification, higher of 86.36% with ANN for 912 images of 38 people with 12 versions each one.

  18. Endovenous laser therapy for varicose veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disselhoff, B.C.V.M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the technique of endovenous laser ablation and the outcome of various series of patients with varicose veins due to reflux in the great saphenous vein, treated by endovenous laser ablation or cryostripping in a single-centre study. This study has shown clear advantages of endov

  19. Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Karia, Niral

    2010-01-01

    Niral KariaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Southend Hospital, Prittlewell Chase, Westcliff on Sea, Essex, United KingdomAbstract: This paper reviews the current thinking about retinal vein occlusion. It gives an overview of its pathophysiology and discusses the evidence behind the various established and emerging treatment paradigms.Keywords: central, hemispheric, branch, retinal vein occlusion, visual loss

  20. Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niral Karia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Niral KariaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Southend Hospital, Prittlewell Chase, Westcliff on Sea, Essex, United KingdomAbstract: This paper reviews the current thinking about retinal vein occlusion. It gives an overview of its pathophysiology and discusses the evidence behind the various established and emerging treatment paradigms.Keywords: central, hemispheric, branch, retinal vein occlusion, visual loss

  1. Ultrasound-guided subclavian vein catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the usefulness of the ultrasound-guided subclavian vein catheterization in difficult patients. We tried subclavian vein catheterization in 18 patients in which conventional blind technique failed(N=9): or was complicated by hemothorax or pneumothorax(N=3): or was prohibited by respirator care(N=4) and severe thoracic deformity(N=2). Initially, the patency of subclavian vein was evaluated with ultrasonography, and then, the puncture of the subclavian vein was performed under the guidance of ultrasonography. Under the fluoroscopy, the patency of the proximal subclavian vein and the superior vena cava was evaluated after contrast-media injection and a catheter was inserted into the subclavian vein and accurately positioned at the superior vena cava. Successful catheterization was performed in 17 patients. In the remaining one patient, we did not perform catheterization because of bilateral subclavian vein thrombosis detected during the procedure. There were no procedure-related complications. Ultrasound-guided subclavian vein catheterization is an easy and safe method even in difficult cases

  2. Preoperative mapping of the saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Sillesen, H; Nielsen, Tina G;

    1996-01-01

    A series of 124 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. 33 (27%) bypass procedures thrombosed within the first year. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was discovered: 5.0-6.5 mm at mid-thigh lev...

  3. Element transport in veins during serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, E. M.; Beard, J. S.; Caddick, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks has wide ranging implications for the petrology, rheology, and petrophysical properties of the oceanic lithosphere. During hydration of the peridotite, fluid-rock ratios and temperature control mineral formation in the veins. We studied a partly serpentinized peridotite from the Santa Elena ophiolite complex in Costa Rica and tracked element mobility during water-rock interaction. Serpentinization of the studied harzburgite is around 30 to 40%, with serpentinization of olivine being more advanced than serpentinization of orthopyroxene. Element mapping and point analyses show that the veins preserve characteristic element distributions within orthopyroxene and olivine, and with distance to orthopyroxene-hosted serpentine veins. With increasing distance from the orthopyroxene the following vein assemblages were observed in olivine: pure serpentine veins, serpentine + brucite veins, serpentine + brucite + magnetite veins. Veins are enriched in SiO2 in the proximity of orthopyroxene suggesting that a net transfer of SiO2 takes place from serpentinizing orthopyroxene to olivine. The magnetite-bearing serpentine veins mostly consist of Mg-rich serpentine (Mg# = 90 - 95) and Fe-rich brucite (Mg# = 70 - 75) finely intergrown. In contrast, the center of these veins contains a thin zone of high-Mg serpentine (Mg# 97), and high-Mg brucite (Mg# 92 - 94) next to magnetite. We infer from thermodynamic calculations that these mineral assemblages are controlled by H2O activity and low SiO2 activities. Within orthopyroxene, serpentine (Mg# = 84 - 89) with an elevated Al2O3 content ( 100 μm and > 200 μm, respectively, from the orthopyroxene. We infer that brucite is not stable in close proximity to orthopyroxene due to elevated SiO2 derived from orthopyroxene breakdown. Orthopyroxene serpentinization results in net transfer of Al2O3 into serpentine, but only in the immediate vicinity of the orthopyroxene. Overall, our study indicates that the

  4. Risk Factors for Central and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Meta-Analysis of Published Clinical Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a major cause of vision loss. Of the two main types of RVO, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is 4 to 6 times more prevalent than central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). A basic risk factor for RVO is advancing age. Further risk factors include systemic conditions like hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular cerebral stroke, blood hyperviscosity, and thrombophilia. A strong risk factor for RVO is the metabolic syndrome (hyp...

  5. Difference in left renal vein pressure: an indicator for free of reconstruction after ligation in retroperitoneal tumor patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chengli Miao; Mengmeng Xiao; Tengyan Li; Gang Liu; Xing Liu; Yue Kong; Chenghua Luo

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the left renal vein pressure difference (ΔP) before and after the ligation can serve as an objective indicator for free of reconstruction after resection of a retroperitoneal tumor with renal segment of inferior vena cava and right kidney. After established a model of left renal vein compression, 45 miniature pigs were operated on experimental procedures including renal segment of inferior vena cava resection, right nephrectomy, and left renal vein ligation. The ΔPs of le...

  6. Saphenous Vein Sparing Superficial Inguinal Dissection in Lower Extremity Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Beşir Öztürk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The classic inguinal lymph node dissection is the main step for the regional control of the lower extremity melanoma, but this surgical procedure is associated with significant postoperative morbidity. The permanent lymphedema is the most devastating long-term complication leading to a significant decrease in the patient’s quality of life. In this study we present our experience with modified, saphenous vein sparing, inguinal lymph node dissections for patients with melanoma of the lower extremity. Methods. Twenty one patients (10 women, 11 men who underwent saphenous vein sparing superficial inguinal lymph node dissection for the melanoma of lower extremity were included in this study. The effects of saphenous vein sparing on postoperative complications were evaluated. Results. We have observed the decreased rate of long-term lymphedema in patients undergoing inguinal lymphadenectomy for the lower extremity melanoma. Conclusion. The inguinal lymphadenectomy with saphenous vein preservation in lower extremity melanoma patients seems to be an oncologically safe procedure and it may offer reduced long-term morbidity.

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Young Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a three-dimensional mathematical model for the study of radiofrequency ablation (RFA with blood flow for varicose vein. The model designed to analyze temperature distribution heated by radiofrequency energy and cooled by blood flow includes a cylindrically symmetric blood vessel with a homogeneous vein wall. The simulated blood velocity conditions are U = 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mm/s. The lower the blood velocity, the higher the temperature in the vein wall and the greater the tissue damage. The region that is influenced by temperature in the case of the stagnant flow occupies approximately 28.5% of the whole geometry, while the region that is influenced by temperature in the case of continuously moving electrode against the flow direction is about 50%. The generated RF energy induces a temperature rise of the blood in the lumen and leads to an occlusion of the blood vessel. The result of the study demonstrated that higher blood velocity led to smaller thermal region and lower ablation efficiency. Since the peak temperature along the venous wall depends on the blood velocity and pullback velocity, the temperature distribution in the model influences ablation efficiency. The vein wall absorbs more energy in the low pullback velocity than in the high one.

  8. Retinal vein occlusion: current treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Rosangela; Torres Gimeno, Ana; Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a pathology noted for more than 150 years. Although a lot has been written on the matter, it is still a frequent condition with multifactorial etiopathogenesis with many unclear aspects. The RVO pathogenesis has varied systemic and local implications that make it difficult to elaborate treatment guidelines. The management of the patient with RVO is very complex and a multidisciplinary approach is required in order to identify and correct the associated risk factors. Laser therapy remains the gold standard in RVO, but only modest functional improvement has been shown in branch retinal occlusion forms. Multicenter studies of intravitreal drugs present them as an option to combine with laser. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, corticosteroids and sustained-release implants are the future weapons to stop disease progression and get a better visual outcome. Consequently, it is useful to clarify some aspects of the pathology that allow a better patient management. PMID:20938213

  9. Guide wire migration during femoral vein catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mohammad Reza; Abbasi, Rozita; Sadigh, Gelareh

    2010-10-01

    Central vein catheterization is a routine and relatively safe procedure in critically ill patients. Complications with this procedure depend to the site of catheterization and the skill of the operator. In addition to the common complications with femoral vein catheterization there are some rare usually preventable side effects related to guide wire and catheter. In our patient who underwent femoral catheterization for acute hemodialysis, we report migration of guide wire through the systemic circulation from the femoral vein to the jugular vein. This is a very rare complication that is a human error and is totally preventable by doing the procedure by a skilled doctor and considering the standards described for central vein catheter insertion. PMID:20852377

  10. Ultrasound assessment of great saphenous vein insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander RK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rajiv K Chander,1 Thomas S Monahan1,2 1Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Duplex ultrasonography is the ideal modality to assess great saphenous vein insufficiency. Duplex ultrasonography incorporates both gray scale images to delineate anatomy and color-Doppler imaging that visualizes the flow of blood in a structure. Assessment of great saphenous vein requires definition of the anatomy, augmentation of flow, evaluation for both superficial and deep vein thrombosis, and determining the presence of reflux. Currently, evolution in the treatment of reflux also relies on ultrasound for the treatment of the disease. Understanding the utilization of the ultrasound for the diagnosis and treatment of greater saphenous vein reflux is important for practitioners treating reflux disease. Keywords: duplex ultrasonography, small saphenous vein 

  11. Deep Vein Thrombosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest NIH Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are commonly used to diagnose pulmonary embolisms (PE). Treatment Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is treated with medicines and certain devices and therapies. The main goals of treating DVT include: Stopping ...

  12. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  13. Transjugular Endovascular Recanalization of Splenic Vein in Patients with Regional Portal Hypertension Complicated by Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xuefeng; Nie, Ling; Wang, Zhu; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Tang, Chengwei; Li, Xiao, E-mail: simonlixiao@126.com [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Gastroenterology (China)

    2013-05-02

    PurposeRegional portal hypertension (RPH) is an uncommon clinical syndrome resulting from splenic vein stenosis/occlusion, which may cause gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from the esophagogastric varices. The present study evaluated the safety and efficacy of transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein in patients with GI bleeding secondary to RPH.MethodsFrom December 2008 to May 2011, 11 patients who were diagnosed with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and had undergone transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein were reviewed retrospectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed splenic vein stenosis in six cases and splenic vein occlusion in five. Etiology of RPH was chronic pancreatitis (n = 7), acute pancreatitis with pancreatic pseudocyst (n = 2), pancreatic injury (n = 1), and isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (n = 1).ResultsTechnical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients via the transjugular approach, including six patients with splenic vein stenosis and two patients with splenic vein occlusion. Two patients underwent splenic vein venoplasty only, whereas four patients underwent bare stents deployment and two covered stents. Splenic vein pressure gradient (SPG) was reduced from 21.5 ± 7.3 to 2.9 ± 1.4 mmHg after the procedure (P < 0.01). For the remaining three patients who had technical failures, splenic artery embolization and subsequent splenectomy was performed. During a median follow-up time of 17.5 (range, 3–34) months, no recurrence of GI bleeding was observed.ConclusionsTransjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein is a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and is not associated with an increased risk of procedure-related complications.

  14. Quantum algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel S.

    This thesis describes several new quantum algorithms. These include a polynomial time algorithm that uses a quantum fast Fourier transform to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a Hamiltonian operator, and that can be applied in cases (commonly found in ab initio physics and chemistry problems) for which all known classical algorithms require exponential time. Fast algorithms for simulating many body Fermi systems are also provided in both first and second quantized descriptions. An efficient quantum algorithm for anti-symmetrization is given as well as a detailed discussion of a simulation of the Hubbard model. In addition, quantum algorithms that calculate numerical integrals and various characteristics of stochastic processes are described. Two techniques are given, both of which obtain an exponential speed increase in comparison to the fastest known classical deterministic algorithms and a quadratic speed increase in comparison to classical Monte Carlo (probabilistic) methods. I derive a simpler and slightly faster version of Grover's mean algorithm, show how to apply quantum counting to the problem, develop some variations of these algorithms, and show how both (apparently distinct) approaches can be understood from the same unified framework. Finally, the relationship between physics and computation is explored in some more depth, and it is shown that computational complexity theory depends very sensitively on physical laws. In particular, it is shown that nonlinear quantum mechanics allows for the polynomial time solution of NP-complete and #P oracle problems. Using the Weinberg model as a simple example, the explicit construction of the necessary gates is derived from the underlying physics. Nonlinear quantum algorithms are also presented using Polchinski type nonlinearities which do not allow for superluminal communication. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14- 0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  15. Algorithm Theory - SWAT 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th Scandinavian Workshop on Algorithm Theory, SWAT 2006, held in Riga, Latvia, in July 2006. The 36 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 154 submissions. The papers address all...... issues of theoretical algorithmics and applications in various fields including graph algorithms, computational geometry, scheduling, approximation algorithms, network algorithms, data storage and manipulation, combinatorics, sorting, searching, online algorithms, optimization, etc....

  16. Portal vein thrombosis with protein C-S deficiency in a noncirrhotic patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo; A; Rodríguez-Leal; Segundo; Morán; Roberto; Corona-Cedillo; Rocío; Brom-Valladares

    2014-01-01

    There are several conditions that can lead to portal vein thrombosis(PVT), including including infection, malignancies, and coagulation disorders. Anew condition of interest is protein C and S deficiencies, associated with hypercoagulation and recurrent venous thromboembolism. We report the case of a non-cirrhotic 63-year-old male diagnosed with acute superior mesenteric vein thrombosis and PVT and combined deficiencies in proteins C and S, recanalized by short-term low molecular heparin plus oral warfarin therapy.

  17. Female Pelvic Vein Embolization: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, the main indication for pelvic vein embolization (PVE) in women was to treat pelvic venous congestion syndrome (PVC) but increasingly, patients with refluxing pelvic veins associated with leg varicosities are also being treated. A more unusual reason for PVE is to treat pelvic venous malformations, although such lesions may be treated with sclerotherapy alone. Embolotherapy for treating PVC has been performed for many years with several published studies included in this review, whilst an emerging indication for PVE is to treat lower limb varicosities associated with pelvic vein reflux. Neither group, however, has been subjected to an adequate randomized, controlled trial. Consequently, some of the information presented in this review should be considered anecdotal (level III evidence) at this stage, and a satisfactory ‘proof’ of clinical efficacy remains deficient until higher-level evidence is presented. Furthermore, a wide range of techniques not accepted by all are used, and some standardization will be required based on future mandatory prospective studies. Large studies have also clearly shown an unacceptably high recurrence rate of leg varicose veins following venous surgery. Furthermore, minimally or non-invasive imaging is now revealing that there is a refluxing pelvic venous source in a significant percentage of women with de novo leg varicose veins, and many more with recurrent varicosities. Considering that just over half the world’s population is female and a significant number of women not only have pelvic venous reflux, but also have associated leg varicosities, minimally invasive treatment of pelvic venous incompetence will become a common procedure

  18. Female Pelvic Vein Embolization: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony James, E-mail: consultant@radiologist.co.uk [The Imaging Clinic (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Until recently, the main indication for pelvic vein embolization (PVE) in women was to treat pelvic venous congestion syndrome (PVC) but increasingly, patients with refluxing pelvic veins associated with leg varicosities are also being treated. A more unusual reason for PVE is to treat pelvic venous malformations, although such lesions may be treated with sclerotherapy alone. Embolotherapy for treating PVC has been performed for many years with several published studies included in this review, whilst an emerging indication for PVE is to treat lower limb varicosities associated with pelvic vein reflux. Neither group, however, has been subjected to an adequate randomized, controlled trial. Consequently, some of the information presented in this review should be considered anecdotal (level III evidence) at this stage, and a satisfactory ‘proof’ of clinical efficacy remains deficient until higher-level evidence is presented. Furthermore, a wide range of techniques not accepted by all are used, and some standardization will be required based on future mandatory prospective studies. Large studies have also clearly shown an unacceptably high recurrence rate of leg varicose veins following venous surgery. Furthermore, minimally or non-invasive imaging is now revealing that there is a refluxing pelvic venous source in a significant percentage of women with de novo leg varicose veins, and many more with recurrent varicosities. Considering that just over half the world’s population is female and a significant number of women not only have pelvic venous reflux, but also have associated leg varicosities, minimally invasive treatment of pelvic venous incompetence will become a common procedure.

  19. Congenital absence of the portal vein in a boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV) is a malformation that is generally thought to be limited to females. We encountered an 11-year-old boy with this malformation. In 17 previously reported cases of CAPV, 2 were male. Three male patients, including our case, were Abernethy type Ib malformation. They had no associated liver tumour and two had no additional congenital abnormality. Conversely, 13 of the 15 female patients had congenital abnormalities and 6 had liver mass lesions. (orig.)

  20. Intravitrel bevacizumab in different type of retinal vein occlusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Retinal vein occlusion is frequent cause of visual loss with insufficient treatment options. Many treatment options have been tried in the past including intravitreal triamcenoloneacetonide injection. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and complications of intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab in different types of retinal vein occlusion. Method: This interventional study was carried out at Al Ibrahim eye hospital, Karachi from July 2011 to December 2012. Patients diagnosed with retinal vein occlusion of any type were included in the study using non-probability purposive sampling technique, after informed written consent. Patients were injected intra-vitreally with Bevacizumab 1.25 mg/0.05 ml under sterilized technique in operation room. Best corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography was repeated in every follow up along with the detailed fundoscopy and intraocular pressure measurement. Data analysis was done using SPSS-20.0. Results: A total 278 patients were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Mean age of the patients was 54.28 years (SD=5.62). Out of 278 patients included in the study, 132 had BRVO, 141 had CRVO while 5 had HRVO. Mean visual acuity before injection was 2.309 lines of Snellen's acuity chart read, with minimum of 1 line read and maximum of 4 lines read (standard deviation=l.00). After 12 weeks post injection, 92 patients read 7 lines (6/6) of Snellen's visual acuity chart. Mean visual acuity was 4.75 lines of Snellen's acuity chart read, with minimum of 1 line read and maximum of 7 lines read (standard deviation=1.00). 77 percentage of the patients had visual improvement after injection (p<0.05). Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab injection is very effective in reducing macular thickness as well in improving visual acuity in all types of retinal vein occlusion. (author)

  1. Isolation and culture of umbilical vein mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    D.T. Covas; J.L.C. Siufi; A.R.L. Silva; M. D. Orellana

    2003-01-01

    Bone marrow contains a population of stem cells that can support hematopoiesis and can differentiate into different cell lines including adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes, myocytes, astrocytes, and tenocytes. These cells have been denoted mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study we isolated a cell population derived from the endothelium and subendothelium of the umbilical cord vein which possesses morphological, immunophenotypical and cell differentiation characteristics similar to tho...

  2. Effects of anesthesia with isoflurane on plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Schott, Harold C; van der Kolk, Johannes H

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of anesthesia on plasma concentrations and pulsatility of ACTH in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses. ANIMALS 6 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURES Catheters were placed in a jugular vein and into the cavernous sinus via a superficial facial vein. The following morning (day 1), cavernous sinus blood samples were collected every 5 minutes for 1 hour (collection of first sample = time 0) and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. On day 2, horses were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and anesthesia was induced with propofol mixed with ketamine hydrochloride. Horses were positioned in dorsal recumbency. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and a continuous rate infusion of butorphanol tartrate. One hour after anesthesia was induced, the blood sample protocol was repeated. Plasma ACTH concentrations were quantified by use of a commercially available sandwich assay. Generalized estimating equations that controlled for horse and an expressly automated deconvolution algorithm were used to determine effects of anesthesia on plasma ACTH concentrations and pulsatility, respectively. RESULTS Anesthesia significantly reduced the plasma ACTH concentration in blood samples collected from the cavernous sinus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Mean plasma ACTH concentrations in samples collected from the cavernous sinus of anesthetized horses were reduced. Determining the success of partial ablation of the pituitary gland in situ for treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction may require that effects of anesthesia be included in interpretation of plasma ACTH concentrations in cavernous sinus blood. PMID:27347826

  3. Axillary vein thrombosis mimicking muscular strain.

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, J.

    1999-01-01

    Axillary vein thrombosis may occur on strenuous activity with a clinical picture similar to a simple strain. It carries significant morbidity but a good outcome is possible with early treatment. The aetiology, investigation, and treatment are discussed.

  4. Aneurysm of the vein of Galen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of a vein of Galen aneurysm in a neonate in which MR imaging provided essentially all pertinent diagnostic information prior to surgery. MR findings correlated well with selective cerebral angiography. (orig./MG)

  5. Influence of thrombophlebitis on TGF-β1 and its signaling pathway in the vein wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Malkowski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive extracellular matrix remodeling of the vein wall is involved in varicose veins pathogenesis. This process is controlled by numerous factors, including peptide growth factors. The aim of the study was to evaluate influence of thrombophlebitis on TGF-β1 and its signaling pathway in the vein wall. TGF-β1 mRNAlevels, growth factor content and its expression were evaluated by RT-PCR, ELISA, and western blot methods, respectively, in the walls of normal veins, varicose veins and varicose veins complicated by thrombophlebitis. Western blot analysis was used to assess TGF-β receptor type II (TGF-β RII and p-Smad2/3 protein expression in the investigated material. Unchanged mRNA levels of TGF-β1, decreased TGF-β1 content, as well as decreased expression of latent and active forms of TGF-β1 were found in varicose veins. Increased expression of TGF-β RII and p-Smad2/3 were found in varicose veins. Thrombophlebitis led to increased protein expression of the TGF-β1 active form and p-Smad2/3 in the vein wall compared to varicose veins. TGF-β1 may play a role in the disease pathogenesis because of increased expression and activation of its receptor in the wall of varicose veins. Thrombophlebitis accelerates activation of TGF-β1 and activity of its receptor in the varicose vein wall.

  6. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion and Its Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desmond; Archer

    1992-01-01

    The natural course of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion is determined by the site and completeness of the occlusion, the integrity of arterial perfusion to the affected sector and the efficiency of the developing collateral circulation. Most patients with tributary vein occlusion have some capillary fall out and microvascular incompetence in the distribution of the affected retina and vision is significantly compromised in over 50% of patients who have either chronic macular oedema or ischemia involving the...

  7. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread. PMID:17349340

  8. Conduits for Coronary Bypass: Vein Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Barner, Hendrick B.; Farkas, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    The saphenous vein has been the principal conduit for coronary bypass grafting from the beginning, circa 1970. This report briefly traces this history and concomitantly presents one surgeons experience and personal views on use of the vein graft. As such it is not exhaustive but meant to be practical with a modest number of references. The focus is that of providing guidance and perspective which may be at variance with that of others and recognizing that there may be many ways to accomplish ...

  9. Behavioural recovery after treatment for varicose veins

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, S. C.; MacLennan, G.; Brittenden, J.; Prior, M. E.; Francis, J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess behavioural recovery from the patient's perspective as a prespecified secondary outcome in a multicentre parallel-group randomized clinical trial comparing ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and surgery for the treatment of primary varicose veins. METHODS: Participants were recruited from 11 UK sites as part of the CLASS trial, a randomized trial of UGFS, EVLA or surgery for varicose veins. Patient...

  10. Renal vein thrombosis in transitional cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A rare case of renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) associated with bland thrombus of the renal vein extending into the inferior vena cava is described. Tumour thrombus in renal cell carcinoma is frequently encountered, but only very rarely occurs with TCC. Bland renal vein thrombosis occurring with renal TCC has not been described before. Contrast enhanced computed tomography assisted in distinguishing between bland and tumour thrombosis and aided in surgical management

  11. Portal Vein Aneurysm Presenting with Obstructive Jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Chandana Lall; Sadhna Verma; Rajesh Gulati; Puneet Bhargava

    2012-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, a portal vein aneurysm presenting with obstructive jaundice has not been reported in the literature. The preferred treatment for these aneurysms is surgical and a shunting procedure should be considered in cases with portal hypertension to preserve portal vein flow when portal hypertension is present or is secondary to the aneurysm itself. In our case, due to patient′s advanced age and co-morbidities, an endoscopic biliary stent was placed which led to successful...

  12. [Resection of the portal vein in pancreatectomy for cancer: technical considerations. Apropos of 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophe, M; Thomas, P; Le Treut, Y P; Pol, B; Brandone, J M; Capobianco, C; Bricot, R

    1991-01-01

    Out of 150 carcinomas of the pancreas operated from 1970 through 1989, 50 pancreatectomies were performed, including 4 cases of segmental resection of portal vein with total pancreatectomy (2 cases) or duodenopancreatectomy (2 cases). The technical procedure is described and discussed. Segmental resection of portal vein is rare in our experience and has been always performed out of necessity because of the over estimation of the resectability. However, mortality and post-operative stay are not increased. PMID:1859109

  13. Portal vein thrombosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome as onset of polycythemia vera.

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelio Seidita; Delia Sprini; Accursia Bongiovì; Tiziana Catalano; Filippo Barbiera; Maria Accardi; Pasquale Mansueto; Antonio Carroccio

    2013-01-01

    Budd-Chiari syndrome may be defined as a heterogeneous group of vascular disorders characterized by obstruction of hepatic venous return to the level of hepatic venules, supra-hepatic veins, inferior vena cava or right atrium. The main cause of this syndrome is represented by myeloproliferative diseases and, in particular, by polycythemia vera. The latter may cause multiple splanchnic thrombosis, including portal vein thrombosis, particularly important for its clinical outcomes (ascites, coll...

  14. Single intravitreal bevacizumab injection effects on contrast sensitivity in macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Rony Carlos Preti; Lisa Mariel Vasquez Ramirez; Sergio Luis Gianotti Pimentel; Augusto Alves Lopes Motta; Cleide Guimarães Machado; Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro; Walter Yukihiko Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection on visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and optical coherence tomography-measured central macular thickness in eyes with macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion. METHODS: Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with macular edema from unilateral branch retinal vein occlusion were treated with a single bevacizumab injection. Patients were submitted to a complete evaluation including best corrected visual acuity, contr...

  15. Research progress in non-permanent vein cava filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vein cava filter placement has already become one of the most effective measures for preventing pulmonary embolism which is usually secondary to deep vein thrombosis. With the development of research, non-permanent vein cava filter has been widely used. This paper aims to describe the recent progress in the research of non-permanent vein cava filters. (authors)

  16. Subclavian vein thrombosis: A continuing challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subclavian vein thrombosis is a relatively uncommon but potentially morbid disease entity. To determine the frequency, cause, and best mode of treatment of this problem, we performed a chart review of all patients with a diagnosis of subclavian vein thrombosis at two major metropolitan hospitals during a 6-year period. A total of 40 patients were identified with subclavian vein thrombosis, which represented 3.5% of all venous thromboses detected during the 6-year period. No side or sex predilection was noted and the majority of patients were outpatients. The cause was fairly evenly divided among intravenous catheters (32%), anatomic abnormalities (45%), and carcinoma with postoperative radiation (22.5%). Despite the increasing use of the subclavian veins for pacemaker leads, hyperalimentation, and permanent intravenous access for chemotherapy, there has not been an increase in diagnosed subclavian vein thrombosis. Anatomic abnormalities with compression of the vein respond well to either heparinization or lytic therapy but require surgery if the venous abnormality persists. Treatment consisted of lytic therapy in 20%, heparinization in 55%, and elevation with removal of the central line in 25% of patients. All patients responded well to treatment, with a decrease in swelling and symptoms; no patient progressed to venous gangrene and only one (2.5%) had a documented pulmonary embolus. Medical treatment provides excellent long-term benefit in most cases unless complicated by an anatomic abnormality

  17. Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To study the safety, effectiveness and diagnostic value of transvenous forceps biopsy of the liver in 54 patients with coagulopathy, gross ascites or morbid obesity and suspected liver disease in whom percutaneous liver biopsy was contraindicated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forceps biopsy of the liver via the femoral vein was attempted in 54 adult patients with advanced liver disease of unknown aetiology who had coagulation disorders (41 cases), gross ascites (11 cases) or morbid obesity (two cases). In each patient two to six biopsies (average four) were taken using a radial jaw forceps inserted via the right or left femoral vein. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 53 cases. Hepatic vein catheterization failed in one patient. Adequate liver tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 84% of cases. One patient developed delayed haemorrhage at 12 h from a capsular leak that was undetected during the biopsy procedure. This patient required blood transfusions and laparotomy to control bleeding. There were no deaths in the 53 patients studied. Transient minor chest and shoulder pain was encountered during sheath insertion into a hepatic vein in 23 patients. Three patients developed a femoral vein haematoma, which resolved with conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein is another safe, effective, simple alternative technique of biopsy when the percutaneous route is contraindicated

  18. Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosa, F. E-mail: fkhosa@hotmail.com; McNulty, J.G.; Hickey, N.; O' Brien, P.; Tobin, A.; Noonan, N.; Ryan, B.; Keeling, P.W.N.; Kelleher, D.P.; McDonald, G.S.A

    2003-06-01

    AIM: To study the safety, effectiveness and diagnostic value of transvenous forceps biopsy of the liver in 54 patients with coagulopathy, gross ascites or morbid obesity and suspected liver disease in whom percutaneous liver biopsy was contraindicated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forceps biopsy of the liver via the femoral vein was attempted in 54 adult patients with advanced liver disease of unknown aetiology who had coagulation disorders (41 cases), gross ascites (11 cases) or morbid obesity (two cases). In each patient two to six biopsies (average four) were taken using a radial jaw forceps inserted via the right or left femoral vein. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 53 cases. Hepatic vein catheterization failed in one patient. Adequate liver tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 84% of cases. One patient developed delayed haemorrhage at 12 h from a capsular leak that was undetected during the biopsy procedure. This patient required blood transfusions and laparotomy to control bleeding. There were no deaths in the 53 patients studied. Transient minor chest and shoulder pain was encountered during sheath insertion into a hepatic vein in 23 patients. Three patients developed a femoral vein haematoma, which resolved with conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein is another safe, effective, simple alternative technique of biopsy when the percutaneous route is contraindicated.

  19. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  20. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in a Newborn: A Commonly Overlooked Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Jeanne Magioli Bravo-valenzuela; Guilherme Ricardo Nunes Silva; Marcela Pinto Varella

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary pulmonary vein stenosis is often overlooked because its symptoms overlap lung diseases and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Its diagnosis may be difficult because the condition is progressive and associated with other defects. We present a case of pulmonary vein stenosis in a newborn with stenosis of the left-sided common pulmonary vein, diffuse hypoplasia of the superior right pulmonary vein, and atresia of the inferior right pulmonary vein.

  1. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B

    1985-01-01

    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  2. VEGF concentrations in tumour arteries and veins from patients with rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, Kim; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter;

    2002-01-01

    , automated complete white cell and platelet counts were performed. In serum and EDTA plasma, no significant differences in VEGF concentrations were observed (p = 0.1 and p = 0.5), respectively) between tumour arteries and tumour veins. However, in supernatants from lysed blood, VEGF concentrations were......This pilot study investigated the hypothesis that the tumour itself is the source of the elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations which are often observed in peripheral blood from patients with rectal cancer. Twenty-four consecutive patients with primary rectal cancer were...... included. Blood samples were drawn preoperatively from peripheral veins (I) and intraoperatively from peripheral veins (II), tumour arteries (III), and tumour veins (IV). In the four compartments, VEGF concentrations were measured in serum, EDTA plasma, and supernatants from lysed whole blood. Additionally...

  3. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  4. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Luis, E-mail: lmeneseq@gmail.com; Fava, Mario; Diaz, Pia; Andia, Marcelo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazabal, Pablo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Uribe, Sergio, E-mail: suribe@med.puc.cl [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile)

    2013-02-15

    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  5. Fusion of hand vein, iris and fingerprint for person identity verification based on Bayesian theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Tiegen; Deng, Shichao; Wang, Yunxin

    2009-11-01

    Biometric identification is an important guarantee for social security. In recent years, as the development of social and economic, the more accuracy and safety of identification are required. The person identity verification systems that use a single biometric appear inherent limitations in accuracy, user acceptance, universality. Limitations of unimodal biometric systems can be overcome by using multimodal biometric systems, which combines the conclusions made by a number of unrelated biometrics indicators. Aiming at the limitations of unimodal biometric identification, a recognition algorithm for multimodal biometric fusion based on hand vein, iris and fingerprint was proposed. To verify person identity, the hand vein images, iris images and fingerprint images were preprocessed firstly. The region of interest (ROI) of hand vein image was obtained and filtered to reduce image noises. The multiresolution analysis theory was utilized to extract the texture information of hand vein. The iris image was preprocessed through iris localization, eyelid detection, image normalization and image enhancement, and then the feature code of iris was extracted from the detail images obtained using wavelet transform. The texture feature information represented fingerprint pattern was extracted after filtering and image enhancement. The Bayesian theorem was employed to realize the fusion at the matching score level and the fusion recognition result was finally obtained. The experimental results were presented, which showed that the recognition performance of the proposed fusion method was obviously higher than that of single biometric recognition algorithm. It had verified the efficiency of the proposed method for biometrics.

  6. A New Multimodal Biometric System Based on Finger Vein and Hand Vein Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Boukhris Trabelsi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As a reliable and robust biological characteristic, the vein pattern increases more and more the progress in biometric researches. Generally, it was shown that single biometric modality recognition is not able to meet high performances. In this paper, we propose a new multimodal biometric system based on fusion of both hand vein and finger vein modalities. For finger vein recognition, we employ the Monogenic Local Binary Pattern (MLBP, and for hand vein recognitionan Improved Gaussian Matched Filter (IGMF. Experimental results confirm that the proposed multimodal biometric process achieves excellent recognition performance compared to unimodal biometric system. The Area Under Curve (AUC of the proposed approach is very close to unity (0.98.

  7. Natural fracking and the genesis of five-element veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Gregor; Burisch, Mathias; Neumann, Udo

    2016-05-01

    Hydrothermal Ag-Co-Ni-Bi-As (five-element vein type) ore deposits show very conspicuous textures of the native elements silver, bismuth, and arsenic indicating formation from a rapid, far-from-equilibrium process. Such textures include up to dm-large tree- and wire-like aggregates overgrown by Co-Ni-Fe arsenides and mostly carbonates. Despite the historical and contemporary importance of five-element vein type deposits as sources of silver, bismuth, and cobalt, and despite of spectacular museum specimens, their process of formation is not yet understood and has been a matter of debate since centuries. We propose, based on observations from a number of classical European five-element vein deposits and carbon isotope analyses, that "natural fracking," i.e., liberation of hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon-bearing fluids during break up of rocks in the vicinity of an active hydrothermal system and mixing between these hydrocarbons (e.g., methane and/or methane-bearing fluids) and a metal-rich hydrothermal fluid is responsible for ore precipitation and the formation of the unusual ore textures and assemblages. Thermodynamic and isotope mixing calculations show that the textural, chemical, and isotopic features of the investigated deposits can entirely be explained by this mechanism.

  8. Veining Failure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighani, S.; Sondergeld, C. H.; Rai, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    During the hydraulic fracturing, the pressurized fluid creates new fractures and reactivates existing natural fractures forming a highly conductive Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) around the borehole. We extend the previous work on Lyons sandstone and pyrophyllite to anisotropic shale from the Wolfcamp formation. We divide the rock anisotropy into two groups: a) conventional and b) unconventional (shaly) anisotropy. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), compressional velocity anisotropy, and SEM analysis are used to identify three causes of anisotropy: bedding planes, clay lamination, and calcite veins. Calcite vein is a subsequently filled with calcite bonded weakly to the matrix. Velocity anisotropy and visual observations demonstrate the calcite filled veins to be mostly subparallel to the fabric direction. Brazilian tests are carried out to observe the fracture initiation and propagation under tension. High speed photography (frame rate 300,000 frame/sec) was used to capture the failure. Strain gauges and Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors recorded the deformation leading up to and during failure. SEM imaging and surface profilometry were employed to study the post-failure fracture system and failed surface topology. Fracture permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Brazilian tests on small disks containing a centered single vein revealed the shear strength of the veins. We interpret the strain data and number, frequency, and amplitude of AE events which are correlated well with the observed fracture process zone, surface roughness, and permeability. The unpropped fracture has enhanced permeability by two orders of magnitude. The observed anisotropic tensile failure seems to have a universal trend with a minimum strength occurring at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis. The veins at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis were easily activated at 30% of the original failure load. The measured strength of the vein is as low as 6

  9. Animal Model of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an animal model of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Methods: In part I of the study nine juvenile domestic pigs were used. Each external iliac vein was transluminally occluded with a balloon catheter. Thrombin was infused through a microcatheter in one leg according to one of the following protocols: (1) intraarterial (IA): 1250 U at 25 U/min in the common femoral artery (n= 3); (2) intravenous (IV): 5000 U in the popliteal vein at 500 U/min (n= 3), or at 100 U/min (n= 3). Saline was administered in the opposite leg. After the animals were killed, the mass of thrombus in the iliofemoral veins was measured. The pudendoepiploic (PEV), profunda femoris (PF), and popliteal veins (PV) were examined. Thrombosis in the tributaries of the superficial femoral vein (SFVt) was graded according to a three-point scale (0, +, ++). In part II of the study IV administration was further investigated in nine pigs using the following three regimens with 1000 U at 25 U/min serving as the control: (1) 1000 U at 100 U/min, (2) 250 U at 25 U/min, (3) 250 U at 6.25 U/min. Results: All animals survived. In part I median thrombus mass in the test limbs was 1.40 g as compared with 0.25 g in the controls (p= 0.01). PEV, PFV and PV were thrombosed in all limbs infused with thrombin. IV infusion was more effective in inducing thrombosis in both the parent veins (mass 1.32-1.78 g) and SVFt (++ in 4 of 6 legs), as compared with IA infusion (mass 0.0-1.16 g; SFVt ++ in 1 of 3 legs). In part II thrombus mass in axial veins ranged from 1.23 to 2.86 g, and showed no relationship with the dose of thrombin or the rate of infusion. Tributary thrombosis was less extensive with 250 U at 25 U/min than with the other regimens. Conclusion: Slow distal intravenous thrombin infusion in the hind legs of pigs combined with proximal venous occlusion induces thrombosis in the leg veins that closely resembles clinical DVT in distribution

  10. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren;

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  11. The anatomy of the cardiac veins in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, Bogdan; Skubiszewska, Daria; Ratajska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Although the cardiac coronary system in mice has been the studied in detail by many research laboratories, knowledge of the cardiac veins remains poor. This is because of the difficulty in marking the venous system with a technique that would allow visualization of these large vessels with thin walls. Here we present the visualization of the coronary venous system by perfusion of latex dye through the right caudal vein. Latex injected intravenously does not penetrate into the capillary system. Murine cardiac veins consist of several principal branches (with large diameters), the distal parts of which are located in the subepicardium. We have described the major branches of the left atrial veins, the vein of the left ventricle, the caudal veins, the vein of the right ventricle and the conal veins forming the conal venous circle or the prepulmonary conal venous arch running around the conus of the right ventricle. The venous system of the heart drains the blood to the coronary sinus (the left cranial caval vein) to the right atrium or to the right cranial caval vein. Systemic veins such as the left cranial caval, the right cranial caval and the caudal vein open to the right atrium. Knowledge of cardiac vein location may help to elucidate abnormal vein patterns in certain genetic malformations. PMID:17553104

  12. Retinal vein occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odarosa M Uhumwangho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is the most common occlusive retinal vascular disorder and results in varying degrees of visual loss. Aim: To determine the pattern of presentation, risk factors, and treatment outcomes in a group of patients with RVO seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients who presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria in whom a diagnosis of RVO was made over a 5 years period were reviewed. Data obtained were analyzed with the GraphPad Instat Software, Inc. version V2.05a program, San Diego, Califonia and a P < 0.05 considered significant. Results: There were 20 patients made of 14 (70.0% males and 6 (30.0% females with a mean age of 62.7 ± 10.4 years. There were 15 (68.2% eyes with central RVO, 3 (13.6% eyes with branch RVO, and 4 (18.2% eyes with hemi RVO. Bilateral involvement occurred in 2 (10.0% patients. Risk factors included hypertension 14 (70.0%, diabetes mellitus 9 (45.0%, and glaucoma 5 (22.7%. Multiple risk factors were present in 14 (70.0% patients. Complications included macula edema 15 (68.2%, retinal neovascularization 5 (22.7%, neovascular glaucoma 3 (13.6%, and vitreous hemorrhage 2 (9.1%. Eyes which had definitive treatment with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factors and laser photocoagulation for macula edema and retinal neovascularization, respectively, had better visual acuity compared to eyes which did not receive these treatment, P = 0.002. Conclusion: The incidence and visual loss that occurs from RVO can be reduced by modifying known risk factors and early institution of appropriate therapy for complications that occur.

  13. Endovenous laser ablation for varicose veins: towards a personalized energy dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varetto G

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gianfranco Varetto,1 Caterina Guiot,2 Matteo Destro,1 Claudio Castagno,1 Luigi Contessa,1 Stefano Zan,1 Paolo Garneri,1 Pietro Rispoli11Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, 2Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin, Turin, ItalyBackground: Endovenous laser ablation is a minimally invasive procedure in the treatment of great saphenous vein insufficiency. Procedural criteria (energy delivered according to the selected fluence could affect outcome after treatment, potentially improving the success rate and reducing complications. However, the optimal values of the required energy per unit volume are not known, but on the basis of clinical experience, a range of optimal speed of retraction of the laser fiber catheter should exist and strictly depend on the actual vein dimensions.Methods: The study population included 21 patients. The equipment was a Diomed 30W® laser, wavelength 810 nm. Before treatment, three segments of the great saphenous vein were mapped and their diameter measured and recorded. The energy delivered to each segment was recorded as well as its relationship with vein diameter being evaluated for each vein segment.Results: A 100% success rate was observed at 12-month follow-up assessment, the discomfort complaint 1 week after endovenous laser ablation by 19% of patients was always low (2 or 3 on a scale of pain of 10. On the basis of the actual result, which greatly improves our previous clinical experience, a range of effective values of speed of retraction of the laser fiber catheter (and of the energy per unit volume is assessed, which strictly depends on the diameter of each segment of the vein.Conclusion: The speed of retraction of the laser fiber catheter should be properly tailored, in order to deliver the right energy dose depending on the actual vein diameter. A real-time procedure can be easily performed using a simple mathematical nomogram.Keywords: EVLA, great saphenous vein, fluence

  14. Extracellular matrix remodelling in response to venous hypertension: proteomics of human varicose veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barallobre-Barreiro, Javier; Oklu, Rahmi; Lynch, Marc; Fava, Marika; Baig, Ferheen; Yin, Xiaoke; Barwari, Temo; Potier, David N.; Albadawi, Hassan; Jahangiri, Marjan; Porter, Karen E.; Watkins, Michael T.; Misra, Sanjay; Stoughton, Julianne; Mayr, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Aims Extracellular matrix remodelling has been implicated in a number of vascular conditions, including venous hypertension and varicose veins. However, to date, no systematic analysis of matrix remodelling in human veins has been performed. Methods and results To understand the consequences of venous hypertension, normal and varicose veins were evaluated using proteomics approaches targeting the extracellular matrix. Varicose saphenous veins removed during phlebectomy and normal saphenous veins obtained during coronary artery bypass surgery were collected for proteomics analysis. Extracellular matrix proteins were enriched from venous tissues. The proteomics analysis revealed the presence of >150 extracellular matrix proteins, of which 48 had not been previously detected in venous tissue. Extracellular matrix remodelling in varicose veins was characterized by a loss of aggrecan and several small leucine-rich proteoglycans and a compensatory increase in collagen I and laminins. Gene expression analysis of the same tissues suggested that the remodelling process associated with venous hypertension predominantly occurs at the protein rather than the transcript level. The loss of aggrecan in varicose veins was paralleled by a reduced expression of aggrecanases. Chymase and tryptase β1 were among the up-regulated proteases. The effect of these serine proteases on the venous extracellular matrix was further explored by incubating normal saphenous veins with recombinant enzymes. Proteomics analysis revealed extensive extracellular matrix degradation after digestion with tryptase β1. In comparison, chymase was less potent and degraded predominantly basement membrane-associated proteins. Conclusion The present proteomics study provides unprecedented insights into the expression and degradation of structural and regulatory components of the vascular extracellular matrix in varicosis. PMID:27068509

  15. Lead isotopic evidence on the origin of hydrothermal veins, Lake City, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, R.F.; Ludwig, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The 23-m.y. Lake City caldera (LCC) and enclosing 29-m.y. Uncompahgre caldera (UC) and associated Eureka graben (EG) are host to Ag-Pb-Zn epithermal veins. Lead isotopic data on 32 new galena samples and 12 previously measured galenas from these areas show that 206Pb/204Pb values for veins within the LCC are sharply lower than for veins outside the LCC. Thus, fluids that formed the two sets of veins derived their Pb from distinctly different sources. Veins in the UC-EG typically have 206Pb/204Pb values in the range 18.6-19.0, but four small areas around the LCC have higher values (up to 19.6). These hot spots, which include the two largest and most productive veins, may represent locally deeper circulation of fluids or locally shallower Precambrian basement. There are no systematic differences among the different areas in the UC-EG. Instead, the largest variations are within areas or districts. Likewise, the Pb isotopic values from different paragenetic assemblages are not distinctly different but show considerable overlap. Many 207Pb/204Pb values are higher relative to their 206Pb/204Pb than those from veins else wherein the San Juan Mountains and are also higher than these values in likely source rocks, which suggests that source rocks having higher 207Pb/206Pb values than are currently known in this area exist at depth. Thorogenic Pb (208Pb/204Pb) values are closely correlated positively with 206Pb/204Pb values and indicate a source that is relatively homogeneous with respect to its Th/U ratio. Thus, the data suggest at least two major hydrothermal systems corresponding to veins in the UC-EG and LCC, respectively. Local differences in source rocks, fluid circulation, and perhaps heat flow, contributed to locally different Pb signatures in closely spaced but separate hydrothermal cells within these areas.

  16. Ultrasound of the Fetal Veins Part 3: The Fetal Intracerebral Venous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, K; Heling, K S; Chaoui, R

    2016-02-01

    The study of the intracerebral venous system in the fetus can only be achieved by means of high-resolution ultrasound equipment with sensitive color Doppler. In the past two decades, there has been a growing interest in the ultrasound examination of the fetal brain with few studies reporting on the brain vasculature during various stages of gestation. In comparison to other fetal venous systems, reports on the assessment of the fetal cerebral venous system are still scarce. This article presents a review on the fetal intracranial venous system with detailed discussions on the anatomy of the superficial and deep cerebral veins. Color Doppler of the main fetal cerebral veins to include the superior sagittal sinus, the straight sinus, the vein of Galen, the internal cerebral veins, the transverse sinuses and others is also discussed. Furthermore, this article highlights abnormal clinical conditions such as aneurysm of the vein of Galen, thrombosis of the dural sinus and variation in the course of some veins such as the straight sinus and falcine sinus. The role of pulsed Doppler examination in normal and growth-restricted fetuses is also discussed. PMID:26114342

  17. Microwave ablation versus laser ablation in occluding lateral veins in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-hong; Wang, Xiao-ping; Su, Wen-juan; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Increasing number of endovenous techniques are available for the treatment of saphenous vein reflux and endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) is a frequently used method. A newly developed alternative, based on thermal therapy, is endovenous microwave ablation (EMA). This study evaluated the effect of the two procedures, in terms of coagulation and histological changes, in occluding lateral veins in goats. Twelve animals were randomized into two group, with 6 treated with EMA (EMA group), and the rest 6 with EVLA (EVLA group). Results of coagulation, including coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet activation, were assessed at three or four different time points: before, immediately after, 24 h (and 48 h) after ablation. The diameter change, a measure of efficacy, was ultrasonographically measured before and 1 month after the ablation. Histological changes were grossly and microscopically evaluated immediately, 1 and 3 month(s) after the ablation. The length of the ablated vein and preoperative average diameter were comparable between the two groups. In both EMA and EVLA groups, several coagulation parameters, fibrinolysis and platelet activation parameters only underwent slight changes. Ultrasound imaging displayed that the diameter reduction of the veins treated by EMA was significantly larger than by EVLA, in consistent with the results of macroscopic examination. Microscopic examination revealed necrosis and thickening of the vein wall, and occlusion of the lumen within 3 months after ablation in both EMA and EVLA groups. It is concluded that EMA is a minimally invasive therapy, which appears to be safe and effective for treatment of lateral veins in goats. PMID:26838749

  18. Interobserver Variability in Target Definition for Hepatocellular Carcinoma With and Without Portal Vein Thrombus: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Defining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gross tumor volume (GTV) requires multimodal imaging, acquired in different perfusion phases. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the variability in contouring and to establish guidelines and educational recommendations for reproducible HCC contouring for treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Anonymous, multiphasic planning computed tomography scans obtained from 3 patients with HCC were identified and distributed to a panel of 11 gastrointestinal radiation oncologists. Panelists were asked the number of HCC cases they treated in the past year. Case 1 had no vascular involvement, case 2 had extensive portal vein involvement, and case 3 had minor branched portal vein involvement. The agreement between the contoured total GTVs (primary + vascular GTV) was assessed using the generalized kappa statistic. Agreement interpretation was evaluated using Landis and Koch's interpretation of strength of agreement. The S95 contour, defined using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm consensus at the 95% confidence level, was created for each case. Results: Of the 11 panelists, 3 had treated >25 cases in the past year, 2 had treated 10 to 25 cases, 2 had treated 5 to 10 cases, 2 had treated 1 to 5 cases, 1 had treated 0 cases, and 1 did not respond. Near perfect agreement was seen for case 1, and substantial agreement was seen for cases 2 and 3. For case 2, there was significant heterogeneity in the volume identified as tumor thrombus (range 0.58-40.45 cc). For case 3, 2 panelists did not include the branched portal vein thrombus, and 7 panelists contoured thrombus separately from the primary tumor, also showing significant heterogeneity in volume of tumor thrombus (range 4.52-34.27 cc). Conclusions: In a group of experts, excellent agreement was seen in contouring total GTV. Heterogeneity exists in the definition of portal vein thrombus that may impact treatment

  19. Interobserver Variability in Target Definition for Hepatocellular Carcinoma With and Without Portal Vein Thrombus: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Theodore S., E-mail: tshong1@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kim, Tae K. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Mount Sinai Hospital and Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shyn, Paul [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Seong, Jinsil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Haddock, Michael G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Cheng, Jason C. [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Feng, Mary U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Roberge, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal General Hospital/McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Crane, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); and others

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Defining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gross tumor volume (GTV) requires multimodal imaging, acquired in different perfusion phases. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the variability in contouring and to establish guidelines and educational recommendations for reproducible HCC contouring for treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Anonymous, multiphasic planning computed tomography scans obtained from 3 patients with HCC were identified and distributed to a panel of 11 gastrointestinal radiation oncologists. Panelists were asked the number of HCC cases they treated in the past year. Case 1 had no vascular involvement, case 2 had extensive portal vein involvement, and case 3 had minor branched portal vein involvement. The agreement between the contoured total GTVs (primary + vascular GTV) was assessed using the generalized kappa statistic. Agreement interpretation was evaluated using Landis and Koch's interpretation of strength of agreement. The S95 contour, defined using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm consensus at the 95% confidence level, was created for each case. Results: Of the 11 panelists, 3 had treated >25 cases in the past year, 2 had treated 10 to 25 cases, 2 had treated 5 to 10 cases, 2 had treated 1 to 5 cases, 1 had treated 0 cases, and 1 did not respond. Near perfect agreement was seen for case 1, and substantial agreement was seen for cases 2 and 3. For case 2, there was significant heterogeneity in the volume identified as tumor thrombus (range 0.58-40.45 cc). For case 3, 2 panelists did not include the branched portal vein thrombus, and 7 panelists contoured thrombus separately from the primary tumor, also showing significant heterogeneity in volume of tumor thrombus (range 4.52-34.27 cc). Conclusions: In a group of experts, excellent agreement was seen in contouring total GTV. Heterogeneity exists in the definition of portal vein thrombus that may impact treatment

  20. Duplicated Ižnternal Juguler Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kirbas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available    Duplicated internal juguler vein (DIJV is a rare anomaly and reported incidence is 0.4 % in the literature. A 45-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital because of non pulsatile neck swelling. The magnetic resonance image (MRI showed left IJVs divided at the angles of the mandible running anterior to the common carotid artery until anterior mediastinal level. Clinicians should be aware of the rare possibility of duplicated IJVs in patients presenting with neck swelling. The development of imaging technics have revealed more cases of duplicated internal juguler vein.

  1. Vein morphology, host rock deformation and the origin of the fabrics of echelon mineral veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, R.

    A system of sigmoidal echelon veins from a sample of sandstone from the Upper Carboniferous Culm sequence of southwest England is described. Veins are separated from one another by strips of sandstone, and divided internally by thin seams with crack—seal fabrics. The latter extend as thin veins into the sandstone host rock without change of fabric. Seams appear to be merely parts of crack—seal veins formed in a first phase of deposition in only minutely opened fractures. This phase ended as rates of fracture opening greatly increased. To allow for this widespread opening host rock between dilatating fractures (sandstone strips and seams) had to be deformed. This deformation was limited, however, to rotation, bending and fracture. Shear displacement was a function of dilatation, not zone-parallel ductile shear strain. The textures of the quartz and carbonate aggregates filling the sigmoidal veins show that second-phase crystallization took place into cavities opening more rapidly than growth was able to fill them. Growth for the greater part took place from fibres in seams and not off vein walls of the sandstone host rock. Coarsest aggregates fill the arcs of folds in seams, where rates of vein opening might be expected to have been highest and the scope for competitive cavity growth greatest.

  2. The Use Of The VEINES-QOL/Sym Questionnaire In Patients Operated For Varicose Veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migdalski Łukasz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Venous insufficiency is a common, chronic disease that affects nearly half of the population in highly developed countries. The vast majority of affected patients suffer from varicose veins (VV. Recently, the priority in medicine has been patient satisfaction with treatment and high quality of life. Therefore, disease-specific questionnaires that measure quality of life have been developed. One of these is VEINES-QOL/Sym with two subscales that assess quality of life and disease symptoms. To date, it has been used to examine patients with venous ulcers and thrombosis. No data are available concerning the use of VEINES to assess patients after VV surgery.

  3. Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvet, Alain; Bailly, Laurent; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Monié, Patrick; Cassard, Daniel; Llosa Tajada, Fernando; Rosas Vargas, Juan; Tuduri, Johann

    2006-01-01

    The epithermal Shila-Paula Au–Ag district is characterized by numerous veins hosted in Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Western Cordillera (southern Peru). Field studies of the ore bodies reveal a systematic association of a main E–W vein with secondary N55–60°W veins—two directions that are also reflected by the orientation of fluid-inclusion planes in quartz crystals of the host rock. In areas where this pattern is not recognized, such as the Apacheta sector, vein emplacement seems to have be...

  4. Treatment of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula by deep orbital puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a patient with progressive ophthalmological problems, including uncontrolled intraocular pressure related to a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula, urgent intervention may be necessary to prevent permanent visual loss. We report a case in which inadequate transarterial embolisation and lack of access for transvenous catheterisation, including a direct approach through the superior ophthalmic vein, preceded percutaneous puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein deep within the orbit, permitting venous occlusion without complications. This case demonstrates that deep orbital puncture of the vein is feasible for occlusion of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula. (orig.)

  5. Oversized vein grafts develop advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thim Troels

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main cause of late aortocoronary vein graft failure. We aimed to develop a large animal model for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of vein graft atherosclerosis. Methods An autologous reversed jugular vein graft was inserted end-to-end into the transected common carotid artery of ten hypercholesteroemic minipigs. The vein grafts were investigated 12-14 weeks later with ultrasound and angiograpy in vivo and microscopy post mortem. Results One minipig died during follow up (patent vein graft at autopsy, and one vein graft thrombosed early. In the remaining eight patent vein grafts, the mean (standard deviation intima-media thickness was 712 μm (276 μm versus 204 μm (74 μm in the contralateral control internal jugular veins (P diameter of artery. No plaques were found in four non-oversized vein grafts (P Conclusions Our model of jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic minipigs displayed the components of human vein graft disease, i.e. thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis. Advanced atherosclerosis, the main cause of late failure of human aortocoronary vein grafts was only seen in oversized grafts. This finding suggests that oversized vein grafts may have detrimental effects on patient outcome.

  6. An unusual case: right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein and distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Serin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 32-years old woman presented to the emergency room of Bozok University Research Hospital with right renal colic. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT showed compression of the proximal ureter by the right ovarian vein and compression of the right distal ureter by the right external iliac vein. To the best of our knowledge, right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein together with distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein have not been reported in the literature. Ovarian vein and external iliac vein compression should be considered in patients presenting to the emergency room with renal colic or low back pain and a dilated collecting system.

  7. Quantum Computation and Algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now firmly established that quantum algorithms provide a substantial speedup over classical algorithms for a variety of problems, including the factorization of large numbers and the search for a marked element in an unsorted database. In this talk I will review the principles of quantum algorithms, the basic quantum gates and their operation. The combination of superposition and interference, that makes these algorithms efficient, will be discussed. In particular, Grover's search algorithm will be presented as an example. I will show that the time evolution of the amplitudes in Grover's algorithm can be found exactly using recursion equations, for any initial amplitude distribution

  8. Left renal vein compression syndrome ("nutcracker phenomenon").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassen, C M; Weil, E H; Janevski, B K

    1989-06-01

    Four cases are presented with clinical diagnosis of scrotal varicocele on the left side, and one case with ureter varices and left-sided haematuria as a result of compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), also known as "nutcracker phenomenon". The clinical signs and the radiological diagnostic methods of the condition are discussed. PMID:2544950

  9. Left renal vein compression syndrome ('nutcracker phenomenon')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cases are presented with clinical diagnosis of scrotal varicocele on the left side, and one case with ureter varices and left-sided haematuria as a result of compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), also known as 'nutcracker phenomenon'. The clinical signs and the radiological diagnostic methods of the condition are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Durra; Ashok Chacko; Biju George; Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph; Sukesh Chandran Nair; Vikram Mathews

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied.The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis) and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins) based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS,and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28%) had hereditary and 10 patients (28%) acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS:45% vs 7%,x2=5.7,P=0.02) while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25%vs 36%, x2=0.46,P=0.7). Multiple risk factors were present in one (7%) patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15%) with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

  11. Complete guidewire retention after femoral vein catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat, Bahar Gulcay; Guler, Sertac; Soyuduru, Murat; Guven, Ibrahim; Ramadan, Hayri

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are often used for various purposes in the emergency departments (ED). The main uses of CVCs in the EDs are emergent hemodialysis, in situations where peripheral vein catheterization cannot be achieved, and continuous invasive hemodynamic monitoring. The complications related to CVC insertion are usually mechanical and observed in the near term after the procedure. Retained CVC guidewire after catheterization is a rare complication in the published reports and usually related with intra- or postoperative settings and jugular or subclavian vein. The present study reported a young female patient who underwent left femoral vein catheterization 6 months earlier in an intensive care unit of another hospital and was diagnosed with complete guidewire retention in the ED. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case in published reports with a diagnosis of retained CVC guidewire with retrograde migration into the femoral vein. Surprisingly, the patient developed no thrombotic or embolic complication during this 6-month period. PMID:26657235

  12. Leaf Vein Length per Unit Area Is Not Intrinsically Dependent on Image Magnification: Avoiding Measurement Artifacts for Accuracy and Precision1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Lawren; Caringella, Marissa; Scoffoni, Christine; Mason, Chase; Rawls, Michael; Markesteijn, Lars; Poorter, Lourens

    2014-01-01

    Leaf vein length per unit leaf area (VLA; also known as vein density) is an important determinant of water and sugar transport, photosynthetic function, and biomechanical support. A range of software methods are in use to visualize and measure vein systems in cleared leaf images; typically, users locate veins by digital tracing, but recent articles introduced software by which users can locate veins using thresholding (i.e. based on the contrasting of veins in the image). Based on the use of this method, a recent study argued against the existence of a fixed VLA value for a given leaf, proposing instead that VLA increases with the magnification of the image due to intrinsic properties of the vein system, and recommended that future measurements use a common, low image magnification for measurements. We tested these claims with new measurements using the software LEAFGUI in comparison with digital tracing using ImageJ software. We found that the apparent increase of VLA with magnification was an artifact of (1) using low-quality and low-magnification images and (2) errors in the algorithms of LEAFGUI. Given the use of images of sufficient magnification and quality, and analysis with error-free software, the VLA can be measured precisely and accurately. These findings point to important principles for improving the quantity and quality of important information gathered from leaf vein systems. PMID:25096977

  13. Who Is at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis? Explore Deep Vein Thrombosis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  14. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis? Explore Deep Vein Thrombosis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  15. Levoatriocardinal vein with normal intracardiac anatomy and pulmonary venous return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Odemis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Levoatriocardinal vein (LACV is characterized by an abnormal connection between pulmonary and systemic venous return. This extremely rare cardiac malformation is usually associated with left-sided obstructive lesions including mitral atresia, hypoplastic left-heart syndrome, and abnormal pulmonary venous connection. Patients may have low systemic cardiac output and pulmonary venous obstruction symptoms. In this manuscript, we report a case with LACV and normal pulmonary venous return with absence of any intracardiac pathology. LACV was demonstrated with echocardiography, angiography, and computed tomography. Surgical correction was made successfully.

  16. Levoatriocardinal vein with normal intracardiac anatomy and pulmonary venous return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levoatriocardinal vein (LACV) is characterized by an abnormal connection between pulmonary and systemic venous return. This extremely rare cardiac malformation is usually associated with left-sided obstructive lesions including mitral atresia, hypoplastic left-heart syndrome, and abnormal pulmonary venous connection. Patients may have low systemic cardiac output and pulmonary venous obstruction symptoms. In this manuscript, we report a case with LACV and normal pulmonary venous return with absence of any intracardiac pathology. LACV was demonstrated with echocardiography, angiography, and computed tomography. Surgical correction was made successfully

  17. Vein thromboembolism prevention in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Having in mind the rate of occurrence and clinical importance, venous thromboembolism implies venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism as a result of embolisation of the thrombotic particles from deep veins or pelvic veins. Venous thrombosis of the deep veins may result in chronic vein insufficiency, but the primary medical problem is the possibility of development of pulmonary embolism which may cause permanent respiratory function damage or even fatal outcome. Venous thromboembolism prevention in stroke The high incidence of deep vein thrombosis (30% clinically and up to 50% subclinically in acute stroke hemiparetic and bed ridden patients within two weeks from the onset and 1-2% pulmonary embolism with the fatal outcome in the first month clinically and 17% of all fatal outcomes in postmortem investigations present a necessity for the early venous thromboembolism prevention. On the other hand, the most powerful prevention strategy - anticoagulation has important limitations in acute stroke patients: almost impossible to be used in cerebral haemorrhage and a great risk for the development of hemorrhagic transformation in cerebral infarction. The fact that other prevention strategies have limited value requires an estimation of efectivity-risk ratio in venous thromboembolism prevention in stroke. Conclusion Venous thromboembolism prevention in stroke patients is necessary because of a greater risk for venous thromboembolism in these patients according to the nature of illness and functional disability, but also a problem because of limited possibility to recommend the proper medicament according to the risk of serious complications. The necessity of preventing venous thromboembolism and estimation of efficiency-risk ratio in stroke patients, beside plenty of studies and consensus conferences, remain individual and often very difficult.

  18. Two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cen H; He X

    2013-01-01

    Hanghui Cen, Xiaojie HeDepartment of Burn, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Here we present two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in burn patients, with diagnosis, risk factor analysis, and treatment approaches. Severely burned patients have high risk of deep vein thrombosis occurrence due to multiple surgeries. The deep vein catheter should be carefully performed. Once deep vein thrombosis is detected, a w...

  19. Competing Sudakov Veto Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiss, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    We present a way to analyze the distribution produced by a Monte Carlo algorithm. We perform these analyses on several versions of the Sudakov veto algorithm, adding a cutoff, a second variable and competition between emission channels. The analysis allows us to prove that multiple, seemingly different competition algorithms, including those that are currently implemented in most parton showers, lead to the same result. Finally, we test their performance and show that there are significantly faster alternatives to the commonly used algorithms.

  20. Approximate iterative algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Almudevar, Anthony Louis

    2014-01-01

    Iterative algorithms often rely on approximate evaluation techniques, which may include statistical estimation, computer simulation or functional approximation. This volume presents methods for the study of approximate iterative algorithms, providing tools for the derivation of error bounds and convergence rates, and for the optimal design of such algorithms. Techniques of functional analysis are used to derive analytical relationships between approximation methods and convergence properties for general classes of algorithms. This work provides the necessary background in functional analysis a

  1. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  2. Portal Vein Thrombosis After Laparoscopic Splenectomy: An Ongoing Clinical Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Douglas N.; Padidar, Arash M.; Kee, Stephen T.; Krummel, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) following open splenectomy is a potentially lethal complication with an incidence of up to 6%. The objective of this report is to describe our management of a recent laparoscopic case, discuss current therapies, and consider antiplatelet therapy for prophylaxis. Methods: Medical records, laboratory studies, and imaging studies pertaining to a recent case of a laparoscopic splenectomy were examined. Current literature related to this topic was reviewed. Results: A 16-year-old girl underwent laparoscopic splenectomy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Her preoperative platelet count was 96K. She was discharged on postoperative day 1 after an uneventful operation including division of the splenic hilum with an endoscopic linear stapler. On postoperative day 20, she presented with a 5-day history of epigastric pain, nausea, and low-grade fevers without peritoneal signs. Her white blood cell count was 17.3; her platelets were 476K. Computed tomography demonstrated thrombosis of the splenic, superior mesenteric, and portal veins propagating into the liver. Heparinization was begun followed by an unsuccessful attempt at pharmacologic and mechanical thrombolysis by interventional radiology. Over the next 5 days, her pain resolved, she tolerated a full diet, was converted to oral anticoagulation and sent home. Follow-up radiographic studies demonstrated the development of venous collaterals and cavernous transformation of the portal vein. Discussion: No standard therapy for PVT exists; several approaches have been described. These include systemic anticoagulation, systemic or regional medical thrombolysis, mechanical thrombolysis, and surgical thrombectomy. Unanswered questions exist about the most effective acute therapy, duration of anticoagulation, and the potential efficacy of routine prophylaxis with perioperative antiplatelet agents. PVT following splenectomy occurs with both the open and laparoscopic approach. PMID

  3. OUR EXPERIENCE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF VARICOSE VEINS OF THE LOWER LIMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Varicose veins of the lower limb are a common problem .It is known as the ‘penalty against gravity’. The prevalence has been variously reported from as little as 2% to over 20% in population studies. This enormous variation results from the different populations studied, different definitions applied and the different assessment or examination techniques used. Western studies have shown that 20% population suffers from varicose vein and 1% has skin changes proceeding to venous ulceration. In India incidence of varicose veins seems to be far less common because in India most patients present late with complications of varicose veins such as pain, edema, pigmentation and ulceration. We present our experience in the management of varicose veins of the lower limb over 2 years at our institution. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the incidence of varicose veins according to age, sex and occupation.2.To study spectrum of clinical presentation in varicose veins. 3. To study effect of surgery in healing of varicose ulcers if present. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 patients admitted to our institution between 2010 and 2012 were included in this study. It is found that varicose veins and their associated symptoms and complications constitute the most common chronic vascular disorders leading to surgical treatment. The incidence is on rise. It is more common in middle-aged group. The majority of the patients were males in the study. Patients presented with spectrum of symptoms and signs, with pain being more common presenting symptom with or without venous ulcer. The study revealed increased incidence of varicosity in the left lower limb as compared to the right lower limb. Most of the patients presented to the hospital for one of the other complications, not for the cosmetic purpose. Long saphenous system is the most common venous system affected. CONCLUSION: Operative line of treatment is the primary procedure in the management of varicose veins

  4. Radiofrequency Ablation Mapping with Circumferential Catheter for Paroxys-mal Atrial Fibrillation Originating From the Pulmonary Veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震; 吴书林; 杨平珍; 方咸宏; 李海杰; 陈泗林; 詹贤章; 薛玉梅

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To assessed thefeasibility and effectiveness of electrophysiologicalmapping of pulmonary veins with a circumferential 10-electrode catheter and radiofrequency catheter abla-tion therapy for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibril-lation. Background Standard mapping and ablationof focal sources of atrial fibrillation are associated withvery long procedure times and low efficacy. Mappingand ablation pulmonary veins guide with a circularcatheter could overcome these limitations. Methods16 patients [male 11, female 5, mean age (51 +14.5) years] with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation refrac-tory to antiarrhythmic drugs were included in thisgroup. A circumferential 10-electrode catheter wasused to pulmonary vein mapping during sinus rhythm orCSd pacing to determine the origin of atrial prematurecontractions. When the ablative target pulmonary veinwas found, the pulmonary vein potentials' distributionand activation were assessment pulmonary veins' ostialablation was performed at the segments showing earliestactivation of pulnonary vein potentials. The end pointwas designed: 1 ) elimination of pulmonary vein po-tential; 2) pulmonary vein potential dissociation fromatrial waves; 3) atrial ectopic beats disappear. ResultsA total of 36 pulmonary veins were ablated, in-cluding 16 left superior, 12 right superior, 7 left in-ferior and 1 right inferior. 1 pulmonary vein in 2 pa-tients was ablated, 2 pulmonary veins in 8 patientswere ablated, 3 pulmonary veins were ablated in 5patients and 4 pulmonary veins were ablated in 1 pa-tient. Procedure duration and fluoroscopy time respec-tively were 186.7 _+ 63.8 min and 51.5 + 15.0 min.During the follow-up 1- 12 months, 11 patients(68.7 % ) were free of AF without any antiarrhythmicdrugs, 2 of them were reablation, effective in 3/16(18.7%) and unsuccessful in 2/16 (12.6%) . 2cases recurred with atrial premature, 1 was treated withamiodarone and the other was repeat electrophysiologi-cal mapping and ablation, 5 cases with

  5. Biometric analysis of the palm vein distribution by means two different techniques of feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Solís-Villarreal, J.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Castro-Ramos, J.

    2014-09-01

    Vein patterns can be used for accessing, identifying, and authenticating purposes; which are more reliable than classical identification way. Furthermore, these patterns can be used for venipuncture in health fields to get on to veins of patients when they cannot be seen with the naked eye. In this paper, an image acquisition system is implemented in order to acquire digital images of people hands in the near infrared. The image acquisition system consists of a CCD camera and a light source with peak emission in the 880 nm. This radiation can penetrate and can be strongly absorbed by the desoxyhemoglobin that is presented in the blood of the veins. Our method of analysis is composed by several steps and the first one of all is the enhancement of acquired images which is implemented by spatial filters. After that, adaptive thresholding and mathematical morphology operations are used in order to obtain the distribution of vein patterns. The above process is focused on the people recognition through of images of their palm-dorsal distributions obtained from the near infrared light. This work has been directed for doing a comparison of two different techniques of feature extraction as moments and veincode. The classification task is achieved using Artificial Neural Networks. Two databases are used for the analysis of the performance of the algorithms. The first database used here is owned of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the second one is our own database.

  6. Elementary and isotopic geochemistry of vein goethite in laterite-gossanic crusts from the Igarape Bahia gold mine (Carajas, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lateritic crusts of the gold mine from the Igarape Bahia, in Carajas, situated at Para state, Brazil, present themselves frequently sectioned by the goethite sub-vertical veins. The veins have the following measures: until 10 cm of thickness and more than 6 m of length. This work aims to characterize the textural, mineralogical and chemical aspects of these veins, in order to understand its evolution, mainly the relation with the laterites and its geological importance, including the aspects referents to the mineral prospecting. (author)

  7. Evolutionary algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Szöllösi, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this work deals with the optimization and evolutionary algorithms which are used as a tool to solve complex optimization problems. The discussed algorithms are Differential Evolution, Genetic Algorithm, Simulated Annealing and deterministic non-evolutionary algorithm Taboo Search.. Consequently the discussion is held on the issue of testing the optimization algorithms through the use of the test function gallery and comparison solution all algorithms on Travelling salesman p...

  8. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlin Tang

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The lessons we learned are (1 Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2 Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3 Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4 It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival.

  9. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  10. Lower extremity dep vein thrombosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 113 leg venograms performed in patients of all ages between 1969 and 1982, 68 were in children 16 years old or less. The patients were all studied on a tilt table (method of Rabinov and Paulin) in a head-up, 40-500 incline without tourniquets, supporting their weight on the unaffected leg. Among the 68 venograms, 12 (18%) were positive for deep vein thrombosis. The clinical settings for thrombosis in children were post-catheterization (two patients), post surgery (two), tumor/tumor therapy (three), drug abuse (one), and idiopathic (three). There were no long-term clinical sequelae in five patients. Pulmonary infarction occurred in three, and three patients required either long-term anticoagulation or IVC clipping. Clinical diagnosis is no more accurate for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in children than it is in adults. Venography is the best method for making an accurate diagnosis and directing subsequent therapy.(orig.)

  11. Emergency intravenous access through the femoral vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, R S; Uhlig, P N; Gross, P L; McCabe, C J

    1984-04-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of femoral venous catheterization for resuscitation of critically ill patients in the emergency department setting. From May 1982 to April 1983, 100 attempts were made at percutaneous insertion of a large-bore catheter into the femoral veins of patients presenting to our emergency department in cardiac arrest or requiring rapid fluid resuscitation. Eighty-nine attempts were successful. Insertion was generally considered easy, and flow rates were excellent. The only noted complications were four arterial punctures and one minor groin hematoma. This study suggests that short-term percutaneous catheterization of the femoral vein provides rapid, safe, and effective intravenous access. PMID:6703430

  12. Visualization of calf veins by color flow imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmelen, P S; Bedford, G; Strandness, D E

    1990-01-01

    Both indirect and direct noninvasive tests have been shown to be useful for the detection of deep venous thrombi involving the proximal veins (popliteal to inferior vena cava). However, thrombi that are confined to the calf veins will not affect venous outflow and cannot be detected by the plethysmographic methods. B-mode imaging, while excellent for the major deep veins, is also limited in the calf region because the veins are small, and imaging resolution is not always adequate to permit visualization of these smaller veins. With the availability of duplex scanning with "slow flow" color capability, these veins lend themselves to study. In 30 normal subjects, we were able to visualize all paired veins from the level of the ankle to the popliteal fossa. The clinical implications of this approach are discussed. PMID:2181759

  13. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...... at the national referral hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark, from 2009 to 2012. RESULTS: In total, five cases of absent right superior caval vein were reviewed. No significant associated cardiac, extra-cardiac, or genetic anomalies were found. Postnatal echocardiographies confirmed the diagnosis and...

  14. NET impact on deep vein thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Tobias A.; Brill, Alexander; Wagner, Denisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem that requires improved prophylaxis and treatment. Inflammatory conditions such as infection, cancer and autoimmune diseases are risk factors for DVT. We and others have recently shown that extracellular DNA fibers produced in inflammation and known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to experimental DVT. NETs stimulate thrombus formation and coagulation and are abundant in thrombi in animal models of DVT. It appears that, in...

  15. Brucellosis Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tolaj, Ilir; Mehmeti, Murat; Ramadani, Hamdi; Tolaj, Jasmina; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Fejza, Hajrullah

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10 years more than 700 cases of brucellosis have been reported in Kosovo, which is heavily oriented towards agriculture and animal husbandry. Here, brucellosis is still endemic and represents an uncontrolled public health problem. Human brucellosis may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations; among them, vascular complications are uncommon. Hereby we describe the case of a 37-year-old male patient with brucellosis complicated by deep vein thrombosis on his left ...

  16. INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN THROMBOSIS TWO DIFFERENT ETIOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Internal Jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis is a rare entity. It is usually secondary to various etiologies such as catheter, malignancy, trauma, infection and hypercoagulable status. Associated malignancies, either known or occult, are also uncommon and not well documented in the etiology of IJV thrombosis. We reported IJV thrombosis with two different pathologies i.e. malignacy and congestive heart failure. The diagnosis of IJV thrombosis was established with Doppler ultrasound and CT scan. Thes...

  17. Deep vein thrombosis: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, W.P.; Youngswick, F.D.

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a dangerous complication that may present after elective foot surgery. Because of the frequency with which DVT occurs in the elderly patient, as well as in the podiatric surgical population, the podiatrist should be acquainted with this entity. A review of the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and the role of podiatry in the management of DVT is discussed in this paper.

  18. Retinal vein occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uhumwangho, Odarosa M.; Darlingtess Oronsaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the most common occlusive retinal vascular disorder and results in varying degrees of visual loss. Aim: To determine the pattern of presentation, risk factors, and treatment outcomes in a group of patients with RVO seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients who presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria in whom a diagnosis of RVO was made over a 5 years period were revi...

  19. Robust Palm Vein Recognition Using LMKNCN Classification

    OpenAIRE

    M. Senthil Kumar,; Gayathri, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to improve the recognition percentage of palm-vascular-based authentication systems presented in the literature. The proposed method efficiently accommodates the rotational, translational changes and potential deformations by encoding the orientation preserving features. The proposed palm-vein approach is compared with other existing methods and obtained an improved performance in both verification and recognition scenarios. The experimenta...

  20. Endovenous laser therapy for varicose vein

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Mulia; Iwan Dakota; Hananto Andriantoro; Kaligis, R. W. M.; Ismoyo Sunu

    2013-01-01

    Laser has become a useful technology in treating venous incompetence especially superficial venous disease. Introduction of endovenous thermal ablation through endovenous laser therapy helped by duplex ultrasound guidance has provided an alternative for traditional saphenous vein stripping. High success rate, minor complications, and minimally invasive technique provide the advantages over traditional treatment. In this case illustrated, the endovenous laser therapy used for great saphenous v...

  1. Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis following Oropharyngeal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Asli Bostanci; Murat Turhan

    2015-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT) is a rare condition which may lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis and pulmonary embolism. Prolonged central venous catheterization, intravenous (IV) drug use, trauma, and radiotherapy are the most frequent causes of the IJVT. IJVT that develops after the oropharyngeal infection is a quite rare situation today. In this paper, a 37-year-old woman was presented; swelling occurred on her neck after acute tonsillitis and she was diagnosed w...

  2. ABDUCENS NERVE PALSY AND THROMBOSIS OF THE CEREBRAL VEINS AND SINUSES - A DIAGNOSTIC PITFALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J. Tzoukeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses is an infrequent cerebrovascular disorder. Because the highly variable symptoms, recent neuroimaging plays a key role in the diagnosis. Abducens nerve palsy as a focal neurological deficit is a rare clinical manifestation in these patients. We present two cases with sudden onset of diplopia and headache. Case 1: A 3-year old girl with B cell lymphoblastic leukemia developed bilateral abducens deficit and bilateral optic disc edema after treatment including L-asparaginase. Thrombosis of the right jugular vein, sagittal and right sigmoid sinuses was visualized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance venography (MRV. Symptoms gradually resolved after treatment with enoxiparine and MRV demonstrated recanalization.Case 2: A 75-year old female with medical history of arterial hypertension presented with headache and sudden left abduction deficit. Computerized tomography (CT scan was normal. MRI and MRV revealed aging brain and disruption of venous flow at the left internal jugular vein, suspecting thrombosis. Extracranial colour duplex sonography and CT angiography proved haemodinamic equivalent of left internal jugular vein thrombosis due to sclerotic pathology of aortic arch.Our first case illustrates the role of improved neuroimaging techniques as the best method for diagnosis of cerebral veins and sinuses thrombosis, presenting with abducens nerve palsy. With second case the potential neuroimaging pitfalls concerning the accurate diagnosis of these cerebrovascular disorders with neuro-ophthalmologic manifestation are discussed.

  3. Probability of developing proximal deep-vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism after distal deep-vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brateanu, Andrei; Patel, Krishna; Chagin, Kevin; Tunsupon, Pichapong; Yampikulsakul, Pojchawan; Shah, Gautam V; Wangsiricharoen, Sintawat; Amah, Linda; Allen, Joshua; Shapiro, Aryeh; Gupta, Neha; Morgan, Lillie; Kumar, Rahul; Nielsen, Craig; Rothberg, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    Isolated distal deep-vein thrombosis (DDVT) of the lower extremities can be associated with subsequent proximal deep-vein thrombosis (PDVT) and/or acute pulmonary embolism (PE). We aimed to develop a model predicting the probability of developing PDVT and/or PE within three months after an isolated episode of DDVT. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with symptomatic DDVT confirmed by lower extremity vein ultrasounds between 2001-2012 in the Cleveland Clinic Health System. We reviewed all the ultrasounds, chest ventilation/perfusion and computed tomography scans ordered within three months after the initial DDVT to determine the incidence of PDVT and/or PE. A multiple logistic regression model was built to predict the rate of developing these complications. The final model included 450 patients with isolated DDVT. Within three months, 30 (7 %) patients developed an episode of PDVT and/or PE. Only two factors predicted subsequent thromboembolic complications: inpatient status (OR, 6.38; 95 % CI, 2.17 to 18.78) and age (OR, 1.02 per year; 95 % CI, 0.99 to 1.05). The final model had a bootstrap bias-corrected c-statistic of 0.72 with a 95 % CI (0.64 to 0.79). Outpatients were at low risk ( 10 %). Inpatients aged < 60 were at intermediate risk. We created a simple model that can be used to risk stratify patients with isolated DDVT based on inpatient status and age. The model might be used to choose between anticoagulation and monitoring with serial ultrasounds. PMID:26660731

  4. Development of Thrombus in a Systemic Vein after Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimatsu, Rika; Yamagami, Takuji; Tanaka, Osamu; Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Okuda, Kotaro; Hashiba, Mitsuoki [Fukuchiyama City Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the frequency and risk factors for developing thrombus in a systemic vein such as the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the iliac vein, in which a balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) catheter was indwelled. Forty-nine patients who underwent B-RTO for gastric varices were included in this study. The B-RTO procedure was performed from the right femoral vein, and the B-RTO catheter was retained overnight in all patients. Pre- and post-procedural CT scans were retrospectively compared in order to evaluate the development of thrombus in the systemic vein in which the catheter was indwelled. Additionally, several variables were analyzed to assess risk factors for thrombus in a systemic vein. In all 49 patients (100%), B-RTO was technically successful, and in 46 patients (94%), complete thrombosis of the gastric varices was achieved. In 6 patients (12%), thrombus developed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the right common-external iliac vein. All thrombi lay longitudinally on the right side of the inferior vena cava or the right iliac vein. One of the aforementioned 6 patients required anticoagulation therapy. No symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism were observed. Prothrombin time-international normalized ratio and the addition of 5% ethanolamine oleate iopamidol, on the second day, were related to the development of thrombus. Development of a thrombus in a systemic vein such as the inferior vena cava or iliac vein, caused by indwelling of the B-RTO catheter, is relatively frequent. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of pulmonary embolism due to iliocaval thrombosis.

  5. Placement of a Port Catheter Through Collateral Veins in a Patient with Central Venous Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition when required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.

  6. Comparison Between Intravitreal Bevacizumab and Triamcinolone for Macular Edema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Young; Park, Sung Pyo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab to those of triamcinolone acetonide injection for the treatment of macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods This retrospective study included 50 eyes of 50 patients who received a single injection of intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL, 22 eyes) or triamcinolone acetonide (4 mg/0.1 mL, 28 eyes) as the only treatment for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion; all patients had a post-inj...

  7. Proposed Multi-Modal Palm Veins-Face Biometric Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Bahgat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication technology identifies people by their unique biological information. An account holder’s body characteristics or behaviors are registered in a database and then compared with others who may try to access that account to see if the attempt is legitimate. Since veins are internal to the human body, its information is hard to duplicate. Compared with a finger or the back of a hand, a palm has a broader and more complicated vascular pattern and thus contains a wealth of differentiating features for personal identification. However, a single biometric is not sufficient to meet the variety of requirements, including matching performance imposed by several large-scale authentication systems. Multi-modal biometric systems seek to alleviate some of the drawbacks encountered by uni-modal biometric systems by consolidating the evidence presented by multiple biometric traits/sources. This paper proposes a multi-modal authentication technique based on Palm Veins as a personal identifying factor, augmented by face features to increase the accuracy of security recognition. The obtained results point at an increased authentication accuracy.

  8. Effective management of acute deep vein thrombosis: direct oral anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussin, A

    2015-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a manifestation of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and accounts for most venous thromboembolic events. Although DVT is not directly life-threatening, thrombi in the proximal veins of the leg can embolize to the lungs to form a pulmonary embolism, which may prove rapidly fatal. If untreated, DVT can also lead to significant morbidity, including development of post-thrombotic syndrome. Among many risk factors, surgery, hospitalization, older age and active cancer increase the risk of VTE, and a previous event increases the risk of recurrence. Early detection and effective clot resolution are vital in managing DVT. Conventional approaches to acute treatment of VTE involve initial fast-acting parenteral heparin overlapping with and followed by vitamin K antagonist therapy. However, vitamin K antagonists have a narrow therapeutic window, require regular monitoring, and have multiple food and drug interactions. Results from phase III clinical studies involving direct Factor Xa and IIa inhibitors suggest that these agents provide an alternative therapeutic option that overcomes some of the complications associated with conventional treatment with predictable pharmacological properties and convenient dosing schedules. Analysis of data from the rivaroxaban EINSTEIN studies also suggests that these agents have the potential to improve patient-reported treatment satisfaction and reduce the length of hospital stay compared with conventional therapy. This review considers these treatment options, suitable treatment durations to prevent recurrence, and the management of DVT treatment in challenging patient groups. PMID:24927023

  9. Isolation and culture of umbilical vein mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Covas

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow contains a population of stem cells that can support hematopoiesis and can differentiate into different cell lines including adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes, myocytes, astrocytes, and tenocytes. These cells have been denoted mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study we isolated a cell population derived from the endothelium and subendothelium of the umbilical cord vein which possesses morphological, immunophenotypical and cell differentiation characteristics similar to those of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow. The cells were isolated from three umbilical cords after treatment of the umbilical vein lumen with collagenase. The cell population isolated consisted of adherent cells with fibroblastoid morphology which, when properly stimulated, gave origin to adipocytes and osteocytes in culture. Immunophenotypically, this cell population was found to be positive for the CD29, CD13, CD44, CD49e, CD54, CD90 and HLA-class 1 markers and negative for CD45, CD14, glycophorin A, HLA-DR, CD51/61, CD106, and CD49d. The characteristics described are the same as those presented by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that the umbilical cord obtained from term deliveries is an important source of mesenchymal stem cells that could be used in cell therapy protocols.

  10. Evolutionary algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Eremeev, Anton V.

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript contains an outline of lectures course "Evolutionary Algorithms" read by the author in Omsk State University n.a. F.M.Dostoevsky. The course covers Canonic Genetic Algorithm and various other genetic algorithms as well as evolutioanry algorithms in general. Some facts, such as the Rotation Property of crossover, the Schemata Theorem, GA performance as a local search and "almost surely" convergence of evolutionary algorithms are given with complete proofs. The text is in Russian.

  11. Quantum CPU and Quantum Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, An Min

    1999-01-01

    Making use of an universal quantum network -- QCPU proposed by me\\upcite{My1}, it is obtained that the whole quantum network which can implement some the known quantum algorithms including Deutsch algorithm, quantum Fourier transformation, Shor's algorithm and Grover's algorithm.

  12. Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study, two vein conditions were adopted during HIFU irradiation; non-compressed and compressed. Compressing the vein was expected to improve occlusion by rubbing the altered intima under compressed conditions. The frequency of the ultrasound was 1.7 MHz, the intensity at the focus was 2800 W/cm2, and the irradiation time was 20 s. In this study, the contrast agent Levovist registered was chosen as a microbubble source, and the void fraction (ratio of total gas volume to liquid) in the vein was fixed at 10-5. Under non-compressed conditions, changes were observed only at the adventitia of the vein anterior wall. In contrast, under compressed conditions, changes were observed from the intima to the adventitia of both the anterior and posterior walls, and they were partly stuck together. In addition, more experiments with hematoxylin-eosin staining suggested that the changes in the vein were more substantial under the latter conditions. From these results, it was confirmed that the vein was occluded more easily with vein compression.

  13. Automated detection of periventricular veins on 7 T brain MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Bouvy, Willem H.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Vincken, Koen L.

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is common in elderly persons and a leading cause of cognitive decline, dementia, and acute stroke. With the introduction of ultra-high field strength 7.0T MRI, it is possible to visualize small vessels in the brain. In this work, a proof-of-principle study is conducted to assess the feasibility of automatically detecting periventricular veins. Periventricular veins are organized in a fan-pattern and drain venous blood from the brain towards the caudate vein of Schlesinger, which is situated along the lateral ventricles. Just outside this vein, a region-of- interest (ROI) through which all periventricular veins must cross is defined. Within this ROI, a combination of the vesselness filter, tubular tracking, and hysteresis thresholding is applied to locate periventricular veins. All detected locations were evaluated by an expert human observer. The results showed a positive predictive value of 88% and a sensitivity of 95% for detecting periventricular veins. The proposed method shows good results in detecting periventricular veins in the brain on 7.0T MR images. Compared to previous works, that only use a 1D or 2D ROI and limited image processing, our work presents a more comprehensive definition of the ROI, advanced image processing techniques to detect periventricular veins, and a quantitative analysis of the performance. The results of this proof-of-principle study are promising and will be used to assess periventricular veins on 7.0T brain MRI.

  14. Computed tomographic evaluation of the portal vein in the hepatomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kee Hyung; Lee, Seung Chul; Bae, Man Gil; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk; Park, Kyung Nam [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Computed tomography and pornographic findings of 63 patients with hepatoma, undergone hepatic angiography and superior mesenteric pornography for evaluation of tumor and thrombosis of portal vein and determination of indication of transcatheter arterial embolization for palliative treatment of hepatoma from April, 85 to June, 86 in Hanyang university hospital, were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. In 36 cases, portal vein thrombosis was detected during photography. Nineteen of 37 cases which revealed localized hepatoma in the right lobe of the liver showed portal vein thrombosis; 9 of 11 cases of the left lobe; 8 of 14 cases which were involved in entire liver revealed thrombosis. One case localized in the caudate lobe showed no evidence of invasion to portal vein. 2. Twenty-four of 34 cases with diffuse infiltrative hepatoma revealed portal vein thrombosis and the incidence of portal vein thrombosis in this type were higher than in the cases of the nodular type. 3. The portal vein thrombosis appeared as filling defects of low density in the lumen of the portal veins in CT and they did not reveal contrast enhancement. 4. CT revealed well the evidence of obstructions in the cases of portal vein thrombosis and the findings were well-corresponded to the findings of the superior mesenteric photography. 5. Five of the cases of the portal vein thrombosis were missed in the CT and the causes were considered as due to partial volume effect of enhanced portal vein with partial occlusion or arterioportal shunts. 6. Six of 13 cases with occlusion of main portal vein showed cavernous transformation and they were noted as multiple small enhanced vascularities around the porta hepatis in the CT. According to the results, we conclude that CT is a useful modality to detect the changes of the portal veins in the patients of the hepatoma.

  15. Epidote-Bearing Veins in the State 2-14 Drill Hole: Implications for Hydrothermal Fluid Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, L. J.; Bird, D. K.; Cho, M.; Liou, J. G.

    1988-11-01

    Epidote-bearing veins in State 2-14 drill core from 900 to 2960 m depth were examined using backscattered electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis to characterize the mineralogy, parageneses, texture, and composition of vein minerals. In order of decreasing abundance, minerals in epidote-bearing veins are pyrite, calcite, K-feldspar, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, chlorite, Fe-Cu-Zn sulfides, actinolite, titanite, and allanite. The downhole distribution of minerals in epidote-bearing veins (+ pyrite and quartz) varies as a function of depth and includes: (1) calcite above ˜2000 m, (2) K-feldspar between 1700 and 2745 m, (3) anhydrite between 2195 and 2745 m, (4) hematite ± sulfides above 2773 m, and (5) actinolite below ˜2890 m. Where present, K-feldspar was the first mineral to precipitate in veins followed by epidote. In all other veins, epidote was the earliest vein mineral to form. Calcite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, and sulfides were paragenetically later. Compositional zoning, common in most vein epidotes, is typically symmetric with Al-rich cores and Fe3+ -rich rims. The minimum mole fraction of Ca2Fe3Si3O12(OH) (XPs) in vein epidotes decreases systematically with increasing depth from ˜0.33 at 906 m to ˜0.21 at 2900 m, and the maximum XPs at any given depth is greater than 0.33. Thermodynamic analyses of phase relations among vein-filling minerals and aqueous solutions at depths near 1867 m and 300°C indicate that the modern reservoir fluid in the Salton Sea geothermal system is in equilibrium with calcite + hematite + quartz + epidote (XPs = 0.33) ± anhydrite. The predicted fugacity of CO2 (˜14 bars) for the modern Salton Sea brine is in close agreement with the calculated value of fCO2 for the 1867 m production fluid. Theoretical phase diagrams in the system CaO-K2O-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-O2-S2-CO2 demonstrate that the mineralogies and mineral parageneses recorded hi epidote-bearing veins and the observed variations in Al-Fe3+ content of

  16. Studies of the incidence of post-operative deep-vein thrombosis in Sudan, using 125I-fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudanese patients undergoing surgery in Khartoum Civil Hospital were investigated for evidence of post-operative deep vein thrombosis by means of the 125I-fibrinogen test. An analysis of the results obtained in an initial series of 100 patients undergoing various operations including prostatectomy (transvesical or retropubic), vagotomy and drainage, cholocystectomy, various operations on the urinary bladder, various operations on the hip, splenectomy, herniorrhaphy, nephrectomy and haemorrhoidectomy revealed an incidence of post-operative deep vein thrombosis of 12.0%. There was no significant variation of incidence with age or sex. A subsequent analysis of the results obtained in 104 patients undergoing prostatectomy (transvesical or retropubic) revealed an incidence of deep vein thrombosis of 9.6%. These values differ markedly from the incidences of 21-47% reported in Sweden and UK. It is suggested that the indicence of post-operative deep vein thrombosis is lower in Sudan than in European countries

  17. Chemical gradients and progressive veining in a partly serpentinized harzburgite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, Esther; Caddick, Mark; Beard, James; Bodnar, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Serpentinized ultramafic rocks constitute a major part of the oceanic lithosphere. They form when water interacts with olivine and pyroxene to produce a dense network of veins comprised of secondary minerals: Serpentine + brucite ± magnetite veins occur in olivine, Al-rich serpentine + talc veins occur in orthopyroxene, and Al-rich serpentine ± talc ± brucite veins occur at the boundary between orthopyroxene and olivine. Here, we present a detailed study on a harzburgite from the Santa Elena Ophiolite in Costa Rica that is ~30% serpentinized in order to provide new constraints on the effect of variable water (H2O) and silica (SiO2) activities on vein formation in peridotites. The studied sample records 1) mineralogical and chemical zonations in olivine-hosted veins that show a distinct pattern with increasing width of the veins (consumption of olivine), 2) varying brucite composition depending on whether or not it is associated with magnetite, and 3) chemical gradients in Si, Al, Cr, and Ca at the boundary between orthopyroxene- and olivine-hosted veins. These observed chemical variations suggest fluid mediated mass transport within and between orthopyroxene- and olivine-hosted veins. We use thermodynamic models to show that an increase in vein width and progressive evolution of olivine-hosted veins is accompanied by an increase in water-rock ratios. This is associated with the development of chemical gradients (e.g. gradients in water and silica activity) between the fluid-rich center of serpentine veins and the olivine grain boundaries as typically expressed by the abundance of brucite in the vein center and a dominance of serpentine at the boundary with olivine. The increase in water-rock ratios within the vein center also leads to the formation of magnetite from Fe-rich brucite ± Fe-rich serpentine. Mass transfer between vein core and vein rim may exist on the submicron-scale along grain boundaries of the finely intergrown serpentine-brucite mixture. We

  18. Internal Jugular Vein Entrapment in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Simka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiple sclerosis patient presenting with compression of the internal jugular vein caused by aberrant omohyoid muscle. Previously this patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the same internal jugular vein. Ten months after this endovascular procedure, Doppler sonography revealed totally collapsed middle part of the treated vein with no outflow detected. Still, the vein widened and the flow was restored when the patient’s mouth opened. Thus, the abnormality was likely to be caused by muscular compression. Surgical exploration confirmed that an atypical omohyoid muscle was squeezing the vein. Consequently, pathological muscle was transected. Sonographic control three weeks after surgical procedure revealed a decompressed vein with fully restored venous outflow. Although such a muscular compression can be successfully managed surgically, future research has to establish its clinical relevance.

  19. Internal Jugular Vein Entrapment in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simka, Marian; Majewski, Eugeniusz; Fortuna, Marek; Zaniewski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We describe a multiple sclerosis patient presenting with compression of the internal jugular vein caused by aberrant omohyoid muscle. Previously this patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the same internal jugular vein. Ten months after this endovascular procedure, Doppler sonography revealed totally collapsed middle part of the treated vein with no outflow detected. Still, the vein widened and the flow was restored when the patient's mouth opened. Thus, the abnormality was likely to be caused by muscular compression. Surgical exploration confirmed that an atypical omohyoid muscle was squeezing the vein. Consequently, pathological muscle was transected. Sonographic control three weeks after surgical procedure revealed a decompressed vein with fully restored venous outflow. Although such a muscular compression can be successfully managed surgically, future research has to establish its clinical relevance. PMID:23097738

  20. Incomplete transposition of the common femoral artery and vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, J O; Carvalho Ventura, I; Botelho, F E; Costa Galvao, W

    2010-02-01

    Anatomical variations of the great saphenous vein, femoral artery and femoral vein at the inguinal level are rare. Modifications in the anatomical relationships among theses vessel can cause technical difficulties. There are two reports in the literature of the complete transposition of the femoral artery and vein. Both patients had large varicose veins only in the limb that presented the variation, which suggested an extrinsic compression. In the present paper, we report a case study of a patient with an incomplete transposition of the femoral artery and vein. Specifically, the common femoral vein and the saphenofemoral junction were completely overlapped by the common femoral artery. Although this anatomical variation did not present any clinical signs, it required a more complex surgical procedure. PMID:20224538

  1. Algorithmic cryptanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joux, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Illustrating the power of algorithms, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis describes algorithmic methods with cryptographically relevant examples. Focusing on both private- and public-key cryptographic algorithms, it presents each algorithm either as a textual description, in pseudo-code, or in a C code program.Divided into three parts, the book begins with a short introduction to cryptography and a background chapter on elementary number theory and algebra. It then moves on to algorithms, with each chapter in this section dedicated to a single topic and often illustrated with simple cryptographic applic

  2. Bimodal Biometric Verification Using the Fusion of Palmprint and Infrared Palm-Dorsum Vein Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a reliable and robust biometric verification method based on bimodal physiological characteristics of palms, including the palmprint and palm-dorsum vein patterns. The proposed method consists of five steps: (1 automatically aligning and cropping the same region of interest from different palm or palm-dorsum images; (2 applying the digital wavelet transform and inverse wavelet transform to fuse palmprint and vein pattern images; (3 extracting the line-like features (LLFs from the fused image; (4 obtaining multiresolution representations of the LLFs by using a multiresolution filter; and (5 using a support vector machine to verify the multiresolution representations of the LLFs. The proposed method possesses four advantages: first, both modal images are captured in peg-free scenarios to improve the user-friendliness of the verification device. Second, palmprint and vein pattern images are captured using a low-resolution digital scanner and infrared (IR camera. The use of low-resolution images results in a smaller database. In addition, the vein pattern images are captured through the invisible IR spectrum, which improves antispoofing. Third, since the physiological characteristics of palmprint and vein pattern images are different, a hybrid fusing rule can be introduced to fuse the decomposition coefficients of different bands. The proposed method fuses decomposition coefficients at different decomposed levels, with different image sizes, captured from different sensor devices. Finally, the proposed method operates automatically and hence no parameters need to be set manually. Three thousand palmprint images and 3000 vein pattern images were collected from 100 volunteers to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results show a false rejection rate of 1.20% and a false acceptance rate of 1.56%. It demonstrates the validity and excellent performance of our proposed method comparing to other methods.

  3. Hepatic venous outflow reconstruction in adult right lobe living donor liver transplantation without middle hepatic vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong; LU Qiang; CHEN Zhe-yu; MA Yu-kui; LI Jin; YANG Jia-yin; YAN Lü-nan; LI Bo; ZENG Yong; WEN Tian-fu; ZHAO Ji-chun; WANG Wen-tao; XU Ming-qing

    2007-01-01

    Background It is difficult and challenging to reconstruct hepatic venous outflow in adult right lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) without the middle hepatic vein (MHV). Excessive perfusion of the portal vein and venous outflow obstruction will lead to acute congestion of the graft, ultimately resulting in primary nonfunction. Although various reconstruction patterns have been explored in many countries, there is currently no clear consensus. In this study we describe a technique to prevent "chocking" of the graft at the outflow anastomosis with the inferior vena cava (IVC) in LDLT using right lobe graft without the MHV.Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data from 55 recipients undergoing LDLT using right lobe grafts without the MHV or reconstruction of hepatic venous outflow. The donor's right hepatic vein (RHV) was anastomosed with a triangular opening of the recipient IVC; the inferior right hepatic vein (IRHV), if large enough, was anastomosed directly to the IVC. The great saphenous vein (GSV) was used for reconstruction of significant MHV tributaries.Results No deaths occurred in any of the donors. Of the 55 recipients, complications occurred in 6, including hepaticvein stricture (1 case), small-for-size syndrome (1), hepatic artery thrombosis (1), intestinal bleeding (1), bile leakage (1),left subphrenic abscess and pulmonary infection (1). A total of three patients died, one from small-for-size syndrome and two from multiple system organ failure.Conclusions The multiple-opening vertical anastomosis was reconstructed with hepatic vein outflow. This technique alleviates surgical risk of living donors, ensures excellent venous drainage, and prevents vascular thromboses and primary nonfunction.

  4. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) - Blood Clot Forming in a Vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... located in a central vein Inherited clotting disorders Preventing DVT The following tips can help prevent DVT: Move around as soon as possible after having been confined to bed, such as after surgery, illness, or injury. If you’re at risk ...

  5. Image Quality Enhancement Using the Direction and Thickness of Vein Lines for Finger-Vein Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ho Park

    2012-10-01

    Experimental results from application of our proposed image enhancement method show that the equal error rate (EER of finger‐vein recognition decreases to approximately 0.4% in the case of a local binary pattern‐ based recognition and to approximately 0.3% in the case of a wavelet transform‐based recognition.

  6. Veins and related past fluid flow through the Mesozoic sedimentary cover in the Swiss Molasse Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The study is based on core samples from the recently drilled, 719 m deep borehole at Oftringen (near Olten), located in the northwestern Molasse basin, 1.5 km from the frontal thrust of the Folded Jura. Veins of calcite (± celestite, pyrite) occur in the whole Malm sequence (up to 8 veins/m), including the more clay-rich Effingen Member (marl and argillaceous limestone). Such an intensity of veining in the Effingen Member has never been found to date in other deep boreholes located in the Molasse basin. Most of the veins are related to tectonic activity, but clay-filled karst structures are recognized in the overlying Geissberg Member limestone, and a few structures probably related to diagenetic processes are documented in the Effingen Member. Fluid inclusions show average salinities between 3.3 and 4.4 wt% eq. NaCl in vein celestite and 2.7 wt% eq. NaCl in vein calcite. Average homogenization temperatures in calcite fluctuate between 56 and 68 deg. C, with a broad increase with depth and no correlation with salinity. Malm whole-rock carbonates have δ18O values fluctuating within a narrow range, probably determined by equilibrium with seawater. Their 87Sr/86Sr ratios follow a well-defined depth profile with minimum values in the middle part of the Effingen Member, fitting with Oxfordian seawater. No correlation is observed between 87Sr/86Sr and clay content, and values higher than contemporary seawater might be related to the incorporation of radiogenic detrital carbonate. The δ18O values of vein calcite are systematically lower than the corresponding whole rock carbonate, consistent with precipitation from seawater at 50-70 deg. C (homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions). The δ34S and δ18O values of vein celestite follow a bacterial reduction trend pointing to Miocene seawater sulfate. Two vein pyrites gave negative δ34S values consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction. Calcite and celestite of

  7. Can deep vein thrombosis be predicted after varicose vein operation in women in rural areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Warot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Chronic venous disease is a group of symptoms caused by functional and structural defects of the venous vessels. One of the most common aspects of this disease is the occurrence of varicose veins. There are many ways of prevention and treatment of varicose veins, but in Poland the leading one is still surgery. As in every medical procedure there is the possibility of some complications. One of them is deep vein thrombosis (DVT. The diagnosis of DVT can be difficult, especially when access to a specialist is limited, such as in case of rural patients. [b]The aim of the study.[/b] The aim of the study was estimation of the influence of LMWH primary prophylaxis on the formation of postoperative DVT, as well as sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination and D-dimer value in diagnosis of postoperative DVT in women. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. The study was conducted in a group of 93 women operated on in the Department of General, Vascular Surgery and Angiology at the Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The patients had undergone a varicose vein operation and were randomly divided into two groups: A – 48 women receiving LMWH during two days of the perioperative period, B – 45 women receiving LMWH during seven days of the perioperative period. [b]Results[/b]. There was no significant difference in the postoperative DVT complications in both groups. The value of D-dimer > 0.987 mcg/ml and swelling > 1.5 cm of shin (in comparison to the preoperative period plays a significant role in diagnosis of DVT. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The extended primary prophylaxis with LMWH does not affect the amount or quality of thrombotic complications after varicose vein operation. If the DVT occurs, the evaluation of the D – dimer and careful clinical examination can be a useful method for its diagnosis.

  8. Preserved saphenous vein allografts for vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccone, V A; Sika, J; Ahmed, N; LeVeen, H H; DiScala, V

    1978-09-01

    Preserved venous allografts were used as an alternate access procedure in 70 patients receiving dialysis during a three year period. The clinical experience with allograft fistulas revealed an extremely high initial patency rate; absence of infection postoperatively and during three years of dialysis; suitability for dialysis a week after implantation, thus greatly obviating the need for Silastic shunts; a low long term thrombosis rate and the weakly antigenic allograft veins produced no accelerated rejection of subsequently transplanted kidneys. Surviving patients average 172 dialysis treatments per allograft. Allograft fistulas constituted 45 per cent of the last 100 vascular procedures, an indication of the extent of usage. Microscopic examination of grafts retrieved from patients who died during the late follow-up period demonstrated that structural components of the wall of the vein were still identifiable. Allograft venous fistulas offer dependable, safe vascular access, especially in the infection prone patient with diabetes who is receiving dialysis treatment. The clinical results of allograft fistulas suggests a major role for this technique in vascular access operations. PMID:684591

  9. Complications of cerebral vein and sinus thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, José M; Canhâo, P

    2008-01-01

    Thrombosis of the dural sinus and encephalic veins (CVT) is an infrequent condition accounting for less than 1% of all strokes. Several recent prospective series, in particular the large International Study on Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis cohort, definitely have shown a more benign prognosis compared with that of arterial strokes: CVT has an acute case fatality of less than 5%, and almost 80% of patients recover without sequelae. However, patients surviving the acute phase of CVT are at risk of a number of complications such as recurrence of any thrombotic events in about 7%, recurrence of CVT in about 2-12%, seizures in 5 to 32%, visual loss due to optic atrophy in percentages that range from less than 1 to 5%, presence of dural fistula (there are no data available about exact frequency) and neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric sequelae characterized by aphasia, abulia and depression. However, there is only little information on the long-term neuropsychological outcome. Studies investigating professional status, cognitive performance, depressive symptoms and quality of life evidenced depression and anxiety in 2/3 of CVT patients despite an apparent good recovery in 87% of these patients. Thus, patients should be encouraged to return to previous occupations and hobbies and reassured about the very low risk of recurrence. PMID:18004061

  10. Arterialization and anomalous vein wall remodeling in varicose veins is associated with upregulated FoxC2-Dll4 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Sumi; S Ramegowda, Kalpana; Suresh, Aarcha; Binil Raj, S S; Lakkappa, Ravi Kumar B; Kamalapurkar, Giridhar; Radhakrishnan, N; C Kartha, Chandrasekharan

    2016-04-01

    Varicose veins of lower extremities are a heritable common disorder. Mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still vague. Structural failures such as valve weakness and wall dilatation in saphenous vein result in venous retrograde flow in lower extremities of body. Reflux of blood leads to distal high venous pressure resulting in distended veins. In an earlier study, we observed a positive association between c.-512C>T FoxC2 gene polymorphism and upregulated FoxC2 expression in varicose vein specimens. FoxC2 overexpression in vitro in venous endothelial cells resulted in the elevated mRNA expression of arterial endothelial markers such as Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) and Hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif protein 2 (Hey2). We hypothesized that an altered FoxC2-Dll4 signaling underlies saphenous vein wall remodeling in patients with varicose veins. Saphenous veins specimens were collected from 22 patients with varicose veins and 20 control subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Tissues were processed for paraffin embedding and sections were immunostained for Dll4, Hey2, EphrinB2, α-SMA, Vimentin, and CD31 antigens and examined under microscope. These observations were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis. An examination of varicose vein tissue specimens by immunohistochemistry indicated an elevated expression of Notch pathway components, such as Dll4, Hey2, and EphrinB2, and smooth muscle markers, which was further confirmed by gene and protein expression analyses. We conclude that the molecular alterations in Dll4-Hey2 signaling are associated with smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in varicose veins. Our observations substantiate a significant role for altered FoxC2-Dll4 signaling in structural alterations of saphenous veins in patients with varicose veins. PMID:26808710

  11. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    1993-01-01

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of distri

  12. Case Series: Fetal Pulmonary Vein A-Wave Reversal: An Early Marker of Left-Sided Cardiac Anomalies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo L. Schenone

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background - Improvements in congenital heart disease (CHD screening are needed based on the lack of sensitivity of current screening methods and the understanding that the early detection of certain CHDs may improve outcomes. Fetal venous circulation has caught medical attention, and two studies demonstrated that it is feasible to register pulmonary vein flow velocity waveforms (FVWs during early gestation. Meanwhile, the latter study proposed pulmonary vein A-wave reversal as a marker of cardiac anomaly. Methods - We report a series of six consecutive fetuses with confirmed cardiac anomalies that underwent first-trimester screening, including pulmonary vein FVWs, at our center during 2013. CHD was confirmed by late pregnancy echocardiography, and in three cases fetal autopsies were performed. Result/Discussion - The ductus venosus (DV and nuchal translucency (NT predicted 50% of CHD cases, whereas the combination of markers identified 66.6% of CHD cases. When adding pulmonary vein assessment, the rate of detection rose to 83.3%. Total five of six cases of CHD had reversal of pulmonary vein A-wave during early pregnancy. The sixth case with CHD and nonreversal of A-wave was described as right ventricle hypoplasia with type 1 tricuspid atresia and persistent ductus arteriosus. Conclusion This is the first series reporting pulmonary vein end-diastolic reversal as a CHD screening add-on during early pregnancy. The addition of pulmonary vein FVW assessment to the current CHD screening bundle could increase the rate detection of cardiac anomalies. This pilot study suggests that pulmonary vein end-diastolic flow reversal favors detection of left-sided CHD over the right-sided ones.

  13. Changes in macular thickness and visual acuity after intravitreal bevacizumab injection in patients with retinal vein occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of single Intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) injection on visual acuity (VA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) in patients with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Study Design: Prospective, non-randomized, interventional case series. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital Rawalpindi from March 2012 to February 2013. Patients and Methods: Twenty three patients with macular edema attributable to vein occlusion received intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab 1.25 mg. Nine patients had central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and 14 patients had branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Complete ophthalmic examination including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was done at base line and follow up visits. Results: At base line mean visual acuity was Log MAR 0.73 and showed improvement to mean Log MAR 0.39 at 12 weeks after intravitreal Bevacizumab (IVB) injection. Mean CRT was 527 meu m at baseline that decreased to 274 meu m after 12 weeks of IVB treatment. Conclusion: Intravitreal Bevacizumab appears to result in significant short term improvement of VA and macular edema secondary to vein occlusion. (author)

  14. CO2 outburst events in relation to seismicity: Constraints from microscale geochronology, geochemistry of late Quaternary vein carbonates, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Işık, Veysel; Shulmeister, James; İmer, Ali; Feng, Yue-Xing

    2016-08-01

    Vein and breccia carbonates precipitated in a highly fractured/faulted carbonate bedrock in SW Turkey were investigated through high-resolution U-series geochronology, microstructural and geochemical studies including C-O-Sr isotope and rare-earth element and yttrium (REY) analyses. Petrographical observations and geochronological data are interpreted as evidence that the calcite veins formed through a crack-seal mechanism, mostly accompanied/initiated by intensive hydraulic fracturing of the host limestone in response to high-pressure fluids, which is manifested by multi-stage breccia deposits. Microscale U-series dates (272.6-20.5 kyr) and geochemical compositions of the vein/breccia samples provide information on the timing and mechanism of the vein formation and identify the source of CO2-bearing fluids responsible for the carbonate precipitation. δ18OVPDB and δ13CVPDB values of the calcite veins range between -5.9 and -1.7‰, and -10.6 and -4.6‰, respectively. The isotopic compositions of the veins show highly fluctuating values as calcite grew successively perpendicular to vein walls, which, in combination with microstructural and geochronological constraints, are interpreted to reflect episodic CO2 degassing events associated with seismic and aseismic deformation. Oxygen and Sr isotope compositions (δ18OVPDB: -5.9 to -1.7‰; 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7082 to 0.7085) together with REY concentrations indicate deep infiltration of meteoric waters with various degrees of interactions mostly with the host limestone and siliciclastic parts of the basement rocks. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions suggest CO2 degassing through intensive limestone dissolution. While majority of the veins display similar Post-Archaean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalised REY variations, some of the veins show positive EuPAAS anomalies, which could be indicative of contributions from a deeply derived, heated, and reduced fluid component, giving rise to multiple fluid sources for the

  15. The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloviczki, Peter; Comerota, Anthony J; Dalsing, Michael C; Eklof, Bo G; Gillespie, David L; Gloviczki, Monika L; Lohr, Joann M; McLafferty, Robert B; Meissner, Mark H; Murad, M Hassan; Padberg, Frank T; Pappas, Peter J; Passman, Marc A; Raffetto, Joseph D; Vasquez, Michael A; Wakefield, Thomas W

    2011-05-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) and the American Venous Forum (AVF) have developed clinical practice guidelines for the care of patients with varicose veins of the lower limbs and pelvis. The document also includes recommendations on the management of superficial and perforating vein incompetence in patients with associated, more advanced chronic venous diseases (CVDs), including edema, skin changes, or venous ulcers. Recommendations of the Venous Guideline Committee are based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system as strong (GRADE 1) if the benefits clearly outweigh the risks, burden, and costs. The suggestions are weak (GRADE 2) if the benefits are closely balanced with risks and burden. The level of available evidence to support the evaluation or treatment can be of high (A), medium (B), or low or very low (C) quality. The key recommendations of these guidelines are: We recommend that in patients with varicose veins or more severe CVD, a complete history and detailed physical examination are complemented by duplex ultrasound scanning of the deep and superficial veins (GRADE 1A). We recommend that the CEAP classification is used for patients with CVD (GRADE 1A) and that the revised Venous Clinical Severity Score is used to assess treatment outcome (GRADE 1B). We suggest compression therapy for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (GRADE 2C) but recommend against compression therapy as the primary treatment if the patient is a candidate for saphenous vein ablation (GRADE 1B). We recommend compression therapy as the primary treatment to aid healing of venous ulceration (GRADE 1B). To decrease the recurrence of venous ulcers, we recommend ablation of the incompetent superficial veins in addition to compression therapy (GRADE 1A). For treatment of the incompetent great saphenous vein (GSV), we recommend endovenous thermal ablation (radiofrequency or laser) rather than high ligation and inversion stripping

  16. Memetic Search in Differential Evolution Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sandeep; Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Kumari, Rajani

    2014-01-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) is a renowned optimization stratagem that can easily solve nonlinear and comprehensive problems. DE is a well known and uncomplicated population based probabilistic approach for comprehensive optimization. It has apparently outperformed a number of Evolutionary Algorithms and further search heuristics in the vein of Particle Swarm Optimization at what time of testing over both yardstick and actual world problems. Nevertheless, DE, like other probabilistic optimizat...

  17. Subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis: successful treatment with streptokinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J. J.; Lesk, D.; Newman, H.

    1984-01-01

    Proximal vein thrombosis has been associated with residual disability from the postphlebetic syndrome in patients receiving symptomatic therapy or heparin and sodium warfarin. This paper describes a man with painless swelling of the right arm secondary to subclavian-axillary vein thrombosis that was successfully treated with streptokinase and conventional anticoagulant therapy.

  18. Coronary artery bypass with glycerol-preserved saphenous vein allografts

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolotti, Uberto; Casarotto, Dino; Frugoni, Carlo; De Mozzi, Pierluigi; Thiene, Gaetano; Gallucci, Vincenzo

    1981-01-01

    Over a 2-year period, 19 patients whose autologous saphenous veins were either unsuitable or unavailable underwent myocardial revascularization with saphenous vein allografts (SVAs) at our institution. All SVAs had been preserved in 98% glycerol at room temperature for at least 3 weeks (average, 7 weeks); before use, they were rinsed with saline and antibiotic solution.

  19. The Incidence and Ecology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of vein yellowing and bush decline in blackberry were attributed to infection by a novel crinivirus named Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV). The disease is an emerging threat to blackberry production as it can cause substantial yield loss. The objective of this study was to id...

  20. Dorzolamide increases retinal oxygen tension after branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Michael Hove; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Scherfig, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  1. Arteriovenous Fistula Between the Hepatic Artery and the Hepatic Vein

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Howard; Malafa, M.; Coombs, Robert J.; Iannone, Anthony M.

    1989-01-01

    A patient is presented with multiple vascular anomalies in the branches of the celiac axis as well as in the portal vein and its branches. Apparently, unique in the literature is the presence of a large arteriovenous fistula between the hepatic artery and one of the hepatic veins. The anomalies are presumed to be congenital in origin.

  2. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease is Caused by Multiple Virus Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...

  3. A study of images of Projective Angles of pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jue [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhaoqi, Zhang [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)], E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com; Yu Wei; Miao Cuilian; Yan Zixu; Zhao Yike [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Aims: In images of magnetic resonance and computed tomography (CT) there are visible angles between pulmonary veins and the coronary, transversal or sagittal section of body. In this study these angles are measured and defined as Projective Angles of pulmonary veins. Several possible influential factors and characters of distribution are studied and analyzed for a better understanding of this imaging anatomic character of pulmonary veins. And it could be the anatomic base of adjusting correctly the angle of the central X-ray of the angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Method: Images of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) and contrast enhanced computer tomography (CECT) of the left atrium and pulmonary veins of 137 health objects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are processed with the technique of post-processing, and Projective Angles to the coronary and transversal sections are measured and analyzed statistically. Result: Project Angles of pulmonary veins are one of real and steady imaging anatomic characteristics of pulmonary veins. The statistical distribution of variables is relatively concentrated, with a fairly good representation of average value. It is possible to improve the angle of the central X-ray according to the average value in the selective angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of AF.

  4. A New Metaheuristic Bat-Inspired Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    Metaheuristic algorithms such as particle swarm optimization, firefly algorithm and harmony search are now becoming powerful methods for solving many tough optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a new metaheuristic method, the Bat Algorithm, based on the echolocation behaviour of bats. We also intend to combine the advantages of existing algorithms into the new bat algorithm. After a detailed formulation and explanation of its implementation, we will then compare the proposed algorithm with other existing algorithms, including genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm seems much superior to other algorithms, and further studies are also discussed.

  5. The Role of Adenosine in Pulmonary Vein Isolation: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaglio, Paolo D.; Betts, Timothy R.; Ginks, Matthew; Bashir, Yaver; Anguera, Ignasi; Rajappan, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The cornerstone of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), which can be achieved in more than 95% of patients at the end of the procedure. However, AF recurrence rates remain high and are related to recovery of PV conduction. Adenosine testing is used to unmask dormant pulmonary vein conduction (DC). The aim of this study is to review the available literature addressing the role of adenosine testing and determine the impact of ablation at sites of PV reconnection on freedom from AF. Adenosine infusion, by restoring the excitability threshold, unmasks reversible injury that could lead to recovery of PV conduction. The studies included in this review suggest that adenosine is useful to unmask nontransmural lesions at risk of reconnection and that further ablation at sites of DC is associated with improvement in freedom from AF. Nevertheless it has been demonstrated that adenosine is not able to predict all veins at risk of later reconnection, which means that veins without DC are not necessarily at low risk. The role of the waiting period in the setting of adenosine testing has also been analyzed, suggesting that in the acute phase adenosine use should be accompanied by enough waiting time. PMID:26981309

  6. Ramification of the portal vein at the porta hepatis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, L J; Ortale, J R

    1995-01-01

    The ramification of the portal vein at the porta hepatis was studied by anatomic dissection performed in 32 formalin fixed human livers. In all the specimens there were branches which ran towards the caudate lobe, arising from the portal vein and either from the left or the right portal branches. Tri- and quadrifurcation of the portal vein was observed. In 5 cases (16%) there were branches arising from left portal branch or portal vein and directed anteriorly to the quadrate lobe or to the region of the gall-bladder sulcus. These branches ranged from 1.0 to 6.0 mm in diameter. The portal caudate branches were divided into 3 groups. Group 1: Branches to the papillary process; 1 or 2 branches in 26 cases (82%), 3 or 5 branches in 3 cases (9%) and no branches in 3 cases (9%); Group 2: Branches to the vena cava region, including the left part of the caudate process; 1 or 2 branches in 30 cases (94%), 3 branches in 1 case (3%) and no branches in 1 case (3%); Group 3: Branches to the right part of the caudate process; 1 or 2 branches in 12 cases (37%), and no branches in 20 cases (63%). PMID:7597563

  7. Imaging and radiological interventions in extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargewar, Sudheer S; Desai, Saloni N; Rajesh, S; Singh, Vaibhav P; Arora, Ankur; Mukund, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is a primary vascular condition characterized by chronic long standing blockage and cavernous transformation of portal vein with or without additional involvement of intrahepatic branches, splenic or superior mesenteric vein. Patients generally present in childhood with multiple episodes of variceal bleed and EHPVO is the predominant cause of paediatric portal hypertension (PHT) in developing countries. It is a pre-hepatic type of PHT in which liver functions and morphology are preserved till late. Characteristic imaging findings include multiple parabiliary venous collaterals which form to bypass the obstructed portal vein with resultant changes in biliary tree termed portal biliopathy or portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. Ultrasound with Doppler, computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiography and magnetic resonance portovenography are non-invasive techniques which can provide a comprehensive analysis of degree and extent of EHPVO, collaterals and bile duct abnormalities. These can also be used to assess in surgical planning as well screening for shunt patency in post-operative patients. The multitude of changes and complications seen in EHPVO can be addressed by various radiological interventional procedures. The myriad of symptoms arising secondary to vascular, biliary, visceral and neurocognitive changes in EHPVO can be managed by various radiological interventions like transjugular intra-hepatic portosystemic shunt, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, partial splenic embolization, balloon occluded retrograde obliteration of portosystemic shunt (PSS) and revision of PSS. PMID:27358683

  8. Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis following Oropharyngeal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Asli; Turhan, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT) is a rare condition which may lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis and pulmonary embolism. Prolonged central venous catheterization, intravenous (IV) drug use, trauma, and radiotherapy are the most frequent causes of the IJVT. IJVT that develops after the oropharyngeal infection is a quite rare situation today. In this paper, a 37-year-old woman was presented; swelling occurred on her neck after acute tonsillitis and she was diagnosed with IJVT through Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed without complications. Early diagnosis and conservative treatment with broad-spectrum IV antibiotics and anticoagulant agents have a critical importance for the prevention of fatal complications. PMID:26457221

  9. Leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old male patient presented with a complaint of two painful, hard, palpable nodules in the right lower limb. A Doppler ultrasound scan revealed the presence of nodules, likely to be neoplastic. Computed angiography showed two solid hypervascular nodules in the right great saphenous vein, fed by branches of the posterior tibial artery. Embolization of the nodules using surgical cyanoacrylate was performed, followed by an excisional biopsy. Anatomical pathology and immunohistochemical analysis identified the nodule as a high-grade leiomyosarcoma, characterized by ten mitotic figures per ten high-power fields, necrosis and cell pleomorphism. Immunohistochemical analysis results were positive for caldesmon and desmin labeling. A second surgical procedure was performed to enlarge the free margins.

  10. On the dragnosis of deep vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical and laboratory diagnostic methods were studied in 301 consecutive patients with suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Unexpectedly, phlebography (the reference method) was found to cause DVT in estimated 48 % of patients without initial DVT. Using a new type of contrast medium, however, no thrombotic complications were found. - Neither clinical examination nor plethysmography were found to give reliable results. Using a modified technique for radioisotope detection, high sensitivity to DVT was found with the 125I-fibrinogen uptake test (within 2 days) and a newly developed 99Tcsup(m)-plasmin test (within one hour). Since both tests showed low specificity, they are reliable as screening tests to exclude DVT, but not as independent diagnostic methods. (author)

  11. Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis following Oropharyngeal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Bostanci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT is a rare condition which may lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis and pulmonary embolism. Prolonged central venous catheterization, intravenous (IV drug use, trauma, and radiotherapy are the most frequent causes of the IJVT. IJVT that develops after the oropharyngeal infection is a quite rare situation today. In this paper, a 37-year-old woman was presented; swelling occurred on her neck after acute tonsillitis and she was diagnosed with IJVT through Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed without complications. Early diagnosis and conservative treatment with broad-spectrum IV antibiotics and anticoagulant agents have a critical importance for the prevention of fatal complications.

  12. Endovenous Laser Ablation of the Small Saphenous Vein Sparing the Saphenopopliteal Junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess outcomes after endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of the small saphenous vein (SSV). Retrospective review was performed of all consecutive EVLA procedures performed over a 39-month period at three neighboring vein practices for symptomatic, duplex ultrasound-proven incompetence of the SSV. EVLA was performed under ultrasound guidance with an 810- or 980-nm diode laser in continuous mode using the pullback method while sparing the deep, most cephalad segment of the SSV near the saphenopopliteal junction. Follow-up after EVLA included patient symptoms, physical examination, and duplex ultrasound. Pretreatment variables were similar across all three practices. EVLA was performed to treat 67 incompetent SSVs in 63 patients (86% women; mean age and 95% confidence interval, 50 ± 3 years; range, 20-82 years). Average energy delivered was 92 J/cm. Immediate technical success and occlusion of the treated vein at 1-2 weeks was 100%. Imaging follow-up length was 243 ± 65 days (range, 3-893 days). Clinical follow-up (243 ± 66 days) showed symptomatic improvement in 66 (99%) of 67 patients; one patient had recanalization with recurrent reflux by ultrasound (2%). Complications included one case of paresthesias lasting beyond 1 month of follow-up (2%) and three cases of superficial phlebitis (4%), but no deep vein thrombosis, skin burns, or other complications. Although ablation involved only the superficial portion of the SSV and spared its deep segment in the popliteal fossa, SSV occlusion typically extended up to the saphenopopliteal junction or to a gastrocnemial collateral, without popliteal vein involvement. EVLA of the SSV is safe and effective when the saphenopopliteal junction and popliteal fossa are avoided. This approach may help reduce the risk of paresthesias or other complications while maintaining low recanalization rates.

  13. Multiple vascular anomalies involving testicular, suprarenal arteries and lumbar veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Jyothsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular arteries arise from the abdominal aorta and the inferior suprarenal artery from the renal artery. There are reports about variant origin and course of these arteries. Accessory testicular artery is also a common finding but its providing origin to inferior suprarenal artery is an important observation. During a routine dissection of abdomen of approximately 55-year-old male cadaver, unique vascular abnormality was observed. On the left side, a common arterial trunk originating from abdominal aorta immediately branched to give rise to superior testicular and inferior suprarenal arteries, the former after a short course hooked by the left suprarenal vein. In addition, the left suprarenal vein, second left lumbar vein, and left testicular vein joined to form a common trunk which drained into the left renal vein. A sound knowledge of vascular variations in relation to the kidney and suprarenal gland is important to surgeons dissecting the abdominal cavity.

  14. Disastrous Portal Vein Embolization Turned into a Successful Intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrocky, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.dobrocky@insel.ch [University of Bern, Department of Interventional, Pediatric and Diagnostic Radiology, Inselspital, University Hospital (Switzerland); Kettenbach, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.kettenbach@stpoelten.lknoe.at [Universitätsklinikum St. Pölten-Lilienfeld, Institute of Medical Radiology, Diagnostic, Intervention (Austria); Lopez-Benitez, Ruben, E-mail: Ruben.lopez@insel.ch; Kara, Levent, E-mail: levent.kara@insel.ch [University of Bern, Department of Interventional, Pediatric and Diagnostic Radiology, Inselspital, University Hospital (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) may be performed before hemihepatectomy to increase the volume of future liver remnant (FLR) and to reduce the risk of postoperative liver insufficiency. We report the case of a 71-year-old patient with hilar cholangiocarcinoma undergoing PVE with access from the right portal vein using a mixture of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and ethiodized oil. During the procedure, nontarget embolization of the left portal vein occurred. An aspiration maneuver of the polymerized plug failed; however, the embolus obstructing portal venous flow in the FLR was successfully relocated into the right portal vein while carefully bypassing the plug with a balloon catheter, inflating the balloon, and pulling the plug into the main right portal vein.

  15. Abnormal draining of great cardiac vein into superior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A 47-year-old man presented with atypical chest pain in last three months. Physical examination findings were normal. ECG showed normal sinus rhythm. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed normal left and right ventricular systolic functions. ECG gated coronary CT angiography was performed. The patient's coronary CT angiography showed normal coronary arteries, however the great cardiac vein course was abnormal. The course of the vein was not in atrioventicular groove, bypassing the coronary sinus and draining to superior vena cava. The coronary sinus of patient is formed by posterior marginal vein, middle cardiac vein and lateral marginal vein and drained into the right atrium. We also observed subtle myocardial bridges on coronary arteries. Myocardial bridges appeared to explain patient's chest pain. With optimal medical therapy, the patient's symptoms resolved

  16. Left Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis Due to a Lung Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Hsing Chen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep vein thrombosis is a common disease among Caucasians but is rare in Asia.Venous thrombosis may be fatal, for example by a pulmonary embolism and right or leftatrial thrombosis. Alternatively, deep vein thrombosis may follow a benign pattern such asfemoral and popliteal vein thrombosis. Theories abound regarding the causes of deep veinthrombosis, with the most common theories being long-term stasis and lack of exercise.Internal jugular vein thrombosis is a rare but potentially fatal disease with various causes. Inthe pre-antibiotics era, this disease was frequently associated with deep neck infection.Recently however, local trauma, central catheterization, and repeated intravenous injectionswith drugs have become the leading causes of thrombosis. Spontaneous internal jugularvein thrombosis may occur in connection with a neoplasm, termed Trousseau's syndrome.This investigation reports a case of lung cancer associated with internal jugular vein thrombosis.

  17. Adrenal vein sampling in primary aldosteronism: towards a standardised protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Silvia; Viola, Andrea; Rossato, Denis; Veglio, Franco; Reincke, Martin; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso; Mulatero, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Primary aldosteronism comprises subtypes that need different therapeutic strategies. Adrenal vein sampling is recognised by Endocrine Society guidelines as the only reliable way to correctly diagnose the subtype of primary aldosteronism. Unfortunately, despite being the gold-standard procedure, no standardised procedure exists either in terms of performance or interpretation criteria. In this Personal View, we address several questions that clinicians are presented with when considering adrenal vein sampling. For each of these questions we provide responses based on the available evidence, and opinions based on our experience. In particular, we discuss the most appropriate way to prepare the patient, whether adrenal vein sampling can be avoided for some subgroups of patients, the use of ACTH (1-24) during the procedure, the most appropriate criteria for interpretation of adrenal vein cannulation and lateralisation, the use of contralateral suppression, and strategies to improve success rates of adrenal vein sampling in centres with little experience. PMID:24831990

  18. Connexin43 Inhibition Prevents Human Vein Grafts Intimal Hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Longchamp

    Full Text Available Venous bypass grafts often fail following arterial implantation due to excessive smooth muscle cells (VSMC proliferation and consequent intimal hyperplasia (IH. Intercellular communication mediated by Connexins (Cx regulates differentiation, growth and proliferation in various cell types. Microarray analysis of vein grafts in a model of bilateral rabbit jugular vein graft revealed Cx43 as an early upregulated gene. Additional experiments conducted using an ex-vivo human saphenous veins perfusion system (EVPS confirmed that Cx43 was rapidly increased in human veins subjected ex-vivo to arterial hemodynamics. Cx43 knock-down by RNA interference, or adenoviral-mediated overexpression, respectively inhibited or stimulated the proliferation of primary human VSMC in vitro. Furthermore, Cx blockade with carbenoxolone or the specific Cx43 inhibitory peptide 43gap26 prevented the burst in myointimal proliferation and IH formation in human saphenous veins. Our data demonstrated that Cx43 controls proliferation and the formation of IH after arterial engraftment.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGY OF CEREBRAL BRIDGING VEIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the morphological properties of pig cerebral bridging vein. Methods. The morphology and fibre arrangement of 15 cerebral bridging veins obtained from 7 Danish Yorkshire landrace pigs were observed. Results. There was a narrow region at the junction of the cerebral bridging veins and superior sagittal sinus termed “ outflow cuff segment". The diameter and length of outflow cuff segment were much smaller and the thickness was higher than those of the cerebral bridging veins (P0.05). Conclusions. There were differences in fibre arrangement and morphological properties between the outflow cuff segment and the cerebral bridging vein, just like a resistance valve, the outflow cuff segment may play an important role in stabilizing cerebral venous outflow and regulating intracranial pressure.

  20. Functional total anomalous pulmonary venous connection via levoatriocardinal vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Taiyu; Ozawa, Katsusuke; Sugibayashi, Rika; Wada, Seiji; Ono, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We report a fetal case of double outlet right ventricle, mitral atresia, and intact atrial septum. Although the pulmonary veins were connected to the left atrium, pulmonary venous blood drained into the right superior vena cava via the stenotic levoatriocardinal vein (LACV), which resulted in a circulation resembling total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) with pulmonary venous obstruction. Since the pulmonary veins were connected to both the stenotic LACV and the "dead-end" left atrium, the pulmonary venous flow had a to-and-fro pattern along with atrial relaxation and contraction. Postnatal echocardiography and computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of normally connected but anomalously draining pulmonary veins via the LACV. Surgical creation of an atrial septal defect on the day of birth successfully relieved pulmonary venous obstruction. Normally connected but anomalously draining pulmonary veins via the LACV should be considered for TAPVC differential diagnosis in fetuses with a left-side heart obstruction. PMID:27460400

  1. IVC agenesis: a rare cause of deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Louise; Hendricks, Nicholas; Maitland, Hillary

    2016-04-01

    We present the case of a healthy, young Caucasian female who presented to an outside hospital with phlegmasia cerulea dolens of both lower extremities. Computed tomography angiography revealed inferior vena cava (IVC) occlusion. She was initiated on heparin infusion and transferred to University of Virginia Medical Center. Our evaluation revealed aplasia of the IVC from the infrahepatic segment to the confluence of the common iliac veins and acute bilateral iliac vein thromboses. An extensive network of collateral veins was noted. These findings were consistent with IVC agenesis. She was not pregnant or using contraception. Primary thrombophilia workup was negative. She underwent bilateral iliac vein thrombolysis and was started on anticoagulation. While IVC agenesis is rare, it carries risk for development of thrombotic sequelae and bears consideration when evaluating young patients with unexplained deep vein thrombosis, especially if extensive and bilateral. PMID:26507132

  2. MR Venography of Deep Veins: Changes with Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep veins (DVs) can be compressed by a uterus enlarged with fibroids. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of luminal narrowing of DVs caused by a myomatous uterus, and the change in DV narrowing in women with symptomatic fibroids after embolization using time-of-flight (TOF)-magnetic resonance venography (MRV). Twenty-nine consecutive women with symptomatic uterine fibroids underwent TOF-MRV and pelvic MRI before and 4 months after embolization. Based on the TOF-MRV, we evaluated the luminal narrowing of three DVs, including the inferior vena cava, and the bilateral common and external iliac veins, and divided the findings into three grades. The scores for each DV were added for each patient (lowest, 0; highest, 6). DV scores and symptom severity (SS) scores were compared between the baseline and 4 months after embolization using the paired t-test. The relationship between DV scores and uterine volume was investigated using Pearson's test. DV scores decreased significantly, from 1.52 ± 1.70 at baseline to 0.93 ± 1.56 at 4 months after embolization (p = 0.004). The uterine volume decreased from 948 ± 647 mL at baseline to 617 ± 417 mL at 4 months after embolization (p < 0.001). DV score correlated with uterine volume (r = 0.856, p < 0.001). SS scores decreased from 54.5 ± 14.6 at baseline to 26.8 ± 15.4 at 4 months after embolization (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the degree of luminal narrowing of DVs caused by a uterus with fibroids is correlated with the uterine volume. Uterine artery embolization may induce an improvement of luminal narrowing of DVs due to a reduction of the myomatous uterus volume.

  3. Application of magnetic resonance angiography in cerebral vein system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore imaging technique of magnetic resonance in cerebral vein system and to evaluate the value of magnetic resonance veinography in displaying cerebral vein and diagnosing disease. Methods: The thrity-five persons experienced examinations of 2-dimension time of flight(2D TOF), 2-dimension phase contrast(2D PC) and then 3-dimension contrast-enhancement veinography(3D-CE MRV). The raw data treated with maxi intensitive projection. The images of veinography and disease changes were analysed as so to evaluate the dependability of the three methods in playing venous structions and disease changes. Results: All the diagnoses were proved by DSA or followed up. In 25 normal persons, 2D TOF and 2D PC of 10 persons showed abnormal in different type. But the 3D-CE MRV were normal.In 10 patients suffered from vein thrombosis,that all 2D-TOF MRV, 2D-PC MRV and 3D-CE MRV showed vein abnormality followed as: up radius sinus were no appeared in 2 cases, fined in 2 cases, local cannal of up radius sinus were narrowed in 1 cases. Right traversable sinus no appeared in 2 cases, fined in 2 cases, right sigmoid sinus no appeared in 1 cases. Additionally, in one patients, the left traversal sinus showed high signal as same as normal vein sinus in 2D TOF but of contrast medium was seen in 3D-CE-MRV. 3D-CE-MRV was dependable in describing structions of vein and displaying disease changes than 2D-TOF MRV and 2D-PC MRV. Conclusion: The techniques of vein imaging of 2D-TOF MRV and 2D-PC MRV combining with 3D-CE-MRV formed imaging method of cerebral vein system and it was dependable method for showing cerebral vein struction and diagnosing throb vein sinus thrombosis. (authors)

  4. Metastatic Melanoma to the Pancreas with a Thrombus in the Splenic Vein and Superior Mesenteric Vein: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Duek Lin; Park, Sung Tae; Kim, Yong Jae; Goo, Dong Erk; Hwang, Jung Hwa [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    Metastatic melanoma to the pancreas has been observed infrequently, and the presence of a thrombus in the splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein has rarely been seen for metastatic melanoma. We present the CT and MRI findings of a case of metastatic melanoma to the pancreas, which presented with diffuse multiple pancreatic metastatic nodules and a venous thrombus.

  5. Metastatic Melanoma to the Pancreas with a Thrombus in the Splenic Vein and Superior Mesenteric Vein: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic melanoma to the pancreas has been observed infrequently, and the presence of a thrombus in the splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein has rarely been seen for metastatic melanoma. We present the CT and MRI findings of a case of metastatic melanoma to the pancreas, which presented with diffuse multiple pancreatic metastatic nodules and a venous thrombus

  6. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in interrupted inferior caval vein through femoral vein approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous closure of the patent arterial duct in patients with interrupted inferior caval vein poses a technical challenge. A 12-year-old girl with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and interrupted inferior caval vein is described in this report. The diagnosis of interrupted inferior caval vein and azygos continuation was made in the catheterization laboratory. A catheter was advanced and snared in the descending aorta. An exchange wire was advanced through the catheter and snared in the descending aorta. Then, an Amplatzer TorqVue 2 delivery sheath was advanced over the wire from the venous side and again snared in the descending aorta. An Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) size 8/6 was advanced through the sheath while still holding the sheath with a snare. The device was opened. The sheath was then unsnared once the aortic disc was completely out. The sheath and the device were pulled back into the duct and the device was successfully implanted. The device was then released and it attained a stable position. An aortic angiogram was performed which showed complete occlusion

  7. Associations between flow in paratibial perforating veins and great saphenous vein patterns of reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Engelhorn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Perforating veins contribute to chronic venous valvular insufficiency (CVVI, subset of CVI of lower extremities (LE. We investigated the role of medial, proximal calf paratibial perforating veins (PTPV. Women with PTPV reflux, diameter ≥3 mm, or tortuosity were selected among 2199 LE mappings. Duplex ultrasonography (US was performed standing. Reflux >0.5 s was abnormal. PTPV conditions were related to great saphenous vein (GSV patterns of reflux. US of 442 LE of 379 women were analyzed, all being Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP classification C1, C2, and/or having intermittent, conditional swelling. Etiology was primary. Pathophysiology was reflux, not thrombosis or obstruction. Most PTPV drained (n=281, 64% of 442 or 13% of 2199, or were source (n=73, 17%/442, 3%/2199 of GSV reflux; 49 (11%/442, 2%/2199 had reflux not associated with GSV; 39 (9%/442, 2%/2199 did not have reflux. PTPV, when significative for CVVI, primarily drained-GSV reflux. PTPV was linked to reflux in 1 of 5 and was a major source of reflux in 1 of 20 legs. Detailed US of PTPV insured over 80% accuracy in CVVI mapping.

  8. A general framework for shortest path algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A.W.J. Kolen

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we present a general framework for shortest path algorithms, including amongst others Dijkstra's algorithm and the A* algorithm. By showing that all algorithms are special cases of one algorithm in which some of the nondeterministic choices are made deterministic, terminati

  9. Aneurysmal dilatation of persistent vitelline vein with thrombus in a neonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kun Woo; Sung, Deuk Jae; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Cho, Sung Bum [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The paired vitelline veins selectively involute and form a part of the portal vein during embryonic development. The presence of a persistent vitelline vein segment after birth is very rare and can be confused with anomalies of the portal and umbilical veins. We present sonographic, CT and MRI findings of aneurysmal dilatation of a persistent vitelline vein with thrombus in a neonate; this case was first misdiagnosed as an umbilical vein varix by prenatal US. MRI was used to identify the persistent vitelline vein segment and the remnant umbilical vein segment. (orig.)

  10. Parallel sub-neural network system for hand vein pattern recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Yuan; Yongduan Song; Xueye Wei

    2011-01-01

    @@ A hand vein authentication system in which the identity of an individual can be readily confirmed upon gripping a handle is proposed.This recognition method incorporates infrared light-emitting diode (LED) onto a door handle and sets a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera on the other side of the hand.It builds on fuzzy c-means clustering and parallel neural networks (NNs); moreover, it is expected to solve the pattern recognition problem in large-scale databases using NNs due to its self-learning and parallel processing capabilities and by effectively incorporating training patterns.The experimental results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.%A hand vein authentication system in which the identity of an individual can be readily confirmed upon gripping a handle is proposed. This recognition method incorporates infrared light-emitting diode (LED)onto a door handle and sets a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera on the other side of the hand. It builds on fuzzy c-means clustering and parallel neural networks (NNs); moreover, it is expected to solve the pattern recognition problem in large-scale databases using NNs due to its self-learning and parallel processing capabilities and by effectively incorporating training patterns. The experimental results validatethe efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Unsupervised learning algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Aydin, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in unsupervised learning. The contributors discuss how with the proliferation of massive amounts of unlabeled data, unsupervised learning algorithms, which can automatically discover interesting and useful patterns in such data, have gained popularity among researchers and practitioners. The authors outline how these algorithms have found numerous applications including pattern recognition, market basket analysis, web mining, social network analysis, information retrieval, recommender systems, market research, intrusion detection, and fraud detection. They present how the difficulty of developing theoretically sound approaches that are amenable to objective evaluation have resulted in the proposal of numerous unsupervised learning algorithms over the past half-century. The intended audience includes researchers and practitioners who are increasingly using unsupervised learning algorithms to analyze their data. Topics of interest include anomaly detection, clustering,...

  12. The study of multi-detector CT on the grouping and measuring of the hepatic veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the three-dimensional topography of the hepatic vein (HV), the inferior vena cava(IVC) and the inferior right hepatic vein(IRHV) in the retrohepatic and pre-IVC tunnel in human beings, and to provide an anatomic reference for liver surgery. Methods: One hundred and ten volunteers underwent CT scanning at 60 to 75 s after injection of contrast medium, and their HV, IVC and IRHV were reconstructed into MPR and 3D-MIP images. The hepatic veins were grouped according to the way by which the hepatic vein enters IVC. The angle between the right hepatic vein and the middle hepatic vein or the trunk of hepatic vein was measured, and the width from right hepatic vein to middle hepatic vein or to the trunk of hepatic vein on IVC was recorded. The frequency of IRHV was observed, and the length of the tunnel was measured. Results: Among the 110 volunteers, there were 6 cases (5.45%) with three hepatic veins respectively entering IVC, 98 cases (89.10%) with right hepatic vein and a common trunk of the middle hepatic vein and the left hepatic vein entering IVC, and 6 cases (5.45%) with left hepatic vein and a common trunk of the right hepatic vein and the middle hepatic vein entering IVC. The mean value of the angles between the right hepatic vein and the middle hepatic vein or the mink of hepatic vein was (55 ± 18) degree. The width from the right hepatic vein to the middle hepatic vein or to the trunk of hepatic vein was (21 ± 7)mm. The IRHV was observed in 30 cases(27.27%). The mean value of the tunnel length was (53 ± 11) mm. Conclusion: The parameters of the retrohepatic and pre-IVC tunnel in human beings can be measured accurately by the imaging of MPR, which can provide an anatomic reference for the liver surgery. (authors)

  13. Palm Vein Verification Using Multiple Features and Locality Preserving Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohsin Al-juboori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person’s skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP, and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%.

  14. Renal Vein Reconstruction for Harvesting Injury in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkan Bozkurt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation is the best treatment choice in the end-stage renal disease. In the renal transplantation, renal vein damage or shortness which occurs during cadaveric or living donor nephrectomy causes technical difficulties for surgeons. The lack of the donors already especially cadaveric, the acquirement of the graft, gets very much importance. In this report, it is aimed to share the clinical experiment by which it seen, how anastomosis can become appropriate by using the renal vein which is damaged in the way that anastomosis cannot be done anyway by using cadaveric vena cava graft. The renal vein brought to length for anostomosis which is repaired by using cadaveric vena cava graft, is anastomosed successfully by becoming an end-to-side of the external iliac vein of the recipient. Vascular anastomoses are applied easily in technique. The time of the warm ischemia was under 2 hours and the kidney was functional in the post-operative period. Renal vein trombosis was not observed. The renal vein damage occured during cadaveric or living donor nephrectomy, can be repaired by some methods. In the kidneys in which vein requirement is done, the success rates are rather high although acute tubular necrosis and delayed function can be seen more.

  15. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  16. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Anatomic Variations of the Femoral Vein and Popliteal Vein in Relation to the Accompanying Artery by Using CT Venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Ah; Chung, Jin Wook; Lee, Whal; Yin, Yong Hu; Ha, Jung Won; Kim, Sang Joon; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospita, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We wanted to describe the three-dimensional (3D) anatomic variations of the femoral vein (FV) and popliteal vein (PV) in relation to the accompanying artery using CT venography. We performed a retrospective review of 445 bilateral (890 limbs) lower limb CT venograms. After the 3D relationship between the FV and PV and accompanying artery was analyzed, the presence or absence of variation was determined and the observed variations were classified. In each patient, the extent and location of the variations and the location of the adductor hiatus were recorded to investigate the regional frequency of the variations. There were four distinct categories of variations: agenesis (3 limbs, 0.3%), multiplication (isolated in the FV: 190 limbs, 21%; isolated in the PV: 14 limbs, 2%; and in both the FV and PV: 51 limbs, 6%), anatomical course variation (75 limbs, 8%) and high union of the tibial veins (737 limbs, 83%). The course variations included medial malposition (60 limbs, 7%), anterior rotation (11 limbs, 1%) and posterior rotation (4 limbs, 0.4%). Mapping the individual variations revealed regional differences in the pattern and frequency of the variations. CT venography helps to confirm a high incidence of variations in the lower limb venous anatomy and it also revealed various positional venous anomalies in relation to the respective artery.

  17. Retinal vein occlusion and the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, P. M.; Galton, D J; Hamilton, A M; Blach, R K

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-nine patients with retinal vein occlusion (40 with central, 59 with branch vein occlusion) were investigated for the prevalence of associated diseases for comparison with an age-matched control group. There was a significantly increased prevalence of hyperlipidaemia (p less than 0.001) and hypercholesterolaemia (p less than 0.001) in the group with branch retinal vein occlusion and of hyperlipidaemia (p less than 0.001) and hypercholesterolaemia (p less than 0.02) in the group with cen...

  18. A phyllosilicate-sulfide vein in Kaidun. [Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Zolensky, M. E.; Brandstatter, F.; Kurat, G.; Kononkova, N. N.

    1994-01-01

    A fragment of a carbonaceous chondrite (#53.12, maximal dimension about 2 mm) containing a phyllosilicate-sulfide vein was found during an inspection of small pieces of the Kaidun meteorite. Phyllosilicate veins are apparently rare in carbonaceous chondrites and have so far only been reported from the Y82162 CI chondrite. In hand sample the vein was visible on two perpendicular faces. The polished section prepared from one side displays a complex structure. A single vein, 150 microns in width, bifurcates, and each branch narrows toward a large rounded object (RO). The section contains abundant ROs, most of them less than or equal to 100 microns in diameter. The vein has sharp contacts to the surrounding matrix, whereas the RO contacts are diffuse. The phyllosilicate in the main vein has a massive texture along the contact, which becomes platy toward the vein center where the crystals protrude into an open space. The texture of the largest RO resembles that of a barred olivine (BO) chondrule. Some of the smaller ROs also texturally resemble chondrules. The BO chondrule contains rounded sulfide-silicate objects and small metal grains covered by oxides. Phyllosilicates of the main vein consist mainly of serpentine. The phyllosilicate near the contact with the matrix has low contents of minor elements and a high Mg/Fe ratio. The composition changes in a regular manner toward the center: Al, Na, Ca, Ni, and S increase, indicating increasing amounts of sulfates admixed. The phyllosilicate vein could only have formed after a substantial rock was formed. Mechanical stress probably opened a crack that was subsequently filled by phyllosilicate, pyrrhotite, and finally by a (Fe,Mg)-sulfate. The source of the matter mobilized to form the vein could have been within the rock itself or outside. No compositional or mineralogical zoning is apparent at the vein-rock contacts. The nature of the transporting agent (liquid H2O or vapor) must also remain an enigma. M. Zolensky has

  19. Foundations of genetic algorithms 1991

    CERN Document Server

    FOGA

    1991-01-01

    Foundations of Genetic Algorithms 1991 (FOGA 1) discusses the theoretical foundations of genetic algorithms (GA) and classifier systems.This book compiles research papers on selection and convergence, coding and representation, problem hardness, deception, classifier system design, variation and recombination, parallelization, and population divergence. Other topics include the non-uniform Walsh-schema transform; spurious correlations and premature convergence in genetic algorithms; and variable default hierarchy separation in a classifier system. The grammar-based genetic algorithm; condition

  20. Combinatorial optimization algorithms and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitriou, Christos H

    1998-01-01

    This clearly written, mathematically rigorous text includes a novel algorithmic exposition of the simplex method and also discusses the Soviet ellipsoid algorithm for linear programming; efficient algorithms for network flow, matching, spanning trees, and matroids; the theory of NP-complete problems; approximation algorithms, local search heuristics for NP-complete problems, more. All chapters are supplemented by thought-provoking problems. A useful work for graduate-level students with backgrounds in computer science, operations research, and electrical engineering.

  1. CLINICAL STUDY OF RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSIONS AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyavathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion is the most common retinal occlusive disorder encountered by Ophthalmologists and is usually associated with a variable amount of visual loss. This is the second most common retinal vascular disease next to diabetic retinopathy. Liebreich initially described dramatic obstruction of veins as retinal apoplexy. Leber ( 1 (1877 reported the first case of BRVO and called it Hem orrhagic retinitis. RVO most commonly affects the venous blood supply of the entire retina (CRVO or a quadrant drained by one of the branches (BRVO or less commonly the superior or inferior half of the retina alone is affected (HCRVO. For discussion and management purpose RVO is broadly classified into six clinical entities includes (1 Non - ischemic CRVO (2 Ischemic CRVO (3 Non ischemic HCRVO (4Ischemic HCRVO (5 Major BRVO (6Macular BRVO. So much of confusion still exists regarding its natural histo ry, degree of severity, management and its progression. The clinical study of RVO is taken up mainly with a view to study the importance of systemic risk factors in etiopathogenisis of RVO, to study the clinical features and effectiveness of treatment in m odification of the natural course and complications of RVO. Depending on type of venous occlusion patient may present with loss of central vision frequently noticed on waking up in the morning, or field contraction, erythropsia, floates, black spots. Episo des of amaurosis fugax lasts for minutes to hours may be present. There may be metamor - phopsia. Signs of decreased visual acuty, RAPD, visual field defects are observed. Fundus picture shows Retinal hemorrhages distributed based on type of venous occlusion . In ischemic CRVO the picture shows “berries on a twig”. Various sequel & complications include macular edema, anterior segment and retinal neovascularisation, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment may be encountered. Various risk factors include Hypert ension, Diabetes, Hyper lipidemia, IHD

  2. Risk of Retinal Vein Occlusion Following End-Stage Renal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yuh-Shin; Weng, Shih-Feng; Chang, Chun; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Tseng, Sung-Huei; Wang, Jiu-yao; Jan, Ren-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the risk of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) following end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The study was designed as a retrospective, nationwide, matched cohort study. The subjects were ESRD patients identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), code 585. The study cohort included 92,774 ESRD patients registered between January 2000 and December 2009 at the Taiwan National Health Insurance...

  3. Diagnosis of Ovarian Vein Syndrome (OVS) by Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruizhi; Yan, Yan; Zhan, Songhua; Song, Litao; Sheng, Weihua; Song, Xu; Wang, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article aims to explore the characteristics of computed tomography (CT) images of ovarian vein syndrome (OVS). The approval of the research ethics committee and the written informed consent of the patients were obtained. The CT images of 11 patients who had been diagnosed with OVS were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were examined with CT urogram, both plain CT scans and enhanced CT scans (including arterial phase, venous phase, and secretory phase). The datum was pulled ...

  4. Tolerability and efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery on hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiao-Jie; Dong, Jing; Ji, Li-Juan; Xiao, Li-Xin; Ling, Chang-quan; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This is a retrospective study on the safety and efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). Patients with confirmed HCC and PVTT were allocated into two groups based on the treatments they received (palliative or GKR). A total of 138 patients were included (74 in the palliative group, 64 in GKR group). No significant differences in baseline characteristics existed between the two groups. Treatment-related adve...

  5. Systematic literature review of treatments for management of complications of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Steven E; Gala, Smeet; Nanavaty, Merena; Shah, Anshul; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Kefalas, Panos

    2016-01-01

    Background To understand the clinical and economic outcomes of treatments for managing complications of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (iCRVO). Methods We conducted a systematic literature review by searching multiple databases and ophthalmology conferences from 2004 to 2015. Studies published in English language and populations of age ≥45 years were included. For clinical endpoints, we defined eligibility criteria as randomized controlled trials, prospective before-and-after study d...

  6. Intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion: 12-month results

    OpenAIRE

    Demir M; Oba E.; Gulkilik G; Odabasi M; Ozdal E

    2011-01-01

    Mehmet Demir, Ersin Oba, Gökhan Gulkilik, Mahmut Odabasi, Erhan OzdalSisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Sisli, Istanbul, TurkeyPurpose: To present the functional and anatomic changes after intravitreal bevacizumab in eyes with macular edema (ME) due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).Design: The study was a retrospective study.Materials and methods: The study included 31 patients with ME due to BRVO. We compared the examination findings of patients with ME b...

  7. Bevacizumab therapy for macular edema in central retinal vein occlusion: Long-term results

    OpenAIRE

    Manayath, George J.; V Narendran; Nadia Al-Kharousi; Upender K Wali

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is no proven effective treatment for vision loss in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Bevacizumab has been reported in small series with limited follow-up, to have a positive effect in reducing cystoid macular edema (CME) and improving vision in CRVO. Purpose: To report long-term results with the use of bevacizumab in CRVO. Materials and Methods: Prospective interventional case series included 15 patients, serially evaluated with best corrected visual acuity (...

  8. Nitroprusside modulates pulmonary vein arrhythmogenic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yao-Chang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary veins (PVs are the most important sources of ectopic beats with the initiation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, or the foci of ectopic atrial tachycardia and focal atrial fibrillation. Elimination of nitric oxide (NO enhances cardiac triggered activity, and NO can decrease PV arrhythmogensis through mechano-electrical feedback. However, it is not clear whether NO may have direct electrophysiological effects on PV cardiomyocytes. This study is aimed to study the effects of nitroprusside (NO donor, on the ionic currents and arrhythmogenic activity of single cardiomyocytes from the PVs. Methods Single PV cardiomyocytes were isolated from the canine PVs. The action potential and ionic currents were investigated in isolated single canine PV cardiomyocytes before and after sodium nitroprusside (80 μM, using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results Nitroprusside decreased PV cardiomyocytes spontaneous beating rates from 1.7 ± 0.3 Hz to 0.5 ± 0.4 Hz in 9 cells (P Conclusion Nitroprusside regulates the electrical activity of PV cardiomyocytes, which suggests that NO may play a role in PV arrhythmogenesis.

  9. Electrophysiological evaluation of pulmonary vein isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kircher; Philipp Sommer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the pulmonary veins (PVs had been identified as a major source of AF triggers, ablation strategies targeting the PVs have evolved from focal ablation inside the PVs to wide area circumferential PV isolation (PVI which at this juncture is the standard approach. Despite the widespread popularity of PVI a universal definition is lacking. Whilst “entrance block” is a generally accepted endpoint for PVI, the role of “exit block” has yet to be determined. Unexcitability of the circular ablation line has been introduced as a promising additional endpoint for PVI and was associated with an improved clinical outcome in a randomized trial. Correct interpretation of PV electrograms during an ablation procedure is critical in terms of efficacy and safety. A variety of electrophysiological techniques help to correctly differentiate components of complex PV electrograms. Resumption of PV conduction after initially successful PVI leading to AF recurrence remains a major problem and confirmation of bi-directional conduction block does not exclude reversible tissue damage along the ablation line. Prolongation of post-PVI monitoring and application of provocative procedures such as the administration of adenosine after initial PVI to unmask dormant PV conduction may improve clinical outcome although there is lack of valid data supporting these strategies.

  10. Clinical trials in branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandava Krishnan Panakanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is the second most common retinal vascular disorder. The management of macular edema has changed considerably over time. The laser is considered the gold standard treatment for over two decades. However, visual recovery with laser is usually slow and incomplete. The advent of intravitreal agents, specifically anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF have heralded a new era which promises rapid recovery of vision and quality of vision. Randomized clinical trials have reported optimal results with anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept compared to laser therapy or steroids. However, nearly 50% of the patients require repeat intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy up to 4 years after initiating therapy to sustain the visual gains. The adverse events (systemic and ocular of these agents are minimal. Monotherapy with anti-VEGF agents have been found to provide better results than any combination with laser. This review article summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment options for the treatment of macular edema secondary to BRVO with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy.

  11. Algorithms in Singular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schonemann

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Some algorithms for singularity theory and algebraic geometry The use of Grobner basis computations for treating systems of polynomial equations has become an important tool in many areas. This paper introduces of the concept of standard bases (a generalization of Grobner bases and the application to some problems from algebraic geometry. The examples are presented as SINGULAR commands. A general introduction to Grobner bases can be found in the textbook [CLO], an introduction to syzygies in [E] and [St1]. SINGULAR is a computer algebra system for computing information about singularities, for use in algebraic geometry. The basic algorithms in SINGULAR are several variants of a general standard basis algorithm for general monomial orderings (see [GG]. This includes wellorderings (Buchberger algorithm ([B1], [B2] and tangent cone orderings (Mora algorithm ([M1], [MPT] as special cases: It is able to work with non-homogeneous and homogeneous input and also to compute in the localization of the polynomial ring in 0. Recent versions include algorithms to factorize polynomials and a factorizing Grobner basis algorithm. For a complete description of SINGULAR see [Si].

  12. Algorithms in combinatorial design theory

    CERN Document Server

    Colbourn, CJ

    1985-01-01

    The scope of the volume includes all algorithmic and computational aspects of research on combinatorial designs. Algorithmic aspects include generation, isomorphism and analysis techniques - both heuristic methods used in practice, and the computational complexity of these operations. The scope within design theory includes all aspects of block designs, Latin squares and their variants, pairwise balanced designs and projective planes and related geometries.

  13. Creation of an Arterio-Venous Fistula Between the Brachial Artery and Basilic Vein with a Saphenous Vein Graft Interposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan KARA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis are usually open in the upper extremity. For patients with thrombosed arteriovenous fistulas in this area, alternative fistula access routes are needed. AVF creation with a saphenous vein graft is an alternative hemodialysis access method in the patient who has lost the chance of fistula creation with his native vessels.The aim of this case report is to discuss AV fistula management with a saphenous vein graft between the brachial artery and basilic vein in a hemodialysisdependent patient. In this patient previous fistulas were thrombosed and the native vessels in the upper extremity vessels were not suitable for a new AV fistula creation.

  14. [Can distal vein arterialization be beneficial for the diabetic foot with necrosis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, F

    When arterial bypass cannot be used in cases of diabetic arteriopathy of the lower limbs, we have, since 1974, relied on the former method using the veins. Arterial blood is brought to the zone of ischaemia via an internal saphenous vein graft anastomosed distally to a vein in the foot, thus creating an arteriovenous fistula. Improvements in the technique include removing the valves in the dorsal venous arcade. Fourteen bypasses were performed in 13 diabetic patients with foot necrosis, including 12 with non-insulin dependent diabetes. There were 7 men and 6 women with a mean age of 83 years. The bypass was patent with a mean follow-up 15 months. At mean follow-up of 4 years (range 4 months-12 years), there were 9 successful operations and 5 failures. Two-thirds of the feet were saved more than 2 years including one more than 5 years and two more than 10 years. One patient died 4 days after the operation due to myocardial infarction. Heart failure was not observed in any of the patients. This technique can help preserve lower limbs otherwise compromised by insufficient arterial blood supply. PMID:8785915

  15. Circumaortic Left Renal Vein-A Rare Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagar, Anupama Doddappaiah; Subhash, R. Lakshmi Prabha; Suresh, B.S.; Nagaraj, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    During routine dissection which was carried out for the medical students, a circumaortic left renal vein draining into inferior vena cava was observed. There were 2 renal veins through which the left kidney drained into the inferior vena cava, of which the larger one ran ventral to aorta and the other smaller one ran posterior to aorta and received lumbar veins before opening into inferior vena cava. This is a relatively rare condition which can result in left renal hypertension (LRVH) syndrome which is otherwise called as anterior and posterior nutcracker syndromes. This venous anomaly results from the errors of embryological development. It is of clinical significance, mainly during retroperitoneal surgeries and intra caval interventions. It is also important in conditions which warrant extensive venous dissections, venous reconstructions as in transplantations and invasion of veins by cancerous tissue, resulting in life threatening haemorrhage. PMID:24783096

  16. HIV associated deep vein thrombosis: Case reports from Jos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C A Daniyam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep vein thrombosis (DVT has been reported to be 2-10 times commoner in HIV infected patients than in the general population. We report two cases of extensive unilateral deep vein thrombosis involving the lower limb in HIV infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Doppler ultrasound in the two patients revealed evidence of venous thrombosis from the femoral vein down to the posterior tibial veins. None of the patients had a history of acquired risk factors for DVT. Both patients responded well to anti-coagulants. A high index of suspicion may therefore be required to make the diagnosis and institute adequate management for this condition which has potentially life threatening consequences.

  17. Diagnosis, investigation, and management of deep vein thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tovey, Clive; Wyatt, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its clinical diagnosis is unreliable. This article explains current screening and diagnostic methods as well as treatment

  18. Dorsal Hand Vein Biometry by Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H.Yadav

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication provides a high security and reliable approach to be used in security access system. Personal identification based on hand vein patterns is a newly developed recent year. The pattern of blood veins in the hand is unique to every individual, even among identical twins, and it do notchange over time. These properties of uniqueness, stability and strong immunity to forgery of the vein patterns make it a potentially good biometric trait which offers greater security and reliable features for personal identification. In this study, we have used the BOSPHORUS hand vein database which has been taken under a source of NIR infrared radiation. For feature extraction we applied appearance based method ICA which produces independent components. To control over the number of independent component we preprocessed data by PCA before applying ICA, and gives good experimental results.

  19. Why Do Some Pregnant Women Get Varicose Veins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found in the legs, genital area, and rectum ( hemorrhoids are just a type of varicose veins). Varicose ... Recovering From Delivery How Do You Treat Pregnancy Hemorrhoids and Constipation? Medical Care During Pregnancy 10 Things ...

  20. Plantar vein thrombosis: a rare cause of plantar foot pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, Daniel S.; Wu, Jim S.; Brennan, Darren D.; Hochman, Mary G. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Challies, Tracy [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Plantar vein thrombosis is a rare condition, with only a handful of cases reported in the literature. The cause is unknown; however, the disease has been attributed to prior surgery, trauma, and paraneoplastic conditions. We present a case of a 32-year-old female runner with plantar vein thrombosis diagnosed on contrast-enhanced MRI and confirmed on ultrasound. The symptoms resolved with conservative treatment and evaluation revealed the presence of a prothrombin gene mutation and use of oral contraceptive pills. To our knowledge, this is the first case of plantar vein thrombosis diagnosed initially by MRI. Moreover, this case suggests that plantar vein thrombosis should be considered in patients with hypercoagulable states and plantar foot pain. (orig.)

  1. Postpartum Ovarian Vein Thrombosis: Two Cases and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos A. Akinbiyi

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion. Ovarian vein thrombosis is rare, but could present late, and difficult to diagnose, hence, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in a postpartum woman with fever and tender pelvic mass.

  2. Normal anatomical variation of the intrahepatic portal vein in Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Cheon; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Moon, Won Jin; Lee, Tae Hee [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of variations in the intrahepatic portions of portal veins, as visualized by arterial portograms, and to examine the surgical implications of these findings in Koreans. Five hundred and nineteen arterial portograms of 519 patients with no evidence of vascular tumor invasion or distortion were retrospectively reviewed. In all patients, the main, right, right anterior, right posterior and left portal vein were visualized. On arterial portogram, variations in the intrahepatic portions of the portal veins are frequently seen. The recognition of such variations is important in the preoperative evaluation of patients with hepatic tumors, since the variations may have implications for tumor resection, for the localization of tumor thrombi and in interventional radiologic procedures involving the portal vein. (author).13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  3. Portal vein cannulation: An uncommon complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelos Kalaitzakis; Nicholas Stern; Richard Sturgess

    2011-01-01

    Portal vein cannulation is a rare complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). It has been reported that it usually occurs after endoscopic sphincterotomy, whereas in cases without prior sphincterotomy, the presence of portobiliary fistulas has been shown. Here, we present a case in which cannulation of the portal vein occurred despite careful wire-guided cannulation and the absence of sphincterotomy. Although fatal cases of cerebral and pulmonary air and/or bile embolism have been reported in patients with combined portal and hepatic vein trauma after ERCP and sphincterotomy, isolated portal vein cannulation, as in the current case, does not usually result in mortality or serious morbidity. However, awareness of this rare complication is important so that no further intervention is performed.

  4. Algorithmic Adventures

    CERN Document Server

    Hromkovic, Juraj

    2009-01-01

    Explores the science of computing. This book starts with the development of computer science, algorithms and programming, and then explains and shows how to exploit the concepts of infinity, computability, computational complexity, nondeterminism and randomness.

  5. BREAST TUMOUR PRESENTING AS RECURRENT DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis development during the course of treatment of breast carcinoma has been well described, but carcinoma breast presenting with DVT for the first time is highly unusual. We present the case of a 45 year old women with recurrent deep vein thrombosis of left lower limb. During the second episode she was found to have infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast with axillary lymph node metastasis. To our knowledge there have been only one literature report of breast carci...

  6. Systemic thrombolysis in the upper extremity deep vein thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Roxana; Safi, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Almost 4% of all patients with venous thrombosis have upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) and the incidence of UEDVT increases over time. The frequency of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) after UEDVT is not low and upper extremity PTS is a potentially major morbidity that adversely affects quality of life, particularly if the dominant arm is involved. We discuss briefly the role of thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis and also the role of system...

  7. ENDOLUMINAL TREATMENT OF THE VARICOSE VEINS OF THE LOWER LIMB

    OpenAIRE

    C. Lupascu; Gabriela Canschi

    2005-01-01

    Endoluminal surgery of the varicose veins it's not a recent technique but the new procedures using radiofrequency and laser considerably relaunced its interest. The thermic energy that this technique gives to the venous wall induces a fibrous retraction of the vein and its occlusion. There are detailed here the material needed, methods but also the difficulties, possible incidents and accidents during them. The indications of these endoluminal interventions are still a disputed subject. The e...

  8. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in the Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, PL; Li, WS; Leung, R.; Chan, HT; Chan, J

    1998-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is a well-recognised major health problem in the West. There is a deep-rooted belief among clinicians that deep vein thrombosis is rare in Asians, particularly in the Chinese population. However, it appears that the incidence of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is increasing in Chinese patients. Prophylaxis reduces the incidence of venous thrombosis by 66% and of pulmonary embolism by 50%Ը? prophylaxis should therefore be considered for Chin...

  9. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with quetiapine fumarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion in a young adult with bipolar mood disorder treated with quetiapine fumarate. Case Presentation A 29 years old gentleman who was taking quetiapine fumarate for 3 years for bipolar mood disorder, presented with sudden vision loss. He was found to have a superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion associated with hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have metabolic side effects which require regular monitoring and prompt treatment.

  10. Sciatica caused by a dilated epidural vein: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Petre, C.; Wilms, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Plets, C. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium)

    1999-02-01

    We report the MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman presenting with sudden low back pain and sciatica. At surgery a dilated epidural vein was found compressing the nerve root. The MR findings may suggest the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of a dilated epidural vein or varix causing sciatica has not been reported until now. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 4 refs.

  11. Immunocytochemical features of obstructed saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts.

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, J I; Pickering, N J; Fink, G B

    1989-01-01

    The peroxidase-immunoperoxidase immunocytochemical method was used on 27 saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts, which had been resected because of recurrent angina, to identify in situ cellular and humoral elements possibly associated with graft occlusion. Immunostaining was performed on paraffin wax embedded control saphenous vein and graft sections incubated directly with primary antibodies against von Willebrand antigen (vWFAg), fibronectin, fibrinogen, leucocyte common antigen (LCA...

  12. An unusual intraventricular interthalamic vein: two anatomical case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Cyrille; Peltier, Johann; Foulon, Pascal; Page, Cyril; Havet, Eric; Le Gars, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Neurosurgeons use ventricular veins during an endoscopic third ventriculocisternostomy as landmark to progress in ventricles. In the current literature, there is lack of detailed intraventricular venous anatomy. Majority of those papers treats Monro's foramen venous variations. There are no data of third ventricle venous anatomy and variations in the literature. We reported two cases of unusual interthalamic vein that we need to spare during endoscopy. PMID:22543760

  13. Hepatic portal vein gas as a complication of cryotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredson, M.J.; Brooks, A J; Talbot, M.L.; Morris, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Hepatic portal vein gas (HPVG) is a radiological finding normally associated with life-threatening conditions such as mesenteric ischaemia and necrotising enterocolitis in infants. Its presence has previously been associated with a high mortality rate. As a result of more sensitive imaging modalities the spectrum of conditions for which portal vein gas is detected has broadened. We present a patient who developed HPVG as a complication of cryotherapy. The association between porta...

  14. DEM modeling of fracture propagation in veined rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, S.; Abe, S.; Urai, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    One fundamental aspect of crack seal veins is that an existing vein can act as a heterogeneity in the rock which controls the localization of successive fracturing at unchanged mean stress orientations. Observations from crack-seal vein systems suggest that existing veins fundamentally influence the fracture behavior of a rock even in cases where the orientation of the stress field is highly incompatible with the orientation of the vein. We used a series of 3D Discrete Element Simulations to systematically investigate the influence of existing veins with varying orientation and mechanical properties on an approaching fracture. The models consist of a tabular heterogeneity within a bonded particle volume fractured under uniaxial tension. The parameters varied in the study are the orientation of the heterogeneity relative to the direction of uniaxial extension and therefore relative to the orientation of the favorable fracture plane as well as the fracture strength ratio between the matrix material, the vein material and the interface between vein and matrix material. The elastic parameters (e.g. Young's modulus) are kept homogeneous throughout the model. Thereby it is ensured that the results are not altered by stress field perturbation induced by stiffness contrasts. The model materials used were carefully tested and calibrated to ensure comparability with natural examples in terms of their fracture-mechanical properties. The simulations were repeated for several random particle packings to eliminate the effect of heterogeneities in the packing on the results. The results show a strong influence of the tabular heterogeneity on the fracture propagation for all orientations and at cohesion ratios within the range of natural systems. Besides curving and deflection of the fracture path associated with changes in fracture mode, bifurcation of fractures as well as arrest of propagation and nucleation of new fractures can be observed.

  15. A case of aneurysm of the vein of Galen.

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, K. B.; Chang, D I; Kim, J. H.; Kim, M H; Hahm, C. K.; Jeon, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    Aneurysm of the vein of Galen is a very rare disease. The authors present a case of secondary aneurysm of the vein of Galen which was confirmed by characteristic clinical symptoms, brain CT and angiographic findings. The patient was a 14-year-old right handed girl with intermittent headache, nausea, vomiting, dysphasia and gait disturbance. Neurologic examination revealed dysarthria, nasal voice, blurring of both margins of optic discs, truncal ataxia and dysdiadochokinesia. Sensory function ...

  16. A Randomized Trial Comparing Treatments for Varicose Veins

    OpenAIRE

    Brittenden, J.; Cotton, S. C.; Elders, A.; Ramsay, C. R.; Norrie, J.; Burr, J.M.; Campbell, B.; Bachoo, P.; Chetter, I.; Gough, M.; Earnshaw, J; Lees, T; Scott, J.; BAKER, S.; Francis, J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy and endovenous laser ablation are widely used alternatives to surgery for the treatment of varicose veins, but their comparative effectiveness and safety remain uncertain. METHODS: In a randomized trial involving 798 participants with primary varicose veins at 11 centers in the United Kingdom, we compared the outcomes of foam, laser, and surgical treatments. Primary outcomes at 6 months were disease-specific quality of life and generic qual...

  17. Treatment and Quality of Life of Patients with Varicose Veins

    OpenAIRE

    Biemans, Anke

    2013-01-01

    textabstractVaricose veins are common and have a substantial impact on patients’ quality of life. Multiple good treatment options are currently available. In this thesis we describe the indications, procedures, safety, efficacy and recurrence profiles of the most frequently performed treatments for varicose veins. Health related quality of life questionnaires are important instruments to measure impact of disease on patients and can be used to evaluate treatment effects. We translate and vali...

  18. Veins and Lymphatics is taking its first steps

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Ricci

    2012-01-01

    Veins represent an important field of medicine. They are frequently involved in several diseases with a very wide range of severity. At one end of the spectrum, we have thrombosis and post-thrombotic syndrome, while at the other we have telangectasias, and a vast number of other conditions lie between these two extremes. Varicose veins are not always severe, but they affect an enormous number of people, with a consequent social and economic burden to society. Lymphology is also an important s...

  19. Aneurysmal Malformation of Galen Vein: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    A. Alizadeh; Sh. Yousefzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Vein of Galen aneurismal malformation (VGAM) is a rare congenital vascular malformation Characterized by shunting of arterial flow into en-larged cerebral vein, dorsal to the tectum that consti-tute approximately 1% of all intracranial vascular le-sions, however they represent 30% of vascular mal-formations in the pediatric groups."nCase Presentation: A Ten-month old male infant pre-sented to the pediatric physician by increase in the head circumference. There were no sympt...

  20. An unusual presentation of postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian vein thrombosis is a rare but potentially serious complication following childbirth. The majority of patients present during the first week postpartum, with fever and right lower quadrant abdominal pain. We report an unusual case of postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis who presented with fever, low backache, and painful thighs. A high index of suspicion is crucial to diagnose and treat this condition in order to avoid serious consequences. (author)

  1. Calcification of an aneurysm of the vein of Galen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3 1/2 month old boy was diagnosed as having hydrocephalus secondary to an aneurysm of the vein of Galen. Cerebral angiography 2 1/2 years later showed the aneurysm to be completely occluded and CT demonstrated it to be thrombosed and completely calcified. Complete calcification of an aneurysm of the vein of Galen has only been described on two previous occasions and never in a child this young. (orig.)

  2. Low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of retinal vein occlusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

    OpenAIRE

    Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Hawel, Jeff; Ageno, Walter; Kovacs, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion is a frequent cause of visual loss for which few effective therapies are available. Anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin might be of value in its treatment. We conducted a systematic review and meta analysis of randomized trials evaluating the effect of low molecular weight heparin in patients with retinal vein occlusion. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, the Cochrane Library, Lilacs, the Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science datab...

  3. Automated detection and classification of major retinal vessels for determination of diameter ratio of arteries and veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hatanaka, Yuji; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities of retinal vasculatures can indicate health conditions in the body, such as the high blood pressure and diabetes. Providing automatically determined width ratio of arteries and veins (A/V ratio) on retinal fundus images may help physicians in the diagnosis of hypertensive retinopathy, which may cause blindness. The purpose of this study was to detect major retinal vessels and classify them into arteries and veins for the determination of A/V ratio. Images used in this study were obtained from DRIVE database, which consists of 20 cases each for training and testing vessel detection algorithms. Starting with the reference standard of vasculature segmentation provided in the database, major arteries and veins each in the upper and lower temporal regions were manually selected for establishing the gold standard. We applied the black top-hat transformation and double-ring filter to detect retinal blood vessels. From the extracted vessels, large vessels extending from the optic disc to temporal regions were selected as target vessels for calculation of A/V ratio. Image features were extracted from the vessel segments from quarter-disc to one disc diameter from the edge of optic discs. The target segments in the training cases were classified into arteries and veins by using the linear discriminant analysis, and the selected parameters were applied to those in the test cases. Out of 40 pairs, 30 pairs (75%) of arteries and veins in the 20 test cases were correctly classified. The result can be used for the automated calculation of A/V ratio.

  4. [Treatment of nontumoral portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañares, Rafael; Catalina, María-Vega

    2014-07-01

    Portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis is a relatively common complication associated with the presence of an accompanying prothrombotic phenotype of advanced cirrhosis. The consequences of portal vein thrombosis are relevant because it can be associated with impaired hepatic function, might contraindicate hepatic transplantation and could increase morbidity in the surgical procedure. There is controversy concerning the most effective treatment of portal vein thrombosis, which is based on information that is seldom robust and whose primary objective is to achieve a return to vessel patency. Various studies have suggested that starting anticoagulation therapy early is associated with portal vein repatency more frequently than without treatment and has a low rate of complications. There are no proven data on the type of anticoagulant (low-molecular-weight heparins or dicoumarin agents) and the treatment duration. The implementation of TIPS is technically feasible in thrombosis without cavernous transformation and is associated with portal vein recanalization in a significant proportion of cases. Thrombolytic therapy does not appear to present an adequate balance between efficacy and safety; its use is therefore not supported for this indication. The proper definition of treatment for portal vein thrombosis requires properly designed studies to delimit the efficacy and safety of the various alternatives. PMID:25087714

  5. Classification of the drainage patterns of the renal veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyapal, K S

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the drainage patterns of the renal veins are well described, but existing classifications of the renal veins have deficiencies. This study aimed to formulate a practical classification of their drainage patterns, taking into consideration the number of primary tributaries, additional renal veins and variations. The venous system of 306 kidneys (from 131 males and 22 females) obtained from 100 pairs of resin casts and 53 pairs of plastinated kidneys were analysed. Based on a proposed definition of the renal vein, 3 major types (I, II, III) were identified using the drainage pattern of the primary renal vein tributaries and the renal vein as a basis on both the left and right sides. Type IA occurred most frequently (38.6%) and was commoner on the left. Type IB was the second most frequent (25.2%), with the other types showing lower and similar frequencies (10.1-14.4%). Statistically significant differences were noted between the left and right kidneys with regard to the classification into the different types (P < 0.0001). The proposed classification system is practical and has surgical and uroradiological relevance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7649831

  6. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels in plasma from tumour arteries and veins of patients with rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, C.; Lykke, J.; Christensen, I.J.; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective . Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) plays a major role in the regulation of tissue growth, including cancer growth. The TIMP-1 protein can be determined in plasma, and increased plasma levels of TIMP-1 are associated with a poor prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. The...... aim of the present study was to evaluate whether tumour tissue release of the TIMP-1 protein contributes to the increased plasma levels of TIMP-1 observed in patients with colorectal cancer. Material and methods . Preoperative blood samples from a peripheral vein and intraoperative blood samples from...... a tumour artery, a tumour vein and from a peripheral vein were drawn from 24 patients undergoing elective, intended curative surgery for primary rectal cancer. TIMP-1 levels were determined concurrently in plasma from all samples using a validated ELISA method. Counts of white blood cells and...

  7. Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaraa Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein. Conclusion This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.

  8. The clinical efficacy observation of fluoroscopy-guided foam sclerotherapy with lauromacrogol for varicose veins of the lower extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the clinical efficacy of foam sclerotherapy with lauromacrogol for varicose veins of the lower extremities. Methods: During the period from February to July 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 20 patients with varicose veins of the lower extremities, who were treated with lauromacrogol foam sclerosing agent injected directly at varicose veins, and in 5 extremities injected at the great saphenous vein (GSV) through a catheter at the same time. Elastic bandages were applied at the site of the injected varicosities after the therapy. The clogging of the varicose veins, the improvement of the clinical symptoms and the adverse reaction were observed. Results: Lauromacrogol foam sclerosing agent was successfully injected under the guidance of fluoroscopy in 20 patients with 28 affected extremities. The average volume of foam sclerosing agent in each affected extremity was 7.8 ml. All patients presented self limiting minor complications, including swelling and pain, which was obviously alleviated by the externally applied Mucopolysaccharide Polysulfate Cream. Two patients presented cough that was relieved after inhaling oxygen. Most of treated varicosities demonstrated pigmentation after the first week, which gradually disappeared after the four-month use of vitamin E capsule. A second foam sclerotherapy was carried out for 3 affected extremities of 3 patients two months after the first therapy. Two cases of leg venous ulcer were healed within a few weeks. All patients could walk immediately with no deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, anaphylaxis, or transient visual disturbance. Obvious abnormal varicose veins as well as the soreness and fatigue of the lower extremities disappeared in all patients at the 10th-month follow-up. The grading of the disease was significantly improved by the treatment (Z=5.103, P<0.01). Conclusions: The efficacy of lauromacrogol foam sclerosing agent in the treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities is

  9. Essential algorithms a practical approach to computer algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2013-01-01

    A friendly and accessible introduction to the most useful algorithms Computer algorithms are the basic recipes for programming. Professional programmers need to know how to use algorithms to solve difficult programming problems. Written in simple, intuitive English, this book describes how and when to use the most practical classic algorithms, and even how to create new algorithms to meet future needs. The book also includes a collection of questions that can help readers prepare for a programming job interview. Reveals methods for manipulating common data structures s

  10. Interventional therapy via jugular vein access for the treatment of portal thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of the interventional therapy using transjugular pathway in the treatment of portal thrombosis. Methods: Twenty-one patients with portal thrombosis were treated with interventional management via jugular vein access. The procedures included pharmaceutical thrombolysis through portal indwelling catheter and/or mechanical thrombectomy (MT), while balloon angioplasty and stent placement were used to treat the residual strictures. For patients complicated with cirrhosis and hemorrhage of the upper digestive tract intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was established after MT. Results: Portal patency was obtained in 18 patients with disappearance of the symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, as well as abdominal pain and distention. In two patients receiving the procedure of intrahepatic portosystemic shunt hepatic encephalopathy developed, which was controlled by medication. Of three patients with therapeutic failure, one died of gastrointestinal bleeding and two received medication. Conclusion: Interventional therapy via jugular vein access is a safe, minimally-invasive and effective treatment for portal thrombosis. (authors)

  11. Radioembolisation and portal vein embolization before resection of large hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Fikri; Poncelet, Arthur; Garcia, Camilo Alejandro; Delatte, Philippe; Engelhom, Jean Luc; Gomez Galdon, Maria; Deleporte, Amélie; Hendlisz, Alain; Vanderlinden, Bruno; Flamen, Patrick; Donckier, Vincent

    2015-08-28

    Resectability of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver disease is dramatically limited by the need to preserve sufficient remnant liver in order to avoid postoperative liver insufficiency. Preoperative treatments aimed at downsizing the tumor and promoting hypertrophy of the future remnant liver may improve resectability and reduce operative morbidity. Here we report the case of a patient with a large hepatocellular carcinoma arising from chronic liver disease. Preoperative treatment, including tumor downsizing with transarterial radioembolization and induction of future remnant liver hypertrophy with right portal vein embolization, resulted in a 53% reduction in tumor volume and compensatory hypertrophy in the contralateral liver. The patient subsequently underwent extended right hepatectomy with no postoperative signs of liver decompensation. Pathological examination demonstrated a margin-free resection and major tumor response. This new therapeutic sequence, combining efficient tumor targeting and subsequent portal vein embolization, could improve the feasibility and safety of major liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver injury. PMID:26327775

  12. Vein conduit associated with microsurgical suture for complete collateral digital nerve severance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligand-Perrin, P; Rabarin, F; Jeudy, J; Césari, B; Saint-Cast, Y; Fouque, P-A; Raimbeau, G

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the long term results of a series of 53 vein conduit grafts as first line therapy to repair complete severance of one or more collateral digital nerves. The surgical technique included an epi-perineural suture of the nerve under minimal tension, associated with a vein graft harvested from the back of the hand to cover the nerve. None of the patients presented with a neuroma, spontaneous pain or had stopped using the injured finger. Sensibility results were good or very good in 67% of cases. The scar at the donor site was very light or invisible. A total of 96% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied. This simple technique, by protecting the injured nerve, results in a rate of sensory nerve recovery that is comparable or better than that of other series in the literature, without neuroma and with minimal scarring at the donor site. PMID:21531189

  13. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From an extensive literature search and field examination of 96 nonsandstone radioactive occurrences, the author compiled an annotated bibliography of over 600 citations and a list of 327 radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico. The citations are indexed by individual radioactive occurrence, geographic area, county, fluorspar deposits and occurrences, geochemical analyses, and geologic maps. In addition, the geology, mineralization, and uranium and thorium potential of 41 geographic areas in New Mexico containing known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks or that contain host rocks considered favorable for uranium or thorium mineralization are summarized. A list of aerial-radiometric, magnetic, hydrogeochemical, and stream-sediment survey reports is included

  14. Metamorphopsia Associated with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Koichiro; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Osaka, Rie; Nakano, Yuki; Fujita, Tomoyoshi; Shiragami, Chieko; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Uji, Akihito; Muraoka, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To apply M-CHARTS for quantitative measurements of metamorphopsia in eyes with acute branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and to elucidate the pathomorphology that causes metamorphopsia. Methods This prospective study consisted of 42 consecutive patients (42 eyes) with acute BRVO. Both at baseline and one month after treatment with ranibizumab, metamorphopsia was measured with M-CHARTS, and the retinal morphological changes were examined with optical coherence tomography. Results At baseline, metamorphopsia was detected in the vertical and/or horizontal directions in 29 (69.0%) eyes; the mean vertical and horizontal scores were 0.59 ± 0.57 and 0.52 ± 0.67, respectively. The maximum inner retinal thickness showed no association with the M-CHARTS score, but the M-CHARTS score was correlated with the total foveal thickness (r = 0.43, p = 0.004), the height of serous retinal detachment (r = 0.31, p = 0.047), and the maximum outer retinal thickness (r = 0.36, p = 0.020). One month after treatment, both the inner and outer retinal thickness substantially decreased. However, metamorphopsia persisted in 26 (89.7%) of 29 eyes. The posttreatment M-CHARTS score was not correlated with any posttreatment morphological parameters. However, the posttreatment M-CHARTS score was weakly correlated with the baseline total foveal thickness (r = 0.35. p = 0.024) and closely correlated with the baseline M-CHARTS score (r = 0.78, p < 0.001). Conclusions Metamorphopsia associated with acute BRVO was quantified using M-CHARTS. Initial microstructural changes in the outer retina from acute BRVO may primarily account for the metamorphopsia. PMID:27123642

  15. Comparing study with two venous approaches of antegrade catheterization for thrombolysis in acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of catheterization via the great saphenous vein for thrombolysis in acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (IFVT). Methods: Patients with documented acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis were divided into two groups. Patients in group A received CDT with venous access through the ipsilateral great saphenous vein. The patients in group B received CDT via the ipsilateral popliteal vein. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by measuring the circumferences between the normal and affected limbs before and after treatment; the venous patency score, the rate of patency improvement based on venographic results; and the clinical results including the limbs edema reduction rate, the mean punctuation duration and complications; were all compared between the two groups. Results: The total effective rates between group A and group B showed no significant difference (95.2% vs 96%, P = 0.549); including the limbs edema reduction rates(86.6 ± 20.0% vs 85.7 ± 14.6%, P=0.868), likewise, the rates of venous patency improvement(57.9 ± 19.4% vs 57.7 ± 19.3%, P=0.968). The mean punctuation duration of group A was remarkable less than that of group B (7.3 minutes vs 16.7 minutes, P<0.05). The incidence of complications at the site of insertion in group A was lower than that in group B (P<0.05). Conclusions: The great saphenous vein is a new alternative access site for antegrade catheterization in catheter-directed thrombolysis for treatment of acute IFVT; more convenient and safe than popliteal venous approach. (authors)

  16. Creation of a neo-aortoiliac system from lower extremity deep and superficial veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, G P; Bowers, B L; Lopez-Viego, M A; Rossi, M B; Valentine, R J; Myers, S I; Chervu, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the morbidity, mortality, and intermediate term follow-up of patients undergoing replacement of their aortoiliac-femoral systems with lower extremity deep and superficial veins. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The most commonly used treatment for aortic prosthetic infection is ectopic bypass and removal of the prosthesis. The overall mortality rate with this approach is approximately 20%, with an amputation rate of 10% to 14%. Other limitations include thrombosis of the ectopic bypass leading to limb loss, reinfection of the ectopic bypass, and aortic stump blowout. Dissatisfaction with this approach has led the authors to develop the following. METHODS: A neo-aortoiliac system (NAIS) was fashioned from lower extremity deep veins (DV), greater saphenous veins (GSV), or both in patients with infected aortobifemoral prosthesis (n = 17) and other complex aortic problems (n = 3). Removal of infected prosthetic material, harvest of vein, and creation of NAIS was performed as a single-staged procedure. RESULTS: The in-hospital mortality and amputation rates were 10% each. The mean (+/- standard deviation [SD]) operative time was 6.5 +/- 1.8 hours and the blood transfusion requirement was 4 +/- 3 units. Four patients experienced postoperative gastrointestinal complications with peritonitis and sepsis; NAIS vein graft resisted infection and remained intact. The mean follow-up time was 22.5 +/- 16 months. NAISs constructed from GSVs were prone to the development of focal stenoses requiring intervention or diffuse neointimal hyperplasia leading to occlusion. In contrast, all NAISs from larger caliber DVs have remained widely patent. The failure rate of GSV NAISs was 64%, compared to 0% for DV NAISs (p = 0.006). Despite the high failure rate in patients with GSV NAISs, none has required amputation. In patients who had DVs harvested for NAIS reconstruction, limb edema and other signs of venous hypertension have been minimal. CONCLUSION: NAIS

  17. Analysis of Pulmonary Vein Antrums Motion with Cardiac Contraction Using Dual-Source Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guise, Jacques; Vu, Toni; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl; Blais, Danis; Lebeau, Martin; Nguyen, Nhu-Tram; Roberge, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the extent of displacement of the pulmonary vein antrums resulting from the intrinsic motion of the heart using 4D cardiac dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). Methods: Ten consecutive female patients were enrolled in this prospective planning study. In breath-hold, a contrast-injected cardiac 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) synchronized to the electrocardiogram was obtained using a prospective sequential acquisition method including the extreme phases of systole and diastole. Right and left atrial fibrillation target volumes (CTVR and CTVL) were defined, with each target volume containing the antral regions of the superior and inferior pulmonary veins. Four points of interest were used as surrogates for the right superior and inferior pulmonary vein antrum (RSPVA and RIPVA) and the left superior and inferior pulmonary vein antrum (LSPVA and LIPVA). On our 4D post-processing workstation (MIM Maestro™, MIM Software Inc.), maximum displacement of each point of interest from diastole to systole was measured in the mediolateral (ML), anteroposterior (AP), and superoinferior (SI) directions. Results: Median age of the enrolled patients was 60 years (range, 56-71 years). Within the CTVR, the mean displacements of the superior and inferior surrogates were 3 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.002), 2 mm vs. 0 mm (p= 0.001), and 3 mm vs. 0 mm (p=0.00001), in the ML, AP, and SI directions, respectively. On the left, mean absolute displacements of the LSPVA vs. LIPVA were similar at 4 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.0008), 2 mm vs. 0 mm (p= 0.001), and 3 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.00001) in the ML, AP, and SI directions. Conclusion: When isolated from breathing, cardiac contraction is associated with minimal inferior pulmonary veins motion and modest (1-6 mm) motion of the superior veins. Target deformation was thus of a magnitude similar or greater than target motion, limiting the potential gains of cardiac tracking. Optimal strategies for cardiac

  18. Towards a quantitative description of fracture sealing: Phase-field modeling of mineral precipitation in veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, F.; Blum, P.; Thaler, H.; Nestler, B.; Okamoto, A.

    2013-12-01

    Alongside with calcite the growth of quartz establishes the most important mineralization processes in fractures and determines the fluid-rock interaction in the earth's crust. Tectonically caused deformation, fracturing and fluid transport leaves clear detectable traces in the microstructure of the mineralized veins. The underlying physical processes such as diffusion, advection, heat transport and crystal growth have to be captured at the mesoscale (or pore/grain scale). Any analysis is complicated by the facts that these processes are highly nonlinear, and geological boundary conditions as well as many of the kinetic growth parameters are not precisely known. As the microstructures and compositional inhomogeneity of veins could be used to enravel the history of the rock deformation process and the fluid pathways through former fracture networks, spatio-temporal models of vein mineral growth are of special interest. Different from previous approaches to simulate vein growth, we adapt a thermodynamically consistent phase-field model (PFM) which combines irreversible thermodynamics of interfaces and bulk phases with a kinetic growth law and mass transport equations (Wendler et al. 2011). Here, we study the simplest case where preexisting grains of a fracture surface are the seeds for epitaxial overgrowth. Each grain in a 3D domain is captured by a phase field with individual orientation. The model evolves in discrete time steps using a finite difference algorithm on a regular grid, optimized for large grain assemblies. In the present study we provide a brief overview, how the PFM is configured using thermodynamic data from established models for growth and dissolution, kinetic information from in and ex situ microstructural observations and dihedral angles from equilibration experiments. In the case of quartz, previously conducted hydrothermal batch flow growth experiments were analysed to calibrate the model (Okamoto & Sekine 2011). Results from 3D simulations

  19. Portal Vein Occlusion after Biliary Metal Stent Placement in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jin Bae; Chang, Yoon Jung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Baek, Il Hyun; Ko, Jin Seok; Woo, Ji Young; Kim, Hong Dae; Lee, Myung Seok

    2008-01-01

    Acute symptomatic portal vein obstruction related to biliary stenting is an extremely rare but life-threatening complication. This usually occurs in patients with either tumor invasion into the portal vein or pre-existing portal vein thrombus. Therefore, the portal vein should be carefully evaluated before placing a biliary metallic stent in such patients. We describe a case of acute portal vein obstruction after placing metallic biliary stents in a patient with a periductal-infiltrating type...

  20. Portal vein occlusion after biliary metal stent placement in hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jin Bae; Chang, Yoon Jung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Baek, Il Hyun; Ko, Jin Seok; Woo, Ji Young; Kim, Hong Dae; Lee, Myung Seok

    2008-06-01

    Acute symptomatic portal vein obstruction related to biliary stenting is an extremely rare but life-threatening complication. This usually occurs in patients with either tumor invasion into the portal vein or pre-existing portal vein thrombus. Therefore, the portal vein should be carefully evaluated before placing a biliary metallic stent in such patients. We describe a case of acute portal vein obstruction after placing metallic biliary stents in a patient with a periductal-infiltrating type of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:20485610

  1. [Thoracic surgery for patients with deep vein thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Y; Koh, E

    2012-07-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a main cause of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), and therefore both diseases are categorized as a serial pathophysiology of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Treatment goals for DVT include stopping clot propagation and preventing the recurrence of thrombus, the occurrence of PTE, and the development of pulmonary hypertension, which can be a complication of multiple recurrent pulmonary emboli. Clinical guidelines stratify the risk of VTE to 4 levels and recommend the treatment options. In high or extremely high risk patients for VTE, the use of low-dose heparin is recommended. The prevention against VTE, such as elastic compression stockings and intermittent sequential pneumatic leg compression( ISPC), is the most important prophylactic treatment against perioperative PTE by reducing thrombotic risk in low or moderate high risk patients for VET. Since there is no clear evidence that screening all or even selected patients for thrombophilias improves long-term outcomes, the physician's clinical judgment, and consultation with appropriate subspecialists should guide management perioperatively. Once PTE is suspected, immediate and accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory. PMID:22868431

  2. Applications and complications of subclavian vein catheterization for hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the indications, complications and duration of 605 subclavian catheters inserted over a period of 4 years as venous access for the management of renal failure in local setup. Results: Among the patients who underwent subclavian vien catheterization, 75.2% patients were suffering from chronic renal failure and 24.7% patients were admitted for acute renal failure. Among chronic renal failure patients, 21.9% catheters had to be replaced due to various complications e.g. thrombosis, infection or kinking of the catheter. The subclavian catheters remained in place for a mean duration of 4 weeks. Early complications encountered were arterial puncture, inability to cannulate the innominate vein, hemo thorax, punctures of thoracic duct, hemo mediastinum, arrhythmias and pulmonary hematoma in 10.7%, 16.5%, 0.5%, 0.2%, 0.6% and 0.2% of patients respectively. Mortality attributed to the procedure occurred in 0.1 % cases. Delayed complications included early infection in 15% catheterizations while delayed infection occurred in 39 % cases. Conclusion: Percutaneous subclavian catheterization is valuable, relatively easy to learn and safe method with acceptable rate of complications for patients necessitating hemodialysis and no established permanent vascular access. (author)

  3. Percutaneus treatment of varicose veins with bipolar radiofrequency ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boon, R.; Akkersdijk, G.J.M. [Department of Surgery, Spaarne Hospital, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Nio, D., E-mail: dnio@spaarneziekenhuis.n [Department of Surgery, Spaarne Hospital, Hoofddorp (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    The traditional surgical treatment of an incompetent great saphenous vein (GSV) and small saphenous vein (SSV) is challenged by endovenous techniques. Bipolar radio frequency induced thermo therapy (RFITT) is a new endovenous treatment, which occludes the vein by using the venous wall as a conductor. Linear endovenous energy densitiy (LEED) describes the amount of energy used for vein closure. Material/methods: From March 2007 till April 2009, two cohorts (23 W and 20 W) were compared, respectively 280 and 178 patients. GSV and SSV were separately analyzed. Follow-up was performed at 3 weeks and 1 year post-operatively with duplex ultrasound, to assess vein closure and perioperative complaints. A visual analog scale (VAS) pain score (range 0-10) was documented. For patients operated after October 2008 follow-up was performed at least 6 months after surgery. Results: 528 GSV and 76 SSV were treated. For the GSV a significant difference in LEED 40.8 17.1 in the 20 W cohort was found, resulting in higher occlusion rates 90.6% compared to 82.7% after 3 weeks. Follow-up of 1 year in the 20 W cohort showed 88.7% occlusion. Multivariate analysis showed that pullback speed (OR 3.7, CI 1.1-12.4) and CEAP classification (OR 3.1, CI 1.7-5.6) were significant predictors for vein occlusion. Despite a higher LEED, post-operative complaints were not significantly worse. Conclusion: RFITT is a safe and effective method to treat incompetent saphenous veins. Slower pullback speed with higher LEED results in higher closure rates without causing more pain.

  4. Percutaneus treatment of varicose veins with bipolar radiofrequency ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional surgical treatment of an incompetent great saphenous vein (GSV) and small saphenous vein (SSV) is challenged by endovenous techniques. Bipolar radio frequency induced thermo therapy (RFITT) is a new endovenous treatment, which occludes the vein by using the venous wall as a conductor. Linear endovenous energy densitiy (LEED) describes the amount of energy used for vein closure. Material/methods: From March 2007 till April 2009, two cohorts (23 W and 20 W) were compared, respectively 280 and 178 patients. GSV and SSV were separately analyzed. Follow-up was performed at 3 weeks and 1 year post-operatively with duplex ultrasound, to assess vein closure and perioperative complaints. A visual analog scale (VAS) pain score (range 0-10) was documented. For patients operated after October 2008 follow-up was performed at least 6 months after surgery. Results: 528 GSV and 76 SSV were treated. For the GSV a significant difference in LEED 40.8 17.1 in the 20 W cohort was found, resulting in higher occlusion rates 90.6% compared to 82.7% after 3 weeks. Follow-up of 1 year in the 20 W cohort showed 88.7% occlusion. Multivariate analysis showed that pullback speed (OR 3.7, CI 1.1-12.4) and CEAP classification (OR 3.1, CI 1.7-5.6) were significant predictors for vein occlusion. Despite a higher LEED, post-operative complaints were not significantly worse. Conclusion: RFITT is a safe and effective method to treat incompetent saphenous veins. Slower pullback speed with higher LEED results in higher closure rates without causing more pain.

  5. Combinatorial algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, T C

    2002-01-01

    Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discusses binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. 153 black-and-white illus. 23 tables.Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable, widely used text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discussed are binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. New to this edition: Chapter 9

  6. Autodriver algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bourmistrova; Milan Simic; Reza Hoseinnezhad; Jazar, Reza N.

    2011-01-01

    The autodriver algorithm is an intelligent method to eliminate the need of steering by a driver on a well-defined road. The proposed method performs best on a four-wheel steering (4WS) vehicle, though it is also applicable to two-wheel-steering (TWS) vehicles. The algorithm is based on coinciding the actual vehicle center of rotation and road center of curvature, by adjusting the kinematic center of rotation. The road center of curvature is assumed prior information for a given road, while th...

  7. Symptomatic portal vein occlusion: treated by interventional radiological techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the interventional radiological techniques for management of symptomatic portal vein (PV) occlusion. Methods: Nine patients with PV trunk occlusion were treated using interventional procedures. Four patients presented with abdominal pain, distention, and malabsorption; five presented with portal hypertension and repeated bleeding from esophagogastric varices. The etiologic factors were identified in all 9 patients, including post-transplantation of the liver in 2, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with PV tumor thrombus in 3, post abdominal operative state in 1, and PV thrombosis in 3 cases. The portal access was established via a percutaneous transhepatic route in 4, and via a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt ( TIPS) approach in 5 patients. The interventional procedures included stent placement in 4, balloon angioplasty in 6, and catheter directed pharmacologic and mechanical thrombolysis in 7 patients. Results: The technical success was achieved in all cases. No complications related to the procedure occurred. Portal flow was reestablished in all patients after the procedures. Clinical improvement was seen in 3 patients with symptomatic PV thrombosis, characterized by progressive reduction of abdominal pain, distention, and diarrhea. Follow-up time ranged from 4 to 36 months. One patient with HCC died of multiple organs metastases at 11 months after the treatment . One patient died of intraabdominal sepsis and multiple organs failure 12 days after the procedure even though the antegrade flow was re-established in the main trunk of the PV. Patency of the PV trunk was confirmed by follow-up color Doppler ultrasound scan in the rest 7 patients, without recurrence of variceal bleeding or PV thrombus. Conclusions: Interventional minimally invasive procedures, including balloon angioplasty, stent placement, catheter directed local pharmacologic and mechanical thrombolysis, are safe and effective in

  8. Presence of a central vein within white matter lesions on susceptibility weighted imaging: a specific finding for multiple sclerosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts the perivenous extent of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions (MS-WML) in vivo by directly visualizing their centrally running vein. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of this finding for MS. Fifteen patients with MS and 15 patients with microangiopathic white matter lesions (mWML) underwent 3T MRI, including a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a susceptibility weighted angiography (SWAN). All WMLs were identified on FLAIR and assigned to one of the following localizations: supratentorial peripheral, supratentorial periventricular, or infratentorial. Subsequently, the presence of a central vein within these lesions was assessed on SWAN. A total of 711 MS-WMLs and 1,119 m-WMLs were identified on FLAIR, all of which could also be visualized on SWAN. A central vein was detectable in 80% of the MS-WMLs and in 78% of the m-WMLs (in 73% and 76% of the peripheral, in 92% and 94% of the periventricular, and in 71% and 75% of the infratentorial MS-WMLs and m-WMLs, respectively). With regard to the supratentorial peripheral lesions, significantly more m-WMLs showed a central vein compared to the MS-WMLs. For the other localizations, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the percentage of lesions with central vein. Our results indicate that the detection of a central vein within a WML should not be considered a specific finding for MS; it is also found in WMLs of other etiologies. (orig.)

  9. Percutaneous Transhepatic Portography for the Treatment of Early Portal Vein Thrombosis After Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treated three cases of early portal vein thrombosis (PVT) by minimally invasive percutaneous transhepatic portography. All patients developed PVT within 30 days of major hepatic surgery (one case each of orthotopic liver transplantation, splenectomy in a previous liver transplant recipient, and right extended hepatectomy with resection and reconstruction of the left branch of the portal vein for tumor infiltration). In all cases minimally invasive percutaneous transhepatic portography was adopted to treat this complication by mechanical fragmentation and pharmacological lysis of the thrombus. A vascular stent was also positioned in the two cases in which the thrombosis was related to a surgical technical problem. Mechanical fragmentation of the thrombus with contemporaneous local urokinase administration resulted in complete removal of the clot and allowed restoration of normal blood flow to the liver after a median follow-up of 37 months. PVT is an uncommon but severe complication after major surgery or liver transplantation. Surgical thrombectomy, with or without reconstruction of the portal vein, and retransplantation are characterized by important surgical morbidity and mortality. Based on our experience, minimally invasive percutaneous transhepatic portography should be considered an option toward successful recanalization of early PVT after major liver surgery including transplantation. Balloon dilatation and placement of a vascular stent could help to decrease the risk of recurrent thrombosis when a defective surgical technique is the reason for the thrombosis

  10. Portal vein thrombosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome as onset of polycythemia vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Seidita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Budd-Chiari syndrome may be defined as a heterogeneous group of vascular disorders characterized by obstruction of hepatic venous return to the level of hepatic venules, supra-hepatic veins, inferior vena cava or right atrium. The main cause of this syndrome is represented by myeloproliferative diseases and, in particular, by polycythemia vera. The latter may cause multiple splanchnic thrombosis, including portal vein thrombosis, particularly important for its clinical outcomes (ascites, collateral vessels genesis, etc.. We report 2 cases of a Budd-Chiari syndrome induced by polycythemia vera characterized by an abnormal clinical onset, both as regards subjects’ age (29 and 39 years old, respectively and set of symptoms, signs and laboratory data. After a complete clinical, instrumental and genetic diagnosis, the patients were treated with combined therapy, using acetylsalicylic acid and hydroxyurea. The therapy proved successful and patients are still in follow up in our institution. Polycythemia vera should be suspected in patients affected with portal vein thrombosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome even if its clinical onset might be unusual. Every effort should be made to make a correct and early diagnosis in order to start appropriate therapy as soon as possible and to prevent patients from useless diagnostic and therapeutic treatments.

  11. Numerical analysis of Venous External Scaffolding Technology for Saphenous Vein Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirson, T; Orion, E; Avrahami, I

    2015-07-16

    This paper presents a method for analyzing and comparing numerically Saphenous Vein Grafts (SVGs) following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery (CABG). The method analyses the flow dynamics inside vein grafts with and without supporting using Venous External Scaffolding Technology (VEST). The numerical method uses patients׳ specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to characterize the relevant hemodynamic parameters of patients׳ SVGs. The method was used to compare the hemodynamics of six patient׳s specific model and flow conditions of stented and non-stented SVGs, 12 months post-transplantation. The flow parameters used to characterize the grafts׳ hemodynamics include Time Averaged Wall Shear Stress (TAWSS), Oscillatory Shear Index (OSI) and Relative Residence Time (RRT). The effect of stenting was clearly demonstrated by the chosen parameters. SVGs under constriction of VEST were associated with similar spatial average of TAWSS (10.73 vs 10.29 dyn/cm(2)), yet had fewer lesions with low TAWSS, lower OSI (0.041 vs 0.08) and RRT (0.12 vs 0.24), and more uniform flow with less flow discrepancies. In conclusion, the suggested method and parameters well demonstrated the advantage of VEST support. Stenting vein grafts with VEST improved hemodynamic factors which are correlated to graft failure following CABG procedure. PMID:25869720

  12. Internal jugular vein thrombosis complicating cervicofacial infection of dental origin. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos DENDRINOS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Septic thrombosis of the internal jugular vein or Lemierre’s syndrome is a rare form of metastatic septic thromboembolitis, typically involving superinfection with Fusobacterium Necrophorum, internal jugular vein thrombosis and remote septic emboli.CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old male was referred for a painful cervicofacial swelling on the left, obliteration of the buccal sulcus, as well as swelling of both the soft and hard palate and the floor of the mouth ipsilaterally, accompanied by severe trismus and difficulty in swallowing. The patient underwent intraoral and extraoral incisions and drainage of the affected anatomical spaces and tracheotomy. The patient’s clinical condition was steadily improving; following examination with CT scan,9 days post-op, internal jugular vein thrombosis was diagnosed. The patient was put on anticoagulants. The postoperative course continued uneventfully, and the patient was discharged. One month post-operatively the vessel was normal and anticoagulant treatment was discontinued.CONCLUSION: Since Lemierre’s syndrome is not only rare but also tends to be underdiagnosed when there is no obvious cause of sepsis, it should be included in the differential diagnosis if the patient’s general contition deteriorates in spite of the treatment.

  13. Retinal vein thrombosis associated with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iman Zandieh; Mohamed Adenwalla; Cindy Cheong-Lee; Patrick E Ma; Eric M Yoshida

    2006-01-01

    An estimated 300 million people worldwide suffer fromchronic hepatitis C with a prevalence of 0.8%-1.0% of the general population in Canada. An increasing pool of evidence exists supporting the use of pegylatedinterferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin combination therapy for hepatitis C. We report a 49-year old male of North American aboriginal descent with chronic hepatitis C (genotype 2b). Biopsy confirmed that he had cirrhosis with a 2-wk history of left eye pain and decreased visual acuity. He developed retinal vein thrombosis after 16 of 24 wk of pegIFN-α 2a and ribavirin combination therapy. He was urgently referred to a retinal specialist and diagnosed with non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion of the left eye. PegIFN and ribavirin combination therapy was discontinued and HCV RNA was undetectable after 16 wk of treatment. Hematologic investigations revealed that the patient was a factor V Leiden heterozygote with mildly decreased protein C activity. Our patient had a number of hypercoagulable risk factors, including factor V Leiden heterozygosity, cirrhosis, and hepatitis C that alone would have most likely remained clinically silent. We speculate that in the setting of pegIFN treatment, these risk factors may coalesce and cause the retinal vein thrombosis.

  14. Role of aflibercept for macular edema following branch retinal vein occlusion: comparison of clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oellers P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Oellers,1,2 Dilraj S Grewal,1,2 Sharon Fekrat1,2 1Duke Eye Center, Duke University Medical Center, 2Surgical Service, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: For years, the standard of care for branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular edema was initial observation followed by grid-pattern laser photocoagulation for persistent edema. Newer pharmacologic options have revolutionized the management of branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular edema, and the visual outcomes of these eyes are better than ever. However, a variety of available treatment options including intravitreal corticosteroids and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents have established novel challenges with regard to appropriate drug selection. This review summarizes the available clinical studies with special emphasis on the comparison of intravitreal aflibercept with ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and steroid agents. Keywords: branch retinal vein occlusion, BRVO, macular edema, cystoid macular edema, grid-pattern laser photocoagulation, triamcinolone, dexamethasone implant, ranibizumab, bevacizumab, pegaptanib, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

  15. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 Regulates Vein Wall Biomechanics in Murine Thrombus Resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh P Nguyen

    Full Text Available Deep venous thrombosis is a common vascular problem with long-term complications including post-thrombotic syndrome. Post-thrombotic syndrome consists of leg pain, swelling and ulceration that is related to incomplete or maladaptive resolution of the venous thrombus as well as loss of compliance of the vein wall. We examine the role of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, a gene important in extracellular remodeling in other vascular diseases, in mediating thrombus resolution and biomechanical changes of the vein wall.The effects of targeted deletion of MMP-9 were studied in an in vivo murine model of thrombus resolution using the FVB strain of mice. MMP-9 expression and activity significantly increased on day 3 after DVT. The lack of MMP-9 impaired thrombus resolution by 27% and this phenotype was rescued by the transplantation of wildtype bone marrow cells. Using novel biomechanical techniques, we demonstrated that the lack of MMP-9 significantly decreased thrombus-induced loss of vein wall compliance. Biomechanical analysis of the contribution of individual structural components showed that MMP-9 affected the elasticity of the extracellular matrix and collagen-elastin fibers. Biochemical and histological analyses correlated with these biomechanical effects as thrombi of mice lacking MMP-9 had significantly fewer macrophages and collagen as compared to those of wildtype mice.MMP-9 mediates thrombus-induced loss of vein wall compliance by increasing stiffness of the extracellular matrix and collagen-elastin fibers during thrombus resolution. MMP-9 also mediates macrophage and collagen content of the resolving thrombus and bone-marrow derived MMP-9 plays a role in resolution of thrombus mass. These disparate effects of MMP-9 on various aspects of thrombus illustrate the complexity of individual protease function on biomechanical and morphometric aspects of thrombus resolution.

  16. Vein mineralizations - record of paleo-fluid systems in the Thuringian basin (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepetit, Petra; Viereck, Lothar; Abratis, Michael; Fritsch, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Vein-related mineralizations within the Mesozoic sediments of the Thuringian basin (Germany) are investigated in analytical detail (petrography, XRD, XRF, EPMA, LA-ICP-MS, and isotope studies: O, C, S, Sr) in order to characterize paleo-fluid systems that intruded the basin and circulated within it millions of years ago. Samples from 55 outcrops, 34 quarries and 21 drill cores comprise mainly carbonates (calcite, dolomite, siderite, ankerite), additional sulfates (gypsum, celestine, barite,), and rarely sulfides. The mineralizations are almost exclusively restricted to WNW-ESE trending fault systems. First δ13C and δ18O isotope analyses of calcite mineralizations reveal differences between veins within Triassic sediments (Lower Muschelkalk: δ13C: 1.8 to 2.9 o, mean 2.3 o, δ18O: -7.3 to -10.4 o, mean -8.2 o) and Jurassic sediments (δ13C: -0.7 to -2.1 o, mean -1.4 o, δ18O: -9.3 to -10.6 o, mean -9.9 o), indicating intra-formational and extra-formational paleo-fluid transport. Also first δ34S and δ18O isotope analyses of gypsum mineralizations display differences between veins within Triassic and Permian sediments, respectively. These initial data are comparable with isotope analyses of vein-related host rocks and hydrochemical signatures of recent well waters in the Thuringian basin indicating intra-formational in addition to extra-formational paleo-fluid transport. Further isotope studies are in progress including high resolution in situ-Sr- isotope analysis. The present study is part of INFLUINS, a BMBF-funded project bundle, which is dedicated to the comprehensive description and understanding of the fluid systems within the Thuringian basin in time and space.

  17. Influence of occlusion of hepatic vein on drug concentration in portal vein during drug administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of transcatheter chemotherapy through superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and hepatic artery (HA) when hepatic vein (HV) was temporally occluded. Methods: Altogether ten dogs, each of them was undengone four groups of experiments (A, B, C, D) respectively and subjected under self-control. A: transcatheter infusion of 5-Fu by SMA with HV occlusion (SMAI-THVO). B: only transcatheter infusion of 5-Fu throguh SMA(SMAI). C: infusion of 5-Fu through HA with HV occlusion (TAI-THVO). D: only infusion of 5-Fu through HA(TAI). 5 ml PV blood, withdrawn each once at 0.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 min. after infusion of drug for each group respectively, was taken for analysis. The high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) was used to measure the blood concentration of 5-Fu in PV for pharmacokinetics, and the post-occlusion angiographic changes were analyzed. Results: The peak concentration (cm) of 5-Fu of occlusion groups (A and C) and the area under the curve (AUC) of 5-Fu were greater than those in control groups (B and D), A>B>C>D(P<0.05). The total value of clearance in occlusion groups (A and C) was lower than that of the control groups (B and C), A< B< C< D(P<0.01). Hepatic arterial angiography showed more arterial branches and dense shadows of the corresponding hepatic segments with hepatic venous occlusion. Conclusion: SMAI-THVO and TAI-THVO can markedly increase the blood concentration of 5-Fu in hepatic tissue and portal vein serving as a dual-route therapy with prolongation of anti-cancer effect. (authors)

  18. Multiple ligation of the proximal greater saphenous vein in the CHIVA treatment of primary varicose veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Delfrate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Saphenous femoral disconnection is the key point of most surgical techniques in the treatment of primary varicose vein surgery. The aim of this study is to compare and analyze different techniques for conservative saphenousfemoral ligation or disconnection. These techniques can be to perform mini invasive open surgery and are suitable for implementation of the conservative hemodynamic correction of venous insufficiency (CHIVA method. The aim was to present the follow-up by retrospective analysis of three different ligation-disconnection techniques of the proximal great saphenous vein (GSV according to the CHIVA method at the GSV end, i.e. between the very end of the GSV and the first arch tributary, according to the CHIVA method. The first thecnique consisted of a surgical division (crossotomy. The other two consisted of triple superposed ligation with No. 2 non-absorbable braided coated suture without division labeled TSFL (triple saphenous flush ligation and No. 0 polypropylenene ligation TPL (triple polypropylene ligation. The difference between TSFL and TPL was in the thickness and type of material of the thread, though both were non-absorbable. The follow up of 56 TPL procedures, 61 crossotomy procedures, and 82 TSFL procedures was analysed. The follow-up consisted of checking the sapheno-femoral junction occlusion with Duplex color ultra sound. The incidence rates of neovascularization (new vessels in the ligation or surgical disconnection site with saphenous-femoral reflux during the Valsalva maneuver were: 4.9% for the crossotomy group, 6.1% for the TSFL group and 37.5% for the TPL group. The data analysed show satisfactory results with both crossotomy and TSFL. Crossotomy has proven to be an effective technique for performing saphenous-femoral disconnection, but TSFL could also be a reliable, safe and low-cost varicose mini-invasive surgery in outpatients. TPL appeared to be less reliable.

  19. Hyperhomocysteinemia promotes vascular remodeling in vein graph in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongmei; Shi, Chengwei; Jiang, Xiaohua; Lavelle, Muriel; Yu, Caijia; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role and mechanism of Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) on vascular remodeling in mice. We assessed the effect of HHcy on vascular remodeling using a carotid arterial vein patch model in mice with the gene deletion of cystathionine-beta-synthase (Cbs). Vein grafts were harvested 4 weeks after surgery. Cross sections were analyzed using Verhoeff-van Gieson staining, Masson`s Trichrome staining, and immunostaining for morphological analysis and protein level assessment. The effect of Hcy on collagen secretion was examined in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC). We found that Cbs-/- mice with severe HHcy exhibited thicker neointima and a higher percentage of luminal narrowing in vein grafts. In addition, severe HHcy increased elastin and collagen deposition in the neointima. Further, severe HHcy increases CD45 positive cells and proliferative cells in vein grafts. Finally, Hcy increases collagen secretion in RASMC. These results demonstrate that HHcy increases neointima formation, elastin and collagen deposition following a carotid arterial vein patch. The capacity of Hcy to promote vascular fibrosis and inflammation may contribute to the development of vascular remodeling. PMID:24896329

  20. Autodriver algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bourmistrova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The autodriver algorithm is an intelligent method to eliminate the need of steering by a driver on a well-defined road. The proposed method performs best on a four-wheel steering (4WS vehicle, though it is also applicable to two-wheel-steering (TWS vehicles. The algorithm is based on coinciding the actual vehicle center of rotation and road center of curvature, by adjusting the kinematic center of rotation. The road center of curvature is assumed prior information for a given road, while the dynamic center of rotation is the output of dynamic equations of motion of the vehicle using steering angle and velocity measurements as inputs. We use kinematic condition of steering to set the steering angles in such a way that the kinematic center of rotation of the vehicle sits at a desired point. At low speeds the ideal and actual paths of the vehicle are very close. With increase of forward speed the road and tire characteristics, along with the motion dynamics of the vehicle cause the vehicle to turn about time-varying points. By adjusting the steering angles, our algorithm controls the dynamic turning center of the vehicle so that it coincides with the road curvature center, hence keeping the vehicle on a given road autonomously. The position and orientation errors are used as feedback signals in a closed loop control to adjust the steering angles. The application of the presented autodriver algorithm demonstrates reliable performance under different driving conditions.

  1. Tectonic conditions of hydrothermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization, Sainte Marie-aux-Mines, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeznia, Y.; Bourlange, S.; Ohnenstetter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (SMM) mines host one of the most famous and oldest silver deposits in Europe. The SMM district is located in the central part of the Vosges mountains, France, within gneiss and granites of the Moldanubian zone. The SMM district includes the Neuenberg E-W vein-type Cu-Ag-As/Pb-Zn deposit and the Altenberg N-S vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Deposition of the SMM hydrothermal mineralization occurred under a brittle tectonic regime that might be connected to neo-Variscan and/or post-Variscan tectonics, in a similar way as the polymetallic vein deposits of the Black Forest, Germany. A structural study was done in the Neuenberg area, in the vicinity of the Saint-Jacques vein, and within the Gabe Gottes mine, considering the orientation, extent, chronology and density of faults as well as the nature of the infilling minerals. In the Gabe-Gottes mine, the Saint-Jacques vein comprises multiple successive, sub-parallel subvertical veinlets with gangue minerals, mostly carbonates and quartz, and metal-bearing phases, sulfides and sulfosalts. The veinlets are 2 to 50 cm thick and strike N80° to N110°, the earlier veins slightly dipping towards the north, and the latest one, to the south. Seven systems of faults were identified, which may be classified into three major groups formed respectively before, during and after the main stage of ore deposition: a) Pre-mineralization faults - These consist of sinistral NE-SW strike-slip faults, and NW-SE and NE-SW steeply dipping normal faults. These could be related to Carboniferous events considering their relationships with the granitoid intrusives present in the mine area (Brézouard leucogranite ~329 Ma), and the extensional tectonics developed during exhumation processes. b) Faults associated with the main ore-deposition - These faults could be related to late-Hercynian processes from compressional to extensional tectonic regimes. Mineralization controlling faults consist of dextral and sinistral E

  2. Handbook of Memetic Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Cotta, Carlos; Moscato, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Memetic Algorithms (MAs) are computational intelligence structures combining multiple and various operators in order to address optimization problems.  The combination and interaction amongst operators evolves and promotes the diffusion of the most successful units and generates an algorithmic behavior which can handle complex objective functions and hard fitness landscapes.   “Handbook of Memetic Algorithms” organizes, in a structured way, all the the most important results in the field of MAs since their earliest definition until now.  A broad review including various algorithmic solutions as well as successful applications is included in this book. Each class of optimization problems, such as constrained optimization, multi-objective optimization, continuous vs combinatorial problems, uncertainties, are analysed separately and, for each problem,  memetic recipes for tackling the difficulties are given with some successful examples. Although this book contains chapters written by multiple authors, ...

  3. SWI enhances vein detection using gadolinium in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) combined with the FLAIR sequence provides the ability to depict in vivo the perivenous location of inflammatory demyelinating lesions – one of the most specific pathologic features of multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, in MS white matter (WM) lesions, gadolinium-based contrast media (CM) can increase vein signal loss on SWI. This report focuses on two cases of WM inflammatory lesions enhancing on SWI images after CM injection. In these lesions in fact the CM increased the contrast between the parenchyma and the central vein allowing as well, in one of the two cases, the detection of a vein not visible on the same SWI sequence acquired before CM injection

  4. Velocity Estimation of the Main Portal Vein with Transverse Oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann;

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates if Transverse Oscillation (TO) can provide reliable and accurate peak velocity estimates of blood flow the main portal vein. TO was evaluated against the recommended and most widely used technique for portal flow estimation, Spectral Doppler Ultrasound (SDU). The main portal...... vein delivers blood from the bowls to the liver, and patients with certain liver diseases have decreased flow in the portal vein. Errors in velocity estimation with SDU are well described, when the beam-to-flow angle is >70 degrees. TO estimates the flow angle independently and is not limited by the...... measurements were performed with a commercial ultrasound scanner (BK 3000, BK Ultrasound, Herlev Denmark) and a convex probe (BK ultrasound 6C2, Herlev, Denmark). Ten healthy volunteers were scanned, and recordings of the portal flow during 3-5 heartbeats were conducted with an intercostal and subcostal view...

  5. Renal vein doppler sonography in rabbits with acute ureteral obstruction: usefulness of impedance index of renal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Kyung Myung; Chung, Su Kyo; Lee, Sung Yong [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the impedance index of the renal vein for the diagnosis of acute obstructive uropathy in rabbits. Ligation of the left ureter was done in 12 rabbits. Doppler sonography of the interlobar veins in both kidneys was checked before and 30 minutes, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 24 hours after ureteral ligation. The venous impedance index [(peak flow signal-least flow signal)/peak flow signal] was compared between the obstructed and non-obstructed kidneys for all periods. The change in the impedance index after ureteral ligation was also compared between the obstructed and non-obstructed kidneys. A decrease in the impedance index of the intrarenal vein was observed starting from 30 mins atter ureteral ligation, and the index remained low up to 24 hours after ureteral ligation. The obstructed kidneys had a significantly lower impedance index than the contralateral kidneys for all six of the postligation measurements (p< 0.05). There were significant differences in the change of impedance index after ureteral ligation between the obstructed and non-obstructed kidneys (p< 0.05). The impedance index of the intrarenal vein was significantly decreased in the obstructed kidneys. The measurement of the impedance index of the intrarenal vein using Doppler sonography could provide a useful method of diagnosing obstructive uropathy.

  6. Renal vein doppler sonography in rabbits with acute ureteral obstruction: usefulness of impedance index of renal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of the impedance index of the renal vein for the diagnosis of acute obstructive uropathy in rabbits. Ligation of the left ureter was done in 12 rabbits. Doppler sonography of the interlobar veins in both kidneys was checked before and 30 minutes, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 24 hours after ureteral ligation. The venous impedance index [(peak flow signal-least flow signal)/peak flow signal] was compared between the obstructed and non-obstructed kidneys for all periods. The change in the impedance index after ureteral ligation was also compared between the obstructed and non-obstructed kidneys. A decrease in the impedance index of the intrarenal vein was observed starting from 30 mins atter ureteral ligation, and the index remained low up to 24 hours after ureteral ligation. The obstructed kidneys had a significantly lower impedance index than the contralateral kidneys for all six of the postligation measurements (p< 0.05). There were significant differences in the change of impedance index after ureteral ligation between the obstructed and non-obstructed kidneys (p< 0.05). The impedance index of the intrarenal vein was significantly decreased in the obstructed kidneys. The measurement of the impedance index of the intrarenal vein using Doppler sonography could provide a useful method of diagnosing obstructive uropathy

  7. Contact-impact algorithms on parallel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contact-impact algorithms on parallel computers are discussed within the context of explicit finite element analysis. The algorithms concerned include a contact searching algorithm and an algorithm for contact force calculations. The contact searching algorithm is based on the territory concept of the general HITA algorithm. However, no distinction is made between different contact bodies, or between different contact surfaces. All contact segments from contact boundaries are taken as a single set. Hierarchy territories and contact territories are expanded. A three-dimensional bucket sort algorithm is used to sort contact nodes. The defence node algorithm is used in the calculation of contact forces. Both the contact searching algorithm and the defence node algorithm are implemented on the connection machine CM-200. The performance of the algorithms is examined under different circumstances, and numerical results are presented. ((orig.))

  8. Hepatic vein flow pattern in children: assesment with Doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Aim of this study is to establish normal hepatic vein flow pattern and effect of age, sex, activity and feeding status on the hepatic flow pattern in normal Turkish children less than 15 years of ages and also to compare our values with the previously reported studies. Method: Hepatic vein flow patterns were evaluated in 150 children (83 male, 67 female) without any cardiac, pulmonary and liver disease by using Doppler sonography. Blood flow patterns were compared with age, sex, activity, and feeding status of the children. Results: Only 44% of the children had triphasic flow pattern in all hepatic veins. Monophasic flow pattern was the most common flow pattern in children less then 1 year of age. Triphasic flow pattern increase after 1 year of age. Although most of the children older than 1 year of age had triphasic flow pattern, there is some variation in the flow patterns of the hepatic veins in the same subject. Triphasic hepatic flow pattern is most commonly seen in the left hepatic vein and least commonly seen in the right hepatic vein. There was no significant difference between male and girl, children who were agitated or calm and fasting or not fasting in respect to triphasic flow pattern. Conclusion: Liver stiffening is not only the reason for abnormal hepatic flow pattern and some other physiologic factors may also lead to mono and/or diphasic flow pattern in the children. Absence of triphasic flow pattern must not be accepted as a liver pathology in children especially younger than 1 year of age

  9. Budd-Chiari and inferior caval vein syndromes due to membranous obstruction of the liver veins. Successful treatment with angioplasty and transcaval TIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The case is presented of a 25-year-old Caucasian patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome due to membranous obstruction of the liver veins and inferior caval vein syndrome as a result of secondary hyperplasia of the caudate lobe of the liver, obstructing the caval vein. Diagnosis was established by...... intravascular pressure measurements, ultrasound examinations and caval and liver vein angiograms. Treatment consisting of stent placement in the outlet of a hepatic vein and subsequent transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS) insertion via the caval vein was successful. After 34 months of follow......-up the stents remain open and the patient is symptom free. This successful combination of stent placement and TIPS has not been described before. The case report is followed by a review of the literature on the use of angioplasty in short hepatic vein stenosis and TIPS in Budd-Chiari syndrome. It is...

  10. Absent right superior caval vein (vena cava) with normal atrial arrangement.

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, J. Y.; Anderson, R H; Macartney, F J

    1987-01-01

    Eight cases of absent right superior caval vein (vena cava) with normal atrial arrangement from the Great Ormond Street database were reviewed. In each case the right subclavian vein and jugular vein drained into a persistent left superior caval vein through a bridging vein. In six cases the left superior caval vein drained into the right atrium by way of the coronary sinus, and in two cases it drained into the left atrium directly because of the complete unroofing of the coronary sinus. The ...

  11. Mortality in Patients with Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Christoffersen, Nynne; Vorum, Henrik; Gade, Else Fredsted; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess mortality in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). DESIGN: Registry-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Four hundred thirty-nine photographically verified CRVO patients and a control cohort of 2195 unexposed subjects matched by age and gender and alive.......27; 95% CI, 1.03-1.56) and in women 60 to 69 years of age (SMR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.22-3.08). CONCLUSIONS: Central retinal vein occlusion was associated with an overall increase in mortality compared with controls that was attributed statistically to cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. We recommend...

  12. Intrahepatic Sarcomatoid Cholangiocarcinoma with Portal Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 53-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a liver mass. CT and MR images showed the presence of a multilobulated mass with hemorrhagic and necrotic foci in the left hepatic lobe. In addition, thrombosis of the left portal vein was noted. The patient underwent surgery for total removal of the mass. A pathological examination revealed the presence of an intrahepatic sarcomatoid cholangiocarcinoma with portal vein thrombosis. The patient underwent a left hepatectomy and chemotherapy. However, the disease recurred with metastases after five months. The patient underwent surgery and chemotherapy for the recurred tumor

  13. Intrahepatic Sarcomatoid Cholangiocarcinoma with Portal Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    A 53-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a liver mass. CT and MR images showed the presence of a multilobulated mass with hemorrhagic and necrotic foci in the left hepatic lobe. In addition, thrombosis of the left portal vein was noted. The patient underwent surgery for total removal of the mass. A pathological examination revealed the presence of an intrahepatic sarcomatoid cholangiocarcinoma with portal vein thrombosis. The patient underwent a left hepatectomy and chemotherapy. However, the disease recurred with metastases after five months. The patient underwent surgery and chemotherapy for the recurred tumor.

  14. Selective Versus Total Pulmonary Vein Isolation in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ammar, MD; Tilko Reents, MD; Stephanie Fichtner, MD; Gabriele Hessling, MD; Isabel Deisenhofer, MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest discoveries in cardiac electrophysiology was the recognition of the crucial role of pulmonary vein (PV myocardial sleeves for atrial fibrillation (AF initiation. Based on this concept, catheter ablation of paroxysmal AF by pulmonary vein isolation (PVI has become a routine approach for this arrhythmia. An attractive concept implies the selective isolation of the arrhythmogenic PVs only. Based on the most important studies regarding this approach, we describe pros and cons of a selective PVI compared to a complete PVI and try to illustrate why selective PVI did not find widespread acceptance in the electrophysiologic community.

  15. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Affendi Rosdi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP.

  16. MDCT findings of right circumaortic renal vein with ectopic kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyun; Ku, Young Mi; Chun, Chang Woo; Lee, Su Lim [Department of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Anomalies of renal vasculature combined with ectopic kidneys were found on a multi-detector CT scan. Knowledge of renal vascular variation is very important for surgical exploration, radiologic intervention and staging for urologic cancer. We present an extremely rare case of a right circumaortic renal vein combined with a right ectopic kidney. The right kidney was located at the level between the third and fifth lumbar vertebra. The right circumaortic renal vein crossed the aorta and returned to the inferior vena cava behind the aorta.

  17. Gemstone silica veins in Kremenjacha volcanic rocks (Serbia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jeshevac volcanic complex located in central Serbia is made up of various Tertiary volcanic rocks. Kremenjacha hill is situated on the SW rim of the Jeshevac volcanic complex. Silica veins found in this site are made up of chalcedony varieties and crystalline quartz. Jasper veins are examined more thoroughly in this paper. Microscopic analysis has shown it is made up of cryptocrystalline silica with fluidal structure. X-ray powder diffraction analysis of the samples has shown crystalline silica-quartz, ruling out the presence of amorphous silica-opal. The results of spectrochemical analysis have indicated the presence of colouring agents originating mostly from ultramafic and mafic rocks. (Author)

  18. Algorithmic Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette

    This paper takes an actor network theory approach to explore some of the ways that algorithms co-construct identity and relational meaning in contemporary use of social media. Based on intensive interviews with participants as well as activity logging and data tracking, the author presents a richly...... layered set of accounts to help build our understanding of how individuals relate to their devices, search systems, and social network sites. This work extends critical analyses of the power of algorithms in implicating the social self by offering narrative accounts from multiple perspectives. It also...... contributes an innovative method for blending actor network theory with symbolic interaction to grapple with the complexity of everyday sensemaking practices within networked global information flows....

  19. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  20. Graphs Theory and Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Thulasiraman, K

    2011-01-01

    This adaptation of an earlier work by the authors is a graduate text and professional reference on the fundamentals of graph theory. It covers the theory of graphs, its applications to computer networks and the theory of graph algorithms. Also includes exercises and an updated bibliography.

  1. The Xmath Integration Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringslid, Odd

    2009-01-01

    The projects Xmath (Bringslid and Canessa, 2002) and dMath (Bringslid, de la Villa and Rodriguez, 2007) were supported by the European Commission in the so called Minerva Action (Xmath) and The Leonardo da Vinci programme (dMath). The Xmath eBook (Bringslid, 2006) includes algorithms into a wide range of undergraduate mathematical issues embedded…

  2. Old And New Algorithms For Toeplitz Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Richard P.

    1988-02-01

    Toeplitz linear systems and Toeplitz least squares problems commonly arise in digital signal processing. In this paper we survey some old, "well known" algorithms and some recent algorithms for solving these problems. We concentrate our attention on algorithms which can be implemented efficiently on a variety of parallel machines (including pipelined vector processors and systolic arrays). We distinguish between algorithms which require inner products, and algorithms which avoid inner products, and thus are better suited to parallel implementation on some parallel architectures. Finally, we mention some "asymptotically fast" 0(n(log n)2) algorithms and compare them with 0(n2) algorithms.

  3. ATYPIC DRAINAGE PATTERN OF POSTERIOR INTERCOSTAL VEINS INTO THE AZYGOS VENOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimpi Gupta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The azygos venous system vary greatly in their mode of origin, course,tributaries, anastomoses and termination which resulst predominantly due to its complex embryological development. Azygos venous system develops as right and left azygos venous lines. Right azygos venous line develops into vertical part of azygos vein whereas the left one develops into accessory hemiazygos and inferior hemiazygos veins. These are connected by subcentral/ transvertebral veins. In the present case, we found an atypic drainage pattern of posterior intercostal veins into azygos venous system, left being more variable. Right superior intercostal vein formed by 2nd and 3rd posterior intercostal veins whereas left superior intercostal vein was found to be absent. 2nd, 3rd, 4th & 5th left posterior intercostal veins thus drained into accessory hemiazygos vein. Sixth and seventh left PICVs formed a common trunk with accessory hemiazygous vein and drained into the azygous vein at T6 level. Eighth one united with the hemiazygos vein and formed a common trunk which drained into azygos vein at T8 level. Such variations of the azygos venous system are important for a clinician during mediastinal surgeries to prevent inadvertent hemorrhagic complications.

  4. Parallel Algorithms and Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation on parallel algorithms and patterns. A parallel algorithm is a well-defined, step-by-step computational procedure that emphasizes concurrency to solve a problem. Examples of problems include: Sorting, searching, optimization, matrix operations. A parallel pattern is a computational step in a sequence of independent, potentially concurrent operations that occurs in diverse scenarios with some frequency. Examples are: Reductions, prefix scans, ghost cell updates. We only touch on parallel patterns in this presentation. It really deserves its own detailed discussion which Gabe Rockefeller would like to develop.

  5. A STUDY OF DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS IN SURGICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritam Pritish

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This was a prospective clinical study performed in the surgical department of MKCG Medical College and Hospital, Berhampur, Odisha, during the period from September 2013 to August 2015. Six hundred and forty eight patients who underwent surgical procedures >1 hour were included in this study to find the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT development postoperatively. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Identifying the possible risk factors and to identify the subgroup of patients needing prophylaxis routinely after a surgical procedure. METHOD OF COLLECTION OF DATA Patients aged >15 years who underwent surgeries (APR, colostomies, abdominal surgeries, hernia repairs, MRM, thyroidectomies, perforation closure etc. lasting for more than one hour under spinal, epidural and general anaesthesia. Patients unwilling to take part in the study, patients on anticoagulant therapy and patients previously diagnosed with DVT or VTE were excluded from the study. PROCEDURE Clinical examination was carried out in the postoperative period to look for limb pain and swelling. D-dimer levels and Doppler USG were used for diagnosis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION The incidence of DVT was 1.23% and the mean age group of the patients affected was 50.5 years. Male-to-female ratio was 1.28:1. OCP intake, smoking, higher BMI, major surgeries under GA and greater and postoperative immobilisation were important risk factors. Colonic surgeries had a greater chance of post-op DVT development. Duplex USG had a high sensitivity and specificity and thus can be considered the gold standard test for diagnosis of DVT, whereas D-dimer has low specificity and specificity thus not reliable for DVT diagnosis post-operatively.

  6. Portal Vein Embolization Before Liver Resection: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienden, K. P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Esschert, J. W. van den; Graaf, W. de [Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Bipat, S.; Lameris, J. S. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Gulik, T. M. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Delden, O. M. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    This is a review of literature on the indications, technique, and outcome of portal vein embolization (PVE). A systematic literature search on outcome of PVE from 1990 to 2011 was performed in Medline, Cochrane, and Embase databases. Forty-four articles were selected, including 1,791 patients with a mean age of 61 {+-} 4.1 years. Overall technical success rate was 99.3 %. The mean hypertrophy rate of the FRL after PVE was 37.9 {+-} 0.1 %. In 70 patients (3.9 %), surgery was not performed because of failure of PVE (clinical success rate 96.1 %). In 51 patients (2.8 %), the hypertrophy response was insufficient to perform liver resection. In the other 17 cases, 12 did not technically succeed (0.7 %) and 7 caused a complication leading to unresectability (0.4 %). In 6.1 %, resection was cancelled because of local tumor progression after PVE. Major complications were seen in 2.5 %, and the mortality rate was 0.1 %. A head-to-head comparison shows a negative effect of liver cirrhosis on hypertrophy response. The use of n-butyl cyanoacrylate seems to have a greater effect on hypertrophy, but the difference with other embolization materials did not reach statistical significance. No difference in regeneration is seen in patients with cholestasis or chemotherapy. Preoperative PVE has a high technical and clinical success rate. Liver cirrhosis has a negative effect on regeneration, but cholestasis and chemotherapy do not seem to have an influence on the hypertrophy response. The use of n-butyl cyanoacrylate may result in a greater hypertrophy response compared with other embolization materials used.

  7. Portal Vein Embolization Before Liver Resection: A Systematic Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a review of literature on the indications, technique, and outcome of portal vein embolization (PVE). A systematic literature search on outcome of PVE from 1990 to 2011 was performed in Medline, Cochrane, and Embase databases. Forty-four articles were selected, including 1,791 patients with a mean age of 61 ± 4.1 years. Overall technical success rate was 99.3 %. The mean hypertrophy rate of the FRL after PVE was 37.9 ± 0.1 %. In 70 patients (3.9 %), surgery was not performed because of failure of PVE (clinical success rate 96.1 %). In 51 patients (2.8 %), the hypertrophy response was insufficient to perform liver resection. In the other 17 cases, 12 did not technically succeed (0.7 %) and 7 caused a complication leading to unresectability (0.4 %). In 6.1 %, resection was cancelled because of local tumor progression after PVE. Major complications were seen in 2.5 %, and the mortality rate was 0.1 %. A head-to-head comparison shows a negative effect of liver cirrhosis on hypertrophy response. The use of n-butyl cyanoacrylate seems to have a greater effect on hypertrophy, but the difference with other embolization materials did not reach statistical significance. No difference in regeneration is seen in patients with cholestasis or chemotherapy. Preoperative PVE has a high technical and clinical success rate. Liver cirrhosis has a negative effect on regeneration, but cholestasis and chemotherapy do not seem to have an influence on the hypertrophy response. The use of n-butyl cyanoacrylate may result in a greater hypertrophy response compared with other embolization materials used.

  8. Relationship of bleeding complications and impairment of draining veins after α-n-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the causes, consequences and management of injuries to the draining veins after embolization of brain arterioven0us malformations (BAVMs) with α-n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Methods: The angiographic imaging data of 189 BAVMs patients who underwent NBCA embolization were studied retrospectively. The status of the draining veins before and after NBCA embolization was observed and compared. The intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)complications and their relation to their angiographic features were analyzed. Results: Twenty-three patients out of 189 patients showed injuries to the draining venous system, including 10 low-grade injury, 6 moderate injury, and 7 high-grade injury. Six patients suffered from ICH after embolization, of whom 4 patients were due to injuries of the draining veins (2 moderate and 2 high-grade). In the 3 months follow-up evaluation of 4 patients with ICH, one died, one was in vegetative state, and the other two patients suffered from residual severe or minor (1 patient for each) permanent neurological deficits. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that injury of the draining veins is the major cause of ICH and may lead to serious consequences after embolization of BAVMs with NBCA. (authors)

  9. Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus:Assessment Based on Clinical and Computer Tomography Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia,Lizhong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC complicated by portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT have an extremely poor prognosis. It is important to select adequate therapeutic options based on reliable prognostic factors using imaging studies and clinical data. Prognostic factors were analyzed in patients with HCC with PVTT in the first branch or main trunk of the portal vein. From 2000 to 2007, 107 consecutive patients with HCC with PVTT in the major portal vein were reviewed, and diagnostic images and clinical characteristics were retrospectively observed. Thirty-eight possible prognostic factors for survival were analyzed by the log-rank test and multivariate analysis using Coxʼs proportional hazards model. Median overall survival was 14 months following PVTT diagnosis. Survival rates at 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years were 72.1%, 52.6%, 32.6%, and 29.6%, respectively. Independent prognostic factors for longer survival included:patient age <65 years, Child-Pugh classification A/B, PVTT treatment, accumulation of Lipiodol in the PVTT after TACE, initial radical treatment for HCC, HCC located in a single lobe of the liver, and no invasion of HCC to the hepatic vein or bile duct. Survival was associated with liver function, tumor extension, and treatment for HCC and PVTT.

  10. In vivo MR imaging of nanometer magnetically labeled bone marrow stromal cells transplanted via portal vein in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate in vivo magnetic resonance imaging with a conventional 1.5-T system for tracking of intra-portal vein transplantation nanometer magnetically labeled BMSCs in rat liver. Methods: BMSCs were isolated from 5 SD rats bone marrow with the density gradient centrifugation method. Then BMSCs were labeled with nanometer superpara-magnetic iron oxide and transfection agent. Cell labeling efficiency was assessed with determination of the percentage of Peris Prussian blue stain. Then BMSCs transplanted into normal rats' livers via portal vein. The receipts were divided into 5 groups ,including sham control,2 h ,3 d,7 d and 2 w after transplantation. Follow-up serial T1WI,T2WI and T2*-weighted gradient- echo MR imaging were performed at 1.5 T MRI system. MR imaging findings were compared with histology. Results: Cell labeling efficiency was more than 95% by Perls Prussian blue stain. After transplantation of labeled BMSCs via portal vein, liver's had diffuse granular signal intensity appearance in T2* WI MRI. Cells were detected for up to 2 w in receipts' liver's. At histologic analysis, signal intensity loss correlated with iron-loaded cells. Conclusion: MR imaging could aid in monitoring of magnetically labeled BMSCs administered via portal vein in vivo. (authors)

  11. A Subspace Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, S.; Hededal, O.

    An algorithm is presented for computing the m smallest eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of the generalized eigenvalue problem (A - λB)Φ = 0 where A and B are real n x n symmetric matrices. In an iteration scheme the matrices A and B are projected simultaneously onto an m-dimensional sub......An algorithm is presented for computing the m smallest eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of the generalized eigenvalue problem (A - λB)Φ = 0 where A and B are real n x n symmetric matrices. In an iteration scheme the matrices A and B are projected simultaneously onto an m......-dimensional subspace in order to establish and solve a symmetric generalized eigenvalue problem in the subspace. The algorithm is described in pseudo code and implemented in the C programming language for lower triangular matrices A and B. The implementation includes procedures for selecting initial iteration vectors...

  12. Algorithms for Global Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Kai; Strang, Gilbert

    The emergence of satellite technology has changed the lives of millions of people. In particular, GPS has brought an unprecedented level of accuracy to the field of geodesy. This text is a guide to the algorithms and mathematical principles that account for the success of GPS technology and repla......The emergence of satellite technology has changed the lives of millions of people. In particular, GPS has brought an unprecedented level of accuracy to the field of geodesy. This text is a guide to the algorithms and mathematical principles that account for the success of GPS technology....... At the heart of the matter are the positioning algorithms on which GPS technology relies, the discussion of which will affirm the mathematical contents of the previous chapters. Numerous ready-to-use MATLAB codes are included for the reader. This comprehensive guide will be invaluable for engineers...

  13. 股静脉替代门静脉和肾静脉的应用解剖%Applied anatomy on reconstructions of the portal vein and renal vein using the femoral vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜井伟; 任为; 孙善全

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To demonstrate the feasibility and safety of reconstructions of the portal vein and renal vein using the femoral vein. Methods-, 60 adults corpses (male 32, female 28) fixed with formalin were randomly used. The femoral vein, popliteal vein, deep femoral vein, communicating vein, portal vein and renal vein were dissected, observed and measured. The available femoral vein was the segment of the femoral vein from the point at which the deep femoral vein empties into the femoral vein to the lower edge of abductor hiatus. The length of the available femoral vein, portal vein, renal vein and their squashed diameter were measured. Results-. The length of the available femoral vein in male and female was 18. 8 cm±2. 3 cm and 15. 1 em± 1. 5 cm, respectively. The diameter of squashed vein in male and female was 15. 8 mm±0. 8 mm and 14. 0 mm±. 1 mm, respectively. The length was significantly correlated with gender and height The double-femoral vein was observed in 16 sides (14%). The femoral-popliteal collateral vein was observed in 48 sides (42. 1%). The deep femoral-popliteal communicating vein was observed in 38 sides (33. 3%). There were 20 sides (17. 5%) observed with none of the communicating vein. The length of the portal vein, left renal vein and right renal vein was 6. 8 cm±0. 8 cm, 6. 5 cm±0. 6 cm and 2. 8 cm ± 0. 5 cm, respectively. The diameter of the squashed portal vein, left renal vein and right renal vein was 19. 2 cm±0. 8 mm, 20. 4 tnm±0. 6 mm and 17. 4 mm±0. 7 mm, respectively. There was no gender difference between them. Conclusion: It is a reliable and safety to harvest the femoral vein as a vascular graft because of the existence of the great saphenous vein and communicating vein between the popliteal vein and femoral vein or deep femoral vein. The femoral vein can be used as a conduit for vascular reconstruction of the portal vein and renal vein.%目的:探讨股静脉作为血管移植材料替代门静脉和肾静脉的可行性

  14. Comorbidity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan René; Rosenberg, Niels Thomas; Christoffersen, Nynne; Vorum, Henrik; Gade, Else; Larsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate comorbidity before and after the diagnosis of branch retinal vein occlusion to determine whether it is a consequence of arterial thickening and therefore could serve as a diagnostic marker for other comorbidities and to evaluate the risk factors for the development of such occlusion....

  15. Pulmonary vein and cavotricuspid isthmus ablation in situs inversus totalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Mina M; Kipp, Ryan; Wright, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) with cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) ablation is feasible in patients with situs inversus totalis. Orientation challenges are improved with the use of electroanatomical mapping prior to transseptal puncture. Care must be taken to note the opposing anatomic locations of important structures such as the left atrial appendage, descending aorta, and phrenic nerve. PMID:26862406

  16. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization

  17. Changes in the retinal veins in acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell, T; Sellebjerg, F; Jensen, C

    1999-01-01

    retinae (PR) and 2 had venous sheathing (VS). Probable MS was found in 15 patients without prior symptoms of MS. One had PR and VS, and 2 had VS. Twenty patients had mono-symptomatic ON, none had retinal changes. CONCLUSION: Changes of the retinal veins should alert the clinician to a probable diagnosis...

  18. The pathology of facial vein blood sampling in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ket; Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre; Bollen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of retro-orbital blood sampling is prohibited in Denmark. For this reason, alternative methods are used for obtaining larger blood samples of a good quality. The facial vein is generally recommended for this. However, we have experienced discomfort for mice subjected to facial...

  19. Recurrence of cystic adventitial disease in an interposed vein graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T; Kato, R; Sugimoto, I; Kondo, M; Tsuchioka, H

    1994-09-01

    A case of cystic adventitial disease (CAD) of the popliteal artery with intermittent claudication in the left calf is reported. This patient was first treated by total excision of the cyst and the involved artery followed by graft interposition with an autogenous saphenous vein. Recurrence of CAD in the interposed vein graft was noted after 6 months, and excision of the cyst with the involved graft and graft interposition with an autogenous saphenous vein was again required. We consider that the definitive evidence from early recurrence in the interposed vein graft shown in this case will close the discussion of the cause of CAD. The cystic lesion is thought by some to originate from the adventitia; traumatic, embryologic, or systemic abnormality theories were proposed. We assume that the mucin-secreting synovial cells originating from the neighboring joint capsule, tendon sheath, or, in some cases, from the ganglion itself, directly invade the adventitia through any rough or injured crack caused by trauma to the adventitia or simply attach to and encircle the adventitia. Total resection of the lesion with grafting is the recommended treatment for CAD because of the excellent results. However, as shown in our case, complete removal of the synovial cells even by resection technique may be difficult; therefore intensive follow-up is fundamentally necessary in this disease. PMID:8079189

  20. Evaluation of Azygous Vein Aneurysm Using Integrated PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Young Tae; Park, Young Sik; Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    A previously healthy, non-smoking, 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with abnormal chest X-ray and chest discomfort. A 3.5-cm, well-defined, right paratracheal mass was revealed on non-contrast chest computed tomography (CT), which was suspected to be an azygous vein aneurysm, lymph adenopathy or neurogenic tumor. Whole-body integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) (Biograph mMR; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was performed for the differential diagnosis. A homogenously enhancing mass connected with the azygous vein was well visualized in a post-contrast volumetric interpolated gradient echo (VIBE) sequence. Additionally, the PET showed minimal {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax], 1.83), similar to that of the great vessels, with no filling defect to suggest thromboembolism and no significant FDG uptake to suggest active thrombo-embolism or malignancy. The imaging findings in integrated PET/MRI were useful to characterize azygous vein aneurysm. The patient had a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery to relieve the symptom of chest pain. A congenital etiology of azygous vein aneurysm was confirmed by pathology.

  1. Anomalous azygos vein: a potential danger during endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieunarine, K; May, J; White, G H; Harris, J P

    1997-08-01

    A report of a patient with an azygos lobe and an associated anomalous azygos vein covering the upper thoracic sympathetic chain. This anomaly poses a significant risk during the procedure of endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy. A chest X-ray is useful in detecting this anomaly and alerting the surgeon to potential problems. PMID:9287933

  2. Aberrant left brachiocephalic vein: CT imaging findings and embryologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography was utilized to evaluate aberrant left brachiocephalic vein (ALBCV), an infrequently discussed congenital vascular anomaly among Chinese people. Associated vascular variation and possible embryonic correlation are discussed. Since 1990, a total of 14 cases of ALBCV have been reported in patients receiving CT scan of chest, and was mainly an incidental diagnosis. One case was confirmed angiographically and two others were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Emphasis was placed on the entry of the azygos vein into the superior vena cava (SVC), the length of the SVC, and the presence of other cardiovascular abnormalities. Of the 14 cases of ALBCV, the level of azygos vein entry was higher than the origin of the SVC in 7 cases: 4 were approximately the same level and 3 were lower. The average length of the SVC was approximately 5.6 cm shorter than that of the general population, which is approximately 7.0 cm. Three cases had associated vascular anomaly. Most cases of ALBCV had azygos vein drainage level higher than or equal to the origin of the SVC. Right-sided aorta is one of the causes giving rise to the ALBCV during embryonic development. The CT scan remains a definitive diagnostic modality for ALBCV. (orig.)

  3. Subclavian Vein Cannulation Success Rate in Neonates and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminnejad, Reza; Razavi, Seyed Sajjad; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Mahdavi, Seyed Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central vein cannulation allows the administration of large volumes of fluids in short times and at high osmolarities for rehydration, volume replacement, chemotherapy, and parenteral nutrition. Percutaneous central venous line insertion has replaced peripheral venous cut-down as the primary mode of short-term venous access in children. Objectives: The aim of our study was to delineate some aspects of this procedure as well as its success rate and relative risk in pediatrics. Patients and Methods: Totally, 3264 subclavian vein cannulations in neonates and children were analyzed regarding successful catheterization attempts and early complication rates after the procedure retrospectively in Mofid Hospital (Tehran, Iran). Results: There were 1340 newborn patients (first 28 days of life) in our study population. In these newborns, only 55 cannulations failed; one patient was complicated with pneumothorax; guide wires malfunctioned in 21 cases; and first- attempt cannulation success was reported in only 981 cases. In the remaining 1924 patients, between one month and 8 years old, only 14 attempts at the cannulation of the subclavian vein failed and 1655 cases had first-attempt cannulation success. Conclusions: The cannulation of the central vein in neonates and children in a skilled hand would be performed with great success rate and low complications. PMID:26161322

  4. Ruptured saphenous vein graft pseudoaneurysm successfully treated with covered stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezu, Keisuke; Funayama, Hiroshi; Katayama, Takuji; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Ako, Junya; Momomura, Shin-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    Saphenous vein graft (SVG) pseudoaneurysms are rare complications following coronary bypass graft surgery. A 46-year-old man presented with streptococcal infectious endocarditis and needed sequential operations for aortic root reconstruction. Shortly after the surgeries, a composite SVG on the right coronary artery developed a ruptured pseudoaneurysm, which was successfully treated using covered stents. PMID:25917780

  5. Abernethy malformation with portal vein aneurysm in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheragaru H Chandrashekhara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abernethy malformation is an extremely rare anomaly of the splanchnic venous system. We describe multidetector computed tomography findings of an incidentally detected Abernethy malformation with portal vein aneurysm in a two-and-half-year old child. The computed tomography scan was performed for the evaluation of respiratory distress, poor growth, and loss of appetite.

  6. Role of magnetic resonance venography in assessment of intra-thoracic central veins in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abdel Latif

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: MRV is a highly sensitive technique in the diagnosis of patency and steno-occlusive disease of intrathoracic central veins and may be used as an alternative to DSV for the abnormalities of central veins in hemodialysis patients.

  7. Caudal shif ting of hepatic vein anastomosis inright liver living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheung Tat Fan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In right liver living donor liver trans-plantation, hepatic venous anastomosis is performed using the recipient's right hepatic vein oriifce. There may be situations that the portal vein is short or the right liver graft is small, leading to dififculty in portal vein, hepatic artery or duct-to-duct anastomosis. METHODS: The recipient's right hepatic vein oriifce is closed partially for 2 cm at the cranial end or totally, and a new venotomy is made caudal to the right hepatic vein oriifce. Hepatic vein anastomosis is performed with the new venotomy. RESULTS: The distance between the liver graft hilum and hepatoduodenal ligament is reduced. Portal vein, hepatic artery and biliary anastomosis could be performed without tension or conduit. CONCLUSION: Caudal shifting of hepatic vein anasto-mosis facilitates implantation of a right liver living donor graft.

  8. Limitations of Percutaneous Techniques in the Treatment of Portal Vein Thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New therapeutic alternatives to portal vein thrombosis (PVT) include the percutaneous, transhepatic infusion of fibrinolytic agents, balloon dilatation, and stenting. These maneuvers have proven to be effective in some cases with acute, recent PVT. We have treated two patients with acute PVT via transhepatic or transjugular approaches and by using pharmacologic and mechanical thrombolysis and thrombectomy. Although both patients clinically improved, morphologic results were only fair and partial rethrombosis was observed. The limitations of percutaneous procedures in the recanalization of acute PVT in noncirrhotic patients are discussed

  9. Saphenous Vein Graft Perforation During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention - A Nightmare to be Avoided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Deora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs of saphenous vein grafts (SVGs is challenging and is associated with adverse short- and long-term clinical outcome as compared to native coronary arteries. SVG perforation is rare but catastrophic and needs immediate attention. Various factors predisposing for SVG perforation are old degenerated graft, ulcerated plaque, severe fibrotic, or calcified lesion necessitating high pressure balloon or stent inflation, use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS or other atheroablative devices. Management includes prolonged balloon occlusion, reversal of anticoagulation, use of covered stent, and emergency pericadiocentesis if required.

  10. Understanding Contaminant Veins in Squeeze Casting and Semi-solid Metalworking Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward J. Vinarcik, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    When commercializing the semi-solid metalworking processes, component producers looked to conventional die-casting to identify potential defects and control component quality. Several defects were expected including cold shuts, cold flows, flash, drags, warping, and gas entrapment, just to name a few. Efforts were taken to avoid these defects. A new defect type, contaminant veins, has surfaced unique to semi-solid metalworking. Although, semi-solid metalworking has proven to be successful, component producers have been reluctant to report defects for fear of giving this emerging processes a bad reputation. Nonetheless, this defect must be understood to avoid future problems.

  11. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Fabrizio, E.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  12. The mineralized veins and the impact of old mine workings on the environment at Segura, central Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, I. M. H. R.; Neiva, A. M. R.; Silva, M. M. V. G.

    2002-01-01

    At Segura, granitic pegmatite veins with cassiterite and lepidolite, hydrothermal Sn-W quartz veins and Ba-Pb-Zn quartz veins intruded the Cambrian schist-metagraywacke complex and Hercynian granites. Cassiterite from Sn-W quartz veins is richer in Ti and poorer in Nb and Nb+Ta than cassiterite from granitic pegmatite. Wolframite from Sn-W quartz veins is enriched in ferberite component. The Sn-W quartz veins contain pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, stannite, matildite and ...

  13. Nuclide Transport and Diffusion for Vein and Fracture Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modelling radionuclide transport through crystalline rock is usually based on a small water flow in a system of narrow fractures. This flow is denoted as fracture flow. In our model, it implies planar water-conducting channels and adjacent zones of dominant matrix diffusion. According to the constitution of the rock, it can be necessary to consider additionally a vein flow being characterized by cylindrical water-conducting channels and adjacent zones of dominant matrix diffusion. Transport calculations, based on a dual porosity concept, were performed for vein as well as for fracture flow. An extensive discussion of the results provides an overview on important parameter dependencies and on the major vein flow effects. Formulae for quick estimates are given to guide quantitative interpretation of break-through curves. The discussion of analytical results for nuclide diffusion from a planar and from a cylindrical boundary backs up the comments on matrix diffusion. The following effects of vein flow onto the break-through curves are illustrative examples of useful findings: (1) The peak height can be very strongly reduced compared to fracture flow. The peak arrival time, however, is only slightly changed. (2) The asymptotic part of the tail is flatter than the well-known t-3/2 decrease for fracture flow. (3) The bump at the end of the tail, generated by the limitation of the diffusion zones, is substantially larger than for fracture flow. A double-peak break-through curve, therefore, can emerge from many cases of nuclide transport. (4) Sorption on the surfaces of diffusion-accessible pores can substantially change the break-through curves. The vein to fracture flow ratios of the break-through peak data, however, remain essentially equal. This holds for the whole range of investigated retardation factors from 7 to 27'000. The investigations presented contribute to sophisticated interpretations of break-through curves and improve the physical understanding of nuclide

  14. Zapora mrežničnih ven: Retinal vein occlusion:

    OpenAIRE

    Jaki, Polona; Mavri, Alenka; Štalc, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion is a common disease, especially in the elderly, and is associated with significant visual morbidity, as a consequence of persistent macular oedema, macular ischemia, and in the advanced stages of the disease, due to retinal or iris neovascularisation with vitreal haemorrhages or neovascular glaucoma. There are two types of retinal vein occlusion with respect to the site of occlusion: branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion. The obstruction is ma...

  15. Azygos Vein Aneurysm as a Posterior Mediastinal Mass Discovered After Minor Chest Trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azygos vein aneurysm is a rare cause of a posterior or paratracheal mediastinal mass. Trauma or conditions causing elevated flow or pressure in the azygos system, such as cardiac failure or cirrhosis of the liver are secondary causes of aneurysm of the azygos vein. We report a case of asymptomatic saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein in a 45-year-old man with blunt minor chest trauma. The azygos vein aneurysm was managed by conservative treatment

  16. Veia gástrica posterior: hipertensão porta Posterior gastric vein: portal hipertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcino Lázaro da Silva

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A veia gástrica posterior não é muito citada nos livros de anatomia e nos trabalhos sobre hipertensão porta. Estudou-se sua anatomia, freqüência e desembocadura. Ela foi encontrada em 54% dos casos e, em 100%, desembocava na veia esplênica. Discute-se a vantagem ou não de sua ligadura ou preservação no tratamento cirúrgico da hipertensão porta.The posterior gastric vein has not been mentioned very often neither in anatomy textbooks nor in portal hypertension papers. The authors studied the anatomy, frequency and confluence of this vein because is a huge variety in the presentation of esophageal varices. Twenty-six adult preserved corpses (twenty females and six males had a wide abdominal incision allowing the dissection of the portal system, identifying the frequency and confluence of its tributaries, notably the posterior gastric vein. The portal vein, in all cases, was formed by the confluence of the superior mesenteric vein with the splenic vein and had a mean length of 6.4 cm. The splenic vein had a mean length of 6.5 cm. The left gastric vein was tributary of the portal vein in 50% of the cases and in 30% of the cases in the splenic vein. The right gastric vein had it's confluence to portal vein in 30 % of the cases and to the splenic vein in 4 %. The inferior mesenteric vein was tributary of the splenic vein in 54% of the cases and in the superior mesenteric vein in 46%. The left gastro-omental vein had its confluence to the splenic vein in 50% of the cases and to the inferior polar vein in 34 %. The middle colic vein had its confluence to superior mesenteric vein in 42% of the cases, to inferior mesenteric vein in 12% and to splenic vein in 8%. The posterior gastric vein was found in 54% of the corpses, and in all cases it was a tributary of the splenic vein, in retropancreatic position, coming from the esophageal-gastric junction. These findings agree with previous papers describing a prevalence of 60% of posterior gastric

  17. Intraoperative endothelial damage is associated with increased risk of stenoses in infrainguinal vein grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T G; Hesse, B; Boehme, M W;

    2001-01-01

    Saphenous vein injury is believed to predispose to vein graft stenoses. The aims of this study were to assess the endothelial injury associated with infrainguinal vein bypass surgery by serial measurements of serum thrombomodulin concentration as well as by platelet scintigraphy, and to relate th...

  18. Revealing Maximal Diameter of Upper Limb Superficial Vein with an Elevated Environmental Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Hira; Ooi, Guo Shen; Kyin, May M; Ho, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the primary tool for preoperative analysis of vein morphology for fistula creation in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study examines the effect of environmental temperature on the superficial vein size. Superficial veins of thirteen healthy volunteers were marked at three sites: cephalic vein in left lateral arm near cubital fossa, cephalic vein in left forearm at wrist, and basilic vein in left medial arm near cubital fossa. Mean diameters were recorded using ultrasound probe at 26°C and 43°C. Body temperature was increased using a Bair Hugger blanket. Mean values from the two temperatures were analyzed using paired sample t-test. All three superficial vein sites displayed statistically significant increase in diameter when the temperature was increased from 26°C to 43°C. Paired t-test showed p values of 0.001 for cephalic vein at wrist, 0.01 for cephalic vein near cubital fossa, and 0.01 for basilic vein near cubital fossa. This study proved that environmental temperature exerts a statistically significant effect on vein size measured by ultrasound during preoperative assessment for vascular access. Not to the extent of 43°C, the authors would recommend setting the room temperature higher during ultrasound vascular assessment to avoid underestimating the superficial vein size. PMID:27597987

  19. Tip to midpoint observations on syntectonic veins, Ouachita orogen, Arkansas: Trading space for time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Pablo; Wiltschko, David V.

    2010-08-01

    By examining a vein from its tip to center, we have established the transition from a single filled fracture at the vein tip to typical 'crack-seal' textures observed in fibered, laminated veins. The vein is contained in the boudin neck of a sandstone layer within the Lower Ordovician Mazarn Formation, Benton Uplift, Ouachita orogen. The tip of the vein is composed of one or more isolated veinlets, defined as quartz-filled narrow (5-25 μm) fractures parallel to the larger vein's long dimension. Scanned SEM-based cathodoluminescence shows that quartz laminae of the same orientation and thickness are found throughout the vein. Wall-normal fibers first appear in the vein where detrital grains are cut by multiple veinlets, each veinlet mimicking the crystallographic orientation of the detrital grain, whereas later veinlets reflect the established crystallographic orientation of the fiber. Fibers throughout the vein retain evidence of having been formed by repeated fracturing and filling of a pre-existing grain (at the vein walls) or fiber. However, recrystallization later modified the fibers by obliterating some evidence of the veinlets and moving fiber walls. Boudin formation provided the extension site that localized fracturing and vein filling. The vein grows by the repeated addition of veinlets in the neck region. Recrystallization altered the shape of previously formed fibers.

  20. Ultrasonography for suspected deep vein thrombosis: how useful is single-point augmentation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQueen, A.S. [Department of Radiology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)], E-mail: andrewmcqueen7@hotmail.com; Elliott, S.T. [Department of Radiology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Keir, M.J. [Department of Medical Physics, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Aims: To assess the role of single-point augmentation of spectral Doppler flow in the diagnosis of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Secondary objectives included identifying the augmentation response in non-DVT diagnoses. Methods: Patients attending the ultrasound departments of two hospitals for investigation of suspected acute DVT during an 8-month period were recruited to the study group. Spectral Doppler assessment of the superficial femoral vein was recorded during Valsalva and calf compression manoeuvres in the asymptomatic and symptomatic legs. The Doppler waveforms from the symptomatic limb were characterized as 'normal' or 'abnormal' by the operator. Standard compression ultrasonography of the symptomatic leg was then performed with the presence of DVT or an alternative diagnosis documented. Results: One hundred and sixty-seven patients underwent ultrasound examinations using the study methodology. Nine patients were subsequently excluded due to bilateral DVT or inability to tolerate calf compression. The mean age of the remaining 158 patients was 65.4 years with 28 DVTs identified (18% of patients). Calf compression elicited a normal response in 118/130 of non-DVT examinations (specificity 91%) and an abnormal response in 18/28 DVT examinations (sensitivity 64%). Diminished or absent augmentation was identified in alternative diagnoses that included haematoma and Baker's cyst. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that single-point augmentation has a low sensitivity in suspected lower-limb DVT, and that the majority of undetected DVTs are isolated to the calf veins. An abnormal augmentation response is a poor predictor of lower-limb DVT as alternative diagnoses can produce diminished or reduced augmentation. Therefore, single-point augmentation does not add to the standard compression ultrasound examination for suspected DVT and should not be routinely performed.

  1. Effectiveness of high-dose three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcome of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with portal vein thrombosis, concerning survival and treatment response of thrombosis. Forty-five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who had portal vein thrombosis treated from March 2005 to March 2011 were the subjects of this study. The median total dose was 61.2 Gy (range 38-65 Gy). A daily radiation dose of 1.8-2.5 Gy was administered at a frequency of five fractions per week. The clinical target volume included portal vein thrombosis with or without primary tumour with clinical consideration. Three of the 45 patients (6.7%) showed complete remission of portal vein thrombosis, 25 patients (55.6%) showed partial response, 14 patients (31%) had stable disease and 3 patients (6.7%) had progressive disease. The median and the 1-year survival rate of the responders (complete remission + progressive disease) were 16.7 months and 63.7%, respectively, and those of the non-responders were 8 months and 28.2%, respectively (P=0.003). A univariate analysis revealed that thrombosis response, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, maximum tumour size, tumour bilaterality, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program stage, Okuda stage, hepatic arterial infusion, hepatitis B 'e' antigen and hepatitis C antibody were statistically significant prognostic factors affecting survival. In a multivariate analysis, thrombosis response, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program stage and Okuda stage were found to be statistically significant. No clinically significant radiation-induced liver disease was noted. One grade 3 late complication (duodenal ulcer) was reported. High-dose three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy yielded a response rate of 62.3%. It is a safe and effective treatment prolonging the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with portal vein thrombosis. (author)

  2. Classification of hypervascular liver lesions based on hepatic artery and portal vein blood supply coefficients calculated from triphasic CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, F Edward; Kamaya, Aya; Do, Bao; Desser, Terry S; Beaulieu, Christopher F; Vasanawala, Shreyas S; Hwang, Gloria L; Sze, Daniel Y

    2015-04-01

    Perfusion CT of the liver typically involves scanning the liver at least 20 times, resulting in a large radiation dose. We developed and validated a simplified model of tumor blood supply that can be applied to standard triphasic scans and evaluated whether this can be used to distinguish benign and malignant liver lesions. Triphasic CTs of 46 malignant and 32 benign liver lesions were analyzed. For each phase, regions of interest were drawn in the arterially enhancing portion of each lesion, as well as the background liver, aorta, and portal vein. Hepatic artery and portal vein blood supply coefficients for each lesion were then calculated by expressing the enhancement curve of the lesion as a linear combination of the enhancement curves of the aorta and portal vein. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hypervascular metastases, on average, both had increased hepatic artery coefficients compared to the background liver. Compared to HCC, benign lesions, on average, had either a greater hepatic artery coefficient (hemangioma) or a greater portal vein coefficient (focal nodular hyperplasia or transient hepatic attenuation difference). Hypervascularity with washout is a key diagnostic criterion for HCC, but it had a sensitivity of 72 % and specificity of 81 % for diagnosing malignancy in our diverse set of liver lesions. The sensitivity for malignancy was increased to 89 % by including enhancing lesions that were hypodense on all phases. The specificity for malignancy was increased to 97 % (p = 0.039) by also examining hepatic artery and portal vein blood supply coefficients, while maintaining a sensitivity of 76 %. PMID:25183580

  3. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Bounameaux, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is the third most common cause of death from cardiovascular disease after heart attack and stroke. Sequelae occurring after venous thromboembolism include chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome. Venous thromboembolism and atherothrombosis share common risk factors and the common pathophysiological characteristics of inflammation, hypercoagulability, and endothelial injury. Clinical probability assessment helps to identify patients with lo...

  4. Palliative Portal Vein Stent Placement in Malignant and Symptomatic Extrinsic Portal Vein Stenosis or Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article evaluates the results of portal vein (PV) stent placement in patients with malignant extrinsic lesions stenosing or obstructing the PV and causing symptomatic PV hypertension (PVHT). Fourteen patients with bile duct cancer (n = 7), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 4), or another cancer (n = 3) underwent percutaneous transhepatic portal venous stent placement because of gastroesophageal or jejunal varices (n = 9), ascites (n = 7), and/or thrombocytopenia (n = 2). Concurrent tumoral obstruction of the main bile duct was treated via the transhepatic route in the same session in four patients. Changes in portal venous pressure, complications, stent patency, and survival were evaluated. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) gradient of portal venous pressure decreased significantly immediately after stent placement from 11.2 mmHg ± 4.6 to 1.1 mmHg ± 1.0 (P < 0.00001). Three patients had minor complications, and one developed a liver abscess. During a mean ± SD follow-up of 134.4 ± 123.3 days, portal stents remained patent in 11 patients (78.6%); stent occlusion occurred in 3 patients, 2 of whom had undergone previous major hepatectomy. After stent placement, PVHT symptoms were relieved in four (57.1%) of seven patients who died (mean survival, 97 ± 71.2 days), and relieved in six (85.7%) of seven patients still alive at the end of follow-up (mean follow-up, 171.7 ± 153.5 days). Stent placement in the PV is feasible and relatively safe. It helped to relieve PVHT symptoms in a single session.

  5. Drug-Coated Balloon Venoplasty for In-Stent Restenosis in a Patient With Recurrent Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Post Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation: Initial Experience With a New Treatment Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jonathan; Fisher, Westby G; Guerrero, Mayra; Smart, Steve; Levisay, Justin; Feldman, Ted; Salinger, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is an uncommon but serious complication following radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. Occurrence of this complication has risen with increased rates of ablation procedures, with >50,000 AF ablation procedures performed per year, and can occur within weeks to months post procedure. Currently, the main therapies for PVS include percutaneous interventions with balloon angioplasty and stenting, but these treatments are complicated by a high rate of restenosis. The optimal treatment for recurrent pulmonary vein in-stent restenosis has not been determined. We describe the novel use of a paclitaxel drug-coated balloon for the treatment of in-stent restenosis of the pulmonary veins. PMID:27145055

  6. Qualitative D-Dimer in deep vein thrombosis: A single center prospective study from Kashmir India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinder Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to study the significance of qualitative D-dimer in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis. Study Design: Prospective analysis. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty nine patients of suspected deep vein thrombosis were included in the study and further categorized as likely or unlikely to have deep vein thrombosis on Wells scoring system. The patients in both the likely and unlikely categories were then randomly assigned to undergo D-dimer testing (D-dimer group or to undergo ultrasound imaging alone (control group. The patients with pre text clinical probability score as unlikely and with negative D-dimer test were considered not to have DVT. The primary event was recurrent venous thromboembolism in both the groups during three months of follow-up. Results: A total of one hundred and twenty nine patients with suspected DVT were included in the study. Sixty five patients were randomly assigned to D-dimer group and sixty four to the doppler group. The diagnosis of DVT was established in 41 (31.78% patients. Among patients in whom DVT was ruled out by the initial diagnostic evaluation one case of deep vein thrombosis was confirmed in the D-dimer group (1/55, 1.8%; 95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 5.2% and two cases in the Doppler group (2/51, 3.92%; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 9.34% during three months of follow-up. The use of D-dimer resulted in lesser number of USG (0.66 tests per person in the D-dimer group as compared to (1.23 tests per person in the Doppler group. Forty patients (31% in the D-dimer group did not require ultrasound imaging. Conclusion: The diagnostic performance of qualitative D-dimer assay combined with a clinical pre text probability score can also rule out DVT safely in low probability scores without significantly compromising safety.

  7. Endovenous laser therapy for occlusion of incompetent saphenous veins using 1940nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Esipova, Anna; Dikic, Slobodan; Demhasaj, Sahit; Comsa, Florin; Schmedt, Claus-Georg

    2015-07-01

    Objective: Several studies indicate that ELT using wavelengths of high water absorption showed advantages compared to conventional ELT. Thulium-Lasers emit nearby the local absorption maximum of water at 1940nm. In this clinical study the effectiveness, safety and the feasibility of 1940nm-ELT is proven. Materials and Method: A single centric, prospective observational study was performed. 1940nm-laserenergy was applied using radial emitting fibres with continuous pullback (1mm/s). Treatment was performed under anesthesia (general, spinal, tumescent) thus simultaneous miniphlebectomy and ligation of perforators could be applied. Patient and technical details were systematically collected. Evaluation included: standardized questionnaire, clinical examination, color-duplex ultrasonography preoperatively, 3d, 4w, 6m postoperatively, statistic. Results: The 1940nm-ELT study include 55 patients (female/men=34/21, mean age 55y, range 23-90y) treating n=72 vessels. The mean maximum diameter of great saphenous veins (GSV, n=59) was 7.5mm (range 3.7-11.3mm) and of small saphenous veins (SSV, n=13) was 5.3mm (3.0-10.0mm). The mean applied longitudinal endovenous energy density (LEED) was 64.3J/cm (40.3-98.2J/cm) in GSVs and 51.0J/cm (37.6-72.7J/cm) in SSVs. Complete occlusion of the vein without sign of reflux was achieved in 100%. The mean length of non-occluded stump at the sapheno-femoral junction was 6.0mm (1.0-20.0mm). Postoperative reduction of the diameter of GSV was 1.6mm (21.3%) and 2.0mm (37.7%) in SSV. One (1.4%) endovenous heat induced thrombus (EHIT) was observed. Further adverse events were: paresthesia 10/72 (13.9%), ecchymosis 1/72 (1.4%), lymphocele 1/72 (1.4%), hyperpigmentation 1/72 (1.4%). The mean postoperative pain intensity was 1.3 and 1.8 single doses of analgesics were administered. Normal physical activity was reached after 3d (1-21d). Conclusion: 1940nm-ELT using radial light application effectively eliminates the reflux in insufficient saphenous

  8. Anatomical variation of thyroid veins on contrast-enhanced multi-detector row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This is the first study to demonstrate the anatomy of thyroid veins on contrasted-enhanced MDCT. • Identifying the thyroid vein on MDCT prior to selective venous sampling of parathyroid hormone provides clinical information to interventional radiologist. • Detecting especially the inferior thyroid veins with individual variability in numbers, locations, and lengths may have an effect on SVS for HPT and decrease the difficulty and time of the procedure. - Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to clarify the anatomical variation of thyroid veins into the systemic vein using contrast-enhanced multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT). Design and methods: : The subjects were 80 patients (34 males and 46 females; mean age, 50.1 years; age range, 15–92 years) with neck diseases who underwent MDCT. The number and location of inflow points of the thyroid veins into the systemic vein, and the length from the junction of bilateral brachiocephalic veins to the orifice of inferior thyroid vein were investigated by reviewing the axial and coronal images. Results: All superior thyroid veins were detected. Right and left middle thyroid veins were identified in 39 and 29 patients, respectively. Right inferior thyroid veins, left inferior thyroid veins, and common trunks were detected in 43, 46, and 39 patients, respectively; in five patients, two left thyroid veins were identified. All left inferior thyroid veins and 34 common trunks flowed into the innominate vein, while right ones had some variations in inflow sites. Mean lengths were 3.01 ± 1.30 cm (range, 0.5–6.19) and 2.04 ± 0.91 cm (0.5–4.4) in the left inferior thyroid vein and common trunk, and 1.96 ± 1.05 cm (0.81–4.8) and 1.65 ± 0.69 cm (0.63–2.94) in the right one flowing into the right internal jugular vein and the innominate vein, respectively. Conclusions: The numbers and orifices of thyroid veins were identified at high rates on contrast-enhanced MDCT. This

  9. Anatomical variation of thyroid veins on contrast-enhanced multi-detector row computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Hayato, E-mail: m04149@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Yokohama City Seibu Hospital, 1197-1 Yasashicho, Asahi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 241-0811 (Japan); Yamada, Takayuki; Murakami, Kenji; Hashimoto, Kazuki; Tazawa, Yoko; Kumano, Reiko [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Yokohama City Seibu Hospital, 1197-1 Yasashicho, Asahi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 241-0811 (Japan); Nakajima, Yasuo [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-8511 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This is the first study to demonstrate the anatomy of thyroid veins on contrasted-enhanced MDCT. • Identifying the thyroid vein on MDCT prior to selective venous sampling of parathyroid hormone provides clinical information to interventional radiologist. • Detecting especially the inferior thyroid veins with individual variability in numbers, locations, and lengths may have an effect on SVS for HPT and decrease the difficulty and time of the procedure. - Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to clarify the anatomical variation of thyroid veins into the systemic vein using contrast-enhanced multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT). Design and methods: : The subjects were 80 patients (34 males and 46 females; mean age, 50.1 years; age range, 15–92 years) with neck diseases who underwent MDCT. The number and location of inflow points of the thyroid veins into the systemic vein, and the length from the junction of bilateral brachiocephalic veins to the orifice of inferior thyroid vein were investigated by reviewing the axial and coronal images. Results: All superior thyroid veins were detected. Right and left middle thyroid veins were identified in 39 and 29 patients, respectively. Right inferior thyroid veins, left inferior thyroid veins, and common trunks were detected in 43, 46, and 39 patients, respectively; in five patients, two left thyroid veins were identified. All left inferior thyroid veins and 34 common trunks flowed into the innominate vein, while right ones had some variations in inflow sites. Mean lengths were 3.01 ± 1.30 cm (range, 0.5–6.19) and 2.04 ± 0.91 cm (0.5–4.4) in the left inferior thyroid vein and common trunk, and 1.96 ± 1.05 cm (0.81–4.8) and 1.65 ± 0.69 cm (0.63–2.94) in the right one flowing into the right internal jugular vein and the innominate vein, respectively. Conclusions: The numbers and orifices of thyroid veins were identified at high rates on contrast-enhanced MDCT. This

  10. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  11. Internal jugular vein: Peripheral vein adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio in patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing′s syndrome: Ratio calculated from one adrenocorticotropic hormone sample each from right and left internal jugular vein during corticotrophin releasing hormone stimulation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Chittawar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demonstration of central: Peripheral adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH gradient is important for diagnosis of Cushing′s disease. Aim: The aim was to assess the utility of internal jugular vein (IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio for diagnosis of Cushing′s disease. Materials and Methods: Patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing′s syndrome (CS patients were the subjects for this study. One blood sample each was collected from right and left IJV following intravenous hCRH at 3 and 5 min, respectively. A simultaneous peripheral vein sample was also collected with each IJV sample for calculation of IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio. IJV sample collection was done under ultrasound guidance. ACTH was assayed using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA. Results: Thirty-two patients participated in this study. The IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio ranged from 1.07 to 6.99 ( n = 32. It was more than 1.6 in 23 patients. Cushing′s disease could be confirmed in 20 of the 23 cases with IJV: Peripheral vein ratio more than 1.6. Four patients with Cushing′s disease and 2 patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome had IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio less than 1.6. Six cases with unknown ACTH source were excluded for calculation of sensitivity and specificity of the test. Conclusion: IJV: Peripheral vein ACTH ratio calculated from a single sample from each IJV obtained after hCRH had 83% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosis of CD.

  12. [Pharmacogenetics of the local thrombolysis in patients with deep vein thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Aleksander; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Goracy, Iwona; Górecka-Szyld, Barbara; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Parczewski, Miłosz; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2005-07-01

    Thrombophilia, the state of increased tendency for blood clotting, is considered the disorder of a complex etiology, caused by both environmental and genetic factors. As gene variants predisposing to thrombophilia and influencing the increased risk of vein thrombosis might influence response to local thrombolysis, the aim of the work was to characterize the pharmacogenetic conditions for local streptokinase treatment in patients with a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of lower extremities based on the following polymorphism analyses: G1691A polymorphism of factor V (FV), G20210A polymorphism of prothrombin (PT), A4250G (Thr312Ala) polymorphism of fibrinogen-alpha (FGA), G(-455)A polymorphism of fibrinogen-beta (FGB), 4G/5G polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1(PAI-1) and insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). The study included 40 DVT patients who underwent a local thrombolytic treatment within 14-day period from diagnosis. Full recanalization was achieved in 20 subjects (50%) [group R(+)], whereas incomplete or total lack of recanalization was identified in the remaining 20 patients [group R(-)]. No major complications of thrombolytic treatment occurred in the studied group. In the case of prothrombin gene all individuals carried homozygous wild type genotype (GG). Prevalence of the genotypes and alleles of the remaining five polymorphisms did not differ significantly between the groups R(+) and R(-). Neither sex nor age, smoking or time period from diagnosis to introduction of the thrombolytic treatment significantly influenced treatment efficacy. The results of the study suggest that a local thrombolysis with streptokinase introduced within two week period from the diagnosis is a safe and efficient method of treatment for deep vein thrombosis of lower extremities. However, size of the group is insufficient to clearly determine the association between investigated polymorphisms and efficacy of local treatment with

  13. Screening and analysis of genes expressed upon infection of broad bean with Clover yellow vein virus causing lethal necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki Yuji; Choi Sun; Atsumi Go; Kitazawa Hiroaki; Nakahara Kenji S; Uyeda Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) causes lethal systemic necrosis in legumes, including broad bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum). To identify host genes involved in necrotic symptom expression after ClYVV infection, we screened cDNA fragments in which expression was changed in advance of necrotic symptom expression in broad bean (V. faba cv. Wase) using the differential display technique and secondarily with Northern blot analysis. Expression changes were confirmed in 20 genes,...

  14. Effects of Vitrectomy on Recurrent Macular Edema due to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion after Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuya Yunoki; Keiichi Mitarai; Shuichiro Yanagisawa; Tsuyoshi Kato; Nobuo Ishida; Atsushi Hayashi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) on recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) after intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB). Methods. This retrospective study included 22 eyes of 22 patients who underwent single or multiple IVB injections for macular edema due to BRVO and showed a recurrence of macular edema. All patients then underwent PPV and were followed up for more than 6 months after the surgery with examinations of best corr...

  15. Efficacy and visual prognostic factors of intravitreal bevacizumab as needed for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose M; Matsumiya W; Honda S; Nakamura M

    2014-01-01

    Miki Hirose, Wataru Matsumiya, Shigeru Honda, Makoto NakamuraDepartment of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, JapanPurpose: Our aim was to investigate the efficacy and prognostic factors of intraocular injections of bevacizumab as needed in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).Methods: This is a retrospective study including 28 eyes of 27 consecutive patients with macular edema due to...

  16. The application of bilateral femoral vein approaches in interventional treatment of deep venous thrombosis of left lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of interventional catheterization with bilateral femoral vein approaches for performing the thrombolytic treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis of left lower extremity. Methods: Antegrade puncturing into the left femoral vein was carried out in eighteen patients with acute deep vein thrombosis in the left lower extremity after left iliac-femoral vein catheterization via the right femoral vein or the right jugular vein access failed. When the puncturing of the left femoral vein was successfully done and was confirmed by angiography, the guide wire was inserted into the inferior vena cava and was pulled out through the right femoral vein or right jugular vein, and a wire track was thus established. Then, retrograde insertion of the catheter was conducted along the wire from the right to the left until the catheter was placed into the left iliac-femoral vein for thrombolysis. Results: Of 18 cases,successful puncturing into the left femoral vein was achieved in 16, and an effective wire track was established between the left and right femoral veins, based on which the catheter was smoothly inserted into the left iliac-femoral vein via the right femoral vein or jugular vein. Catheter thrombolysis was employed for 3 to 14 days, the thrombus was completely dissolved and the lower extremity swelling subsided. During the course of thrombolysis, no obvious congestion or hematoma occurred at the puncturing site of the left femoral vein. Conclusion: For patients with deep vein thrombosis of left lower extremity, when left iliac-femoral vein catheterization via the right femoral vein or the right jugular vein access failed, the establishment of wire track by using bilateral femoral vein approaches for further catheterization of left iliac-femoral vein and subsequent thrombolysis is feasible in clinical practice. This technique is safe and minimally-invasive with higher success rate. (authors)

  17. Boosting foundations and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Schapire, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Boosting is an approach to machine learning based on the idea of creating a highly accurate predictor by combining many weak and inaccurate "rules of thumb." A remarkably rich theory has evolved around boosting, with connections to a range of topics, including statistics, game theory, convex optimization, and information geometry. Boosting algorithms have also enjoyed practical success in such fields as biology, vision, and speech processing. At various times in its history, boosting has been perceived as mysterious, controversial, even paradoxical.

  18. Fluid Inclusions in the Gold-Bearing Quartz Veins at Um Rus Area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMED EL TOKHI; ABDALLA EL MUSLEM

    2002-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in the gold-bearing quartz veins at the Um Rus area are of three types: H2O, H2O-CO2 and CO2 inclusions. H2O inclusions are the most abundant, they include two phases which exhibit low and high homogenization temperatures ranging from 150 to200℃ and 175 to 250℃, respectively. The salinity of aqueous inclusions, based on ice melting, varies between 6.1 and 8 equiv. wt% NaCl. On the other hand, H2O-CO2 fluid inclusions include three phases. Their total homogenization temperatures range from 270 to 325℃,and their salinity, based on clathrate melting, ranges between 0.8 and 3.8 equiv. wt % NaCl.CO2 fluid inclusions homogenize to a liquid phase and exhibit a low density range from 0.52 to0.66 g/cm3. The partial mixing of H2O-CO2 and salt H2O-NaCl fluid inclusions is the main source of fluids from which the other types of inclusions were derived. The gold-bearing quartz veins are believed to be of medium temperature hydrothermal convective origin.

  19. Left testicular artery arching over the ipsilateral renal vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munekazu Naito; Hayato Terayama; Yoichi Nakamura; Shogo Hayashi; Takayoshi Miyaki; Masahiro Itoh

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To report two cases of the left testicular artery arching over the left renal vein (LRV) before running downward to the testis. Methods: The subjects were obtained from two Japanese cadavers. During the student course of gross-anatomical dissection, the anatomical relationship between the testicular vessels and the renal vein was specifically observed. Results: The arching left testicular artery arose from the aorta below the LRV and made a loop around the LRV, which appeared to be mildly compressed between the arching artery and the psoas major muscle.Conclusion: Clinically, compression of the LRV between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery occasionally induces LRV hypertension, resulting in varicocele, orthostatic protenuria and hematuria. Considering that the incidence of a left arching testicular artery is higher than that of a right one, an arching left artery could be an additional cause of LRV hypertension.

  20. Subclavian vein aneurysm secondary to a benign vessel wall hamartoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Patrick [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Interventional Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); Spaeth, Maya [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States); Prasad, Vinay [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Pathology, Columbus, OH (United States); McConnell, Patrick [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Venous aneurysms are rare clinical entities, particularly in children, and their presentation and natural history often depend on the anatomical location and underlying etiology. We present a single case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with a palpable right supraclavicular mass. Imaging evaluation with CT, conventional venography, MRI and sonography revealed a large fusiform subclavian vein aneurysm with an unusual, mass-like fibrofatty component incorporated into the vessel wall. The girl ultimately required complete resection of the right subclavian vein with placement of a synthetic interposition graft. This case provides a radiology/pathology correlation of an entity that has not previously been described as well as an example of the utility of multiple imaging modalities to aid diagnosis and preoperative planning. (orig.)

  1. Imaging and Radiological Interventions of Portal Vein Thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is diagnosed by imaging methods. Once diagnosed by means of ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound can be performed to distinguish between a benign and malignant thrombus. If further information is required, magnetic resonance angiography or contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the next step, and if these tests are unsatisfactory, digital subtraction angiography should be performed. Many papers have been published dealing with alternative methods of treating PVT, but the material is fairly heterogeneous. In symptomatic non-cavernomatous PVT, recanalization using local methods is recommended by many authors. Implantation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is helpful in cirrhotic patients with non-cavernomatous PVT in reducing portal pressure and in diminishing the risk of re-thrombosis. In non-cirrhotic patients with recent PVT, some authors recommend anticoagulation alone. In chronic thrombotic occlusion of the portal vein, local measures may be implemented if refractory symptoms of portal hypertension are evident

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor blocking agents in retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Canning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the current status of the use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF blocking agents in retinal vein occlusion. There have been no randomised controlled trials comparing this treatment with the current standard treatment (largely laser so the lower grade evidence of single treatment case series and anecdotal reports are discussed. VEGF blockers are good at reducing macular oedema in the short term, do improve visual acuity in many cases, and do not seem to adversely affect the long term revascularisation that is necessary to overcome the vein occlusion. VEGF blocking agents are not used in isolation in this condition - they will remain an adjunct to systemic and other local treatments. The literature was reviewed in online searches of Embase and Ovid and the papers quoted are a representative sample of a larger body of publications.

  3. Subclavian vein aneurysm secondary to a benign vessel wall hamartoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venous aneurysms are rare clinical entities, particularly in children, and their presentation and natural history often depend on the anatomical location and underlying etiology. We present a single case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with a palpable right supraclavicular mass. Imaging evaluation with CT, conventional venography, MRI and sonography revealed a large fusiform subclavian vein aneurysm with an unusual, mass-like fibrofatty component incorporated into the vessel wall. The girl ultimately required complete resection of the right subclavian vein with placement of a synthetic interposition graft. This case provides a radiology/pathology correlation of an entity that has not previously been described as well as an example of the utility of multiple imaging modalities to aid diagnosis and preoperative planning. (orig.)

  4. Semi-optimal Practicable Algorithmic Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, Yuval; Weinstein, Yossi; 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.042340

    2011-01-01

    Algorithmic Cooling (AC) of spins applies entropy manipulation algorithms in open spin-systems in order to cool spins far beyond Shannon's entropy bound. AC of nuclear spins was demonstrated experimentally, and may contribute to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Several cooling algorithms were suggested in recent years, including practicable algorithmic cooling (PAC) and exhaustive AC. Practicable algorithms have simple implementations, yet their level of cooling is far from optimal; Exhaustive algorithms, on the other hand, cool much better, and some even reach (asymptotically) an optimal level of cooling, but they are not practicable. We introduce here semi-optimal practicable AC (SOPAC), wherein few cycles (typically 2-6) are performed at each recursive level. Two classes of SOPAC algorithms are proposed and analyzed. Both attain cooling levels significantly better than PAC, and are much more efficient than the exhaustive algorithms. The new algorithms are shown to bridge the gap between PAC a...

  5. Iliac Vein Compression Syndrome due to Bladder Distention Caused by Urethral Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Ikegami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of iliac vein compression syndrome caused by urethral calculus. A 71-year-old man had a history of urethral stenosis. He complained of bilateral leg edema and dysuria for 1 week. Physical examination revealed bilateral distention of the superficial epigastric veins, so obstruction of both common iliac veins or the inferior vena cava was suspected. Plain abdominal computed tomography showed a calculus in the pendulous urethra, distention of the bladder (as well as the right renal pelvis and ureter, and compression of the bilateral common iliac veins by the distended bladder. Iliac vein compression syndrome was diagnosed. Bilateral iliac vein compression due to bladder distention (secondary to neurogenic bladder, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or urethral calculus as in this case is an infrequent cause of acute bilateral leg edema. Detecting distention of the superficial epigastric veins provides a clue for diagnosis of this syndrome.

  6. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in Neonates with Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swier, Natasha L; Richards, Bernadette; Cua, Clifford L; Lynch, Susan K; Yin, Han; Nelin, Leif D; Smith, Charles V; Backes, Carl H

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare, often lethal anomaly associated with poor outcomes. Given the association between bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and cardiovascular complications, we tested the hypotheses that (1) a subgroup of neonates with severe BPD develop PVS (BPD-PVS) and have worse outcomes than do neonates with severe BPD alone (BPD); (2) among a cohort of neonates with severe BPD-associated pulmonary hypertension (BPD-PH), PVS is an additional risk factor for adverse outcomes and mortality. Study Design We performed a retrospective review of neonates with severe BPD, based on the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) criteria, at our institution between June 1, 2009, and June 30, 2013. PVS was determined based on serial review of echocardiograms performed during their hospitalization. Neonates with congenital heart disease or chromosomal anomalies were excluded. Results Of 213 patients with severe BPD, 10 (4.7%) were found to have PVS (BPD-PVS). Neonates with BPD-PVS had lower birth weight (634 ± 178 vs. 767 ± 165 g; p < 0.01) and were more likely to be intrauterine growth restricted (80 vs. 11%; p < 0.01) than neonates with BPD alone. Time on mechanical ventilation and length of hospitalization were longer in the BPD-PVS group than BPD group. Survival was lower in the BPD-PVS group than BPD group (5/10 [50%] vs. 196/203 [97%]; log-rank test p < 0.01). Among a subgroup of neonates with BPD-PH, survival was lower among infants with PVS than those without PVS (5/9 [56%] vs. 26/30 [86%]; log-rank test p = 0.01). Conclusions Compared with neonates with severe BPD alone, those with acquired PVS are at increased risk for worse outcomes, including higher mortality. Evidence-based recommendations regarding screening protocols and surveillance are needed in this high-risk subgroup of BPD neonates. PMID:26862723

  7. Surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) is one of the important biological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and also a serious complication and a metastatic mode. Surgical treatment is still the most effective therapy for HCC with PVTT. This article describes the history and present situation of surgical treatment of HCC with PVTT, the anatomical basis for PVTT formation, classification of PVTT, indications for surgery, selection of surgical approaches, and evaluation of the surgi...

  8. Isolated rupture of the superficial vein of the penis

    OpenAIRE

    Eken, Alper; Acil, Meltem; ARPACI, TANER

    2014-01-01

    Penile emergencies are rare but when they do occur, prompt diagnosis and treatment are warranted. Emergent conditions of the male genitalia are mainly traumatic, vascular or infectious. Penile emergencies are usually caused by trauma to the penis, during sexual intercourse or manipulation of an erect penis during masturbation. One of the traumatic vascular penile emergencies is superficial penile dorsal vein rupture. This is a rare condition, with just a few reported cases. It is usually take...

  9. Circumaortic Left Renal Vein Associated with Juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Hashizume, Koji; Taniguchi, Shinichiro; Ariyoshi, Tsuneo; Hisata, Yoichi; Tanigawa, Kazuyoshi; Miura, Takashi; Sumi, Mizuki; Eishi, Kiyoyuki

    2013-01-01

    The patient was an 82-year-old man who was found to have a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by a circumaortic left renal vein (CLRV). During dissection of the proximal anastomosis site the CLRV was injured, but was successfully repaired. A graft implantation was performed below the renal arteries. The incidence of CLRV is thought to be rare, however it is found in 7% of cadavers donated for anatomy. CLRV may cause unexpected bleeding by inadvertent dissection of the abdominal ...

  10. Interventional therapy for iliac vein compression syndrome and secondary thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of interventional therapy in treatment of iliac compression syndrome (ICS) and subsequent venous thrombosis. Methods: Examined by DSA, 125 cases were diagnosed of iliac vein compression and subsequent thrombosis. In 39 eases of ICS (group 1), left: right=4.6:1. In 86 eases of ICS complicated with subsequent thrombosis (group 2), left: right= 4.7:1. The patients of iliac vein compression and compression-related iliac vein stenosis or occlusion without fresh thrombus were treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and self-expandable stenting. In those cases with fresh thrombosis the inferior vena cava filter were inserted before thrombosis suction, mechanical thrombus ablation, PTA, stenting and transcatheter thrombolysis. The Chi-square test for comparison of proportions was used to test statistical significance. Results: In 39 cases of ICS, 38 cases were treated by PTA and stenting. In 86 eases of deep vein thrombosis complicated with ICS, 83 cases were treated by various interventional therapy. There was no significant difference in the efficiency of intraluminal treatment between the two groups at discharge (97.4% and 96.5%, χ2=0.000, P>0.05) and at 6 months follow-up(96.3% and 90.2%, χ2=0.266, P>0.05), the difference in excellent-good rate of the two groups was significant at discharge(94.9% and 79.1%, χ2=3.879, P2=4.441, P<0.05). Conclusions: Interventional treatment for ICS and secondary thrombosis is safe and effective. (authors)

  11. Musculoskeletal Sepsis Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Ying; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Tsao, Pei-Chen; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Soong, Wen-Jue

    2016-06-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a rare disease in pediatric patients. We report a pediatric patient who developed DVT in association with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia complicated with septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and myositis extensively. It is crucial to consider musculoskeletal infection associated with DVT in any child who presents with severe swollen limbs and limitations of motion. Prompt antibiotic and anticoagulant treatments should be initiated to reduce the risk of fatal complications. PMID:24279976

  12. Hydrothermal uranium vein deposits in Marysvale volcanic field, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrothermal uranium veins are exposed over a 300 m (980 ft) vertical range in mines of the Central Mining area, near Marysvale, Utah. They cut 23 Ma quartz monzonite, 21 Ma granite, and 19 Ma rhyolite ash-flow tuff. The veins formed 18-19 Ma, in an area 1 km (0.6 mi) across, above the center of a composite magma chamber at least 12 x 6 km across that fed a sequence of 21-14 Ma hypabyssal granitic stocks, and rhyolitic lava flows, ash-flow tuffs, and volcanic domes. Intrusive pressure uplifted and fractured the roof; molybdenite-bearing, uranium-rich glassy dikes were intruded; and a breccia pipe and uranium-bearing veins were formed. The veins appear to have been deposited near the surface above a concealed rhyolite stock, where they filled high-angle fault zones and flat-lying to concave-downward pull-apart fractures. Low pH and fO2 hydrothermal fluids at temperatures near 2000 C (3920 F) permeated the fractured rocks; these fluids were rich in fluorine and potassium, and contained uranium as uranous-fluoride complexes. Fluid-wall rock interaction increased fluid pH, causing precipitation of uranium minerals. At the deepest exposed levels, wall rocks were altered to kaolinite and sericite, and uraninite, coffinite, jordisite, fluorite, molybdenite, quartz, and pyrite (with delta34S near zero per mil) were deposited. The fluids were progressively oxidized higher in the system; iron in the wall rocks was oxidized to hematite, and sooty uraninite and umohoite were deposited

  13. Portal Vein Thrombosis After Laparoscopic Splenectomy: An Ongoing Clinical Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Miniati, Douglas N.; Padidar, Arash M.; Kee, Stephen T.; Krummel, Thomas M.; Mallory, Baird

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) following open splenectomy is a potentially lethal complication with an incidence of up to 6%. The objective of this report is to describe our management of a recent laparoscopic case, discuss current therapies, and consider antiplatelet therapy for prophylaxis. Methods: Medical records, laboratory studies, and imaging studies pertaining to a recent case of a laparoscopic splenectomy were examined. Current literature related to this topic was reviewed....

  14. THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF RECONSTRUCTION OF PORTAL VEIN BY PERITONEUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟强; 区庆嘉; 陈小萱; 肖明; 林俊荣

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the perironeum as a material using in the portal vein reconstruction. Methods. Twenty-one small healthy domestic pigs were used in the study, and divided into two groups. The observation period was twenty-four weeks, and divided into three stages. A section of portal vein about 2.5-3.0cm long was resected and replaced by autogenous peritoneum tube(APT)and autogenous vein respectively. The liver function tests, bloodflow dynamic examination, patency and pathological changes of the grafts were investigaed after the replacement. Results. All animals surviyed the operation and the subsequent observation. It showed that aspartate transminase(AST)were mildly elevated just after operation but recovered quickly in both groups. Portal bloodflow index(PI)and portal pressure were both a little higher than those before operations but all within normal range. Portography revealed a total patency of eight out of thirteen gratis in the experiment group,whereas a total patency of six out of eight in the control group, During the observation, portograhpy revealed five our of thirteen APT grafts were occluded in the experiment group, whereas two out of eight grafts were occluded in the control group. No dilatation grafts were seen. Abundant collsterals were seen around the occlusive graft. After twelve weeks of reconstruction, scanning electron microscopy revealed that APT grafts were covered with a layer of endothelial-like cells with a certain arranging direction. Conclusion. Peritoneum is a perspective self-material for portal reconstruction. Long term patency of the APT were a little lower than that of the autogenous vein. It is worth further studying.

  15. Double suicide genes selectively kill human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Lunxu; Wang Yanping; Mei Longyong; Jia Weiguo; Che Guowei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To construct a recombinant adenovirus containing CDglyTK double suicide genes and evaluate the killing effect of the double suicide genes driven by kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR) promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods Human KDR promoter, Escherichia coli (E. coli) cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK) gene were cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasmid pKDR-CDglyTK was constructed wi...

  16. Etiology and portal vein thrombosis in Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oguz Uskudar; Meral Akdogan; Nurgul Sasmaz; Sevinc Yilmaz; Muharrem Tola; Burhan Sahin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To research the etiology, portal vein thrombosis and other features of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS)patients prospectively.METHODS: A total of 75 patients (40 female, 35 male) who were diagnosed between January 2002 and July 2004 as having BCS were studied prospectively.Findings from on physical examination, ultrasonography,duplex ultrasonography and venography were analyzed.Hemogram and blood chemistry were studied at the time of diagnosis and on each hospital visit. Bone marrow examination and immune phenotyping were performed by a hematologist when necessary. Protein C, S, antithrombin Ⅲ, activated protein C resistance,and anticardiolipin antibodies, antinuclear antibodies,and anti ds-DNA were studied twice. The presence of ascite, esophageal varices, and portal thrombosis were evaluated at admission and on every visit.RESULTS: At least one etiological factor was determined in 54 (72%) of the patients. The etiology could not be defined in 21 (28%) patients. One etiological factor was found in 39, 2 factors in 14 and 3 factors in 1 patient.The most common cause was the web (16%), the second was Hydatid disease (11%), the third was Behcet's disease (9%). Portal vein thrombosis was present in 11 patients and at least one etiology was identified in 9 of them (82%).CONCLUSION: Behcet's disease and hydatid disease are more prominent etiological factors in Turkey than in other countries. Patients with web have an excellent response to treatment without signs of portal vein thrombosis while patients having thrombofilic factors more than one are prone to develop portal vein thrombosis with worse clinical outcome.

  17. How do we know who has had deep vein thrombosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, D A; Mitchell, J R

    1989-01-01

    An attempt was made to identify all patients diagnosed as having deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in a large teaching hospital during one year. A review of the radiology records showed that 124 (81%) of the 154 venograms performed were for suspected DVT, and that the diagnosis was confirmed in 57 (46%). During the same period, the Hospital Activity Analysis (HAA) records revealed 174 episodes classified as 'phlebitis or thrombophlebitis' in 162 patients. Only 37 of these episodes (21%) had been con...

  18. Renal vein thrombosis mimicking urinary calculus: a dilemma of diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yimin; Chen, Shanwen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jianyong; JIN, BAIYE

    2015-01-01

    Background Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) with flank pain, and hematuria, is often mistaken with renal colic originating from ureteric or renal calculus. Especially in young and otherwise healthy patients, clinicians are easily misled by clinical presentation and calcified RVT. Case presentation A 38-year-old woman presented with flank pain and hematuria suggestive of renal calculus on ultrasound. She underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy that failed, leading to the recommendation that...

  19. Evaluating the Electrification of Vehicle Fleets Using the Veins Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, Sebastian; Berndt, Rüdiger; German, Reinhard; Eckhoff, David

    2014-01-01

    The case study discussed in this paper involves a company maintaining a vehicle fleet of one hundred vehicles. In this article we will discuss how we extend and deploy the Veins framework, which couples OMNeT++ and SUMO, to help in the process of electrifying this vehicle fleet, i.e., replacing combustion engine cars with electric vehicles to save money and lower CO$_2$ emissions.

  20. Bilateral Central Vein Occlusion in a Case of Diaphragmatic Eventration

    OpenAIRE

    STER, Anda-Maria; Stan, Cristina; GHERVAN, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) is a severe retinal pathology, which causes visual impairment usually after the age of 40. Mostly unilateral, less than 10% of cases are bilateral. Affected young adults (under the age of 40), usually exhibit a hidden, underlying systemic disease. Thorough testing has to be done in order to spot the pathogenic agent. We present the case of a 25 years old woman with bilateral CRVO caused by Diaphragmatic Eventration and Chronic Respiratory Failure.

  1. Bilateral central vein occlusion in a case of diaphragmatic eventration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ster, Anda-Maria; Stan, Cristina; Ghervan, Mihaela

    2014-09-01

    Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) is a severe retinal pathology, which causes visual impairment usually after the age of 40. Mostly unilateral, less than 10% of cases are bilateral. Affected young adults (under the age of 40), usually exhibit a hidden, underlying systemic disease. Thorough testing has to be done in order to spot the pathogenic agent. We present the case of a 25 years old woman with bilateral CRVO caused by Diaphragmatic Eventration and Chronic Respiratory Failure. PMID:25705293

  2. Spontaneous massive haemothorax caused by rupture of an intercostal vein

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, H‐Y; Lee, S‐C; Tzao, C; H. Chang; Liao, G‐S; Cheng, Y‐L

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous massive haemothorax is rare. We describe a healthy 44 year old woman who experience sudden onset chest pain while sleeping. Chest radiograph revealed massive right pleural effusion. Progressive dyspnoea, cold sweating, and tachycardia developed later. A tube thoracostomy was performed immediately and massive haemothorax was noted. An emergency thoracotomy was performed because of unstable vital signs. Disruption of the right third intercostal vein with continuous bleeding was obse...

  3. Therapeutic potential of intravitreal pharmacotherapy in retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the most common visually disabling disease affecting the retina after diabetic retinopathy. Although the disease entity has long been known, its management is still controversial. Macular edema is the main reason for decreased visual acuity (VA) in this retinal vascular disorder. Recently the vitreous cavity has increasingly been used as a reservoir of drugs for the direct treatment of macular edema through intravitreal injection route. The most widely injected...

  4. Multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusions in hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Diwakar Gore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-known modifiable risk factor for thromboembolism. Retinal vascular occlusion in patients having hyperhomocysteinemia is a known entity, particularly in young patients. However, multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is a rare condition, which can be a presentation of this disease. We present a patient who had multiple extra macular BRVO; on complete systemic workup, he was found to have raised homocysteine levels.

  5. Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Valentina Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents two evolutionary computation techniques: particle swarm optimization – part of swarm intelligence and genetic algorithms – part of the evolutionary algorithms. The basic algorithm for each is reviewed, in case of optimization problems in asearch space. It is presented how each evolutionary computation technique works, and the way in which features from one can be included into the other.

  6. Quantum Central Processing Unit and Quantum Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安民

    2002-01-01

    Based on a scalable and universal quantum network, quantum central processing unit, proposed in our previous paper [Chin. Phys. Left. 18 (2001)166], the whole quantum network for the known quantum algorithms,including quantum Fourier transformation, Shor's algorithm and Grover's algorithm, is obtained in a unitied way.

  7. Inverse Computation and the Universal Resolving Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We survey fundamental concepts for inverse programming and thenpresent the Uni v ersal Resolving Algorithm, an algorithm for inverse computation in a first-orde r , functional programming language. We discuss the key concepts of the algorithm, including a three-step approach based on the notion of a perfect process tree, and demonstrate our implementation with several examples of inverse computation.

  8. Algorithmic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, W.

    1990-12-13

    In this paper complex adaptive systems are defined by a self- referential loop in which objects encode functions that act back on these objects. A model for this loop is presented. It uses a simple recursive formal language, derived from the lambda-calculus, to provide a semantics that maps character strings into functions that manipulate symbols on strings. The interaction between two functions, or algorithms, is defined naturally within the language through function composition, and results in the production of a new function. An iterated map acting on sets of functions and a corresponding graph representation are defined. Their properties are useful to discuss the behavior of a fixed size ensemble of randomly interacting functions. This function gas'', or Turning gas'', is studied under various conditions, and evolves cooperative interaction patterns of considerable intricacy. These patterns adapt under the influence of perturbations consisting in the addition of new random functions to the system. Different organizations emerge depending on the availability of self-replicators.

  9. Fabrication of subcutaneous veins phantom for vessel visualization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Narita, Kazuyuki; Morita, Yusuke; Nakamachi, Eiji; Honda, Norihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2013-09-01

    The technique of subcutaneous veins imaging by using NIR (Near Infrared Radiation) is widely used in medical applications, such as the intravenous injection and the blood sampling. In the previous study, an automatic 3D blood vessel search and automatic blood sampling system was newly developed. In order to validate this NIR imaging system, we adopted the subcutaneous vein in the human arm and its artificial phantom, which imitate the human fat and blood vessel. The human skin and subcutaneous vein is characterized as the uncertainty object, which has the individual specificity, non-accurate depth information, non-steady state and hardly to be fixed in the examination apparatus. On the other hand, the conventional phantom was quite distinct from the human's characteristics, such as the non-multilayer structure, disagreement of optical property. In this study, we develop a multilayer phantom, which is quite similar with human skin, for improvement of NIR detection system evaluation. The phantom consists of three layers, such as the epidermis layer, the dermis layer and the subcutaneous fat layer. In subcutaneous fat layer, we built a blood vessel. We use the intralipid to imitate the optical scattering characteristics of human skin, and the hemoglobin and melanin for the optical absorption characteristics. In this study, we did two subjects. First, we decide the fabrication process of the phantom. Second, we compared newly developed phantoms with human skin by using our NIR detecting system, and confirm the availability of these phantoms.

  10. The inferior cochlear vein: surgical aspects in cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, HongLei; Chen, Wei; Zhu, XiaoQuan; Liu, Wei; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-02-01

    The patency of the inferior cochlear vein (ICV) may be challenged in cochlear implantation (CI) due to its location near the round window (RW). This may be essential to consider during selection of different trajectories for electrode insertion aiming at preserving residual hearing. Venous blood from the human cochlea is drained through the ICV. The vein also drains blood from the modiolus containing the spiral ganglion neurons. Surgical interference with this vein could cause neural damage influencing CI outcome. We analyzed the topographical relationship between the RW and ICV bony channel and cochlear aqueduct (CA) from a surgical standpoint. Archival human temporal bones were further microdissected to visualize the CA and its accessory canals (AC1 and AC2). This was combined with examinations of plastic and silicone molds of the human labyrinth. Metric analyses were made using photo stereomicroscopy documenting the proximal portion of the AC1, the internal aperture of the CA and the RW. The mean distance between the AC1 and the anterior rim of the RW was 0.81 mm in bone specimens and 0.67 mm assessed in corrosion casts. The AC1 runs from the floor of the scala tympani through the otic capsule passing parallel to the CA to the posterior cranial fossa. The mean distance between the CA and AC1 canal was 0.31 and 0.25 mm, respectively. PMID:25700831

  11. Treatment of macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channa R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Roomasa Channa, Michael Smith, Peter A CampochiaroDepartments of Ophthalmology and Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is a prevalent retinal vascular disease, second only to diabetic retinopathy. Previously there was no treatment for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO and patients were simply observed for the development of severe complications, generally resulting in poor visual outcomes. The only treatment for branch vein occlusion (BRVO was grid laser photocoagulation, which reduces edema very slowly and provides benefit in some, but not all patients. Within the past year, clinical trials have demonstrated the effects of three new pharmacologic treatments, ranibizumab, triamcinolone acetonide, and dexamethasone implants. The benefit/risk ratio is best for intraocular injections of ranibizumab, making this first-line therapy for most patients with CRVO or BRVO, while intraocular steroids are likely to play adjunctive roles. Standard care for patients with RVO has changed and will continue to evolve as results with other new agents are revealed.Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor, triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethosone implant, sustained release, vascular leakage, ischemia

  12. Evolutionary Graph Drawing Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jing-wei; Wei Wen-fang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, graph drawing algorithms based on genetic algorithms are designed for general undirected graphs and directed graphs. As being shown, graph drawing algorithms designed by genetic algorithms have the following advantages: the frames of the algorithms are unified, the method is simple, different algorithms may be attained by designing different objective functions, therefore enhance the reuse of the algorithms. Also, aesthetics or constrains may be added to satisfy different requirements.

  13. Super Greedy Type Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Entao; Temlyakov, Vladimir N.

    2010-01-01

    We study greedy-type algorithms such that at a greedy step we pick several dictionary elements contrary to a single dictionary element in standard greedy-type algorithms. We call such greedy algorithms {\\it super greedy algorithms}. The idea of picking several elements at a greedy step of the algorithm is not new. Recently, we observed the following new phenomenon. For incoherent dictionaries these new type of algorithms (super greedy algorithms) provide the same (in the sense of order) upper...

  14. Low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of retinal vein occlusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Hawel, Jeff; Ageno, Walter; Kovacs, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion is a frequent cause of visual loss for which few effective therapies are available. Anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin might be of value in its treatment. We conducted a systematic review and meta analysis of randomized trials evaluating the effect of low molecular weight heparin in patients with retinal vein occlusion. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, the Cochrane Library, Lilacs, the Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science database and gray literature. Main outcome was the mean difference between the visual acuity measured at baseline and at six months expressed in the logMAR scale. Secondary outcome was a composite of any adverse ocular outcome including: worsening of visual acuity, visual fields or fluorescein angiography, or development of iris neovascularization, any neovascularization or neovascular glaucoma. Subgroup analyses for branch versus central retinal vein occlusion were conducted. We identified 1,084 references of which 3 studies comparing low molecular weight heparin with aspirin (229 evaluable patients) were included. Overall, the pooled mean visual acuity difference was −0.23 logMAR (95% CI −0.38, −0.09; P=0.002) in favor of low molecular weight heparin. Low molecular weight heparin was associated with a 78% risk reduction for developing any adverse ocular outcome (pooled RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.10, 0.46; P<0.001). In subgroup analyses benefits seemed lower in branch retinal vein occlusion. No increased vitreous hemorrhages were observed. In patients with retinal vein occlusion treatment with low molecular weight heparin seems to be associated with improvement in the visual acuity and less adverse ocular outcomes. These benefits might differ in patients with central as opposed to branch retinal vein occlusion. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and clarify its benefits in specific subgroups of patients before definitive recommendations can be made. PMID:20305141

  15. OPTIMISED RANDOM MUTATIONS FOR EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS

    OpenAIRE

    Sean McGerty; Frank Moisiadis

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate our approaches we will use Sudoku puzzles, which are an excellent test bed for evolutionary algorithms. The puzzles are accessible enough for people to enjoy. However the more complex puzzles require thousands of iterations before an evolutionary algorithm finds a solution. If we were attempting to compare evolutionary algorithms we could count their iterations to solution as an indicator of relative efficiency. Evolutionary algorithms however include a process of r...

  16. Bioaccumulation of ergovaline in bovine lateral saphenous veins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, J L; Kirch, B H; Aiken, G E; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2009-07-01

    Ergot alkaloids have been associated with vasoconstriction in grazing livestock affected by the fescue toxicosis syndrome. Previous in vitro investigations studying how ergot alkaloids caused vasoconstriction have shown that ergovaline has a distinct receptor affinity and sustained contractile response. A similar contractile response has not been noted for lysergic acid. The objectives of this study were to determine if repetitive in vitro exposure of bovine lateral saphenous vein to lysergic acid or ergovaline would result in an increasing contractile response and if a measurable bioaccumulation of the alkaloids in the vascular tissue occurs over time. Segments of vein were surgically biopsied from healthy, Angus x Brangus cross-bred, fescue-naïve yearling heifers (n = 16) or collected from healthy mixed breed and sex cattle immediately after slaughter (n = 12) at a local abattoir. Veins were trimmed of excess fat and connective tissue, sliced into cross-sections, and suspended in a myograph chamber containing 5 mL of oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer (95% O(2)/5% CO(2); pH = 7.4; 37 degrees C). Contractile responses to repetitive additions of ergovaline (1 x 10(-9) and 1 x 10(-7) M) and lysergic acid (1 x 10(-5) and 1 x 10(-4) M) were evaluated using the biopsied veins. For the bioaccumulation experiments, veins collected at the abattoir underwent repetitive additions of 1 x 10(-7) M ergovaline and 1 x 10(-5) M lysergic acid and the segments were removed after every 2 additions and media rinses for alkaloid quantification via HPLC/mass spectrometry. Contractile data were normalized as a percentage of contractile response induced by a reference dose of norepinephrine (1 x 10(-4) M). Repetitive additions of 1 x 10(-9) M ergovaline and 1 x 10(-5) and 1 x 10(-4) M lysergic acid resulted in contractile response with a negative slope (P < 0.02). In contrast, repetitive addition of 1 x 10(-7) M ergovaline resulted in a contractile response that increased with each

  17. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  18. Precipitation of uraninite in chlorite-bearing veins of the hydrothermal alteration zone (argile de pile) of the natural nuclear reactor at Bangombe, Republic of Gabon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the mineralogy of a phyllosilicate/uraninite/galena-bearing vein located within the hydrothermal alteration halo associated with the Bangombe reactor. Phyllosilicates within the vein include a trioctahedral Al-Mg-Fe chlorite (ripidolite), Al-rich clay (kaolinite and/or donbassite) and illite. Textural relations obtained by backscattered-electron imaging suggest that ripidolite crystallized first among the sheet silicates. Uraninite is spatially associated with ripidolite and probably precipitated at a later time. While energy-dispersive X-ray analyses suggest that the uranium phase is predominantly uraninite, coffinite or other phases may also be present

  19. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography. [Over 600 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLemore, V. T.

    1982-01-01

    From an extensive literature search and field examination of 96 nonsandstone radioactive occurrences, the author compiled an annotated bibliography of over 600 citations and a list of 327 radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico. The citations are indexed by individual radioactive occurrence, geographic area, county, fluorspar deposits and occurrences, geochemical analyses, and geologic maps. In addition, the geology, mineralization, and uranium and thorium potential of 41 geographic areas in New Mexico containing known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks or that contain host rocks considered favorable for uranium or thorium mineralization are summarized. A list of aerial-radiometric, magnetic, hydrogeochemical, and stream-sediment survey reports is included.

  20. Recent Developments in the Evolution Strategies of Genetic Algorithms: Theory and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiyaratana, N.; Zalzala, A.M.S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a review on current developments in genetic algorithms. The discussion includes theoretical aspects of genetic algorithms and genetic algorithm applications. Theoretical topics under review include genetic algorithm techniques, genetic operator techniques, niching techniques, genetic drift,, method of benchmarking genetic algorithm performances, measurement of difficulty level of a test-bed function,population genetics and developmental mechanism in genetic algorithms...

  1. Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in a Mountain Guide: Awareness, Diagnostic Challenges, and Management Considerations at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Claire M; Rajendran, Dévan; Fernandez Barnes, Arturo

    2016-03-01

    High intensity exercise is associated with several potentially thrombogenic risk factors, including dehydration and hemoconcentration, vascular trauma, musculoskeletal injuries, inflammation, long-distance travel, and contraceptive usage. These are well documented in case reports of venous thrombosis in track and field athletes. For mountaineers and those working at high altitude, additional risks exist. However, despite there being a high degree of vigilance for "classic" conditions encountered at altitude (eg, acute mountain sickness, high altitude pulmonary edema, and high altitude cerebral edema), mainstream awareness regarding thrombotic conditions and their complications in mountain athletes is relatively low. This is significant because thromboembolic events (including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and cerebral vascular thrombosis) are not uncommon at altitude. We describe a case of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in a male mountain guide and discuss the diagnostic issues encountered by his medical practitioners. Potential risk factors affecting blood circulation (eg, seated car travel and compression of popliteal vein) and blood hypercoagulability (eg, hypoxia, environmental and psychological stressors [avalanche risk, extreme cold]) relevant to the subject of this report and mountain athletes in general are identified. Considerations for mitigating and managing thrombosis in addition to personalized care planning at altitude are discussed. The prevalence of thrombosis in mountain athletes is uncharted, but lowlanders increasingly go to high altitude to trek, ski, or climb. Blood clots can and do occur in physically active people, and thrombosis prevention and recognition will demand heightened awareness among participants, healthcare practitioners, and the altitude sport/leisure industry at large. PMID:26723546

  2. Detection of imminent vein graft occlusion: what is the optimal surveillance program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinder, Chelsey N; Bandyk, Dennis F

    2009-12-01

    The prediction of infrainguinal vein bypass failure remains an inexact judgment. Patient demographics, technical factors, and vascular laboratory graft surveillance testing are helpful in identifying a high-risk graft cohort. The optimal surveillance program to detect the bypass at risk for imminent occlusion continues to be developed, but required elements are known and include clinical assessment for new or changes in limb ischemia symptoms, measurement of ankle and/or toe systolic pressure, and duplex ultrasound imaging of the bypass graft. Duplex ultrasound assessment of bypass hemodynamics may be the most accurate method to detect imminent vein graft occlusion. The finding of low graft flow during intraoperative assessment or at a scheduled surveillance study predicts failure; and if associated with an occlusive lesion, a graft revision can prolong patency. The most common abnormality producing graft failure is conduit stenosis caused by myointimal hyperplasia; and the majority can be repaired by an endovascular intervention. Frequency of testing to detect the failing bypass should be individualized to the patient, the type of arterial bypass, and prior duplex ultrasound scan findings. The focus of surveillance is on identification of the low-flow arterial bypass and timely repair of detected critical stenosis defined by duplex velocity spectra criteria of a peak systolic velocity 300 cm/s and peak systolic velocity ratio across the stenosis >3.5-correlating with >70% diameter-reducing stenosis. When conducted appropriately, a graft surveillance program should result in an unexpected graft failure rate of <3% per year. PMID:20006806

  3. A study of evaluation of various risk factors of retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Amrutlal Prajapati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A study of various ocular and systemic risk factors in Retinal Vein Occulation (RVO at tertiary eye care centre. Methods: A prospective study included 50 eyes of 50 patients, in period of September 2010 to August 2012. Inclusion criteria: 1. Age >25 years, 2. All newly diagnosed cases of vein occlusion. Exclusion criteria: 1. Age Ischemic (24%. In risk factors - most common was hypertension - in 38 (76% patients. Followed by descending order, hyperlipidemia 27 (54% >diabetes mellitus 16 (32% >tobacco 14 (28% >hyper homocystinemia 4 (8% >severe alcohol 2 (4%. The complications were more in ischemic than Nonischemic-CRVO >BRVO - they were macular edema 43 (86% >neovascularization at iris - 14 (28% >neovascularization at angle - 10 (20% >neovascular glaucoma and #8211; 4 (8%. Conclusion: RVOs are more common with increasing age, in males and most common risk factor is hypertensive. Most common cause for vision loss is macular edema - ischemic >non-ischemic. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1054-1057

  4. Percutaneous unilateral biliary metallic stent placement in patients with malignant obstruction of the biliary hila and contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the outcomes of percutaneous unilateral metallic stent placement in patients with a malignant obstruction of the biliary hila and a contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion. Sixty patients with a malignant hilar obstruction and unilobar portal vein steno-occlusion caused by tumor invasion or preoperative portal vein embolization were enrolled in this retrospective study from October 2010 to October 2013. All patients were treated with percutaneous placement of a biliary metallic stent, including expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-covered stents in 27 patients and uncovered stents in 33 patients. A total of 70 stents were successfully placed in 60 patients. Procedural-related minor complications, including self-limiting hemobilia (n = 2) and cholangitis (n = 4) occurred in six (10%) patients. Acute cholecystitis occurred in two patients. Successful internal drainage was achieved in 54 (90%) of the 60 patients. According to a Kaplan-Meier analysis, median survival time was 210 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 135-284 days), and median stent patency time was 133 days (95% CI, 94-171 days). No significant difference in stent patency was observed between covered and uncovered stents (p = 0.646). Stent dysfunction occurred in 16 (29.6%) of 54 patients after a mean of 159 days (range, 65-321 days). Unilateral placement of ePTFE-covered and uncovered stents in the hepatic lobe with a patent portal vein is a safe and effective method for palliative treatment of patients with a contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion caused by an advanced hilar malignancy or portal vein embolization. No significant difference in stent patency was detected between covered and uncovered metallic stents.

  5. Percutaneous unilateral biliary metallic stent placement in patients with malignant obstruction of the biliary hila and contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Rak Chae; Gwon, Dong Il; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Jong Woo; Ko, Gi Young [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the outcomes of percutaneous unilateral metallic stent placement in patients with a malignant obstruction of the biliary hila and a contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion. Sixty patients with a malignant hilar obstruction and unilobar portal vein steno-occlusion caused by tumor invasion or preoperative portal vein embolization were enrolled in this retrospective study from October 2010 to October 2013. All patients were treated with percutaneous placement of a biliary metallic stent, including expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-covered stents in 27 patients and uncovered stents in 33 patients. A total of 70 stents were successfully placed in 60 patients. Procedural-related minor complications, including self-limiting hemobilia (n = 2) and cholangitis (n = 4) occurred in six (10%) patients. Acute cholecystitis occurred in two patients. Successful internal drainage was achieved in 54 (90%) of the 60 patients. According to a Kaplan-Meier analysis, median survival time was 210 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 135-284 days), and median stent patency time was 133 days (95% CI, 94-171 days). No significant difference in stent patency was observed between covered and uncovered stents (p = 0.646). Stent dysfunction occurred in 16 (29.6%) of 54 patients after a mean of 159 days (range, 65-321 days). Unilateral placement of ePTFE-covered and uncovered stents in the hepatic lobe with a patent portal vein is a safe and effective method for palliative treatment of patients with a contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion caused by an advanced hilar malignancy or portal vein embolization. No significant difference in stent patency was detected between covered and uncovered metallic stents.

  6. Decreased PGE₂ content reduces MMP-1 activity and consequently increases collagen density in human varicose vein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Gomez

    Full Text Available Varicose veins are elongated and dilated saphenous veins. Despite the high prevalence of this disease, its pathogenesis remains unclear.In this study, we investigated the control of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs expression by prostaglandin (PGE₂ during the vascular wall remodeling of human varicose veins.Varicose (small (SDv and large diameter (LDv and healthy saphenous veins (SV were obtained after surgery. Microsomal and cytosolic PGE-synthases (mPGES and cPGES protein and mRNA responsible for PGE₂ metabolism were analyzed in all veins. cPGES protein was absent while its mRNA was weakly expressed. mPGES-2 expression was similar in the different saphenous veins. mPGES-1 mRNA and protein were detected in healthy veins and a significant decrease was found in LDv. Additionally, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH, responsible for PGE₂ degradation, was over-expressed in varicose veins. These variations in mPGES-1 and 15-PGDH density account for the decreased PGE₂ level observed in varicose veins. Furthermore, a significant decrease in PGE₂ receptor (EP4 levels was also found in SDv and LDv. Active MMP-1 and total MMP-2 concentrations were significantly decreased in varicose veins while the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP -1 and -2, were significantly increased, probably explaining the increased collagen content found in LDv. Finally, the MMP/TIMP ratio is restored by exogenous PGE₂ in varicose veins and reduced in presence of an EP4 receptor antagonist in healthy veins.In conclusion, PGE₂ could be responsible for the vascular wall thickening in human varicose veins. This mechanism could be protective, strengthening the vascular wall in order to counteract venous stasis.

  7. C-reactive protein may be a prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma with malignant portal vein invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Man; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Ko, Justin Sangwook; Park, Jae Berm; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Kim, Sung Joo; Paik, Seung Woon; Park, Cheol-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high predilection for portal vein invasion, and the prognosis of HCC with malignant portal vein invasion is extremely poor. The objective of this study was to investigate the outcomes and the prognostic factor of recurrence in HCC patients with malignant portal vein invasion. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathologic data and outcomes of 83 HCC patients with malignant portal vein invasion and 1,056 patients without portal vein in...

  8. Simple Algorithm Portfolio for SAT

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, Mladen; Maric, Filip; Janicic, Predrag

    2011-01-01

    The importance of algorithm portfolio techniques for SAT has long been noted, and a number of very successful systems have been devised, including the most successful one --- SATzilla. However, all these systems are quite complex (to understand, reimplement, or modify). In this paper we propose a new algorithm portfolio for SAT that is extremely simple, but in the same time so efficient that it outperforms SATzilla. For a new SAT instance to be solved, our portfolio finds its k-nearest neighb...

  9. Algorithmic advances in stochastic programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, D.P.

    1993-07-01

    Practical planning problems with deterministic forecasts of inherently uncertain parameters often yield unsatisfactory solutions. Stochastic programming formulations allow uncertain parameters to be modeled as random variables with known distributions, but the size of the resulting mathematical programs can be formidable. Decomposition-based algorithms take advantage of special structure and provide an attractive approach to such problems. We consider two classes of decomposition-based stochastic programming algorithms. The first type of algorithm addresses problems with a ``manageable`` number of scenarios. The second class incorporates Monte Carlo sampling within a decomposition algorithm. We develop and empirically study an enhanced Benders decomposition algorithm for solving multistage stochastic linear programs within a prespecified tolerance. The enhancements include warm start basis selection, preliminary cut generation, the multicut procedure, and decision tree traversing strategies. Computational results are presented for a collection of ``real-world`` multistage stochastic hydroelectric scheduling problems. Recently, there has been an increased focus on decomposition-based algorithms that use sampling within the optimization framework. These approaches hold much promise for solving stochastic programs with many scenarios. A critical component of such algorithms is a stopping criterion to ensure the quality of the solution. With this as motivation, we develop a stopping rule theory for algorithms in which bounds on the optimal objective function value are estimated by sampling. Rules are provided for selecting sample sizes and terminating the algorithm under which asymptotic validity of confidence interval statements for the quality of the proposed solution can be verified. Issues associated with the application of this theory to two sampling-based algorithms are considered, and preliminary empirical coverage results are presented.

  10. RLS Adaptive Filtering Algorithms Based on Parallel Computations

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Djigan

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a family of the sliding window RLS adaptive filtering algorithms with the regularization of adaptive filter correlation matrix. The algorithms are developed in forms, fitted to the implementation by means of parallel computations. The family includes RLS and fast RLS algorithms based on generalized matrix inversion lemma, fast RLS algorithms based on square root free inverse QR decomposition and linearly constrained RLS algorithms. The considered algorithms are mathematical...

  11. Chinese handwriting recognition an algorithmic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Tonghua

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an algorithmic perspective on the recent development of Chinese handwriting recognition. Two technically sound strategies, the segmentation-free and integrated segmentation-recognition strategy, are investigated and algorithms that have worked well in practice are primarily focused on. Baseline systems are initially presented for these strategies and are subsequently expanded on and incrementally improved. The sophisticated algorithms covered include: 1) string sample expansion algorithms which synthesize string samples from isolated characters or distort realistic string samples; 2) enhanced feature representation algorithms, e.g. enhanced four-plane features and Delta features; 3) novel learning algorithms, such as Perceptron learning with dynamic margin, MPE training and distributed training; and lastly 4) ensemble algorithms, that is, combining the two strategies using both parallel structure and serial structure. All the while, the book moves from basic to advanced algorithms, helping ...

  12. Changes in fluid composition in metamorphic veins along a cross section through the Central Alps, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinek, K.; Wagner, T.; Wälle, M.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The classical Alpine fissure veins are large cavities lined by occasionally giant quartz crystals and many other euhedral mineral assemblages. They occur in regionally metamorphosed terranes in the upper crust and record important information about the composition and evolution of metamorphic fluids, and fluid sources and mass transfer during crustal fluid-rock interaction (Oliver & Bons, 2001). Detailed fluid inclusion studies of Alpine veins along a cross section through the Central Alps have established that the fluid composition shows a distinct evolution with increasing metamorphic grade, where consecutive zones are dominated by (1) heavier hydrocarbons, (2) CH4, (3) H2O-NaCl, and (4) H2O-CO2-NaCl (Mullis et al., 1994). This study addresses the chemical evolution of fluids in Alpine fissure veins in the Central Swiss Alps by integrating field work, fluid inclusion studies (microthermometry and LA-ICPMS microanalysis of individual fluid inclusions), and geochemical modeling. The field locations were selected along a cross section through the Central Alps that covers different lithologies and metamorphic conditions. This includes vein systems in the Aar massif (Gauli glacier, Gerstenegg vein in the Grimsel power station, Tiefen glacier), the Nufenen and Griess pass, the Bedretto valley, the Cavagnoli region and a tunnel near Faido. Fluid inclusion studies have been completed for the localities in the Aar massif, the Cavagnoli region and the Faido tunnel. It was possible to analyze a considerable number of elements with LA-ICPMS, including Na, K, Rb, Cs, Li, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, B, As, Sb, S, Pb and Zn. The fluid inclusions from the Aar massif are low-salinity aqueous two-phase, whereas the Cavagnoli and Faido samples dominantly contain aqueous-carbonic fluid inclusions. While the Gauli samples contain fluid inclusions with 4.5-5.0 wt% equivalent (eqv.) NaCl, those from the Gerstenegg and Tiefen glacier have a considerably higher salinity of around 10-11 wt% eqv

  13. Ultrastructure of dragonfly wing veins: composite structure of fibrous material supplemented by resilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Esther; Heepe, Lars; Lin, Chung-Ping; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-10-01

    Dragonflies count among the most skilful of the flying insects. Their exceptional aerodynamic performance has been the subject of various studies. Morphological and kinematic investigations have showed that dragonfly wings, though being rather stiff, are able to undergo passive deformation during flight, thereby improving the aerodynamic performance. Resilin, a rubber-like protein, has been suggested to be a key component in insect wing flexibility and deformation in response to aerodynamic loads, and has been reported in various arthropod locomotor systems. It has already been found in wing vein joints, connecting longitudinal veins to cross veins, and was shown to endow the dragonfly wing with chordwise flexibility, thereby most likely influencing the dragonfly's flight performance. The present study revealed that resilin is not only present in wing vein joints, but also in the internal cuticle layers of veins in wings of Sympetrum vulgatum (SV) and Matrona basilaris basilaris (MBB). Combined with other structural features of wing veins, such as number and thickness of cuticle layers, material composition, and cross-sectional shape, resilin most probably has an effect on the vein's material properties and the degree of elastic deformations. In order to elucidate the wing vein ultrastructure and the exact localisation of resilin in the internal layers of the vein cuticle, the approaches of bright-field light microscopy, wide-field fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were combined. Wing veins were shown to consist of up to six different cuticle layers and a single row of underlying epidermal cells. In wing veins of MBB, the latter are densely packed with light-scattering spheres, previously shown to produce structural colours in the form of quasiordered arrays. Longitudinal and cross veins differ significantly in relative thickness of exo- and endocuticle, with cross veins

  14. Does intermittent pneumatic compression reduce the risk of post stroke deep vein thrombosis? The CLOTS 3 trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 80,000 patients each year are admitted to UK hospitals with an acute stroke and are immobile. At least 10% will develop a proximal Deep Vein Thrombosis in the first month and 1.5% a pulmonary embolus. Although hydration, antiplatelet treatment and early mobilisation may reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis, there are currently no preventive strategies which have been clearly shown to be both effective and safe. Anticoagulation increases the risks of bleeding and compression stockings are ineffective. Systematic reviews of small randomized trials of intermittent pneumatic compression have shown that this reduces the risk of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing surgery, but that there are few data concerning its use after stroke. The CLOTS trial 3 aims to determine whether, compared with best medical care, best medical care plus intermittent pneumatic compression in immobile stroke patients reduces the risk of proximal deep vein thrombosis. Methods/Design CLOTS Trial 3 is a parallel group multicentre trial; with centralized randomisation (minimisation to ensure allocation concealment. Over 80 centres in the UK will recruit 2800 immobile stroke patients within the first 3 days of their hospital admission. Patients will be allocated to best medical care or best medical care plus intermittent pneumatic compression. Ultrasonographers will perform a Compression Duplex Ultrasound Scan to detect deep vein thrombosis in each treatment group at about 7-10 days and 25-30 days. The primary outcome cluster includes symptomatic or asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis in the popliteal or femoral veins detected on either scan. Patients are then followed up by postal or telephone questionnaire at 6 months from randomisation to detect later symptomatic deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary emboli and to establish their functional outcome (Oxford handicap scale and quality of life (EQ5D-3 L. The ultrasonographers performing the

  15. Rule-based model of vein graft remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minki Hwang

    Full Text Available When vein segments are implanted into the arterial system for use in arterial bypass grafting, adaptation to the higher pressure and flow of the arterial system is accomplished thorough wall thickening and expansion. These early remodeling events have been found to be closely coupled to the local hemodynamic forces, such as shear stress and wall tension, and are believed to be the foundation for later vein graft failure. To further our mechanistic understanding of the cellular and extracellular interactions that lead to global changes in tissue architecture, a rule-based modeling method is developed through the application of basic rules of behaviors for these molecular and cellular activities. In the current method, smooth muscle cell (SMC, extracellular matrix (ECM, and monocytes are selected as the three components that occupy the elements of a grid system that comprise the developing vein graft intima. The probabilities of the cellular behaviors are developed based on data extracted from in vivo experiments. At each time step, the various probabilities are computed and applied to the SMC and ECM elements to determine their next physical state and behavior. One- and two-dimensional models are developed to test and validate the computational approach. The importance of monocyte infiltration, and the associated effect in augmenting extracellular matrix deposition, was evaluated and found to be an important component in model development. Final model validation is performed using an independent set of experiments, where model predictions of intimal growth are evaluated against experimental data obtained from the complex geometry and shear stress patterns offered by a mid-graft focal stenosis, where simulation results show good agreements with the experimental data.

  16. Percutaneous Access via the Recanalized Paraumbilical Vein for Varix Embolization in Seven Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yeon Jin; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Hur, Sae Beom; Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Whan [Dept. of Radiology, Dongsan Hospital, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of percutaneous access via the recanalized paraumbilical vein for varix embolization. Between July 2008 and Jan 2014, percutaneous access via the recanalized paraumbilical vein for varix embolization was attempted in seven patients with variceal bleeding. Paraumbilical vein puncture was performed under ultrasonographic guidance, followed by introduction of a 5-Fr sheath. We retrospectively evaluated the technical feasibility, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes of each patient. Recanalized paraumbilical vein catheterization was performed successfully in all patients. Gastroesophageal varix embolization was performed in six patients, and umbilical varix embolization was performed in one patient. Embolic materials used are N-butyl cyanoacrylate (n = 6) and coil with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (n = 1). There were no procedure-related complications. One patient underwent repeated variceal embolization 6 hours after initial procedure via recanalized paraumbilical vein, due to rebleeding from gastric varix. Percutaneous access via the paraumbilical vein for varix embolization is a simple alternative in patients with portal hypertension.

  17. Postoperative Massive Pulmonary Embolism Due to Superficial Vein Thrombosis of the Upper Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascella, Marco; Viscardi, Daniela; Bifulco, Francesca; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that deep vein thrombosis of the upper extremities is linked to high morbidity/mortality, resulting in 12-20% of all documented pulmonary embolism; however, there are few data about thromboembolism originating from a vein and/or a branch of a superficial vein of the upper extremities. Pulmonary embolism secondary to upper limb superficial vein thrombosis (not combined with upper extremities deep vein thrombosis) is a very rare clinical manifestation with few cases reported in the literature. We report a rare case of thrombophlebitis in departure from a superficial branch of the cephalic vein of the right arm, complicated by cardiac arrest secondary to a massive pulmonary embolism in a patient who underwent major surgery for ovarian cancer. We discuss on the numerous thrombotic risk factors, triggering a cascade of reactions and resulting in a potential fatal clinical manifestation. PMID:26985256

  18. Atresia of the bilateral pulmonary veins: a rare and dismal anomaly identified on cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang-Hyub; Koo, Hyun Jung; Cho, Young Hoon; Lee, Eunsol [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Imaging findings of bilateral pulmonary vein atresia have not been described. To describe cardiac CT findings and clinical outcomes of bilateral pulmonary vein atresia. Three newborns with bilateral pulmonary vein atresia were encountered at our institution during a period of 8 years. We evaluated prenatal echocardiographic findings, clinical presentations, postnatal echocardiographic findings, chest radiographic findings, cardiac CT findings and clinical outcomes. All newborns presented immediately after birth with severe cyanosis, respiratory distress and acidosis that were unresponsive to medical management. Prenatal and postnatal echocardiographic studies and chest radiography were misleading, inconclusive or nonspecific in making the diagnosis in these children; however cardiac CT clearly demonstrated atresia of the bilateral pulmonary veins with multiple small mediastinal collateral veins and pulmonary edema. Surgical treatments were not feasible for this anomaly. Their clinical outcomes were universally dismal and all infants died within 3 days. Cardiac CT provides an accurate diagnosis of bilateral pulmonary vein atresia and leads to prompt treatment decision in these children. (orig.)

  19. Case report: Varicosity of the communicating vein between the left renal vein and the left ascending lumbar vein mimicking a renal artery aneurysm: Report of an unusual site of varicose veins and a novel hypothesis to explain its association with abdominal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep G Jakhere

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A communicating vein between the left renal vein and the left ascending lumbar vein has only rarely been reported in the imaging literature. There are very few reports of varicosity of this communicating vein. Nonetheless, awareness about this communicating vein is of utmost importance for surgeons performing aortoiliac surgeries and nephrectomies as it may pose technical difficulties during surgery or cause life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Varicosity of this venous channel may be mistaken for paraaortic lymphadenopathy, adrenal pseudo-mass, or renal artery aneurysm. We report a case of a patient with varicosity of this communicating vein, which mimicked a left renal artery aneurysm. A novel hypothesis is also proposed to explain the relationship with abdominal pain.

  20. Septic thrombosis of the portal vein due to peripancreatic ligamental abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Septic thrombus formation of both the main portal vein and its intrahepatic branches were observed on CT in a patient with peripancreatic abscess. The septic thrombosis of portal vein (STPV) extended from the level of porta hepatis into the intrahepatic branches, but the portal vein and superior mesenteric vein at the level of pancreatic head were preserved with no evidence of thrombosis angiographically. The gas-containing abscess near the head of the pancreas extended toward the hepatic hilum and surrounded the portal vein and its branches on CT. It was concluded that these thrombi of portal vein branches at porta hepatis and intrahepatic branches were caused by extensions of peripancreatic abscess via the hepatoduodenal ligament and ligamentum teres. Computed tomography was useful in depicting the ligamentous spread of peripancreatic abscess resulting in STPV. (orig.) (orig.)