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Sample records for alginate monomer composition

  1. fibrin–chitosan–sodium alginate composite sheet

    sodium alginate composite (F–C–SA) in sheet form. F–C–SA composite was prepared and characterized for its physicochemical properties like water absorption capacity, surface morphology, FTIR spectra and mechanical properties.

  2. PLGA/alginate composite microspheres for hydrophilic protein delivery

    Zhai, Peng; Chen, X.B.; Schreyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres were prepared by a novel double emulsion and solvent evaporation technique and loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or rabbit anti-laminin antibody protein. The addition of alginate and the use of a surfactant during microsphere preparation increased the encapsulation efficiency and reduced the initial burst release of hydrophilic BSA. Confocal laser scanning microcopy (CLSM) of BSA-loaded PLGA/alginate composite microspheres showed that PLGA, alginate, and BSA were distributed throughout the depths of microspheres; no core/shell structure was observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that PLGA microspheres erode and degrade more quickly than PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. When loaded with anti-laminin antibody, the function of released antibody was well preserved in both PLGA and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. The biocompatibility of PLGA and PLGA/alginate microspheres were examined using four types of cultured cell lines, representing different tissue types. Cell survival was variably affected by the inclusion of alginate in composite microspheres, possibly due to the sensitivity of different cell types to excess calcium that may be released from the calcium cross-linked alginate. - Highlights: • A double emulsion technique is used to prepare protein-loaded PLGA or PLGA/alginate microspheres. • PLGA, alginate and protein are distributed evenly within microsphere structure. • Addition of alginate improves loading efficiency and slows degradation and protein release. • PLGA/alginate microspheres have favorable biocompatibility

  3. PLGA/alginate composite microspheres for hydrophilic protein delivery

    Zhai, Peng [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5E5 (Canada); Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada); Chen, X.B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada); Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada); Schreyer, David J., E-mail: david.schreyer@usask.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5E5 (Canada); Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada)

    2015-11-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres were prepared by a novel double emulsion and solvent evaporation technique and loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or rabbit anti-laminin antibody protein. The addition of alginate and the use of a surfactant during microsphere preparation increased the encapsulation efficiency and reduced the initial burst release of hydrophilic BSA. Confocal laser scanning microcopy (CLSM) of BSA-loaded PLGA/alginate composite microspheres showed that PLGA, alginate, and BSA were distributed throughout the depths of microspheres; no core/shell structure was observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that PLGA microspheres erode and degrade more quickly than PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. When loaded with anti-laminin antibody, the function of released antibody was well preserved in both PLGA and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. The biocompatibility of PLGA and PLGA/alginate microspheres were examined using four types of cultured cell lines, representing different tissue types. Cell survival was variably affected by the inclusion of alginate in composite microspheres, possibly due to the sensitivity of different cell types to excess calcium that may be released from the calcium cross-linked alginate. - Highlights: • A double emulsion technique is used to prepare protein-loaded PLGA or PLGA/alginate microspheres. • PLGA, alginate and protein are distributed evenly within microsphere structure. • Addition of alginate improves loading efficiency and slows degradation and protein release. • PLGA/alginate microspheres have favorable biocompatibility.

  4. Alginate-Collagen Fibril Composite Hydrogel

    Mahmoud Baniasadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis and the mechanical characterization of an alginate-collagen fibril composite hydrogel. Native type I collagen fibrils were used to synthesize the fibrous composite hydrogel. We characterized the mechanical properties of the fabricated fibrous hydrogel using tensile testing; rheometry and atomic force microscope (AFM-based nanoindentation experiments. The results show that addition of type I collagen fibrils improves the rheological and indentation properties of the hydrogel.

  5. Elution of Monomers from Provisional Composite Materials

    Simon Daniel Schulz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the elution of substances from different materials used for the manufacturing of temporary indirect restorations, after storage in saliva and ethanol 75%. 10 samples of three chemically cured materials (Protemp 3 Garant, Systemp.c&b, and Trim and one light-cured material (Clip F were stored in saliva and ethanol 75% for 24 h, 7, and days 28 days. From the storage media at each time period, samples were prepared and analysed by LC-MS/MS, in order to access the elution of monomers. The results differed among the materials (P ≤ 0.05. No monomers were detected in the samples of Protemp 3 Garant and Clip F. Substances were detected only in ethanol samples of Systemp.c&b and Trim. The amount of BisGMA, TEGDMA, and UDMA 2 released from Systemp.c&b was higher compared to Trim. Storage time affected the release of substances (P ≤ 0.05. The highest release was observed within the first 24 h. It can be concluded that provisional resin composite materials do not show high release of monomers and this release is material dependent. However, the detection of additional peaks during the analysis, suggesting the formation of by-products of the eluted substances, may not be in favour of these materials with respect to their toxicity.

  6. fibrin–chitosan–sodium alginate composite sheet

    MS received 1 December 2011; revised 23 February 2012 ... Fibrin, a blood plasma protein, is a minor component ... chitosan–alginate PEC membrane was prepared as a wound .... ter paper followed by accurately weighing the sample. The.

  7. Immobilization of myoglobin in sodium alginate composite membranes

    Katia Cecília de Souza Figueiredo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe immobilization of myoglobin in sodium alginate films was investigated with the aim of evaluating the protein stability in an ionic polymeric matrix. Myoglobin was chosen due to the resemblance to each hemoglobin tetramer. Sodium alginate, being a natural polysaccharide, was selected as the polymeric matrix because of its chemical structure and film-forming ability. To improve the mechanical resistance of sodium alginate films, the polymer was deposited over the surface of a cellulose acetate support by means of ultrafiltration. The ionic crosslink of sodium alginate was investigated by calcium ions. Composite membrane characterization comprised water swelling tests, water flux, SEM images and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrostatic interaction between the protein and the polysaccharide did not damage the UV-visible pattern of native myoglobin. A good affinity between sodium alginate and cellulose acetate was observed. The top layer of the dense composite membrane successfully immobilized Myoglobin, retaining the native UV-visible pattern for two months.

  8. In vitro evaluation of alginate/halloysite nanotube composite scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Liu, Mingxian; Dai, Libing; Shi, Huizhe; Xiong, Sheng; Zhou, Changren

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a series of alginate/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) composite scaffolds were prepared by solution-mixing and freeze-drying method. HNTs are incorporated into alginate to improve both the mechanical and cell-attachment properties of the scaffolds. The interfacial interactions between alginate and HNTs were confirmed by the atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and FTIR spectroscopy. The mechanical, morphological, and physico-chemical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated. The composite scaffolds exhibit significant enhancement in compressive strength and compressive modulus compared with pure alginate scaffold both in dry and wet states. A well-interconnected porous structure with size in the range of 100–200 μm and over 96% porosity is found in the composite scaffolds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows that HNTs are uniformly dispersed and partly oriented in the composite scaffolds. The incorporation of HNTs leads to increase in the scaffold density and decrease in the water swelling ratio of alginate. HNTs improve the stability of alginate scaffolds against enzymatic degradation in PBS solution. Thermogravimetrica analysis (TGA) shows that HNTs can improve the thermal stability of the alginate. The mouse fibroblast cells display better attachment to the alginate/HNT composite than those to the pure alginate, suggesting the good cytocompatibility of the composite scaffolds. Alginate/HNT composite scaffolds exhibit great potential for applications in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated HNTs reinforced alginate composite scaffolds for biomedical applications. • The hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and alginate are confirmed. • HNTs can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of alginate scaffold. • The scaffolds exhibit a highly porous structure with interconnected pores. • HNTs can improve the cell attachment and proliferation on alginate

  9. In vitro evaluation of alginate/halloysite nanotube composite scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Liu, Mingxian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Dai, Libing [Guangzhou Institute of Traumatic Surgery, Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510220 (China); Shi, Huizhe; Xiong, Sheng [Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, Changren, E-mail: tcrz9@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a series of alginate/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) composite scaffolds were prepared by solution-mixing and freeze-drying method. HNTs are incorporated into alginate to improve both the mechanical and cell-attachment properties of the scaffolds. The interfacial interactions between alginate and HNTs were confirmed by the atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and FTIR spectroscopy. The mechanical, morphological, and physico-chemical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated. The composite scaffolds exhibit significant enhancement in compressive strength and compressive modulus compared with pure alginate scaffold both in dry and wet states. A well-interconnected porous structure with size in the range of 100–200 μm and over 96% porosity is found in the composite scaffolds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows that HNTs are uniformly dispersed and partly oriented in the composite scaffolds. The incorporation of HNTs leads to increase in the scaffold density and decrease in the water swelling ratio of alginate. HNTs improve the stability of alginate scaffolds against enzymatic degradation in PBS solution. Thermogravimetrica analysis (TGA) shows that HNTs can improve the thermal stability of the alginate. The mouse fibroblast cells display better attachment to the alginate/HNT composite than those to the pure alginate, suggesting the good cytocompatibility of the composite scaffolds. Alginate/HNT composite scaffolds exhibit great potential for applications in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated HNTs reinforced alginate composite scaffolds for biomedical applications. • The hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and alginate are confirmed. • HNTs can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of alginate scaffold. • The scaffolds exhibit a highly porous structure with interconnected pores. • HNTs can improve the cell attachment and proliferation on alginate.

  10. High performance dental resin composites with hydrolytically stable monomers.

    Wang, Xiaohong; Huyang, George; Palagummi, Sri Vikram; Liu, Xiaohui; Skrtic, Drago; Beauchamp, Carlos; Bowen, Rafael; Sun, Jirun

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to: 1) develop strong and durable dental resin composites by employing new monomers that are hydrolytically stable, and 2) demonstrate that resin composites based on these monomers perform superiorly to the traditional bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA/TEGDMA) composites under testing conditions relevant to clinical applications. New resins comprising hydrolytically stable, ether-based monomer, i.e., triethylene glycol divinylbenzyl ether (TEG-DVBE), and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) were produced via composition-controlled photo-polymerization. Their composites contained 67.5wt% of micro and 7.5wt% of nano-sized filler. The performances of both copolymers and composites were evaluated by a battery of clinically-relevant assessments: degree of vinyl conversion (DC: FTIR and NIR spectroscopy); refractive index (n: optical microscopy); elastic modulus (E), flexural strength (F) and fracture toughness (K IC ) (universal mechanical testing); Knoop hardness (HK; indentation); water sorption (W sp ) and solubility (W su ) (gravimetry); polymerization shrinkage (S v ; mercury dilatometry) and polymerization stress (tensometer). The experimental UDMA/TEG-DVBE composites were compared with the Bis-GMA/TEGDMA composites containing the identical filler contents, and with the commercial micro hybrid flowable composite. UDMA/TEG-DBVE composites exhibited n, E, W sp , W su and S v equivalent to the controls. They outperformed the controls with respect to F (up to 26.8% increase), K IC (up to 27.7% increase), modulus recovery upon water sorption (full recovery vs. 91.9% recovery), and stress formation (up to 52.7% reduction). In addition, new composites showed up to 27.7% increase in attainable DC compared to the traditional composites. Bis-GMA/TEGDMA controls exceeded the experimental composites with respect to only one property, the composite hardness. Significantly, up to 18.1% lower HK values in

  11. In situ polymerization of monomers for polyphenylquinoxaline-graphite fiber composites

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    In situ polymerization of monomers was used to prepare graphite-fiber-reinforced polyphenylquinoxaline composites. Six different monomer combinations were investigated. Composite mechanical property retention characteristics were determined at 316 C (600 F) over an extended time period.

  12. Characterization of alginate-brushite in-situ hydrogel composites

    Dabiri, Seyed Mohammad Hossein [Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics, and System Engineering, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Lagazzo, Alberto; Barberis, Fabrizio [Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Farokhi, Mehdi [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Finochio, Elisabetta [Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Pastorino, Laura [Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics, and System Engineering, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    In the present study alginate-brushite composite hydrogels were in-situ synthetized and characterized with respect to preparation parameters. Specifically, the influence of initial pH value and initial concentration of phosphate precursor on the in-situ fabrication of the composite hydrogel were taken into account. The composite hydrogels were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric (TGA, DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Finally, the cell viability tests were carried out (MTT) over the incubation time period of 3, 7, and 14 days. The results revealed that the formation and the crystalline stability of brushite were highly dependent on the initial pH value. It was shown that as the pH reached to the value of 6, characteristics peaks of brushite appeared in the FTIR spectra. Besides, the XRD and thermal analysis results were in a good accordance with those of FTIR. In addition, the SEM images demonstrated that the plate like brushite was formed inside the alginate matrix. Also, a considerable impact of pH variation on the biocompatibility of samples was noticed so that the majority of samples especially those prepared in the acidic conditions were toxic. - Highlights: • Alginate-brushite hydrogel composites were obtained through an in-situ process • The brushite crystals started forming at pH value of 6 • The increase in the initial concentration of phosphate precursor resulted in more crystalline structure • Samples prepared at pH value of 8 had the most stable crystalline structure • Brushite crystals promoted the biocompatibility of alginate.

  13. Nanostructured magnetic alginate composites for biomedical applications

    Bedê, Pedro Marins; Silva, Marcelo Henrique Prado da; Figueiredo, André Ben-Hur da Silva, E-mail: marceloprado@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Finotelli, Priscilla Vanessa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmácia

    2017-07-01

    This is a study of the preparation and characterization of polymeric-magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles used were magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} ) and the chosen polymers were alginate and chitosan. Two types of samples were prepared: uncoated magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in polymeric matrix. The samples were analyzed by XRD, light scattering techniques, TEM, and magnetic SQUID. The XRD patterns identified magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} ) as the only crystalline phase. TEM analyses showed particle sizes between 10 and 20nm for magnetite, and 15 and 30nm for the encapsulated magnetite. The values of magnetization ranged from 75 to 100emu/g for magnetite nanoparticles, and 8 to 12emu/g for coated with chitosan, at different temperatures of 20K and 300K. The saturation of both samples was in the range of 49 to 50KOe. Variations of results between the two kinds of samples were attributed to the encapsulation of magnetic nanoparticles by the polymers. (author)

  14. Characterisation of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers with controllable four-monomer composition.

    Dai, Yu; Lambert, Lynette; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jurg

    2008-03-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers comprising the four monomers 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate (3HMV) and 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate (3HMB) were generated using the recently discovered Defluviicoccus vanus-related glycogen accumulating organisms (DvGAOs) under anaerobic conditions without applying any nutrient limitations. The composition could be manipulated in a defined range by modifying the ratio of propionate and acetate provided in the feed stream. The PHAs produced were characterised as random copolymers (from propionate alone) or a mixture of random copolymers (from mixture of propionate and acetate) through microstructure analysis using 13C NMR spectroscopy. The sequence distribution of all eight comonomer pairs in the carbonyl region of 3HB and 3HV was identified and assigned with confidence utilising two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple bond coherence (HMBC) spectroscopy. Weight average molecular weights were in the range 390-560 kg/mol. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces showed that the melting temperature (Tm) varied between 70 and 161 degrees C and glass transition temperature (Tg) ranged from -8 to 0 degrees C. The incorporation of considerable amounts of 3HMV and 3HMB monomer units introduced additional "defects" into the PHBV copolymer structure and hence greatly lowered the crystallinity. The data indicate the potential of these four-monomer PHAs to be employed for practical applications, considering their favourable properties and the cost-effective production process using a mixed culture and simple carbon sources.

  15. Elution of monomer from different bulk fill dental composite resins.

    Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Cebe, Fatma; Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Cetin, Ali Rıza; Arpag, Osman Fatih; Ozturk, Bora

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the elution of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA, and Bis-EMA monomers from six bulk fill composite resins over four different time periods, using HPLC. Six different composite resin materials were used in the present study: Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), X-tra Fill (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany), Sonic Fill (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA), Filtek Bulk Fill (3M ESPE Dental Product, St. Paul, MN), SDR (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), EQUIA (GC America INC, Alsip, IL). The samples (4mm thickness, 5mm diameter) were prepared and polymerized for 20s with a light emitted diode unit. After fabrication, each sample was immediately immersed in 75wt% ethanol/water solution used as extraction fluid and stored in the amber colored bottles at room temperature. Ethanol/water samples were taken (0.5mL) at predefined time intervals:10m (T1), 1h (T2), 24h (T3) and 30 days (T4). These samples were analyzed by HPLC. The obtained data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD at significance level of pcomposites (pcomposite resins in all time periods and the amount of eluted monomers was increased with time. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Controlled release of metronidazole from composite poly-ε-caprolactone/alginate (PCL/alginate) rings for dental implants.

    Lan, Shih-Feng; Kehinde, Timilehin; Zhang, Xiangming; Khajotia, Sharukh; Schmidtke, David W; Starly, Binil

    2013-06-01

    Dental implants provide support for dental crowns and bridges by serving as abutments for the replacement of missing teeth. To prevent bacterial accumulation and growth at the site of implantation, solutions such as systemic antibiotics and localized delivery of bactericidal agents are often employed. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a novel method of controlled localized delivery of antibacterial agents to an implant site using a biodegradable custom fabricated ring. The study involved incorporating a model antibacterial agent (metronidazole) into custom designed poly-ε-caprolactone/alginate (PCL/alginate) composite rings to produce the intended controlled release profile. The rings can be designed to fit around the body of any root form dental implants of various diameters, shapes and sizes. In vitro release studies indicate that pure (100%) alginate rings exhibited an expected burst release of metronidazole in the first few hours, whereas Alginate/PCL composite rings produced a medium burst release followed by a sustained release for a period greater than 4 weeks. By varying the PCL/alginate weight ratios, we have shown that we can control the amount of antibacterial agents released to provide the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) needed for adequate protection. The fabricated composite rings have achieved a 50% antibacterial agent release profile over the first 48 h and the remaining amount slowly released over the remainder of the study period. The PCL/alginate agent release characteristic fits the Ritger-Peppas model indicating a diffusion-based mechanism during the 30-day study period. The developed system demonstrates a controllable drug release profile and the potential for the ring to inhibit bacterial biofilm growth for the prevention of diseases such as peri-implantitis resulting from bacterial infection at the implant site. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly Concentrated Alginate-Gellan Gum Composites for 3D Plotting of Complex Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Ashwini Rahul Akkineni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, additive manufacturing (AM technologies have brought considerable progress as they allow the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures with defined architecture. 3D plotting is a versatile, extrusion-based AM technology suitable for processing a wide range of biomaterials including hydrogels. In this study, composites of highly concentrated alginate and gellan gum were prepared in order to combine the excellent printing properties of alginate with the favorable gelling characteristics of gellan gum. Mixtures of 16.7 wt % alginate and 2 or 3 wt % gellan gum were found applicable for 3D plotting. Characterization of the resulting composite scaffolds revealed an increased stiffness in the wet state (15%–20% higher Young’s modulus and significantly lower volume swelling in cell culture medium compared to pure alginate scaffolds (~10% vs. ~23%. Cytocompatibility experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC revealed that cell attachment was improved—the seeding efficiency was ~2.5–3.5 times higher on the composites than on pure alginate. Additionally, the composites were shown to support hMSC proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, print fidelity of highly concentrated alginate-gellan gum composites was comparable to those of pure alginate; after plotting and crosslinking, the scaffolds possessed improved qualities regarding shape fidelity, mechanical strength, and initial cell attachment making them attractive for tissue engineering applications.

  18. Electrophoretic deposition of ZnO/alginate and ZnO-bioactive glass/alginate composite coatings for antimicrobial applications

    Cordero-Arias, L.; Cabanas-Polo, S.; Goudouri, O.M. [Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 6, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Misra, S.K. [Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad 382424 (India); Gilabert, J. [Institute of Ceramics Materials (ITC), University Jaume I, Avenida Vicent SosBaynat, 12006 Castellon (Spain); Valsami-Jones, E. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Sanchez, E. [Institute of Ceramics Materials (ITC), University Jaume I, Avenida Vicent SosBaynat, 12006 Castellon (Spain); Virtanen, S. [Institute for Surface Science and Corrosion (LKO, WW4), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Boccaccini, A.R., E-mail: aldo.boccaccini@ww.uni-erlangen.de [Institute of Biomaterials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 6, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    Two organic/inorganic composite coatings based on alginate, as organic matrix, and zinc oxide nanoparticles (n-ZnO) with and without bioactive glass (BG), as inorganic components, intended for biomedical applications, were developed by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Different n-ZnO (1–10 g/L) and BG (1–1.5 g/L) contents were studied for a fixed alginate concentration (2 g/L). The presence of n-ZnO was confirmed to impart antibacterial properties to the coatings against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, while the BG induced the formation of hydroxyapatite on coating surfaces thereby imparting bioactivity, making the coating suitable for bone replacement applications. Coating composition was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to study both the surface and the cross section morphology of the coatings. Polarization curves of the coated substrates made in cell culture media at 37 °C confirmed the corrosion protection function of the novel organic/inorganic composite coatings. - Highlights: • Organic–inorganic nanocomposite coatings fabricated by electrophoretic deposition • nZnO and bioactive glass containing alginate coatings exhibit antibacterial effect. • Bioactive character and anticorrosion function of coatings demonstrated.

  19. Effect of monomer composition on the properties of high temperature polymer concretes

    Zeldin, A.; Kukacka, L.E.; Carciello, N.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of organic monomer composition on the thermomechanical properties of polymer concrete (PC) containing sand-cement mixtures as an agregate filler were investigated. The effects of various monomer mixtures on compressive strength and hydrolytic stability are discussed. Composites were fabricated in the same way as ordinary concrete, with monomer solutions of various compositions and concentrations used to bind the sand-cement mixture. The compressive strengths of th composites before and after exposure to air and to brine solutions at 240/sup 0/C are discussed.

  20. Do the monomers release from the composite resins after artificial aging?

    Tokay, Ugur; Koyuturk, Alp Erdin; Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Ozmen, Bilal

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the effect of thermal cycling on the amount of monomer released from three different composite materials by HPLC analysis method. Three different composite materials, inlay composite, posterior composite and micro-hybrid composite were used. Sixty cylinder specimens each with a dimension of approximately 1 cm width and 3 mm depth, were prepared before experiments were carried out. Inlay composite material was polymerized according to manufacturers' instructions. Thermal cycling device was used to simulate thermal differences which occur in the mouth media. Monomers were analyzed using HPLC technic after thermal cycling process. The amount of ethoxylated Bis-GMA and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) in inlay composite material, the amount of ethoxylated Bis-GMA in posterior composite material, the amount of ethoxylated Bis-GMA and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) in micro-hybrid composite material were investigated. Monomer release of thermal cycles levels showed a linear increase in UDMA and TEGDMA (P < 0.05). In terms of thermal cycles levels, Bis-EMA released from posterior composite showed a cubic change (P < 0.001). It was observed that use of additional polymerization processes might have positive effect on the decrease of residual monomer. In the light of the results, we suggest that indirect composite resins have more outstanding features than direct composite resins in terms of biocompatibility. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Preparation of in situ hardening composite microcarriers: Calcium phosphate cement combined with alginate for bone regeneration

    Park, Jung-Hui; Lee, Eun-Jung; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-01-01

    Novel microcarriers consisting of calcium phosphate cement and alginate were prepared for use as three-dimensional scaffolds for the culture and expansion of cells that are effective for bone tissue engineering. The calcium phosphate cement-alginate composite microcarriers were produced by an emulsification of the composite aqueous solutions mixed at varying ratios (calcium phosphate cement powder/alginate solution = 0.8–1.2) in an oil bath and the subsequent in situ hardening of the compositions during spherodization. Moreover, a porous structure could be easily created in the solid microcarriers by soaking the produced microcarriers in water and a subsequent freeze-drying process. Bone mineral-like apatite nanocrystallites were shown to rapidly develop on the calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers under moist conditions due to the conversion of the α-tricalcium phosphate phase in the calcium phosphate cement into a carbonate–hydroxyapatite. Osteoblastic cells cultured on the microspherical scaffolds were proven to be viable, with an active proliferative potential during 14 days of culture, and their osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. The in situ hardening calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers developed herein may be used as potential three-dimensional scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering of bone. PMID:23836845

  2. Effect of food simulating liquids on release of monomers from two dental resin composites

    Ghavam M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: The elution of residual monomers from cured dental composites to oral cavity has a harmful effect on human health and can affect their clinical durability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of eluted monomers (Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA from two types of composites (Gradia and P60 after exposure to food simulating liquids such as ethanol (25, 50, 75 % and heptane 50 % for 24 hours and 7 days. "nMaterials and Methods: Forty specimens of each composite were prepared. Equal numbers of each composite were immersed in tubes containing 2cc volumes of 25, 50, 75 % ethanole and 50 % heptane. The amount of eluted monomers in standard condition such as Bis-GMA, TEGDMA and UDMA was measured by GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy and results were statistically analysed by three way and one way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significancy. "nResults: The results showed that Gradia released more TEGDMA than P60. In assessing the effect of environment, the result showed that ethanol caused releasing monomers more than heptane and the concentration rate of 75 % ethanole resulted in most releasing of monomers. In assessing the effect of time, the observation showed that more monomers were released 7 days compared to 24 hours. Bis-GMA and UDMA were not detected in any solutions in these conditions. "nConclusion: Ethanole caused more release of monomers than heptane and 75 % ethanole released the most amount of monomers. Gradia released more amount of TEGDMA than P60.

  3. Effects of halloysite nanotubes on physical properties and cytocompatibility of alginate composite hydrogels

    Huang, Biao; Liu, Mingxian; Long, Zheru; Shen, Yan; Zhou, Changren

    2017-01-01

    Sodium alginate (SA)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) composite hydrogels were successfully prepared by solution blending and cross-linking with calcium ions. HNTs can improve the physical properties and cytocompatibility of composite hydrogels. The static and shear viscosity of SA/HNTs solution increase by the addition of HNTs. FTIR suggests the presence of hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and SA. The crystal structure of HNTs is retained in the composites as showed by the X-ray diffraction result. A porous structure with pore size of 100–250 μm is found in the hydrogels, which can provide a space for cell growth and migration. The compressive mechanical properties of composite hydrogels significantly increase compared to the pure SA hydrogel. The SA/HNTs composite hydrogels with 80% HNTs loading exhibit the compressive stress at 80% strain of 2.99 MPa, while the stress at 80% strain of pure SA hydrogel is only 0.8 MPa. The dynamic storage modulus of composite hydrogels also markedly increases with HNTs concentration. The differential scanning calorimetry endothermic peak area and swelling ratios in NaCl solution of the composite hydrogels decrease by the addition of HNTs. Preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1) culture results reveal that the SA/HNTs composites especially at relatively low HNTs loading show a significant increase in cells adhesion and proliferation compared to the pure SA hydrogel. All the results demonstrate that the SA/HNTs composite hydrogels show a promising application in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Alginate/HNTs composite hydrogels were fabricated using Ca 2+ cross-linking method. • The hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and alginate are confirmed. • HNTs can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogel. • HNTs can improve the cell attachment and proliferation of alginate.

  4. Effects of halloysite nanotubes on physical properties and cytocompatibility of alginate composite hydrogels

    Huang, Biao; Liu, Mingxian, E-mail: liumx@jnu.edu.cn; Long, Zheru; Shen, Yan; Zhou, Changren, E-mail: tcrz9@jnu.edu.cn

    2017-01-01

    Sodium alginate (SA)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) composite hydrogels were successfully prepared by solution blending and cross-linking with calcium ions. HNTs can improve the physical properties and cytocompatibility of composite hydrogels. The static and shear viscosity of SA/HNTs solution increase by the addition of HNTs. FTIR suggests the presence of hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and SA. The crystal structure of HNTs is retained in the composites as showed by the X-ray diffraction result. A porous structure with pore size of 100–250 μm is found in the hydrogels, which can provide a space for cell growth and migration. The compressive mechanical properties of composite hydrogels significantly increase compared to the pure SA hydrogel. The SA/HNTs composite hydrogels with 80% HNTs loading exhibit the compressive stress at 80% strain of 2.99 MPa, while the stress at 80% strain of pure SA hydrogel is only 0.8 MPa. The dynamic storage modulus of composite hydrogels also markedly increases with HNTs concentration. The differential scanning calorimetry endothermic peak area and swelling ratios in NaCl solution of the composite hydrogels decrease by the addition of HNTs. Preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1) culture results reveal that the SA/HNTs composites especially at relatively low HNTs loading show a significant increase in cells adhesion and proliferation compared to the pure SA hydrogel. All the results demonstrate that the SA/HNTs composite hydrogels show a promising application in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Alginate/HNTs composite hydrogels were fabricated using Ca{sup 2+} cross-linking method. • The hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and alginate are confirmed. • HNTs can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of alginate hydrogel. • HNTs can improve the cell attachment and proliferation of alginate.

  5. TEGDMA and UDMA monomers released from composite dental material polymerized with diode and halogen lamps.

    Wacławczyk, Agnieszka; Postek-Stefańska, Lidia; Pietraszewska, Daria; Birkner, Ewa; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Wysoczańska-Jankowicz, Iwona

    2018-03-20

    More than 35 substances released from composite fillings have been identified. Among these, basic monomers and the so-called co-monomers are most often reported. The substances released from polymer-based materials demonstrate allergenic, cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, embryotoxic, teratogenic, and estrogenic properties. The aim of this study was to measure the amounts of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) monomers released from composite dental fillings to citrate-phosphate buffer with the pH of 4, 6, 8 after 24 h and 6 months from the polymerization. Ten samples for each polymerization method had been made from the composite material (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, USA), which underwent polymerization using the following lamps: halogen lamp (Translux CL, Heraeus Kulzer, Hanau, Germany) (sample H) and diode lamp (Elipar Freelight 2, 3M ESPE), with soft start function (group DS) and without that function (group DWS). It has been demonstrated that the type of light-curing units has a significant impact on the amount of TEGDMA and UDMA released. The amount of UDMA and TEGDMA monomers released from composite fillings differed significantly depending on the source of polymerization applied, as well as the pH of the solution and sample storage time. Elution of the monomers from composite material polymerized using halogen lamp was significantly greater as compared to curing with diode lamps.

  6. Drug Release Profile from Calcium-Induced Alginate-Phosphate Composite Gel Beads

    Yoshifumi Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-induced alginate-phosphate composite gel beads were prepared, and model drug release profiles were investigated in vitro. The formation of calcium phosphate in the alginate gel matrix was observed and did not affect the rheological properties of the hydrogel beads. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the calcium phosphate does not exist in crystalline form in the matrix. The initial release amount and release rate of a water-soluble drug, diclofenac, from the alginate gel beads could be controlled by modifying the composition of the matrix with calcium phosphate. In contrast, the release profile was not affected by the modification for hydrocortisone, a drug only slightly soluble in water.

  7. Highly stable and magnetically separable alginate/Fe3O4 composite for the removal of strontium (Sr) from seawater.

    Hong, Hye-Jin; Jeong, Hyeon Su; Kim, Byoung-Gyu; Hong, Jeongsik; Park, In-Su; Ryu, Taegong; Chung, Kang-Sup; Kim, Hyuncheol; Ryu, Jungho

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a highly stable alginate/Fe 3 O 4 composite was synthesized, and systematically investigated for the practical application of strontium (Sr) removal in complex media, such as seawater and radioactive wastewater. To overcome the drawbacks of the use of alginate microspheres, high contents of alginic acid and Fe 3 O 4 were used to provide a more rigid structure with little swelling and facile separation, respectively. The synthesized composite was optimized for particle sizes of seawater spiked with 50 mg/L of Sr, the alginate/Fe 3 O 4 composite showed 12.5 mg/g of Sr uptake, despite the highly concentrated ions in seawater. The adsorption experiment for radio-active 90 Sr revealed a removal efficiency of 67% in real seawater, demonstrating the reliability of the alginate/Fe 3 O 4 composite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploration of alginate hydrogel/nano zinc oxide composite bandages for infected wounds

    Mohandas A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Annapoorna Mohandas,* Sudheesh Kumar PT,* Biswas Raja, Vinoth-Kumar Lakshmanan, Rangasamy Jayakumar Amrita Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi, India *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Alginate hydrogel/zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO composite bandage was developed by freeze-dry method from the mixture of nZnO and alginate hydrogel. The developed composite bandage was porous with porosity at a range of 60%–70%. The swelling ratios of the bandages decreased with increasing concentrations of nZnO. The composite bandages with nZnO incorporation showed controlled degradation profile and faster blood clotting ability when compared to the KALTOSTAT® and control bandages without nZnO. The prepared composite bandages exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Cytocompatibility evaluation of the prepared composite bandages done on human dermal fibroblast cells by Alamar assay and infiltration studies proved that the bandages have a non-toxic nature at lower concentrations of nZnO whereas slight reduction in viability was seen with increasing nZnO concentrations. The qualitative analysis of ex-vivo re-epithelialization on porcine skin revealed keratinocyte infiltration toward wound area for nZnO alginate bandages. Keywords: alginate, hydrogel, ZnO nanoparticle, hemostatic, antimicrobial activity, wound healing

  9. In situ polymerization of monomers for polyphenylquinoxaline/graphite fiber composites

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Methods currently used to prepare fiber reinforced, high temperature resistant polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) composites employ extremely viscous, low solids content solutions of high molecular weight PPQ polymers. An improved approach, described in this report, consists of impregnating the fiber with a solution of the appropriate monomers instead of a solution of previously synthesized high molecular weight polymer. Polymerization of the monomers occurs in situ on the fiber during the solvent removal and curing stages. The in situ polymerization approach greatly simplifies the fabrication of PPQ graphite fiber composites. The use of low viscosity monomeric type solutions facilitates fiber wetting, permits a high solids content, and eliminates the need for prior polymer synthesis.

  10. [Preparation of sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material for bone repair and its biocompatibility].

    Wang, Yanmei; He, Jiacai; Li, Quanli; Shen, Jijia

    2014-02-01

    To prepare sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material and to explore its feasibility as a bone repair material. Sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material was prepared using chemical cross-linking and freeze-drying technology. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and its porosity was measured by liquid displacement method. The fifth passage of bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) were incubated on the composite material and then growth was observed by inverted microscope and SEM. BMSCs were cultured with liquid extracts of the material, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to calculate the relative growth rate (RGR) on 1, 3, 5 d and to evaluate the cytotoxicity. Fresh dog blood was added into the liquid extracts to conduct hemolysis test, the spectrophotometer was used to determine the optical density (OD) and to calculate the hemolysis rate. Sodium alginate-nanohydroxyapatite composite material displayed porosity, the porous pore rate was (88.6 +/- 4.5)%. BMSCs showed full stretching and vigorous growth under inverted microscope and SEM. BMSCs cultured with liquid extracts of the material had good activities. The toxicity of composite material was graded as 1. Hemolysis test results showed that the hemolysis rate of the composite material was 1.28%, thus meeting the requirement of medical biomaterials. The composite material fabricated in this study has high porosity and good biocompatibility.

  11. Potentiometric titration for determining the composition and stability of metal(II) alginates and pectinates in aqueous solutions

    Kaisheva, N. Sh.; Kaishev, A. Sh.

    2015-07-01

    The compositions and stabilities of Cu2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ alginates and pectinates are determined in aqueous solutions via titrimetry and potentiometry with calculations performed using Bjerrum's method, the curve intersection technique, and the equilibrium shift method. It is found that the interaction between Cu2+ and polyuronides is a stepwise process and, depending on the ligand concentration and the method of determination, Cu2+ alginate can be characterized by its ML, ML2, and ML3 compositions (where M is the metal ion and L is the structural unit of polyuronide) and stability constants logβ = 2.65, 5.00-5.70, and 7.18-7.80, respectively. The compositions of Cu2+ pectinates are ML and ML2 with logβ = 3.00 and 7.64-7.94, respectively. It is concluded that Pb2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ ions form only alginates and pectinates of ML2 composition with logβ values of 3.45 (Pb2+ alginate), 2.20 (Ca2+ alginate), 1.06 (Mn2+ alginate), 3.51 (Pb2+ pectinate), 2.35 (Ca2+ pectinate), and 1.24 (Mn2+ pectinate). The pectinates are shown to be more stable than the alginates, the most stable compounds being those formed by polyuronides and Cu2+. The least stable are those with Mn2+.

  12. Interactions between resin monomers and commercial composite resins with human saliva derived esterases.

    Jaffer, F; Finer, Y; Santerre, J P

    2002-04-01

    Cholesterol esterase (CE) and pseudocholinesterase (PCE) have been reported to degrade commercial and model composite resins containing bisphenylglycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) or the latter in combination with urethane modified BisGMA monomer systems. In addition, human saliva has been shown to contain esterase like activities similar to CE and PCE. Hence, it was the aim of the current study to determine to what extent human saliva could degrade two common commercial composite resins (Z250 from 3M Inc. and Spectrum TPH from L.D. Caulk) which contain the above monomer systems. Saliva samples from different volunteers were collected, processed, pooled, and freeze-dried. TEGDMA and BisGMA monomers were incubated with human saliva derived esterase activity (HSDEA) and their respective hydrolysis was monitored using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both monomers were completely hydrolyzed within 25 h by HSDEA. Photopolymerized composites were incubated with buffer or human saliva (pH 7.0 and 37 C) for 2, 8 and 16 days. The incubation solutions were analyzed using HPLC and mass spectrometry. Surface morphology characterization was carried out using scanning electron microscopy. Upon biodegradation, the Z250 composite yielded higher amounts of BisGMA and TEGDMA related products relative to the TPH composite. However, there were higher amounts of ethoxylated bis-phenol A released from the TPH material. In terms of total mass of products released, human saliva demonstrated a greater ability to degrade Z250. In summary, HSDEA has been shown to contain esterase activities that can readily catalyze the biodegradation of current commercial composite resins.

  13. Preparation of highly stable zeolite-alginate foam composite for strontium(90Sr) removal from seawater and evaluation of Sr adsorption performance.

    Hong, Hye-Jin; Kim, Byoung-Gyu; Ryu, Jungho; Park, In-Su; Chung, Kang-Sup; Lee, Sang Moon; Lee, Jin-Bae; Jeong, Hyeon Su; Kim, Hyunchul; Ryu, Taegong

    2018-01-01

    Alginate bead is a promising strontium (Sr) adsorbent in seawater, but highly concentrated Na ions caused over-swelling and damaged the hydrogel bead. To improve the mechanical stability of alginate bead, flexible foam-type zeolite-alginate composite was synthesized and Sr adsorption performance was evaluated in seawater; 1-10% zeolite immobilized alginate foams were prepared by freeze-dry technique. Immobilization of zeolite into alginate foam converted macro-pores to meso-pores which lead to more compact structure. It resulted in less swollen composite in seawater medium and exhibited highly improved mechanical stability compared with alginate bead. Besides, Sr adsorption efficiency and selectivity were enhanced by immobilization of zeolite in alginate foam due to the increase of Sr binding sites (zeolite). In particular, Sr selectivity against Na was highly improved. The 10% zeolite-alginate foam exhibited a higher log K d of 3.3, while the pure alginate foam exhibited 2.7 in the presence of 0.1 M Na. Finally, in the real seawater, the 10% zeolite-alginate foam exhibited 1.5 times higher Sr adsorption efficiency than the pure alginate foam. This result reveals that zeolite-alginate foam composite is appropriate material for Sr removal in seawater due to its swelling resistance as well as improved Sr adsorption performance in complex media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adsorption of arsenic by activated carbon, calcium alginate and their composite beads

    Hassan, A F.; Abdel-Mohsen, A. M.; Elhadidy, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, JUL (2014), s. 125-130 ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Apricot stone * Alginate beads * Composite * Arsenic * Adsorption Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.858, year: 2014

  15. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara; Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lee, Taek Seung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive 60 Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  16. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo [Decontamination and Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taek Seung, E-mail: tslee@cnu.ac.kr [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive {sup 60}Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  17. Multifunctional nano-hydroxyapatite and alginate/gelatin based sticky gel composites for potential bone regeneration

    Cai, Yurong; Yu, Juhong; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yao, Juming

    2016-01-01

    To improve the fixations of the implant and implant-bone integration after joint arthroplasty from locally preventing inflammation and promoting the bone regeneration, we design a multifunctional biomaterial consisting of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) and antibiotic loaded nano-hydroxyapatite with an alginate/gelatin sticky gel. We investigate its role for the prevention of the inflammation and possibility of inducing a new bone growth along with its adhesive ability. The stickiness exists in the composite, which may help to fix itself on the bone fracture surface. The composite sustains the antibacterial effect and promotes the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 cells in vitro. In vivo experimentation also shows that the composite gel has a role for the reduction of inflammation. It enhances the formation of new bone and blood vessels compared to both the sole rhBMP-2 and non-rhBMP-2/antibiotic loaded composite gels. The multifunctional composite provides a promising material for the prosthetic and bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • Multifunctional nanohydroxyapatite composite is fabricated. • The composite consists of nHAP, growth factor, antibiotic and alginate/gelatin gel. • The composite shows antibacterial effect and good cytocompatibility. • No adverse effect to the cells tested in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Multifunctional nano-hydroxyapatite and alginate/gelatin based sticky gel composites for potential bone regeneration

    Cai, Yurong; Yu, Juhong [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab of Textile Fiber Materials & Processing Technology, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Kundu, Subhas C. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yao, Juming, E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab of Textile Fiber Materials & Processing Technology, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2016-09-15

    To improve the fixations of the implant and implant-bone integration after joint arthroplasty from locally preventing inflammation and promoting the bone regeneration, we design a multifunctional biomaterial consisting of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) and antibiotic loaded nano-hydroxyapatite with an alginate/gelatin sticky gel. We investigate its role for the prevention of the inflammation and possibility of inducing a new bone growth along with its adhesive ability. The stickiness exists in the composite, which may help to fix itself on the bone fracture surface. The composite sustains the antibacterial effect and promotes the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 cells in vitro. In vivo experimentation also shows that the composite gel has a role for the reduction of inflammation. It enhances the formation of new bone and blood vessels compared to both the sole rhBMP-2 and non-rhBMP-2/antibiotic loaded composite gels. The multifunctional composite provides a promising material for the prosthetic and bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • Multifunctional nanohydroxyapatite composite is fabricated. • The composite consists of nHAP, growth factor, antibiotic and alginate/gelatin gel. • The composite shows antibacterial effect and good cytocompatibility. • No adverse effect to the cells tested in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Preparation of chitosan-collagen-alginate composite dressing and its promoting effects on wound healing.

    Xie, Haixia; Chen, Xiuli; Shen, Xianrong; He, Ying; Chen, Wei; Luo, Qun; Ge, Weihong; Yuan, Weihong; Tang, Xue; Hou, Dengyong; Jiang, Dingwen; Wang, Qingrong; Liu, Yuming; Liu, Qiong; Li, Kexian

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to prepare a composite dressing composed of collagen, chitosan, and alginate, which may promote wound healing and prevent from seawater immersion. Chitosan-collagen-alginate (CCA) cushion was prepared by paintcoat and freeze-drying, and it was attached to a polyurethane to compose CCA composite dressing. The swelling, porosity, degradation, and mechanical properties of CCA cushion were evaluated. The effects on wound healing and seawater prevention of CCA composite dressing were tested by rat wound model. Preliminary biosecurity was tested by cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility. The results revealed that CCA cushion had good water absorption and mechanical properties. A higher wound healing ratio was observed in CCA composite dressing treated rats than in gauze or chitosan treated ones. On the fifth day, the healing rates of CCA composite dressing, gauze, and chitosan were 48.49%±1.07%, 28.02%±6.4%, and 38.97%±8.53%, respectively. More fibroblast and intact re-epithelialization were observed in histological images of CCA composite dressing treated rats, and the expressions of EGF, bFGF, TGF-β, and CD31 increased significantly. CCA composite dressing showed no significant cytotoxicity, and favorable hemocompatibility. These results suggested that CCA composite dressing could prevent against seawater immersion and promote wound healing while having a good biosecurity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Three-dimensional electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/alginate hybrid composite scaffolds.

    Kim, Min Seong; Kim, GeunHyung

    2014-12-19

    Micro/nanofibrous scaffolds have been used widely in biomedical applications because the micro/nano-scale fibres resemble natural extracellular matrix and the high surface-to-volume ratio encourages cellular activities (attachment and proliferation). However, poor mechanical properties, low controllability of various shapes and difficulties in obtaining controllable pore structure have been obstacles to their use in hard-tissue regeneration. To overcome these shortcomings, we suggest a new composite system, which uses a combination method of wet electrospinning, rapid prototyping and a physical punching process. Using the process, we obtained polycaprolactone (PCL)/alginate composite scaffolds, consisting of electrospun PCL/alginate fibres and micro-sized PCL struts, with mean pore sizes of 821 ± 55 μm. To show the feasibility of the scaffolds for hard-tissue regeneration, the scaffolds were assessed not only for physical properties, including hydrophilicity, water absorption, and tensile and compressive strength, but also in vitro cellular responses (cell viability and proliferation) and osteogenic differentiation (alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralisation) by culturing with pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells). With the reinforcing micro-sized PCL struts, the elastic modulus of the PCL/alginate scaffold was significantly improved versus a pure PCL scaffold. Additionally, due to the alginate component in the fibrous scaffold, they showed significantly enhanced hydrophilic behaviour, water absorption (∼8-fold) and significant biological activities (∼1.6-fold for cell viability at 7 days, ∼2.3-fold for ALP activity at 14 days and ∼6.4-fold for calcium mineralisation at 14 days) compared with those of a pure PCL fibrous scaffold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation, Characterization and Properties of Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic acid) Composite Microparticles.

    Tong, Zongrui; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yang; Tong, Li; Chu, Jiamian; Xiao, Kecen; Zhou, Zhiyu; Dong, Wenbo; Chu, Xingwu

    2017-04-11

    Alginate (Alg) is a renewable polymer with excellent hemostatic properties and biocapability and is widely used for hemostatic wound dressing. However, the swelling properties of alginate-based wound dressings need to be promoted to meet the requirements of wider application. Poly( γ -glutamic acid) (PGA) is a natural polymer with high hydrophility. In the current study, novel Alg/PGA composite microparticles with double network structure were prepared by the emulsification/internal gelation method. It was found from the structure characterization that a double network structure was formed in the composite microparticles due to the ion chelation interaction between Ca 2+ and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA and the electrostatic interaction between the secondary amine group of PGA and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA. The swelling behavior of the composite microparticles was significantly improved due to the high hydrophility of PGA. Influences of the preparing conditions on the swelling behavior of the composites were investigated. The porous microparticles could be formed while compositing of PGA. Thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis method. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility test of microparticles exhibited good biocompatibility with L929 cells. All results indicated that such Alg/PGA composite microparticles are a promising candidate in the field of wound dressing for hemostasis or rapid removal of exudates.

  2. Characterization of Morphology and Composition of Inorganic Fillers in Dental Alginates

    Ricardo Danil Guiraldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Archimedes’ Principle were used to determine the characteristics of inorganic filler particles in five dental alginates, including Cavex ColorChange (C, Hydrogum 5 (H5, Hydrogum (H, Orthoprint (O, and Jeltrate Plus (JP. The different alginate powders (0.5 mg were fixed on plastic stubs (n=5 and sputter coated with carbon for EDX analysis, then coated with gold, and observed using SEM. Volume fractions were determined by weighing a sample of each material in water before and after calcining at 450°C for 3 h. The alginate materials were mainly composed of silicon (Si by weight (C—81.59%, H—79.89%, O—78.87%, H5—77.95%, JP—66.88%, wt. The filler fractions in volume (vt were as follows: H5—84.85%, JP—74.76%, H—70.03%, O—68.31%, and C—56.10%. The tested materials demonstrated important differences in the inorganic elemental composition, filler fraction, and particle morphology.

  3. Effect of Laser-assisted and Conventional In-office Bleaching on Monomer Release from Microhybrid and Nanohybrid Composite.

    Omrani, Ladan Ranjbar; Farjadfar, Shayan; Pedram, Parham; Sadray, Sima; Kamangar, Sedighe Sadat Hashemi; Chiniforoush, Nasim

    2017-06-30

    Bleaching might affect structural properties of composite materials, and lead to monomer release. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Laser-assisted and conventional in-office bleaching on the release of BIS-GMA, TEGDMA, and UDMA monomers from a nanohybrid and a microhybrid BIS-GMA based composite. 32 samples of each composite, were divided into 4 subgroups; subgroup 1: Conventional in-office bleaching (CIB) with the Opalescence Boost PF 38% gel, subgroup 2: Laser-assisted bleaching (LBO) with the Opalescence Boost PF 38% gel, subgroup 3: Laser-assisted bleaching (LBH) with the JW Power bleaching gel, subgroup 4: (CO) control without bleaching. All the samples were immersed in tubes of 2cc Ethanol 75% medium. The released monomers were analyzed using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method 24 h, 7, and 28 days. Data's were analyzed by Univariate Analysis of Variance test followed by Tukeys HSD. The amount of TEGDMA monomer released was not significant. However, nanohybrid composites showed significantly more monomer release than microhybrid composites (P Bleaching by laser with JW Power Bleaching gel led to more monomer release in nanohybrid composite.

  4. Influence of monomer on structure, processing and application characteristics of UV curable urethane acrylate composite coatings

    Grigale-Sorocina, Z; Kalnins, M; Gross, K A

    2016-01-01

    Increased interest in the esthetical natural nail coatings have encouraged more in-depth studies particularly of UV curable coatings: their formation, processing, structure, characteristics and removing. Typical requirement for nail coatings is good adhesion, but preferably for the short time of functioning (usual 2-4 weeks). This study investigated the impact of four different monomers (tertiobutyl cyclohexyl acrylate (TBCHA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate (THFA), hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA)) to viscosity of uncured mixture and degree of conversion, mechanical properties, surface gloss, micro hardness and adhesion loss for cured films. Specific coating application requires comparatively high coating flexibility and stability of deformation characteristics. This can be achieved with composition containing 30% of monomer TBCHA, what shows ultimate elongation ε B = 0,23 - 0,24, modulus of elasticity E = 670-710 MPa and comparatively constant properties in 72 hours (ΔE = 1.3%, Δε B =6.0%). A composition with 40% of TBCHA shows the fastest coating destruction achieving adhesion loss within 3 min. (paper)

  5. Quantitative analysis of detailed lignin monomer composition by pyrolysis-gas chromatography combined with preliminary acetylation of the samples.

    Sonoda, T; Ona, T; Yokoi, H; Ishida, Y; Ohtani, H; Tsuge, S

    2001-11-15

    Detailed quantitative analysis of lignin monomer composition comprising p-coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl alcohol and p-coumaraldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and sinapaldehyde in plant has not been studied from every point mainly because of artifact formation during the lignin isolation procedure, partial loss of the lignin components inherent in the chemical degradative methods, and difficulty in the explanation of the complex spectra generally observed for the lignin components. Here we propose a new method to quantify lignin monomer composition in detail by pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) using acetylated lignin samples. The lignin acetylation procedure would contribute to prevent secondary formation of cinnamaldehydes from the corresponding alcohol forms during pyrolysis, which are otherwise unavoidable in conventional Py-GC process to some extent. On the basis of the characteristic peaks on the pyrograms of the acetylated sample, lignin monomer compositions in various dehydrogenative polymers (DHP) as lignin model compounds were determined, taking even minor components such as cinnamaldehydes into consideration. The observed compositions by Py-GC were in good agreement with the supplied lignin monomer contents on DHP synthesis. The new Py-GC method combined with sample preacetylation allowed us an accurate quantitative analysis of detailed lignin monomer composition using a microgram order of extractive-free plant samples.

  6. Effects of (monomer - crosslinker – initiator) composition during non imprinted polymers synthesis for catechin retention

    Triadhi, U.; Zulfikar, M. A.; Setiyanto, H.; Amran, M. B.

    2018-05-01

    MISPE (molecularly imprinted Solid Phase Extraction) is a separation technique using a solid adsorbent as a principle of MI (molecularly imprinted). Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as a monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a crosslinker, benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator and acetonitrile (ACN) as a porogen. Catechin will be used as the template. Thermal and microwave methods were employed in the synthesis method. When analyzed using FTIR spectra, it was found that there were no significant differences between NIP (non-imprinted polymer) resulting from thermal method and that resulting from microwave method. Preparation of polymers by microwave method required 4 mins at 60-65 °C, significantly less than thermal method, that took 60 minutes at the same temperature. The variations of mole ratios of the monomer, the crosslinker, and the initiator were also performed. Based on the FTIR spectra, intensity of some peaks were changed due to the decreases of concentration. The optimum composition for NIP synthesis was MAA: EGDMA: BPO ratio of 5:30:0.5 (in mmole). The TGA curve showed that the NIP sythesized using microwave method experienced mass loss of around 98.50% at 604.8 °C.

  7. Adsorption of arsenic by activated carbon, calcium alginate and their composite beads.

    Hassan, A F; Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Elhadidy, H

    2014-07-01

    The present investigation deals with preparation of three different adsorbent materials namely; potassium hydroxide activated carbon based apricot stone (C), calcium alginate beads (G) and calcium alginate/activated carbon composite beads (GC) were used for the removal of arsenic. The prepared adsorbent materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N2-adsorption at -196°C and point of zero charge. From the obtained results, it was found that the porosity, surface area and total pore volume of the adsorbent material C>GC>G respectively, however, the G adsorbent has more acidic function group than the other adsorbents. The influence of pH, time, temperature and initial concentration of arsenic(V) were studied and optimized. GC exhibits the maximum As(V) adsorption (66.7mg/g at 30°C). The adsorption of arsenic ions was observed to follow pseudo-second order mechanism as well as the thermodynamic parameters confirm also the endothermic spontaneous and a physisorption process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Layer by Layer Composite Membranes of Alginate-Chitosan Crosslinked by Glutaraldehyde in Pervaporation Dehydration of Ethanol

    Nur Rokhati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophilicity of membrane causing only water can pass through membrane. Pervaporation process using organophilic membrane has been offered as alternative for ethanol dehydration. This paper investigate pervaporation based biopolymer composite membrane from alginate-chitosan using layer by layer method prepared by glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent and polyethersulfone (PES as supported membrane. Characterization of crosslinked of composite membrane by FTIR helped in identification of sites for interaction between layers of membrane and support layer (PES. The SEM showed a multilayer structure and a distinct interface between the chitosan layer, the sodium alginate layer and the support layer. The coating sequence of membranes had an obvious influence on the pervaporation dehydration performance of membranes. For the dehydration of 95 wt% ethanol-water mixtures, a good performance of PES-chitosan-alginate-chitosan (PES/Chi/Alg/Chi composite membrane was found in the pervaporation dehydration of ethanol. Article History: Received April 12nd , 2016; Received in revised form June 25th , 2016; Accepted July 1st , 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Rokhati, N., Istirokhatun, T. and Samsudin, A.M. (2016 Layer by Layer Composite Membranes of Alginate-Chitosan Crosslinked by Glutaraldehyde in Pervaporation Dehydration of Ethanol. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 101-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.101-106 

  9. Hydrogen bonds of sodium alginate/Antarctic krill protein composite material.

    Yang, Lijun; Guo, Jing; Yu, Yue; An, Qingda; Wang, Liyan; Li, Shenglin; Huang, Xuelin; Mu, Siyang; Qi, Shanwei

    2016-05-20

    Sodium alginate/Antarctic krill protein composite material (SA/AKP) was successfully obtained by blending method. The hydrogen bonds of SA/AKP composite material were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen spectrum (HNMR). Experiment manifested the existence of intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in SA/AKP system; strength of intermolecular hydrogen bond enhanced with the increase of AKP in the composite material and the interaction strength of hydrogen bonding followed the order: OH…Ether O>OH…π>OH…N. The percentage of intermolecular hydrogen bond decreased with increase of pH. At the same time, the effect of hydrogen bonds on properties of the composite material was discussed. The increase of intermolecular hydrogen bonding led to the decrease of crystallinity, increase of apparent viscosity and surface tension, as well as obvious decrease of heat resistance of SA/AKP composite material. SA/AKP fiber SEM images and energy spectrum showed that crystallized salt was separated from the fiber, which possibly led to the fibrillation of the composite fibers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Control of particle size by feed composition in the nanolatexes produced via monomer-starved semicontinuous emulsion copolymerization.

    Sajjadi, Shahriar

    2015-05-01

    Conventional batch and semicontinuous emulsion copolymerizations often produce large particles whose size cannot be easily correlated with the comonomer feed compositions, and are to some degree susceptible to composition drift. In contrast, we found that copolymer nanolatexes made via semicontinuous monomer-starved emulsion copolymerizations are featured with an average nanoparticle size being controlled by the feed composition, a high conversion achieved, and a high degree of particle composition uniformity. This was achieved because the rate of particle growth, during nucleation, was controlled by the rate of comonomer addition, and the copolymer composition, surfactant parking area on the particles, and nucleation efficiency determined by the comonomer feed composition. Two model systems, methyl methacrylate/styrene and vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate, with significant differences in water solubility were studied. Monomers were added to the aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulfate and potassium persulfate at a low rate to achieve high instantaneous conversions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of halloysite nanotubes on physical properties and cytocompatibility of alginate composite hydrogels.

    Huang, Biao; Liu, Mingxian; Long, Zheru; Shen, Yan; Zhou, Changren

    2017-01-01

    Sodium alginate (SA)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) composite hydrogels were successfully prepared by solution blending and cross-linking with calcium ions. HNTs can improve the physical properties and cytocompatibility of composite hydrogels. The static and shear viscosity of SA/HNTs solution increase by the addition of HNTs. FTIR suggests the presence of hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and SA. The crystal structure of HNTs is retained in the composites as showed by the X-ray diffraction result. A porous structure with pore size of 100-250μm is found in the hydrogels, which can provide a space for cell growth and migration. The compressive mechanical properties of composite hydrogels significantly increase compared to the pure SA hydrogel. The SA/HNTs composite hydrogels with 80% HNTs loading exhibit the compressive stress at 80% strain of 2.99MPa, while the stress at 80% strain of pure SA hydrogel is only 0.8MPa. The dynamic storage modulus of composite hydrogels also markedly increases with HNTs concentration. The differential scanning calorimetry endothermic peak area and swelling ratios in NaCl solution of the composite hydrogels decrease by the addition of HNTs. Preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1) culture results reveal that the SA/HNTs composites especially at relatively low HNTs loading show a significant increase in cells adhesion and proliferation compared to the pure SA hydrogel. All the results demonstrate that the SA/HNTs composite hydrogels show a promising application in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lignin monomer composition affects Arabidopsis cell-wall degradability after liquid hot water pretreatment

    Ladisch Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignin is embedded in the plant cell wall matrix, and impedes the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks. To investigate whether enzymatic digestibility of cell wall materials can be improved by altering the relative abundance of the two major lignin monomers, guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S subunits, we compared the degradability of cell wall material from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana with a mutant line and a genetically modified line, the lignins of which are enriched in G and S subunits, respectively. Results Arabidopsis tissue containing G- and S-rich lignins had the same saccharification performance as the wild type when subjected to enzyme hydrolysis without pretreatment. After a 24-hour incubation period, less than 30% of the total glucan was hydrolyzed. By contrast, when liquid hot water (LHW pretreatment was included before enzyme hydrolysis, the S-lignin-rich tissue gave a much higher glucose yield than either the wild-type or G-lignin-rich tissue. Applying a hot-water washing step after the pretreatment did not lead to a further increase in final glucose yield, but the initial hydrolytic rate was doubled. Conclusions Our analyses using the model plant A. thaliana revealed that lignin composition affects the enzymatic digestibility of LHW pretreated plant material. Pretreatment is more effective in enhancing the saccharification of A. thaliana cell walls that contain S-rich lignin. Increasing lignin S monomer content through genetic engineering may be a promising approach to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of biomass to biofuel conversion.

  13. Production of bone cement composites: effect of fillers, co-monomer and particles properties

    Santos Junior, J.G.F.; Melo, P.A.; Pinto, J.C., E-mail: jjunior@peq.coppe.ufrj.b, E-mail: melo@peq.coppe.ufrj.b, E-mail: pinto@peq.coppe.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. (PEQ/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Pita, V.J.R.R., E-mail: vjpita@ima.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Eloisa Mano; Nele, M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2011-04-15

    Artificial bone cements (BCs) based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) powders and methyl methacrylate (MMA) liquid monomer also present in their formulation small amounts of other substances, including a chemical initiator compound and radiopaque agents. Because inadequate mixing of the recipe components during the manufacture of the bone cement may compromise the mechanical properties of the final pieces, new techniques to incorporate the fillers into the BC and their effect upon the mechanical properties of BC pieces were investigated in the present study. PMMA powder composites were produced in situ in the reaction vessel by addition of X-ray contrasts to the reacting MMA mixture. It is shown that this can lead to much better mechanical properties of test pieces, when compared to standard bone cement formulations, because enhanced dispersion of the radiopaque agents can be achieved. Moreover, it is shown that the addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and acrylic acid (AA) to the bone cement recipe can be beneficial for the mechanical performance of the final material. It is also shown that particle morphology can exert a tremendous effect upon the performance of test pieces, indicating that the suspension polymerization step should be carefully controlled when optimization of the bone cement formulation is desired. (author)

  14. Production of bone cement composites: effect of fillers, co-monomer and particles properties

    J. G. F. Santos Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bone cements (BCs based on poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA powders and methyl methacrylate (MMA liquid monomer also present in their formulation small amounts of other substances, including a chemical initiator compound and radiopaque agents. Because inadequate mixing of the recipe components during the manufacture of the bone cement may compromise the mechanical properties of the final pieces, new techniques to incorporate the fillers into the BC and their effect upon the mechanical properties of BC pieces were investigated in the present study. PMMA powder composites were produced in-situ in the reaction vessel by addition of X-ray contrasts to the reacting MMA mixture. It is shown that this can lead to much better mechanical properties of test pieces, when compared to standard bone cement formulations, because enhanced dispersion of the radiopaque agents can be achieved. Moreover, it is shown that the addition of hydroxyapatite (HA and acrylic acid (AA to the bone cement recipe can be beneficial for the mechanical performance of the final material. It is also shown that particle morphology can exert a tremendous effect upon the performance of test pieces, indicating that the suspension polymerization step should be carefully controlled when optimization of the bone cement formulation is desired.

  15. Pervaporation dehydration of ethanol by hyaluronic acid/sodium alginate two-active-layer composite membranes.

    Gao, Chengyun; Zhang, Minhua; Ding, Jianwu; Pan, Fusheng; Jiang, Zhongyi; Li, Yifan; Zhao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The composite membranes with two-active-layer (a capping layer and an inner layer) were prepared by sequential spin-coatings of hyaluronic acid (HA) and sodium alginate (NaAlg) on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) support layer. The SEM showed a mutilayer structure and a distinct interface between the HA layer and the NaAlg layer. The coating sequence of two-active-layer had an obvious influence on the pervaporation dehydration performance of membranes. When the operation temperature was 80 °C and water concentration in feed was 10 wt.%, the permeate fluxes of HA/Alg/PAN membrane and Alg/HA/PAN membrane were similar, whereas the separation factor were 1130 and 527, respectively. It was found that the capping layer with higher hydrophilicity and water retention capacity, and the inner layer with higher permselectivity could increase the separation performance of the composite membranes. Meanwhile, effects of operation temperature and water concentration in feed on pervaporation performance as well as membrane properties were studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Composite Alginate-Hyaluronan Sponges for the Delivery of Tranexamic Acid in Postextractive Alveolar Wounds.

    Catanzano, Ovidio; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Formisano, Pietro; Boateng, Joshua S; Quaglia, Fabiana

    2018-02-01

    The management of wounds in patients on anticoagulant therapy who require oral surgical procedures is problematic and often results in a nonsatisfactory healing process. Here, we report a method to prepare an advanced dressing able to avoid uncontrolled bleeding by occluding the postextractive alveolar wounds, and simultaneously, capable of a fast release of tranexamic acid (TA). Composite alginate/hyaluronan (ALG/HA) sponge dressings loaded with TA were prepared by a straightforward internal gelation method followed by a freeze-drying step. Both blank and drug-loaded sponges were soft, flexible, and elegant in appearance and nonbrittle in nature. Scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the porous nature of these dressings. The integration of HA influenced the microstructure, reducing the porosity, modifying the water uptake kinetic, and increasing the resistance to compression. TA release from ALG/HA sponges showed a controlled release up to 3 h, and it was faster in the presence of HA. Finally, an in vitro clotting test performed on human whole blood confirmed that the TA-loaded sponges significantly reduce the blood clotting index by 30% compared with ALG/HA 20 sponges. These results suggest that, if placed in a socket cavity, these dressings could give a relevant help to the blood hemostasis after dental extractions, especially in patients with coagulation disorders. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bio-composites composed of a solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone and alginate-releasing bone morphogenic protein and bone formation peptide for bone tissue regeneration.

    Kim, MinSung; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, GeunHyung

    2013-11-01

    Biomedical scaffolds should be designed with highly porous three-dimensional (3D) structures that have mechanical properties similar to the replaced tissue, biocompatible properties, and biodegradability. Here, we propose a new composite composed of solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone (PCL), bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) or bone formation peptide (BFP-1), and alginate for bone tissue regeneration. In this study, PCL was used as a mechanical supporting component to enhance the mechanical properties of the final biocomposite and alginate was used as the deterring material to control the release of BMP-2 and BFP-1. A release test revealed that alginate can act as a good release control material. The in vitro biocompatibilities of the composites were examined using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were assessed. The in vitro test results revealed that PCL/BFP-1/Alginate had significantly higher ALP activity and calcium deposition than the PCL/BMP-2/Alginate composite. Based on these findings, release-controlled BFP-1 could be a good growth factor for enhancement of bone tissue growth and the simple-alginate coating method will be a useful tool for fabrication of highly functional biomaterials through release-control supplementation.

  18. Bioactive Films Containing Alginate-Pectin Composite Microbeads with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis: Physicochemical Characterization and Antilisterial Activity

    Mariam Bekhit

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel bioactive films were developed from the incorporation of Lactococcus lactis into polysaccharide films. Two different biopolymers were tested: cellulose derivative (hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose (HPMC and corn starch. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB free or previously encapsulated in alginate-pectin composite hydrogel microbeads were added directly to the film forming solution and films were obtained by casting. In order to study the impact of the incorporation of the protective culture into the biopolymer matrix, the water vapour permeability, oxygen permeability, optical and mechanical properties of the dry films were evaluated. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect of bioactive films against Listeria monocytogenes was studied in synthetic medium. Results showed that the addition of LAB or alginate-pectin microbeads modified slightly films optical properties. In comparison with HPMC films, starch matrix proves to be more sensitive to the addition of bacterial cells or beads. Indeed, mechanical resistance of corn starch films was lower but barrier properties were improved, certainly related to the possible establishment of interactions between alginate-pectin beads and starch. HPMC and starch films containing encapsulated bioactive culture showed a complete inhibition of listerial growth during the first five days of storage at 5 °C and a reduction of 5 logs after 12 days.

  19. Development of pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology.

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2011-11-01

    The present study deals with the development of novel pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology by full 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TSP) and cross-linker (CaCl(2)) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and drug release from diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads prepared by ionotropic gelation was optimized. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The DEE (%) of these beads containing diclofenac sodium was within the range between 72.23±2.14 and 97.32±4.03% with sustained in vitro drug release (69.08±2.36-96.07±3.54% in 10 h). The in vitro drug release from TSP-alginate composite beads containing diclofenac sodium was followed by controlled-release pattern (zero-order kinetics) with case-II transport mechanism. Particle size range of these beads was 0.71±0.03-1.33±0.04 mm. The swelling and degradation of the developed beads were influenced by different pH of the test medium. The FTIR and NMR analyses confirmed the compatibility of the diclofenac sodium with TSP and sodium alginate used to prepare the diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads. The newly developed TSP-alginate composite beads are suitable for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium for prolonged period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pb(II) adsorption by a novel activated carbon - alginate composite material. A kinetic and equilibrium study.

    Cataldo, Salvatore; Gianguzza, Antonio; Milea, Demetrio; Muratore, Nicola; Pettignano, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    The adsorption capacity of an activated carbon - calcium alginate composite material (ACAA-Ca) has been tested with the aim of developing a new and more efficient adsorbent material to remove Pb(II) ion from aqueous solution. The study was carried out at pH=5, in NaCl medium and in the ionic strength range 0.1-0.75molL -1 . Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DP-ASV) technique was used to check the amount of Pb(II) ion removed during kinetic and equilibrium experiments. Different kinetic (pseudo first order, pseudo second order and Vermuelen) and equilibrium (Langmuir and Freundlich) models were used to fit experimental data, and were statistically compared. Calcium alginate (AA-Ca) improves the adsorption capacity (q m ) of active carbon (AC) in the ACAA-Ca adsorbent material (e.g., q m =15.7 and 10.5mgg -1 at I=0.25molL -1 , for ACAA-Ca and AC, respectively). SEM-EDX and thermogravimetric (TGA) measurements were carried out in order to characterize the composite material. The results of the speciation study on the Pb(II) solution and of the characterization of the ACAA-Ca and of the pristine AA-Ca and AC were evaluated in order to explain the specific contribution of AC and AA-Ca to the adsorption of the metal ion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nacre-mimic Reinforced Ag@reduced Graphene Oxide-Sodium Alginate Composite Film for Wound Healing.

    Yan, Xu; Li, Fei; Hu, Kang-Di; Xue, Jingzhe; Pan, Xiao-Feng; He, Tao; Dong, Liang; Wang, Xiang-Ying; Wu, Ya-Dong; Song, Yong-Hong; Xu, Wei-Ping; Lu, Yang

    2017-10-23

    With the emerging of drug-resistant bacterial and fungal pathogens, there raise the interest of utilizing versatile antimicrobial biomaterials to treat the acute wound. Herein, we report the spraying mediated assembly of a bio-inspired Ag@reduced graphene-sodium alginate (AGSA) composite film for effective wound healing. The obtained film displayed lamellar microstructures similar to the typical "brick-and-mortar" structure in nacre. In this nacre-mimic structure, there are abundant interfacial interactions between nanosheets and polymeric matrix, leading to remarkable reinforcement. As a result, the tensile strength, toughness and Young's modulus have been improved 2.8, 2.3 and 2.7 times compared with pure sodium alginate film, respectively. In the wound healing study, the AGSA film showed effective antimicrobial activities towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, demonstrating the ability of protecting wound from pathogenic microbial infections. Furthermore, in vivo experiments on rats suggested the effect of AGSA film in promoting the recovery of wound sites. According to MTT assays, heamolysis evaluation and in vivo toxicity assessment, the composite film could be applied as a bio-compatible material in vitro and in vivo. Results from this work indicated such AGSA film has promising performance for wound healing and suggested great potential for nacre-mimic biomaterials in tissue engineering applications.

  2. Preparation and activity of bubbling-immobilized cellobiase within chitosan-alginate composite.

    Wang, Fang; Su, Rong-Xin; Qi, Wei; Zhang, Ming-Jia; He, Zhi-Min

    2010-01-01

    Cellobiase can hydrolyze cellobiose into glucose; it plays a key role in the process of cellulose hydrolysis by reducing the product inhibition. To reuse the enzyme and improve the economic value of cellulosic ethanol, cellobiase was immobilized using sodium alginate and chitosan as carriers by the bubbling method. The immobilization conditions were optimized as follows: enzyme loading of 100 U cellobiase/g carrier, 30 min immobilization, 3.5 wt% sodium alginate, 0.25 wt% chitosan, and 2 wt% calcium chloride. Compared to free enzyme, the immobilized cellobiase had a decreased apparent K(m) and the maximum activity at a lower pH, indicating its higher acidic and thermal stability. The immobilized cellobiase was further tested in the hydrolysis of cellobiose and various cellulosic substrates (microcrystalline cellulose, filter paper, and ammonia-pretreated corn cobs). Together with cellulases, the immobilized cellobiase converted the cellulosic substrates into glucose with the rate and extent similar to the free enzyme.

  3. Alginate oligosaccharides

    Falkeborg, Mia; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Gianfico, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    the presence of the conjugated alkene acid structure formed during enzymatic depolymerization. According to the resonance hybrid theory, the parent radicals of AOs are delocalized through allylic rearrangement, and as a consequence, the reactive intermediates are stabilized. AOs were weak ferrous ion chelators......Alginate oligosaccharides (AOs) prepared from alginate, by alginate lyase-mediated depolymerization, were structurally characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared spectrometry and thin layer chromatography. Studies of their antioxidant activities revealed that AOs were able to completely (100....... This work demonstrated that AOs obtained from a facile enzymatic treatment of abundant alginate is an excellent natural antioxidant, which may find applications in the food industry....

  4. Injectable alginate-O-carboxymethyl chitosan/nano fibrin composite hydrogels for adipose tissue engineering.

    Jaikumar, Dhanya; Sajesh, K M; Soumya, S; Nimal, T R; Chennazhi, K P; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2015-03-01

    Injectable, biodegradable scaffolds are required for soft tissue reconstruction owing to its minimally invasive approach. Such a scaffold can mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM), provide uniform distribution of cells and overcome limitations like donor site morbidity, volume loss, etc. So, here we report two classes of biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogel blend systems namely, Alginate/O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC) and Alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with the inclusion of fibrin nanoparticles in each. The hydrogels were prepared by ionic cross-linking method. The developed hydrogels were compared in terms of its swelling ratio, degradation profile, compressive strength and elastic moduli. From these preliminary findings, it was concluded that Alginate/O-CMC formed a better blend for tissue engineering applications. The potential of the formed hydrogel as an injectable scaffold was revealed by the survival of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the scaffold by its adhesion, proliferation and differentiation into adipocytes. Cell differentiation studies of fibrin incorporated hydrogel scaffolds showed better differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O staining technique. These injectable gels have potential in soft tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of dimethacrylate polymeric networks: a study of the crosslinked structure formed by monomers used in dental composites.

    Pfeifer, Carmem S; Shelton, Zachary R; Braga, Roberto R; Windmoller, Dario; Machado, José C; Stansbury, Jeffrey W

    2011-02-01

    The resin phase of dental composites is mainly composed of combinations of dimethacrylate comonomers, with final polymeric network structure defined by monomer type/reactivity and degree of conversion. This fundamental study evaluates how increasing concentrations of the flexible triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) influences void formation in bisphenol A diglycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) co-polymerizations and correlates this aspect of network structure with reaction kinetic parameters and macroscopic volumetric shrinkage. Photopolymerization kinetics was followed in real-time by a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic technique, viscosity was assessed with a viscometer, volumetric shrinkage was followed with a linometer, free volume formation was determined by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and the sol-gel composition was determined by extraction with dichloromethane followed by (1)H-NMR analysis. Results show that, as expected, volumetric shrinkage increases with TEGDMA concentration and monomer conversion. Extraction/(1)H-NMR studies show increasing participation of the more flexible TEGDMA towards the limiting stages of conversion/crosslinking development. As the conversion progresses, either based on longer irradiation times or greater TEGDMA concentrations, the network becomes more dense, which is evidenced by the decrease in free volume and weight loss after extraction in these situations. For the same composition (BisGMA/TEGDMA 60-40 mol%) light-cured for increasing periods of time (from 10 to 600 s), free volume decreased and volumetric shrinkage increased, in a linear relationship with conversion. However, the correlation between free volume and macroscopic volumetric shrinkage was shown to be rather complex for variable compositions exposed for the same time (600 s). The addition of TEGDMA decreases free-volume up to 40 mol% (due to increased conversion), but above that concentration, in spite of the increase in conversion

  6. Alginate-caseinate composites: Molecular interactions and characterization of cross-linked beads for the delivery of anticandidals.

    Khlibsuwan, Rapee; Khunkitti, Watcharee; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2018-04-19

    Polysaccharide-protein composites offer potential utility for the delivery of drugs. The objectives of this work were to investigate the molecular interactions between sodium alginate (SA) and sodium caseinate (SC) in dispersions and films and to characterize calcium alginate (CA) beads mixed with SC for the delivery of fluconazole (FZ) and clotrimazole (CZ). The results demonstrated that SA could interact with SC, which caused a viscosity synergism in the dispersions. Hydrogen bonding between the carboxyl or hydroxyl groups of SA and the amide groups of SC led to the formation of soluble complexes that could reinforce the CA beads prepared by calcium cross-linking. The SC-CA beads provided higher drug entrapment efficiency, lower water uptake and erosion, and slower drug release than for the CA beads. The loaded FZ was an amorphous form, but CZ crystals were embedded in the bead matrix due to the low water solubility of this drug. However, SC micellization could enhance the water solubility and efficacy of CZ against Candida albicans. This finding indicates that SA can interact with SC via hydrogen bonding to form complexes and that the anticandidal-loaded SC-CA beads can be used as drug delivery systems and drug reservoirs in tablets for oral candidiasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiolytically depolymerized sodium alginate improves physiological activities, yield attributes and composition of essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.

    Ali, Akbar; Khan, M Masroor A; Uddin, Moin; Naeem, M; Idrees, Mohd; Hashmi, Nadeem; Dar, Tariq Ahmad; Varshney, Lalit

    2014-11-04

    Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. is highly valued for its citronellal-rich essential oil (EO) extracted from its leaves. Hence, escalated EO production of eucalyptus is the need of hour. Marine polysaccharides (sodium alginate) are processed through gamma radiation of particular intensity, to obtain the irradiated sodium alginate (ISA). A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of foliar application of ISA on growth, biochemical, physiological, EO yield and composition of E. citriodora. The treatments were applied as: foliar spray of deionized water only (control), seed soaked with ISA (90 mg L(-1)) and foliar spray of ISA with 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg L(-1). The treatment 6 (spray of ISA at 120 mg L(-1)) showed the highest value for most of the parameters studied. It also enhanced the EO content (33.3%), EO yield (86.7%), citronellal content (63.4%) and citronellal yield (205.5%) as compared to the control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Formulation of an alginate-vineyard pruning waste composite as a new eco-friendly adsorbent to remove micronutrients from agroindustrial effluents.

    Vecino, X; Devesa-Rey, R; Moldes, A B; Cruz, J M

    2014-09-01

    The cellulosic fraction of vineyard pruning waste (free of hemicellulosic sugars) was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and evaluated as an eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of different nutrients and micronutrients (Mg, P, Zn, K, N-NH4, SO4, TN, TC and PO4) from an agroindustrial effluent (winery wastewater). Batch adsorption studies were performed by varying the amounts of cellulosic adsorbent (0.5-2%), sodium alginate (1-5%) and calcium chloride (0.05-0.9M) included in the biocomposite. The optimal formulation of the adsorbent composite varied depending on the target contaminant. Thus, for the adsorption of cationic contaminants (Mg, Zn, K, N-NH4 and TN), the best mixture comprised 5% sodium alginate, 0.05M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste, whereas for removal of anionic compounds (P, SO4 and PO4), the optimal mixture comprised 1% sodium alginate, 0.9M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. To remove TC from the winery wastewater, the optimal mixture comprised 3% of sodium alginate, 0.475M calcium chloride and 0.5% cellulosic vineyard pruning waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of long-term monomer elution from bulk-fill and conventional resin-composites using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Alshali, Ruwaida Z; Salim, Nesreen A; Sung, Rehana; Satterthwaite, Julian D; Silikas, Nick

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess monomer elution from bulk-fill and conventional resin-composites stored in different media using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for up to 3 months. Six bulk-fill (SureFil SDR, Venus Bulk Fill, X-tra base, Filtek Bulk Fill flowable, Sonic Fill, and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) and eight conventional resin-composites (Grandioso Flow, Venus Diamond Flow, X-Flow, Filtek Supreme XTE, Grandioso, Venus Diamond, TPH Spectrum, and Filtek Z250) were tested. Cylindrical samples (n=5) were immersed in water, 70% ethanol/water solution (70% E/W), and artificial saliva and stored at 37°C for 24h, 1 month, and 3 months. The storage solutions were analysed with HPLC. Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey post hoc test at α=0.05. Monomers detected in water and artificial saliva were TEGDMA, DEGDMA, UDMA, and TCD-DI-HEA. No eluted monomers were detected from X-tra base and Sonic fill in these media. All monomers showed a variable extent of elution into 70% E/W with significantly higher amounts than those detected in water and artificial saliva. Significantly higher elution was detected from UDMA-BisEMA based composites compared to BisGMA and BisGMA-BisEMA based systems in 70% E/W. The rate of elution into different media varied between different monomers and was highly dependent on the molecular weight of the eluted compounds. Elution from bulk-fill resin-composites is comparable to that of conventional materials despite their increased increment thickness. Monomer elution is highly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the base monomers and the final network characteristics of the resin-matrix. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pseudomonas putida KT2442 as a platform for the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates with adjustable monomer contents and compositions

    Tripathi, Lakshmi; Wu, Lin-Ping; Dechuan, Meng

    2013-01-01

    of P(3HHx-co-3HD) consisting of 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx) and 3-hydroxydecanoate (3HD), the monomer fraction of 3HHx ranged from 16 mol% to 63 mol%. The comonomer compositions were easily regulated by varying the fatty acid concentrations. P. putida KTQQ20 produced a novel diblock copolymer P3HHx-b-P(3......6), random copolymers of P(3HB-co-3HHx) consisting of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx), were accumulated with 3HHx content ranged from 19 mol% to 75 mol%. While recombinant P. putida KTQQ20 grown on mixtures of sodium hexanoate and decanoic acid (C6:C10), produced random copolymers......HD-co-3HDD) consisting of 49 mol% P3HHx and 51 mol% P(3HD-co-3HDD) [35.25 mol% 3HDD (3-hydroxydodecanoate)], which was characterized by (13)C NMR, HMBC NMR, DSC, GPC and universal testing machine....

  11. Effects of sodium salt types on the intermolecular interaction of sodium alginate/antarctic krill protein composite fibers.

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Jing; Liu, Yuanfa; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Sen; Yu, Yue

    2018-06-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) and antarctic krill protein (AKP) were blended to fabricate the SA/AKP composite fibers by the conventional wet spinning method using 5% CaCl 2 as coagulation solution. The sodium salt was added to the SA/AKP solution to adjust the ionization degree and intermolecular interaction of composite system. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influences of sodium salt types (NaCl, CH 3 COONa, Na 2 SO 4 ) on the intermolecular interaction of SA/AKP composite fibers. The intermolecular interaction, morphology, crystallinity, thermal stability and mechanical properties of SA/AKP composite fibers were analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results show that the types of sodium salt have obvious influences on the content of both β-sheet, intermolecular hydrogen bond, breaking strength and surface morphology in SA/AKP composite fibers, but have a negligible effect on the crystallinity and thermal stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Binary Synergy Strengthening and Toughening of Bio-Inspired Nacre-like Graphene Oxide/Sodium Alginate Composite Paper.

    Chen, Ke; Shi, Bin; Yue, Yonghai; Qi, Juanjuan; Guo, Lin

    2015-08-25

    A crucial requirement for most engineering materials is the excellent balance of strength and toughness. By mimicking the hybrid hierarchical structure in nacre, a kind of nacre-like paper based on binary hybrid graphene oxide (GO)/sodium alginate (SA) building blocks has been successfully fabricated. Systematic evaluation for the mechanical property in different (dry/wet) environment/after thermal annealing shows a perfect combination of high strength and toughness. Both of the parameters are nearly many-times higher than those of similar materials because of the synergistic strengthening/toughening enhancement from the binary GO/SA hybrids. The successful fabrication route offers an excellent approach to design advanced strong integrated nacre-like composite materials, which can be applied in tissue engineering, protection, aerospace, and permeable membranes for separation and delivery.

  13. Preparation and characterization of a novel sodium alginate incorporated self-assembled Fmoc-FF composite hydrogel

    Gong, Xiao [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Branford-White, Christopher [Institute for Health Research and Policy, London Metropolitan University, London N78 DB (United Kingdom); Tao, Lei [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Li, Shubai [Changzhou Institute of Engineering Technology, Changzhou 213164 (China); Quan, Jing [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Nie, Huali, E-mail: niehuali@dhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhu, Limin, E-mail: lzhu@dhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Dipeptides and their derivatives have attracted tremendous attention owning to their excellent abilities of self-assemble assembling into various structures which have great potentials for applications in biology and/or nanotechnology. In the present study, we dedicate to fabricate a rigid and structure controllable Fmoc-FF/SA composite hydrogel. We found that the modified dipeptide, fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-diphenylalanine (Phe-Phe) can self-assemble into rigid hydrogels with structures of nanowires, layered thin films or honeycombs as the change of sodium alginate (SA) concentration. Meanwhile, CD-spectroscopy demonstrated that SA appeared to control the process, but it did not change the arrangement of the Fmoc-FF peptide. Our results demonstrated that the formed hydrogel showed physical and chemical stability as well as possessing good biocompatibility. Rheological measurements showed that the addition of SA could improve the stability of the hydrogel. Cell viability assay revealed that the Fmoc-FF and Fmoc-FF/SA hydrogels are both beneficial for cell proliferation in-vitro. Our results indicated that the fabricated Fmoc-FF/SA composite hydrogels could be used in tissue engineering and drug delivery in the future. - Highlights: • A facile, time-saving approach to assemble Fomc-FF composite hydrogels was designed. • Hydrogel structures including nanowires, layered films and honeycombs can be controlled. • The role of SA in the Fmoc-FF/SA composite hydrogel was further clarified.

  14. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Lou Ching-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  15. Effect of alginate/carboxyl methyl cellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on the quality of silver carp fillet and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inhibition during refrigerated storage

    Jalali, Nastaran; Ariiai, Peiman; Fattahi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    The effects of alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on quality of silver carp fillet chilled storage (4 + 1 °C) were examined over a period of 16 days. The control samples (c), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose coating (C-A), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil (with different concentration 1 and 1.5 %) (C-A + CEO1 % and C-A + CEO 15 % respectively) were analyzed by bacteriological (tota...

  16. Effect of cork loading on mechanical and thermal properties of silica-Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer composite

    Gul, J.; Mirza, S.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene-propylene diene ter-monomer (EPDM) filled with asbestos are widely used as thermal insulation in space vehicles because of its low specific gravity, low temperature flexibility, high ozone and oxygen resistant, superior thermal and ablation characteristics. However, asbestos has been banned worldwide because of its carcinogenic nature. This study was aimed to replace asbestos by environmental friendly and low specific gravity filler, cork in thermal insulation for space vehicles. Various batches of cork filled EPDM were obtained by compounding 0, 10, 20, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 100 Phr (parts per hundred parts of rubber) of cork powder with EPDM in Two-roll-mill in presence of other necessary compounding ingredients. The resulted vulcanizates were characterized for mechanical, thermal and ablation performances. It was observed that cork loadings significantly enhanced tensile strength and hardness of EPDM. However, elongation at break of EPDM decreased with the increase of cork concentration. Moreover, no significant reduction in density of EPDM was obtained instead of compounding with lower specific gravity cork powder. Temperatures cures in Thermo-gravimetric analysis shifted to lower temperature with increasing of cork percentage in the formulation. Furthermore, char formation of the EPDM composites decreased with the increase of cork Phr in the composition which was the indication of degrading thermal stability of EPDM by cork powders. It can be concluded that on the basis of mechanical properties asbestos can be replaced by cork powder however, cork filled EPDM exhibited inferior thermal properties as compared to asbestos filled EPDM. (author)

  17. Synthesis of Terpolymers with Homogeneous Composition by Free Radical Copolymerization of Maleic Anhydride, Perfluorooctyl and Butyl or Dodecyl Methacrylates: Application of the Continuous Flow Monomer Addition Technique

    Marian Szkudlarek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Terpolymers of homogeneous composition were prepared by free radical copolymerization of butyl or dodecyl methacrylate, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate and maleic anhydride using the continuous monomer addition technique. The copolymerization reactions were performed at 65 °C in the presence of azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator in a mixture of methyl ethyl ketone and 1,3-bis (trifluoromethylbenzene. The monomers and initiator are added to the reaction mixture with the same rate they are consumed in 5- and 10-fold excess compared to the initial monomer stock. The obtained terpolymers with molecular weights Mn = 50,000–70,000 are of uniform composition, close to the composition determined in low conversion experiments, proving the principle of the chosen concept. The kinetic data necessary for the design of the continuous addition experiment were obtained from binary copolymerization experiments at low monomer conversion (to avoid compositional drift. In addition, the so-called terpolymerization parameter was determined from ternary copolymerization experiments.

  18. Bone regeneration in osteoporosis by delivery BMP-2 and PRGF from tetronic-alginate composite thermogel.

    Segredo-Morales, Elisabet; García-García, Patricia; Reyes, Ricardo; Pérez-Herrero, Edgar; Delgado, Araceli; Évora, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    As the life expectancy of the world population increases, osteoporotic (OP) fracture risk increase. Therefore in the present study a novel injectable thermo-responsive hydrogel loaded with microspheres of 17β-estradiol, microspheres of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) was applied locally to regenerate a calvaria critical bone defect in OP female rats. Three systems were characterized: Tetronic® 1307 (T-1307) reinforced with alginate (T-A), T-A with PRGF and T-A-PRGF with microspheres. The addition of the microspheres increased the viscosity but the temperature for the maximum viscosity did not change (22-24 °C). The drugs were released during 6 weeks in one fast phase (three days) followed by a long slow phase. In vivo evaluation was made in non-OP and OP rats treated with T-A, T-A with microspheres of 17β-estradiol (T-A-βE), T-A-βE prepared with PRGF (T-A-PRGF-βE), T-A-βE with microspheres of BMP-2 (T-A-βE-BMP-2) and the combination of the three (T-A-PRGF-βE-BMP). After 12 weeks, histological and histomorphometric analyzes showed a synergic effect due to the addition of BMP-2 to the T-A-βE formulation. The PRGF did not increased the bone repair. The new bone filling the OP defect was less mineralized than in the non-OP groups. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. NMR measurement of identical polymer samples by round robin method. 4. Analysis of composition and monomer sequence distribution in poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylonitrile) leading to determinations of monomer reactivity ratios

    Hatada, Koichi; Kitayama, Tatsuki; Terawaki, Yoshio

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess the reliability of NMR measurement of polymers, 1 H and 13 C NMR data for three copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylonitrile (AN) prepared with AIBN were collected from 46 spectrometers whose resonance frequencies for 1 H NMR measurements ranging from 90 to 500 MHz. 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra were measured in nitrobenzene-d 5 at 110degC and acetonitrile-d 3 at 70degC, respectively. Standard deviations (σ's) for chemical shift measurements of the 1 H and 13 C NMR signals were 0.003-0.008 ppm and 0.03-0.05 ppm, respectively. Compositions of the copolymers were determined from the relative intensities of the signals due to the OCH 3 (MMA) and CH (AN) protons, and the σ values for the determinations were 3.7-9.5%. The compositions determined from 13 C NMR (C = O for MMA unit, CN for AN unit) agreed well with those obtained from 1 H NMR. Monomer reactivity ratios r ij (i,j = 1 or 2) for a penultimate model were determined from monomer feed ratios and triad fractions obtained from the C = O (MMA) and CH (AN) carbon signals. Most of the σ values for r ij determinations were 5-14%. While r 22 and r 12 are nearly equivalent, r 11 and r 21 are significantly different from each other, indicating a possible existence of the penultimate-unit effect in the copolymerization of MMA and AN. Terminal model reactivity ratios, r 1 and r 2 , determined formally from the compositions of three samples by Fineman-Ross method showed large σ values (22-24%). (author)

  20. Photopolymerization of highly filled dimethacrylate-based composites using Type I or Type II photoinitiators and varying co-monomer ratios.

    Randolph, Luc D; Steinhaus, Johannes; Möginger, Bernhard; Gallez, Bernard; Stansbury, Jeffrey; Palin, William M; Leloup, Gaëtane; Leprince, Julian G

    2016-02-01

    The use of a Type I photoinitiator (monoacylphosphine oxide, MAPO) was described as advantageous in a model formulation, as compared to the conventional Type II photoinitiator (Camphorquinone, CQ). The aim of the present work was to study the kinetics of polymerization of various composite mixtures (20-40-60-80 mol%) of bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (BisGMA/TegDMA) containing either CQ or MAPO, based on real-time measurements and on the characterization of various post-cure characteristics. Polymerization kinetics were monitored by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) and dielectric analysis (DEA). A range of postcure properties was also investigated. FT-NIRS and DEA proved complementary to follow the fast kinetics observed with both systems. Autodecceleration occurred after ≈1 s irradiation for MAPO-composites and ≈5-10 s for CQ-composites. Conversion decreased with increasing initial viscosity for both photoinitiating systems. However despite shorter light exposure (3s for MAPO vs 20s for CQ-composites), MAPO-composites yielded higher conversions for all co-monomer mixtures, except at 20 mol% BisGMA, the less viscous material. MAPO systems were associated with increased amounts of trapped free radicals, improved flexural strength and modulus, and reduced free monomer release for all co-monomer ratios, except at 20 mol% BisGMA. This work confirms the major influence of the initiation system both on the conversion and network cross-linking of highly-filled composites, and further highlights the advantages of using MAPO photoinitiating systems in highly-filled dimethacrylate-based composites provided that sufficient BisGMA content (>40 mol%) and adapted light spectrum are used. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrophoretic co-deposition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) reinforced alginate-Bioglass® composite coating on stainless steel: mechanical properties and in-vitro bioactivity assessment.

    Chen, Qiang; Cabanas-Polo, Sandra; Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-07-01

    PVA reinforced alginate-bioactive glass (BG) composite coatings were produced on stainless steel by a single step electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. The present paper discusses the co-deposition mechanism of the three components and presents a summary of the relevant properties of the composite coatings deposited from suspensions with different PVA concentrations. Homogeneous composite coatings with compact microstructure and increased thickness, i.e. as high as 10 μm, were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface roughness of coatings with different PVA contents was slightly increased, while a significant increase of water contact angles due to PVA addition was detected and discussed. Improved adhesion strength of coatings containing different amounts of PVA was quantitatively and qualitatively confirmed by pull-off adhesion and cycled bending tests, respectively. In-vitro bioactivity tests were performed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively. The decomposition rate of the coatings was reduced with PVA content, and rapid hydroxyapatite forming ability of the composite coatings in SBF was confirmed by FTIR and XRD analyses. According to the results of this study, composite alginate-Bioglass® bioactive coatings combined with PVA are proposed as promising candidates for dental and orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and electrochemical analysis of polyaniline/TiO2 composites prepared with various molar ratios between aniline monomer and para-toluenesulfonic acid

    Oh, Misoon; Kim, Seok

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Polyaniline (PANI)/TiO 2 composites were prepared by in situ polymerization using para-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). The composites showed different morphology and specific capacitances as a function of aniline concentration, which are related to the morphology (shape or size) of particles. Scheme of the formation of composites consisting of PANI film and the micelle structures is shown. Highlights: ► PANI/TiO 2 composite were prepared with a different concentration of monomer and dopant. ► Aniline/acid ratio influenced the morphological and electrochemical properties. ► The composites showed different capacitances as a function of aniline concentrations. ► Aniline/acid ratio could influence on the dispersion and surface roughness of particles. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI)/titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) composites were prepared with a chemical oxidation polymerization of aniline monomer (ANI) with various molar ratios between ANI and para toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). To find an effect of the [ANI]:[p-TSA] molar ratio on the electrochemical properties of the prepared PANI/TiO 2 composites, the composites were synthesized under same conditions except the p-TSA concentrations. The prepared composite films had more homogeneous TiO 2 dispersion with changing [ANI]:[p-TSA] molar ratios from 6:1 to 1:1. p-TSA surfactant-like doping acid helped the dispersion of TiO 2 particles in the PANI matrix. PANI covering the TiO 2 surfaces was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Prepared PANI films on the TiO 2 particles had the smoothest surface when the ANI and p-TSA had 1:1 molar ratio in the reaction solution. The composite prepared with molar ratio [ANI]:[p-TSA] of 3:1 had the highest capacitance (800 F g −1 ) among the prepared composites.

  3. Cytotoxicity of dental composite (co)monomers and the amalgam component Hg{sup 2+} in human gingival fibroblasts

    Reichl, Franz-Xaver; Simon, Sabine; Esters, Magalie; Seiss, Mario [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Walther-Straub-Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Kehe, Kai [Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Kleinsasser, Norbert [University of Regensburg, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Regensburg (Germany); Hickel, Reinhard [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Munich (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Unpolymerized resin (co)monomers or mercury (Hg) can be released from restorative dental materials (e.g. composites and amalgam). They can diffuse into the tooth pulp or the gingiva. They can also reach the gingiva and organs by the circulating blood after the uptake from swallowed saliva. The cytotoxicity of dental composite components hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethanedimethacrylate (UDMA), and bisglycidylmethacrylate (Bis-GMA) as well as the amalgam component Hg{sup 2+} (as HgCl{sub 2}) and methyl mercury chloride (MeHgCl) was investigated on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) at two time intervals. To test the cytotoxicity of substances, the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used. The test substances were added in various concentrations and cells were incubated for 24 or 48 h. The EC{sub 50} values were obtained as half-maximum-effect concentrations from fitted curves. Following EC{sub 50} values were found [BrdU: mean (mmol/l); SEM in parentheses; n=12]: (24 h/48 h) HEMA 8.860 (0.440)/6.600(0.630), TEGDMA 1.810(0.130)/1.220(0.130), UDMA 0.120(0.010)/0.140(0.010), BisGMA 0.060(0.004)/0.040(0.002), HgCl{sub 2} 0.015(0.001)/0.050(0.006), and MeHgCl 0.004(0.001)/0.005(0.001). Following EC{sub 50} values were found [LDH: mean (mmol/l); SEM in parentheses; n=12]: (24 h/48 h) HEMA 9.490(0.300)/7.890(1.230), TEGDMA 2.300(0.470)/1.950(0.310), UDMA 0.200(0.007)/0.100(0.007), BisGMA 0.070(0.005)/0.100(0.002), and MeHgCl 0.014(0.006)/0.010(0.003). In both assays, the following range of increased toxicity was found for composite components (24 and 48 h): HEMA < TEGDMA < UDMA < BisGMA. In both assays, MeHgCl was the most toxic substance. In the BrdU assay, Hg{sup 2+} was about fourfold less toxic than MeHgCl but Hg{sup 2+} was about fourfold more toxic than BisGMA. In the BrdU test, a significantly (P<0.05) decreased toxicity was observed for Hg{sup 2+} at 48 h, compared to the 24 h

  4. Monomer conversion, dimensional stability, strength, modulus, surface apatite precipitation and wear of novel, reactive calcium phosphate and polylysine-containing dental composites.

    Kanokrat Kangwankai

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess monomer conversion, dimensional stability, flexural strength / modulus, surface apatite precipitation and wear of mono / tri calcium phosphate (CaP and polylysine (PLS-containing dental composites. These were formulated using a new, high molecular weight, fluid monomer phase that requires no polymerisation activator.Urethane and Polypropylene Glycol Dimethacrylates were combined with low levels of an adhesion promoting monomer and a light activated initiator. This liquid was mixed with a hybrid glass containing either 10 wt% CaP and 1 wt% PLS (F1 or 20 wt% CaP and 2 wt% PLS (F2. Powder to liquid mass ratio was 5:1. Commercial controls included Gradia Direct Posterior (GD and Filtek Z250 (FZ. Monomer conversion and polymerisation shrinkage were calculated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. Subsequent volume increases in water over 7 weeks were determined using gravimetric studies. Biaxial flexural strength (BFS / modulus (BFM reduction and surface apatite precipitation upon 1 and 4 weeks immersion in water versus simulated body fluid (SBF were assessed using a mechanical testing frame and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mass / volume loss and surface roughness (Ra following 7 weeks water immersion and subsequent accelerated tooth-brush abrasion were examined using gravimetric studies and profilometer.F1 and F2 exhibited much higher monomer conversion (72% than FZ (54% and low calculated polymerization shrinkage (2.2 vol%. Final hygroscopic expansions decreased in the order; F2 (3.5 vol% > F1 (1.8 vol% ~ Z250 (1.6 vol% > Gradia (1.0 vol%. BFS and BFM were unaffected by storage medium type. Average BFS / BFM upon 4 weeks immersion reduced from 144 MPa / 8 GPa to 107 MPa / 5 GPa for F1 and 105 MPa / 6 GPa to 82 MPa / 4 GPa for F2. Much of this change was observed in the first week of immersion when water sorption rate was high. Surface apatite layers were incomplete at 1 week, but around 2 and 15 micron thick for F1 and

  5. Development of an angiogenesis-promoting microvesicle-alginate-polycaprolactone composite graft for bone tissue engineering applications

    Hui Xie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of bone tissue engineering applications is to construct a fully vascularized implant that can adapt to hypoxic environments in vivo. The incorporation of proangiogenic factors into scaffolds is a widely accepted method of achieving this goal. Recently, the proangiogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles (MSC-MVs has been confirmed in several studies. In the present study, we incorporated MSC-MVs into alginate-polycaprolactone (PCL constructs that had previously been developed for bone tissue engineering applications, with the aim of promoting angiogenesis and bone regeneration. MSC-MVs were first isolated from the supernatant of rat bone marrow-derived MSCs and characterized by scanning electron microscopic, confocal microscopic, and flow cytometric analyses. The proangiogenic potential of MSC-MVs was demonstrated by the stimulation of tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. MSC-MVs and osteodifferentiated MSCs were then encapsulated with alginate and seeded onto porous three-dimensional printed PCL scaffolds. When combined with osteodifferentiated MSCs, the MV-alginate-PCL constructs enhanced vessel formation and tissue-engineered bone regeneration in a nude mouse subcutaneous bone formation model, as demonstrated by micro-computed tomographic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses. This MV-alginate-PCL construct may offer a novel, proangiogenic, and cost-effective option for bone tissue engineering.

  6. Physicochemical properties of marine collagen-alginate biomaterial

    Soon, K. S.; Hii, S. L.; Wong, C. L.; Leong, L. K.; Woo, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Collagen base biomaterials are widely applied in the field of tissue engineering. However, these fibrous proteins in animal connective tissues are insufficient to fulfill the mechanical properties for such applications. Therefore, alginate as a natural polysaccharide was incorporated. In this study, Smooth wolf herring skins was collected from the local fish ball processing industry for collagen extraction using acid solubilisation method. On the other hand, alginate from brown seaweed (Sargassum polycystum) was extracted with calcium carbonate at 50 °C. The composite films of different collagen and alginate ratio were prepared by lyophilisation with pure collagen film as control. The effects of alginate on swelling behaviour, porosity, collagenase degradation and tensile strength of the composite films were investigated. Swelling behaviour increased with alginate content, 50 % alginate film achieved 1254.75 % swelling after 24 h. All composite films achieved more than 80 % porosity except the film with 80 % collagen (65.41 %). Porosity was highest in 100 % alginate (94.30 %). Highest tensile strength (1585.87 kPa) and young modulus (27.05 MPa) was found in 50 % alginate film. In addition, resistance to collagenase degradation was improved with alginate content, lowest degradation rate was determined in 80 % alginate film. Results indicated alginate is efficient in improving some mechanical properties of the composite film.

  7. Controllable synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of Monomer-Dimer Cocrystallized MnIII Salen-type composite material

    Wu, Qiong; Wu, Wei; Wu, Yongmei; Li, Weili; Qiao, Yongfeng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Baoling

    2018-04-01

    By the reaction of manganese-Schiff-base complexes with penta-anionic Anderson heteropolyanion, a new supramolecular architecture [Mn2(Salen)2(H2O)2][Mn(Salen)(H2O)2]2Na[IMo6O24]·8H2O (1) (salen = N,N‧-ethylene-bis (salicylideneiminate) has been isolated. Compound 1 was characterized by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental, IR and thermal gravimetric analyses. Structural analysis reveals that the unit cell simultaneously contains MnIII-Salen dimer and monomer cation fragments, for which the Anderson-type polyanions serve as counter anions. In the packing arrangement, all the MnIII dimers are well separated by polyoxometalate units and form tertiary structure together with MnIII monomers. Interestingly, different from the previous work, in the exact same reaction conditions, we are able to template MnIII-Salen complexes into different configurations by varying the charge state of polyanions. Besides, the magnetic properties of 1 were also examined by using both dc and ac magnetic field of the superconducting quantum interference devices. Most importantly, our fitting of the experimental data to a Heisenberg-type spin model shows that there exists a ferromagnetic exchange interaction ∼5 K between the spins (S = 2) on MnIII in the dimer, while antiferromagnetic ones exist among monomers and dimer (∼2 K). This meta-magnetic state could induce a slight spin frustration at low temperature, which would in turn affect the magnetic behavior. In addition, our ac field measurement of the susceptibilities suggests a typical signature for a single-molecule magnet.

  8. GLYCOL METHACRYLATE EMBEDDING OF ALGINATE-POLYLYSINE MICROENCAPSULATED PANCREATIC-ISLETS

    FRITSCHY, WM; GERRITS, PO; WOLTERS, GHJ; PASMA, A; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    A method for processing and embedding alginate-polylysine microencapsulated pancreatic tissue in glycol methacrylate resin (GMA) is described. Fixation in 4% phosphate buffered formaldehyde, processing in ascending concentrations of glycol methacrylate monomer and embedding in Technovit 7100 results

  9. Natural and Modified Zeolite—Alginate Composites. Application for Removal of Heavy Metal Cations from Contaminated Water Solutions

    Milan Kragović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In present paper, the influence of the initial pH and concentration of Pb2+ on its adsorption by the natural (NZA and Fe(III-modified zeolite-alginate beads (FeA was studied. Results showed that modification of the starting materials have a positive effect on their adsorption capacities (102 and 136 mg/g for the NZA and FeA, respectively. After encapsulation, the mechanism of lead adsorption by both adsorbents was changed and ion exchange dominates. The best adsorption was achieved for initial pH > 3.8. Cation exchange capacity, structural properties, and hydrophobicity of samples were also determined, and the presence of the alginate has no significant influence on investigated properties of samples. Experiments on wastewater from tailings of lead and zinc mine Grot, Serbia, showed that after treatment with both adsorbents, the content of the most abundant heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Hg, and Mn significantly decreased.

  10. Efficient functionalization of alginate biomaterials.

    Dalheim, Marianne Ø; Vanacker, Julie; Najmi, Maryam A; Aachmann, Finn L; Strand, Berit L; Christensen, Bjørn E

    2016-02-01

    Peptide coupled alginates obtained by chemical functionalization of alginates are commonly used as scaffold materials for cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. We here present an alternative to the commonly used carbodiimide chemistry, using partial periodate oxidation followed by reductive amination. High and precise degrees of substitution were obtained with high reproducibility, and without formation of by-products. A protocol was established using l-Tyrosine methyl ester as a model compound and the non-toxic pic-BH3 as the reducing agent. DOSY was used to indirectly verify covalent binding and the structure of the product was further elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. The coupling efficiency was to some extent dependent on alginate composition, being most efficient on mannuronan. Three different bioactive peptide sequences (GRGDYP, GRGDSP and KHIFSDDSSE) were coupled to 8% periodate oxidized alginate resulting in degrees of substitution between 3.9 and 6.9%. Cell adhesion studies of mouse myoblasts (C2C12) and human dental stem cells (RP89) to gels containing various amounts of GRGDSP coupled alginate demonstrated the bioactivity of the material where RP89 cells needed higher peptide concentrations to adhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins as well as composition of saponin monomers of Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma].

    Zhao, Chang-ling; Yang, Sheng-chao; Chen, Zhong-jian; Shen, Yong; Wei, Fu-gang; Wang, Wu; Long, Ting-ju

    2014-10-01

    The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins as well as the composition of saponin monomers of Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were studied to compare the medicinal quality and commercial values. Three-year-old Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma was selected as the research materials. The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins were determined by spectrophotometry. The compositions of saponin monomers were monitored by HPLC. The significance of content differences was determined by variance analysis. The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizomawere about 204.85% and 33.86% higher than those of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. The Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma both contained five saponin monomers whose contents were as follows: ginsenoside Rg1 > ginsenoside Rb1 > notoginsenoside R1 > ginsenoside Rd > ginsenoside Re. The contents of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were about 16.03%, 10.83% and 5.39% higher than those of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. However, the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were about 0.93% and 3.33% higher than those of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. With respect to Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, the increase of the total anthocyanins in Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma reached a significant level, but the increases of total saponins, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re and the decreases of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 did not. The total anthocyanins accumulation in Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma implies the content increases of the total saponins, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re, and the slight decreases of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 contents; but the type and relative contents of saponin monomers remain unchanged. The medicinal

  12. The type and composition of alginate and hyaluronic-based hydrogels influence the viability of stem cells of the apical papilla.

    Lambricht, Laure; De Berdt, Pauline; Vanacker, Julie; Leprince, Julian; Diogenes, Anibal; Goldansaz, Hadi; Bouzin, Caroline; Préat, Véronique; Dupont-Gillain, Christine; des Rieux, Anne

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the present work was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the influence of various types and compositions of natural hydrogels on the viability and metabolic activity of SCAPs. Two alginate, three hyaluronic-based (Corgel™) hydrogel formulations and Matrigel were characterized for their mechanical, surface and microstructure properties using rheology, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A characterized SCAP cell line (RP89 cells) was encapsulated in the different experimental hydrogel formulations. Cells were cultured in vitro, or implanted in cyclosporine treated mice. In vitro cell viability was evaluated using a Live/Dead assay and in vitro cellular metabolic activity was evaluated with a MTS assay. In vivo cell apoptosis was evaluated by a TUNEL test and RP89 cells were identified by human mitochondria immunostaining. Hydrogel composition influenced their mechanical and surface properties, and their microstructure. In vitro cell viability was above 80% after 2 days but decreased significantly after 7 days (60-40%). Viability at day 7 was the highest in Matrigel (70%) and then in Corgel 1.5 (60%). Metabolic activity increased over time in all the hydrogels, excepted in alginate SLM. SCAPs survived after 1 week in vivo with low apoptosis (<1%). The highest number of RP89 cells was found in Corgel 5.5 (140cells/mm(2)). Collectively, these data demonstrate that SCAP viability was directly modulated by hydrogel composition and suggest that a commercially available hyaluronic acid-based formulation might be a suitable delivery vehicle for SCAP-based dental pulp regeneration strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dispersion of nano-silica in monomer casting nylon6 and its effect on the structure and properties of composites

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To promote dispersion of nano-silica in monomer casting nylon6 (MC nylon6, nano-silica was dispersed in melted caprolactam with the assistance of ultrasound, anionic polymerization was then initiated to form silica/MC nylon6 in-situ nanocomposites. It was found that hydrogen bonds were formed between nano-silica and caprolactam, in the meantime, ultrasound helped to break the nanoparticles aggregations into smaller ones or even mono-dispersing particles. Therefore, the agglomerated nanoparticles were pulled apart and stabilized by caprolactam. Additionally, the rapid anionic polymerization of caprolactam also contributed to the avoidance of re-agglomeration and deposition of nanoparticles during the polymerization process, leading to the uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Mechanical tests indicated that the silica/MC nylon6 in-situ nanocomposites prepared according to the above strategy were simultaneously toughened, strengthened and stiffened. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA results showed that thermal stability of nanocomposites was notably improved compared to neat MC nylon6.

  14. Modeling studies: Adsorption of aniline blue by using Prosopis Juliflora carbon/Ca/alginate polymer composite beads.

    Kumar, M; Tamilarasan, R

    2013-02-15

    The research article describes the experimental and modeling study for the adsorptive removal of aniline blue dye (AB dye) from aqueous matrices using a Prosopis Juliflora modified carbon/Ca/alginate polymer bead as a low cost and eco-friendly adsorbent. The rate of adsorption was investigated under various experimental parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, pH and temperature. The kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies were assessed to find out the efficiency of the adsorption process. The equilibrium uptake capacity of the adsorption process was found with Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm equations and it was evaluated by dimensionless separation factor (R(L)). The dynamics of adsorption was predicted by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order Lagergren's equation and intra particle diffusion model. Adsorption feasibility was assessed with thermodynamic parameters such as isosteric heat of adsorption (ΔH°), standard entropy (ΔS°) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) using VantHoff plot. The alginate bead was characterized with FTIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance of polymer nano composite membrane electrode assembly using Alginate as a dopant in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell [Journal of Physics. Conference Series (Online), v. 795(1)

    Mulijani, S.

    2017-01-01

    Polymer membrane and composite polymer for membrane electrode assembly (MEAs) are synthesized and studied for usage in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). In this study, we prepared 3 type of MEAs, polystyrene (PS), sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) and composite polymer SPS-alginat membrane via catalyst hot pressed method. The performance and properties of prepared MEAs were evaluated and analyzed by impedance spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result showed that, water up take of MEA composite polymer SPS-alginate was obtained higher than that in SPS and PS. The proton conductivity of MEA-SPS-alginate was also higher than that PS and PSS. SEM characterization revealed that the intimate contact between the carbon catalyst layers (CL) and the membranes, and the uniformly porous structure correlate positively with the MEAs prepared by hot pressed method, exhibiting high performances for DMFC. (paper)

  16. Effective genetic modification and differentiation of hMSCs upon controlled release of rAAV vectors using alginate/poloxamer composite systems.

    Díaz-Rodríguez, P; Rey-Rico, A; Madry, H; Landin, M; Cucchiarini, M

    2015-12-30

    Viral vectors are common tools in gene therapy to deliver foreign therapeutic sequences in a specific target population via their natural cellular entry mechanisms. Incorporating such vectors in implantable systems may provide strong alternatives to conventional gene transfer procedures. The goal of the present study was to generate different hydrogel structures based on alginate (AlgPH155) and poloxamer PF127 as new systems to encapsulate and release recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors. Inclusion of rAAV in such polymeric capsules revealed an influence of the hydrogel composition and crosslinking temperature upon the vector release profiles, with alginate (AlgPH155) structures showing the fastest release profiles early on while over time vector release was more effective from AlgPH155+PF127 [H] capsules crosslinked at a high temperature (50°C). Systems prepared at room temperature (AlgPH155+PF127 [C]) allowed instead to achieve a more controlled release profile. When tested for their ability to target human mesenchymal stem cells, the different systems led to high transduction efficiencies over time and to gene expression levels in the range of those achieved upon direct vector application, especially when using AlgPH155+PF127 [H]. No detrimental effects were reported on either cell viability or on the potential for chondrogenic differentiation. Inclusion of PF127 in the capsules was also capable of delaying undesirable hypertrophic cell differentiation. These findings are of promising value for the further development of viral vector controlled release strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles Reinforced Electrospun Alginate-Based Nanofibrous Scaffolds with Improved Physical Properties

    R. T. De Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically robust alginate-based nanofibrous scaffolds were successfully fabricated by electrospinning method to mimic the natural extracellular matrix structure which benefits development and regeneration of tissues. Alginate-based nanofibres were electrospun from an alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA polyelectrolyte complex. SEM images revealed the spinnability of the complex composite nanofibrous scaffolds, showing randomly oriented, ultrafine, and virtually defects-free alginate-based/MgO nanofibrous scaffolds. Here, it is shown that an alginate/PVA complex scaffold, blended with near-spherical MgO nanoparticles (⌀ 45 nm at a predetermined concentration (10% (w/w, is electrospinnable to produce a complex composite nanofibrous scaffold with enhanced mechanical stability. For the comparison purpose, chemically cross-linked electrospun alginate-based scaffolds were also fabricated. Tensile test to rupture revealed the significant differences in the tensile strength and elastic modulus among the alginate scaffolds, alginate/MgO scaffolds, and cross-linked alginate scaffolds (P<0.05. In contrast to cross-linked alginate scaffolds, alginate/MgO scaffolds yielded the highest tensile strength and elastic modulus while preserving the interfibre porosity of the scaffolds. According to the thermogravimetric analysis, MgO reinforced alginate nanofibrous scaffolds exhibited improved thermal stability. These novel alginate-based/MgO scaffolds are economical and versatile and may be further optimised for use as extracellular matrix substitutes for repair and regeneration of tissues.

  18. Effect of alginate/carboxyl methyl cellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on the quality of silver carp fillet and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inhibition during refrigerated storage.

    Jalali, Nastaran; Ariiai, Peiman; Fattahi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on quality of silver carp fillet chilled storage (4 + 1 °C) were examined over a period of 16 days. The control samples (c), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose coating (C-A), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil (with different concentration 1 and 1.5 %) (C-A + CEO1 % and C-A + CEO 15 % respectively) were analyzed by bacteriological (total viable counts (TVC) and total psychrotrophic counts (TPC)), biochemical (Peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), and pH) and sensory characteristics. Also, the efficacy of these treatments was investigated in control of the population of Eschershia coli O157:H7 inoculated in silver carp fillet. According to the obtained results, C-A + CEO 1.5 % showed lowest (p clove essential oil might be recommended as a preservative in the meat products.

  19. Bioactive apatite incorporated alginate microspheres with sustained drug-delivery for bone regeneration application

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Fei; Ye, Song; Wu, Yingying; Zhu, Kaiping; Wang, Deping, E-mail: wdpshk@tongji.edu.cn

    2016-05-01

    The strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite microspheres (SrHA) incorporated alginate composite microspheres (SrHA/Alginate) were prepared via adding SrHA/alginate suspension dropwise into calcium chloride solution, in which the gel beads were formed by means of crosslinking reaction. The structure, morphology and in vitro bioactivity of the composite microspheres were studied by using XRD, SEM and EDS methods. The biological behaviors were characterized and analyzed through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), CCK-8, confocal laser microscope and ALP activity evaluations. The experimental results indicated that the synthetic SrHA/Alginate showed similar morphology to the well-known alginate microspheres (Alginate) and both of them possessed a great in vitro bioactivity. Compared with the control Alginate, the SrHA/Alginate enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and ALP activity by releasing osteoinductive and osteogenic Sr ions. Furthermore, vancomycin was used as a model drug to investigate the drug release behaviors of the SrHA/Alginate, Alginate and SrHA. The results suggested that the SrHA/Alginate had a highest drug-loading efficiency and best controlled drug release properties. Additionally, the SrHA/Alginate was demonstrated to be pH-sensitive as well. The increase of the pH value in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) accelerated the vancomycin release. Accordingly, the multifunctional SrHA/Alginate can be applied in the field of bioactive drug carriers and bone filling materials. - Highlights: • The pH-sensitive composite alginate beads incorporating Sr-doped HA microspheres (SrHA) have been prepared. • The incorporation of the SrHA enhanced the drug loading and release properties of the alginate microspheres. • The composite microspheres showed excellent osteogenic effect by releasing osteogenic Sr ions.

  20. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate

  1. Evaluation of fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation on alginate-gelatin crosslinked hydrogel.

    Bapi Sarker

    Full Text Available Due to the relatively poor cell-material interaction of alginate hydrogel, alginate-gelatin crosslinked (ADA-GEL hydrogel was synthesized through covalent crosslinking of alginate di-aldehyde (ADA with gelatin that supported cell attachment, spreading and proliferation. This study highlights the evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of synthesized ADA-GEL hydrogels of different compositions compared to alginate in the form of films. Moreover, in vitro cell-material interaction on ADA-GEL hydrogels of different compositions compared to alginate was investigated by using normal human dermal fibroblasts. Viability, attachment, spreading and proliferation of fibroblasts were significantly increased on ADA-GEL hydrogels compared to alginate. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility of ADA-GEL hydrogels was found to be increased with increasing gelatin content. These findings indicate that ADA-GEL hydrogel is a promising material for the biomedical applications in tissue-engineering and regeneration.

  2. Effect of alginate size, mannuronic/guluronic acid content and pH on particle size, thermodynamics and composition of complexes with β-lactoglobulin

    Stender, Emil G.P.; Khan, Sanaullah; Ipsen, Richard

    2018-01-01

    to be fully explored. Particle formation of a high and a low molar mass alginate (ALG) with β-lactoglobulin (BLG) at pH 2-8 depends on the average DPn (HMW-ALG: 1.59·103; LMW-ALG: 0.23·103) and the mannuronic/guluronic acid ratio (1.0; 0.6) as supported by using ManA6 and GulA6 as models. Dynamic light...... scattering (DLS) showed that particles of BLG with either of the two ALGs have essentially the same hydrodynamic diameter (D H) at pH 3 and 2, while at pH 4 particles of LMW-ALG/BLG have larger D H than of HMW-ALG/BLG. At pH 5-8 no significant particle formation was observed. ManA6 did not form insoluble...... particles at pH 2-8, while GulA6 formed insoluble particles, albeit only at pH 4. K d was approximately 10-fold higher for LMW-ALG/BLG than HMW-ALG/BLG and 3 orders of magnitude higher for an alginate trisaccharide/BLG complexation as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The alginate...

  3. A conformational landscape for alginate secretion across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Tan, Jingquan; Rouse, Sarah L.; Li, Dianfan; Pye, Valerie E.; Vogeley, Lutz; Brinth, Alette R.; El Arnaout, Toufic; Whitney, John C.; Howell, P. Lynne; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Caffrey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Crystal structures of the β-barrel porin AlgE reveal a mechanism whereby alginate is exported from P. aeruginosa for biofilm formation. The exopolysaccharide alginate is an important component of biofilms produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major pathogen that contributes to the demise of cystic fibrosis patients. Alginate exits the cell via the outer membrane porin AlgE. X-ray structures of several AlgE crystal forms are reported here. Whilst all share a common β-barrel constitution, they differ in the degree to which loops L2 and T8 are ordered. L2 and T8 have been identified as an extracellular gate (E-gate) and a periplasmic gate (P-gate), respectively, that reside on either side of an alginate-selectivity pore located midway through AlgE. Passage of alginate across the membrane is proposed to be regulated by the sequential opening and closing of the two gates. In one crystal form, the selectivity pore contains a bound citrate. Because citrate mimics the uronate monomers of alginate, its location is taken to highlight a route through AlgE taken by alginate as it crosses the pore. Docking and molecular-dynamics simulations support and extend the proposed transport mechanism. Specifically, the P-gate and E-gate are flexible and move between open and closed states. Citrate can leave the selectivity pore bidirectionally. Alginate docks stably in a linear conformation through the open pore. To translate across the pore, a force is required that presumably is provided by the alginate-synthesis machinery. Accessing the open pore is facilitated by complex formation between AlgE and the periplasmic protein AlgK. Alginate can thread through a continuous pore in the complex, suggesting that AlgK pre-orients newly synthesized exopolysaccharide for delivery to AlgE

  4. A conformational landscape for alginate secretion across the outer membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Tan, Jingquan [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland); Rouse, Sarah L. [University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Li, Dianfan; Pye, Valerie E.; Vogeley, Lutz; Brinth, Alette R.; El Arnaout, Toufic [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland); Whitney, John C.; Howell, P. Lynne [The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sansom, Mark S. P. [University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Caffrey, Martin, E-mail: martin.caffrey@tcd.ie [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-08-01

    Crystal structures of the β-barrel porin AlgE reveal a mechanism whereby alginate is exported from P. aeruginosa for biofilm formation. The exopolysaccharide alginate is an important component of biofilms produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a major pathogen that contributes to the demise of cystic fibrosis patients. Alginate exits the cell via the outer membrane porin AlgE. X-ray structures of several AlgE crystal forms are reported here. Whilst all share a common β-barrel constitution, they differ in the degree to which loops L2 and T8 are ordered. L2 and T8 have been identified as an extracellular gate (E-gate) and a periplasmic gate (P-gate), respectively, that reside on either side of an alginate-selectivity pore located midway through AlgE. Passage of alginate across the membrane is proposed to be regulated by the sequential opening and closing of the two gates. In one crystal form, the selectivity pore contains a bound citrate. Because citrate mimics the uronate monomers of alginate, its location is taken to highlight a route through AlgE taken by alginate as it crosses the pore. Docking and molecular-dynamics simulations support and extend the proposed transport mechanism. Specifically, the P-gate and E-gate are flexible and move between open and closed states. Citrate can leave the selectivity pore bidirectionally. Alginate docks stably in a linear conformation through the open pore. To translate across the pore, a force is required that presumably is provided by the alginate-synthesis machinery. Accessing the open pore is facilitated by complex formation between AlgE and the periplasmic protein AlgK. Alginate can thread through a continuous pore in the complex, suggesting that AlgK pre-orients newly synthesized exopolysaccharide for delivery to AlgE.

  5. Preparation and swelling properties of pH-sensitive composite hydrogel beads based on chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid)/vermiculite and sodium alginate for diclofenac controlled release.

    Wang, Qin; Xie, Xiaoling; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2010-04-01

    A series of pH-sensitive composite hydrogel beads, chitosan-g-poly (acrylic acid)/vermiculite/sodium alginate (CTS-g-PAA/VMT/SA), was prepared using CTS-g-PAA/VMT composite and SA by Ca(2+) as the crosslinking agent. The structure and morphologies of the developed composite hydrogel beads were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The swelling properties and pH-sensitivity of the beads were investigated. In addition, the drug loading and controlled release behaviors of the beads were also evaluated using diclofenac sodium (DS) as the model drug in stimulated gastric fluids (pH 2.1) and intestinal fluids (pH 6.8). The results indicate that the composite hydrogel beads showed good pH-sensitivity. The release rate of the drug from the composite hydrogel beads is remarkably slowed down, which indicated that incorporating VMT into the composite hydrogel beads can improve the burst release effect of the drug. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. New monomers for high performance polymers

    Gratz, Roy F.

    1993-01-01

    This laboratory has been concerned with the development of new polymeric materials with high thermo-oxidative stability for use in the aerospace and electronics industries. Currently, there is special emphasis on developing matrix resins and composites for the high speed civil transport (HSCT) program. This application requires polymers that have service lifetimes of 60,000 hr at 350 F (177 C) and that are readily processible into void-free composites, preferably by melt-flow or powder techniques that avoid the use of high boiling solvents. Recent work has focused on copolymers which have thermally stable imide groups separated by flexible arylene ether linkages, some with trifluoromethyl groups attached to the aromatic rings. The presence of trifluoromethyl groups in monomers and polymers often improves their solubility and processibility. The goal of this research was to synthesize several new monomers containing pendant trifluoromethyl groups and to incorporate these monomers into new imide/arylene ether copolymers. Initially, work was begun on the synthesis of three target compounds. The first two, 3,5-dihydroxybenzo trifluoride and 3-amino 5-hydroxybenzo trifluoride, are intermediates in the synthesis of more complex monomers. The third, 3,5-bis (3-amino-phenoxy) benzotrifluoride, is an interesting diamine that could be incorporated into a polyimide directly.

  7. In vivo evaluation of EPO-secreting cells immobilized in different alginate-PLL microcapsules.

    Ponce, S; Orive, G; Hernández, R M; Gascón, A R; Canals, J M; Muñoz, M T; Pedraz, J L

    2006-11-01

    Alginates are the most employed biomaterials for cell encapsulation due to their abundance, easy gelling properties and apparent biocompatibility. However, as natural polymers different impurities including endotoxins, proteins and polyphenols can be found in their composition. Several purification protocols as well as different batteries of assays to prove the biocompatibility of the alginates in vitro have been recently developed. However, little is known about how the use of alginates with different purity grade may affect the host immune response after their implantation in vivo. The present paper investigates the long-term functionality and biocompatibility of murine erythropoietin (EPO) secreting C2C12 cells entrapped in microcapsules elaborated with alginates with different properties (purity, composition and viscosity). Results showed that independently of the alginate type employed, the animals presented elevated hematocrit levels until day 130, remaining at values between 70-87%. However, histological analysis of the explanted devices showed higher overgrowth around non-biomedical grade alginate microcapsules which could be directly related with higher impurity content of this type of alginate. Although EPO delivery may be limited by the formation of a fibrotic layer around non-biomedical grade alginate microcapsules, the high EPO secretion of the encapsulated cells together with the pharmacodynamic behaviour and the angiogenic and immune-modulatory properties of EPO result in no direct correlation between the biocompatibility of the alginate and the therapeutic response obtained.

  8. Preparation of aminated chitosan/alginate scaffold containing halloysite nanotubes with improved cell attachment.

    Amir Afshar, Hamideh; Ghaee, Azadeh

    2016-10-20

    The chemical nature of biomaterials play important role in cell attachment, proliferation and migration in tissue engineering. Chitosan and alginate are biodegradable and biocompatible polymers used as scaffolds for various medical and clinical applications. Amine groups of chitosan scaffolds play an important role in cell attachment and water adsorption but also associate with alginate carboxyl groups via electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding, consequently the activity of amine groups in the scaffold decreases. In this study, chitosan/alginate/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) composite scaffolds were prepared using a freeze-drying method. Amine treatment on the scaffold occurred through chemical methods, which in turn caused the hydroxyl groups to be replaced with carboxyl groups in chitosan and alginate, after which a reaction between ethylenediamine, 1-ethyl-3,(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and scaffold triggered the amine groups to connect to the carboxyl groups of chitosan and alginate. The chemical structure, morphology and mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated by FTIR, CHNS, SEM/EDS and compression tests. The electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding between chitosan, alginate and halloysite was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Chitosan/alginate/halloysite scaffolds exhibit significant enhancement in compressive strength compared with chitosan/alginate scaffolds. CHNS and EDS perfectly illustrate that amine groups were effectively introduced in the aminated scaffold. The growth and cell attachment of L929 cells as well as the cytotoxicity of the scaffolds were investigated by SEM and Alamar Blue (AB). The results indicated that the aminated chitosan/alginate/halloysite scaffold has better cell growth and cell adherence in comparison to that of chitosan/alginate/halloysite samples. Aminated chitosan/alginate/halloysite composite scaffolds exhibit great potential for applications in tissue engineering, ideally in

  9. Monomers and Monomer Mixtures Used in Impregnation of Fibrous Materials

    NONE

    1968-10-15

    Some important properties of monomers and polymers in relation to their use for reinforcement of fibrous materials are listed. Some monomers and their properties important in impregnation of fibrous materials are also listed. In general it is not advantageous to use a pure monomer for impregnation but rather a mixture of monomers or a mixture of a monomer and a low molecular weight polymer such as unsaturated polyester. Some of these mixtures which have been well studied in connection with WPC are listed together with some of their properties when used in WPC. Other monomer mixtures may well come in question and other monomers can probably be used. For instance, it is reported from Japan that the cheap monomer ethyleneoxide, which cannot be polymerized by gamma radiation as such, can be polymerized (in bulk) as a mixture with methylmethacrylate. Good results with WPC have generally been obtained without swelling agents but more is grafted if some swelling agent is used, and it is possible that a swelling agent might be useful in the case of fibre-boards. Solvents, plasticizers, crosslinkable natural resins, aromatic chlorinated hydrocarbons, and retardants can be added, and with their use the properties of WPC can be widely modified. For example, a chlorinated wax can act as retardant, can reduce the total dose of radiation and can increase the flame resistance simultaneously.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of cloisite-30B clay dispersed poly (acryl amide/sodium alginate)/AgNp hydrogel composites for the study of BSA protein drug delivery and antibacterial activity

    Nanjunda Reddy, B. H.; Ranjan Rauta, Pradipta; Venkatalakshimi, V.; Sreenivasa, Swamy

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research is to inspect the effect of Cloisite-30B (C30B) modified clay dispersed poly (acrylamide-co-Sodiumalginate)/AgNp hydrogel nanocomposites (PASA/C30B/Ag) for drug delivery and antibacterial activity. A novel hydrogel composite based sodium alginate (SA) and the inorganic modified clay with silver nano particle (C30B/AgNps)polymer hydrogel composites are synthesized via the graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) in an aqueous medium with methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and ammonium per sulfate(APS) as an initiator. The UV/Visible spectroscopy of obtained composites is successfully studied, which confirms the occurrence of AgNps in the hydrogel composites. And the swelling capacity and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein as model drug delivery study for these hydrogel nanocomposites have been carried out. The C30B/Ag filled hydrogel composites exhibit superior water absorbency or swelling capacity compared to pure samples and it is establish that the formulations with clay (C30B) dispersed silver nanocomposite hydrogels show improved and somewhat faster rate of drug delivery than other formulations(pure systems) and SEM and TEM reports suggests that the size of AgNps in the composite hydrogels is in the range of 5-10 nm with shrunken surface and the antibacterial characterizations for gram positive and gram negative bacteria are carried out by using Streptococcus faecalis (S. Faecalis) and Escherichia coli (E.coli) as model bacteria and the hydrogel composites of PASA/C30B/Ag shows exceptional antibacterial activity against both the bacteria as compared to pure hydrogel composites samples.

  11. Determination of bound and unbound water in dental alginate irreversible hydrocolloid by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Fellows, C M; Thomas, G A

    2009-04-01

    Alginate materials are considered unsuitable for precise fixed prosthetic rehabilitation due to their tendency to undergo spontaneous syneresis. Commercial alginate impression materials were investigated using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy to probe the relation between changes in the microscopic water environment and dimensional change to obtain a better understanding of spontaneous syneresis. NMR was used to measure the spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) of (1)H nuclei in water in alginate matrices to characterize changes in gel structure over time. These results were related to the dimensional stabilities of the alginate impression materials, their chemical compositions, and the Moisture Sorption Isotherms (MSI) obtained by incubation at fixed relative humidities. The rate of change of T(1) with time was found to be a better predictor of dimensional stability than MSI. The greatest dimensional stability for the alginate powders investigated was associated with a high filler:alginate ratio and a high Ca:Na ratio. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy may used to measure changes in alginate impression materials under conditions where no dimensional change can be observed directly. Changes occurred rapidly even at 100% humidity, suggesting the dimensional stability of alginate impression materials is partially independent of the rate of dehydration. The results may open a way to formulate alginate impression materials more suitable for precise fabrication of dental prostheses.

  12. Physical and chemical characterization of titanium-alginate samples for biomedical applications

    Morani, L.M.; Ribeiro, A.A.; Oliveira, M.V. de; Dantas, F.M.L., E-mail: marize.varella@int.gov.b [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leao, M.H.M.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The sol-gel technique combined with powder metallurgy may be an alternative to produce titanium parts for bioengineering, with the advantage of eliminating the powder compaction step, which may introduce defects. The present work introduces a system consisted of titanium powder and sodium alginate suspension, which undergoes reticulation in contact with a calcium salt solution, obtaining titanium/calcium alginate hydrogel with granule morphology. The characterization of the raw materials and granules of calcium alginate and titanium/calcium alginate was performed by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The granules topography was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy/EDS. Titanium and sodium alginate chemical composition were adequate for use as raw materials, showing that the methodology used is suitable for processing titanium samples for further consolidation by sintering, in order to produce titanium parts. (author)

  13. Antimicrobial and anticancer activities of porous chitosan-alginate biosynthesized silver nanoparticles.

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Lee, Jin-Young; Kang, Dong Seop; Anil, Sukumaran; Kim, Se-Kwon; Shim, Min Suk; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2017-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to obtain porous antimicrobial composites consisting of chitosan, alginate, and biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Chitosan and alginate were used owing to their pore-forming capacity, while AgNPs were used for their antimicrobial property. The developed porous composites of chitosan-alginate-AgNPs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The FT-IR results revealed the presence of a strong chemical interaction between chitosan and alginate due to polyelectrolyte complex; whereas, the XRD results confirmed the presence of AgNPs in the composites. The dispersion of AgNPs in the porous membrane was uniform with a pore size of 50-500μm. Antimicrobial activity of the composites was checked with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The developed composites resulted in the formation of a zone of inhibition of 11±1mm for the Escherichia coli, and 10±1mm for Staphylococcus aureus. The bacterial filtration efficiency of chitosan-alginate-AgNPs was 1.5-times higher than that of the chitosan-alginate composite. The breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used to test the anticancer activity of the composites. The IC 50 value of chitosan-alginate-AgNPs on MDA-MB-231 was 4.6mg. The developed chitosan-alginate-AgNPs composite showed a huge potential for its applications in antimicrobial filtration and cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ionic Liquid Epoxy Resin Monomers

    Paley, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquid epoxide monomers capable of reacting with cross-linking agents to form polymers with high tensile and adhesive strengths. Ionic liquid epoxide monomers comprising at least one bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cation are made from nitrogen heterocycles corresponding to the bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cations by a method involving a non-nucleophilic anion, an alkali metal cation, epichlorohydrin, and a strong base.

  15. Evaluation of setting time and flow properties of self-synthesize alginate impressions

    Halim, Calista; Cahyanto, Arief; Sriwidodo, Harsatiningsih, Zulia

    2018-02-01

    Alginate is an elastic hydrocolloid dental impression materials to obtain negative reproduction of oral mucosa such as to record soft-tissue and occlusal relationships. The aim of the present study was to synthesize alginate and to determine the setting time and flow properties. There were five groups of alginate consisted of fifty samples self-synthesize alginate and commercial alginate impression product. Fifty samples were divided according to two tests, each twenty-five samples for setting time and flow test. Setting time test was recorded in the s unit, meanwhile, flow test was recorded in the mm2 unit. The fastest setting time result was in the group three (148.8 s) and the latest was group fours). The highest flow test result was in the group three (69.70 mm2) and the lowest was group one (58.34 mm2). Results were analyzed statistically by one way ANOVA (α= 0.05), showed that there was a statistical significance of setting time while no statistical significance of flow properties between self-synthesize alginate and alginate impression product. In conclusion, the alginate impression was successfully self-synthesized and variation composition gives influence toward setting time and flow properties. The most resemble setting time of control group is group three. The most resemble flow of control group is group four.

  16. In situ polymerization of monomers for polyphenylquinoxaline/graphite

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Methods currently used to prepare fiber reinforced, high temperature resistant polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) composites employ extremely viscous, low solids content solutions of high molecular weight PPQ polymers. An improved approach, described in this report, consists of impregnating the fiber with a solution of the appropriate monomers instead of a solution of previously synthesized high molecular weight polymer. Polymerization of the monomers occurs in situ on the fiber during the solvent removal and curing stages. The in situ polymerization approach greatly simplifies the fabrication of PPQ graphite fiber composites. The use of low viscosity monomeric type solutions facilitates fiber wetting, permits a high solids content, and eliminates the need for prior polymer synthesis.

  17. 21 CFR 582.7187 - Calcium alginate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 582.7187 Section 582.7187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium alginate. (a) Product. Calcium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. Fabrication of individual alginate-TCP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by means of powder printing.

    Castilho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Jorge; Pires, Inês; Gouveia, Barbara; Pereira, Manuel; Moseke, Claus; Groll, Jürgen; Ewald, Andrea; Vorndran, Elke

    2015-01-06

    The development of polymer-calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with tailored architectures and properties has great potential for bone regeneration. Herein, we aimed to improve the functional performance of brittle ceramic scaffolds by developing a promising biopolymer-ceramic network. For this purpose, two strategies, namely, direct printing of a powder composition consisting of a 60:40 mixture of α/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) powder and alginate powder or vacuum infiltration of printed TCP scaffolds with an alginate solution, were tracked. Results of structural characterization revealed that the scaffolds printed with 2.5 wt% alginate-modified TCP powders presented a uniformly distributed and interfusing alginate TCP network. Mechanical results indicated a significant increase in strength, energy to failure and reliability of powder-modified scaffolds with an alginate content in the educts of 2.5 wt% when compared to pure TCP, as well as to TCP scaffolds containing 5 wt% or 7.5 wt% in the educts, in both dry and wet states. Culture of human osteoblast cells on these scaffolds also demonstrated a great improvement of cell proliferation and cell viability. While in the case of powder-mixed alginate TCP scaffolds, isolated alginate gels were formed between the calcium phosphate crystals, the vacuum-infiltration strategy resulted in the covering of the surface and internal pores of the TCP scaffold with a thin alginate film. Furthermore, the prediction of the scaffolds' critical fracture conditions under more complex stress states by the applied Mohr fracture criterion confirmed the potential of the powder-modified scaffolds with 2.5 wt% alginate in the educts as structural biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

  19. Fabrication of individual alginate-TCP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by means of powder printing

    Castilho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Jorge; Pires, Inês; Gouveia, Barbara; Pereira, Manuel; Moseke, Claus; Groll, Jürgen; Ewald, Andrea; Vorndran, Elke

    2015-01-01

    The development of polymer-calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with tailored architectures and properties has great potential for bone regeneration. Herein, we aimed to improve the functional performance of brittle ceramic scaffolds by developing a promising biopolymer–ceramic network. For this purpose, two strategies, namely, direct printing of a powder composition consisting of a 60:40 mixture of α/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) powder and alginate powder or vacuum infiltration of printed TCP scaffolds with an alginate solution, were tracked. Results of structural characterization revealed that the scaffolds printed with 2.5 wt% alginate-modified TCP powders presented a uniformly distributed and interfusing alginate TCP network. Mechanical results indicated a significant increase in strength, energy to failure and reliability of powder-modified scaffolds with an alginate content in the educts of 2.5 wt% when compared to pure TCP, as well as to TCP scaffolds containing 5 wt% or 7.5 wt% in the educts, in both dry and wet states. Culture of human osteoblast cells on these scaffolds also demonstrated a great improvement of cell proliferation and cell viability. While in the case of powder-mixed alginate TCP scaffolds, isolated alginate gels were formed between the calcium phosphate crystals, the vacuum-infiltration strategy resulted in the covering of the surface and internal pores of the TCP scaffold with a thin alginate film. Furthermore, the prediction of the scaffolds’ critical fracture conditions under more complex stress states by the applied Mohr fracture criterion confirmed the potential of the powder-modified scaffolds with 2.5 wt% alginate in the educts as structural biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. (paper)

  20. Physicochemical characterization and biocompatibility of alginate-polycation microcapsules designed for islet transplantation

    Tam, Susan Kimberly

    diabetic mice. To achieve these aims, extensive physicochemical analyses of the alginates and microcapsules were carried out. Among the properties of the alginates that were investigated include their purity (LAL assay, microBCA), chemical composition (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR), elemental composition (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS), and hydrophilicity (contact angle technique). As for the microcapsules, we also examined their surface chemical composition (XPS), hydrophilicity, as well as alginate-polycation interactions (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FTIR), and membrane strength (osmotic swelling). The results of this research led to a number of important conclusions about the biocompatibility of alginates and alginate-based microcapsules. First of all, purifying an alginate does not guarantee its biocompatibility. Indeed, we provided evidence that both the alginate chemical composition (i.e. relative content of mannuronate and guluronate) and its intrinsic viscosity influence the extent of host cell adhesion to alginate gel beads. Using a biocompatible alginate, we then provided evidence that microcapsule biocompatibility is greatly compromised by its polycationic membrane. We showed that this membrane is responsible for the adsorption of opsonizing proteins in vitro and the adhesion of immune cells in vivo. That said, the severity of inflammatory response to the membrane can vary, and this depended on the microcapsule design, including the choice of alginate and polycation type. Results of our physicochemical analyses suggested that the most important factor determining biocompatibility is the ability of the polycation to diffuse into, and subsequently bind to, the alginate gel core. Moreover, adding a final coating of alginate had no significant effect on reversing the effects of the membrane on various microcapsule properties (surface composition, hydrophobicity, stability), nor did this coating reduce its immunogenicity. Although we

  1. High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate beads for efficient removal of methylene blue.

    Nasrullah, Asma; Bhat, A H; Naeem, Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Danish, Mohammed

    2018-02-01

    High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate (AC-alginate) beads were successfully synthesized by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from Mangosteen fruit peel into calcium-alginate beads for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The structure and surface characteristics of AC-alginate beads were analyzed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface area analysis (S BET ), while thermal properties were tested using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of AC-alginate dose, pH of solution, contact time, initial concentration of MB solution and temperature on MB removal was elucidated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of 230mg/g was achieved for 100mg/L of MB solution at pH 9.5 and temperature 25°C. Furthermore, the adsorption of MB on AC-alginate beads followed well pseudo-second order equation and equilibrium adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. The findings reveal the feasibility of AC-alginate beads composite to be used as a potential and low cost adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Encapsulation of Lactobacillus kefiri in alginate microbeads using a double novel aerosol technique.

    Demitri, Christian; Lamanna, Leonardo; De Benedetto, Egidio; Damiano, Fabrizio; Cappello, Maria Stella; Siculella, Luisa; Sannino, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Alginate micro beads containing Lactobacillus kefiri (the principal bacteria present in the kefir probiotic drink) were produced by a novel technique based on dual aerosols spaying of alginate based solution and CaCl 2 as cross linking agent. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has been also added to the alginate in order to change the physic-chemical properties (viscosity and permeability) of the microbeads. Calcium alginate and CMC are biopolymers that can be used for developing oral drug-delivery systems. These biopolymers have been reported to show a pH-dependent swelling behaviour. Calcium alginate and CMC have also been known to possess an excellent mucoadhesive property. The loaded microbeads have been characterized in terms of morphology, chemical composition and stability in different conditions mimicking the gastric environment. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a continuous fabrication of alginate microbeads in a range of 50-70μm size, encapsulating L. kefiri as active ingredient. The technique involves the use of a double aerosols of alginate based solution and CaCl 2 as crosslinking agent. Moreover, the encapsulation process was proved to be effective and not detrimental to bacteria viability. At the same time, it was verified the protective efficacy of the microcapsules against the gastric environment using both SGF pH1.2 (fasted state) and pH2.2 (feed state). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    Therese Andersen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent, and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  4. Investigation on the biomimetic influence of biopolymers on calcium phosphate precipitation-Part 1: Alginate

    Oliveira de Lima, Daniel; Gomes Aimoli, Cassiano; Beppu, Marisa Masumi

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of how macromocules act in precipitation of inorganic phases is the key knowledge that is needed to establish the foundation to mimic nature and produce materials with high mechanical modulus besides outstanding optical and thermal properties. This study investigated how addition of small amounts of alginate (7-70 ppm), that presents many carboxylic groups, affects phase distribution and morphology of calcium phosphates, obtained through precipitation and further submitted to calcination and sintering. The results lead to the conclusion that alginate action is dynamic, where alginate molecules act as templates to nucleation, and most of the biopolymer remains in solution even when all calcium phosphate has precipitated. However, despite the effect on phase composition being mainly related to the system's kinetics, alginate does present thermodynamic interaction with the precipitates. It is probable that it acts by reducing the free energy of nucleation, as in heterogeneous nucleation processes.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan impregnated calcium alginate beads for removal of uranium from aquatic stream

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Manisha, V.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Sawant, Manjiri; Kamane, Suman

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the feasibility of chitosan impregnated calcium alginate beads (Cal-Alg-Chi) to sorb the excess uranium from the aquatic stream. Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked D glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). The optimal composition of calcium alginate chitosan beads is 4 % (wt/vol) alginate gel having 5% loading of chitosan. The nature and morphology of pure and uranium sorbed calcium alginate chitosan beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATRFTIR). The results of batch sorption experiments suggest that Cal-Alg-Chi beads are very effective for removal of uranium in the pH range of 2.0-5.0 and sorption is more than 80 % in the concentration range of 1-100 mgL -1

  6. Thermostable Alginate degrading enzymes and their methods of use

    Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur Oli; Jonsson, Oskar W.J.; Bjornsdottir, Bryndis; Fridjonsson, Hedinn O; Altenbuchner, Josef; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Dobruchowska, Justyna; Kamerling, Johannis

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification, production and use of thermostable alginate lyase enzymes that can be used to partially degrade alginate to yield oligosaccharides or to give complete degradation of alginate to yield (unsaturated) mono-uronates.

  7. Determination of unreacted monomers in restorative dental resins based on dimethacrylate by NMR hydrogen

    Correa, Ivo Carlos; Miranda Junior, Walter G.; Tavares, Maria Ines B.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of unreacted monomers after photo-activation of dental composites causes mechanical and biological properties to decrease and could be detected by NMR analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage of leachable monomers of light-cured composites under the effect of variations of exposure time of photo activation by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen in solution (NMR 1 H). The composite resins tested Z250 and Fill Magic obtained similar values of unreacted monomers (%) at photo curing time suggested by the manufacturer and values were also lower than Durafill and A110 concentrations. From the NMR results, one day extractable time was efficient to quantify the amount of residual monomers in the dental composites tested, unless for Durafill composite. (author)

  8. Alginate/sodium caseinate aqueous-core capsules: a pH-responsive matrix.

    Ben Messaoud, Ghazi; Sánchez-González, Laura; Jacquot, Adrien; Probst, Laurent; Desobry, Stéphane

    2015-02-15

    Alginate capsules have several applications. Their functionality depends considerably on their permeability, chemical and mechanical stability. Consequently, the creation of composite system by addition of further components is expected to control mechanical and release properties of alginate capsules. Alginate and alginate-sodium caseinate composite liquid-core capsules were prepared by a simple extrusion. The influence of the preparation pH and sodium caseinate concentration on capsules physico-chemical properties was investigated. Results showed that sodium caseinate influenced significantly capsules properties. As regards to the membrane mechanical stability, composite capsules prepared at pH below the isoelectric point of sodium caseinate exhibited the highest surface Young's modulus, increasing with protein content, explained by potential electrostatic interactions between sodium caseinate amino-groups and alginate carboxylic group. The kinetic of cochineal red A release changed significantly for composite capsules and showed a pH-responsive release. Sodium caseinate-dye mixture studied by absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed complex formation at pH 2 by electrostatic interactions between sodium caseinate tryptophan residues and cochineal red sulfonate-groups. Consequently, the release mechanism was explained by membrane adsorption process. This global approach is useful to control release mechanism from macro and micro-capsules by incorporating guest molecules which can interact with the entrapped molecule under specific conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physicochemical Characterization of a Heat Treated Calcium Alginate Dry Film Prepared with Chicken Stock.

    Báez, Germán D; Piccirilli, Gisela N; Ballerini, Griselda A; Frattini, Agustín; Busti, Pablo A; Verdini, Roxana A; Delorenzi, Néstor J

    2017-04-01

    Solid sodium alginate was dissolved into chicken stock in order to give a final alginate concentration of 0.9 percent (w/v). Calcium ions present in chicken stock were enough to induce ionic gelation. After drying, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thickness and mechanical properties of films obtained were determined. Calcium alginate-chicken stock films were heated at 130 °C for different times between 0 and 15 min. Mechanical and optical studies, differential scanning calorimetry, visual aspect and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to describe physicochemical properties of heat treated films. Heating developed a maroon ochre color and increased the brittleness (crispness) of the films related to the intensity of the treatment. Differential scanning thermometry and study on appearance of the films suggested that Maillard reactions may be responsible for the observed changes. Maillard reactions mainly occurred between reducing sugar monomers and free amino groups of gelatin peptides present in the chicken stock, and between alginate and gelatin peptides to a lesser extent. In addition, the plasticizing effect of fat added with chicken stock was also studied. These studies suggest a potential use of heat treated chicken stock films as a substitute of roasted chicken skin. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in mineralized alginate matrices.

    Westhrin, Marita; Xie, Minli; Olderøy, Magnus Ø; Sikorski, Pawel; Strand, Berit L; Standal, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Mineralized biomaterials are promising for use in bone tissue engineering. Culturing osteogenic cells in such materials will potentially generate biological bone grafts that may even further augment bone healing. Here, we studied osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in an alginate hydrogel system where the cells were co-immobilized with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for gradual mineralization of the microenvironment. MSC were embedded in unmodified alginate beads and alginate beads mineralized with ALP to generate a polymer/hydroxyapatite scaffold mimicking the composition of bone. The initial scaffold mineralization induced further mineralization of the beads with nanosized particles, and scanning electron micrographs demonstrated presence of collagen in the mineralized and unmineralized alginate beads cultured in osteogenic medium. Cells in both types of beads sustained high viability and metabolic activity for the duration of the study (21 days) as evaluated by live/dead staining and alamar blue assay. MSC in beads induced to differentiate in osteogenic direction expressed higher mRNA levels of osteoblast-specific genes (RUNX2, COL1AI, SP7, BGLAP) than MSC in traditional cell cultures. Furthermore, cells differentiated in beads expressed both sclerostin (SOST) and dental matrix protein-1 (DMP1), markers for late osteoblasts/osteocytes. In conclusion, Both ALP-modified and unmodified alginate beads provide an environment that enhance osteogenic differentiation compared with traditional 2D culture. Also, the ALP-modified alginate beads showed profound mineralization and thus have the potential to serve as a bone substitute in tissue engineering.

  11. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in mineralized alginate matrices.

    Marita Westhrin

    Full Text Available Mineralized biomaterials are promising for use in bone tissue engineering. Culturing osteogenic cells in such materials will potentially generate biological bone grafts that may even further augment bone healing. Here, we studied osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in an alginate hydrogel system where the cells were co-immobilized with alkaline phosphatase (ALP for gradual mineralization of the microenvironment. MSC were embedded in unmodified alginate beads and alginate beads mineralized with ALP to generate a polymer/hydroxyapatite scaffold mimicking the composition of bone. The initial scaffold mineralization induced further mineralization of the beads with nanosized particles, and scanning electron micrographs demonstrated presence of collagen in the mineralized and unmineralized alginate beads cultured in osteogenic medium. Cells in both types of beads sustained high viability and metabolic activity for the duration of the study (21 days as evaluated by live/dead staining and alamar blue assay. MSC in beads induced to differentiate in osteogenic direction expressed higher mRNA levels of osteoblast-specific genes (RUNX2, COL1AI, SP7, BGLAP than MSC in traditional cell cultures. Furthermore, cells differentiated in beads expressed both sclerostin (SOST and dental matrix protein-1 (DMP1, markers for late osteoblasts/osteocytes. In conclusion, Both ALP-modified and unmodified alginate beads provide an environment that enhance osteogenic differentiation compared with traditional 2D culture. Also, the ALP-modified alginate beads showed profound mineralization and thus have the potential to serve as a bone substitute in tissue engineering.

  12. 3D-Printable Bioactivated Nanocellulose-Alginate Hydrogels.

    Leppiniemi, Jenni; Lahtinen, Panu; Paajanen, Antti; Mahlberg, Riitta; Metsä-Kortelainen, Sini; Pinomaa, Tatu; Pajari, Heikki; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Pursula, Pekka; Hytönen, Vesa P

    2017-07-05

    We describe herein a nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel suitable for 3D printing. The composition of the hydrogel was optimized based on material characterization methods and 3D printing experiments, and its behavior during the printing process was studied using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The hydrogel was biofunctionalized by the covalent coupling of an enhanced avidin protein to the cellulose nanofibrils. Ionic cross-linking of the hydrogel using calcium ions improved the performance of the material. The resulting hydrogel is suitable for 3D printing, its mechanical properties indicate good tissue compatibility, and the hydrogel absorbs water in moist conditions, suggesting potential in applications such as wound dressings. The biofunctionalization potential was shown by attaching a biotinylated fluorescent protein and a biotinylated fluorescent small molecule via avidin and monitoring the material using confocal microscopy. The 3D-printable bioactivated nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel offers a platform for the development of biomedical devices, wearable sensors, and drug-releasing materials.

  13. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T.; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C -0.68 , with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  14. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C{sup -0.68}, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  15. The Drug Release Profile from Calcium-induced Alginate Gel Beads Coated with an Alginate Hydrolysate

    Susumu Kawashima

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-induced alginate gel bead (Alg-Ca coated with an alginate hydrolysate(Alg, e.g. the guluronic acid block (GB was prepared and the model drug, hydrocortisonerelease profiles were investigated under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Theirmolecular weights were one sixth or one tenth that of Alg and the diffraction patterns of thehydrolysates resembled that of Alg. The drug release rate from Alg-Ca coated with GBapparently lowered than that of Alg-Ca (coating-free in the gastric juice (pH1.2. And thecoating did not resist the disintegration of Alg-Ca in the intestinal juice (pH 6.8 and thegel erosion accelerated the drug release. On the other hand, for the coated Alg-Cacontaining chitosan, the drug release showed zero-order kinetics without rapid erosion ofAlg-Ca. The drug release rate from Alg-Ca was able to be controlled by the coating andmodifying the composition of the gel matrix.

  16. Solubility of mixed monomers of tetrafluoroethylene and propylene in water and latex

    Watanabe, Hiromasa; Okamoto, Jiro

    1978-03-01

    For kinetical analysis of the emulsion copolymerization of tetrafluoroethylene with propylene and selection of the optimum reaction conditions, the monomer concentrations and composition of the polymer particle were measured and the relations with reaction conditions were determined. Solubilities of tetrafluoroethylene and propylene in water increase with pressure. solubility of propylene is larger than that of tetrafluoroethylene. Solubility of the mixed monomers in water and latex increases with pressure and propylene concentration and decreases with temperature. Propylene concentration in the dissolved monomers is dependent on its concentration in the gas phase and independent of pressure and temperature. The monomer concentrations and the composition were estimated from measurements. Under propylene concentration in the gas phase of 0 to 40 wt % at 30 Kg/cm 2 G and 40 0 C, the monomer concentration and propylene fraction of the polymer particle are 17 -- 27% and 0 -- 62% respectively. The amount of propylene in the particle increases with its fraction in the gas phase, but the amount of tetrafluoroethylene is independent of its fraction in the gas phase. Monomer composition of the polymer particle is dependent on monomer composition of the gas phase and independent of temperature and pressure. The concentration in the polymer particle is 17% at propylene concentration 10 mole % in the gas phase. (auth.)

  17. Surface active monomers synthesis, properties, and application

    Borzenkov, Mykola

    2014-01-01

    This brief includes information on the background?of and development of synthesis of various types of surface active monomers. The authors explain the importance of utilization of surface active monomers for creation of surface active polymers? and the various biomedical applications of such compounds . This brief introduces techniques for the synthesis of novel types of surface active monomers, their colloidal and polymerizable properties and application for needs of medicine and biology.

  18. Immobilization of Lipase using Alginate Hydrogel Beads and Enzymatic Evaluation in Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenol Butyrate

    Zhang, Shuang; Shang, Wenting; Yang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Shujuan; Zhang, Xiaogang; Chen, Jiawei [Renmin Univ. of China, Beijing (China)

    2013-09-15

    The immobilization of enzyme is one of the key issues both in the field of enzymatic research and industrialization. In this work, we reported a facile method to immobilize Candida Antarctica lipase B (CALB) in alginate carrier. In the presence of calcium cation, the enzyme-alginate suspension could be cross-linked to form beads with porous structure at room temperature, and the enzyme CALB was dispersed in the beads. Activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was verified by enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of p-nitrophenol butyrate in aqueous phase. The effects of reaction parameters such as temperature, pH, embedding and lyophilized time on the reactive behavior were discussed. Reuse cycle experiments for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenol butyrate demonstrated that activity of the enzyme-alginate composite was maintained without marked deactivation up to 6 repeated cycles.

  19. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to formulate sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B by controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a “passive carrier” in targeted antifungal therapy. Methods: Sodium alginate nanospheres of amphotericin B were prepared by controlled ...

  20. Drying and Rehydration of Calcium Alginate Gels

    Vreeker, R.; Li, L.; Fang, Y.; Appelqvist, I.; Mendes, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the rehydration properties of air-dried calcium alginate gel beads. Rehydration is shown to depend on alginate source (i.e. mannuronic to guluronic acid ratio) and the salt concentration in the rehydration medium. Rehydration curves are described adequately by the empirical

  1. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate.

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient is used in food only within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of... other food categories 0.3 Do. (d) Prior sanctions for calcium alginate different from the uses... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food...

  2. Monomers capable of forming four hydrogen bridges and supramolecular polymers formed by copolymerization of these monomers with regular monomers

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the synthesis of polymers containing self-complementary quadruple hydrogen groups by copolymerizing monomers containing a quadruple hydrogen bonding group with one or more monomers of choice. The resulting polymers show unique new characteristics due to the presence of

  3. Controlled antiseptic release by alginate polymer films and beads.

    Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Bayer, Ilker S; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-30

    Biodegradable polymeric materials based on blending aqueous dispersions of natural polymer sodium alginate (NaAlg) and povidone iodine (PVPI) complex, which allow controlled antiseptic release, are presented. The developed materials are either free standing NaAlg films or Ca(2+)-cross-linked alginate beads, which properly combined with PVPI demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activity, suitable for therapeutic applications, such as wound dressing. Glycerol was used as the plasticizing agent. Film morphology was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. It was found that PVPI complex forms well dispersed circular micro-domains within the NaAlg matrix. The beads were fabricated by drop-wise immersion of NaAlg/PVPI/glycerol solutions into aqueous calcium chloride solutions to form calcium alginate beads encapsulating PVPI solution (CaAlg/PVPI). Controlled release of PVPI was possible when the composite films and beads were brought into direct contact with water or with moist media. Bactericidal and fungicidal properties of the materials were tested against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The results indicated very efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity within 48 h. Controlled release of PVPI into open wounds is highly desired in clinical applications to avoid toxic doses of iodine absorption by the wound. A wide variety of applications are envisioned such as external and internal wound dressings with controlled antiseptic release, hygienic and protective packaging films for medical devices, and polymer beads as water disinfectants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Step growth of two flexible ABf monomers

    Cameron, Colin; Fawcett, Allan H.; Hetherington, Cecil R.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional lattice model was used to simulate the competition between the growth of hyperbranched structures and cycle formation that occurs when flexible ABf monomers undergo step growth. The monomers in the model are mapped onto several lattice sites. The effect of functionality...

  5. Alginate-modifying enzymes: Biological roles and biotechnological uses

    Helga eErtesvåg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alginate denotes a group of industrially important 1-4-linked biopolymers composed of the C-5-epimers β-D-mannuronic acid (M and α-L-guluronic acid (G. The polysaccharide is manufactured from brown algae where it constitutes the main structural cell wall polymer. The physical properties of a given alginate molecule, e.g. gel-strength, water-binding capacity, viscosity and biocompatibility, are determined by polymer length, the relative amount and distribution of G residues and the acetyl content, all of which are controlled by alginate modifying enzymes. Alginate has also been isolated from some bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Azotobacter, and bacterially synthesized alginate may be O-acetylated at O-2 and/or O-3. Initially, alginate is synthesized as polymannuronic acid, and some M residues are subsequently epimerized to G residues. In bacteria a mannuronan C-5-epimerase (AlgG and an alginate acetylase (AlgX are integral parts of the protein complex necessary for alginate polymerisation and export. All alginate-producing bacteria use periplasmic alginate lyases to remove alginate molecules aberrantly released to the periplasm. Alginate lyases are also produced by organisms that utilize alginate as carbon source. Most alginate-producing organisms encode more than one mannuronan C-5 epimerase, each introducing its specific pattern of G residues. Acetylation protects against further epimerization and from most alginate lyases. One enzyme with alginate deacetylase activity from Pseudomonas syringae has been reported. Functional and structural studies reveal that alginate lyases and epimerases have related enzyme mechanisms and catalytic sites. Alginate lyases are now utilized as tools for alginate characterization. Secreted epimerases have been shown to function well in vitro, and have been engineered further in order to obtain enzymes that can provide alginates with new and desired properties for use in medical and

  6. Radiation degradation of alginate and chitosan

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Alginate and chitosan were irradiated in solid or aqueous solution condition with Co{sup 60} gamma rays in the dose range of 20 to 500 kGy. Degradation was observed both in solid and solution conditions. The degradation in solution was remarkably greater than that in solid. For example, the molecular weight of alginate in 4%(w/v) solution decreased from 2 x 10{sup 5} for 0 kGy to 6 x 10{sup 3} for 50 kGy irradiation while the equivalent degradation by solid irradiation required 500 kGy. The activated species from irradiated water must be responsible for the degradation in solution. The degradation was also accompanied with the color change of alginate: the color became deep brown for highly degraded alginate. UV spectra showed a distinct absorption peak at 265 nm for colored alginates, increasing with dose. The fact that discoloration of colored alginate was caused on exposure to ozone suggests a formation of double bond in pyranose-ring by scission of glycosidic bond. Degradation behavior of chitosan in irradiation was almost the same as that of alginate. (author)

  7. Composite plastic coatings and face rolled materials technology, energy- and environment-saving, based on irradiation of liquid monomers by broad and high-current electron beams in vacuum

    Vaisburd, David

    1994-05-01

    The technology is based on the well-known process of hardening some organic liquid monomers and oligomers (resins and lacquers) under the action of ionizing radiation, i.e. electron, ion, ultra-violet, laser, and X-ray beams. The main mechanism of hardening is 3D polymerization of initial monomers induced by irradiation. First of all 1D polymer chains are created. And the next stage is cross-linking of them. Numerical attempts to apply such a process for plastic materials production met some earnest difficulties. Our decision to perform the whole processing in vacuum changed radically the main properties of radiation induced hardening technology. The inhibition of polymerization by reactive oxygen became unessential. The output window foil of accelerator became unnecessary. Application of super broad beams such as 1 sq.m became possible. The entire efficiency of grid electricity was increased to 60% and it was not the limit. One of the main advantages is that the processing carried out in vacuum may satisfy the highest ecological standards. The technology developed is contamination free and environment-saving.

  8. Extraction of alginate from Sargassum muticum: process optimization and study of its functional activities

    Mazumder, Anupriya; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; De Francisci, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, alginate extraction from the brown seaweed Sargassum muticum was studied using single factor analysis. Response Surface Methodology-Central Composite Rotatary design (RSM-CCRD) was performed to reduce and optimize extraction temperature, alkali concentration, and consumption...

  9. Radiation curing of mixtures of diallylphthalate prepolymer and vinyl monomer, 9

    Gotoda, Masao; Kitada, Yoshinori.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation curing, mainly by electron beams was studied with mixtures of low molecular weight diallylphthalate prepolymer (DAPsub(p).L) and vinyl monomers with special reference to their workability. Among the vinyl monomers, acrylonitrile gave a solution of low viscosity and methyl acrylate gave a solution of low dose curing. Radiation curing of DAPsub(p).L/vinyl monomer mixtures impregnated in wood was also tried. To obtain uniform wood-polymer composites, γ-irradiation after impregnation at 10 kg/cm 2 was found to be required for thick plate (110 mm), while electron beam irradiation after impregnation at normal pressure was sufficient for thin plate. (author)

  10. Radical copolymerization in homogenous medium and emulsion system monomers acrylonitrile/styrene

    Boussehel H.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the radical copolymerization in homogeneous and emulsion of the monomer system acrylonitrile/styrene. These copolymers are of great interest to the plastics industry, because they combine the good mechanical properties and implementation provided by the styrene units in the very high solvent resistance and extreme gas impermeability provided by the acrylonitrile units. The properties of a copolymer are directly related to its composition and distribution of monomer units in its macromolecular chains. Based on the reports of the couple reactivity's of monomers (AN/S found in the literature, the objective of the work is to provide theoretical simulation (by analytical and numerical integration of the equation of copolymerization: The kinetics of the reaction copolymerization of AN/S in a homogeneous medium and emulsion (drift composition, azeotropic and the microstructure (distribution of monomer sequences and the glass transition property of the macromolecular chains instant formed throughout the copolymerization reaction.

  11. Effects of cell entrapment in Ca-alginate on the metabolism of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Galazzo, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in suspension have been immobilized in calcium-alginate beads. Fermentation rates and intracellular composition have been determined under nongrowing conditions in these Ca-alginate entrapped cells and for identical cells in suspension. Glucose uptake and ethanol and glycerol production are approximately two times faster in immobilized cells than in suspended cells. Intermediate metabolite levels such as fructose-1,6-diphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate have been determined by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy under glucose fermenting conditions. Carbon-13 NMR shows an increase in polysaccharide production in immobilized cells. S. cerevisiae cells grown within a Ca-alginate matrix have a specific growth rate 40% lower than the growth rate of similar cells cultivated in suspension. Alginate-grown cells have been used to compare glucose fermentation under nongrowing conditions in suspended and Ca-entrapped cells. Fermentation rate is higher in immobilized cells than in suspended cells. The observed differences in intracellular components between suspended and immobilized cells are qualitatively similar to the differences observed for cells grown in suspension. Ethanol production rate is 2.7 times faster in immobilized alginate-grown cells than in suspended suspension-grown cells

  12. Factors influencing the mechanical stability of alginate beads applicable for immunoisolation of mammalian cells.

    Bhujbal, Swapnil V; Paredes-Juarez, Genaro A; Niclou, Simone P; de Vos, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Transplantation of microencapsulated cells has been proposed as a cure for many types of endocrine disorders. Alginate-based microcapsules have been used in many of the feasibility studied addressing cure of the endocrine disorders, and different cancer types. Despite years of intensive research it is still not completely understood which factors have to be controlled and documented for achieving adequate mechanical stability. Here we studied the strength and elasticity of microcapsules of different composition with and without cell load. We compared strength (force) versus elasticity (time) required to compress individual microcapsule to 60% deformation. It is demonstrated that the alginate viscosity, the size of the beads, the alginate type, the gelling time, the storage solution and the cell load are dominant factors in determining the final strength of alginate-based microcapsules while the type of gelling ion, the polyamino acid incubation time, the type of polyamino acid and the culturing time determines the elasticity of the alginate-based microcapsules. Our data underpin the essence of documenting the above mentioned factors in studies on encapsulated cells as mechanical stability is an essential factor in the success and failure of encapsulated grafts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydroxyapatite-alginate nanocomposite as drug delivery matrix for sustained release of ciprofloxacin.

    Venkatasubbu, G Devanand; Ramasamy, S; Ramakrishnan, V; Kumar, J

    2011-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite is a bioceramic which has a wide range of medical application for bone diseases. To enhance its usage, we have prepared ciprofloxacin loaded nano hydroxyapatite (HA) composite with a natural polymer, alginate, using wet chemical method at low temperature. The prepared composites were analyzed by various physicochemical methods. The results show that the nano HA crystallites are well intact with the alginate macromolecules. For the composite system FT-IR and micro Raman results are reported in this paper. Studies on the drug loading and drug release have been done. The drug is pre-adsorbed onto the ceramic particle before the formation of composite. The thermal behavior of composite has been studied using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). This work, reports that the nanocomposite prepared under optimum condition could prolong the release of ciprofloxacin compared with the ciprofloxacin loaded hydroxyapatite.

  14. Shelf Life of PMR Polyimide Monomer Solutions and Prepregs Extended

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2000-01-01

    PMR (Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants) technology was developed in the mid-1970's at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field for fabricating high-temperature stable polyimide composites. This technology allowed a solution of polyimide monomers or prepreg (a fiber, such as glass or graphite, impregnated with PMR polyimide monomers) to be thermally cured without the release of volatiles that cause the formation of voids unlike the non-PMR technology used for polyimide condensation type resins. The initial PMR resin introduced as PMR 15 is still commercially available and is used worldwide by aerospace industries as the state-of-the-art resin for high-temperature polyimide composite applications. PMR 15 offers easy composite processing, excellent composite mechanical property retention, a long lifetime at use temperatures of 500 to 550 F, and relatively low cost. Later, second-generation PMR resin versions, such as PMR II 50 and VCAP 75, offer improvements in the upper-use temperature (to 700 F) and in the useful life at temperature without major compromises in processing and property retention but with significant increases in resin cost. Newer versions of nontoxic (non-methylene dianiline) PMR resins, such as BAX PMR 15, offer similar advantages as originally found for PMR 15 but also with significant increases in resin cost. Thus, the current scope of the entire PMR technology available meets a wide range of aeronautical requirements for polymer composite applications.

  15. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    Patrick Erah

    controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a ... method, and the particle size analysis was carried out by scanning electron ... capacity of sodium alginate was evaluated in terms of drug to polymer ratio.

  16. The structural, morphological and thermal properties of grafted pH-sensitive interpenetrating highly porous polymeric composites of sodium alginate/acrylic acid copolymers for controlled delivery of diclofenac potassium.

    Jalil, Aamir; Khan, Samiullah; Naeem, Fahad; Haider, Malik Suleman; Sarwar, Shoaib; Riaz, Amna; Ranjha, Nazar Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    In present investigation new formulations of Sodium Alginate/Acrylic acid hydrogels with high porous structure were synthesized by free radical polymerization technique for the controlled drug delivery of analgesic agent to colon. Many structural parameters like molecular weight between crosslinks ( M c ), crosslink density ( M r ), volume interaction parameter ( v 2, s ), Flory Huggins water interaction parameter and diffusion coefficient ( Q ) were calculated. Water uptake studies was conducted in different USP phosphate buffer solutions. All samples showed higher swelling ratio with increasing pH values because of ionization of carboxylic groups at higher pH values. Porosity and gel fraction of all the samples were calculated. New selected samples were loaded with the model drug (diclofenac potassium).The amount of drug loaded and released was determined and it was found that all the samples showed higher release of drug at higher pH values. Release of diclofenac potassium was found to be dependent on the ratio of sodium alginate/acrylic acid, EGDMA and pH of the medium. Experimental data was fitted to various model equations and corresponding parameters were calculated to study the release mechanism. The Structural, Morphological and Thermal Properties of interpenetrating hydrogels were studied by FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM.

  17. Valve seat pores sealed with thermosetting monomer

    Olmore, A. B.

    1966-01-01

    Hard anodic coating provides a smooth wear resistant value seating surface on a cast aluminum alloy valve body. Vacuum impregnation with a thermosetting monomer, diallyl phthalate, seals the pores on the coating to prevent galvanic corrosion.

  18. Photopolymerizable silicone monomers, oligomers, and resins

    Jacobine, A.F.; Nakos, S.T.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to acquaint the general photopolymer researcher with the historical development of the chemistry and technology of photopolymerizable silicone monomers, fluids, and resins. The current status of research in these areas is assessed. The focus of this chapter is not only on the polymer chemistry and application of this technology, but also on important aspects of the synthetic chemistry involved in the preparation of UV-curable silicone monomers, oligomers, and resins. 236 refs., 6 tabs

  19. Effects of monomer shape on the formation of aggregates from a power law monomer distribution

    Perry, J; Kimery, J; Matthews, L S; Hyde, T W

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation of dust aggregates is an important process in many physical systems such as the Earth's upper atmosphere, comet tails and protoplanetary discs. Numerical models which study the aggregation in these systems typically involve spherical monomers. There is evidence, however, via the polarization of sunlight in the interstellar medium, as well as optical and LIDAR observations of high-altitude particles in Earth's atmosphere (70–100 km), which indicate that dust monomers may not necessarily be spherical. This study investigates the influence of different ellipsoidal monomer shapes on the morphology of aggregates given various distributions of monomer sizes. Populations of aggregates are grown from a single monomer using a combination of ballistic particle–cluster aggregation and ballistic cluster–cluster aggregation regimes incorporating the rotation of monomers and aggregates. The resulting structures of the aggregates are then compared via the compactness factor, geometric cross-section and friction time. (paper)

  20. Synthesis of the diazonium (perfluoroalkyl) benzenesulfonimide monomer from Nafion monomer for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Mei, Hua; D'Andrea, Dan; Nguyen, Tuyet-Trinh; Nworie, Chima

    2014-02-01

    One diazonium (perfluoroalkyl) benzenesulfonimide monomer, perfluoro-3, 6-dioxa-4-methyl-7-octene benzenesulfonyl imide, has been synthesized from Nafion monomer for the first time. With trifluorovinyl ether and diazonium precursors, the partially-fluorinated diazonium PFSI monomer can be polymerized and will provide chemically bonding with carbon electrode in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. A systematic study of the synthesis and characterization of this diazonium PFSI monomer has been conducted by varying reaction conditions. The optimized synthesis method has been established in the lab.

  1. The synthesis and characterization of hydrogel chitosan-alginate with the addition of plasticizer lauric acid for wound dressing application

    Izak Rudyardjo, Djony; Wijayanto, Setiawan

    2017-05-01

    The writers conducted a study about the synthesis and characterization of hydrogel chitosan-alginate by addition plasticizer lauric acid for wound dressing application. The purpose was to find out the impact of lauric acid concentration variation on hydrogel chitosan-alginate to get the best mechanical and physical properties to be applied as wound dressing in accordance with existing standards. This study used commercially chitosan from extract of shells crab, commercially-available alginate from the extract of sargassum sp, and commercial lauric acid from palm starch. The addition of lauric acid was aimed to repair mechanical properties of hydrogel. The composition of chitosan-alginate is 4:1 (v/v), while the lauric acid concentration variations are 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% w/v. The characterization of mechanical properties test (Tensile strength and Elongation at break) at hydrogel showed the hydrogel chitosan-alginate-lauric acid have the characteristic which meets the standard of mechanical properties for human skin. The best performance of hydrogel chitosan-alginate-lauric acid was obtained by increasing luric acid concentration by 4%, which has a thickness value of 125.46±0.63 µm, elongation 28.89±1.01 %, tensile strength (9.01±0.65) MPa, and ability to absorb liquids (601.45 ±1.24) %.

  2. Development of Alginate/Chitosan Microparticles for Dust Mite ...

    Erah

    surface of chitosan microparticles [4]. .... The reverse-phase high performance liquid .... The surface charge of alginate ... negative charge was as a result of the alginate on the microparticle surface. ... electrostatic interaction of the positively-.

  3. Sodium alginate hydrogel-based bioprinting using a novel multinozzle bioprinting system.

    Song, Seung-Joon; Choi, Jaesoon; Park, Yong-Doo; Hong, Soyoung; Lee, Jung Joo; Ahn, Chi Bum; Choi, Hyuk; Sun, Kyung

    2011-11-01

    Bioprinting is a technology for constructing bioartificial tissue or organs of complex three-dimensional (3-D) structure with high-precision spatial shape forming ability in larger scale than conventional tissue engineering methods and simultaneous multiple components composition ability. It utilizes computer-controlled 3-D printer mechanism or solid free-form fabrication technologies. In this study, sodium alginate hydrogel that can be utilized for large-dimension tissue fabrication with its fast gelation property was studied regarding material-specific printing technique and printing parameters using a multinozzle bioprinting system developed by the authors. A sodium alginate solution was prepared with a concentration of 1% (wt/vol), and 1% CaCl(2) solution was used as cross-linker for the gelation. The two materials were loaded in each of two nozzles in the multinozzle bioprinting system that has a total of four nozzles of which the injection speed can be independently controlled. A 3-D alginate structure was fabricated through layer-by-layer printing. Each layer was formed through two phases of printing, the first phase with the sodium alginate solution and the second phase with the calcium chloride solution, in identical printing pattern and speed condition. The target patterns were lattice shaped with 2-mm spacing and two different line widths. The nozzle moving speed was 6.67 mm/s, and the injection head speed was 10 µm/s. For the two different line widths, two injection needles with inner diameters of 260 and 410 µm were used. The number of layers accumulated was five in this experiment. By varying the nozzle moving speed and the injection speed, various pattern widths could be achieved. The feasibility of sodium alginate hydrogel free-form formation by alternate printing of alginate solution and sodium chloride solution was confirmed in the developed multinozzle bioprinting system. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International

  4. The mutual diffusion coefficient for (meth)acrylate monomers as determined with a nuclear microprobe

    Leewis, Christian M.; Mutsaers, Peter H.A.; Jong, Arthur M. de; Ijzendoorn, Leo J. van; Voigt, Martien J.A. de; Ren, Min Q.; Watt, Frank; Broer, Dirk J.

    2004-01-01

    The value of the mutual diffusion coefficient D V of two acrylic monomers is determined with nuclear microprobe measurements on a set of polymer films. These films have been prepared by allowing the monomers to diffuse into each other for a certain time and subsequently applying fast ultraviolet photo-polymerization, which freezes the concentration profile. The monomer diffusion profiles are studied with a scanning 2.1 MeV proton microprobe. Each monomer contains a marker element, e.g., Cl and Si, which are easily detected with proton induced x-ray emission. From the diffusion profiles, it is possible to determine the mutual diffusion coefficient. The mutual diffusion coefficient is dependent of concentration, which is concluded from the asymmetry in the Cl- and Si-profiles. A linear dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficient on the composition is used as a first order approximation. The best fits are obtained for a value of b=(0.38±0.15), which is the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of 1,3-bis(3-methacryloxypropyl)-1, 1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane in pure 2-chloroethyl acrylate and the diffusion coefficient of 2-chloroethyl acrylate in pure 1,3-bis(3-methacryloxypropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane. Under the assumption of a linear dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficient D V on monomer composition, it follows that D V =(2.9±0.6)·10 -10 m 2 /s at a 1:1 monomer ratio. With Flory-Huggins expressions for the monomer chemical potentials, one can derive approximate values for the individual monomer diffusion coefficients

  5. Preparation of supramolecular polymers by copolymerization of monomers containing quadruple hydrogen bonding units with regular monomers

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the synthesis of polymers containing self-complementary quadruple hydrogen groups by copolymerizing monomers containing a quadruple hydrogen bonding group with one or more monomers of choice. The resulting polymers show unique new characteristics due to the presence of

  6. Preparation of supramolecular polymers by copolymerization of monomers containing quadruple hydrogen bonding units with regular monomers

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the synthesis of polymers contg. self-complementary quadruple H groups by copolymg. monomers contg. a quadruple H bonding group with ³1 monomers of choice. The resulting polymers show unique new characteristics due to the presence of addnl. phys. interactions between the

  7. Thermodynamics of monomer partitioning in polymer latices: effect of molar volume of the monomers

    Schoonbrood, H.A.S.; German, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    A model of the thermodn. of partitioning of moderately water-sol. monomers in polymer latex systems is developed to show deviations that occur when the molar vols. of the monomers are not similar. The model, as well as expts. with Me acrylate and cyclohexyl methacrylate in polystyrene latex systems,

  8. Scattering Studies of Hydrophobic Monomers in Liposomal Bilayers: An Expanding Shell Model of Monomer Distribution

    Richter, Andrew; Dergunov, Sergey; Ganus, Bill; Thomas, Zachary; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Urban, Volker S.; Liu, Yun; Porcar, Lionel; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobic monomers partially phase separate from saturated lipids when loaded into lipid bilayers in amounts exceeding a 1:1 monomer/lipid molar ratio. This conclusion is based on the agreement between two independent methods of examining the structure of monomer-loaded bilayers. Complete phase separation of monomers from lipids would result in an increase in bilayer thickness and a slight increase in the diameter of liposomes. A homogeneous distribution of monomers within the bilayer would not change the bilayer thickness and would lead to an increase in the liposome diameter. The increase in bilayer thickness, measured by the combination of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), was approximately half of what was predicted for complete phase separation. The increase in liposome diameter, measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), was intermediate between values predicted for a homogeneous distribution and complete phase separation. Combined SANS, SAXS, and DLS data suggest that at a 1.2 monomer/lipid ratio approximately half of the monomers are located in an interstitial layer sandwiched between lipid sheets. These results expand our understanding of using self-assembled bilayers as scaffolds for the directed covalent assembly of organic nanomaterials. In particular, the partial phase separation of monomers from lipids corroborates the successful creation of nanothin polymer materials with uniform imprinted nanopores. Pore-forming templates do not need to span the lipid bilayer to create a pore in the bilayer-templated films.

  9. Fabrication and evaluation of biomimetic scaffolds by using collagen-alginate fibrillar gels for potential tissue engineering applications

    Sang Lin; Luo Dongmei; Xu Songmei; Wang Xiaoliang; Li Xudong

    2011-01-01

    Pore architecture and its stable functionality under cell culturing of three dimensional (3D) scaffolds are of great importance for tissue engineering purposes. In this study, alginate was incorporated with collagen to fabricate collagen-alginate composite scaffolds with different collagen/alginate ratios by lyophilizing the respective composite gels formed via collagen fibrillogenesis in vitro and then chemically crosslinking. The effects of alginate amount and crosslinking treatment on pore architecture, swelling behavior, enzymatic degradation and tensile property of composite scaffolds were systematically investigated. The relevant results indicated that the present strategy was simple but efficient to fabricate highly interconnected strong biomimetic 3D scaffolds with nanofibrous surface. NIH3T3 cells were used as a model cell to evaluate the cytocompatibility, attachment to the nanofibrous surface and porous architectural stability in terms of cell proliferation and infiltration within the crosslinked scaffolds. Compared with the mechanically weakest crosslinked collagen sponges, the cell-cultured composite scaffolds presented a good porous architecture, thus permitting cell proliferation on the top surface as well as infiltration into the inner part of 3D composite scaffolds. These composite scaffolds with pore size ranging from 150 to 300 μm, over 90% porosity, tuned biodegradability and water-uptake capability are promising for tissue engineering applications.

  10. Preparation of poly (vinyl alcohol) membranes grafted with n-vinyl pyridine/ acrylic acid binary monomers

    Ajji, A.; Ali, A.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) films were grafted with two monomers using gamma radiation, acrylic acid and N-vinyl pyridine. The influence of different parameters on the grafting yield was investigated as: the comonomer concentration and composition, and irradiation dose. The suitable conditions of the process had been determined to prepare PVA membranes have both properties of the two monomers, acrylic acid and vinyl pyridine as comonomer concentration and composition, and irradiation dose. Some properties of the membranes had been investigated as maximum swelling and grafting. Also the ability of the grafted films to adsorb some heavy metals and dyes was elaborated and discussed.(author)

  11. New alginic acid–atenolol microparticles for inhalatory drug targeting

    Ceschan, Nazareth Eliana; Bucalá, Verónica [Planta Piloto de Ingeniería Química (PLAPIQUI), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS), Camino La Carrindanga Km 7, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Departamento de Ingeniería Química, UNS, Avenida Alem 1253, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Ramírez-Rigo, María Verónica, E-mail: vrrigo@plapiqui.edu.ar [Planta Piloto de Ingeniería Química (PLAPIQUI), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS), Camino La Carrindanga Km 7, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, UNS, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina)

    2014-08-01

    The inhalatory route allows drug delivery for local or systemic treatments in a noninvasively way. The current tendency of inhalable systems is oriented to dry powder inhalers due to their advantages in terms of stability and efficiency. In this work, microparticles of atenolol (AT, basic antihypertensive drug) and alginic acid (AA, acid biocompatible polyelectrolyte) were obtained by spray drying. Several formulations, varying the relative composition AT/AA and the total solid content of the atomized dispersions, were tested. The powders were characterized by: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Powder X-ray Diffraction, while also the following properties were measured: drug load efficiency, flow properties, particles size and density, moisture content, hygroscopicity and morphology. The ionic interaction between AA and AT was demonstrated, then the new chemical entity could improve the drug targeting to the respiratory membrane and increase its time residence due to the mucoadhesive properties of the AA polymeric chains. Powders exhibited high load efficiencies, low moisture contents, adequate mean aerodynamic diameters and high cumulative fraction of respirable particles (lower than 10 μm). - Highlights: • Novel particulate material to target atenolol to the respiratory membrane was developed. • Crumbled microparticles were obtained by spray drying of alginic–atenolol dispersions. • Ionic interaction between alginic acid and atenolol was demonstrated in the product. • Amorphous solids with low moisture content and high load efficiency were produced. • Relationships between the feed formulation and the product characteristics were found.

  12. Storage duration effect on deformation recovery of repacked alginates

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manufacturers supply alginate impression materials as a powder that is packaged in bulk and in individual container. Some Indonesian dental suppliers often repackage the bulk alginate into individual plastic packages which are not tied tightly and stored in the display room without air conditioner. It is known that critical factors to the shelf life of alginate includer avoidance of moisture contamination which may lead to premature setting of the alginate and avoidance of high temperature which may cause depolymerization of the alginate. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine storage duration effect of repacked alginates on deformation recovery. Methods: Two brands of alginates (Tulip®TU, and Aroma Fine DF III®AF were repacked into 120 plastic containers. The samples were stored in room condition (temperature 29° C ± 1° C, relative humidity 60% ± 10% for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks. The alginates setting time and recovery from deformation were measured according to the ANSI/ADA specification number 18 (ISO 1563. result: The results revealed that there was decreased setting time during 5 weeks but there was slight decreased in deformation recovery after 3 weeks storage. The ANOVA showed there was no significant difference of alginates deformation recovery among the storage times (p > 0.05. Conclusion: Storage duration of repacked alginates in plastic containers during 5 weeks in room condition do not influence the alginate deformation recovery.

  13. Radiation cured and monomer modified silicon elastomers

    Eldred, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the production of a tear resistant silicone elastomer, which has improved elongation properties. This elastomer is the radiation induced reaction product of a noncured methyl vinyl silicone resin (VMQ) and uniformly dispersed therein a blend of a polyfunctional acrylic crosslinking monomer and a filler

  14. Softening and elution of monomers in ethanol

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Asmussen, Erik; Munksgaard, E Christian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light-curing protocol on softening and elution of monomers in ethanol as measured on a model polymer. It was a further aim to correlate the measured values with previously reported data on degree of conversion and glass transition...

  15. Culture of hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors in alginate-based scaffolds.

    Formo, Kjetil; Cho, Candy H-H; Vallier, Ludovic; Strand, Berit L

    2015-12-01

    The effect of alginate-based scaffolds with added basement membrane proteins on the in vitro development of hESC-derived pancreatic progenitors was investigated. Cell clusters were encapsulated in scaffolds containing the basement membrane proteins collagen IV, laminin, fibronectin, or extracellular matrix-derived peptides, and maintained in culture for up to 46 days. The cells remained viable throughout the experiment with no signs of central necrosis. Whereas nonencapsulated cells aggregated into larger clusters, some of which showed signs of morphological changes and tissue organization, the alginate matrix stabilized the cluster size and displayed more homogeneous cell morphologies, allowing culture for long periods of time. For all conditions tested, a stable or declining expression of insulin and PDX1 and an increase in glucagon and somatostatin over time indicated a progressive reduction in beta cell-related gene expression. Alginate scaffolds can provide a chemically defined, xeno-free and easily scalable alternative for culture of pancreatic progenitors. Although no increase in insulin and PDX1 gene expression after alginate-immobilized cell culture was seen in this study, further optimization of the matrix physicochemical and biological properties and of the medium composition may still be a relevant strategy to promote the stabilization or maturation of stem cell-derived beta cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Synergetic interaction between neighbouring platinum monomers in CO2 hydrogenation

    Li, Hongliang; Wang, Liangbing; Dai, Yizhou; Pu, Zhengtian; Lao, Zhuohan; Chen, Yawei; Wang, Menglin; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Zhang, Wenhua; Si, Rui; Ma, Chao; Zeng, Jie

    2018-05-01

    Exploring the interaction between two neighbouring monomers has great potential to significantly raise the performance and deepen the mechanistic understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. Herein, we demonstrate that the synergetic interaction between neighbouring Pt monomers on MoS2 greatly enhanced the CO2 hydrogenation catalytic activity and reduced the activation energy relative to isolated monomers. Neighbouring Pt monomers were achieved by increasing the Pt mass loading up to 7.5% while maintaining the atomic dispersion of Pt. Mechanistic studies reveal that neighbouring Pt monomers not only worked in synergy to vary the reaction barrier, but also underwent distinct reaction paths compared with isolated monomers. Isolated Pt monomers favour the conversion of CO2 into methanol without the formation of formic acid, whereas CO2 is hydrogenated stepwise into formic acid and methanol for neighbouring Pt monomers. The discovery of the synergetic interaction between neighbouring monomers may create a new path for manipulating catalytic properties.

  17. Self-disinfecting Alginate vs Conventional Alginate: Effect on Surface Hardness of Gypsum Cast-An in vitro Study.

    Madhavan, Ranjith; George, Navia; Thummala, Niharika R; Ravi, S V; Nagpal, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    For the construction of any dental prosthesis, accurate impressions are necessary. Hence, we undertook the present study to evaluate and compare the surface hardness of gypsum casts poured from impressions made using conventional alginate and self-disinfecting alginate. A total of 30 impressions of stainless steel die were made, out of which 15 impressions were made with conventional alginate and 15 were made with self-disinfecting alginate and poured using Type III dental stone. Thirty stone specimens were subjected for hardness testing. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test to compare the mean surface hardness. Difference in surface hardness was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Surface hardness of gypsum casts poured using impressions made from self-disinfecting alginate and conventional alginates were comparable. Self-disinfecting alginates may be employed in clinical practice as safe and effective materials to overcome the infection control issues without compromising on the properties of the material.

  18. Development of sodium alginate and konkoli gumgrafted ...

    This experiment is a continuation of our effort to develop a blend membrane of sodium alginate and “konkoli” gum-g-polyacrylamide (KG-g-PAAm) for bioremediation of wastewater. The effect of graft reaction conditions on the percentage graft yield in the graft copolymerization was investigated. It was observed that grafting ...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections and...) of this chapter 0.25 Do. All other food categories 0.01 Do. (d) Prior sanctions for potassium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1011 - Alginic acid.

    2010-04-01

    ... used in food only within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alginic acid. 184.1011 Section 184.1011 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  1. Photokopolimerisasi monomer akrilat degan kulit kras sapi

    Dwi Wahini Nurhajati

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The research on photocopolymerization of acrylate monomer with cow crust hide had object to observe the resulted copolymer onto cow crust hide. Crust hides, saturated with aqueous emulsions containing 25 wt % of n-butyl acrylate (n-BA or tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA were irradiated by cobalt – 60 gamma rays with doses ranges from 5 to 25 kGy. The irradiated hides were washed with water, dried in air and extracted in soxhlet apparatus for 48 hours to remove homopolymer. The highest yield of photocopolymerization of n – butyl acrylate monomer with crust hides was found 17,7878% at dose 25 kGy, and for photocopolymerization of tripropylene glycol diacrylate with crust hides was found 39,4245% at dose 20 kGy.

  2. Radiation crosslinking of PVC with polyfunctional monomers

    Dobo, J.; Takacs, E.; Csato, P.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation crosslinking of PVC in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) and of trimethylol propane trimethacrylate (TMPTM) was investigated. The effect of PVC powders of different types on the polymerization rate of these monomers was studied by a Calvet-type microcalorimeter. In the milled PVC sheets containing 50 part EGDM a high concentration of trapped free radicals was found by ESR after 16 months storage. (author)

  3. Alginate-polyvinyl alcohol based interpenetrating polymer network for prolonged drug therapy, Optimization and in-vitro characterization.

    Anwar, Hina; Ahmad, Mahmood; Minhas, Muhammad Usman; Rehmani, Sahrish

    2017-06-15

    A new natural and synthetic polymeric blend to form interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels was synthesized utilizing sodium alginate and PVA as polymers by free radical polymerization employing 2-Acylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid as monomer (AMPS) and tramadol HCl as model drug through 3 2 level full factorial design to evaluate the impact of selected independent factors i.e. polymer (sodium alginate) and monomer (AMPS) contents on swelling index at 18th hour, percent drug release at 18th hour, time required for 80% drug release and drug entrapment efficiency as dependent variables. FTIR, SEM, sol-gel analysis, equilibrium swelling studies and in-vitro release kinetics were performedfor in-vitro characterization of formulated IPN hydrogels. In-vitro studies carried out at pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 revealed pH independent swelling and drug release from polymeric IPN, providing controlled drug release for an extended period of time with improved entrapment efficiency, thereby concluding that this polymeric blend may be a promising system for the prolonged drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PMR Polyimide prepreg with improved tack characteristics. [Polymerization of Monomer Reactants applications to fiber reinforced plastics

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.

    1978-01-01

    Current PMR Polyimide prepreg technology utilizes methanol or ethanol solvents for preparation of the PMR prepreg solutions. The volatility of these solvents limits the tack and drape retention characteristics of unprotected prepreg exposed to ambient conditions. Studies conducted to achieve PMR 15 Polyimide prepreg with improved tack and drape characteristics are described. Improved tack and drape retention were obtained by incorporation of an additional monomer. The effects of various levels of the added monomer on the thermo-oxidative stability and mechanical properties of graphite fiber reinforced PMR 15 composites exposed and tested at 316 C (600 F) are discussed.

  5. Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions

    Aliste, A.J.; Mastro, N.L. Del [Center of Radiation Technology, IPEN/CNEN/SP, University City, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

  6. Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions

    Aliste, A.J.; Mastro, N.L. Del

    2004-01-01

    Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of 60 Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

  7. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or remove...

  8. Thermodynamics of swelling of latex particles with two monomers

    Maxwell, I.A.; Kurja, J.; van Doremaele, G.H.J.; German, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The partitioning of 2 monomers between the latex particle, monomer droplet, and aq. phases of an emulsion polymer latex are measured at satn. swelling of the latex particle phase (corresponding to intervals I and II of an emulsion polymn.). The monomer (Me acrylate, Bu acrylate, styrene) and polymer

  9. Variations in Calcium and Alginate Ions Concentration in Relation to the Properties of Calcium Alginate Nanoparticles

    Hamed Daemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alginate belongs to a group of natural polymers called polysaccharides. They have carboxylic functional groups beside hydroxyls which are common in all polysaccharides. These materials show interesting properties due to theirfunctional groups. One of these properties is the ability of this polymer as a suitable carrier of protecting and transferring drugs and biomolecules. The particle sizes of these polymers are very important for their applications, so different techniques were used for preparation of these materials. In this way polymeric nanoparticles of calcium alginate which are excellent carriers in drug delivery systems were prepared by addition of calcium chloride solution to dilute solution of sodium alginate. Investigation of the size and distribution of nanoparticles were analyzed by SEM method. The concentration effects of both alginate and calcium ions on the size and distribution of  nanoparticles were studied in this research. Results showed that the size of nanoparticles obviously decreased with decreasing polymeric alginate concentration because of lower active sites in polymer chain. On the other hand, thesize and distribution of nanoparticles are significantly improved with increase of calcium cation concentrations. The mean particle size 40-70 nm and spherical shape are the main characteristics of the prepared nanoparticles.

  10. Photopolymerizable phosphate acrylates as comonomers in dental adhesives with or without triclosan monomer units

    Melinte, Violeta; Buruiana, Tinca; Aldea, Horia; Matiut, Simona; Silion, Mihaela; Buruiana, Emil C.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate diacrylates (CO-DAP, TMP-DAP) based on castor oil or trimethylolpropane were synthesized and evaluated in dental adhesive formulations in comparison with 3-acryloyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate phosphate (AMP-P). In an attempt to promote antibacterial activity, another photopolymerizable monomer (TCS-UMA) containing 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol moiety (triclosan) was prepared and incorporated in adhesive resins. Each of these monomers had a molecular structure confirmed by spectral methods. The photopolymerization rates for monomers (0.063–0.088 s −1 ) were lower than those determined in the monomer combinations (0.116–0.158 s −1 ) incorporating phosphate diacrylate (11 wt.%), BisGMA (33 wt.%), TEGDMA (10 wt.%), UDMA (10 wt.%) and HEMA (15 wt.%), the degree of conversion varying between 63.4 and 74.5%. The formed copolymers showed high values for water sorption (18.65–57.02 μg/mm 3 ) and water solubility (3.51–13.38 μg/mm 3 ), and the contact angle was dependent on the presence of CO-DAP (θ F1 : 66.67°), TMP-DAP (θ F2 : 55.05°) or AMP-P (θ F3 : 52.90°) in the photocrosslinked specimens compared to the sample without phosphate monomer (θ F4 : 82.14°). The scanning electron microscopy image of the dentin–resin composite interface after applying our F1 formulation (pH: 4.1) and its light-curing for 20 s supports the evidence of the formation of the hybrid layer with the tooth structure created by self-etching approach, with no gaps or cracks in the adhesive. A comparative analysis of the adhesion achieved with commercial adhesive systems (Single Bond Universal, C-Bond) rather indicates similarities than differences between them. The addition of triclosan methacrylate (1 wt.%) into the formulation inhibited the bacterial growth of the Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia coli in the direct contact area due to the covalently linked antibacterial monomer. - Highlights: • Synthesis of photopolymerizable phosphate acrylate

  11. Photopolymerizable phosphate acrylates as comonomers in dental adhesives with or without triclosan monomer units

    Melinte, Violeta [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41 A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Buruiana, Tinca, E-mail: tbur@icmpp.ro [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41 A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Aldea, Horia [Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Dentistry, Iasi (Romania); Matiut, Simona [Praxis Medical Investigations, 33 Independence, 700102 Iasi (Romania); Silion, Mihaela; Buruiana, Emil C. [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41 A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate diacrylates (CO-DAP, TMP-DAP) based on castor oil or trimethylolpropane were synthesized and evaluated in dental adhesive formulations in comparison with 3-acryloyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate phosphate (AMP-P). In an attempt to promote antibacterial activity, another photopolymerizable monomer (TCS-UMA) containing 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol moiety (triclosan) was prepared and incorporated in adhesive resins. Each of these monomers had a molecular structure confirmed by spectral methods. The photopolymerization rates for monomers (0.063–0.088 s{sup −1}) were lower than those determined in the monomer combinations (0.116–0.158 s{sup −1}) incorporating phosphate diacrylate (11 wt.%), BisGMA (33 wt.%), TEGDMA (10 wt.%), UDMA (10 wt.%) and HEMA (15 wt.%), the degree of conversion varying between 63.4 and 74.5%. The formed copolymers showed high values for water sorption (18.65–57.02 μg/mm{sup 3}) and water solubility (3.51–13.38 μg/mm{sup 3}), and the contact angle was dependent on the presence of CO-DAP (θ{sub F1}: 66.67°), TMP-DAP (θ{sub F2}: 55.05°) or AMP-P (θ{sub F3}: 52.90°) in the photocrosslinked specimens compared to the sample without phosphate monomer (θ{sub F4}: 82.14°). The scanning electron microscopy image of the dentin–resin composite interface after applying our F1 formulation (pH: 4.1) and its light-curing for 20 s supports the evidence of the formation of the hybrid layer with the tooth structure created by self-etching approach, with no gaps or cracks in the adhesive. A comparative analysis of the adhesion achieved with commercial adhesive systems (Single Bond Universal, C-Bond) rather indicates similarities than differences between them. The addition of triclosan methacrylate (1 wt.%) into the formulation inhibited the bacterial growth of the Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia coli in the direct contact area due to the covalently linked antibacterial monomer. - Highlights: • Synthesis of

  12. Physical- chemical changes in irradiated sodium alginate algimar

    Rapado Paneque, Manuel; Alazanes, Sonia; Sainz Vidal, Dianelys; Wandrey, Christine

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the physical-chemical properties of sodium alginate Algimar has been investigated. dilution viscometric, densitometry FTIR spectroscopy served to identify modifications. Decreasing intrinsic, viscosities clearly revealed chain cleavage for both solid alginate indicate that chain degradation occurs without significant change of the chemical structure, The obtained results have practical implication change of the chemical structure. The obtained results have practical implication in the field of radiation modification and sterilization of sodium alginate used for microcapsule formation

  13. Precision design of ethylene- and polar-monomer-based copolymers by organometallic-mediated radical polymerization

    Kermagoret, Anthony; Debuigne, Antoine; Jérôme, Christine; Detrembleur, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The copolymerization of ethylene with polar monomers is a major challenge when it comes to the manufacture of materials with potential for a wide range of commercial applications. In the chemical industry, free-radical polymerization is used to make a large proportion of such copolymers, but the forcing conditions result in a lack of fine control over the architecture of the products. Herein we introduce a synthetic tool, effective under mild experimental conditions, for the precision design of unprecedented ethylene- and polar-monomer-based copolymers. We demonstrate how an organocobalt species can control the growth of the copolymer chains, their composition and the monomer distribution throughout the chain. By fine tuning the ethylene pressure during polymerization and by exploiting a unique reactive mode of the end of the organometallic chain, novel block-like copolymer structures can be prepared. This highly versatile synthetic platform provides access to a diverse range of polymer materials.

  14. THERMAL DEGRADATION AND FLAME RETARDANCY OF CALCIUM ALGINATE FIBERS

    于建; 夏延致

    2009-01-01

    Calcium alginate fibers were prepared by wet spinning of sodium alginate into a coagulating bath containing calcium chloride.The thermal degradation and flame retardancy of calcium alginate fibers were investigated with thermal gravimetry(TG),X-ray diffraction(XRD),limiting oxygen index(LOI) and cone calorimeter(CONE).The results show that calcium alginate fibers are inherently flame retardant with a LOI value of 34,and the heat release rate(HRR),total heat release(THR),CO and CO_2 concentrations during ...

  15. Biosorption of americium by alginate beads

    Borba, Tania Regina de; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Goes, Marcos Maciel de; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Sakata, Solange Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    The use of biotechnology to remove heavy metals from wastes plays great potential in treatment of radioactive wastes and therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosorption of americium by alginate beads. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. The calcium alginate beads as biosorbent were prepared and analyzed for americium uptaking. The experiments were performed in different solution activity concentrations, pH and exposure time. The results suggest that biosorption process is more efficient at pH 4 and for 75, 150, 300 Bq/mL and 120 minutes were necessary to remove almost 100% of the americium-241 from the solution. (author)

  16. Microencapsulation of probiotics using sodium alginate

    Mariana de Araújo Etchepare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of probiotics is constantly growing due to the numerous benefits conferred on the health of consumers. In this context, Microencapsulation is a technology that favors the viability of probiotic cultures in food products, mainly by the properties of protection against adverse environmental conditions and controlled release. Currently there are different procedures for microencapsulation using polymers of various types of natural and synthetic origin. The use of sodium alginate polymers is one of the largest potential application in the encapsulation of probiotics because of their versatility, biocompatibility and toxicity exemption. The aim of this review is to present viable encapsulation techniques of probiotics with alginate, emphasizing the internal ionic gelation and external ionic gelation, with the possibility of applying, as well as promising for improving these techniques.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections, frostings... chapter 0.4 Do. Sweet sauces, § 170.3(n)(43) of this chapter 0.5 Do. All other food categories 0.1... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium alginate. 184.1133 Section 184.1133 Food...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    2010-04-01

    ....1(b)(2), the ingredient is used in food only within the following specific limitations: Category of...; texturizer, § 170.3(o)(32) of this chapter. All other food categories 1.0 Emulsifier, § 170.3(o)(8) of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and...

  19. Titania-Coated Silica Alone and Modified by Sodium Alginate as Sorbents for Heavy Metal Ions

    Kołodyńska, D.; Gęca, M.; Skwarek, E.; Goncharuk, O.

    2018-04-01

    The novel organic-inorganic biohybrid composite adsorbent was synthesized based on nanosized silica-titania modified with alginate within the development of effective adsorbent for heavy metal ions. Effects of metal species Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II); concentrations; pH; temperature; and adsorption onto titania-coated silica (ST20) initial or modified by sodium alginate (ST20-ALG) were studied. The equilibrium and kinetic data of metal ions adsorption were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models and kinetic models: pseudo first order, pseudo second order, intraparticle kinetic model, and Elovich. The maximum sorption capacities observed were higher for the ST20-ALG composite compared to the initial ST20 oxide for all studied metal ions, namely their values for ST20-ALG were 22.44 mg g- 1 for Cu(II) adsorption, 19.95 mg g- 1 for Zn(II), 18.85 mg g- 1 for Cd(II), and 32.49 mg g- 1 for Pb(II). Structure and properties of initial silica-titania ST20 and modified by sodium alginate ST20-ALG adsorbents were analyzed using nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, ATR-FTIR, SEM-EDS, and pHpzc techniques.

  20. Controlled release studies of calcium alginate hydrogels

    Rendevski, S.; Andonovski, A.; Mahmudi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Controlled release of substances in many cases may be achieved from calcium alginate hydrogels. In this research, the time dependence of the mass of released model substance bovine serum albumin (BSA) from calcium alginate spherical hydrogels of three different types (G/M ratio) have been investigated. The hydrogels were prepared with the drop-wise method of sodium alginate aqueous solutions with concentration of 0.02 g/cm 3 with 0.01 g/cm 3 BSA and a gelling water bath of chitosan in 0.2 M CH 3 COOH/0.4 M CH 3 COONa with added 0.2 M CaCl 2 .The hydrogel structures were characterized by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The controlled release studies were conducted by UV-Vis spectrophotometry of the released medium with p H=7 at 37 °C. The results showed that the model of osmotic pumping is the dominant mechanism of the release. Also, large dependences of the release profile on the homogeneity of the hydrogels were found. (Author)

  1. Kinetics of monomer biodegradation in soil.

    Siotto, Michela; Sezenna, Elena; Saponaro, Sabrina; Innocenti, Francesco Degli; Tosin, Maurizio; Bonomo, Luca; Mezzanotte, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    In modern intensive agriculture, plastics are used in several applications (i.e. mulch films, drip irrigation tubes, string, clips, pots, etc.). Interest towards applying biodegradable plastics to replace the conventional plastics is promising. Ten monomers, which can be applied in the synthesis of potentially biodegradable polyesters, were tested according to ASTM 5988-96 (standard respirometric test to evaluate aerobic biodegradation in soil by measuring the carbon dioxide evolution): adipic acid, azelaic acid, 1,4-butanediol, 1,2-ethanediol, 1,6-hexanediol, lactic acid, glucose, sebacic acid, succinic acid and terephthalic acid. Eight replicates were carried out for each monomer for 27-45 days. The numerical code AQUASIM was applied to process the CO₂ experimental data in order to estimate values for the parameters describing the different mechanisms occurring to the monomers in soil: i) the first order solubilization kinetic constant, K(sol) (d⁻¹); ii) the first order biodegradation kinetic constant, K(b) (d⁻¹); iii) the lag time in biodegradation, t(lag) (d); and iv) the carbon fraction biodegraded but not transformed into CO₂, Y (-). The following range of values were obtained: [0.006 d⁻¹, 6.9 d⁻¹] for K(sol), [0.1 d⁻¹, 1.2 d⁻¹] for K(b), and [0.32-0.58] for Y; t(lag) was observed for azelaic acid, 1,2-ethanediol, and terephthalic acid, with estimated values between 3.0 e 4.9 d. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrophobic Coatings on Cotton Obtained by in Situ Plasma Polymerization of a Fluorinated Monomer in Ethanol Solutions.

    Molina, Ricardo; Teixidó, Josep Maria; Kan, Chi-Wai; Jovančić, Petar

    2017-02-15

    Plasma polymerization using hydrophobic monomers in the gas phase is a well-known technology to generate hydrophobic coatings. However, synthesis of functional hydrophobic coatings using plasma technology in liquids has not yet been accomplished. This work is consequently focused on polymerization of a liquid fluorinated monomer on cotton fabric initiated by atmospheric plasma in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. Functional hydrophobic coatings on cotton were successfully achieved using in situ atmospheric plasma-initiated polymerization of fluorinated monomer dissolved in ethanol. Gravimetric measurements reveal that the amount of polymer deposited on cotton substrates can be modulated with the concentration of monomer in ethanol solution, and cross-linking reactions occur during plasma polymerization of a fluorinated monomer even without the presence of a cross-linking agent. FTIR and XPS analysis were used to study the chemical composition of hydrophobic coatings and to get insights into the physicochemical processes involved in plasma treatment. SEM analysis reveals that at high monomer concentration, coatings possess a three-dimensional pattern with a characteristic interconnected porous network structure. EDX analysis reveals that plasma polymerization of fluorinated monomers takes place preferentially at the surface of cotton fabric and negligible polymerization takes place inside the cotton fabric. Wetting time measurements confirm the hydrophobicity of cotton coatings obtained although equilibrium moisture content was slightly decreased. Additionally, the abrasion behavior and resistance to washing of plasma-coated cotton has been evaluated.

  3. Monomers and polymers in a centrifugal field : a new method to produce refractive-index gradients in polymers

    Duijnhoven, van F.G.H.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    A new method is presented to generate and to fixate compositional gradients in blends of two miscible and amorphous polymers. A compositional gradient is introduced into a solution of a polymer in a monomer by use of a centrifugal field, and this gradient is subsequently fixated by polymerization of

  4. α-keratin/Alginate Biosorbent for Removal of Methylene Blue on Aqueous Solution in a Batch System

    Fadillah, G.; Putri, E. N. K.; Febrianastuti, S.; Munawaroh, H.; Purnawan, C.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2018-03-01

    Methylene Blue (MB) is a cationic dyes which is commonly used in textile industries for coloring agent. The precence of MB in water caused some negative effect on the environment and human health. Many common technologies such as membrane filtration, electrophoresis and adsorption have been widely empolyed for removal of MB in water, but the adsorption technique still has advantages than the others. In this study, removal of MB used a biosorbent α-keratin/alginate (KA). The biosorbent KA was prepared by using the encapsulation technique in CaCl2 2 % (w/v) solution. The biosorbent was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The effect of composition of α-keratin and alginate, the pH of solution and contact time on the adsorption were investigated. The optimum adsorption of MB in aqueous solution was found at the composition of α-keratin and alginate of 1:2 (w/w), the pH at 5.0 and contact time at 4 hours. The adsorption of MB on KA biosorbent was comparatively higher than α-keratin and alginate only. Adsorption of MB dyes in aqueous solution followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the dynamic adsorption model could be described through a pseudo-second order kinetics.

  5. A Controlled Drug-Delivery Experiment Using Alginate Beads

    Farrell, Stephanie; Vernengo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, cost-effective experiment which introduces students to drug delivery and modeling using alginate beads. Students produce calcium alginate beads loaded with drug and measure the rate of release from the beads for systems having different stir rates, geometries, extents of cross-linking, and drug molecular weight.…

  6. Copolymerization of Carbon–carbon Double-bond Monomer (Styrene with Cyclic Monomer (Tetrahydrofuran

    Sari Fouad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We reported in this work that the cationic copolymerization in one step takes place between carbon–carbon double-bond monomer styrene with cyclic monomer tetrahydrofuran. The comonomers studied belong to different families: vinylic and cyclic ether. The reaction is initiated with maghnite-H+ an acid exchanged montmorillonite as acid solid ecocatalyst. Maghnite-H+ is already used as catalyst for polymerization of many vinylic and heterocyclic monomers. The oxonium ion of tetrahydrofuran and carbonium ion of styrene propagated the reaction of copolymerization. The acetic anhydride is essential for the maintenance of the ring opening of tetrahydrofuran and the entry in copolymerization. The temperature was kept constant at 40°C in oil bath heating for 6 hours. A typical reaction product was analyzed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and IR and the formation of the copolymer was confirmed. The reaction was proved by matched with analysis. The maghnite-H+ allowed us to obtain extremely pure copolymer in good yield by following a simples operational conditions. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 29th October 2012; Revised: 29th November 2012; Accepted: 29th November 2012[How to Cite: S. Fouad, M.I. Ferrahi, M. Belbachir. (2012. Copolymerization of Carbon–carbon Double-bond Monomer (Styrene with Cyclic Monomer (Tetrahydrofuran. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 165-171. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4074.165-171][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4074.165-171 ] | View in 

  7. The Physico-Mechanical Properties and Release Kinetics of Eugenol in Chitosan-Alginate Polyelectrolyte Complex Films as Active Food Packaging

    Baiq Amelia Riyandari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A study of eugenol release and its kinetics model from chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte complex (PEC films has been conducted. Some factors that affected the eugenol release were also studied, including the composition of chitosan-alginate PEC and the concentration of eugenol. The chitosan-alginate-eugenol PEC films were synthesized at pH ± 4.0, then the PEC films were characterized using a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectrophotometer. An investigation of the films’ properties was also conducted, including morphology analysis using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, differential thermal analysis (DTA / thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, mechanical strength, transparency testing, water absorption, and water vapor permeability. The release of eugenol was investigated through in vitro assay in ethanol 96% (v/v for four days, and the concentration of eugenol was measured using an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The characterization of the films using FTIR showed that the formation of PEC occurred through ionic interaction between the amine groups (–NH3+of the chitosan and the carboxylate groups (–COO– of the alginate. The result showed that the composition of chitosan-alginate PEC and the concentration of eugenol can affect the release of eugenol from PEC films. A higher concentration of alginate and eugenol could increase the concentration of eugenol that was released from the films. The mechanism for the release of eugenol from chitosan-alginate PEC films followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas model with an n value of < 0.5, which means the release mechanism for eugenol was controlled by a Fickian diffusion process. The antioxidant activity assay of the films using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method resulted in a high radical scavenging activity (RSA value of 55.99% in four days.

  8. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    There is increasing demand for sources of energy and non-meat protein with balanced amino acid profiles worldwide. Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value due to their high fat content. Kernels from two wild fruits in Mozambique, Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea, were ...

  9. Applications of Alginate-Based Bioinks in 3D Bioprinting

    Axpe, Eneko; Oyen, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is on the cusp of permitting the direct fabrication of artificial living tissue. Multicellular building blocks (bioinks) are dispensed layer by layer and scaled for the target construct. However, only a few materials are able to fulfill the considerable requirements for suitable bioink formulation, a critical component of efficient 3D bioprinting. Alginate, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, is clearly the most commonly employed material in current bioinks. Here, we discuss the benefits and disadvantages of the use of alginate in 3D bioprinting by summarizing the most recent studies that used alginate for printing vascular tissue, bone and cartilage. In addition, other breakthroughs in the use of alginate in bioprinting are discussed, including strategies to improve its structural and degradation characteristics. In this review, we organize the available literature in order to inspire and accelerate novel alginate-based bioink formulations with enhanced properties for future applications in basic research, drug screening and regenerative medicine. PMID:27898010

  10. Applications of Alginate-Based Bioinks in 3D Bioprinting.

    Axpe, Eneko; Oyen, Michelle L

    2016-11-25

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is on the cusp of permitting the direct fabrication of artificial living tissue. Multicellular building blocks (bioinks) are dispensed layer by layer and scaled for the target construct. However, only a few materials are able to fulfill the considerable requirements for suitable bioink formulation, a critical component of efficient 3D bioprinting. Alginate, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, is clearly the most commonly employed material in current bioinks. Here, we discuss the benefits and disadvantages of the use of alginate in 3D bioprinting by summarizing the most recent studies that used alginate for printing vascular tissue, bone and cartilage. In addition, other breakthroughs in the use of alginate in bioprinting are discussed, including strategies to improve its structural and degradation characteristics. In this review, we organize the available literature in order to inspire and accelerate novel alginate-based bioink formulations with enhanced properties for future applications in basic research, drug screening and regenerative medicine.

  11. Novel biochar-impregnated calcium alginate beads with improved water holding and nutrient retention properties.

    Wang, Bing; Gao, Bin; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Zheng, Yulin; Lyu, Honghong

    2018-03-01

    Drought conditions and nutrients loss have serious impacts on soil quality as well as crop yields in agroecosystems. New techniques are needed to carry out effective soil water and nutrient conservation and fertilizer application tools. Here, calcium alginate (CA) beads impregnated with ball-milled biochar (BMB) were investigated as a new type of water/nutrients retention agent. Both CA and Ca-alginate/ball milled biochar composite (CA-BMB) beads showed high kinetic swelling ratios in KNO 3 solution and low kinetic swelling ratios in water, indicating that CA-BMB beads have the potential to retain mineral nitrogen and nutrients by ion exchange. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model well-described the swelling kinetics of both beads in KNO 3 solution. Over a range of temperatures, the characteristics of dehydration suggested that impregnation with BMB improved the water holding capacity and postponed the dehydration time of Ca-alginate. The cumulative swelling and release characteristics of water, K + , and NO 3 - indicated that CA-BMB beads have great potential as a soil amendment to improve its nutrient retention and water holding capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chitosan/alginate based multilayers to control drug release from ophthalmic lens.

    Silva, Diana; Pinto, Luís F V; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Santos, Luís F; Serro, Ana Paula; Saramago, Benilde

    2016-11-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using layer-by-layer deposition, based in natural polymers (chitosan and alginate), to control the release of different ophthalmic drugs from three types of lens materials: a silicone-based hydrogel recently proposed by our group as drug releasing soft contact lens (SCL) material and two commercially available materials: CI26Y for intraocular lens (IOLs) and Definitive 50 for SCLs. The optimised coating, consisting in one double layer of (alginate - CaCl2)/(chitosan+glyoxal) topped with a final alginate-CaCl2 layer to avoid chitosan degradation by tear fluid proteins, proved to have excellent features to control the release of the anti-inflammatory, diclofenac, while keeping or improving the physical properties of the lenses. The coating leads to a controlled release of diclofenac from SCL and IOL materials for, at least, one week. Due to its high hydrophilicity (water contact angle≈0) and biocompatibility, it should avoid the use of further surface treatments to enhance the useŕs comfort. However, the barrier effect of this coating is specific for diclofenac, giving evidence to the need of optimizing the chemical composition of the layers in view of the desired drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of sodium alginate/PVA antibacterial nanofibers by the incorporation of essential oils

    Rafiq, M.; Hussain, T.; Abid, S.; Nazir, A.; Masood, R.

    2018-03-01

    Electrospinning is a well known method for the manufacturing of nanoscale fibers. Electrospun nanofibers have higher surface area to volume ratio and can be used for the incorporation of different materials. Essential oils are well known for their antimicrobial and healing properties since ancient times. The main objective of this study was to develop antibacterial nanofibers by the incorporation of essential oils in sodium alginate/PVA solution. Sodium alginate and PVA have excellent biocompatible properties which are the base of their use in wound care applications. Three different essential oils (cinnamon, clove, and lavender) at three different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) were used to optimize the fiber forming conditions during electrospinning and then the desired antibacterial properties were evaluated. Addition of oils in PVA/SA solutions increased the viscosity but reduced the surface tension and conductivity as compared to pure PVA/sodium alginate solution. FTIR Spectra of composite fibers verified the successful incorporation of essential oils in nanofibers through electrospinning. All oil containing samples showed good antibacterial properties against staphylococcus aureus which make them a good replacement of antibiotics. Cinnamon oil loaded nanofibers showed the best results among selected oils regarding the antibacterial properties. Nanofibers with 1.5% cinnamon oil exhibited highest zone of inhabitation of 2.7 cm. Nanofibrous coated cotton gauze showed higher liquid absorptions as compared to simple cotton gauze and potential to be used as wound dressings for its improved liquid absorption and antibacterial activity.

  14. Electrosprayed Multi-Core Alginate Microcapsules as Novel Self-Healing Containers.

    Hia, Iee Lee; Pasbakhsh, Pooria; Chan, Eng-Seng; Chai, Siang-Piao

    2016-10-03

    Alginate microcapsules containing epoxy resin were developed through electrospraying method and embedded into epoxy matrix to produce a capsule-based self-healing composite system. These formaldehyde free alginate/epoxy microcapsules were characterized via light microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Results showed that epoxy resin was successfully encapsulated within alginate matrix to form porous (multi-core) microcapsules with pore size ranged from 5-100 μm. The microcapsules had an average size of 320 ± 20 μm with decomposition temperature at 220 °C. The loading capacity of these capsules was estimated to be 79%. Under in situ healing test, impact specimens showed healing efficiency as high as 86% and the ability to heal up to 3 times due to the multi-core capsule structure and the high impact energy test that triggered the released of epoxy especially in the second and third healings. TDCB specimens showed one-time healing only with the highest healing efficiency of 76%. The single healing event was attributed by the constant crack propagation rate of TDCB fracture test. For the first time, a cost effective, environmentally benign and sustainable capsule-based self-healing system with multiple healing capabilities and high healing performance was developed.

  15. Dimensional changes of alginate dental impression materials.

    Nallamuthu, N; Braden, M; Patel, M P

    2006-12-01

    The weight loss and corresponding dimensional changes of two dental alginate impression materials have been studied. The weight loss kinetics indicate this to be a diffusion controlled process, but with a boundary condition at the surface of the concentration decreasing exponentially with time. This is in marked contrast to most desorption processes, where the surface concentration becomes instantaneously zero. The appropriate theory has been developed for an exponential boundary condition, and its predictions compared with experimental data; the agreement was satisfactory. The diffusion coefficients for two thicknesses of the same material were not identical as predicted by theory; the possible reasons for this are discussed.

  16. Interference of functional monomers with polymerization efficiency of adhesives.

    Hanabusa, Masao; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Okihara, Takumi; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Momoi, Yasuko; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2016-04-01

    The degree of conversion (DC) of camphorquinone/amine-based adhesives is affected by acidic functional monomers as a result of inactivation of the amine co-initiator through an acid-base reaction. During bonding, functional monomers of self-etch adhesives chemically interact with hydroxyapatite (HAp). Here, we tested in how far the latter interaction of functional monomers with HAp counteracts the expected reduction in DC of camphorquinone/amine-based adhesives. The DC of three experimental adhesive formulations, containing either of the two functional monomers [10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) or 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic acid anhydride (4-META)] or no functional monomer (no-FM; control), was measured with and without HAp powder added to the adhesive formulations. Both the variables 'functional monomer' and 'HAp' were found to be significant, with the functional monomer reducing the DC and HAp counteracting this effect. It is concluded that the functional monomers 10-MDP and 4-META interfere with the polymerization efficiency of adhesives. This interference is less prominent in the presence of HAp, which would clinically correspond to when these two functional monomers of the adhesive simultaneously interact with HAp in tooth tissue. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  17. The effect of monomer molecular weight on grafting reaction

    Wu Minghong; Ding Zhongli; Ma Zueteh

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, some condensed ethylene glycol acrylate monomers with different molecular weight being grafted to the PE film by means of pre-irradiation is reported. The effect of molecular weight of monomer on grafting reaction and the hydrophilicity of grafting sample have been discussed. The experimental results show: molar degrees of grafting decreased non-linearly with the increasement of molecular weight of monomer, the grafting reaction of polymer is greater effected by the swelling degree of PE film, the greater the swelling degree of grafting material, the higher the grating degree grafting is, the initial rate of grafting reaction decreased with the increasement of molecular weight of monomer. (author)

  18. Alginate/nanohydroxyapatite scaffolds with designed core/shell structures fabricated by 3D plotting and in situ mineralization for bone tissue engineering.

    Luo, Yongxiang; Lode, Anja; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang; Gelinsky, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Composite scaffolds, especially polymer/hydroxyapatite (HAP) composite scaffolds with predesigned structures, are promising materials for bone tissue engineering. Various methods including direct mixing of HAP powder with polymers or incubating polymer scaffolds in simulated body fluid for preparing polymer/HAP composite scaffolds are either uncontrolled or require long times of incubation. In this work, alginate/nano-HAP composite scaffolds with designed pore parameters and core/shell structures were fabricated using 3D plotting technique and in situ mineralization under mild conditions (at room temperature and without the use of any organic solvents). Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, microcomputer tomography, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to characterize the fabricated scaffolds. Mechanical properties and protein delivery of the scaffolds were evaluated, as well as the cell response to the scaffolds by culturing human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC). The obtained data indicate that this method is suitable to fabricate alginate/nano-HAP composite scaffolds with a layer of nano-HAP, coating the surface of the alginate strands homogeneously and completely. The surface mineralization enhanced the mechanical properties and improved the cell attachment and spreading, as well as supported sustaining protein release, compared to pure alginate scaffolds without nano-HAP shell layer. The results demonstrated that the method provides an interesting option for bone tissue engineering application.

  19. THE UTILIZATION OF ACHATINA FULICA MUCUS IN ALGINATE MEMBRANE AS WOUND HEALING ACCELERATOR AND ANTI- INFECTION MATERIAL

    Fatkhunisa Rahmawati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound should be covered with bandage that is called wound dressing. Most people use synthetic materials such as gauze dressing. Gauze has high absorption of NaCl, which is often used to cleanse the wound. However, discomfort and pain arise since the gauze becomes sticky on the wound. Therefore, we need other alternatives instead of gauze to cover wound. One such alternative is the alginate membrane. This study used alginate membrane with mixture of mucous of the snail Achatina fulica, which contain proteins such as proline, serine asparagine, glycosaminoglycan, hydroxylysine, trionin and so forth, to activate the growth factor. Alginate powder and carboxymethl cellulose (CMC was dissolved in distilled water mixed with mucus of the snail Achatina fulica in four variations (4:0; 4:1, 4:2, 4:3 through a magnetic stirrer, and casted on a baking sheet covered with sterile gauze. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC test showed that the glycosaminoglycan content was found on the mucous of Achatina fulica. This was indicated by the appearance of peak at 325–350 second. The most optimum alginate and mucus composition was in ratio of 4:2. This ratio resulted in a wound dressing that was still able to absorb the exudate and optimally accelerated wound healing.

  20. Design and evaluate alginate nanoparticles as a protein delivery system

    Saraei, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, encapsulation of drugs and antigens in hydrogels, specifically in calcium alginate particles, is an interesting and practical technique that was developed widespread. It is well known that alginate solution, under proper conditions, can form suitable nanoparticles as a promising carrier system, for vaccine delivery. The aim of this study was to synthesis alginate nanoparticles as protein carrier and to evaluate the influence of various factors on nanoparticles properties. Alginate nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method. Briefly, various concentrations of CaCl2 were added to different concentrations of sodium alginate dropwisly by homogenizing magnetically at 1300 rpm. The effects of homogenization time and (- rate were investigated on nanoparticle feature. Nanoparticles were characterized for their morphology and size distribution. Evaluation of loading capacity and loading efficiency of nanoparticles were performed by using various concentration of BSA. The concentration of 0.3%w/v sodium alginate and 0.1%w/v CaCl2 solution, homogenization time 45 min and homogenization rate 1300 rpm were observed as suitable condition - to prepare optimized nanoparticles. It can be concluded that the properties of nanoparticles are strongly dependent on the physicochemical conditions. The optimum concentrations of alginate and CaCl2and appropriate condition led to forming desirable nanoparticles that can be used as carrier for drug and vaccine delivery.

  1. Alginate based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Valente, J.F.A.; Valente, T.A.M. [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Alves, P.; Ferreira, P. [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, A. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespaciais, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Correia, I.J., E-mail: icorreia@ubi.pt [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal)

    2012-12-01

    The design and production of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration is yet unable to completely reproduce the native bone properties. In the present study new alginate microparticle and microfiber aggregated scaffolds were produced to be applied in this area of regenerative medicine. The scaffolds' mechanical properties were characterized by thermo mechanical assays. Their morphological characteristics were evaluated by isothermal nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The density of both types of scaffolds was determined by helium pycnometry and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Furthermore, scaffolds' cytotoxic profiles were evaluated in vitro by seeding human osteoblast cells in their presence. The results obtained showed that scaffolds have good mechanical and morphological properties compatible with their application as bone substitutes. Moreover, scaffold's biocompatibility was confirmed by the observation of cell adhesion and proliferation after 5 days of being seeded in their presence and by non-radioactive assays. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design and production of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microparticle and microfiber alginate scaffolds were produced through a particle aggregation technique; Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaffolds' mechanically and biologically properties were characterized through in vitro studies;.

  2. Oxygen transfer rate during the production of alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii under oxygen-limited and non oxygen-limited conditions

    Peña Carlos F

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oxygen transfer rate (OTR and dissolved oxygen tension (DOT play an important role in determining alginate production and its composition; however, no systematic study has been reported about the independent influence of the OTR and DOT. In this paper, we report a study about alginate production and the evolution of the molecular mass of the polymer produced by a wild-type A. vinelandii strain ATCC 9046, in terms of the maximum oxygen transfer rate (OTRmax in cultures where the dissolved oxygen tension (DOT was kept constant. Results The results revealed that in the two dissolved oxygen conditions evaluated, strictly controlled by gas blending at 0.5 and 5% DOT, an increase in the agitation rate (from 300 to 700 rpm caused a significant increase in the OTRmax (from 17 to 100 mmol L-1 h-1 for DOT of 5% and from 6 to 70 mmol L-1 h-1 for DOT of 0.5%. This increase in the OTRmax improved alginate production, as well as the specific alginate production rate (SAPR, reaching a maximal alginate concentration of 3.1 g L-1 and a SAPR of 0.031 g alg g biom-1 h-1 in the cultures at OTRmax of 100 mmol L-1 h-1. In contrast, the mean molecular mass (MMM of the alginate isolated from cultures developed under non-oxygen limited conditions increased by decreasing the OTRmax, reaching a maximal of 550 kDa at an OTRmax of 17 mmol L-1 h-1 . However, in the cultures developed under oxygen limitation (0.5% DOT, the MMM of the polymer was practically the same (around 200 kDa at 300 and 700 rpm, and this remained constant throughout the cultivation. Conclusions Overall, our results showed that under oxygen-limited and non oxygen-limited conditions, alginate production and its molecular mass are linked to the OTRmax, independently of the DOT of the culture.

  3. Partial swelling of latex particles by two monomers

    Noel, E.F.J.; Maxwell, I.A.; German, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    The swelling of polymeric latex particles with solvent and monomer is of great importance for the emulsion polymn. process in regard to compn. drift and rate of polymn. For the monomer combination, Me acrylate-vinyl acetate, both satn. and partial swelling were detd. exptl. Theories for satn.

  4. Oligonucleotides with 1,4-dioxane-based nucleotide monomers

    Madsen, Andreas S; Wengel, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    An epimeric mixture of H-phosphonates 5R and 5S has been synthesized in three steps from known secouridine 1. Separation of the epimers has been accomplished by RP-HPLC, allowing full characterization and incorporation of monomers X and Y into 9-mer oligonucleotides using H-phosphonates building...... blocks 5R and 5S, respectively. A single incorporation of either monomer X or monomer Y in the central position of a DNA 9-mer results in decreased thermal affinity toward both DNA and RNA complements (ΔT(m) = -3.5 °C/-3.5 °C for monomer X and ΔT(m) = -11.0 °C/-6.5 °C for monomer Y). CD measurements do...

  5. Graft copolymers of polypropylene films. 1. radiation induced grafting of mixed monomers. Vol. 3

    El-Salmawi, K.M.; El-Naggar, A.M.; Said, H.M.; Zahran, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation graft copolymerization of co monomer mixtures of acrylic acid (AAC), and styrene (S) onto polypropylene (PP) film by mutual method has been investigated. The effects of different factors that may affect the grafting yield such as inhibitor concentration (Mohr's salt), solvent composition (MeOH and H 2 O), radiation dose and dose rate were considered. It was found that the role of Mohr's salt is very effective when the ratio of AAC in the co monomer mixtures was at lower values. However, the addition of 1.25 Wt% of Mohr's salt reduced the homo polymer formation and enhances the grafting process. Graft copolymerization in presence of solvent mixture composed of methanol and water was found to afford higher grafting than in pure methanol regardless of the composition of the co monomer mixture used. However, the highest degree of grafting was obtained at a solvent composition of 20% H 2 O:80%MeOH and a co monomer mixture of 20%AAC:80%sty. An attempt was made to determine each PAAC and PS fractions in the total graft yield obtained. Two methods of analysis based on using the reactivity ratios reported in literature, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The determination of poly (acrylic acid) and polystyrene fractions by elemental analysis is believed more accurate than these by reactivity ratio. The precise results obtained by elemental analysis with respect to the chemical structure of known polymer prepared under identical conditions. The results obtained by IR measurements go well with that obtained with the reactivity ratio methods. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Graft copolymers of polypropylene films. 1. radiation induced grafting of mixed monomers. Vol. 3

    El-Salmawi, K M; El-Naggar, A M; Said, H M; Zahran, A H [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Radiation graft copolymerization of co monomer mixtures of acrylic acid (AAC), and styrene (S) onto polypropylene (PP) film by mutual method has been investigated. The effects of different factors that may affect the grafting yield such as inhibitor concentration (Mohr`s salt), solvent composition (MeOH and H{sub 2} O), radiation dose and dose rate were considered. It was found that the role of Mohr`s salt is very effective when the ratio of AAC in the co monomer mixtures was at lower values. However, the addition of 1.25 Wt% of Mohr`s salt reduced the homo polymer formation and enhances the grafting process. Graft copolymerization in presence of solvent mixture composed of methanol and water was found to afford higher grafting than in pure methanol regardless of the composition of the co monomer mixture used. However, the highest degree of grafting was obtained at a solvent composition of 20% H{sub 2} O:80%MeOH and a co monomer mixture of 20%AAC:80%sty. An attempt was made to determine each PAAC and PS fractions in the total graft yield obtained. Two methods of analysis based on using the reactivity ratios reported in literature, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The determination of poly (acrylic acid) and polystyrene fractions by elemental analysis is believed more accurate than these by reactivity ratio. The precise results obtained by elemental analysis with respect to the chemical structure of known polymer prepared under identical conditions. The results obtained by IR measurements go well with that obtained with the reactivity ratio methods. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Potential Biomedical Application of Enzymatically Treated Alginate/Chitosan Hydrosols in Sponges—Biocompatible Scaffolds Inducing Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells

    Anna Zimoch-Korzycka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current regenerative strategies used for cartilage repair rely on biomaterial functionality as a scaffold for cells that may have potential in chondrogenic differentiation. The purpose of the research was to investigate the biocompatibility of enzymatically treated alginate/chitosan hydrosol sponges and their suitability to support chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose derived multipotent stromal cells (hASCs. The alginate/chitosan and enzyme/alginate/chitosan sponges were formed from hydrosols with various proportions and were used as a biomaterial in this study. Sponges were tested for porosity and wettability. The porosity of each sponge was higher than 80%. An equal dose of alginate and chitosan in the composition of sponges improved their swelling ability. It was found that equal concentrations of alginate and chitosan in hydrosols sponges assure high biocompatibility properties that may be further improved by enzymatic treatment. Importantly, the high biocompatibility of these biomaterials turned out to be crucial in the context of hydrosols’ pro-chondrogenic function. After exposure to the chondrogenic conditions, the hASCs in N/A/C and L/A/C sponges formed well developed nodules and revealed increased expression of collagen type II, aggrecan and decreased expression of collagen type I. Moreover, in these cultures, the reactive oxygen species level was lowered while superoxide dismutase activity increased. Based on the obtained results, we conclude that N/A/C and L/A/C sponges may have prospective application as hASCs carriers for cartilage repair.

  8. The influence of storage duration on the setting time of type 1 alginate impression material

    Rahmadina, A.; Triaminingsih, S.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    Alginate is one of the most commonly used dental impression materials; however, its setting time is subject to change depending on storage conditions and duration. This creates problems because consumer carelessness can affect alginate shelf life and quality. In the present study, the setting times of two groups of type I alginate with different expiry dates was tested. The first group consisted of 11 alginate specimens that had not yet passed the expiry date, and the second group consisted of alginates that had passed the expiry date. The alginate powder was mixed with distilled water, poured into a metal ring, and tested with a polished rod of poly-methyl methacrylate. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the setting times of the alginate that had not passed the expiry date (157 ± 3 seconds) and alginate that had passed the expiry date (144 ± 2 seconds). These findings indicate that storage duration can affect alginate setting time.

  9. Removal of organic dyes by magnetic alginate beads.

    Rocher, Vincent; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Cabuil, Valérie; Bee, Agnès

    2008-02-01

    This study deals with the development of a clean and safe process for water pollution remediation. We have synthesized a magnetic adsorbent in order to develop a solid-phase extraction process assisted by a magnetic field. To follow an 'ecoconception' approach, magnetic beads containing magnetic nanoparticles and activated carbon are prepared with a biopolymer extracted from algae, sodium alginate. The use of renewable bioresources of low cost and those disposable in large amount allows the development of a product with a low impact on the environment. The adsorption properties of activated carbon and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles are combined to produce an interesting magnetic composite. Synthesis and characterization of the magnetic beads have been reported. Their adsorption capacity was investigated by measuring the removal of two dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) of different charges from aqueous solutions. The efficiency of the beads has been compared with that of non-encapsulated activated carbon. The effects of initial dye concentration, pH and calcium content of the beads have been studied. Adsorption kinetics experiments have been carried out and the data have been well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation.

  10. Adsorption studies of phosphate ions on alginate- calcium ...

    user

    osmosis, electro dialysis, phytoremediation and phyto- extraction, ion-exchange .... occurred between functional groups of alginate and host material, that is, calcium .... metal ions using wheat based biosorbent; a review of the recent literature.

  11. Ca alginate as scaffold for iron oxide nanoparticles synthesis

    P. V. Finotelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nanotechnology has developed to a stage that makes it possible to process magnetic nanoparticles for the site-specific delivery of drugs. To this end, it has been proposed as biomaterial for drug delivery system in which the drug release rates would be activated by a magnetic external stimuli. Alginate has been used extensively in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical industries for their gel forming properties in the presence of multivalent cations. In this study, we produced iron oxide nanoparticles by coprecipitation of Fe(III and Fe(II. The nanoparticles were entrapped in Ca alginate beads before and after alginate gelation. XRD analysis showed that particles should be associated to magnetite or maghemite with crystal size of 9.5 and 4.3 nm, respectively. Studies using Mössbauer spectroscopy corroborate the superparamagnetic behavior. The combination of magnetic properties and the biocompatibility of alginate suggest that this biomaterial may be used as biomimetic system.

  12. The Alginate Demonstration: Polymers, Food Science, and Ion Exchange

    Waldman, Amy Sue; Schechinger, Linda; Govindarajoo, Geeta; Nowick, James S.; Pignolet, Louis H.

    1998-11-01

    We have recently devised a polymer demonstration involving the crosslinking and decrosslinking of alginate, a polysaccharide isolated from seaweed. The polymer is composed of D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid subunits and is a component of cell walls. It is commonly used as a thickener in foods such as ice cream and fruit-filled snacks. For the demonstration, a 2% solution of sodium alginate is poured into a 1% solution of calcium chloride. Nontoxic calcium alginate "worms" form due to crosslinking of the polymer. Alternatively, the commercially available antacid Gaviscon can be used as a source of sodium alginate. The crosslinks can then be broken by shaking the worms in brine. The demonstration is a fine addition to any chemical educator's repertoire of polymer experiments.

  13. Alginate-Chitosan Particulate System for Sustained Release of ...

    Erah

    1School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2Division of ... Both calcium alginate beads and the beads treated with chitosan failed to release ..... also found to fit the classical power law.

  14. Preparation of alginate coated chitosan microparticles for vaccine delivery

    Wei YuQuan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Absorption of antigens onto chitosan microparticles via electrostatic interaction is a common and relatively mild process suitable for mucosal vaccine. In order to increase the stability of antigens and prevent an immediate desorption of antigens from chitosan carriers in gastrointestinal tract, coating onto BSA loaded chitosan microparticles with sodium alginate was performed by layer-by-layer technology to meet the requirement of mucosal vaccine. Results The prepared alginate coated BSA loaded chitosan microparticles had loading efficiency (LE of 60% and loading capacity (LC of 6% with mean diameter of about 1 μm. When the weight ratio of alginate/chitosan microparticles was greater than 2, the stable system could be obtained. The rapid charge inversion of BSA loaded chitosan microparticles (from +27 mv to -27.8 mv was observed during the coating procedure which indicated the presence of alginate layer on the chitosan microparticles surfaces. According to the results obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the core-shell structure of BSA loaded chitosan microparticles was observed. Meanwhile, in vitro release study indicated that the initial burst release of BSA from alginate coated chitosan microparticles was lower than that observed from uncoated chitosan microparticles (40% in 8 h vs. about 84% in 0.5 h. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE assay showed that alginate coating onto chitosan microparticles could effectively protect the BSA from degradation or hydrolysis in acidic condition for at least 2 h. The structural integrity of alginate modified chitosan microparticles incubated in PBS for 24 h was investigated by FTIR. Conclusion The prepared alginate coated chitosan microparticles, with mean diameter of about 1 μm, was suitable for oral mucosal vaccine. Moreover, alginate coating onto the surface of chitosan microparticles could modulate the release behavior of BSA from alginate coated chitosan

  15. Alginate prevention of internal irradiation with 90Sr

    Korzun, V.N.; Voronova, Yu.G.; Parats, A.N.; Podkorytova, A.V.; Rogal'skaya, L.A.; Saglo, V.I.; Skorikova, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    Recipes of foodstaffs (meat and vegetable preserves, bread, pastry, dairy products, etc.) containing sodium or calcium alginates in doses 0.5-3.0 g have been developed. Experiments with white rats have demonstrated that addition of such products to daily radions of these animals reduced 2-4-fold the accumulation of radioactive Sr taken daily with food for 30 days. Alginates and Crambe added to food preserve their ability to reduce the accumulation of radioactive Sr

  16. Study on biosorption of uranium by alginate immobilized saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Wang Baoe; Xu Weichang; Xie Shuibo; Guo Yangbin

    2005-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has great capability of biosorption of uranium. The maxium uptake is 172.4 mg/g according to this study. To adapt to the application of the biomass in the field, the biosorption of uranium by cross-linked and alginate calcium immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae is studied. Results indicate the maxium uptake is 185.2 mg/g by formaldehyde cross-linked biomass, and it is 769.2 mg/g by alginate calcium immobilized biomass. (authors)

  17. Semi-interpenetrating network of acrylamide-grafted-sodium alginate microspheres for controlled release of diclofenac sodium, preparation and characterization.

    Al-Kahtani, Ahmed A; Sherigara, B S

    2014-03-01

    The semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPNs) of acrylamide grafted sodium alginate (AAm-g-NaAlg) microspheres (MPs) were prepared by emulsion-crosslinking method using glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinking agent. The grafting of acrylamide onto sodium alginate was prepared by free-radical graft polymerization using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as initiator at three acrylamide concentrations with monomer to polymer ratio of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, respectively. The grafting efficiency was found to be 91%. The produced MPs are almost spherical in nature with smooth surfaces. Diclofenac sodium (DS), an anti-inflammatory drug was successfully encapsulated into the MPs. The encapsulation efficiency was found to vary between 83% and 95%. The MPs were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The diffusion coefficient (D) was dependent upon the amount of crosslinking agent (GA) and amount of grafting ratio in the matrix. The rate of release was found to be dependent on the amount of GA, AAm:NaAlg grafting ratio and % drug loading in the MPs. The release data have been fitted to an empirical equation to investigate the diffusional exponent (n), which indicated that the release mechanism from MPs follows the super Case II transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Alginate: A Versatile Biomaterial to Encapsulate Isolated Ovarian Follicles.

    Vanacker, Julie; Amorim, Christiani A

    2017-07-01

    In vitro culture of ovarian follicles isolated or enclosed in ovarian tissue fragments and grafting of isolated ovarian follicles represent a potential alternative to restore fertility in cancer patients who cannot undergo cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes or transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue. In this regard, respecting the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of isolated follicles is crucial to maintaining their proper follicular physiology. To this end, alginate hydrogel has been widely investigated using follicles from numerous animal species, yielding promising results. The goal of this review is therefore to provide an overview of alginate applications utilizing the biomaterial as a scaffold for 3D encapsulation of isolated ovarian follicles. Different methods of isolated follicle encapsulation in alginate are discussed in this review, as its use of 3D alginate culture systems as a tool for in vitro follicle analysis. Possible improvements of this matrix, namely modification with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide or combination with fibrin, are also summarized. Encouraging results have been obtained in different animal models, and particularly with isolated follicles encapsulated in alginate matrices and grafted to mice. This summary is designed to guide the reader towards development of next-generation alginate scaffolds, with enhanced properties for follicle encapsulation.

  19. Highly Efficient Synthesis of Allopurinol Locked Nucleic Acid Monomer by C6 Deamination of 8-Aza-7-bromo-7-deazaadenine Locked Nucleic Acid Monomer

    Kosbar, Tamer Reda El-Saeed; Sofan, M.; Abou-Zeid, L.

    2013-01-01

    An allopurinol locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomer was prepared by a novel strategy through C6 deamination of the corresponding 8-aza-7-bromo-7-deazaadenine LNA monomer with aqueous sodium hydroxide. An 8-aza-7-deazaadenine LNA monomer was also synthesized by a modification of the new synthetic...... the required LNA monomers....

  20. Redesign of the monomer-monomer interface of Cre recombinase yields an obligate heterotetrameric complex.

    Zhang, Chi; Myers, Connie A; Qi, Zongtai; Mitra, Robi D; Corbo, Joseph C; Havranek, James J

    2015-10-15

    Cre recombinase catalyzes the cleavage and religation of DNA at loxP sites. The enzyme is a homotetramer in its functional state, and the symmetry of the protein complex enforces a pseudo-palindromic symmetry upon the loxP sequence. The Cre-lox system is a powerful tool for many researchers. However, broader application of the system is limited by the fixed sequence preferences of Cre, which are determined by both the direct DNA contacts and the homotetrameric arrangement of the Cre monomers. As a first step toward achieving recombination at arbitrary asymmetric target sites, we have broken the symmetry of the Cre tetramer assembly. Using a combination of computational and rational protein design, we have engineered an alternative interface between Cre monomers that is functional yet incompatible with the wild-type interface. Wild-type and engineered interface halves can be mixed to create two distinct Cre mutants, neither of which are functional in isolation, but which can form an active heterotetramer when combined. When these distinct mutants possess different DNA specificities, control over complex assembly directly discourages recombination at unwanted half-site combinations, enhancing the specificity of asymmetric site recombination. The engineered Cre mutants exhibit this assembly pattern in a variety of contexts, including mammalian cells. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. In vitro adhesion of human dermal fibroblasts on iron cross-linked alginate films

    Machida-Sano, Ikuko; Namiki, Hideo; Matsuda, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of alginate film incorporating ferric ions as a gelling agent (Fe-alginate) in comparison with that incorporating calcium ions (Ca-alginate) as a scaffold for culturing normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). NHDF adhered to Fe-alginate and proliferated well, but no growth of the cells was observed on Ca-alginate. Since vitronectin and fibronectin play pivotal roles in cellular adhesion, their participation in NHDF behavior on alginate surfaces was investigated. We found that vitronectin was a critical element for initial attachment and spreading of NHDF on Fe-alginate. The surface properties of both alginate films were characterized in terms of protein adsorption ability and surface wettability, and it was revealed that Fe-alginate film adsorbed a significantly higher amount of proteins, including vitronectin and fibronectin, and had a higher surface hydrophobicity than Ca-alginate film. Moreover, under serum-free conditions, only a small number of NHDF were able to attach to the surface of Fe-alginate. Fe-alginate appeared to provide an appropriate surface for cellular attachment by adsorption of serum proteins such as vitronectin. These results suggest that Fe-alginate can serve as a scaffold for human fibroblasts and may be useful for tissue engineering research and other biomedical applications.

  2. Synthesis of New Vinyl Monomers for Chemical Agent Sensing Applications

    Hogen-Esch, Thieo

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of styrene momomer p-vinylbenzoylacetophenone (monomer i) has been carried by the acetylation of 2- chloroethylbenzene and base elimination of the resulting 4-acetyl-2-chloroethylbenzene to give 4-acetylstyrene...

  3. Cytotoxicity of alginate for orthodontic use

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of three different alginate impression materials for orthodontic use. METHODS: Three different brands of alginate were divided into three groups, namely, Group JCO (Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho, OP (Orthoprint and CO (Cavex Orthotrace. Three control groups were also included: Group C+ (positive control, consisting of detergent Tween 80; Group C- (negative control, consisting of PBS, and Group CC (cell control, consisting of cells not exposed to any material. After manipulating the materials according to the respective manufacturer instructions, samples were made with the use of silicon rings. Then the samples were immersed in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM for 2 minutes. The supernatants were then removed and brought into direct contact with L929 fibroblasts. After exposure to the medium, the cells were incubated for 24 hours. Then 100 µl of 0.01% neutral red dye were added. The cells were incubated again for 3 hours so that the dye could be absorbed. After this 3-hour period, the cells were fixed to perform the viable cell count, using a spectrophotometer (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA at a wavelength of 492 nm. RESULTS: Statistical differences were found when Groups CC and C- were compared with the other experimental groups. Group JCO had the highest cytotoxicity, followed by Groups OP and CO. CONCLUSION: Based on the results obtained in this work, it was concluded that all alginate impression materials are potentially cytotoxic.OBJETIVO: avaliar a citotoxicidade de três diferentes alginatos de uso ortodôntico. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados três diferentes alginatos divididos em três grupos, denominados grupo JCO (Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho, OP (Orthoprint e CO (Carrex Orthotrace. Três grupos controle também participaram: controle + (C+, constituído pelo detergente celular Tween 80; controle - (C- PBS; e controle de célula (CC onde as células não foram expostas a nenhum material. Após manipula

  4. Monomer-dependent secondary nucleation in amyloid formation.

    Linse, Sara

    2017-08-01

    Secondary nucleation of monomers on the surface of an already existing aggregate that is formed from the same kind of monomers may lead to autocatalytic amplification of a self-assembly process. Such monomer-dependent secondary nucleation occurs during the crystallization of small molecules or proteins and self-assembled materials, as well as in protein self-assembly into fibrous structures. Indications of secondary nucleation may come from analyses of kinetic experiments starting from pure monomers or monomers supplemented with a low concentration of pre-formed aggregates (seeds). More firm evidence requires additional experiments, for example those employing isotope labels to distinguish new aggregates arising from the monomer from those resulting from fragmentation of the seed. In cases of amyloid formation, secondary nucleation leads to the formation of toxic oligomers, and inhibitors of secondary nucleation may serve as starting points for therapeutic developments. Secondary nucleation displays a high degree of structural specificity and may be enhanced by mutations or screening of electrostatic repulsion.

  5. Polymerization of impregnated monomer in wood by microwave irradiation

    Kawase, Kaoru; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi

    1976-01-01

    The manufacturing of a wood-plastic combination (WPC) by irradiation of microwave (2,450 and 915 +- 50 MHz) or gamma-ray was carried out. After the impregnation of dry woods (Hinoki: Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl., Buna: Acer mono Maxim., and Kaede: Fagus crenata Blume) with the mixture of the vinyl monomers and chemical reagents, the monomer in wood was polymerized by irradiation. In case of polymerization with microwave (2,450 MHz) the effect of oxygen was not recognized, but in the case of gamma-ray the rate of polymerization remarkably decreased in the presence of oxygen. The polymerization of various monomers was carried out also in the air, and the conversions of styrene, methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, and n-butyl-methacrylate were 51.8 -- 89.1%, but that of vinyl acetate was lower (4.3 -- 8.2%). The conversion of monomers with irradiation of 915 MHz microwave was very low (2.6 -- 33.5%). The conversion of monomers increased when toluylene diisocyanate was added in the monomers. The percentage of extraction with hot benzene of WPC (chip) decreased by the addition of toluylene diisocyanate. It was concluded from C.H.N. analyses that the reaction took place among the wood, toluylene diisocyanate and methyl methacrylate. (auth.)

  6. Properties of alginate fiber spun-dyed with fluorescent pigment dispersion.

    Wang, Ping; Tawiah, Benjamin; Tian, Anli; Wang, Chunxia; Zhang, Liping; Fu, Shaohai

    2015-03-15

    Spun-dyed alginate fiber was prepared by the spun-dyeing method with the mixture of fluorescent pigment dispersion and sodium alginate fiber spinning solution, and its properties were characterized by SEM, TGA, DSC, and XRD. The results indicate that fluorescent pigment dispersion prepared with esterified poly (styrene-alt maleic acid) had excellent compatibility with sodium alginate fiber spinning solution, and small amount of fluorescent pigment could reduce the viscosity of spun-dyed spinning solutions. SEM photo of spun-dyed alginate fiber indicated that fewer pigment particles deposited on its surface. TGA, DSC, and XRD results suggested that thermal properties and crystal phase of spun-dyed alginate fibers had slight changes compared to the original alginate fibers. The fluorescence intensity of spun-dyed alginate fiber reached its maximum when the content of fluorescent pigment was 4%. The spun-dyed alginate fiber showed excellent rubbing and washing fastness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of unreacted monomers in restorative dental resins based on dimethacrylate by NMR hydrogen; Determinacao do teor de monomero residual em resinas restauradoras a base de dimetacrilatos por RMN de hidrogenio

    Correa, Ivo Carlos; Miranda Junior, Walter G. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Materiais Dentarios]. E-mail: ivo@fo.usp.br; Tavares, Maria Ines B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: mibt@ima.ufrj.br

    2001-07-01

    The presence of unreacted monomers after photo-activation of dental composites causes mechanical and biological properties to decrease and could be detected by NMR analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage of leachable monomers of light-cured composites under the effect of variations of exposure time of photo activation by nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen in solution (NMR{sup 1}H). The composite resins tested Z250 and Fill Magic obtained similar values of unreacted monomers (%) at photo curing time suggested by the manufacturer and values were also lower than Durafill and A110 concentrations. From the NMR results, one day extractable time was efficient to quantify the amount of residual monomers in the dental composites tested, unless for Durafill composite. (author)

  8. Perturbation of the Monomer-Monomer Interfaces of the Benzoylformate Decarboxylase Tetramer

    Andrews, Forest H.; Rogers, Megan P.; Paul, Lake N.; McLeish, Michael J. [IUPUI; (Purdue)

    2014-08-14

    The X-ray structure of benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) from Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633 shows it to be a tetramer. This was believed to be typical of all thiamin diphosphate-dependent decarboxylases until recently when the structure of KdcA, a branched-chain 2-keto acid decarboxylase from Lactococcus lactis, showed it to be a homodimer. This lent credence to earlier unfolding experiments on pyruvate decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that indicated that it might be active as a dimer. To investigate this possibility in BFDC, we sought to shift the equilibrium toward dimer formation. Point mutations were made in the noncatalytic monomer–monomer interfaces, but these had a minimal effect on both tetramer formation and catalytic activity. Subsequently, the R141E/Y288A/A306F variant was shown by analytical ultracentrifugation to be partially dimeric. It was also found to be catalytically inactive. Further experiments revealed that just two mutations, R141E and A306F, were sufficient to markedly alter the dimer–tetramer equilibrium and to provide an ~450-fold decrease in kcat. Equilibrium denaturation studies suggested that the residual activity was possibly due to the presence of residual tetramer. The structures of the R141E and A306F variants, determined to <1.5 Å resolution, hinted that disruption of the monomer interfaces will be accompanied by movement of a loop containing Leu109 and Leu110. As these residues contribute to the hydrophobicity of the active site and the correct positioning of the substrate, it seems that tetramer formation may well be critical to the catalytic activity of BFDC.

  9. The Utilization of Additional Cassava Starch (Manihot Utilisima) for Alginate Dental Impression Material

    Ali Noerdin; Bambang Irawan; Mirna Febriani

    2003-01-01

    In Indonesia alginate which is a common impression material used in dentistry is still imported. Since the economic crisis in 1998 the alginate price becoming four times more expensive. This situation resulted in efforts to modify the commercial alginate as had been conducted by a dentist in South Sumatera province in Indonesia. He who had added cassava starch into the commercial alginate used to make partial denture impression. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of additio...

  10. Inverse opal pH sensors with various protic monomers copolymerized with polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate hydrogel

    Shin, Jinsub; Han, Sung Gu; Lee, Wonmok

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We polymerized four different inverse opal pH sensors by using vinyl monomers containing acidic or basic substituents. ► Stepwise swelling response from polyprotic acid sensor was investigated. ► Opposite color changing responses were obtained for acidic and basic sensors. ► Composite pH sensor with wide pH sensing range was fabricated by mixing different monomers. ► Both acid and base sensors show the response time as fast as ∼10 s. - Abstract: pH sensitive inverse opal sensors were synthesized using various vinyl monomers containing acidic or basic substituents. Acrylic acid (AA), vinylphosphonic acid (VPA), vinylimidazole (VI), and dimethylaminoethylmethacrylic acid (DMAEMA) were respectively copolymerized with hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), the building block monomer of the hydrogel via UV-initiated photopolymerization. Opal templating and subsequent template removal enabled the fabrication of four inverse opal (IO) hydrogel colorimetric sensors, which responded to pH in different fashions. pH-dependent swelling of the IO hydrogel induced the red-shift of the diffracted color. The sensors containing AA or VPA, the proton donating monomers showed the color shifts from green to red with pH increase due to the increased concentration of carboxylate anions bound to the hydrogel. Diprotic VPA sensor exhibited two-step increases of diffracted wavelengths at its pK a1 and pK a2 respectively. The sensors containing proton acceptors, VI and DMAEMA showed the pH-dependent color changes in an opposite way to the AA sensor and the VPA sensor since their ionizations take place by lowering pH due to the protonation at the amino groups. The shapes of pH response curves of VI and DMAEMA sensors were similar but pK b s were different from each other. Optical diffraction responses of four sensors were compared with the calculated concentration ratios of the ionized species to the total monomer with pH variation, and a deswelling effect in the

  11. Composites

    Kasen, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the roles of composite laminates and aggregates in cryogenic technology. Filamentary-reinforced composites are emphasized because they are the most widely used composite materials. Topics considered include composite systems and terminology, design and fabrication, composite failure, high-pressure reinforced plastic laminates, low-pressure reinforced plastics, reinforced metals, selectively reinforced structures, the effect of cryogenic temperatures, woven-fabric and random-mat composites, uniaxial fiber-reinforced composites, composite joints in cryogenic structures, joining techniques at room temperature, radiation effects, testing laminates at cryogenic temperatures, static and cyclic tensile testing, static and cyclic compression testing, interlaminar shear testing, secondary property tests, and concrete aggregates. It is suggested that cryogenic composite technology would benefit from the development of a fracture mechanics model for predicting the fitness-for-purpose of polymer-matrix composite structures

  12. Reactive mesogen photoalignment on photopolymerizable composite layer

    Mahilny, U V; Stankevich, A I; Trofimova, A V

    2016-01-01

    The volume photoanisotropy (photoinduced birefringence) and surface photoanisotropy (LC photoalignment) of compositions of LC monomer - benzaldehyde polymer upon polarized UV radiation have been revealed and investigated. A high quality of photoalignment is confirmed by an extreme value of birefringence and low imperfection of phase plates fabricated on the basis of LC monomer on composite layer. (paper)

  13. Injectable hydrogels derived from phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes

    Kim, Han-Sem; Song, Minsoo, E-mail: minsoosong00@gmail.com; Lee, Eun-Jung; Shin, Ueon Sang, E-mail: usshin12@dankook.ac.kr

    2015-06-01

    Phosphorylation of sodium alginate salt (NaAlg) was carried out using H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Et{sub 3}PO{sub 4} followed by acid–base reaction with Ca(OAc){sub 2} to give phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes (CaPAlg), as a water dispersible alginic acid derivative. The modified alginate derivatives including phosphorylated alginic acid (PAlg) and CaPAlg were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for {sup 1}H, and {sup 31}P nuclei, high resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. CaPAlg hydrogels were prepared simply by mixing CaPAlg solution (2 w/v%) with NaAlg solution (2 w/v%) in various ratios (2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2) of volume. No additional calcium salts such as CaSO{sub 4} or CaCl{sub 2} were added externally. The gelation was completed within about 3–40 min indicating a high potential of hydrogel delivery by injection in vivo. Their mechanical properties were tested to be ≤ 6.7 kPa for compressive strength at break and about 8.4 kPa/mm for elastic modulus. SEM analysis of the CaPAlg hydrogels showed highly porous morphology with interconnected pores of width in the range of 100–800 μm. Cell culture results showed that the injectable hydrogels exhibited comparable properties to the pure alginate hydrogel in terms of cytotoxicity and 3D encapsulation of cells for a short time period. The developed injectable hydrogels showed suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for injection in vivo, and could therefore be beneficial for the field of soft tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Preparation of water-soluble alginic acid complexes with calcium phosphate • Self-assembly of the phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes with sodium alginate • Preparation of injectable hydrogels with diverse gelation times within about 3–40 min.

  14. Development of multifunctional nano/ultrafiltration membrane based on a chitosan thin film on alginate electrospun nanofibres

    Mokhena, Teboho C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available of Chemistry, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Phuthaditjhaba, South Africa 3 Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a high flux three-tier composite membrane composed of a... of multifunctional nano/ultrafiltration membrane based on a chitosan thin film on alginate electrospun nanofibres T.C. Mokhena1,2, A.S. Luyt3* 1 CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, Polymers and Composites, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. 2 Department...

  15. Copolymerization parameters of N-Methacryloyloxy tetrabromophthalimide with different vinyl monomers

    Mahmoud, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    N-Methacryloyloxytetrabromophthalimide (NMTP) was synthesized by the reaction of N-hydroxytetrabromophthalimide with either methacryloyl chloride or methacrylic acid in the presence of triethylamine or N, Ndicyclohexylcarbodiimide respectively. Binary copolymerization reactions of the prepared monomer with ethyl acrylate (EA), n-butyl methacrylate (n.BMA), tertiary butylacrylate (t.BA) and vinyl acetate (VA) were performed in methylene chloride at 65 degree C using 1 mol % azobisisobutylronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. The structure of the prepared monomer was investigated by IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The copolymer compositions were determined from bromine analysis. Copolymerization parameters for each system were calculated by the Fineman-Ross and Kelen-Tudos methods. The monomer reactivity ratios for the systems NMTP-EA, NMTP-n.BMA, NMTP-t.BA and NMTP-VA were found to be r1 0.180, r2 = 0.893, r1 = 0.025, r2 = 0.680, r1 0.014, r2 0.956 and r1 1.002, r2 1.004 respectively

  16. A VERSATILE ALGINATE DROPLET GENERATOR APPLICABLE FOR MICROENCAPSULATION OF PANCREATIC-ISLETS

    WOLTERS, GHJ; FRITSCHY, WM; GERRITS, D; VANSCHILFAGAARDE, R

    1992-01-01

    Alginate beads for immunoisolation of pancreatic islets by microencapsulation should be small, smooth, and spherical in order to ensure that around the islets a strong alginate-polylysine-alginate capsule will be formed with optimal biocompatibility and diffusion of nutrients and hormones. However,

  17. Improved biocompatibility but limited graft survival after purification of alginate for microencapsulation of pancreatic islets

    DeVos, P; DeHaan, BJ; Wolters, GHJ; Strubbe, JH; VanSchilfgaarde, R; van Schilfgaarde, P.

    Graft failure of alginate-polylysine microencapsulated islets is often interpreted as the consequence of a non-specific foreign body reaction against the microcapsules, initiated by impurities present in crude alginate. The aim of the present study was to investigate if purification of the alginate

  18. Three-dimensional alginate spheroid culture system of murine osteosarcoma.

    Akeda, Koji; Nishimura, Akinobu; Satonaka, Haruhiko; Shintani, Ken; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Matsumine, Akihiko; Kasai, Yuichi; Masuda, Koichi; Uchida, Atsumasa

    2009-11-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the bone and often forms pulmonary metastases, which are the most important prognostic factor. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the progression and metastasis of human OS, a culture system mimicking the microenvironment of the tumor in vivo is needed. We report a novel three-dimensional (3D) alginate spheroid culture system of murine osteosarcoma. Two different metastatic clones, the parental Dunn and its derivative line LM8, which has a higher metastatic potential to the lungs, were encapsulated in alginate beads to develop the 3D culture system. The beads containing murine OS cells were also transplanted into mice to determine their metastatic potential in vivo. In this culture system, murine OS cells encapsulated in alginate beads were able to grow in a 3D structure with cells detaching from the alginate environment. The number of detaching cells was higher in the LM8 cell line than the Dunn cell line. In the in vivo alginate bead transplantation model, the rate of pulmonary metastasis was higher with LM8 cells compared with that of Dunn cells. The cell characteristics and kinetics in this culture system closely reflect the original malignant potential of the cells in vivo.

  19. Applications of Alginate-Based Bioinks in 3D Bioprinting

    Eneko Axpe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D bioprinting is on the cusp of permitting the direct fabrication of artificial living tissue. Multicellular building blocks (bioinks are dispensed layer by layer and scaled for the target construct. However, only a few materials are able to fulfill the considerable requirements for suitable bioink formulation, a critical component of efficient 3D bioprinting. Alginate, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, is clearly the most commonly employed material in current bioinks. Here, we discuss the benefits and disadvantages of the use of alginate in 3D bioprinting by summarizing the most recent studies that used alginate for printing vascular tissue, bone and cartilage. In addition, other breakthroughs in the use of alginate in bioprinting are discussed, including strategies to improve its structural and degradation characteristics. In this review, we organize the available literature in order to inspire and accelerate novel alginate-based bioink formulations with enhanced properties for future applications in basic research, drug screening and regenerative medicine.

  20. Use of antacids, alginates and proton pump inhibitors

    Lødrup, Anders; Reimer, Christine; Bytzer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    : A cross-sectional survey was conducted in an internet panel representative of the Danish adult population in 2012. Data queried included antacid/alginate and PPI use, reason for therapy, co-medication, and presence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Long-term PPI use was defined as using PPI ≥1/3...... of the last year (∼120 days). Risk of long-term PPI use was estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 18,223 people received the questionnaire, of which 52% (9390) responded. Antacid/alginate use was reported by 23%; 16% reported use of only antacid/alginate. PPI use was reported by 13.6%; 6....../e-mail, using co-medication, and having started on PPI for several reasons. Combination of antacid/alginate and PPI was reported by approximately 50% of those on therapy with weekly or daily symptoms. CONCLUSION: 23% of Danish adults were using antacids or alginates and 14% were using PPI, of which one...

  1. In-vitro transdentinal diffusion of monomers from adhesives.

    Putzeys, Eveline; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Coppens, Lieve; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Godderis, Lode; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L

    2018-06-01

    Biocompatibility of adhesives is important since adhesives may be applied on dentin near the pulp. Accurate knowledge of the quantity of monomers reaching the pulp is important to determine potential side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the transdentinal diffusion of residual monomers from dental adhesive systems using an in-vitro pulp chamber model. Dentin disks with a thickness of 300 µm were produced from human third molars. These disks were fixed between two open-ended glass tubes, representing an in-vitro pulp chamber. The etch-and-rinse adhesive OptiBond FL and the self-etch adhesive Clearfil SE Bond were applied to the dentin side of the disks, while on in the pulpal side, the glass tube was filled with 600 µL water. The transdentinal diffusion of different monomers was quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The monomers HEMA, CQ, BisGMA, GPDM, 10-MDP and UDMA eluted from the dental materials and were able to diffuse through the dentin disks to a certain extent. Compounds with a lower molecular weight (uncured group: HEMA 7850 nmol and CQ 78.2 nmol) were more likely to elute and diffuse compared to monomers with a higher molecular weight (uncured group: BisGMA 0.42 nmol). When the adhesives were left uncured, diffusion was up to 10 times higher compared to the cured conditions. This in-vitro research resulted in the quantification of various monomers able to diffuse through dentin and therefore contributes to a more detailed understanding about the potential exposure of the dental pulp to monomers from dental adhesives. Biocompatibility of adhesives is important since adhesives may be applied on dentin near the pulp, where tubular density and diameter are greatest. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    Rogério Barbosa Lima

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H, guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1 cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2 cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S content; 3 when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H, cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4 when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxycinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL, p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  3. 3D printing of mineral-polymer bone substitutes based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate.

    Egorov, Aleksey A; Fedotov, Alexander Yu; Mironov, Anton V; Komlev, Vladimir S; Popov, Vladimir K; Zobkov, Yury V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a relatively simple route for three-dimensional (3D) printing of complex-shaped biocompatible structures based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate (CP) for bone tissue engineering. The fabrication of 3D composite structures was performed through the synthesis of inorganic particles within a biopolymer macromolecular network during 3D printing process. The formation of a new CP phase was studied through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both the phase composition and the diameter of the CP particles depend on the concentration of a liquid component (i.e., the "ink"). The 3D printed structures were fabricated and found to have large interconnected porous systems (mean diameter ≈800 μm) and were found to possess compressive strengths from 0.45 to 1.0 MPa. This new approach can be effectively applied for fabrication of biocompatible scaffolds for bone tissue engineering constructions.

  4. 3D printing of mineral–polymer bone substitutes based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate

    Aleksey A. Egorov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a relatively simple route for three-dimensional (3D printing of complex-shaped biocompatible structures based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate (CP for bone tissue engineering. The fabrication of 3D composite structures was performed through the synthesis of inorganic particles within a biopolymer macromolecular network during 3D printing process. The formation of a new CP phase was studied through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both the phase composition and the diameter of the CP particles depend on the concentration of a liquid component (i.e., the “ink”. The 3D printed structures were fabricated and found to have large interconnected porous systems (mean diameter ≈800 μm and were found to possess compressive strengths from 0.45 to 1.0 MPa. This new approach can be effectively applied for fabrication of biocompatible scaffolds for bone tissue engineering constructions.

  5. Application of neutral electrolyzed water to disinfection of alginate impression.

    Nagamatsu, Yuki; Chen, Ker-Kong; Nagamatsu, Hiroshi; Kozono, Yoshio; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Neutral electrolyzed water was developed with new concepts of long-term good durability and minimum corrosiveness to metal in addition to its excellent bactericidal activities similar to acid type of electrolyzed waters. The present study examined the bactericidal effects of the neutral electrolyzed water on disinfection of the alginate impression of a dental arch model contaminated by bacteria. Only 1-min immersion in neutral electrolyzed water could sufficiently disinfect the alginate impression including the metallic tray under ultrasonic with no significant differences from acid electrolyzed waters. No bactericidal effects were found in any electrolyzed water when used as mixing water. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of each electrolyzed water in a comprehensive way, it was suggested that neutral electrolyzed water may be the most appropriate for the disinfection of alginate impression.

  6. Membrane-anchored MucR mediates nitrate-dependent regulation of alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Wang, Yajie; Hay, Iain D.; Rehman, Zahid Ur; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2015-01-01

    of MucR impaired alginate promoter activity and global c-di-GMP levels, alginate yields were not directly correlated with alginate promoter activity or c-di-GMP levels, suggesting that nitrate and MucR modulate alginate production at a post

  7. In situ polymerization of vinyl monomers in polyester yarns

    Avny, Y.; Rebenfeld, L.; Weigmann, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of a pretreatment of polyester (PET) yarns with a strongly interacting solvent such as dimethylformamide (DMF) on vinyl monomer incorporation were investigated. When the DMF pretreatment is carried out at high temperatures (above 120 0 C), the swollen PET structure is stabilized by solvent-induced secondary crystallization. This substrate is highly suitable for the incorporation of vinyl monomers. In situ polymerization of vinyl monomers in DMF-treated PET was investigated using chemical and γ-irradiation polymerization techniques, both in the presence and in the absence of excess monomer outside the PET fibers. When polymerization was carried out in a system in which a constant supply of free radicals was available from the outside of the PET fibers, lower initiator concentrations and smaller γ-irradiation doses were necessary. These results are attributed to a low efficiency of the initiator inside the PET fiber due to mobility restrictions. Water uptake and moisture regain of PET yarns containing poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(acrylic acid) were also investigated. When most of the vinyl polymer was inside the PET fiber, water absorption was limited. The changes in mechanical properties of the PET yarns resulting from the DMF pretreatment were partially reversed by in situ polymerization of vinyl monomers

  8. Production, deformation and mechanical investigation of magnetic alginate capsules

    Zwar, Elena; Kemna, Andre; Richter, Lena; Degen, Patrick; Rehage, Heinz

    2018-02-01

    In this article we investigated the deformation of alginate capsules in magnetic fields. The sensitivity to magnetic forces was realised by encapsulating an oil in water emulsion, where the oil droplets contained dispersed magnetic nanoparticles. We solved calcium ions in the aqueous emulsion phase, which act as crosslinking compounds for forming thin layers of alginate membranes. This encapsulating technique allows the production of flexible capsules with an emulsion as the capsule core. It is important to mention that the magnetic nanoparticles were stable and dispersed throughout the complete process, which is an important difference to most magnetic alginate-based materials. In a series of experiments, we used spinning drop techniques, capsule squeezing experiments and interfacial shear rheology in order to determine the surface Young moduli, the surface Poisson ratios and the surface shear moduli of the magnetically sensitive alginate capsules. In additional experiments, we analysed the capsule deformation in magnetic fields. In spinning drop and capsule squeezing experiments, water droplets were pressed out of the capsules at elevated values of the mechanical load. This phenomenon might be used for the mechanically triggered release of water-soluble ingredients. After drying the emulsion-filled capsules, we produced capsules, which only contained a homogeneous oil phase with stable suspended magnetic nanoparticles (organic ferrofluid). In the dried state, the thin alginate membranes of these particles were rather rigid. These dehydrated capsules could be stored at ambient conditions for several months without changing their properties. After exposure to water, the alginate membranes rehydrated and became flexible and deformable again. During this swelling process, water diffused back in the capsule. This long-term stability and rehydration offers a great spectrum of different applications as sensors, soft actuators, artificial muscles or drug delivery systems.

  9. The Use of Alginate in Lemon Extract Effervescent Powder Production

    Murdinah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Study on the use of alginate in lemon (Citrus medica var lemon extract effervescent powder production has conducted. The aims of the research are to determine the optimum concentration of alginate used in lemon extract effervescent powder to produced best product and acceptance consumen.The lemon extract effervescent powder formula consisted of lemon extract powder, sucrose, aspartame, salt and effervescent mix (citric acid-tartrat acid-sodium bicarbonat. The alginate used in this study was extracted from Sargassum filipendula sea weed. The concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production was varied from 1; 2; 3 and 4%. The parameters observed to see the quality of the product were moisture content, ash content, pH, viscosity and organoleptic value (flavor, taste, viscosity, effec effervescent, effect sparkle and acceptance. Analysis of dietary fiber, sugar content, vitamin C content, total titratable acids, TPC and E.Coli to the best product. The result showed that the higher the concentration of alginate used in lemon effervescent powder production, the higher viscousness and the lower the organoleptic value. The optimum concentration of alginate used in the lemon extract effervescent powder processing was 1%. The characteristic this product 7.60% moisture content, 0.86% insoluble dietary fiber , 7.92% soluble dietary fiber, 3.74% sugar content, 55,26 mg/100 g vitamin C, 134.15 mL 0.1 NaOH/100 mL total titratable acids, 20 cPs viscosity, <2.5x102 coloni/mL TPC and E.Coli negative.

  10. Optimisation of decolourisation and degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads.

    Iglesias, O; Fernández de Dios, M A; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the ability of the electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes and using a model diazo dye such as Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of main parameters, such as voltage, pH and iron concentration. Dye decolourisation, reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and energy consumption were studied. Central composite face-centred experimental design matrix and response surface methodology were applied to design the experiments and to evaluate the interactive effects of the three studied parameters. A total of 20 experimental runs were set, and the kinetic data were analysed using first-order and second-order models. In all cases, the experimental data were fitted to the empirical second-order model with a suitable degree for the maximum decolourisation of RB5, COD reduction and energy consumption by electro-Fenton-Fe alginate gel beads treatment. Working with the obtained empirical model, the optimisation of the process was carried out. The second-order polynomial regression model suggests that the optimum conditions for attaining maximum decolourisation, COD reduction and energy consumption are voltage, 5.69 V; pH 2.24 and iron concentration, 2.68 mM. Moreover, the fixation of iron on alginate beads suggests that the degradation process can be developed under this electro-Fenton process in repeated batches and in a continuous mode.

  11. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles embedded into reduced graphene oxide-alginate beads for efficient chromium (VI) removal.

    Lv, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Yuling; Fu, Wenyang; Cao, Jiazhen; Zhang, Jiao; Ma, Hanbo; Jiang, Guangming

    2017-11-15

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe 0 NPs) technologies are often challenged by poor dispersibility, chemical instability to oxidation, and mobility during processing, storage and use. This work reports a facile approach to synthesize Fe 0 NPs embedded reduced graphene oxide-alginate beads (Fe@GA beads) via the immobilization of pre-synthesized Fe 0 NPs into graphene oxide modified alginate gel followed by a modelling and in-situ reduction process. The structure/composition characterization of the beads finds that the graphene sheets and the Fe 0 NPs (a shape of ellipsoid and a size of beads. We demonstrate that these Fe@GA beads show a robust performance in aqueous Cr(VI) removal. With a optimized Fe and alginate content, Fe@GA bead can achieve a high Cr(VI) removal efficiency and an excellent mechanical strength. The initial Cr(VI) concentration, ionic strength, temperature and especially solution pH are all critical factors to control the Fe@GA beads performance in Cr(VI) removal. Fitness of the pseudo second-order adsorption model with data suggests adsorption is the rate-controlling step, and both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm are suitable to describe the removal behavior. The possible Cr(VI) removal path by Fe@GA beads is put forward, and the synergistic effect in this ternary system implies the potentials of Fe@GA beads in pollutant removal from water body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Composition

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  13. Composition

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  14. Alginate Biosynthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii: Overview of Molecular Mechanisms in Connection with the Oxygen Availability

    Ivette Pacheco-Leyva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii can synthetize the biopolymer alginate that has material properties appropriate for plenty of applications in industry as well as in medicine. In order to settle the foundation for improving alginate production without compromising its quality, a better understanding of the polymer biosynthesis and the mechanism of regulation during fermentation processes is necessary. This knowledge is crucial for the development of novel production strategies. Here, we highlight the key aspects of alginate biosynthesis that can lead to producing an alginate with specific material properties with particular focus on the role of oxygen availability linked with the molecular mechanisms involved in the alginate production.

  15. Development of a Novel Alginate-Based Pleural Sealant

    2016-07-01

    thoracotomy is performed on a anesthetized ventilated live rat (a), an incision is made to induce pleural air leak (b), and sealant material [ liquid ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0107 TITLE: Development of a Novel Alginate-Based Pleural Sealant PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Daniel J. Weiss MD PhD...SUBTITLE Development of a Novel Alginate-Based Pleural Sealant 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0107 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  16. Effect of alginate in patients with GERD hiatal hernia matters.

    Vardar, R; Keskin, M; Valitova, E; Bayrakci, B; Yildirim, E; Bor, S

    2017-10-01

    Alginate-based formulations are frequently used as add-on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy to help control of heartburn and regurgitation. There are limited data regarding the mechanisms and effects of alginate-based formulations. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the sodium alginate intake and its likely temporal relations on intraesophageal reflux events by MII-pH in patients with and without hiatal hernia (HH). Fifty GERD patients (18 with HH, 32 without HH) with heartburn or regurgitation once a week or more common were included. After combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH-metry (MII-pH) had been performed, all patients were asked to eat the same standard meal (double cheeseburger, 1 banana, 100 g regular yoghurt, and 200 mL water with total energy value of 744 kcal: 37.6% of carbohydrates, 21.2% of proteins, and 41.2% of lipids) during two consecutive days. On separate random two consecutive days, all patients took 10 mL of sodium alginate (GA; Gaviscon Advance; Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare, Hull, UK) or 10 mL of water, 30 minutes after the refluxogenic meal. After eating refluxogenic meal, patients were examined ½ hour for basal conditions, 1 hour in upright, and 1 hour in supine positions. Alginate significantly decreased acid reflux after intake at the first hour in comparison to water in patients with HH (6.1 vs. 13.7, P = 0.004) and without HH (3.5 vs. 5.5, P = 0.001). Weakly acid reflux were increased at the first hour in patients with HH (3.4 vs. 1.3, P = 0.019) and without HH (1.7 vs. 5, P = 0.02) compared to water. There was no distinctive effect of alginate on the height of proximal migration of reflux events in patients with HH and without HH. Alginate decreases acid reflux events within a limited time period, especially at the first hour both in patients with and without HH. Alginate has no effect on the height of reflux events along the esophagus both in patients with and without HH. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford

  17. Alginate overproduction affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm structure and function

    Hentzer, Morten; Teitzel, G.M.; Balzer, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    -resistant communities of microorganisms organized in biofilms. Although biofilm formation and the conversion to mucoidy are both important aspects of CF pathogenesis, the relationship between them is at the present unclear. In this study, we report that the overproduction of alginate affects biofilm development...... on an abiotic surface. Biofilms formed by an alginate- overproducing strain exhibit a highly structured architecture and are significantly more resistant to the antibiotic tobramycin than a biofilm formed by an isogenic nonmucoid strain. These results suggest that an important consequence of the conversion...

  18. Novel porous graphene oxide and hydroxyapatite nanosheets-reinforced sodium alginate hybrid nanocomposites for medical applications

    Xiong, Guangyao; Luo, Honglin; Zuo, Guifu; Ren, Kaijing; Wan, Yizao

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are frequently used as reinforcements in polymers to improve mechanical and biological properties. In this work, novel porous hybrid nanocomposites consisting of GO, HAp, and sodium alginate (SA) have been prepared by facile solution mixing and freeze drying in an attempt to obtain a scaffold with desirable mechanical and biological properties. The as-prepared porous GO/HAp/SA hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, and mechanical testing. In addition, preliminary cell behavior was assessed by CCK8 assay. It is found that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show improved compressive strength and modulus over neat SA and HAp/SA nanocomposites. CCK8 results reveal that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show enhanced cell proliferation over neat SA and GO/SA nanocomposite. It has been demonstrated that GO/HAp20/SA holds promise in bone tissue engineering. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO), hydroxyapatite (HAp), and alginate (SA) nanocomposites were fabricated. • The novel porous composites were prepared by solution mixture and freeze drying. • The GO/HAp/SA had porous structure with porosity > 85% and pore size > 150 μm. • The GO/HAp/SA exhibited improved mechanical properties over HAp/SA counterparts. • The GO/HAp/SA showed enhanced cell proliferation over GO/SA counterparts

  19. Batch-wise adsorption, saxs and microscopic studies of zeolite pelletized with biopolymeric alginate

    E. Chmielewská

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Removal of nitrates, sulfate and Zn(II ions from aqueous solutions through adsorption onto biopolymeric alginate/clinoptilolite-rich tuff pellets was studied by using an equilibrium batch technique. The idea of this approach of biosorbent fabrication is to promote the native zeolite adsorption performance and thus to prepare more efficient amphoteric tailor-made products for specific environmental targets. A flexible component, i.e., alginate biopolymer, and a rigid component (pulverized zeolite were crosslinked using Fe(III and Ca(II chlorides, additively. The extent of adsorption was found to be considerably higher than with the other mostly natural adsorbents examined towards similar pollutants. The equilibrium adsorption data for the above pollutants were satisfactorily fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, respectively. According to the linscale SAXS pattern, there was a strong background visible, which may indicate the presence of a considerable amount of biopolymeric phase in the composite samples analysed. Scanning Tunneling, Electron and Atomic Force Microscopies helped visualize their surface texture and morphology.

  20. Novel porous graphene oxide and hydroxyapatite nanosheets-reinforced sodium alginate hybrid nanocomposites for medical applications

    Xiong, Guangyao [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Luo, Honglin [Research Institute of Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zuo, Guifu [Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063009 (China); Ren, Kaijing [Department of Joint Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Wan, Yizao, E-mail: yzwantju@126.com [Research Institute of Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are frequently used as reinforcements in polymers to improve mechanical and biological properties. In this work, novel porous hybrid nanocomposites consisting of GO, HAp, and sodium alginate (SA) have been prepared by facile solution mixing and freeze drying in an attempt to obtain a scaffold with desirable mechanical and biological properties. The as-prepared porous GO/HAp/SA hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, and mechanical testing. In addition, preliminary cell behavior was assessed by CCK8 assay. It is found that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show improved compressive strength and modulus over neat SA and HAp/SA nanocomposites. CCK8 results reveal that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show enhanced cell proliferation over neat SA and GO/SA nanocomposite. It has been demonstrated that GO/HAp20/SA holds promise in bone tissue engineering. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO), hydroxyapatite (HAp), and alginate (SA) nanocomposites were fabricated. • The novel porous composites were prepared by solution mixture and freeze drying. • The GO/HAp/SA had porous structure with porosity > 85% and pore size > 150 μm. • The GO/HAp/SA exhibited improved mechanical properties over HAp/SA counterparts. • The GO/HAp/SA showed enhanced cell proliferation over GO/SA counterparts.

  1. Thallium(I) sorption using Prussian blue immobilized in alginate capsules.

    Vincent, Thierry; Taulemesse, Jean-Marie; Dauvergne, Agnès; Chanut, Thomas; Testa, Flaviano; Guibal, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Prussian blue (PB) was immobilized in alginate capsules. The composite sorbent was used for the recovery of Tl(I) ions from slightly acidic solutions: optimum pH being close to 4. The sorption isotherm can be described by the bi-site Langmuir sorption isotherm. This means that the metal ion can be bound through two different sorption sites: one having a strong affinity for Tl(I) (probably PB), the other having a lower affinity (probably the encapsulating material). The kinetics are described by either the pseudo-second order rate equation or the Crank's equation (resistance to intraparticle diffusion). The ionic strength (increased by addition of NaCl, KCl or CaCl₂) slightly decreased sorption capacity. The SEM-EDX analysis of PB-alginate capsules (before and after Tl(I) sorption) shows that the PB is homogeneously distributed in the capsules and that all reactive groups remain available for metal binding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alginate/cellulose beads as supports for slow release of nutrient

    Matos, Mailson de; Mattos, Bruno Dufau, E-mail: mailsondematos@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Magalhaes, Washington [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: A total of 9 billion inhabitants is estimated by 2050, which will put a heavy pressure towards an increased cereal yield of at least 40% [1]. The smart systems for nutrient delivery could be used to increase the cropland productivity and biodegradable supports are especially needed to decrease the bio-accumulation of the synthetic materials. Thus, alginate and cellulose were chosen to encapsulate nitrogen and further release it. Briefly, the encapsulated systems were synthesized as follow: solutions containing ammonium nitrate, sodium alginate, cellulose nanofibrils and nano-silica were prepared. Each mixture was dropwise added into the calcium chloride (50 wt%) crosslinking agent solution. After the bead-forming reaction, the obtained material was filtered and dried at 60 deg C. The characterizations were performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy coupled to scanning electron microscopy (SEMEDS), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and release tests according to DIN EN 13266:2002. In general, the nano-silica was important for better handling the obtained beads; however, it changed the bead morphology and tended to increase the release rate of nitrogen. The best formulations were obtained with the presence of cellulose nanofibrils and few amounts of silica in the beads. At these compositions the systems follow the criteria of slow-release purposes, i.e., 15% released after 24h and less than 75% after 28 days. References: [1] Maxmen A, Nature vol. 501 (2013). (author)

  3. Sodium alginate adhesives as binders in wood fibers/textile waste fibers biocomposites for building insulation.

    Lacoste, Clément; El Hage, Roland; Bergeret, Anne; Corn, Stéphane; Lacroix, Patrick

    2018-03-15

    Alginate derived from seaweed is a natural polysaccharide able to form stable gel through carbohydrate functional groups largely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. This article deals with the use of sodium alginate as an adhesive binder for wood fibres/textile waste fibres biocomposites. Several aldehyde-based crosslinking agents (glyoxal, glutaraldehyde) were compared for various wood/textile waste ratios (100/0, 50/50, 60/40, 70/30 and 0/100 in weight). The fully biomass derived composites whose properties are herewith described satisfy most of the appropriate requirements for building materials. They are insulating with a thermal conductivity in the range 0.078-0.089 W/m/K for an average density in the range 308-333 kg/m3 according to the biocomposite considered. They are semi-rigid with a maximal mechanical strength of 0.84 MPa under bending and 0.44 MPa under compression for 60/40 w/w wood/textile waste biocomposites with a glutaraldehyde crosslinking agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The radiation grafting of vinyl monomers to cotton fabrics

    Shiraishi, N.; Williams, J.L.; Stannett, V.

    1982-01-01

    Cobalt 60 γ and electron beam radiation were used to graft diethylphosphatoethyl methacrylate, pure and in 90:10 methanol solution, to cotton cloth. This monomer, with an 11.64% phosphorus content, was especially developed by the Scott Paper Co. to develop fire retardancy. A simple pad and squeeze application followed by direct irradiation under a nitrogen atmosphere was used. Although excess monomer could be removed by washing with water, no solvent for the polymer was found so only the total 'add-ons' could be measured. With 60 Co irradiation, total polymerization was obtained with more than 1 Mrad but with electron beam irradiation only about 50% conversion was obtained even with 10 Mrad. No acceleration in the rates could be achieved with the viscous pure monomer as opposed to in solution. Yields adequate to impart reasonable fire retardancy could, however, be obtained with about 3 Mrad with electrons. No noticeable degradation of the polymer occurred at the doses used. (author)

  5. Evaluation of digital dental models obtained from dental cone-beam computed tomography scan of alginate impressions

    Jiang, Tingting; Lee, Sang-Mi; Hou, Yanan; Chang, Xin; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dimensional accuracy of digital dental models obtained from the dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan of alginate impressions according to the time elapse when the impressions are stored under ambient conditions. Methods Alginate impressions were obtained from 20 adults using 3 different alginate materials, 2 traditional alginate materials (Alginoplast and Cavex Impressional) and 1 extended-pour alginate material (Cavex ColorChange). The impressions wer...

  6. Molecular cloning, purification, and characterization of a novel polyMG-specific alginate lyase responsible for alginate MG block degradation in Stenotrophomas maltophilia KJ-2

    Lee, Su In; Kim, Hee Sook [Kyungsung Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Food Science and Biotechnology; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Eun Yeol [Kyung Hee Univ., Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2012-09-15

    A gene for a polyMG-specific alginate lyase possessing a novel structure was identified and cloned from Stenotrophomas maltophilia KJ-2 by using PCR with homologous nucleotide sequences-based primers. The recombinant alginate lyase consisting of 475 amino acids was purified on Ni-Sepharose column and exhibited the highest activity at pH 8 and 40 C. Interestingly, the recombinant alginate lyase was expected to have a similar catalytic active site of chondroitin B lyase but did not show chondroitin lyase activity. In the test of substrate specificity, the recombinant alginate lyase preferentially degraded the glycosidic bond of polyMG-block than polyM-block and polyG-block. The chemical structures of the degraded alginate oligosaccharides were elucidated to have mannuronate (M) at the reducing end on the basis of NMR analysis, supporting that KJ-2 polyMG-specific alginate lyase preferably degraded the glycosidic bond in M-G linkage than that in G-M linkage. The KJ-2 polyMG-specific alginate lyase can be used in combination with other alginate lyases for a synergistic saccharification of alginate. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of level of impregnation monomers in hydrotalcite

    Carmo, Danieli M. do; Machado, Jacson S.C.; Oliveira, Marcelo F.L.; Oliveira, Marcia G.; Soares, Bluma G.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the impregnation degree of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol monomers in hydrotalcite clays it was prepared dispersions with mixing ratio 1:100 (clay/monomer), using the Ultraturrax and Ultrasound. Subsequently the samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction. Swelling tests and Tyndall effect were used to illustrate the different dispersions. The results indicated a strong interaction between the hydrotalcite with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate, favoring the formation of intercalated structures. (author)

  8. Studies on curing effect of phosphite monomer by EB radiation in the air

    Xiao, B.; Zhou, Y.; Li, S.; Luo, M.; Wang, X.; Zhao, P.

    2000-01-01

    A new type phosphite active monomer was synthesized. The resisting oxygen inhibition effect of this monomer and the effects of irradiation dose and concentration of phosphite active monomer on curing were studied. At the same time, curing results were analysed, through gel content and IR spectrum. The excellent resisting oxygen inhibition result of this phosphite active monomer was shown by experiments. EB radiation curing in the air was successfully carried out by the phosphite active monomer. (author)

  9. Influence of vinyl chloride monomer and vinyl chloride monomer derivatives on hepatic DNA synthesis

    Brenner, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is used extensively in the chemical industry, mainly in the production of polyvinyl chloride. It has recently been found to cause hepatic angiosarcoma. As VCM has also been shown to be mutagenic after metabolic activation the effect of VCM on DNA synthesis was investigated. [ 3 H]Thymidine incorporation into DNA was used to measure the rate of DNA synthesis in regenerating rat liver. A possible direct toxic effect of VCM or its metabolites on liver cell metabolism was examined by two unrelated techniques, viz. the measurement of adenine nucleotide concentrations in regenerating livers and the influence on transmembrane potentials in hepatocytes. The distribution of radioactivity in subcellular fractions following [ 14 C]VCM administration suggested microsomal conversion of VCM to an active form which was selectively retained in the nuclear fraction. Measurement of the activities of thymidine kinase and DNA polymerase in regenerating liver indicated that the induction of these enzymes which normally occurs after partial hepatectomy was not prevented by VCM treatment. Three techniques were used to test the hypothesis that the retardation in DNA synthesis was due to DNA damage: the prophage lambda induction test for DNA damage, autoradiographic detection of unscheduled thymidine incorporation into DNA, and detection of DNA strand breaks in alkaline sucrose gradients. All three provided evidence of DNA damage and led to the development of a novel technique to confirm these findings. This involved centrifugation in neutral sucrose gradients on intact double-stranded DNA contained in hepatocyte nucleoids and showed conclusively that VCM administration causes DNA strand breaks. Subsequent repair of DNA was also assessed by this technique. The site of the VCM/metabolite: DNA reaction was characterized by DNA thermal denaturation and renaturation studies

  10. the potential of alginic acid and polygal for soil stabilization

    user

    1985-09-01

    Sep 1, 1985 ... pertaining to the structure and physico-chemical properties of alginic acid, polygal and other polysaccharide types are available elsewhere [21]. 3. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS. Kaolinite was chosen to represent the lower bound of clay reactivity while montmorillonite represented the upper bounds.

  11. In vitro propagation of Acacia hybrid through alginate-encapsulated ...

    Seed collected from Acacia hybrid trees yields highly variable and poorly performing offspring and are not commonly used in regeneration. The present study described the incapsulation of Acacia hybrid shoots and axillary buds in the calcium alginate gel. The aim of the study was to evaluate the germination of the buds in ...

  12. Magnetic alginate microparticles for purification of .alpha.-amylases

    Šafaříková, Miroslava; Roy, I.; Gupta, M. N.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 105, - (2003), s. 255-260 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 523.80; GA AV ČR IBS6087204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : alginate * ferrofluid * amalyses Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.543, year: 2003

  13. Kefiran-alginate gel microspheres for oral delivery of ciprofloxacin.

    Blandón, Lina M; Islan, German A; Castro, Guillermo R; Noseda, Miguel D; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2016-09-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic associated with gastric and intestinal side effects after extended oral administration. Alginate is a biopolymer commonly employed in gel synthesis by ionotropic gelation, but unstable in the presence of biological metal-chelating compounds and/or under dried conditions. Kefiran is a microbial biopolymer able to form gels with the advantage of displaying antimicrobial activity. In the present study, kefiran-alginate gel microspheres were developed to encapsulate ciprofloxacin for antimicrobial controlled release and enhanced bactericidal effect against common pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the hybrid gel microspheres showed a spherical structure with a smoother surface compared to alginate gel matrices. In vitro release of ciprofloxacin from kefiran-alginate microspheres was less than 3.0% and 5.0% at pH 1.2 (stomach), and 5.0% and 25.0% at pH 7.4 (intestine) in 3 and 21h, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of ciprofloxacin-kefiran showed the displacement of typical bands of ciprofloxacin and kefiran, suggesting a cooperative interaction by hydrogen bridges between both molecules. Additionally, the thermal analysis of ciprofloxacin-kefiran showed a protective effect of the biopolymer against ciprofloxacin degradation at high temperatures. Finally, antimicrobial assays of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhymurium, and Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated the synergic effect between ciprofloxacin and kefiran against the tested microorganisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison Of The Dimensional Stability Of Alginate Impressions ...

    Methodology: Alginate impressions of a master model of truncated metal cones were made and disinfected with 1% sodium hypochlorite constituted from 3.5% household bleach using the spray and immersion technique for 10;20 and 30 minutes. Impressions were cast in dental stone and the linear dimensional differences ...

  15. Removal of Uranium from Aqueous Solution by Alginate Beads

    Jing Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of uranium (VI by calcium alginate beads was examined by batch experiments. The effects of environmental conditions on U (VI adsorption were studied, including contact time, pH, initial concentration of U (VI, and temperature. The alginate beads were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that hydroxyl and alkoxy groups are present at the surface of the beads. The experimental results showed that the adsorption of U (VI by alginate beads was strongly dependent on pH, the adsorption increased at pH 3∼7, then decreased at pH 7∼9. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 2 minutes. The adsorption kinetics of U (VI onto alginate beads can be described by a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the Redlich-Peterson model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 237.15 mg/g. The sorption process is spontaneous and has an exothermic reaction.

  16. Structural basis for alginate secretion across the bacterial outer membrane

    Whitney, J.C.; Robinson, H.; Hay, I. D.; Li, C.; Eckford, P. D. W.; Amaya, M. F.; Wood, L. F.; Ohman, D. E.; Bear, C. E.; Rehm, B. H.; Howell, P. L.

    2011-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  17. Structural Basis for Alginate Secretion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    J Whitney; I Hay; C Li; P Eckford; H Robinson; M Amaya; L Wood; D Ohman; C Bear; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  18. Bioinspired preparation of alginate nanoparticles using microbubble bursting.

    Elsayed, Mohamed; Huang, Jie; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are considered to be one of the most advanced tools for drug delivery applications. In this research, alginate (a model hydrophilic polymer) nanoparticles 80 to 200 nm in diameter were obtained using microbubble bursting. The natural process of bubble bursting occurs through a number of stages, which consequently produce nano- and microsized droplets via two main production mechanisms, bubble shell disintegration and a jetting process. In this study, nano-sized droplets/particles were obtained by promoting the disintegrating mechanism and suppressing (limiting) the formation of larger microparticles resulting from the jetting mechanism. A T-junction microfluidic device was used to prepare alginate microbubbles with different sizes in a well-controlled manner. The size of the bubbles was varied by controlling two processing parameters, the solution flow rate and the bubbling pressure. Crucially, the bubble size was found to be the determining factor for inducing (or limiting) the bubble shell disintegration mechanism and the size needed to promote this process was influenced by the properties of the solution used for preparing the bubbles, particularly the viscosity. The size of alginate nanoparticles produced via the disintegration mechanism was found to be directly proportional to the viscosity of the alginate solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuous removal and recovery of lead by alginate beads, free ...

    This study examines the possibility of using Chlorella vulgaris cells in repeated lead adsorption/desorption cycles. Alginate beads and immobilized with algal cells were more effective and suitable than free cells. Consistently high lead removal (>90%) and recovery (about 100%) were achieved. Lead adsorption was mainly ...

  20. Development of Alginate/Chitosan Microparticles for Dust Mite ...

    Erah

    prepare a microparticulate system (coated with sodium alginate ... drop-wise addition of 10 ml TPP solution containing dust ... setup used the applied voltage for 18 kV. (Protek® DC ... Morphology and particle size distribution. Morphological ...

  1. Alginate Sulfate-Nanocellulose Bioinks for Cartilage Bioprinting Applications.

    Müller, Michael; Öztürk, Ece; Arlov, Øystein; Gatenholm, Paul; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges of bioprinting is to identify bioinks which support cell growth, tissue maturation, and ultimately the formation of functional grafts for use in regenerative medicine. The influence of this new biofabrication technology on biology of living cells, however, is still being evaluated. Recently we have identified a mitogenic hydrogel system based on alginate sulfate which potently supports chondrocyte phenotype, but is not printable due to its rheological properties (no yield point). To convert alginate sulfate to a printable bioink, it was combined with nanocellulose, which has been shown to possess very good printability. The alginate sulfate/nanocellulose ink showed good printing properties and the non-printed bioink material promoted cell spreading, proliferation, and collagen II synthesis by the encapsulated cells. When the bioink was printed, the biological performance of the cells was highly dependent on the nozzle geometry. Cell spreading properties were maintained with the lowest extrusion pressure and shear stress. However, extruding the alginate sulfate/nanocellulose bioink and chondrocytes significantly compromised cell proliferation, particularly when using small diameter nozzles and valves.

  2. Biosynthesis and incorporation of side-chain-truncated lignin monomers to reduce lignin polymerization and enhance saccharification

    Eudes, Aymerick; George, Anthe; Mukerjee, Purba; Kim, J.S.; Pollet, B.; Bnke, P.I.; Persil Çetinkol, Özgül

    2012-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is utilized as a renewable feedstock in various agro-industrial activities. Lignin is an aromatic, hydrophobic and mildly branched polymer integrally associated with polysaccharides within the biomass, which negatively affects their extraction and hydrolysis during industrial processing. Engineering the monomer composition of lignins offers an attractive option towards new lignins with reduced recalcitrance. The presented work describes a new strategy developed in Arab...

  3. Base-catalyzed depolymerization of lignin : separation of monomers

    Vigneault, A. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Johnson, D.K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Chornet, E. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Biofuels produced from residual lignocellulosic biomass range from ethanol to biodiesel. The use of lignin for the production of alternate biofuels and green chemicals has been studied with particular emphasis on the structure of lignin and its oxyaromatic nature. In an effort to fractionate lignocellulosic biomass and valorize specific constitutive fractions, the authors developed a strategy for the separation of 12 added value monomers produced during the hydrolytic base catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of a Steam Exploded Aspen Lignin. The separation strategy was similar to vanillin purification to obtain pure monomers, but combining more steps after the lignin depolymerization such as acidification, batch liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE), followed by vacuum distillation, liquid chromatography (LC) and crystallization. The purpose was to develop basic data for an industrial size process flow diagram, and to evaluate both the monomer losses during the separation and the energy requirements. Experimentally testing of LLE, vacuum distillation and flash LC in the laboratory showed that batch vacuum distillation produced up to 4 fractions. Process simulation revealed that a series of 4 vacuum distillation columns could produce 5 distinct monomer streams, of which 3 require further chromatography and crystallization operations for purification. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  4. Two Populations Mean-Field Monomer-Dimer Model

    Alberici, Diego; Mingione, Emanuele

    2018-04-01

    A two populations mean-field monomer-dimer model including both hard-core and attractive interactions between dimers is considered. The pressure density in the thermodynamic limit is proved to satisfy a variational principle. A detailed analysis is made in the limit of one population is much smaller than the other and a ferromagnetic mean-field phase transition is found.

  5. The LOMOsup(R) process: a solution for residual monomers

    Derbyshire, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Regulatory activity over the last several years has addressed the potential problems associated with the migration of residual monomers from a number of commodity food packages. Regardless of the outcome of current debates, it will always be desirable to reduce monomer levels to as low a level as economically practicable so that they do not become indirect additives. The LOMO process is a body of technology inclusive of an ionizing radiation treatment which can result in sharp reduction of residual monomer levels in commodity plastic resins. The process may be applicable to factory intermediates, raw resins, or finished articles. Depending upon the individual system and its monomers, LOMO treatment can result in reductions to levels which press today's analytical test capability. Industrial radiation processing is normally accomplished with electron beam accelerators. Electron beam processing continues to gain in understanding and acceptance as one of the very few basic methods by which energy can be imparted to an industrial process system. Typically, whole factories are constructed around one accelerator. (author)

  6. Complex-radical copolymerization of vinyl monomers on organoelemental initiators

    Grishin, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Data on regularities of the initiation and growth of the (co)polymerization of polar vinyl series monomers on organo-elemental initiator, organo-boron in particular, are generalized. The effect of organo-metallic compounds and some phenol type inhibitors on the rate of acrylate (co)polymerization is analyzed from view of the change of electroacceptor properties (electrophilicity) of macroradicals

  7. Low temperature irradiation of vitrifiable mixtures of unsaturated monomers

    Kaetsu, I.; Ito, A.; Hayashi, K.

    1975-01-01

    A specific mixture containing at least one polymerizable unsaturated monomer which is not vitrifiable by itself can advantageously be polymerized by irradiating the mixture at a temperature not higher than 100 0 C above glass transition temperature of the mixture with an ionizing radiation and/or a light. 12 claims, 6 drawings, figures

  8. 21 CFR 864.7300 - Fibrin monomer paracoagulation test.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fibrin monomer paracoagulation test. 864.7300 Section 864.7300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7300 Fibrin...

  9. Facile synthesis of allyl resinate monomer in an aqueous solution ...

    The synthesized monomer product appeared as a viscous liquid, with a viscosity of 460 mPa·s at 25◦C and a density of ... ated under high reaction temperature, which reduces the ... The use of DMF as an organic solvent also comes with.

  10. Step growth of an AB2 monomer, with cycle formation

    Cameron, Colin; Fawcett, Allan H.; Hetherington, Cecil R.

    1998-01-01

    A computer-based lattice model of the step growth reaction of an AB2 monomer, the next elaborate system after an AB monomer, has been devised that allows the simultaneous and explicit occurrence of inter- and intramolecular reactions of A and B groups of the flexible and moving molecules according...... with fractal characteristics. Growth stops when each molecule contains a cycle. For the model explored, in which six lattice sites are used for each monomer, the limiting value of the number average degree of polymerization, 〈x〉n,∞, is 14.6(±0.3) (after infinite time). The occurrence within the system of rings...... of m residues (m=1,2,3,...) is found to depend upon m and the extent of reaction of the A groups, pa, according to Rm=C0pm am-2.71, the constant C0 reflecting the structure of the lattice and the monomer, and being shown to determine the final degree of polymerization. The exponent of the integers m...

  11. Monomer-Polymer Chemistry and the Impregnation Process

    Stannett, V. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1968-10-15

    A brief outline of early polymerization techniques is followed by a description of polymerization process chemistry, impregnation and polymerization methods and criteria for the choice of monomer. General considerations, including the effects of polymerization inhibitors, swelling agents, radiation dose rate and sample thickness, are enumerated. (author)

  12. Binding and leakage of barium in alginate microbeads.

    Mørch, Yrr A; Qi, Meirigeng; Gundersen, Per Ole M; Formo, Kjetil; Lacik, Igor; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Oberholzer, Jose; Strand, Berit L

    2012-11-01

    Microbeads of alginate crosslinked with Ca(2+) and/or Ba(2+) are popular matrices in cell-based therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify the binding of barium in alginate microbeads and its leakage under in vitro and accumulation under in vivo conditions. Low concentrations of barium (1 mM) in combination with calcium (50 mM) and high concentrations of barium (20 mM) in gelling solutions were used for preparation of microbeads made of high-G and high-M alginates. High-G microbeads accumulated barium from gelling solution and contained higher concentrations of divalent ions for both low- and high-Ba exposure compared with high-G microbeads exposed to calcium solely and to high-M microbeads for all gelling conditions. Although most of the unbound divalent ions were removed during the wash and culture steps, leakage of barium was still detected during storage. Barium accumulation in blood and femur bone of mice implanted with high-G beads was found to be dose-dependent. Estimated barium leakage relevant to transplantation to diabetic patients with islets in alginate microbeads showed that the leakage was 2.5 times lower than the tolerable intake value given by WHO for high-G microbeads made using low barium concentration. The similar estimate gave 1.5 times higher than is the tolerable intake value for the high-G microbeads made using high barium concentration. To reduce the risk of barium accumulation that may be of safety concern, the microbeads made of high-G alginate gelled with a combination of calcium and low concentration of barium ions is recommended for islet transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Thermal and Optical Properties of CdS Nanoparticles in Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Monomers

    Marc Alnot

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new mesogenic monomers, namely 3,3’-dimethoxy-4,4’-di(hydroxyhexoxy-N-benzylidene-o-Tolidine (Ia and 4,4’-di(6-hydroxyhexoxy-N-benzylidene-o-Tolidine (IIa, were reacted with cadmium sulfide (CdS via an in situ chemical precipitation method in ethanol to produce CdS nanocomposites. A series of different mass compositions of CdS with Ia and IIa ranging from 0.1:1.0 to 1.0:1.0 (w/w were prepared and characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Polarizing Optical Microscopy (POM and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL. XRD showed that the broad peaks are ascribed to the formation of cubic CdS nanoparticles in both Ia and IIa. The average particle size for both nanocomposites was less than 5 nm with a narrower size distribution when compared with pure CdS nanoparticles. The analyses from POM and DSC demonstrated that mass composition from 0.1:1.0 up to 0.5:1.0 of CdS:Ia nanocomposites showed their enantiotropic nematic phase. On the other hand, polarizing optical microscopy (POM for IIa nanocomposites showed that the liquid crystal property vanished completely when the mass composition was at 0.2:1.0. PL emissions for CdS: Ia or IIa nanocomposites indicated deep trap defects occurred in these both samples. The PL results revealed that addition of CdS to Ia monomers suppressed the photoluminescence intensity of Ia. However, the introduction of CdS to IIa monomers increased the photoluminescence and was at a maximum when the mass composition was 0.3:1.0, then decreased in intensity as more CdS was added. The XPS results also showed that the stoichiometric ratios of S/Cd were close to 1.0:1.0 for both types of nanocomposites for a mass composition of 1.0:1.0 (CdS:matrix.

  14. Binding interactions between suberin monomer components and pesticides

    Olivella, M.À., E-mail: angels.olivella@udg.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Maria Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain); Bazzicalupi, C.; Bianchi, A. [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia, 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Río, J.C. del [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, P.O. Box 1052, 41080 Seville (Spain); Fiol, N.; Villaescusa, I. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Maria Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Understanding the role of biomacromolecules and their interactions with pollutants is a key for elucidating the sorption mechanisms and making an accurate assessment of the environmental fate of pollutants. The knowledge of the sorption properties of the different constituents of these biomacromolecules may furnish a significant contribution to this purpose. Suberin is a very abundant biopolymer in higher plants. In this study, suberin monomers isolated from cork were analyzed by thermally-assisted methylation with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in a pyrolysis unit coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The isolated monomer mixture was used to study the sorption of three pesticides (isoproturon, methomyl and oxamyl). The modes of pesticide–sorbent interactions were analyzed by means of two modeling calculations, the first one representing only the mixture of suberin monomers used in the sorption study, and the second one including glycerol to the mixture of suberin monomers, as a building block of the suberin molecule. The results indicated that the highest sorption capacity exhibited by the sorbent was for isoproturon (33%) being methomyl and oxamyl sorbed by the main suberin components to a lesser extent (3% and < 1%, respectively). In addition to van der Waals interactions with the apolar region of sorbent and isoproturon, modeling calculations evidenced the formation of a hydrogen bond between the isoproturon NH group and a carboxylic oxygen atom of a suberin monomer. In the case of methomyl and oxamyl only weak van der Waals interactions stabilize the pesticide–sorbent adducts. The presence of glycerol in the model provoked significant changes in the interactions with isoproturon and methomyl. - Highlights: • Suberin has low affinity to retain pesticides of aliphatic character. • Suberin has a moderate affinity to adsorb isoproturon. • Modeling calculations show that apolar portion of suberin interacts with isoproturon.

  15. Binding interactions between suberin monomer components and pesticides

    Olivella, M.À.; Bazzicalupi, C.; Bianchi, A.; Río, J.C. del; Fiol, N.; Villaescusa, I.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of biomacromolecules and their interactions with pollutants is a key for elucidating the sorption mechanisms and making an accurate assessment of the environmental fate of pollutants. The knowledge of the sorption properties of the different constituents of these biomacromolecules may furnish a significant contribution to this purpose. Suberin is a very abundant biopolymer in higher plants. In this study, suberin monomers isolated from cork were analyzed by thermally-assisted methylation with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in a pyrolysis unit coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The isolated monomer mixture was used to study the sorption of three pesticides (isoproturon, methomyl and oxamyl). The modes of pesticide–sorbent interactions were analyzed by means of two modeling calculations, the first one representing only the mixture of suberin monomers used in the sorption study, and the second one including glycerol to the mixture of suberin monomers, as a building block of the suberin molecule. The results indicated that the highest sorption capacity exhibited by the sorbent was for isoproturon (33%) being methomyl and oxamyl sorbed by the main suberin components to a lesser extent (3% and < 1%, respectively). In addition to van der Waals interactions with the apolar region of sorbent and isoproturon, modeling calculations evidenced the formation of a hydrogen bond between the isoproturon NH group and a carboxylic oxygen atom of a suberin monomer. In the case of methomyl and oxamyl only weak van der Waals interactions stabilize the pesticide–sorbent adducts. The presence of glycerol in the model provoked significant changes in the interactions with isoproturon and methomyl. - Highlights: • Suberin has low affinity to retain pesticides of aliphatic character. • Suberin has a moderate affinity to adsorb isoproturon. • Modeling calculations show that apolar portion of suberin interacts with isoproturon.

  16. Survey of Bacterial and Fungal Contaminations in Iranian Alginate, Foreign Alginate and Speedex Used for Impression in Dentistry

    Abbas Falah Tafti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Since impression materials usually contact with saliva, blood, and oral soft tissues, their microbial contamination are harmful in immunocompromised patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the bacterial and fungal contamination in common impression materials. Materials and Methods: In current lab trial study, 5 different samples from each 4 impression materials were homogenized in 1 ml Tween 80 and then 100µl of each sample were cultured onto blood agar, EMB, or sabouraud dextrose agar. Bacterial and fungal cultures were incubated at 37º C and 30º C, respectively. The isolated bacterial and fungal colonies were enumerated and identified using specific diagnostic media and tests. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Totally 75% of samples had one or several bacterial contaminations. Iranian alginate and Speedex (putty were the most contaminated samples. On the other hand, Speedex (light body and foreign alginate showed lower contamination. Species of Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacilluses, Corynebacteria, gram negative Citrobacter, Actinomycetes and Neisseria were isolated from the analyzed impression materials. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Sepdonium were the fungi isolated from impression materials. Statistical significant difference was shown between bacterial contamination of Iranian and foreign alginates (P=0.001. There was no statistical significant differences between the bacterial and fungal isolated colonies (CFU/gr of 4 tested impression materials (P=0.21. Conclusion: Several opportunistic bacteria and fungi were isolated from impression materials especially from Iranian alginate and Speedex putty which indicated their contamination.

  17. Composition

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  18. Comparative study on the in vitro effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and seaweed alginates on human gut microbiota.

    Shaofeng Bai

    Full Text Available Alginates pertain to organic polysaccharides that have been extensively used in food- and medicine-related industries. The present study obtained alginates from an alginate overproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 mutant by screening transposon mutagenesis libraries. The interaction between bacterial and seaweed alginates and gut microbiota were further studied by using an in vitro batch fermentation system. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC analysis indicated that both bacterial and seaweed alginates can be completely degraded by fecal bacteria isolated from study volunteers, indicating that a minor structural difference between bacterial and seaweed alginates (O-acetylation and lack of G-G blocks didn't affect the digestion of alginates by human microbiota. Although, the digestion of bacterial and seaweed alginates was attributed to different Bacteroides xylanisolvens strains, they harbored similar alginate lyase genes. Genus Bacteroides with alginate-degrading capability were enriched in growth medium containing bacterial or seaweed alginates after in vitro fermentation. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA production in both bacterial and seaweed alginates was also comparable, but was significantly higher than the same medium using starch. In summary, the present study has isolated an alginate-overproducing P. aeruginosa mutant strain. Both seaweed and bacterial alginates were degraded by human gut microbiota, and their regulatory function on gut microbiota was similar.

  19. Comparative study on the in vitro effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and seaweed alginates on human gut microbiota.

    Bai, Shaofeng; Chen, Huahai; Zhu, Liying; Liu, Wei; Yu, Hongwei D; Wang, Xin; Yin, Yeshi

    2017-01-01

    Alginates pertain to organic polysaccharides that have been extensively used in food- and medicine-related industries. The present study obtained alginates from an alginate overproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 mutant by screening transposon mutagenesis libraries. The interaction between bacterial and seaweed alginates and gut microbiota were further studied by using an in vitro batch fermentation system. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that both bacterial and seaweed alginates can be completely degraded by fecal bacteria isolated from study volunteers, indicating that a minor structural difference between bacterial and seaweed alginates (O-acetylation and lack of G-G blocks) didn't affect the digestion of alginates by human microbiota. Although, the digestion of bacterial and seaweed alginates was attributed to different Bacteroides xylanisolvens strains, they harbored similar alginate lyase genes. Genus Bacteroides with alginate-degrading capability were enriched in growth medium containing bacterial or seaweed alginates after in vitro fermentation. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in both bacterial and seaweed alginates was also comparable, but was significantly higher than the same medium using starch. In summary, the present study has isolated an alginate-overproducing P. aeruginosa mutant strain. Both seaweed and bacterial alginates were degraded by human gut microbiota, and their regulatory function on gut microbiota was similar.

  20. Alginate: Current Use and Future Perspectives in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications

    Marta Szekalska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, alginates, natural multifunctional polymers, have increasingly drawn attention as attractive compounds in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields due to their unique physicochemical properties and versatile biological activities. The focus of the paper is to describe biological and pharmacological activity of alginates and to discuss the present use and future possibilities of alginates as a tool in drug formulation. The recent technological advancements with using alginates, issues related to alginates suitability as matrix for three-dimensional tissue cultures, adjuvants of antibiotics, and antiviral agents in cell transplantation in diabetes or neurodegenerative diseases treatment, and an update on the antimicrobial and antiviral therapy of the alginate based drugs are also highlighted.

  1. Synthesis of alginate oligomers by gamma irradiation and to investigate its antioxidant and prebiotic activity

    Bhoir, S.A.; Chawla, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Alginate oligomers formed by alginate lyase have been reported to possess antioxidant activity as well as prebiotic activity. Hence, utility of gamma radiation to depolymerise alginate in its aqueous solution was investigated and its antioxidant and prebiotic activities were screened. 1% aqueous solution of sodium alginate was subjected to gamma irradiation and it's reducing power and ability to scavenge DPPH". and O_2"."."-, chelate iron and prevent heat induced β-carotene bleaching was determined. Prebiotic activity was determined by using alginate oligomers to promote prebiotic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum against E coli. Gamma radiation induced depolymerisation of alginate resulted in formation of oligomers with antioxidant and prebiotic activity. These polymers are potential candidates for utilization as natural preservatives and functional foods

  2. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes grafted with N-vinyl imidazole/acrylic acid binary monomers

    Ajji, Zaki; Ali, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) films were grafted with two monomers using gamma radiation, acrylic acid and N-vinyl imidazole. The influence of different parameters on the grafting yield was investigated as: type of solvent and solvent composition, comonomer concentration and composition, addition of mineral acids, and irradiation dose. Water uptake in respect to the grafting yield was also evaluated. The ability of the grafted films to adsorb copper ions was elaborated and discussed for different grafting yields and ph values of the solution. (authors)

  3. Macroradical initiated polymerisation of acrylic and methacrylic monomers.

    Mijangos, Irene; Guerreiro, António; Piletska, Elena; Whitcombe, Michael J; Karim, Kal; Chianella, Iva; Piletsky, Sergey

    2009-10-01

    An approach has been developed for the grafting of monomers onto poly(trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) (polyTRIM) particles using 2,2-diethyl dithiocarbamic acid benzyl ester (DDCABE) as an initiator. A set of polymers was prepared with this technique over different lengths of time and the kinetics of the reaction studied experimentally. It was found that the grafting of initiator to the polymeric support followed a second order reaction, while the subsequent addition of monomers from solution into the polyTRIM macroradicals followed a first order reaction. The living nature of the iniferter modified macroradicals permits easy consecutive grafting of multiple polymeric layers, allowing straightforward functionalisation of particles. However, the effectiveness of the grafted initiator decreased with each cycle of polymerisation. This technique can be used for a wide range of applications in analytical and biochemistry.

  4. Calculation of vibrational spectra for dioxouranium monochloride monomer and dimers

    Umreiko, D. S.; Shundalau, M. B.; Zazhogin, A. P.; Komyak, A. I.

    2010-09-01

    Structural models were built and spectral characteristics were calculated based on ab initio calculations for the monomer and dimers of dioxouranium monochoride UO2Cl. The calculations were carried out in the effective core potential LANL2DZ approximation for the uranium atom and all-electron basis sets using DFT methods for oxygen and chlorine atoms (B3LYP/cc-pVDZ). The monomer UO2Cl was found to possess an equilibrium planar (close to T-shaped) configuration with C2v symmetry. The obtained spectral characteristics were analyzed and compared with experimental data. The adequacy of the proposed models and the qualitative agreement between calculation and experiment were demonstrated.

  5. Facile preparation and enhanced capacitance of the polyaniline/sodium alginate nanofiber network for supercapacitors.

    Li, Yingzhi; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Dajun

    2011-05-17

    A porous and mat-like polyaniline/sodium alginate (PANI/SA) composite with excellent electrochemical properties was polymerized in an aqueous solution with sodium sulfate as a template. Ultraviolet-visible spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern, and Fourier transform infrared spectra were employed to characterize the PANI/SA composite, indicating that the PANI/SA composite was successfully prepared. The PANI/SA nanofibers with uniform diameters from 50 to 100 nm can be observed on scanning electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests were carried out to investigate the electrochemical properties. The PANI/SA nanostructure electrode exhibits an excellent specific capacitance as high as 2093 F g(-1), long cycle life, and fast reflect of oxidation/reduction on high current changes. The remarkable electrochemical characteristic is attributed to the nanostructured electrode materials, which generates a high electrode/electrolyte contact area and short path lengths for electronic transport and electrolyte ion. The approach is simple and can be easily extended to fabricate nanostructural composites for supercapacitor electrode materials.

  6. Functionalized Nanoporous Polymer Membranes with Well-Defined Pore Architectures via Lyotropic Liquid-Crystalline Monomers

    Gin, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    .... Two lyotropic liquid-crystalline monomer platforms have been synthesized. The interchannel separations in the polymerizable materials can be varied in the 30-40 A range by the choice of counterion on the ionic headgroup of the monomers...

  7. Ortho-substituted triptycene-based diamines, monomers, and polymers, methods of making and uses thereof

    Ghanem, Bader Saleh

    2017-04-13

    Described herein are ortho-dimethyl-substituted and tetramethyi-substituted triptycene-containing diamine monomers and microporous triptycene-based poiyimides and poiyamides, and methods of making the monomers and polymers.

  8. Ortho-substituted triptycene-based diamines, monomers, and polymers, methods of making and uses thereof

    Ghanem, Bader Saleh; Pinnau, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are ortho-dimethyl-substituted and tetramethyi-substituted triptycene-containing diamine monomers and microporous triptycene-based poiyimides and poiyamides, and methods of making the monomers and polymers.

  9. Structure of human insulin monomer in water/acetonitrile solution

    Bocian, Wojciech; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Bednarek, Elzbieta [National Medicines Institute (Poland); Tarnowska, Anna; Kawecki, Robert [Institute of Organic Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland); Kozerski, Lech [National Medicines Institute (Poland)], E-mail: lkoz@icho.edu.pl

    2008-01-15

    Here we present evidence that in water/acetonitrile solvent detailed structural and dynamic information can be obtained for important proteins that are naturally present as oligomers under native conditions. An NMR-derived human insulin monomer structure in H{sub 2}O/CD{sub 3}CN, 65/35 vol%, pH 3.6 is presented and compared with the available X-ray structure of a monomer that forms part of a hexamer (Acta Crystallogr. 2003 Sec. D59, 474) and with NMR structures in water and organic cosolvent. Detailed analysis using PFGSE NMR, temperature-dependent NMR, dilution experiments and CSI proves that the structure is monomeric in the concentration and temperature ranges 0.1-3 mM and 10-30 deg. C, respectively. The presence of long-range interstrand NOEs, as found in the crystal structure of the monomer, provides the evidence for conservation of the tertiary structure. Starting from structures calculated by the program CYANA, two different molecular dynamics simulated annealing refinement protocols were applied, either using the program AMBER in vacuum (AMBER{sub V}C), or including a generalized Born solvent model (AMBER{sub G}B)

  10. Structure of human insulin monomer in water/acetonitrile solution

    Bocian, Wojciech; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Bednarek, Elzbieta; Tarnowska, Anna; Kawecki, Robert; Kozerski, Lech

    2008-01-01

    Here we present evidence that in water/acetonitrile solvent detailed structural and dynamic information can be obtained for important proteins that are naturally present as oligomers under native conditions. An NMR-derived human insulin monomer structure in H 2 O/CD 3 CN, 65/35 vol%, pH 3.6 is presented and compared with the available X-ray structure of a monomer that forms part of a hexamer (Acta Crystallogr. 2003 Sec. D59, 474) and with NMR structures in water and organic cosolvent. Detailed analysis using PFGSE NMR, temperature-dependent NMR, dilution experiments and CSI proves that the structure is monomeric in the concentration and temperature ranges 0.1-3 mM and 10-30 deg. C, respectively. The presence of long-range interstrand NOEs, as found in the crystal structure of the monomer, provides the evidence for conservation of the tertiary structure. Starting from structures calculated by the program CYANA, two different molecular dynamics simulated annealing refinement protocols were applied, either using the program AMBER in vacuum (AMBER V C), or including a generalized Born solvent model (AMBER G B)

  11. Radiation-induced crosslinking of polyethylene in the presence of bifunctional vinyl monomers

    Joshi, M.S.

    1976-10-06

    The apparent crosslinking produced by the radiation grafting of two monomers to polyethylene, acrylic acid and acrylonitrile, was investigated. Evidence is presented to show that covalent crosslinks are not produced during the radiation grafting step; covalent crosslinks are produced by the post-irradiation heat treatment associated with measurements of gel; the enhancement in gel fraction and physical properties arises from true crosslinks rather than chain entanglements; and there may be practical value associated with the sensitization of crosslinking produced by the methods employed in this work. The effect of monomer-solvent composition on the graft and gel yield was studied. Viscoelastic properties of grafted films were determined above the melting point of pure polyethylene. The kinetic data, infrared spectra, and viscoelastic properties are the bases for the following mechanism: (1) Acrylic acid-g-PE: Acrylic acid enters the film in the form of a hydrogen bonded dimer and undergoes a grafting reaction that produces hydrogen-bond crosslinks. The heat treatment during the conventional methods for determining of crosslinks convert them into intermolecular anhydride bonds. (2) Acrylonitrile-g-PE: In this, the post-grafting crosslinking is the result of a thermally induced chain reaction leading to an uninterrupted conjugated sequence. The length of the ring structure increases with time and temperature, and the intensity of color increases with the length of the ring structure.

  12. Radiation-induced crosslinking of polyethylene in the presence of bifunctional vinyl monomers

    Joshi, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The apparent crosslinking produced by the radiation grafting of two monomers to polyethylene, acrylic acid and acrylonitrile, was investigated. Evidence is presented to show that covalent crosslinks are not produced during the radiation grafting step; covalent crosslinks are produced by the post-irradiation heat treatment associated with measurements of gel; the enhancement in gel fraction and physical properties arises from true crosslinks rather than chain entanglements; and there may be practical value associated with the sensitization of crosslinking produced by the methods employed in this work. The effect of monomer-solvent composition on the graft and gel yield was studied. Viscoelastic properties of grafted films were determined above the melting point of pure polyethylene. The kinetic data, infrared spectra, and viscoelastic properties are the bases for the following mechanism: (1) Acrylic acid-g-PE: Acrylic acid enters the film in the form of a hydrogen bonded dimer and undergoes a grafting reaction that produces hydrogen-bond crosslinks. The heat treatment during the conventional methods for determining of crosslinks convert them into intermolecular anhydride bonds. (2) Acrylonitrile-g-PE: In this, the post-grafting crosslinking is the result of a thermally induced chain reaction leading to an uninterrupted conjugated sequence. The length of the ring structure increases with time and temperature, and the intensity of color increases with the length of the ring structure

  13. Copolymerization of 4-Acetylphenyl Methacrylate with Ethyl Methacrylate: Synthesis, Characterization, Monomer Reactivity Ratios, and Thermal Properties

    Gamze Barim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methacrylates have high glass transition temperature (Tg values and high thermal stability. A new methacrylate copolymer, poly(4-acetylphenyl methacrylate-co-ethyl methacrylate (APMA-co-EMA, was synthesized. The thermal behaviors of copolymers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. They behaved as new single polymers with single Tg’s and the thermal stability of the copolymers increased with increasing 4-acetylphenyl methacrylate (APMA fraction, leading to the manufacture of copolymers with desired Tg values. Structure and composition of copolymers for a wide range of monomer feed ratios were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopic techniques. Copolymerization reactions were continued up to 40% conversions. The monomer reactivity ratios for copolymer system were determined by the Kelen-Tüdös (ra(APMA=0.81; rb(EMA=0.61 and extended Kelen-Tüdös (ra=0.77; rb=0.54 methods and a nonlinear least squares (ra=0.74; rb=0.49 method.

  14. An investigation of the chemical stability of a monomer/polymer gel dosimeter

    De Deene, Y.; De Wagter, C.; De Neve, W.; Achten, E.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the temporal stability of a polyacrylamide gelatin hydrogel used for 3D monomer/polymer gel dosimetry techniques involving different methods of analysis. Long-term instabilities for a similar gel have recently been reported, but differ markedly from those described in this work. Two kinds of long-term instabilities are described. One affects the slope of the dose-R 2 plot and is related to post-irradiation polymerization of the comonomer/polymer aggregates. It is observed that post-irradiation polymerization only lasts 12 hours after irradiation. The other instability affects the intercept of the dose-R 2 plot, lasts for up to 30 days and is related to the gelation process of gelatin. Further studies were performed on gelatin gels of varying compositions to obtain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism that causes the instability due to gelation. The studies included observations of the spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation rates in combination with diffusion measurements and optical measurements. It is shown that the heating history during the manufacture of the gel affects the absolute R 2 value of the gel but not its variation. The findings presented in this study may help in producing more stable and reproducible monomer/polymer gel dosimeters. (author)

  15. Radical Copolymerization Kinetics of Bio-Renewable Butyrolactone Monomer in Aqueous Solution

    Sharmaine B. Luk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The radical copolymerization kinetics of acrylamide (AM and the water-soluble monomer sodium 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-methylene butanoate (SHMeMB, formed by saponification of the bio-sourced monomer γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MeMBL, are investigated to explain the previously reported slow rates of reaction during synthesis of superabsorbent hydrogels. Limiting conversions were observed to decrease with increased temperature during SHMeMB homopolymerization, suggesting that polymerization rate is limited by depropagation. Comonomer composition drift also increased with temperature, with more AM incorporated into the copolymer due to SHMeMB depropagation. Using previous estimates for the SHMeMB propagation rate coefficient, the conversion profiles were used to estimate rate coefficients for depropagation and termination (kt. The estimate for kt,SHMeMB was found to be of the same order of magnitude as that recently reported for sodium methacrylate, with the averaged copolymerization termination rate coefficient dominated by the presence of SHMeMB in the system. In addition, it was found that depropagation still controlled the SHMeMB polymerization rate at elevated temperatures in the presence of added salt.

  16. Surface characteristics determining the cell compatibility of ionically cross-linked alginate gels

    Machida-Sano, Ikuko; Hirakawa, Makoto; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Kamada, Mitsuki; Ogawa, Sakito; Satoh, Nao; Namiki, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated differences in the characteristics determining the suitability of five types of ion (Fe 3+ , Al 3+ , Ca 2+ , Ba 2+ and Sr 2+ )-cross-linked alginate films as culture substrates for cells. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured on each alginate film to examine the cell affinity of the alginates. Since cell behavior on the surface of a material is dependent on the proteins adsorbed to it, we investigated the protein adsorption ability and surface features (wettability, morphology and charge) related to the protein adsorption abilities of alginate films. We observed that ferric, aluminum and barium ion-cross-linked alginate films supported better cell growth and adsorbed higher amounts of serum proteins than other types. Surface wettability analysis demonstrated that ferric and aluminum ion-cross-linked alginates had moderate hydrophilic surfaces, while other types showed highly hydrophilic surfaces. The roughness was exhibited only on barium ion-cross-linked alginate surface. Surface charge measurements revealed that alginate films had negatively charged surfaces, and showed little difference among the five types of gel. These results indicate that the critical factors of ionically cross-linked alginate films determining the protein adsorption ability required for their cell compatibility may be surface wettability and morphology. (paper)

  17. Effects of disinfecting alginate impressions on the scratch hardness of stone models.

    Hiraguchi, Hisako; Nakagawa, Hisami; Wakashima, Mitsuru; Miyanaga, Kohichi; Saigo, Masataka; Nishiyama, Minoru

    2006-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of disinfecting alginate impressions on the scratch depth of resultant stone models. Eleven brands of alginate impression material and two disinfectants, 1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% glutaraldehyde, were used. Impressions were immersed in disinfectant solutions or stored in sealed bags after spraying with disinfectants, and then poured with a type V dental stone. The scratch depth of the stone model obtained from disinfected impression was measured. The storage of alginate impressions after spraying with disinfectants did not increase the scratch depth of resultant stone models. However, the effect of immersion in disinfectants on scratch depth varied with the brand of the alginate impression material.

  18. Clinical and laboratory studies of the antacid and raft-forming properties of Rennie alginate suspension.

    Tytgat, G N; Simoneau, G

    2006-03-15

    Acid pockets at the gastro-oesophageal junction escape buffering from meals in the stomach. Combining high-dose antacid with alginate may therefore be of benefit in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. To characterize the antacid and raft-forming properties of Rennie alginate suspension (containing high-dose antacid and alginate; Bayer Consumer Care, Bladel, the Netherlands). The in vitro acid-neutralizing capacity of Rennie algniate was compared with Gaviscon (Reckitt Benckiser, Slough, UK) by pH-recorded HCl titration. Alginate raft weight formed in vitro at different pH was used to evaluate the pH dependency of raft formation with each product. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study also compared the antacid activity of Rennie alginate vs. placebo in vivo using continuous intragastric pH monitoring in 12 healthy fasting volunteers. Compared with Gaviscon, Rennie alginate had a higher acid-neutralizing capacity, greater maximum pH and longer duration of antacid activity in vitro. However, the two products produced comparable alginate rafts at each pH evaluated. In vivo, Rennie alginate provided rapid, effective and long-lasting acid neutralization, with an onset of action of <5 min, and duration of action of almost 90 min. The dual mode of action of Rennie alginate offers an effective treatment option for mild symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease particularly considering recent findings regarding 'acid pockets'.

  19. Characterization of AlgMsp, an alginate lyase from Microbulbifer sp. 6532A.

    Steven M Swift

    Full Text Available Alginate is a polysaccharide produced by certain seaweeds and bacteria that consists of mannuronic acid and guluronic acid residues. Seaweed alginate is used in food and industrial chemical processes, while the biosynthesis of bacterial alginate is associated with pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Alginate lyases cleave this polysaccharide into short oligo-uronates and thus have the potential to be utilized for both industrial and medicinal applications. An alginate lyase gene, algMsp, from Microbulbifer sp. 6532A, was synthesized as an E.coli codon-optimized clone. The resulting 37 kDa recombinant protein, AlgMsp, was expressed, purified and characterized. The alginate lyase displayed highest activity at pH 8 and 0.2 M NaCl. Activity of the alginate lyase was greatest at 50°C; however the enzyme was not stable over time when incubated at 50°C. The alginate lyase was still highly active at 25°C and displayed little or no loss of activity after 24 hours at 25°C. The activity of AlgMsp was not dependent on the presence of divalent cations. Comparing activity of the lyase against polymannuronic acid and polyguluronic acid substrates showed a higher turnover rate for polymannuronic acid. However, AlgMSP exhibited greater catalytic efficiency with the polyguluronic acid substrate. Prolonged AlgMsp-mediated degradation of alginate produced dimer, trimer, tetramer, and pentamer oligo-uronates.

  20. Drug release, preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetics relationships of alginate pellets prepared by melt technology.

    Bose, Anirbandeep; Harjoh, Nurulaini; Pal, Tapan Kumar; Dan, Shubhasis; Wong, Tin Wui

    2016-01-01

    Alginate pellets prepared by the aqueous agglomeration technique experience fast drug dissolution due to the porous pre-formed calcium alginate microstructure. This study investigated in vitro drug release, preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetics relationships of intestinal-specific calcium acetate-alginate pellets against calcium-free and calcium carbonate-alginate pellets. Alginate pellets were prepared by solvent-free melt pelletization instead of aqueous agglomeration technique using chlorpheniramine maleate as model drug. A fast in situ calcium acetate dissolution in pellets resulted in rapid pellet breakup, soluble Ca(2+) crosslinking of alginate fragments and drug dissolution retardation at pH 1.2, which were not found in other pellet types. The preclinical drug absorption rate was lower with calcium acetate loaded than calcium-free alginate pellets. In human subjects, however, the extent and the rate of drug absorption were higher from calcium acetate-loaded pellets than calcium-free alginate pellets. The fine, dispersible and weakly gastric mucoadhesive calcium alginate pellets underwent fast human gastrointestinal transit. They released the drug at a greater rate than calcium-free pellets in the intestine, thereby promoting drug bioavailability. Calcium acetate was required as a disintegrant more than as a crosslinking agent clinically to promote pellet fragmentation, fast gastrointestinal transit and drug release in intestinal medium, and intestinal-specific drug bioavailability.

  1. Characteristics of Immobilized Urease on Grafted Alginate Bead Systems

    Enas N. Danial

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biological importance of immobilized urease enzyme over the free urease. The support material used for urease immobilization was alginate. Generally, the immobilization of urease in alginate gel showed a marked increase in Km and Vmax. However, the immobilized urease showed higher thermal stability than that of free enzyme. The rate of thermal inactivation of the immobilized enzyme decreased due to entrapment in gel matrix. Also, the activity of the immobilized urease was more stable in retention than that of the free enzyme during the storage in solution, although the activity of the immobilized enzyme was lower in comparison with the free enzyme. A stable immobilized system and long storage life are convenient for applications that would not be feasible with a soluble enzyme system. These results highlighted the technical and biochemical benefits of immobilized urease over the free enzyme.

  2. Ancient acquisition of "alginate utilization loci" by human gut microbiota.

    Mathieu, Sophie; Touvrey-Loiodice, Mélanie; Poulet, Laurent; Drouillard, Sophie; Vincentelli, Renaud; Henrissat, Bernard; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Helbert, William

    2018-05-23

    In bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes, the genes coding for enzymes involved in polysaccharide degradation are often colocalized and coregulated in so-called "polysaccharide utilization loci" (PULs). PULs dedicated to the degradation of marine polysaccharides (e.g. laminaran, ulvan, alginate and porphyran) have been characterized in marine bacteria. Interestingly, the gut microbiome of Japanese individuals acquired, by lateral transfer from marine bacteria, the genes involved in the breakdown of porphyran, the cell wall polysaccharide of the red seaweed used in maki. Sequence similarity analyses predict that the human gut microbiome also encodes enzymes for the degradation of alginate, the main cell wall polysaccharide of brown algae. We undertook the functional characterization of diverse polysaccharide lyases from family PL17, frequently found in marine bacteria as well as those of human gut bacteria. We demonstrate here that this family is polyspecific. Our phylogenetic analysis of family PL17 reveals that all alginate lyases, which have all the same specificity and mode of action, cluster together in a very distinct subfamily. The alginate lyases found in human gut bacteria group together in a single clade which is rooted deeply in the PL17 tree. These enzymes were found in PULs containing PL6 enzymes, which also clustered together in the phylogenetic tree of PL6. Together, biochemical and bioinformatics analyses suggest that acquisition of this system appears ancient and, because only traces of two successful transfers were detected upon inspection of PL6 and PL17 families, the pace of acquisition of marine polysaccharide degradation system is probably very slow.

  3. Determining the complex modulus of alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental material.

    King, Shalinie; See, Howard; Thomas, Graham; Swain, Michael

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the visco-elastic response of an alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental impression material during setting. A novel squeeze film Micro-Fourier Rheometer (MFR, GBC Scientific Equipment, Australia) was used to determine the complex modulus of an alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental impression material (Algident, ISO 1563 Class A Type 1, Dentalfarm Australia Pty. Ltd.) during setting after mixing. Data was collected every 30s for 10 min in one study and every 10 min for a total of 60 min in another study. A high level of repeatability was observed. The results indicate that the MFR is capable of recording the complex shear modulus of alginate irreversible hydrocolloid for 60 min from the start of mixing and to simultaneously report the changing visco-elastic parameters at all frequencies between 1 Hz and 100 Hz. The storage modulus shows a dramatic increase to 370% of its starting value after 6 min and then reduces to 55% after 60 min. The loss modulus increases to a maximum of 175% of its starting value after 10 min and then reduces to 94% after 60 min. The MFR enables the changes in the complex modulus through the complete setting process to be followed. It is anticipated this approach may provide a better method to compare the visco-elastic properties of impression materials and assist with identification of optimum types for different clinical requirements. The high stiffness of the instrument and the use of band-limited pseudo-random noise as the input signal are the main advantages of this technique over conventional rheometers for determining the changes in alginate visco-elasticity.

  4. Engineering Microvascularized 3D Tissue Using Alginate-Chitosan Microcapsules

    Zhang, Wujie; Choi, Jung K.; He, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Construction of vascularized tissues is one of the major challenges of tissue engineering. The goal of this study was to engineer 3D microvascular tissues by incorporating the HUVEC-CS cells with a collagen/alginate-chitosan (AC) microcapsule scaffold. In the presence of AC microcapsules, a 3D vascular-like network was clearly observable. The results indicated the importance of AC microcapsules in engineering microvascular tissues -- providing support and guiding alignment of HUVEC-CS cells. ...

  5. Growth and morphology of thermophilic dairy starters in alginate beads.

    Lamboley, Laurence; St-Gelais, Daniel; Champagne, Claude P; Lamoureux, Maryse

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this research was to produce concentrated biomasses of thermophilic lactic starters using immobilized cell technology (ICT). Fermentations were carried out in milk using pH control with cells microentrapped in alginate beads. In the ICT fermentations, beads represented 17% of the weight. Some assays were carried out with free cells without pH control, in order to compare the ICT populations with those of classical starters. With Streptococcus thermophilus, overall populations in the fermentor were similar, but maximum bead population for (8.2 x 10(9) cfu/g beads) was 13 times higher than that obtained in a traditional starter (4.9 x 10(8) cfu/ml). For both Lactobacillus helveticus strains studied, immobilized-cell populations were about 3 x 10(9) cfu/g beads. Production of immobilized Lb. bulgaricus 210R strain was not possible, since no increases in viable counts occurred in beads. Therefore, production of concentrated cell suspension in alginate beads was more effective for S. thermophilus. Photomicrographs of cells in alginate beads demonstrated that, while the morphology of S. thermophilus remained unchanged during the ICT fermentation, immobilized cells of Lb. helveticus appeared wider. In addition, cells of Lb. bulgaricus were curved and elongated. These morphological changes would also impair the growth of immobilized lactobacilli.

  6. ENTRAPMENT OF FLUORESCENT E. COLI CELLS IN ALGINATE GEL

    T. VINTILA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available By this experiment we will demonstrate the possibility to obtain genetically modified microbial strains that can be used as markers in different studies. The trait transferred in this study is the fluorescence in UV light expressed by a gene isolated from jellyfish. This gene was insered into a plasmid carrying ampiciline resistance and in the operon for arabinose fermentation. The plasmid was called pGLO. E coli HB101 K-12, ampicillin resistant colonies has been obtained. The colonies on the LB/amp/ara plate fluoresce green under UV light and the transformed colonies can grow on ampicillin. Transformation efficiency = 362 transformed colonies/ μg DNA. The cells where immobilized by entrapment in alginate gel to study the phenomenon involved in cells immobilization. After immobilization in alginate gel, 5x104 cells of E. coli pGLO / capsule and 1,4 x 105 cells of E. coli HB101/capsule has been found. Fluorescent microscopy revealed the presence of pGLO carrying cells into the capsules. After cultivation of alginate capsules containing E. coli in LB broth, and fluorescent microscopy of the capsule sections, several observations of the phenomenon involved in continuous fermentation using biocatalysts in has been made. These cells grow and migrate to the cortical part of the matrix where they are immobilized.

  7. IN VITRO EVALUATION OF FLUORIDE RELEASE OF JELTRATE® DENTAL ALGINATE

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate of fluoride release from Jeltrate alginate®. Materials and Methods: Four Trademarks of alginate were divided in four groups: conventional Jeltrate®, Plus Jeltrate®, Chromatic Jeltrate® and Chromatic Ortho Jeltrate®. The alginates were handled following the guidelines of the manufacturers. After this was followed by the construction of evidence bodies using silicone molds of the dimensions of 4 mm in diameter and 4mm in height. After take prey, the evidence bodies were removed from the molds and placed in container with 10 ml of ultra purified water, for 2 min. The fluoride release was measured by selective ion electrode connected to an analyzer of ions. Results: The Plus Jeltrate® showed a higher releasing fluoride 247.85 µg/cm2 followed by Chromatic Ortho Jeltrate® (217.83 µg/cm2, Chromatic Jeltrate ® (138.21 µg/cm2 and Jeltrate® (79.61 µg/cm2. Conclusion: Plus Jeltrate® had the best performance in releasing fluoride, followed by Chromatic Ortho Jeltrate®, Chromatic Jeltrate® and conventional Jeltrate®..

  8. Controlled fabrication of multi-core alginate microcapsules.

    Eqbal, Md Danish; Gundabala, Venkat

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a robust microfluidic platform for controlled and complete on-chip generation of alginate microcapsules with single and double liquid cores. A combined Coflow and T-junction configuration implemented in a hybrid glass-PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) device is used for the generation of microcapsules with oil as liquid core. Frequency matching of oil-alginate double emulsion generation with that of aqueous Calcium chloride droplet generation allows for controlled merging of the two, resulting in reliable production of microcapsules. Confocal imaging of microcapsule cross-section reveals presence of intact liquid core. In the case of double core microcapsules, the two cores are well separated by alginate layer ensuring their long term stability. The current approach is expected to have advantages over existing techniques for liquid core microcapsule generation in terms of continuity of the process, control over core stability, and non-damage to cells when used for cell encapsulation applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High ...

    Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays DE DeGroot, RS Thomas, and SO SimmonsNational Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC USAThe EPA’s ToxCast program utilizes a wide variety of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints. A key criticism of using HTS assays for toxicity assessment is the lack of xenobiotic metabolism (XM) which precludes both metabolic detoxification as well as bioactivation of chemicals tested in vitro thereby mischaracterizing the potential risk posed by these chemicals. To address this deficiency, we have developed an extracellular platform to retrofit existing HTS assays with XM activity. This platform utilizes the S9 fraction of liver homogenate encapsulated in an alginate gel network which reduces the cytotoxicity caused by direct addition of S9 to cells in culture. Alginate microspheres containing encapsulated human liver S9 were cross-linked to solid supports extending from a 96-well plate lid and were assayed using a pro-luciferin substrate specific for CYP3A4 (IPA). We demonstrate that S9 was successfully encapsulated and remained enzymatically active post-encapsulation with 5-10X the CYP3A4 activity as compared to 1 µg solubilized human liver S9. Ketoconazole, a known inhibitor of human CYP3A4, inhibited CYP3A4 activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50: 0.27 µM) and inhibiti

  10. From alginate impressions to digital virtual models: accuracy and reproducibility.

    Dalstra, Michel; Melsen, Birte

    2009-03-01

    To compare the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements performed on digital virtual models with those taken on plaster casts from models poured immediately after the impression was taken, the 'gold standard', and from plaster models poured following a 3-5 day shipping procedure of the alginate impression. Direct comparison of two measuring techniques. The study was conducted at the Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Aarhus, Denmark in 2006/2007. Twelve randomly selected orthodontic graduate students with informed consent. Three sets of alginate impressions were taken from the participants within 1 hour. Plaster models were poured immediately from two of the sets, while the third set was kept in transit in the mail for 3-5 days. Upon return a plaster model was poured as well. Finally digital models were made from the plaster models. A number of measurements were performed on the plaster casts with a digital calliper and on the corresponding digital models using the virtual measuring tool of the accompanying software. Afterwards these measurements were compared statistically. No statistical differences were found between the three sets of plaster models. The intra- and inter-observer variability are smaller for the measurements performed on the digital models. Sending alginate impressions by mail does not affect the quality and accuracy of plaster casts poured from them afterwards. Virtual measurements performed on digital models display less variability than the corresponding measurements performed with a calliper on the actual models.

  11. Thermodynamics of swelling of latex particles with two monomers: a sensitivity analysis

    Maxwell, I.A.; Noel, E.F.J.; Schoonbrood, H.A.S.; German, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    A sensitivity anal. is performed to det. at what conditions the simplified model for swelling of latex particles by two monomers or two solvents is valid. This model proposes that, inter alia, the fractions of two monomers in the latex particles and in the monomer droplets are equal. The model is a

  12. Development and Characterization of Novel Porous 3D Alginate-Cockle Shell Powder Nanobiocomposite Bone Scaffold

    B. Hemabarathy Bharatham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel porous three-dimensional bone scaffold was developed using a natural polymer (alginate/Alg in combination with a naturally obtained biomineral (nano cockle shell powder/nCP through lyophilization techniques. The scaffold was developed in varying composition mixture of Alg-nCP and characterized using various evaluation techniques as well as preliminary in vitro studies on MG63 human osteoblast cells. Morphological observations using SEM revealed variations in structures with the use of different Alg-nCP composition ratios. All the developed scaffolds showed a porous structure with pore sizes ideal for facilitating new bone growth; however, not all combination mixtures showed subsequent favorable characteristics to be used for biological applications. Scaffolds produced using the combination mixture of 40% Alg and 60% nCP produced significantly promising results in terms of mechanical strength, degradation rate, and increased cell proliferation rates making it potentially the optimum composition mixture of Alg-nCP with future application prospects.

  13. Microwave plasma initiated graft copolymerization modification of monomers onto PTFE surface

    Guan Weishu; Wen Yunjian; Fang Yan; Yin Yongxiang

    1996-02-01

    A graft copolymerization modification technique of monomers onto polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface initiated by a 2.45 GHz non-equilibrium microwave plasma has been investigated. Standard X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (sEM) and wetting techniques were used for examination and analysis of samples. Considerable changes in chemical structure, composition and in morphology of grafted surface of PTFE were found. Results showed the occurrence of noticeable defluorination and cross-linked structure on grafted surface, and indicated that different kinds and contents of oxygen-containing functional groups were introduced into the surface of PTFE. Wetting and adhesion experiment of the sample proved that significant improvements in hydrophilicity and adhesion of surface were exhibited. These results confirmed the success of grafting. (8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.)

  14. Radiation curing of mixture of diallylphthalate prepolymer and vinyl monomer, 11

    Gotoda, Masao; Yagi, Toshiaki; Yoshizawa, Iwao; Okugawa, Hideo.

    1975-01-01

    Preparation of Wood-Polymer Composite (WPC) piled plywood for flooring, was attempted by electron beam irradiation of American Hemlock veneer, impregnated with low molecular weight diallylphthalate prepolymer (DAPsub(p).L)/vinyl monomer mixtures, in comparison with that by thermal curing reported previously. For the improvement of the mechanical properties of WPC piled plywood, 5-15 parts of low molecular weight polyvinylacetate (PVAc) was added to DAPsub(p).L/methyl acrylate/hydroxyethyl acrylate/benzoyl peroxide (50/40/10/2) mixture. The addition of PVAc did not give much influence to the degree of impregnation in the veneer and to the curability by electron beam irradiation. As to the resistance to hot and cold cycle test, WPC piled plywood, prepared by the resin containing 5 parts of PVAc gave the best results. As a general conclusion, due to the superior mechanical properties, the WPC piled plywood processed by electron beam irradiation is suitable for flooring use. (author)

  15. Anisotropic Shape-Memory Alginate Scaffolds Functionalized with Either Type I or Type II Collagen for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Almeida, Henrique V; Sathy, Binulal N; Dudurych, Ivan; Buckley, Conor T; O'Brien, Fergal J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Regenerating articular cartilage and fibrocartilaginous tissue such as the meniscus is still a challenge in orthopedic medicine. While a range of different scaffolds have been developed for joint repair, none have facilitated the development of a tissue that mimics the complexity of soft tissues such as articular cartilage. Furthermore, many of these scaffolds are not designed to function in mechanically challenging joint environments. The overall goal of this study was to develop a porous, biomimetic, shape-memory alginate scaffold for directing cartilage regeneration. To this end, a scaffold was designed with architectural cues to guide cellular and neo-tissue alignment, which was additionally functionalized with a range of extracellular matrix cues to direct stem cell differentiation toward the chondrogenic lineage. Shape-memory properties were introduced by covalent cross-linking alginate using carbodiimide chemistry, while the architecture of the scaffold was modified using a directional freezing technique. Introducing such an aligned pore structure was found to improve the mechanical properties of the scaffold, and promoted higher levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) and collagen deposition compared to an isotropic (nonaligned) pore geometry when seeded with adult human stem cells. Functionalization with collagen improved stem cell recruitment into the scaffold and facilitated more homogenous cartilage tissue deposition throughout the construct. Incorporating type II collagen into the scaffolds led to greater cell proliferation, higher sGAG and collagen accumulation, and the development of a stiffer tissue compared to scaffolds functionalized with type I collagen. The results of this study demonstrate how both scaffold architecture and composition can be tailored in a shape-memory alginate scaffold to direct stem cell differentiation and support the development of complex cartilaginous tissues.

  16. Mussel-inspired alginate gel promoting the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and anti-infection

    Zhang, Shiwen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Department of Biochemistry & Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Manitoba Institute of Child Health, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Children Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Xu, Kaige; Darabi, Mohammad Ali [Children Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); Yuan, Quan [Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Xing, Malcolm [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Department of Biochemistry & Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Manitoba Institute of Child Health, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    Alginate hydrogels have been used in cell encapsulation for many years but a prevalent issue with pure alginates is that they are unable to provide enough bioactive properties to interact with mammalian cells. This paper discusses the modification of alginate with mussel-inspired dopamine for cell loading and anti-infection. Mouse bone marrow stem cells were immobilized into alginate and alginate-dopamine beads and fibers. Through live-dead and MTT assay, alginates modified by dopamine promoted cell viability and proliferation. In vitro cell differentiation results showed that such an alginate-dopamine gel can promote the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell after PCR and ALP assays. In addition to that, the adhesive prosperities of dopamine allowed for coating the surface of alginate-dopamine gel with silver nanoparticles, which provided the gel with significant antibacterial characteristics. Overall, these results demonstrate that a dopamine-modified alginate gel can be a great tool for cell encapsulation to promote cell proliferation and can be applied to bone regeneration, especially in contaminated bone defects. - Highlights: • Dopamine modified alginate bead and fiber promote cell viability and proliferation. • Alginate-dopamine gel promotes osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. • Dopamine reduced nanosilver for anti-infection. • Alginate-dopamine bead and fiber for delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)

  17. Combination of sodium caseinate and succinylated alginate improved stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions

    Yesiltas, Betül; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Sodium caseinate (CAS) and commercial sodium alginate (CA), long chain modified alginate (LCMA) or short chain modified alginate (SCMA) were used in combination for emulsifying and stabilizing high fat (50–70%) fish oil-in-water emulsions. Physical (creaming, droplet size, viscosity and protein...

  18. Mussel-inspired alginate gel promoting the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and anti-infection

    Zhang, Shiwen; Xu, Kaige; Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Yuan, Quan; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Alginate hydrogels have been used in cell encapsulation for many years but a prevalent issue with pure alginates is that they are unable to provide enough bioactive properties to interact with mammalian cells. This paper discusses the modification of alginate with mussel-inspired dopamine for cell loading and anti-infection. Mouse bone marrow stem cells were immobilized into alginate and alginate-dopamine beads and fibers. Through live-dead and MTT assay, alginates modified by dopamine promoted cell viability and proliferation. In vitro cell differentiation results showed that such an alginate-dopamine gel can promote the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell after PCR and ALP assays. In addition to that, the adhesive prosperities of dopamine allowed for coating the surface of alginate-dopamine gel with silver nanoparticles, which provided the gel with significant antibacterial characteristics. Overall, these results demonstrate that a dopamine-modified alginate gel can be a great tool for cell encapsulation to promote cell proliferation and can be applied to bone regeneration, especially in contaminated bone defects. - Highlights: • Dopamine modified alginate bead and fiber promote cell viability and proliferation. • Alginate-dopamine gel promotes osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. • Dopamine reduced nanosilver for anti-infection. • Alginate-dopamine bead and fiber for delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)

  19. Radiation induced ionic polymerisation and grafting of vinyl monomers

    Stannett, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    Some special aspects of the radiation induced ionic polymerisation and grafting of vinyl monomers will be described. In particular the effects of solvents on the cationic polymerisation of the vinyl ethers will be discussed in detail. The unequivocal free ion nature of the polymerisation makes such information of considerable general interest. Estimates of the propagation rate constants with free cation polymerisation in solvents of different dielectric constants and solvation powers will be presented. Finally, some observations on the radiation induced graft polymerisation of ethyl vinyl ether to poly(vinyl chloride) and to polypropylene will be presented. (author)

  20. Radiation vulcanization of ethylene-propylene rubber with polyfunctional monomers

    Jinhua, Wang; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on the sensitizing efficiency of several polyfunctional monomers to radiation vulcanization of ethylene-propylene rubber. And the results show that triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) gave the best results. TEGDMA not only lowers the vulcanization dose (D{sub v}), but also increases the tensile strength greatly. The content of TEGDMA does not affect the D{sub v} of TEGDMA-EPM, but affects the tensile strength at the D{sub v}. At best content (0.04 mol/100 g EPM), the tensile strength is increased from 6.0 to 12 MPa, and the elongation is 790% at the D{sub v}. (author)

  1. Breathing zone concentrations of methylmethacrylate monomer during joint replacement operations

    Darre, E; Jørgensen, L G; Vedel, P

    1992-01-01

    By use of a methylmethacrylate (MMA) Dräger tube and bellow bump, the breathing zone concentrations of MMA monomer were measured for the operating surgeon during cementation of the components of hip and knee joint prostheses. The highest recordings (50-100 p.p.m.) were encountered during cementat...... cementation of the acetabular cups with conventional polymethylmethacrylate cement. Such exposure could be eliminated by the use of personal protection equipment, local punctual field suction or change to a MMA/n-decylmethacrylate/isobornylmethacrylate bone cement....

  2. Alginate overproduction and biofilm formation by psychrotolerant Pseudomonas mandelii depend on temperature in Antarctic marine sediments

    Felipe Vásquez-Ponce

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Because biofilm formation is an efficient bacterial strategy to overcome stressful conditions, alginate overproduction might represent the best solution for the successful adaptation of P. mandelii to the extreme temperatures of the Antarctic. Through additional research, it is possible that this novel P. mandelii strain could become an additional source for biotechnological alginate production.

  3. Characterization of alginates from Ghanaian brown seaweeds: Sargassum spp. and Padina spp

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Alginates of four locally harvested Ghanaian brown seaweeds from the Sargassum and Padina genus were assessed for their rheological and chemical characteristics. The seaweeds contained 16–30% by weight of alginate assessed as the sum of d-mannuronic acid (M) and l-guluronic acid (G). In compariso...

  4. Photocrosslinked alginate with hyaluronic acid hydrogels as vehicles for mesenchymal stem cell encapsulation and chondrogenesis.

    Coates, Emily E; Riggin, Corinne N; Fisher, John P

    2013-07-01

    Ionic crosslinking of alginate via divalent cations allows for high viability of an encapsulated cell population, and is an effective biomaterial for supporting a spherical chondrocyte morphology. However, such crosslinking chemistry does not allow for injectable and stable hydrogels which are more appropriate for clinical applications. In this study, the addition of methacrylate groups to the alginate polymer chains was utilized so as to allow the free radical polymerization initiated by a photoinitiator during UV light exposure. This approach establishes covalent crosslinks between methacrylate groups instead of the ionic crosslinks formed by the calcium in unmodified alginate. Although this approach has been well described in the literature, there are currently no reports of stem cell differentiation and subsequent chondrocyte gene expression profiles in photocrosslinked alginate. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of photocrosslinked alginate hydrogels containing interpenetrating hyaluronic acid chains to support stem cell chondrogenesis. We report high cell viability and no statistical difference in metabolic activity between mesenchymal stem cells cultured in calcium crosslinked alginate and photocrosslinked alginate for up to 10 days of culture. Furthermore, chondrogenic gene markers are expressed throughout the study, and indicate robust differentiation up to the day 14 time point. At early time points, days 1 and 7, the addition of hyaluronic acid to the photocrosslinked scaffolds upregulates gene markers for both the chondrocyte and the superficial zone chondrocyte phenotype. Taken together, we show that photocrosslinked, injectable alginate shows significant potential as a delivery mechanism for cell-based cartilage repair therapies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Alginate as a cell culture substrate for growth and differentiation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Heidari, Razeih; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Davari, Maliheh; Nazemroaya, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Abouzar; Deezagi, Abdolkhalegh

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells' behavior in alginate beads that establish 3D environment for cellular growth and mimic extracellular matrix versus the conventional 2D monolayer culture. RPE cells were encapsulated in alginate beads by dripping alginate cell suspension into CaCl2 solution. Beads were suspended in three different media including Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F12 alone, DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS), and DMEM/F12 supplemented with 30 % human amniotic fluid (HAF). RPE cells were cultivated on polystyrene under the same conditions as controls. Cell phenotype, cell proliferation, cell death, and MTT assay, immunocytochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR were performed to evaluate the effect of alginate on RPE cells characteristics and integrity. RPE cells can survive and proliferate in alginate matrixes. Immunocytochemistry analysis exhibited Nestin, RPE65, and cytokeratin expressions in a reasonable number of cultured cells in alginate beads. Real-time PCR data demonstrated high levels of Nestin, CHX10, RPE65, and tyrosinase gene expressions in RPE cells immobilized in alginate when compared to 2D monolayer culture systems. The results suggest that alginate can be used as a reliable scaffold for maintenance of RPE cells' integrity and in vitro propagation of human retinal progenitor cells for cell replacement therapies in retinal diseases.

  6. In vitro investigation of the integration depth of oral fluids and disinfectants into alginate impressions.

    Surna, Rimas; Junevicius, Jonas; Rutkauskas, Evaldas

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to prove that oral cavity fluids diffuse into alginate mass of impressions. In addition, the information is presented on the subject that disinfectants used for alginate impressions disinfection not only diffuse into alginate mass but penetrate deeper than oral cavity fluids. Three examination groups were formed for the research, the results of which evidenced how deeply oral cavity fluids and disinfectants 'Alpha Guard GF' and 'Orbis' could possibly diffuse into alginate impression material 'Kromopan 100'. In the first examination group ten impressions from the upper jaw dental arch and mucosa were taken, firstly colouring oral cavity fluids with a special colouring tablet MIRA-2-TON (Hager Werken). Cuts were randomly selected from impressions and scanned aiming to establish the depth of the coloured oral cavity fluid penetration. In the second and the third examination groups taken alginate impressions were accordingly soaked in 'Alpha Guard GF' and 'Orbis' with pigment and later randomly selected cuts were scanned in the same manner as in the first research group. RESULTS. The research results establish that coloured dental cavity fluids maximum diffuse into alginate impression is up to 540 microm with the presence of 95% of discolouring while disinfectants 'Alpha Guard GF' and 'Orbis' accordingly diffuse into alginate mass up to 710 microm and 870 microm with the presence of 95% of discolouring. CONCLUSIONS. The results obtained show that disinfectants using them according to the recommendations of a manufacturer, diffuse into alginate mass deeper than oral cavity fluids at the time of impressions taking.

  7. Clinical and laboratory studies of the antacid and raft-forming properties of Rennie alginate suspension

    Tytgat, G. N.; Simoneau, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acid pockets at the gastro-oesophageal junction escape buffering from meals in the stomach. Combining high-dose antacid with alginate may therefore be of benefit in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. AIM: To characterize the antacid and raft-forming properties of Rennie alginate

  8. Synthesis of hydrogels of alginate for system controlled release of progesterone

    Abreu, Marlon de F.; Rodriguez, Ruben J.S.; Silva, Ester C.C. da; Barreto, Gabriela N.S.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical modifications of natural polymers like alginate, has allowed the development of new formulations for controlled release systems. In this work we report the synthesis of a derivative of the amidic alginate with alkyl chain. The polymer was characterized by spectroscopic techniques: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fourier Transform Infrared. (author)

  9. Review: peripheral nerve regeneration using non-tubular alginate gel crosslinked with covalent bonds.

    Hashimoto, Tadashi; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Kyoko; Nakashima, Toshihide; Tanihara, Masao; Ide, Chizuka

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a nerve regeneration material consisting of alginate gel crosslinked with covalent bonds. in the first part of this study, we attempted to analyze nerve regeneration through alginate gel in the early stages within 2 weeks. in the second part, we tried to regenerate cat peripheral nerve by using alginate tubular or non-tubular nerve regeneration devices, and compared their efficacies. Four days after surgery, regenerating axons grew without Schwann cell investment through the partially degraded alginate gel, being in direct contact with the alginate without a basal lamina covering. One to 2 weeks after surgery, regenerating axons were surrounded by common Schwann cells, forming small bundles, with some axons at the periphery being partly in direct contact with alginate. At the distal stump, numerous Schwann cells had migrated into the alginate 8-14 days after surgery. Remarkable restorations of the 50-mm gap in cat sciatic nerve were obtained after a long term by using tubular or non-tubular nerve regeneration material consisting mainly of alginate gel. However, there was no significant difference between both groups at electrophysiological and morphological evaluation. Although, nowadays, nerve regeneration materials being marketed mostly have a tubular structure, our results suggest that the tubular structure is not indispensable for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  10. The effect of chitosan molecular weight on the properties of alginate ...

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chitosan molecular weight on size, size distribution, release rate, mucoadhesive properties and electrostatic bonding of alginate/chitosan microparticles containing prednisolone. Methods: Three mucoadhesive alginate/chitosan microparticle formulations, ...

  11. Preparation of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Grafted With Acrylic Acid/Styrene Binary Monomers For Selective Permeation of Heavy Metals

    Hegazy El-Sayed, A.; Abd El-Rehim, H.A.; Ali, A.M.; Aly, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    A study has been made to modify water-soluble poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), by grafting acrylic acid and styrene (AAc/Sty) binary monomers using gamma rays as initiator. The factors that affect the preparation process and grafting yield were studied and more economical grafts under the most favorable reaction conditions were obtained. It was found that the high degree of grafting of such system was obtained in presence of ethanol-water mixture in which water plays a significant role in enhancing the graft copolymerization. The critical amount of water to afford maximum grafting yield has been evaluated. The effect of comonomer composition on the grafting yield was also investigated and it was observed that using a mixture of AAc/Sty monomers influence the extent of grafting of each monomer onto the PVA substrate and the phenomenon of synergism occurs during such reaction. Also, degree of grafting increases as the content of the solvent decreases in the reaction medium. The permeation of heavy metals such as Ni and Co through the grafted membranes was investigated and efficiency of separation process is also determined

  12. Fixation of some chemically modified reactive dye during gamma irradiation of cotton fabrics in presence of vinyl and acrylic monomers

    Zohdy, M.H.; El-Naggar, A.M.; Abdallah, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation grafting of vinyl sulfone dye having an activated double bond in presence of styrene monomer or its mixtures with ethyl acrylate onto cotton fabric has been investigated. The chemical reaction of the vinyl sulfone form with peroxy radicals on cotton fabric through covalent bonding is tested by extracting the dyed samples in 50% aqueous DMF solution. It was found that the presence of styene monomer in the dyeing solution is essential for the reaction or grafting of the vinyl sulfone dye. However, when a constant styrene concentration of 5% was used in the dye bath, the color strength expressed as K/S was found to increase by increasing the dye concentration. The results showed that the color strength obtained in case of using 10% ethyl acrylate is much lower than in the case of using the same concentration of styrene monomer. A solvent composition of equal ratios of methanol and water has been proven to be suitable to produce the highest improvement in the color strength. The irradiation dose was found to play an important role in initiating the reaction of the vinyl sulfone dye

  13. Copolymers of N-cyclohexylacrylamide and n-butyl acrylate: synthesis, characterization, monomer reactivity ratios and mean sequence length

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Copolymerization of N-cyclohexylacrylamide (NCHA and n-butyl acrylate (BA was carried out in dimethylformamide at 55±1°C using azobisisobutyronitrile as a free radical initiator. The copolymers were characterized by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and the copolymer compositions were determined by 1H-NMR analysis. The reactivity ratios of the monomers were determined by both linear and non-linear methods. The reactivity ratios of monomers determined using linear methods like Fineman-Ross (r1 = 0.37 and r2 = 1.77 , Kelen-Tudos (r1 = 0.38 and r2 = 1.77, ext. Kelen-Tudos (r1 = 0.37 and r2 = 1.75 Yezrieler-Brokhina-Roskin (r1 = 0.37 and r2 = 1.77 and non-linear methods like Tidwell-Mortimer (r1 = 0.37 and r2 = 1.76, ProCop (r1 = 0.36 and r2 = 1.82. The Q and e values for NCHA are 0.67 and 0.68 respectively. Mean sequence lengths of copolymers are estimated from r1 and r2 values. It shows that the BA units increases in a linear fashion in the polymer chain as the concentration of BA increases in the monomer feed.

  14. Determination of Monomers Reactivity Ratios in Ethyl Acrylate-Methacrylic Acid Copolymerization by Off-Line 1H NMR

    Samaneh Ashenagar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of polymer systems depend on the micro-structural characteristics of their macromolecular chains. Along with the most characteristic kinetic parameters in copolymerization reactions are the reactivity ratios, which give a clear idea of the average composition and the monomer sequence distribution in copolymer systems. This research studies the solution radical copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA-ethyl acrylate (EA system at low conversion with 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as thermal initiator at 60°C in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d6 as a reaction solvent. In this case, the monomer reactivity ratios were determined using linear off-line 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR methods such as Mayo-Louis, Finemann-Ross, Inverted Finemann-Ross , Ezrielev-Brokhina-Roskin, Joshi-Joshi, Kelen-Tudos, extended Kelen- Tudos, Mao-Huglin at low and high conversions. The next estimation process in off-line 1H NMR methods were performed by applying techniques based on ordinary least square (OLS and generalized least square (GLS. The results showed that the GLS approach compared to the OLS increased regression coefficients (R2 and the order of magnitude of parameter variances obtained from GLS was many times lower than that obtained from OLS. In addition, the monomer reactivity ratios obtained by the Mao-Huglin method and the GLS approach showed the best linear estimation.

  15. Antifungal Effect of a Dental Tissue Conditioner Containing Nystatin-Loaded Alginate Microparticles.

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Son, Jun Sik; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2018-02-01

    In this in vitro study, nystatin-alginate microparticles were successfully fabricated to control the release of nystatin from a commercial dental tissue conditioner. These nystatin-alginate microparticles were spherical and had a slightly rough surface. The microparticles incorporated into the tissue conditioner were distributed homogeneously throughout the tissue conditioner matrix. The incorporation of the microparticles did not deteriorate the mechanical properties of the original material. The agar diffusion test results showed that the tissue conditioner containing the microparticles had a good antifungal effect against Candida albicans. The nystatin-alginate microparticles efficiently controlled the release of nystatin from the tissue conditioner matrix over the experimental period of 14 days. Moreover, the nystatin-alginate microparticles incorporated in the tissue conditioner showed effective antifungal function even at lower concentrations of nystatin. The current study suggests that the tissue conditioner containing the nystatin-alginate microparticle carrier system has potential as an effective antifungal material.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Crosslinked Hydrogel Polyacrylamide (PAAM)-Co-Alginate Prepared by Gama Irradiation

    Erizal; Tita P; Dewi SP

    2008-01-01

    Crosslinked poly(acrylamide) (PAAM)-co-alginate hydrogels were prepared by gamma irradiation (γ-irradiation) and their conditions such as irradiation dose and alginate concentration were studied. PAAM-co-alginate was crosslinked to yield water sorption materials with various ability to absorb water (swelling) depending on the preparation conditions (e.g. γ-irradiation dosage>20 kGy) and alginate concentration (0.5 - 1 wt %). With an increase of γ-irradiation dosage and alginate concentration, the gels content and water absorption were increasing markedly. The swelling properties of hydrogel in urea and NaCl solution and the effect of temperature were also investigated. Intensity decreasing of functional goups of OH and NH 2 in the IR spectrum indicated that IPN (Interpenetreting Network) structure occured in the network of hydrogels. The ability of hydrogel to absorp and retain a large amount of water suggested their possible uses in health care and agriculture. (author)

  17. Calcium alginate dressings promote healing of split skin graft donor sites.

    O'Donoghue, J M

    2012-02-03

    A prospective controlled trial was carried out to assess the healing efficacy of calcium alginate and paraffin gauze on split skin graft donor sites. Thirty patients were randomised to the calcium alginate group and 21 to the paraffin gauze group. The donor sites were assessed at 10 days post harvesting to determine if they were completely healed (100%) or not. Twenty one of the 30 patients dressed with calcium alginate were completely healed at day 10, while only 7\\/21 in the paraffin gauze group were healed (p < 0.05). There were two infections in the study, both occurring in the alginate group while there was no difference in dressing slippage between the two groups. Calcium alginate dressings provide a significant improvement in healing split skin graft donor sites.

  18. Genipin Cross-Linked Polymeric Alginate-Chitosan Microcapsules for Oral Delivery: In-Vitro Analysis

    Hongmei Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported the preparation of the genipin cross-linked alginate-chitosan (GCAC microcapsules composed of an alginate core with a genipin cross-linked chitosan membrane. This paper is the further investigation on their structural and physical characteristics. Results showed that the GCAC microcapsules had a smooth and dense surface and a networked interior. Cross-linking by genipin substantially reduced swelling and physical disintegration of microcapsules induced by nongelling ions and calcium sequestrants. Strong resistance to mechanical shear forces and enzymatic degradation was observed. Furthermore, the GCAC membranes were permeable to bovine serum albumin and maintained a molecular weight cutoff at 70 KD, analogous to the widely studied alginate-chitosan, and alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules. The release features and the tolerance of the GCAC microcapsules in the stimulated gastrointestinal environment were also investigated. This GCAC microcapsule formulation offers significant potential as a delivery vehicle for many biomedical applications.

  19. Raw-appearing Restructured fish models made with Sodium alginate or Microbial transglutaminase and effect of chilled storage

    Helena Moreno

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Restructuring by adding Sodium Alginate or Microbial Transglutaminase (MTGase using cold gelation technology make it possible to obtain many different raw products from minced and/or chopped fish muscle that are suitable for being used as the basis of new restructured products with different physicochemical properties and even different compositions. Special consideration must be given to their shelf-life and the changes that may take place during chilling, both in visual appearance and physicochemical properties. After chilled storage, the restructured models made with different muscular particle size and composition at low temperature (5 °C, it was observed that microbial growth limited the shelf-life to 7-14 days. Mechanical properties increased (p 0.05 was detected during storage.

  20. Monomer-dimer problem on random planar honeycomb lattice

    Ren, Haizhen [School of Mathematical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Department of Mathematics, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008, Qinghai (China); Zhang, Fuji; Qian, Jianguo, E-mail: jqqian@xmu.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China)

    2014-02-15

    We consider the monomer-dimer (MD) problem on a random planar honeycomb lattice model, namely, the random multiple chain. This is a lattice system with non-periodic boundary condition, whose generating process is inspired by the growth of single walled zigzag carbon nanotubes. By applying algebraic and combinatorial techniques we establish a calculating expression of the MD partition function for bipartite graphs, which corresponds to the permanent of a matrix. Further, by using the transfer matrix argument we show that the computing problem of the permanent of high order matrix can be converted into some lower order matrices for this family of lattices, based on which we derive an explicit recurrence formula for evaluating the MD partition function of multiple chains and random multiple chains. Finally, we analyze the expectation of the number of monomer-dimer arrangements on a random multiple chain and the asymptotic behavior of the annealed MD entropy when the multiple chain becomes infinite in width and length, respectively.

  1. Biosynthesis and incorporation of side-chain-truncated lignin monomers to reduce lignin polymerization and enhance saccharification.

    Eudes, Aymerick; George, Anthe; Mukerjee, Purba; Kim, Jin S; Pollet, Brigitte; Benke, Peter I; Yang, Fan; Mitra, Prajakta; Sun, Lan; Cetinkol, Ozgül P; Chabout, Salem; Mouille, Grégory; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Balzergue, Sandrine; Singh, Seema; Holmes, Bradley M; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D; Simmons, Blake A; Lapierre, Catherine; Ralph, John; Loqué, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is utilized as a renewable feedstock in various agro-industrial activities. Lignin is an aromatic, hydrophobic and mildly branched polymer integrally associated with polysaccharides within the biomass, which negatively affects their extraction and hydrolysis during industrial processing. Engineering the monomer composition of lignins offers an attractive option towards new lignins with reduced recalcitrance. The presented work describes a new strategy developed in Arabidopsis for the overproduction of rare lignin monomers to reduce lignin polymerization degree (DP). Biosynthesis of these 'DP reducers' is achieved by expressing a bacterial hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA hydratase-lyase (HCHL) in lignifying tissues of Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. HCHL cleaves the propanoid side-chain of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA lignin precursors to produce the corresponding hydroxybenzaldehydes so that plant stems expressing HCHL accumulate in their cell wall higher amounts of hydroxybenzaldehyde and hydroxybenzoate derivatives. Engineered plants with intermediate HCHL activity levels show no reduction in total lignin, sugar content or biomass yield compared with wild-type plants. However, cell wall characterization of extract-free stems by thioacidolysis and by 2D-NMR revealed an increased amount of unusual C₆C₁ lignin monomers most likely linked with lignin as end-groups. Moreover the analysis of lignin isolated from these plants using size-exclusion chromatography revealed a reduced molecular weight. Furthermore, these engineered lines show saccharification improvement of pretreated stem cell walls. Therefore, we conclude that enhancing the biosynthesis and incorporation of C₆C₁ monomers ('DP reducers') into lignin polymers represents a promising strategy to reduce lignin DP and to decrease cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied

  2. Two kinds of ketoprofen enteric gel beads (CA and CS-SA using biopolymer alginate

    Bingchao Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain expected rapid-release and sustained-release of ketoprofen gel beads, this paper adopted biopolymer alginate to prepare alginate beads and chitosan-alginate gel beads. Formulation factors were investigated and optimized by the single factor test. The release of ketoprofen from calcium alginate gel beads in pH 1.0 hydrochloric acid solution was less than 10% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 95% during 45 min, which met the requirements of rapid-release preparations. However, the drug release of chitosan-alginate gel beads in pH1.0 was less than 5% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 50% during 6 h and reached more than 95% during 12 h, which had a good sustained-release behavior. In addition, the release kinetics of keteprofen from the calcium alginate gel beads fitted well with the Korsmeyer–Peppas model and followed a case-II transport mechanism. However, the release of keteprofen from the chitosan-alginate gel beads exhibited a non-Fickian mechanism and based on the mixed mechanisms of diffusion and polymer relaxation from chitosan-alginate beads. In a word, alginate gel beads of ketoprofen were instant analgesic, while chitosan-alginate gel beads could control the release of ketoprofen during gastro-intestinal tract and prolong the drug's action time. Keywords: Gel beads, Enteric rapid-release, Enteric sustained-release, Ketoprofen

  3. Genetic loci simultaneously controlling lignin monomers and biomass digestibility of rice straw.

    Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Guifen; Muhammad, Ali; Samad, Rana Abdul; Wang, Youmei; Walton, Jonathan D; He, Yuqing; Peng, Liangcai; Wang, Lingqiang

    2018-02-26

    Lignin content and composition are crucial factors affecting biomass digestibility. Exploring the genetic loci simultaneously affecting lignin-relevant traits and biomass digestibility is a precondition for lignin genetic manipulation towards energy crop breeding. In this study, a high-throughput platform was employed to assay the lignin content, lignin composition and biomass enzymatic digestibility of a rice recombinant inbred line population. Correlation analysis indicated that the absolute content of lignin monomers rather than lignin content had negative effects on biomass saccharification, whereas the relative content of p-hydroxyphenyl unit and the molar ratio of p-hydroxyphenyl unit to guaiacyl unit exhibited positive roles. Eight QTL clusters were identified and four of them affecting both lignin composition and biomass digestibility. The additive effects of clustered QTL revealed consistent relationships between lignin-relevant traits and biomass digestibility. Pyramiding rice lines containing the above four positive alleles for increasing biomass digestibility were selected and showed comparable lignin content, decreased syringyl or guaiacyl unit and increased molar percentage of p-hydroxyphenyl unit, the molar ratio of p-hydroxyphenyl unit to guaiacyl unit and sugar releases. More importantly, the lodging resistance and eating/cooking quality of pyramiding lines were not sacrificed, indicating the QTL information could be applied to select desirable energy rice lines.

  4. Microwave assisted step-by-step process for the production of fucoidan, alginate sodium, sugars and biochar from Ascophyllum nodosum through a biorefinery concept.

    Yuan, Yuan; Macquarrie, Duncan J

    2015-12-01

    The biorefinery is an important concept for the development of alternative routes to a range of interesting and important materials from renewable resources. It ensures that the resources are used fully and that all parts of them are valorized. This paper develops this concept, using brown macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum as an example, by assistance of microwave technology. A step-by-step process was designed to obtain fucoidan, alginates, sugars and biochar (alga residue) consecutively. The yields of fucoidan, alginates, sugars and biochar were 14.09%, 18.24%, 10.87% and 21.44%, respectively. To make an evaluation of the biorefinery process, seaweed sample was also treated for fucoidan extraction only, alginate extraction only and hydrothermal treatment for sugars and biochar only. The chemical composition and properties of each product were also analyzed. The results indicated that A. nodosum could be potentially used as feedstock for a biorefinery process to produce valuable chemicals and fuels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of adding Sea Spaghetti seaweed and replacing the animal fat with olive oil or a konjac gel on pork meat batter gelation. Potential protein/alginate association.

    Fernández-Martín, F; López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2009-10-01

    Standard and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, MDSC) and dynamic rheological thermal analysis (DRTA) were used to in situ simulate the batter gelation process. Texture profile analysis (TPA) and conventional quality evaluations were applied to processed products. Sea Spaghetti seaweed addition was highly effective at reinforcing water/oil retention capacity, hardness and elastic modulus in all formulations. Olive oil substituting half pork fat yielded a presumably healthier product with slightly better characteristics than control. A konjac-starch mixed gel replacing 70% of pork fat produced a similar product to control but with nearly 10% more water. DSC revealed the currently unknown phenomenon that Sea Spaghetti alginates apparently prevented thermal denaturation of a considerable protein fraction. MDSC confirmed that this mainly concerned non-reversing effects, and displayed glass transition temperatures in the range of 55-65°C. DRTA and TPA indicated however much stronger alginate-type gels. It is tentatively postulated that salt-soluble proteins associate athermally with seaweed alginates on heating to constitute a separate phase in a thermal composite-gelling process.

  6. Sustained release of verapamil hydrochloride from sodium alginate microcapsules.

    Farhana, S Ayesha; Shantakumar, S M; Shyale, Somashekar; Shalam, Md; Narasu, Laxmi

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release microcapsules of verapamil hydrochloride (VH) using biodegradable polymers. For this purpose microcapsules embedded verapamil hydrochloride were prepared using sodium alginate alone and also by incorporating some co polymers like methyl cellulose (MC), sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC) , poly vinyl pyrollidone (PVP) and xanthan gum by employing complex emulsion method of microencapsulation. Microcapsules were prepared in various core: coat ratios to know the effect of polymer and co polymers on drug release. Overall ten formulations were prepared and evaluated for flow behaviour, sieve analysis, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution studies, stability studies, including scanning electron microscopy and DSC. The resulting microcapsules were discrete, large, spherical and also free flowing. The drug content in all the batches of microcapsules was found to be uniform. The release was depended on core: coat ratio and nature of the polymers. FTIR analysis revealed chemical integrity between Verapamil hydrochloride (VH), sodium alginate and between the copolymers. Among the four copolymers used methyl cellulose retarded the drug release more than the other three, hence the same formulation was subjected for in vivo studies. The drug release from the microcapsules was found to be following non fickian diffusion. Mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled first order kinetics. Drug diffusion co efficient and correlation co efficient were also assessed by using various mathematical models. In vivo result analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters revealed that t max of reference and test formulations were almost same. From the study it was concluded that, sustained release Verapamil hydro chloride microcapsules could be achieved with success using sodium alginate alone and also in combination with other biodegradable polymers.

  7. Self-assembled chitosan-alginate polyplex nanoparticles containing temoporfin

    Brezaniova, I.; Trousil, Jiří; Černochová, Zulfiya; Král, V.; Hrubý, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 295, č. 8 (2017), s. 1259-1270 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02870S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25781A; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chitosan * sodium alginate * temoporfin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2016

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Keratin/Alginate Blend Microparticles

    Srisuwan, Yaowalak; Srihanam, Prasong

    2018-01-01

    The water-in-oil (W/O) emulsification-diffusion method was used for construction of keratin (Ker), alginate (Alg), and Ker/Alg blend microparticles. The Ker, Alg, and Ker/Alg blend solutions were used as the water phase, while ethyl acetate was used as the oil phase. Firstly, different concentrations of Ker solution was used to find suitable content. 1.6% w/v Ker solution was blended with the same concentration of the Alg solution for further microparticle construction. Results from scanning ...

  9. Engineering Microvascularized 3D Tissue Using Alginate-Chitosan Microcapsules.

    Zhang, Wujie; Choi, Jung K; He, Xiaoming

    2017-02-01

    Construction of vascularized tissues is one of the major challenges of tissue engineering. The goal of this study was to engineer 3D microvascular tissues by incorporating the HUVEC-CS cells with a collagen/alginate-chitosan (AC) microcapsule scaffold. In the presence of AC microcapsules, a 3D vascular-like network was clearly observable. The results indicated the importance of AC microcapsules in engineering microvascular tissues -- providing support and guiding alignment of HUVEC-CS cells. This approach provides an alternative and promising method for constructing vascularized tissues.

  10. Structural and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles formed in chitosan/sodium alginate multilayer films.

    Wang, Liping; Sun, Yujie; Xie, Xiaodong

    2014-05-01

    Chitosan/alginate multilayers were fabricated using a spin-coating method, and ZnS:Cu nanoparticles were generated within the network of two natural polysaccharides, chitosan and sodium alginate. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that cubic zinc blende-structured ZnS:Cu nanoparticles with an average crystal size of ~ 3 nm were uniformly distributed. UV-vis spectra indicate a large quantum size effect and the absorption edge for the ZnS:Cu nanoparticles slightly shifted to longer wavelengths with increasing Cu ion concentrations. The photoluminescence of the Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles reached a maximum at a 1% doping level. The ZnS:Cu nanoparticles form and are distributed uniformly in the composite multilayer films with a surface average height of 25 nm. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Preparation and analysis of multilayer composites based on polyelectrolyte complexes

    Petrova, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation); Orekhov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Chernyakov, D. D. [St. Petersburg State Chemical Pharmaceutical Academy (Russian Federation); Baklagina, Yu. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation); Romanov, D. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kononova, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation); Volod’ko, A. V.; Ermak, I. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, V. V., E-mail: klechvv@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Skorik, Yu. A., E-mail: yury-skorik@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    A method for preparing multilayer film composites based on chitosan has been developed by the example of polymer pairs: chitosan–hyaluronic acid, chitosan–alginic acid, and chitosan–carrageenan. The structure of the composite films is characterized by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the deposition of a solution of hyaluronic acid, alginic acid, or carrageenan on a chitosan gel film leads to the formation of a polyelectrolyte complex layer at the interface, which is accompanied by the ordering of chitosan chains in the surface region; the microstructure of this layer depends on the nature of contacting polymer pairs.

  12. Papain wound dressings obtained from poly(vinyl alcohol)/calcium alginate blends as new pharmaceutical dosage form: Preparation and preliminary evaluation.

    Dutra, J A P; Carvalho, S G; Zampirolli, A C D; Daltoé, R D; Teixeira, R M; Careta, F P; Cotrim, M A P; Oréfice, R L; Villanova, J C O

    2017-04-01

    Transparent, soft, flexible, mechanically resistant films, which are ideal for use as wound dressings were prepared in the presence of 2% papain, a proteolytic enzyme that can play a role in the chemical debridement of the skin and can accelerate the healing process. The films, based on poly(vinyl alcohol):calcium alginate blends with increasing concentrations of polysaccharide (10, 20, and 30% v/v), were obtained by casting method. FTIR and DSC analyses were performed to assess the composition and miscibility of blends. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elasticity modulus, and elongation at breakpoint were evaluated. The influence of different concentrations of calcium alginate on physical attributes of films like wettability, swelling capacity and mechanical properties was determined. The stability of papain in the films was assessed indirectly by hemolytic activity assay employing direct contact method and confirmed by technique based on blood agar diffusion. Preliminary cytotoxicity was evaluated with the XTT method. The results showed that at the polymer concentrations tested, the blends were miscible. The increase in the content of the calcium alginate increased the wettability and swelling capacity of the films, which is desirable in wound dressings. On the other hand, mechanical resistance decreased without causing breakage of the films during the swelling tests. The hemolytic activity of the films was maintained during the studied period, suggesting the stability of papain in the proposed formulations. Cellular viability indicated that the films were non-toxic. The analysis of the results showed that it is possible to prepare interactive and bioactive wound dressing containing papain from blends of PVA and calcium alginate polymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterisation of bare and tannase-loaded calcium alginate beads by microscopic, thermogravimetric, FTIR and XRD analyses.

    Larosa, Claudio; Salerno, Marco; de Lima, Juliana Silva; Merijs Meri, Remo; da Silva, Milena Fernandes; de Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra; Converti, Attilio

    2018-08-01

    Incorporating enzymes into calcium alginate beads is an effective method to immobilise them and to preserve, at the same time, their catalytic activity. Sodium alginate was mixed with Aspergillus ficuum tannase in aqueous solution, and tannase-loaded calcium alginate beads were prepared using a simple droplet-based microfluidic system. Extensive experimental analysis was carried out to characterise the samples. Microscopic imaging revealed morphological differences between the surfaces of bare alginate matrix and tannase-loaded alginate beads. Thermal analysis allowed assessing the hydration contents of alginate and revealed the presence of tannase entrapped in the loaded beads, which was confirmed by vibrational spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction allowed us to conclude that alginate of tannase-loaded beads is not crystalline, which would make them suitable as carriers for possible controlled release. Moreover, they could be used in food applications to improve tea quality or clarify juices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polymerization of Polar Monomers from a Theoretical Perspective

    Alghamdi, Miasser

    2016-10-11

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate catalytic mechanism of polymer formation containing polar groups, from the synthesis of the monomer to the synthesis of the macromolecule. In the spirit of a sustainable and green chemistry, we initially focused attention on the coupling of CO2 as economically convenient and recyclable C1 source with C2H4 to form acrylate and/or butirro-lactone, two important polar monomers. In this process formation of a mettallolactone via oxidative coupling of CO2 and C2H4 is an important intermediate. Given this background, we explored in detail (chapter-3) several Ni based catalysts for CO2 coupling with C2H4 to form acrylate. In this thesis we report on the competitive reaction mechanisms (inner vs outer sphere) for the oxidative coupling of CO2 and ethylene for a set of 11 Ni-based complexes containing bisphosphine ligands. In another effort, considering incorporation of a C=C bond into a metal-oxygen-Functional-Group moiety is a challenging step in several polymerization reactions, we explored the details of this reaction (chapter4) using two different catalysts that are capable to perform this reaction in the synthesis of heterocycles. Specifically, the [Rh]-catalyzed intramolecular alkoxyacylation ([Rh] = [RhI(dppp)+] (dppp, 1,3-Bis-diphenylphosphino-propane), and the [Pd]/BPh3 intramolecular alkoxyfunctionalizations. Rest of the thesis we worked on understanding the details of the polymerization of polar monomers using organocatalysts based on N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) or N-heterocyclic olefins (NHO). In particular (chapter-5) we studied the polymerization of N-methyl N-carboxy- anhydrides, towards cyclic poly(N-substituted glycine)s, promoted by NHC catalysts. In good agreement with the experimental findings, we demonstrated that NHC promoted ring opening polymerization of N-Me N-Carboxyanhydrides may proceed via two different catalytic pathways. In a similar effort we studied polymerization of

  15. Graft copolimerization of hydrophilic monomers onto irradiated polypropylene fibers

    Sundardi, F.

    1978-01-01

    A method of graft copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers, such as 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, and acrylamide, onto irradiated polypropylene fibers has been studied. γ ray as well as electron beam were employed for the irradiation processes. Graft-copolymerization kinetics and the properties of grafted fibers have been investigated. Moisture regain, dyes absorption, and melting point of the grafted fibers were found to increase with the increasing of the degree of grafting. Polypropylene for 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafted fibers showed excellent dye absorption for almost all kinds of dyes such as direct, basic, acid, reactive, disper, and naphthol dyes. However, for polypropylene acrylic acid grafted fibers, the colorfastness to washing was found to be unsatisfactory. The colorfastness to washing for polypropylene 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafted fibers was found to be fairly good for certain types of dyes such as vat and naphthol dyes. (author)

  16. Biobased Epoxy Nanocomposites Derived from Lignin-Based Monomers.

    Zhao, Shou; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-07-13

    Biobased epoxy nanocomposites were synthesized based on 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol (dihydroeugenol, DHE), a molecule that has been obtained from the lignin component of biomass. To increase the content of hydroxyl groups, DHE was o-demethylated using aqueous HBr to yield propylcatechol (DHEO), which was subsequently glycidylated to epoxy monomer. Optimal conditions in terms of yield and epoxy equivalent weight were found to be 60 °C with equal NaOH/phenolic hydroxyl molar ratio. The structural evolution from DHE to cured epoxy was followed by (1)H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nano-montmorillonite modified DHEO epoxy exhibited improved storage modulus and thermal stability as determined from dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. This study widens the synthesis routes of biobased epoxy thermosets from lignin-based molecules.

  17. The enhancement of chondrogenesis of ATDC5 cells in RGD-immobilized microcavitary alginate hydrogels.

    Yao, Yongchang; Zeng, Lei; Huang, Yuyang

    2016-07-01

    In our previous work, we have developed an effective microcavitary alginate hydrogel for proliferation of chondrocytes and maintenance of chondrocytic phenotype. In present work, we investigated whether microcavitary alginate hydrogel could promote the chondrogenesis of progenitor cells. Moreover, we attempted to further optimize this system by incorporating synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide. ATDC5 cells were seeded into microcavitary alginate hydrogel with or without Arg-Gly-Asp immobilization. Cell Counting Kit-8 and live/dead staining were conducted to analyze cell proliferation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), hematoxylin and eosin, and Toluidine blue O staining as well as Western blot assay was performed to evaluate the cartilaginous markers at transcriptional level and at protein level, respectively. The obtained data demonstrated that Arg-Gly-Asp-immobilized microcavitary alginate hydrogel was preferable to promote the cell proliferation. Also, Arg-Gly-Asp-immobilized microcavitary alginate hydrogel improved the expression of chondrocytic genes including Collagen II and Aggrecan when compared with microcavitary alginate hydrogel. The results suggested that microcavitary alginate hydrogel could promote the chondrogenesis. And Arg-Gly-Asp would be promising to ameliorate this culture system for cartilage tissue engineering. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Alginate Production from Alternative Carbon Sources and Use of Polymer Based Adsorbent in Heavy Metal Removal

    Çiğdem Kıvılcımdan Moral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate is a biopolymer composed of mannuronic and guluronic acids. It is harvested from marine brown algae; however, alginate can also be synthesized by some bacterial species, namely, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas. Use of pure carbohydrate sources for bacterial alginate production increases its cost and limits the chance of the polymer in the industrial market. In order to reduce the cost of bacterial alginate production, molasses, maltose, and starch were utilized as alternative low cost carbon sources in this study. Results were promising in the case of molasses with the maximum 4.67 g/L of alginate production. Alginates were rich in mannuronic acid during early fermentation independent of the carbon sources while the highest guluronic acid content was obtained as 68% in the case of maltose. The polymer was then combined with clinoptilolite, which is a natural zeolite, to remove copper from a synthetic wastewater. Alginate-clinoptilolite beads were efficiently adsorbed copper up to 131.6 mg Cu2+/g adsorbent at pH 4.5 according to the Langmuir isotherm model.

  19. Alginate hydrogel as a promising scaffold for dental-derived stem cells: an in vitro study.

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Chen, Chider; Akiyama, Kentaro; Ansari, Sahar; Xu, Xingtian; Chee, Winston W; Schricker, Scott R; Shi, Songtao

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop an injectable and biodegradable scaffold based on oxidized alginate microbeads encapsulating periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs); and (2) investigate the stem cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation of the stem cells in vitro. Stem cells were encapsulated using alginate hydrogel. The stem cell viability, proliferation and differentiation to adipogenic and osteogenic tissues were studied. To investigate the expression of both adipogenesis and ontogenesis related genes, the RNA was extracted and RT-PCR was performed. The degradation behavior of hydrogel based on oxidized sodium alginate with different degrees of oxidation was studied in PBS at 37 °C as a function of time by monitoring the changes in weight loss. The swelling kinetics of alginate hydrogel was also investigated. The results showed that alginate is a promising candidate as a non-toxic scaffold for PDLSCs and GMSCs. It also has the ability to direct the differentiation of these stem cells to osteogenic and adipogenic tissues as compared to the control group in vitro. The encapsulated stem cells remained viable in vitro and both osteo-differentiated and adipo-differentiated after 4 weeks of culturing in the induction media. It was found that the degradation profile and swelling kinetics of alginate hydrogel strongly depends on the degree of oxidation showing its tunable chemistry and degradation rate. These findings demonstrate for the first time that immobilization of PDLSCs and GMSCs in the alginate microspheres provides a promising strategy for bone tissue engineering.

  20. Accuracy and dimensional stability of extended-pour and conventional alginate impression materials.

    Imbery, Terence A; Nehring, Joshua; Janus, Charles; Moon, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted a study to determine if two irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials (Cavex ColorChange, Cavex Holland BV, Haarlem, Netherlands; Jeltrate Plus Antimicrobial Dustless Alginate Impression Material, Dentsply Caulk, Milford, Del.) stored for five days were dimensionally accurate. The authors modified Ivorine teeth (Columbia Dentoform, Long Island City, N.Y.) on a Dentoform model (1560 series model, Columbia Dentoform) to allow measurements of tooth and arch width. They made impressions and generated casts immediately and at five additional times. They recorded tooth and arch widths on the casts and compared the measurements with those for the standard model. Compared with measurements for the model, the greatest measured difference in casts was 0.003 inches for Cavex ColorChange (extended-pour alginate) and 0.005 inches for Jeltrate Plus Antimicrobial Dustless Alginate Impression Material (conventional alginate). The percentage of dimensional change ranged from -0.496 to 0.161 percent for the extended-pour alginate and from -0.174 to 0.912 percent for the conventional alginate. Results of analysis of variance and paired t tests indicated that when generated immediately and at day 5, casts produced from both impression materials were not statistically different from the standard model (P alginate materials can produce accurate impressions at day 5 for diagnostic casts and for fabrication of acrylic appliances.

  1. In vitro evaluation of calcium alginate gels as matrix for iontophoresis electrodes.

    Haida, Haruka; Ando, Shizuka; Ogami, Saori; Wakita, Ryo; Kohase, Hikaru; Saito, Norio; Yoshioka, Tomohiko; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo; Umino, Masahiro; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2012-03-13

    Calcium alginate gel has some unique properties, such as the capability to keep the drugs, bioadhesiveness, safety, and low cost. The purpose of this study is to determine whether calcium alginate gel can be used as a matrix of electrodes for iontophoresis (IOP). We measured the concentration of lidocaine transported from calcium alginate gels with various concentrations of alginic acid using an in vitro experimental cell with square-wave alternating current (AC) application. Temperature and pH changes were also determined during AC-IOP. The results revealed that lidocaine was released from calcium alginate gels at concentrations nearly 1.71-fold larger at 5 V, 60 min after AC application than in the case of passive diffusion. Lidocaine transport depended on the alginic acid concentration in the gels. Although there were slight increases in temperature and pH, chemical and thermal burns were not severe enough to be a concern. In conclusion, the calcium alginate gel can be used as a possible matrix for IOP electrodes.

  2. Comparison of antimicrobial activities and compressive strength of alginate impression materials following disinfection procedure.

    Alwahab, Zahraa

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of disinfecting solution when incorporated into alginate powder instead of water against some microorganisms and on compressive strength of alginate. For measuring antimicrobial activity of alginate, 60 alginate specimens were prepared and divided into two groups: One with water incorporated in the mix (control) and the other with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate incorporated in the mix instead of water. The tested microorganisms were: gram +ve cocci, gram -ve bacilli and yeast (each group 10 samples). For measuring compressive strength, 20 specimens of alginate were divided into two groups: One with water incorporated in the mix (control) and the other with chlorhexidine incorporated in the mix. The statistical analysis of antimicrobial efficacy of alginate was performed with Mann-Whitney U-test, which revealed very high significant difference when comparing among groups (p 0.05). The incorporation of disinfecting agents into impression materials could serve an important role in dental laboratory infection control and it had no adverse effect on compressive strength of the hydrocolloid alginate. The risk of transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to dental laboratories via impression has been considered a topic of importance for a number of years.

  3. Effect of formulation of alginate beads on their mechanical behavior and stiffness

    Eng-Seng Chan; Tek-Kaun Lim; Wan-Ping Voo; Ravindra Pogaku; Beng Ti Tey; Zhibing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of formulation of alginate beads on their mechanical behavior and stiffness when compressed at high speed. The alginate beads were formulated using different types and concentrations of alginate and gelling cations and were produced using an extrusiondripping method. Single wet beads were compressed at a speed of 40 mm/min, and their elastic limits were investigated, and the corresponding force versus displacement data were obtained. The Young's moduli of the beads were determined from the force versus displacement data using the Hertz's contact mechanics theory. The alginate beads were found to exhibit plastic behavior when they were compressed beyond 50% with the exception of copper-alginate beads for which yield occured at lower deformation.Alginate beads made of higher guluronic acid contents and gelling cations of higher chemical affinity were found to have greater stiffness. Increasing the concentration of alginate and gelling ions also generated a similar effect. At such a compression speed, the values of Young's modulus of the beads were found to be in the range between 250 and 900 kPa depending on the bead formulation.

  4. Effect of Sodium Alginate Addition to Resveratrol on Acute Gouty Arthritis

    Peng Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Resveratrol has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, while sodium alginate is a common pharmaceutic adjuvant with antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties. We performed an animal study to investigate the effect of sodium alginate addition to resveratrol on acute gouty arthritis. Methods: Twenty-four SPF Wistar mice were randomized to four groups receiving the combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol, resveratrol alone, colchicine, and placebo, respectively. Acute gouty arthritis was induced by injection of 0.05 ml monosodium urate (MSU solution (25g/mL into ankle joint cavity. IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 levels in both serum and synovial fluid were measured using ELISA. NLRP3 expression in the synovial tissues was measured using western plot. Results: The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol significantly reduced synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 when compared with colchicines, and all P values were less than 0.0001. The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol was also superior to resveratrol in terms of both serum levels and synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10. In addition, resveratrol, with or without sodium alginate, could reduce NLRP3 expression obviously in the synovial tissues. Conclusion: The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol has better effect over colchicines in treating MSU-induced acute gouty arthritis.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of alginate importer from Sphingomonas sp. A1

    Maruyama, Yukie; Itoh, Takafumi; Nishitani, Yu; Mikami, Bunzo; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2012-01-01

    Alginate importer from Sphingomonas sp. A1 is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily that directly transports alginate polysaccharide into the cytoplasm. Crystals of alginate importer in complex with the periplasmic binding protein AlgQ2 diffracted X-rays to 3.3 Å resolution. Sphingomonas sp. A1 directly incorporates alginate polysaccharides through a ‘superchannel’ comprising a pit on the cell surface, alginate-binding proteins in the periplasm and an ABC transporter (alginate importer) in the inner membrane. Alginate importer, consisting of four subunits, AlgM1, AlgM2 and two molecules of AlgS, was crystallized in the presence of the binding protein AlgQ2. Preliminary X-ray analysis showed that the crystal diffracted to 3.3 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 72.5, b = 136.8, c = 273.3 Å, suggesting the presence of one complex in the asymmetric unit

  6. Manipulation and Characterization of Alginate Exo polysaccharides produced by Azotobacter Vinelandii

    El-Bialy, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Exo polysaccharides (EPS) have been found in a wide range of applications in food industry and in the biomedical field. In the present study, the effect of nutritional factors (carbon and nitrogen sources) and gamma irradiations on alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii was investigated. To understand the direct and indirect relations among these variables, a two way factorial design experiment was set up. At low concentration of carbon source (≤ 20 g/l), the alginate yield was influenced by the type of nitrogen substrate and C/N ratio, whereas the role of these factors on alginate production was minimized at high concentration of carbon source (> 20 g/l). Batch fermentation of alginate exo polysaccharides was manipulated by maintaining the ph value of the cultures at 7 along the incubation period and reducing the agitation speed to 100 rpm after 24 h at the time of inoculation. This process succeeded to increase the alginate yield exponentially with time by 50%. Exposing A. vinelandii cells to gamma irradiation at dose level 0.5 kGy decreased their activity to synthesis alginate by 44%. The produced alginate was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC).

  7. A comparative study on the raft chemical properties of various alginate antacid raft-forming products.

    Dettmar, Peter W; Gil-Gonzalez, Diana; Fisher, Jeanine; Flint, Lucy; Rainforth, Daniel; Moreno-Herrera, Antonio; Potts, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Research to measure the chemical characterization of alginate rafts for good raft performance and ascertain how formulation can affect chemical parameters. A selection of alginate formulations was investigated all claiming to be proficient raft formers with significance between products established and ranked. Procedures were selected which demonstrated the chemical characterization allowing rafts to effectively impede the reflux into the esophagus or in severe cases to be refluxed preferentially into the esophagus and exert a demulcent effect, with focus of current research on methods which complement previous studies centered on physical properties. The alginate content was analyzed by a newly developed HPLC method. Methods were used to determine the neutralization profile and the acid neutralization within the raft determined along with how raft structure affects neutralization. Alginate content of Gaviscon Double Action (GDA) within the raft was significantly superior (p raft acid neutralization capacity were GDA and Rennie Duo, the latter product not being a raft former. Raft structure was key and GDA had the right level of porosity to allow for longer duration of neutralization. Alginate formulations require three chemical reactions to take place simultaneously: transformation to alginic acid, sodium carbonate reacting to form carbon dioxide, calcium releasing free calcium ions to bind with alginic acid providing strength to raft formation. GDA was significantly superior (p <.0001) to all other comparators.

  8. Hybrid 3D printing and electrodeposition approach for controllable 3D alginate hydrogel formation.

    Shang, Wanfeng; Liu, Yanting; Wan, Wenfeng; Hu, Chengzhi; Liu, Zeyang; Wong, Chin To; Fukuda, Toshio; Shen, Yajing

    2017-06-07

    Calcium alginate hydrogels are widely used as biocompatible materials in a substantial number of biomedical applications. This paper reports on a hybrid 3D printing and electrodeposition approach for forming 3D calcium alginate hydrogels in a controllable manner. Firstly, a specific 3D hydrogel printing system is developed by integrating a customized ejection syringe with a conventional 3D printer. Then, a mixed solution of sodium alginate and CaCO 3 nanoparticles is filled into the syringe and can be continuously ejected out of the syringe nozzle onto a conductive substrate. When applying a DC voltage (∼5 V) between the substrate (anode) and the nozzle (cathode), the Ca 2+ released from the CaCO 3 particles can crosslink the alginate to form calcium alginate hydrogel on the substrate. To elucidate the gel formation mechanism and better control the gel growth, we can further establish and verify a gel growth model by considering several key parameters, i.e., applied voltage and deposition time. The experimental results indicate that the alginate hydrogel of various 3D structures can be formed by controlling the movement of the 3D printer. A cell viability test is conducted and shows that the encapsulated cells in the gel can maintain a high survival rate (∼99% right after gel formation). This research establishes a reliable method for the controllable formation of 3D calcium alginate hydrogel, exhibiting great potential for use in basic biology and applied biomedical engineering.

  9. Effects of alginate on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Hu, Jinghua; Geng, Guoxia; Li, Qingwang; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cao, Hualin; Liu, Yawei

    2014-06-30

    Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (Pboar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (Pextenders with the presence of alginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (Pboar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fabrication and magnetic control of alginate-based rolling microrobots

    Jamel Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in microrobotics for biological applications are often limited due to their complex manufacturing processes, which often utilize cytotoxic materials, as well as limitations in the ability to manipulate these small devices wirelessly. In an effort to overcome these challenges, we investigated a facile method for generating biocompatible hydrogel based robots that are capable of being manipulated using an externally generated magnetic field. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the fabrication and autonomous control of loaded-alginate microspheres, which we term artificial cells. In order to generate these microparticles, we employed a centrifuge-based method in which microspheres were rapidly ejected from a nozzle tip. Specifically, we used two mixtures of sodium alginate; one containing iron oxide nanoparticles and the other containing mammalian cells. This mixture was loaded into a needle that was fixed on top of a microtube containing calcium chloride, and then briefly centrifuged to generate hundreds of Janus microspheres. The fabricated microparticles were then magnetically actuated with a rotating magnetic field, generated using electromagnetic coils, prompting the particles to roll across a glass substrate. Also, using vision-based feedback control, a single artificial cell was manipulated to autonomously move in a programmed pattern.

  11. Study of Alginate-Supported Ionic Liquid and Pd Catalysts

    Eric Guibal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New catalytic materials, based on palladium immobilized in ionic liquid supported on alginate, were elaborated. Alginate was associated with gelatin for the immobilization of ionic liquids (ILs and the binding of palladium. These catalytic materials were designed in the form of highly porous monoliths (HPMs, in order to be used in a column reactor. The catalytic materials were tested for the hydrogenation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA in the presence of formic acid as hydrogen donor. The different parameters for the elaboration of the catalytic materials were studied and their impact analyzed in terms of microstructures, palladium sorption properties and catalytic performances. The characteristics of the biopolymer (proportion of β-D-mannuronic acid (M and α-L-guluronic acid (G in the biopolymer defined by the M/G ratio, the concentration of the porogen agent, and the type of coagulating agent significantly influenced catalytic performances. The freezing temperature had a significant impact on structural properties, but hardly affected the catalytic rate. Cellulose fibers were incorporated as mechanical strengthener into the catalytic materials, and allowed to enhance mechanical properties and catalytic efficiency but required increasing the amount of hydrogen donor for catalysis.

  12. A BOD monitoring disposable reactor with alginate-entrapped bacteria.

    Villalobos, Patricio; Acevedo, Cristian A; Albornoz, Fernando; Sánchez, Elizabeth; Valdés, Erika; Galindo, Raúl; Young, Manuel E

    2010-10-01

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of the amount of dissolved oxygen that is required for the biochemical oxidation of the organic compounds in 5 days. New biosensor-based methods have been conducted for a faster determination of BOD. In this study, a mathematical model to evaluate the feasibility of using a BOD sensor, based on disposable alginate-entrapped bacteria, for monitoring BOD in situ was applied. The model considers the influences of alginate bead size and bacterial concentration. The disposable biosensor can be adapted according to specific requirements depending on the organic load contained in the wastewater. Using Klein and Washausen parameter in a Lineweaver-Burk plot, the glucose diffusivity was calculated in 6.4 × 10(-10) (m2/s) for beads of 1 mm in diameter and slight diffusion restrictions were observed (n = 0.85). Experimental results showed a correlation (p < 0.05) between the respirometric peak and the standard BOD test. The biosensor response was representative of BOD.

  13. Surface modified alginate microcapsules for 3D cell culture

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chiung Wen; Chueh, Di-Yen; Chen, Peilin

    2016-06-01

    Culture as three dimensional cell aggregates or spheroids can offer an ideal platform for tissue engineering applications and for pharmaceutical screening. Such 3D culture models, however, may suffer from the problems such as immune response and ineffective and cumbersome culture. This paper describes a simple method for producing microcapsules with alginate cores and a thin shell of poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) to encapsulate mouse induced pluripotent stem (miPS) cells, generating a non-fouling surface as an effective immunoisolation barrier. We demonstrated the trapping of the alginate microcapsules in a microwell array for the continuous observation and culture of a large number of encapsulated miPS cells in parallel. miPS cells cultured in the microcapsules survived well and proliferated to form a single cell aggregate. Droplet formation of monodisperse microcapsules with controlled size combined with flow cytometry provided an efficient way to quantitatively analyze the growth of encapsulated cells in a high-throughput manner. The simple and cost-effective coating technique employed to produce the core-shell microcapsules could be used in the emerging field of cell therapy. The microwell array would provide a convenient, user friendly and high-throughput platform for long-term cell culture and monitoring.

  14. Analysis of filler particle levels and sizes in dental alginates

    Hugo Lemes Carlo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the inorganic filler fractions and sizes of commercially alginates. The inorganic particles volumetric fractions of five alginates - Jeltrate(J, Jeltrate Plus(JP, Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho(JC, Hydrogum(H and Ezact Krom(E were accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 450 °C for 3 hours. Unsettled materials were soaked in acetone and chloroform and sputter-coated with gold for SEM evaluation of fillers' morphology and size. The results for the volumetric inorganic particle content were (%: J - 48.33, JP - 48.33, JC - 33.79, H - 37.55 and E - 40.55. The fillers presented a circular appearance with helical form and various perforations. Hydrogum fillers looked like cylindrical, perforated sticks. The mean values for fillers size were (μm: J - 12.91, JP - 13.67, JC - 13.44, E - 14.59 and H - 9 (diameter, 8.81 (length. The results of this study revealed differences in filler characteristics that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  15. Performance and biocompatibility of extremely tough alginate/polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    Darnell, Max C; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Mehta, Manav; Johnson, Christopher; Arany, Praveen R; Suo, Zhigang; Mooney, David J

    2013-11-01

    Although hydrogels now see widespread use in a host of applications, low fracture toughness and brittleness have limited their more broad use. As a recently described interpenetrating network (IPN) of alginate and polyacrylamide demonstrated a fracture toughness of ≈ 9000 J/m(2), we sought to explore the biocompatibility and maintenance of mechanical properties of these hydrogels in cell culture and in vivo conditions. These hydrogels can sustain a compressive strain of over 90% with minimal loss of Young's Modulus as well as minimal swelling for up to 50 days of soaking in culture conditions. Mouse mesenchymal stem cells exposed to the IPN gel-conditioned media maintain high viability, and although cells exposed to conditioned media demonstrate slight reductions in proliferation and metabolic activity (WST assay), these effects are abrogated in a dose-dependent manner. Implantation of these IPN hydrogels into subcutaneous tissue of rats for 8 weeks led to mild fibrotic encapsulation and minimal inflammatory response. These results suggest the further exploration of extremely tough alginate/PAAM IPN hydrogels as biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Keratin/Alginate Blend Microparticles

    Yaowalak Srisuwan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-in-oil (W/O emulsification-diffusion method was used for construction of keratin (Ker, alginate (Alg, and Ker/Alg blend microparticles. The Ker, Alg, and Ker/Alg blend solutions were used as the water phase, while ethyl acetate was used as the oil phase. Firstly, different concentrations of Ker solution was used to find suitable content. 1.6% w/v Ker solution was blended with the same concentration of the Alg solution for further microparticle construction. Results from scanning electron microscope analysis show that the microparticles have different shapes: spherical, bowl-like, porous, and hollow, with several sizes depending on the blend ratio. FTIR and TG analyses indicated that the secondary structure and thermal stability of the microparticles were influenced by the Ker/Alg blend ratio. The interaction between functional groups of keratin and alginate was the main factor for both β-sheet structure and Td,max values of the microparticles. The results suggested that Ker/Alg blend microparticles might be applied in many fields by varying the Ker/Alg ratio.

  17. GOLD NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN A POLYMERIC MATRIX OF SODIUM ALGINATE

    Oana Lelia POP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the design of multifunctional systems based on polymeric capsules. The use of functionalised particles in therapeutics and imaging and understanding their effect on the cell functions are among the current challenges in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. The aim of the study was to manufacture and characterize polymeric microstructures by encapsulating plasmonic gold nanoparticles in biocompatible matrix of sodium alginate. The gold nanoparticles were obtained by reduction of tetracluoroauric acid with sodium citrate. To characterize the microcapsules, UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy, optical and confocal microscopy experiments were performed. In vitro cytotoxicity tests on HFL-1 cells were also performed. The capsules have spherical shape and 120 μm diameter. The presence of encapsulated gold nanoparticles is also shown by confocal microscopy. In vitro tests show that the microcapsules are not cytotoxic upon 24 h of cells exposure to microcapsules concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 25 capsules per cell. The obtained microcapsules of sodium alginate loaded with plasmonic gold nanoparticles could potentially be considered as release systems for biologically relevant molecules.

  18. On-line measurement of residual monomer during polymerisation of acrylamide using ultrasonics

    Ponraju, D.; Sebastian, Letha; Viswanathan, S.; Natarajan, A.; Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    An ultrasonic technique for the estimation of residual acrylamide monomer during the polymerization of aqueous acrylamide solution has been investigated. Polyacrylamide gel medium serves as a sensitive medium for detection and dosimetry of fast and thermal neutrons. This technique is based on the fact that the velocity of ultrasonic wave increases with the increase in elasticity due to polymerization. The percentage of residual acrylamide monomer is estimated using ultraviolet spectrophotometric analysis. The ultrasonic velocity is correlated with the residual monomer concentration

  19. Evolution of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans secreting alginate during bioleaching of chalcopyrite concentrate.

    Yu, R-L; Liu, A; Liu, Y; Yu, Z; Peng, T; Wu, X; Shen, L; Liu, Y; Li, J; Liu, X; Qiu, G; Chen, M; Zeng, W

    2017-06-01

    To explore the distribution disciplinarian of alginate on the chalcopyrite concentrate surface during bioleaching. The evolution of Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans secreting alginate during bioleaching of chalcopyrite concentrate was investigated through gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), and the critical synthetic genes (algA, algC, algD) of alginate were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The GC-MS analysis results indicated that there was a little amount of alginate formed on the mineral surface at the early stage, while increasing largely to the maximum value at the intermediate stage, and then kept a stable value at the end stage. The CLSM analysis of chalcopyrite slice showed the same variation trend of alginate content on the mineral surface. Furthermore, the RT-PCR results showed that during the early stage of bioleaching, the expressions of the algA, algC and the algD genes were all overexpressed. However, at the final stage, the algD gene expression decreased in a large scale, and the algA and algC decreased slightly. This expression pattern was attributed to the fact that algA and algC genes were involved in several biosynthesis reactions, but the algD gene only participated in the alginate biosynthesis and this was considered as the key gene to control alginate synthesis. The content of alginate on the mineral surface increased largely at the beginning of bioleaching, and remained stable at the end of bioleaching due to the restriction of algD gene expression. Our findings provide valuable information to explore the relationship between alginate formation and bioleaching of chalcopyrite. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain); Sanroman, M.A., E-mail: sanroman@uvigo.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2-8). Around 98-100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87-98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  1. Evaluation of outgassing, tear strength, and detail reproduction in alginate substitute materials.

    Baxter, R T; Lawson, N C; Cakir, D; Beck, P; Ramp, L C; Burgess, J O

    2012-01-01

    To compare three alginate substitute materials to an alginate impression material for cast surface porosity (outgassing), tear strength, and detail reproduction. Detail reproduction tests were performed following American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification No. 19. To measure tear strength, 12 samples of each material were made using a split mold, placed in a water bath until testing, and loaded in tension until failure at a rate of 500 mm/min using a universal testing machine. For cast surface porosity testing, five impressions of a Teflon mold with each material were placed in a water bath (37.8°C) for the in-mouth setting time and poured with vacuum-mixed Silky Rock die stone at 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes from the start of mixing. The gypsum samples were analyzed with a digital microscope for surface porosity indicative of hydrogen gas release by comparing the surface obtained at each interval with four casts representing no, little, some, and significant porosity. Data analysis was performed using parametric and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey/Kramer post-hoc tests (α=0.05), and individual Mann-Whitney U tests (α=0.0167). All alginate substitute materials passed the detail reproduction test. Tear strength of the alginate substitute materials was significantly better than alginate and formed three statistically different groups: AlgiNot had the lowest tear strength, Algin-X Ultra had the highest tear strength, and Position Penta Quick had intermediate tear strength. Significant variation in outgassing existed between materials and pouring times (palginate substitute materials exhibited the least outgassing and cast porosity 60 minutes after mixing. Detail reproduction and tear strength of alginate substitute materials were superior to traditional alginate. The outgassing effect was minimal for most materials tested. Alginate substitute materials are superior replacements for irreversible

  2. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M.; Sanromán, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. ► New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. ► Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2–8). Around 98–100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87–98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  3. Preferential localization of Lactococcus lactis cells entrapped in a caseinate/alginate phase separated system.

    Léonard, Lucie; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Ouaali, Fahima; Degraeve, Pascal; Waché, Yves; Saurel, Rémi; Oulahal, Nadia

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to entrap bioprotective lactic acid bacteria in a sodium caseinate/sodium alginate aqueous two-phase system. Phase diagram at pH=7 showed that sodium alginate and sodium caseinate were not miscible when their concentrations exceeded 1% (w/w) and 6% (w/w), respectively. The stability of the caseinate/alginate two-phase system was also checked at pH values of 6.0 and 5.5. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LAB3 cells were added in a 4% (w/w) caseinate/1.5% (w/w) alginate two-phase system at pH=7. Fluorescence microscopy allowed to observe that the caseinate-rich phase formed droplets dispersed in a continuous alginate-rich phase. The distribution of bacteria in such a system was observed by epifluorescence microscopy: Lc. lactis LAB3 cells stained with Live/Dead(®) Baclight kit™ were located exclusively in the protein phase. Since zeta-potential measurements indicated that alginate, caseinate and bacterial cells all had an overall negative charge at pH 7, the preferential adhesion of LAB cells was assumed to be driven by hydrophobic effect or by depletion phenomena in such biopolymeric systems. Moreover, LAB cells viability was significantly higher in the ternary mixture obtained in the presence of both caseinate and alginate than in single alginate solution. Caseinate/alginate phase separated systems appeared thus well suited for Lc. lactis LAB3 cells entrapment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Three-dimensional bioprinting of complex cell laden alginate hydrogel structures.

    Tabriz, Atabak Ghanizadeh; Hermida, Miguel A; Leslie, Nicholas R; Shu, Wenmiao

    2015-12-21

    Different bioprinting techniques have been used to produce cell-laden alginate hydrogel structures, however these approaches have been limited to 2D or simple three-dimension (3D) structures. In this study, a new extrusion based bioprinting technique was developed to produce more complex alginate hydrogel structures. This was achieved by dividing the alginate hydrogel cross-linking process into three stages: primary calcium ion cross-linking for printability of the gel, secondary calcium cross-linking for rigidity of the alginate hydrogel immediately after printing and tertiary barium ion cross-linking for long-term stability of the alginate hydrogel in culture medium. Simple 3D structures including tubes were first printed to ensure the feasibility of the bioprinting technique and then complex 3D structures such as branched vascular structures were successfully printed. The static stiffness of the alginate hydrogel after printing was 20.18 ± 1.62 KPa which was rigid enough to sustain the integrity of the complex 3D alginate hydrogel structure during the printing. The addition of 60 mM barium chloride was found to significantly extend the stability of the cross-linked alginate hydrogel from 3 d to beyond 11 d without compromising the cellular viability. The results based on cell bioprinting suggested that viability of U87-MG cells was 93 ± 0.9% immediately after bioprinting and cell viability maintained above 88% ± 4.3% in the alginate hydrogel over the period of 11 d.

  5. Injectable MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels as hMSC delivery systems.

    Fonseca, Keila B; Gomes, David B; Lee, Kangwon; Santos, Susana G; Sousa, Aureliana; Silva, Eduardo A; Mooney, David J; Granja, Pedro L; Barrias, Cristina C

    2014-01-13

    Hydrogels with the potential to provide minimally invasive cell delivery represent a powerful tool for tissue-regeneration therapies. In this context, entrapped cells should be able to escape the matrix becoming more available to actively participate in the healing process. Here, we analyzed the performance of proteolytically degradable alginate hydrogels as vehicles for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) transplantation. Alginate was modified with the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive peptide Pro-Val-Gly-Leu-Iso-Gly (PVGLIG), which did not promote dendritic cell maturation in vitro, neither free nor conjugated to alginate chains, indicating low immunogenicity. hMSC were entrapped within MMP-sensitive and MMP-insensitive alginate hydrogels, both containing cell-adhesion RGD peptides. Softer (2 wt % alginate) and stiffer (4 wt % alginate) matrices were tested. When embedded in a Matrigel layer, hMSC-laden MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels promoted more extensive outward cell migration and invasion into the tissue mimic. In vivo, after 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in a xenograft mouse model, hMSC-laden MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels showed higher degradation and host tissue invasion than their MMP-insensitive equivalents. In both cases, softer matrices degraded faster than stiffer ones. The transplanted hMSC were able to produce their own collagenous extracellular matrix, and were located not only inside the hydrogels, but also outside, integrated in the host tissue. In summary, injectable MMP-sensitive alginate hydrogels can act as localized depots of cells and confer protection to transplanted cells while facilitating tissue regeneration.

  6. High-Level Expression of a Thermally Stable Alginate Lyase Using Pichia pastoris, Characterization and Application in Producing Brown Alginate Oligosaccharide

    Haifeng Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An alginate lyase encoding gene sagl from Flavobacterium sp. H63 was codon optimized and recombinantly expressed at high level in P.pastoris through high cell-density fermentation. The highest yield of recombinant enzyme of sagl (rSAGL in yeast culture supernatant reached 226.4 μg/mL (915.5 U/mL. This was the highest yield record of recombinant expression of alginate lyase so far. The rSAGL was confirmed as a partially glycosylated protein through EndoH digestion. The optimal reaction temperature and pH of this enzyme were 45 °C and 7.5; 80 mM K+ ions could improve the catalytic activity of the enzyme by 244% at most. rSAGL was a thermal stable enzyme with T5015 of 57–58 °C and T5030 of 53–54 °C. Its thermal stability was better than any known alginate lyase. In 100 mM phosphate buffer of pH 6.0, rSAGL could retain 98.8% of the initial activity after incubation at 50 °C for 2 h. Furthermore, it could retain 61.6% of the initial activity after 48 h. The specific activity of the purified rSAGL produced by P. pastoris attained 4044 U/mg protein, which was the second highest record of alginate lyase so far. When the crude enzyme of the rSAGL was directly used in transformation of sodium alginate with 40 g/L, 97.2% of the substrate was transformed to di, tri, tetra brown alginate oligosaccharide after 32 h of incubation at 50 °C, and the final concentration of reducing sugar in mixture reached 9.51 g/L. This is the first report of high-level expression of thermally stable alginate lyase using P. pastoris system.

  7. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  8. The role of alginate in Azotobacter vinelandii aggregation in submerged culture

    Edith Coronado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture of strain LA21, a non-mucoid strain of Azotobacter vinelandii derivative of ATCC 9046, revealed that alginate is not necessary for aggregate formation. In fact, the non-mucoid strain LA21 developed aggregates significantly larger than those of the mucoid strain (ATCC 9046, which suggests that alginate has a detrimental effect on the aggregate size, due to its properties as a surface active agent. Treating the aggregates with a protease caused a decrease in the equivalent diameter of the structures, suggesting the participation of extracellular proteins in the aggregation. Key words: Aggregation; Azotobacter vinelandii; alginate; mutant strain; mucoid.

  9. Calcium Alginate and Salt/Phosphate as Binding Agents in Restructured Lamb

    Setyawardani, Triana; Raharjo, Sri; sudarmadji, purnama

    2001-01-01

    A study on  restructurization of lamb meat using several binding agents were conducted. Objectives of the study were evaluate  effectivity of Ca–alginate, salt and phosphate as binding agent and their effect on physical properties of the restructured meat stored at -20⁰C for up to 12 weeks. Three binding agents were added to the restructured products, which include NaCl 0.3 %/ NTPP 0.3 %; alginate 0.5 %/Ca-lactate 0.5%; NaCl 0.3 % / NTPP 0.5 %/alginate 0.5% and no binding agent as a control. ...

  10. Stability of alginate-titanium dioxide based photocatalyst beads for water treatment application under UV irradiation

    WENG HOONG LAM

    2017-01-01

    Immobilizing TiO2 photocatalyst in alginate beads has been considered to be a green approach for the separation and recycling of the photocatalyst in UV water treatment. However, the feasibility of using alginate beads in industry is largely dependent on their photo-stability during operation. This study aimed to provide a better understanding on the degradation of alginate/TiO2 beads under UV irradiation and to improve beads stability. The beads stability can be improved by increasing the al...

  11. Calcium alginate entrapment of the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides for the kinetic resolution of 1, 2-epoxyoctane

    Maritz, J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available -centrifuge tube. The epoxide substrate was added to give 20 mM in the aqueous phase. The reaction mixtures were incub- ated (20 min, 30 openbulletC) on a shaking water-bath. Liquid samples were removed from the reaction mixtures and the product (R,S-1,2-octanediol...)represent 0.5% (w/v) alginate, the closed squares (squaresolid) 0.75% (w/v) algin- ate, and the closed triangleS (trianglesolid) 1.0% (w/v) alginate concentration combinations. Fig. 8. Repeated batch biotransformation. Twenty percent (w/v) biomass...

  12. Influence of hydrophobic modification in alginate-based hydrogels for biomedical applications

    Choudhary, Soumitra

    Alginate has been exploited commercially for decades in foods, textiles, paper, pharmaceutical industries, and also as a detoxifier for removing heavy metals. Alginate is also popular in cell encapsulation because of its relatively mild gelation protocol and simple chemistry with which biological active entities can be immobilized. Surface modification of alginate gels has been explored to induce desired cell interactions with the gel matrix. These modifications alter the bulk properties, which strongly determine on how cells feel and response to the three-dimensional microenvironment. However, there is a need to develop strategies to engineer functionalities into bulk alginate hydrogels that not only preserve their inherent qualities but are also less toxic. In this thesis, our main focus was to optimize the mechanical properties of alginate-based hydrogels, and by doing so control the performance of the biomaterials. In the first scheme, we used alginate and hydrophobically modified ethyl hydroxy ethyl cellulose as components in interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) gels. The second network was used to control gelation time and rheological properties. We believe these experiments also may provide insight into the mechanical and structural properties of more complex biopolymer gels and naturally-occurring IPNs. Next, we worked on incorporating a hydrophobic moiety directly into the alginate chain, resulting in materials for extended release of hydrophobic drugs. We successfully synthesized hydrophobically modified alginate (HMA) by attaching octylamine groups onto the alginate backbone by standard carbodiimide based amide coupling reaction. Solubility of several model hydrophobic drugs in dilute HMA solutions was found to be increased by more than an order of magnitude. HMA hydrogels, prepared by crosslinking the alginate chains with calcium ions, were found to exhibit excellent mechanical properties (modulus ˜100 kPa) with release extended upto 5 days. Ability

  13. Adsorption of cationic dye on a biohybrid SiO2-alginate

    Barrón Zambrano, J A; Ávila Ortega, A; Muñoz Rodríguez, D; Carrera Figueiras, C; López-Pérez, A J

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a biohybrid material based on SiO 2 -alginate was obtained and its properties of adsorption evaluated using methylene blue as a model dye. The experimental results showed that the biohybrid SiO 2 -alginate has a higher adsorption ability compared to their base compounds (SiO 2 and alginate). Methylene blue adsorption is pH dependent, resulting in a maximum adsorption at pH = 8. The sorption kinetics rate is similar to SiO 2 . Kinetic data were fitted to a model of pseudosecond order. The experimental isotherms fit well the Langmuir model.

  14. A Technology Platform to Test the Efficacy of Purification of Alginate

    Genaro A. Paredes-Juarez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alginates are widely used in tissue engineering technologies, e.g., in cell encapsulation, in drug delivery and various immobilization procedures. The success rates of these studies are highly variable due to different degrees of tissue response. A cause for this variation in success is, among other factors, its content of inflammatory components. There is an urgent need for a technology to test the inflammatory capacity of alginates. Recently, it has been shown that pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs in alginate are potent immunostimulatories. In this article, we present the design and evaluation of a technology platform to assess (i the immunostimulatory capacity of alginate or its contaminants, (ii where in the purification process PAMPs are removed, and (iii which Toll-like receptors (TLRs and ligands are involved. A THP1 cell-line expressing pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and the co-signaling molecules CD14 and MD2 was used to assess immune activation of alginates during the different steps of purification of alginate. To determine if this activation was mediated by TLRs, a THP1-defMyD88 cell-line was applied. This cell-line possesses a non-functional MyD88 coupling protein, necessary for activating NF-κB via TLRs. To identify the specific TLRs being activated by the PAMPs, we use different human embryonic kidney (HEK cell-line that expresses only one specific TLR. Finally, specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs were applied to identify the specific PAMP. By applying this three-step procedure, we can screen alginate in a manner, which is both labor and cost efficient. The efficacy of the platform was evaluated with an alginate that did not pass our quality control. We demonstrate that this alginate was immunostimulatory, even after purification due to reintroduction of the TLR5 activating flagellin. In addition, we tested two commercially available purified alginates. Our experiments show that these commercial

  15. Acrylic composition

    Kimura, Tadashi; Ozeki, Takao; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo; Meda, Yutaka.

    1969-01-01

    An acrylic composition and a process for the production of an easily hardenable coating material by irradiating with active energy, particularly electron beams and ultraviolet light, are provided using a mixture of 10%-100% by weight of an unsaturated compound and 90%-0% of a vinyl monomer. The composition has a high degree of polymerization, low volatility, low viscosity and other properties similar to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resins. The aforesaid unsaturated compound is produced by primarily reacting saturated cyclocarboxylic anhydride and/or alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic anhydride and by secondarily reacting an epoxy radical-containing vinyl monomer by addition reaction with polyhydric alcohols. Each reaction is conducted in the presence of a tertiary amino radical-containing vinyl monomer as a catalyst. The cross-linking is effected generally with an electron beam accelerator of 0.1-2.0 MeV or with a light beam in the 2,000-8,000A range in the presence of a photosensitive agent. In one example, 62 parts of ethylene glycol and 196 parts of maleic anhydride were dissolved in a mixture consisting of 100 parts of n-butyl methacrylate and 30 parts of styrene. To the mixture were added 5 parts of 2-methyl 5 vinyl piridine and 0.005 part of hydroquinone monomethyl ether. After the reaction at 90 0 C for 3 hours, a compound HOC:O-CH=CHC:OCH 2 CH 2 C:OOH was produced. To this solution were added 285 parts of glycidyl methacrylate. After the reaction at 90 0 C for 6 hours, 95% of the carboxylic acids reacted with epoxy radicals. Fourteen examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  16. Influence of template/functional monomer/cross‐linking monomer ratio on particle size and binding properties of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles

    Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2012-01-01

    A series of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles have been synthesized employing various template/functional monomer/crosslinking monomer ratio and characterized in detail to elucidate the correlation between the synthetic conditions used and the properties (e.g., particle size and templat...... tuning of particle size and binding properties are required to fit practical applications. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012...

  17. The fast release of stem cells from alginate-fibrin microbeads in injectable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Zhou, Hongzhi; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell-encapsulating hydrogel microbeads of several hundred microns in size suitable for injection, that could quickly degrade to release the cells, are currently unavailable. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop oxidized alginate-fibrin microbeads encapsulating human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs); (2) investigate microbead degradation, cell release, and osteogenic differentiation of the released cells for the first time. Three types of microbeads were fabricated to encapsulate hUCMSCs: (1) Alginate microbeads; (2) oxidized alginate microbeads; (3) oxidized alginate-fibrin microbeads. Microbeads with sizes of about 100–500 µm were fabricated with 1×106 hUCMSCs/mL of alginate. For the alginate group, there was little microbead degradation, with very few cells released at 21 d. For oxidized alginate, the microbeads started to slightly degrade at 14 d. In contrast, the oxidized alginate-fibrin microbeads started to degrade at 4 d and released the cells. At 7 d, the number of released cells greatly increased and showed a healthy polygonal morphology. At 21 d, the oxidized alginate-fibrin group had a live cell density that was 4-fold that of the oxidized alginate group, and 15-fold that of the alginate group. The released cells had osteodifferentiation, exhibiting highly elevated bone marker gene expressions of ALP, OC, collagen I, and Runx2. Alizarin staining confirmed the synthesis of bone minerals by hUCMSCs, with the mineral concentration at 21 d being 10-fold that at 7 d. In conclusion, fast-degradable alginate-fibrin microbeads with hUCMSC encapsulation were developed that could start to degrade and release the cells at 4 d. The released hUCMSCs had excellent proliferation, osteodifferentiation, and bone mineral synthesis. The alginate-fibrin microbeads are promising to deliver stem cells inside injectable scaffolds to promote tissue regeneration. PMID:21757229

  18. Investigation of the possibility of producing sodium alginate from the product of processing fucus algae

    N. I. Sokolan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of making sodium alginate from a by-product (fucus semifinished product, obtained by producing an extract from brown algae of the Fucus family – fucus bubbly (F.vesiculosus, has been studied. It has been found that up to 80% of the alginic acids contained in the feedstock remain in the fucus semi-finished product, which can also be isolated and used. The principal technology of sodium alginate from the fucus semifinished product is developed, consisting of the following main stages: preparation of raw materials, reduction, pretreatment, extraction of alginates, isolation of alginic acid, production of sodium alginate, drying. The parameters of the technological scheme close to optimal parameters were determined (the duration of extraction of alginates by sodium carbonate solution is 3 hours, the active acidity value for the isolation of alginic acids is 6M hydrochloric acid: pH = 3. As a result of optimization of the technological scheme, it was possible to increase the yield and improve the quality of the product: the yield of sodium alginate was 4.5% (which is 20% higher than the original, the content of alginic acids increased by 7% and was 92% in terms of dry matter, kinematic the viscosity increased almost twofold - its value reached a value of 500 cSt. Investigations carried out by the Fourier method of IR spectroscopy on the Shimadzu IR Tracer-100 (Japan showed that the sodium alginate obtained from the fucus semifinished by optimized technology is not inferior in quality to sodium alginate produced from laminaria (Sigma Aldrich (USA. Sodium alginate, made from the fucus semi-finished product, can be used as one of the components of gelling fillings for the production of canned fish in jellies. A technological scheme for processing algae is proposed.

  19. Alginate-based pellets prepared by extrusion/spheronization: effect of the amount and type of sodium alginate and calcium salts.

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-anan, Manee; Weerapol, Yossanun; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-05-01

    Pellets containing microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), a model drug (theophylline) and a range of levels of sodium alginate (i.e., 10-50% w/w) were prepared by extrusion/spheronization. Two types of sodium alginate were evaluated with and without the addition of either calcium acetate or calcium carbonate (0, 0.3, 3 and 10% w/w). The effects of amount and type of sodium alginate and calcium salts on pellet properties, e.g., size, shape, morphology and drug release behavior, were investigated. Most pellet formulations resulted in pellets of a sufficient quality with respect to size, size distribution and shape. The results showed that the amounts of sodium alginate and calcium salts influenced the size and shape of the obtained pellets. However, different types of sodium alginate and calcium salt responded to modifications to a different extent. A cavity was observed in the pellet structure, as seen in the scanning electron micrographs, resulting from the forces involved in the spheronization process. Most of pellet formulations released about 75-85% drug within 60 min. Incorporation of calcium salts in the pellet formulations altered the drug release, depending on the solubility of the calcium salts used. The drug release data showed a good fit into both Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations.

  20. Poly (L-lactic acid) porous scaffold-supported alginate hydrogel with improved mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Chu, Jiaqi; Zeng, Shaodong; Gao, Liyang; Groth, Thomas; Li, Zhiwen; Kong, Junchao; Zhao, Mingyan; Li, Lihua

    2016-10-10

    Polymer porous scaffolds and hydrogels have been separately employed and explored for a wide range of applications including cell encapsulation, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. In this study, a three-dimensional poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffold with interconnected and homogeneously distributed pores was fabricated to support the alginate hydrogel (Alg). The gels were filled into the porous scaffold, which acted as an analogue of native extracellular matrix (ECM) for entrapment of cells within a support of predefined shape. The mechanical strength of the composite scaffold was characterized by compression testing. The chondrocyte behavior in the scaffold was determined by inverted microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and MTT viability assay. The repair efficiency of such a composite scaffold was further investigated in dog spinal defects by histological evaluation after implantation for 4 weeks. Results showed that the composite scaffold possessed superior mechanical properties and hierarchical porous structure in comparison to pure Alg. Cell culture revealed that the cells presented a specific cartilage status in the composite scaffold in line with higher adherence and proliferation ratio. The histological analyses suggested that the composite scaffold substantially promotes its integration in the host tissue accompanied with a low inflammatory reaction and new tissue formation. The method thus provides a useful pathway for scaffold preparation that can simultaneously achieve suitable mechanical properties and good biocompatibility.

  1. Preparation of Well-Dispersed Chitosan/Alginate Hollow Multilayered Microcapsules for Enhanced Cellular Internalization

    Carla Ribeiro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hollow multilayered capsules have shown massive potential for being used in the biomedical and biotechnology fields, in applications such as cellular internalization, intracellular trafficking, drug delivery, or tissue engineering. In particular, hollow microcapsules, developed by resorting to porous calcium carbonate sacrificial templates, natural-origin building blocks and the prominent Layer-by-Layer (LbL technology, have attracted increasing attention owing to their key features. However, these microcapsules revealed a great tendency to aggregate, which represents a major hurdle when aiming for cellular internalization and intracellular therapeutics delivery. Herein, we report the preparation of well-dispersed polysaccharide-based hollow multilayered microcapsules by combining the LbL technique with an optimized purification process. Cationic chitosan (CHT and anionic alginate (ALG were chosen as the marine origin polysaccharides due to their biocompatibility and structural similarity to the extracellular matrices of living tissues. Moreover, the inexpensive and highly versatile LbL technology was used to fabricate core-shell microparticles and hollow multilayered microcapsules, with precise control over their composition and physicochemical properties, by repeating the alternate deposition of both materials. The microcapsules’ synthesis procedure was optimized to extensively reduce their natural aggregation tendency, as shown by the morphological analysis monitored by advanced microscopy techniques. The well-dispersed microcapsules showed an enhanced uptake by fibroblasts, opening new perspectives for cellular internalization.

  2. Investigation the influence of dietary fiber on the rheological properties of alginate beads

    Z. Manev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. During the current investigation experiments for the preparation of alginate beads with aqueous solutions of sodium alginate, calcium lactate or calcium dichloride and dietary fiber in different concentrations: inulin with varying degrees of polymerization, wheat bran and amidated apple pectin were carried out. The sodium alginate solutions were at constant concentration 3%, while calcium salts in 7% were applied for bead formation. It was proven that the rupture force of alginate beads was always higher than the pure model system regardless of the chemical structure of dietary fibers used. In the result of the carried research the dependence at a certain concentration was established at which the rupture force and deformation of the beads increased gradually.

  3. Effect of fluoride addition on the properties of dental alginate impression materials.

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Kim, Cheol-We

    2004-03-01

    Fluoride-containing dental alginate impression materials can exert a considerable reduction in enamel solubility. The objective was to evaluate the effects of fluoride addition in the alginate impression materials on the properties and subsequent release of fluoride. Four experimental alginate impression materials were studied. Materials were mixed with distilled water (control) or 100-ppm fluoride solution. One or two percent NaF, or 1% SnF2 was added to the materials, which were mixed with distilled water. Fluoride release, flexibility, recovery from deformation, setting time, compressive strength and elastic modulus were determined in accordance with the ISO 1563 and ANSI/ADA Spec. 18. Fluoride release increased after addition of fluoride, and the released amount was 0.762-14.761 ppm. Addition of NaF or SnF2 resulted in higher fluoride release than the control group (p alginate impression material may result in effective release of fluoride without deteriorating the properties of material itself.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Azadirachtin Alginate-Biosorbent Based Formulations: Water Release Kinetics and Photodegradation Study.

    Flores-Céspedes, Francisco; Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo P; Villafranca-Sánchez, Matilde; Fernández-Pérez, Manuel

    2015-09-30

    The botanical insecticide azadirachtin was incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release formulations (CRFs). The basic formulation [sodium alginate (1.47%) - azadirachtin (0.28%) - water] was modified by the addition of biosorbents, obtaining homogeneous hybrid hydrogels with high azadirachtin entrapment efficiency. The effect on azadirachtin release rate caused by the incorporation of biosorbents such as lignin, humic acid, and olive pomace in alginate formulation was studied by immersion of the granules in water under static conditions. The addition of the biosorbents to the basic alginate formulation reduces the rate of release because the lignin-based formulation produces a slower release. Photodegradation experiments showed the potential of the prepared formulations in protecting azadirachtin against simulated sunlight, thus improving its stability. The results showed that formulation prepared with lignin provided extended protection. Therefore, this study provides a new procedure to encapsulate the botanical insecticide azadirachtin, improving its delivery and photostability.

  5. Synthesis of collagen by bovine chondrocytes cultured in alginate; posttranslational modifications and cell-matrix interaction

    Beekman, B.; Verzijl, N.; Bank, R.A.; Von Der Mark, K.; TeKoppele, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The extracellular matrix synthesized by articular chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads was investigated. Collagen levels increased sigmoidally with time and remained constant after 2 weeks of culture. The presence of cartilage-specific type II collagen was confirmed immunohistochemically.

  6. Review: Efficacy of alginate supplementation in relation to appetite regulation and metabolic risk factors

    Jensen, Morten Georg; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent...

  7. Contribution of alginate and levan production to biofilm formation by Pseudomonas syringae

    Laue, H.; Schenk, A.; Li, H.

    2006-01-01

    formation, biofilms of Pseudomonas syringae strains with different EPS patterns were compared. The mucoid strain PG4180.muc, which produces levan and alginate, and its levan- and/or alginate-deficient derivatives all formed biofilms in the wells of microtitre plates and in flow chambers. Confocal laser...... by binding of the lectin from Naja mossambica to a fibrous structure in biofilms of all P. syringae derivatives. Production of the as yet uncharacterized additional EPS might be more important for biofilm formation than the syntheses of levan and alginate.......Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) play important roles in the attachment of bacterial cells to a surface and/or in building and maintaining the three-dimensional, complex structure of bacterial biofilms. To elucidate the spatial distribution and function of the EPSs levan and alginate during biofilm...

  8. Biosorption of strontium ions from aqueous solution using Ca-alginate biopolymer beads

    Goek, C.; Aytas, S.; Gerstmann, U.

    2009-01-01

    Biosorption of strontium ions from aqueous solution onto calcium alginate biopolymer beads was investigated in a batch system. Ca-alginate biopolymer beads were prepared from Na-alginate via cross-linking with divalent calcium ions according to the egg box model. Optimum biosorption conditions were determined as a function of initial solution pH, initial Sr concentration, contact time, biomass dosage and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of Sr ions by Ca-alginate biopolymer beads. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, ΔG) for Sr sorption onto biosorbent were also determined from the temperature dependence. The results indicate that this biosorbent has a good potential for removal of Sr ions from dilute aqueous solution.

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and pipe...

  10. Oligodeoxynucleotides containing 2'-amino-LNA nucleotides as constrained morpholino phosphoramidate and phosphorodiamidate monomers

    Kristensen, Kim Vejlegaard; Paul, Sibasish; Kosbar, Tamer

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation in a 2'→5' direction of a phosphorodiamidite 2'-amino-LNA-T nucleotide as the morpholino phosphoramidate and N,N-dimethylamino phosphorodiamidate monomers into six oligonucleotides is reported. Thermal denaturation studies showed that the novel 2'-amino-LNA-based morpholino monomers...

  11. Modulation of i-motif thermodynamic stability by the introduction of UNA (unlocked nucleic acid) monomers

    Pasternak, Anna; Wengel, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The influence of acyclic RNA derivatives, UNA (unlocked nucleic acid) monomers, on i-DNA thermodynamic stability has been investigated. The 22 nt human telomeric fragment was chosen as the model sequence for stability studies. UNA monomers modulate i-motif stability in a position-depending manner...

  12. Triptycene-based ladder monomers and polymers, methods of making each, and methods of use

    Pinnau, Ingo; Ghanem, Bader; Swaidan, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a method of making a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a triptycene-based ladder polymer, a method of making a triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of using

  13. Sulfonated copolyimide membranes derived from a novel diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups for fuel cells

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaoxia; Aili, David

    2015-01-01

    . A series of sulfonated copolyimides (SPI) are prepared via random copolymerizatio of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) with a new diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups, 2,2'-bis(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)benzidine (BIPOB), and a sulfonated diamine monomer 4,4'-bis...

  14. Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication

    Duan Xuanming; Sun Hongbo; Kaneko, Koshiro; Kawata, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers which is applied for three-dimensional (3D) micro/nano-structure fabrication. Titanium (IV) ions doped urethane acrylate photopolymerizable resins were synthesized, and their optical and polymerization properties were investigated. The resolution of two-photon polymerization for micro/nanofabrication was evaluated. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles were generated in the polymer matrix of micron-sized polymer structures. A 3D diamond photonic crystal structure, which consisted of polymer composite materials of TiO 2 nanoparticles, was successfully fabricated by direct laser writing and its photonic bandgap was confirmed. This work would give us a new solution for producing 3D micro/nanodevices of functional polymer composite materials

  15. Progesterone release from magnetic alginate/chitosan microcapsules

    Leite, Melina Vasconcelos; Castro, Mayara de Freitas e; Sanchez Rodriguez, Ruben J., E-mail: sanchez@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Rojas-Ayala, Chachi; Baggio-Saitovitch, Elisa Maria [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisa Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeir, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were prepared using the hydrothermal method (160°C) in a closed system and characterized with the aid of the techniques of X-ray Diffraction patterns (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase showed high crystallinity and medium crystallite size of 19nm with superparamagnetic properties, reversible behavior and saturation magnetization of 43 emu g{sup -1}. The nanoparticles coated with alginate / chitosan were characterized morphologically by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope. The microcapsules have a regular spherical shape with the main contribution of the size distribution in the range of 34-53μm. The progesterone released was 14% higher when external magnetic field was applied. (author)

  16. Encapsulation of iron nanoparticles in alginate biopolymer for trichloroethylene remediation

    Bezbaruah, Achintya N.; Shanbhogue, Sai Sharanya; Simsek, Senay; Khan, Eakalak

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles (10–90 nm) were encapsulated in biodegradable calcium-alginate capsules for the first time for application in environmental remediation. Encapsulation is expected to offers distinct advances over entrapment. Trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation was 89–91% in 2 h, and the reaction followed pseudo first order kinetics for encapsulated NZVI systems with an observed reaction rate constant (k obs ) of 1.92–3.23 × 10 −2 min −1 and a surface normalized reaction rate constant (k sa ) of 1.02–1.72 × 10 −3 L m −2 min −1 . TCE degradation reaction rates for encapsulated and bare NZVI were similar indicating no adverse affects of encapsulation on degradation kinetics. The shelf-life of encapsulated NZVI was found to be four months with little decrease in TCE removal efficiency.

  17. First transplantation of isolated murine follicles in alginate.

    Vanacker, Julie; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Luyckx, Valérie; Donnez, Jacques; Amorim, Christiani A

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to develop an artificial ovary allowing survival and growth of isolated follicles and ovarian cells, to restore fertility in women diagnosed with pathologies at high risk of ovarian involvement. For this, alginate beads containing isolated preantral follicles and ovarian cells were autografted to immunocompetent mice. One week after grafting, the beads were invaded by proliferating murine cells (12.1%) and capillaries. The recovery rate of follicles per graft ranged from 0% to 35.5%. Of the analyzed follicles, 77% were Ki67-positive and 81%, TUNEL-negative. Three antral follicles were also identified, evidencing their ability to grow in the matrix. Our results suggest that an artificial ovary is now conceivable, opening new perspectives to restore fertility in women.

  18. Progesterone release from magnetic alginate/chitosan microcapsules

    Leite, Melina Vasconcelos; Castro, Mayara de Freitas e; Sanchez Rodriguez, Ruben J.; Rojas-Ayala, Chachi; Baggio-Saitovitch, Elisa Maria

    2015-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe_3O_4) were prepared using the hydrothermal method (160°C) in a closed system and characterized with the aid of the techniques of X-ray Diffraction patterns (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The Fe_3O_4 phase showed high crystallinity and medium crystallite size of 19nm with superparamagnetic properties, reversible behavior and saturation magnetization of 43 emu g"-"1. The nanoparticles coated with alginate / chitosan were characterized morphologically by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope. The microcapsules have a regular spherical shape with the main contribution of the size distribution in the range of 34-53μm. The progesterone released was 14% higher when external magnetic field was applied. (author)

  19. Effect of alginate chemical disinfection on bacterial count over gypsum cast

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Al-Dowah, Omir S.; Gana, Naif S.; Al-Hytham, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) and iodophor disinfectants on alginate impressions along with their effect on the survived bacterium count on the gypsum cast. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four alginate impression on each dentate patients were made, of which Group I were not washed or disinfected, Group II impressions were merely washed with water, Group III were disinfected by spraying with sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10), Group IV were disinfected with iodophor (1 : 21...

  20. The function of alginic acid on the radioactive contamination of some marine invertebrates deposite-feeders

    Amiard-Triquet, C.

    1975-01-01

    The contamination of invertebrates by radionuclides in a sedimentary environment is a function of the mobility of radioactive ions and especially of the mode of sorption of the radionuclides on the sediment and the ion retention by the algines. Since the enzymatic system of species feeding on the sediment includes little or no alginase, there occurs no desorption of the radionuclides during the passage of the algines along the digestive tract [fr

  1. Process engineering of high voltage alginate encapsulation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Pogozhykh, Denys; Zernetsch, Holger; Hofmann, Nicola; Mueller, Thomas; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation of stem cells in alginate beads is promising as a sophisticated drug delivery system in treatment of a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, common use of air flow encapsulation of cells in alginate beads fails to produce beads with narrow size distribution, intact spherical structure and controllable sizes that can be scaled up. Here we show that high voltage encapsulation (≥ 15 kV) can be used to reproducibly generate spherical alginate beads (200–400 μm) with narrow size distribution (± 5–7%) in a controlled manner under optimized process parameters. Flow rate of alginate solution ranged from 0.5 to 10 ml/h allowed producing alginate beads with a size of 320 and 350 μm respectively, suggesting that this approach can be scaled up. Moreover, we found that applied voltages (15–25 kV) did not alter the viability and proliferation of encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells post-encapsulation and cryopreservation as compared to air flow. We are the first who employed a comparative analysis of electro-spraying and air flow encapsulation to study the effect of high voltage on alginate encapsulated cells. This report provides background in application of high voltage to encapsulate living cells for further medical purposes. Long-term comparison and work on alginate–cell interaction within these structures will be forthcoming. - Highlights: • High voltage alginate encapsulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was designed. • Reproducible and spherical alginate beads were generated via high voltage. • Air flow encapsulation was utilized as a comparative approach to high voltage. • High voltage did not alter the viability and proliferation of encapsulated MSCs. • High voltage encapsulation can be scaled up and applied in cell-based therapy

  2. Chitosan/alginate based multilayers to control drug release fromophthalmic lens

    Silva, Diana; Pinto, Luís F. V.; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Santos, Luís F.; Serro, Ana Paula; Saramago, Benilde

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using layer-by-layer deposition, based in natural polymers (chitosan and alginate), to control the release of different ophthalmic drugs from three types of lens materials: a silicone-based hydrogel recently proposed by our group as drug releasing soft contact lens (SCL) material and two commercially available materials: CI26Y for intraocular lens (IOLs) and Definitive 50 for SCLs. The optimised coating, consisting in one double layer of (algin...

  3. Characterization of a Novel Alginate Lyase from Marine Bacterium Vibrio furnissii H1

    Xiaoyan Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate lyases show great potential for industrial and medicinal applications, especially as an attractive biocatalyst for the production of oligosaccharides with special bioactivities. A novel alginate lyase, AlyH1, from the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii H1, which has been newly isolated from rotten seaweed, was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme showed the specific activity of 2.40 U/mg. Its molecular mass was 35.8 kDa. The optimal temperature and pH were 40 °C and pH 7.5, respectively. AlyH1 maintained stability at neutral pH (7.0–8.0 and temperatures below 30 °C. Metal ions Na+, Mg2+, and K+ increased the activity of the enzyme. With sodium alginate as the substrate, the Km and Vmax values of AlyH1 were 2.28 mg/mL and 2.81 U/mg, respectively. AlyH1 exhibited activities towards both polyguluronate and polymannuronate, and preferentially degraded polyguluronate. Products prepared from sodium alginate by AlyH1 were displayed to be di-, tri-, and tetra-alginate oligosaccharides. A partial amino acid sequence (190 aa of AlyH1 analysis suggested that AlyH1 was an alginate lyase of polysaccharide lyase family 7. The sequence showed less than 77% identity to the reported alginate lyases. These data demonstrated that AlyH1 could be as a novel and potential candidate in application of alginate oligosaccharides production with low polymerization degrees.

  4. Physicochemical properties of radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing for exudating wounds

    Asa, Anie Day DC.; De Guzman, Zenaida M.; Baldos, Davison T.; Asaad, Celia O.

    2013-01-01

    Honey is a well-known natural cure in promoting healing of wounds. Alginate, on the other hand, is a polysaccharide with pharmaceutical applications such as wound dressing and control release drugs. Calcium-alginate wound dressings have a gel-forming capability. in that, upon ion exchange between calcium ions in the dressing, and sodium ions in wound fluid, the dressing transforms into a gel. Cross-linked alginate gels can absorb would fluid, and also maintain a moist environment to the wound area. Combined with anti-microbial properties of honey and absorption and gelling properties of alginate, a honey alginate wound dressing is developed and irradiated for sterility. Its physicochemical properties are then analyzed. The honey-alginate wound dressing has lower pH (4.40±0.02) than alginate alone dressings (5.40±0.04) which is more favorable for wound healing. The dressing also has low moisture content (10.25±1.11%). Analysis of moisture vapour transmission rate shows a general increase with time for 48 hours. The wound dressing also has an absorbency of 19.00±1.80 g/100 cm 2 with a gel fraction of 18.44±0.63%. The rate of absorption analysis, meanwhile, shows a very rapid absorption rate upon exposure to wound fluid. After some time, a decrease in rate is observed which is accounted to the release of honey to the wound environment. For tensile strength, irradiation causes an effect in tensile strength in machine direction but is insignificant for cross machine direction. Physicochemical properties of the radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing e.g. acidic pH, absorbency, moisture vapor permeability and absorption rate ascertain its characteristic as a good wound dressing for exudating wounds. Its low moisture content, meanwhile, allows for longer shelf-life of the developed product. (author)

  5. Granular gel support-enabled extrusion of three-dimensional alginate and cellular structures.

    Jin, Yifei; Compaan, Ashley; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Huang, Yong

    2016-06-03

    Freeform fabrication of soft structures has been of great interest in recent years. In particular, it is viewed as a critical step toward the grand vision of organ printing--the on-demand design and fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) human organ constructs for implantation and regenerative medicine. The objective of this study is to develop a novel granular gel support material-enabled, two-step gelation-based 'printing-then-gelation' approach to fabricate 3D alginate structures using filament extrusion. Specifically, a granular Carbopol microgel bath holds the ungelled alginate structure being extruded, avoiding the instantaneous gelation of each printed layer as well as resultant surface tension-induced nozzle clogging. Since Carbopol microgels react with multivalent cations, which are needed for alginate crosslinking, gelatin is introduced as a sacrificial material to make an alginate and gelatin bioink for extrusion, which gels thermally (step-one gelation) to initially stabilize the printed structure for removal from Carbopol. Then gelatin is melted and diffused away while alginate is ionically crosslinked in a 37 °C calcium chloride bath (step-two gelation), resulting in an alginate structure. The proposed 'printing-then-gelation' approach works for alginate structure fabrication, and it is also applicable for the printing of cellular constructs and other similar homogeneous soft structures using a two-step or even multi-step approach. The main conclusions are: (1) 0.8% (w/v) Carbopol bath with a neutral pH value may be most suitable for soft structure printing; (2) it is most effective to use a 0.9% (w/v) NaCl solution to facilitate the removal of residual Carbopol; and (3) alginate structures fabricated using the proposed approach demonstrate better mechanical properties than those fabricated using the conventional 'gelation-while-printing' approach.

  6. Ligustrazine monomer against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Hai-jun Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ligustrazine (2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine is a major active ingredient of the Szechwan lovage rhizome and is extensively used in treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The mechanism of action of ligustrazine use against ischemic cerebrovascular diseases remains unclear at present. This study summarizes its protective effect, the optimum time window of administration, and the most effective mode of administration for clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. We examine the effects of ligustrazine on suppressing excitatory amino acid release, promoting migration, differentiation and proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells. We also looked at its effects on angiogenesis and how it inhibits thrombosis, the inflammatory response, and apoptosis after cerebral ischemia. We consider that ligustrazine gives noticeable protection from cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. The time window of ligustrazine administration is limited. The protective effect and time window of a series of derivative monomers of ligustrazine such as 2-[(1,1-dimethylethyloxidoimino]methyl]-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, CXC137 and CXC195 after cerebral ischemia were better than ligustrazine.

  7. Adjuvant activity of peptidoglycan monomer and its metabolic products.

    Halassy, Beata; Krstanović, Marina; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2003-02-14

    Peptidoglycan monomer (PGM) is a natural compound of bacterial origin. It is a non-toxic, non-pyrogenic, water-soluble immunostimulator potentiating humoral immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. It is fast degraded and its metabolic products-the pentapeptide (PP) and the disaccharide (DS)-are excreted from the mammalian organism upon parenteral administration. The present study investigates: (a). whether PGM could influence the long-living memory generation; (b). whether metabolic products retain adjuvant properties of the parent compound and contribute to its adjuvanticity. We report now that mice immunised twice with OVA+PGM had significantly higher anti-OVA IgG levels upon challenge with antigen alone 6 months later in comparison to control group immunised with OVA only. PP and DS were prepared enzymatically in vitro as apyrogenic and chemically pure compounds. When mice were immunised with OVA plus PP and DS, respectively, the level of anti-OVA IgGs in sera was not higher than in mice immunised with OVA alone, while PGM raised the level of specific antibodies. Results implicate that the adjuvant active molecule, capable of enhancing long-living memory generation, is PGM itself, and none of its metabolic products.

  8. Butyl acetate synthesis using immobilized lipase in calcium alginate beads

    Mohd Zulkhairi Abdul Rahim; Lee, Pat M.; Lee, Kong H.

    2008-01-01

    The esterification reaction of acetic acid and n-butanol using immobilized lipase encapsulated in calcium alginate beads (Lipase - CAB) and in chitosan coated calcium alginate beads (Lipase-CCAB) in n-hexane under mild reaction conditions were studied. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration (acetic acid and n-butanol) using Lipase - CAB, Lipase - CCAB and free lipase on the esterification reaction and their thermal stability towards esterification reaction were investigated. Results of temperature studies showed that the butyl acetate conversion increased with increase of temperature and reached the highest yield of about 70% around 50 degree Celsius for both immobilized systems but the yield of product catalyzed by free enzyme decreased as temperature was increased. Thermal stabilities studies showed that the Lipase-CCAB and Lipase-CAB were stable throughout the temperature range of 30-60 degree Celsius. However, free lipase became less stable at temperatures higher than 50 degree Celsius. The substrates, n-butanol and acetic acid exerted different effects on the esterification reaction and the reaction was favoured by higher acetic acid concentration than butanol. Kinetics parameters, Km and Vmax values for both substrates and the specific activities of the three enzyme system were also determined. The beads morphology was examined using SEM. Batch-wise operational stability studies for both immobilized systems demonstrated that the immobilized lipase performed better in the batch wise reactor system than the continuous bioreactor system and that the immobilized lipase remained active for at least 5 cycles of batch wise esterification reactions. (author)

  9. Modelling of proton and metal exchange in the alginate biopolymer.

    De Stefano, Concetta; Gianguzza, Antonio; Piazzese, Daniela; Sammartano, Silvio

    2005-10-01

    Acid-base behaviour of a commercial sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed (Macrocystis pyrifera) has been investigated at different ionic strengths (0.1titration calorimetric data were expressed as a function of the dissociation degree (alpha) using different models (Henderson-Hasselbalch modified, Högfeldt three parameters and linear equations). The dependence on ionic strength of the protonation constants was taken into account by a modified specific interaction theory model. Differences among different media were explained in terms of the interaction between polyanion and metal cations of the supporting electrolytes. Quantitative information on the proton-binding capacity, together with the stabilities of different species formed, is reported. Protonation thermodynamic parameters, at alpha=0.5, are log K H=3.686+/-0.005, DeltaG 0=-21.04+/-0.03 kJ mol(-1), DeltaH 0=4.8+/-0.2 kJ mol(-1) and TDeltaS 0=35.7+/-0.3 kJ mol(-1), at infinite dilution. Protonation enthalpies indicate that the main contribution to proton binding arises from the entropy term. A strict correlation between DeltaG and TDeltaS was found, TDeltaS=-9.5-1.73 DeltaG. Results are reported in light of building up a chemical complexation model of general validity to explain the binding ability of naturally occurring polycarboxylate polymers and biopolymers. Speciation profiles of alginate in the presence of sodium and magnesium ions, naturally occurring cations in natural waters, are also reported.

  10. Use of Monomer Fraction Data in the Parametrization of Association Theories

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; von Solms, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    the monomer fraction of hydrogen bonding compounds and their mixtures. Monomer fraction data are obtained from spectroscopic measurements and they are available for a few compounds such as pure water and alcohols as well as for some alcohol–alkane and similar mixtures. These data are useful...... “improved” model parameters can be obtained if monomer fraction data are included in the parameter estimation together with vapor pressures and liquid densities. The expression “improved” implies parameters which can represent several pure compound properties as well as monomer fraction data for pure......, liquid densities and monomer fractions of water and alcohols. The 4C scheme is the best choice for water, while for methanol there is small difference between the 2B and 3B association schemes....

  11. Polyfunctional monomers as additives for enhancing the radiation copolymerization of styrene with polyethylene, polypropylene, and PVC

    Ang, C.H.; Garnett, J.L.; Levot, R.; Long, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Additives which can increase the yield in the radiation grafting of monomers to polymers are useful. The use of polyfunctional monomers as additives (approx. = 1% v/v) are shown to enhance significantly the copolymerization yields of styrene in methanol to films of polyethylene and polypropylene under certain radiation conditions. The results obtained when the polyolefins are replaced by PVC as backbone polymer in these accelerated grafting reactions are reported. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) were used as representative polyfunctional monomers for the enhancement effect. When polypropylene was used as backbone polymer, the inclusion of DVB significantly enhanced the radiation grafting of styrene in methanol at all monomer concentrations studied above 35%. At certain monomer concentrations (50% , 60%), the yield of graft copolymer was almost doubled by the addition of DVB. 3 tables. (DP)

  12. Performance evaluation of bipolar and tripolar excitations during nozzle-jetting-based alginate microsphere fabrication

    Herran, C. Leigh; Huang, Yong; Chai, Wenxuan

    2012-08-01

    Microspheres, small spherical (polymeric) particles with or without second phase materials embedded or encapsulated, are important for many biomedical applications such as drug delivery and organ printing. Scale-up fabrication with the ability to precisely control the microsphere size and morphology has always been of great manufacturing interest. The objective of this work is to experimentally study the performance differences of bipolar and tripolar excitation waveforms in using drop-on-demand (DOD)-based single nozzle jetting for alginate microsphere fabrication. The fabrication performance has been evaluated based on the formability of alginate microspheres as a function of materials properties (sodium alginate and calcium chloride concentrations) and operating conditions. The operating conditions for each excitation include voltage rise/fall times, dwell times and excitation voltage amplitudes. Overall, the bipolar excitation is more robust in making spherical, monodispersed alginate microspheres as good microspheres for its wide working range of material properties and operating conditions, especially during the fabrication of highly viscous materials such as the 2% sodium alginate solution. For both bipolar and tripolar excitations, the sodium alginate concentration and the voltage dwell times should be carefully selected to achieve good microsphere formability.

  13. Performance evaluation of bipolar and tripolar excitations during nozzle-jetting-based alginate microsphere fabrication

    Leigh Herran, C; Huang, Yong; Chai, Wenxuan

    2012-01-01

    Microspheres, small spherical (polymeric) particles with or without second phase materials embedded or encapsulated, are important for many biomedical applications such as drug delivery and organ printing. Scale-up fabrication with the ability to precisely control the microsphere size and morphology has always been of great manufacturing interest. The objective of this work is to experimentally study the performance differences of bipolar and tripolar excitation waveforms in using drop-on-demand (DOD)-based single nozzle jetting for alginate microsphere fabrication. The fabrication performance has been evaluated based on the formability of alginate microspheres as a function of materials properties (sodium alginate and calcium chloride concentrations) and operating conditions. The operating conditions for each excitation include voltage rise/fall times, dwell times and excitation voltage amplitudes. Overall, the bipolar excitation is more robust in making spherical, monodispersed alginate microspheres as good microspheres for its wide working range of material properties and operating conditions, especially during the fabrication of highly viscous materials such as the 2% sodium alginate solution. For both bipolar and tripolar excitations, the sodium alginate concentration and the voltage dwell times should be carefully selected to achieve good microsphere formability. (paper)

  14. Production of a calcium silicate cement material from alginate impression material.

    Washizawa, Norimasa; Narusawa, Hideaki; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize biomaterials from daily dental waste. Since alginate impression material contains silica and calcium salts, we aimed to synthesize calcium silicate cement from alginate impression material. Gypsum-based investment material was also investigated as control. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that although firing the set gypsum-based and modified investment materials at 1,200°C produced calcium silicates, firing the set alginate impression material did not. However, we succeeded when firing the set blend of pre-fired set alginate impression material and gypsum at 1,200°C. SEM observations of the powder revealed that the featured porous structures of diatomite as an alginate impression material component appeared useful for synthesizing calcium silicates. Experimentally fabricated calcium silicate powder was successfully mixed with phosphoric acid solution and set by depositing the brushite. Therefore, we conclude that the production of calcium silicate cement material is possible from waste alginate impression material.

  15. Effect of alginate chemical disinfection on bacterial count over gypsum cast.

    Haralur, Satheesh B; Al-Dowah, Omir S; Gana, Naif S; Al-Hytham, Abdullah

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) and iodophor disinfectants on alginate impressions along with their effect on the survived bacterium count on the gypsum cast. Four alginate impression on each dentate patients were made, of which Group I were not washed or disinfected, Group II impressions were merely washed with water, Group III were disinfected by spraying with sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10), Group IV were disinfected with iodophor (1 : 213). Gypsum cast (type III) were made from all the impression. Impressions and gypsum cast were swabbed in mid palatal region for bacterial culture. Bacterial colony counting done after 3 days of incubation at 37℃ in blood agar media. The data obtained was analyzed by one way ANOVA test at a significant difference level of 0.05. Group I and Group II showed significantly more bacteria compared to Group III and Group IV. Bacterial colonies on the alginate impression and gypsum cast in group disinfected with Sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) were 0.18, 0.82 respectively compared to group treated with iodophor (1 : 213). There was an increase in bacterial count on dental cast compared to source alginate impressions. Sodium hypochlorite (1 : 10) was found to be better disinfectant for alginate impression. There was an indication of increase in number of bacteria from alginate impression to making of dental cast. Additional gypsum cast disinfectant procedures need to be encouraged to completely eliminate cross infection to dental laboratory.

  16. Nanohybrid hydrogels of laponite: PVA-Alginate as a potential wound healing material.

    Golafshan, Nasim; Rezahasani, R; Tarkesh Esfahani, M; Kharaziha, M; Khorasani, S N

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel nanohybrid interpenetrating network hydrogel composed of laponite:polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate (LAP:PVA-Alginate) with adjustable mechanical, physical and biological properties for wound healing application. Results demonstrated that compared to PVA-Alginate, mechanical strength of LAP:PVA-Alginate significantly enhanced (upon 2 times). Moreover, incorporation of 2wt.% laponite reduced swelling ability (3 times) and degradation ratio (1.2 times) originating from effective enhancement of crosslinking density in the nanohybrid hydrogels. Furthermore, nanohybrid hydrogels revealed admirable biocompatibility against MG63 and fibroblast cells. Noticeably, MTT assay demonstrated that fibroblast proliferation significantly enhanced on 0.5wt.% LAP:PVA-alginate compared to PVA-alginate. Moreover, hemolysis and clotting tests indicated that the nanohybrid hydrogels promoted hemostasis which could be helpful in the wound dressing. Therefore, the synergistic effects of the nanohybrid hydrogels such as superior mechanical properties, adjustable degradation rate and admirable biocompatibility and hemolysis make them a desirable candidate for wound healing process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An additive manufacturing-based PCL-alginate-chondrocyte bioprinted scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Kundu, Joydip; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-11-01

    Regenerative medicine is targeted to improve, restore or replace damaged tissues or organs using a combination of cells, materials and growth factors. Both tissue engineering and developmental biology currently deal with the process of tissue self-assembly and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. In this investigation, additive manufacturing (AM) with a multihead deposition system (MHDS) was used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) cell-printed scaffolds using layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of polycaprolactone (PCL) and chondrocyte cell-encapsulated alginate hydrogel. Appropriate cell dispensing conditions and optimum alginate concentrations for maintaining cell viability were determined. In vitro cell-based biochemical assays were performed to determine glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), DNA and total collagen contents from different PCL-alginate gel constructs. PCL-alginate gels containing transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) showed higher ECM formation. The 3D cell-printed scaffolds of PCL-alginate gel were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous spaces of female nude mice. Histochemical [Alcian blue and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining] and immunohistochemical (type II collagen) analyses of the retrieved implants after 4 weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue and type II collagen fibril formation in the PCL-alginate gel (+TGFβ) hybrid scaffold. In conclusion, we present an innovative cell-printed scaffold for cartilage regeneration fabricated by an advanced bioprinting technology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Laser-assisted printing of alginate long tubes and annular constructs

    Yan Jingyuan; Huang Yong; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2013-01-01

    Laser-assisted printing such as laser-induced forward transfer has been well studied to pattern or fabricate two-dimensional constructs. In particular, laser printing has found increasing biomedical applications as an orifice-free cell and organ printing approach, especially for highly viscous biomaterials and biological materials. Unfortunately, there have been very few studies on the efficacy of three-dimensional printing performance of laser printing. This study has investigated the feasibility of laser tube printing and the effects of sodium alginate concentration and operating conditions such as the laser fluence and laser spot size on the printing quality during laser-assisted printing of alginate annular constructs (short tubes) with a nominal diameter of 3 mm. It is found that highly viscous materials such as alginate can be printed into well-defined long tubes and annular constructs. The tube wall thickness and tube outer diameter decrease with the sodium alginate concentration, while they first increase, then decrease and finally increase again with the laser fluence. The sodium alginate concentration dominates if the laser fluence is low, and the laser fluence dominates if the sodium alginate concentration is low. (paper)

  19. In vitro fermentation of alginate and its derivatives by human gut microbiota.

    Li, Miaomiao; Li, Guangsheng; Shang, Qingsen; Chen, Xiuxia; Liu, Wei; Pi, Xiong'e; Zhu, Liying; Yin, Yeshi; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Alginate (Alg) has a long history as a food ingredient in East Asia. However, the human gut microbes responsible for the degradation of alginate and its derivatives have not been fully understood yet. Here, we report that alginate and the low molecular polymer derivatives of mannuronic acid oligosaccharides (MO) and guluronic acid oligosaccharides (GO) can be completely degraded and utilized at various rates by fecal microbiota obtained from six Chinese individuals. However, the derivative of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) was not hydrolyzed. The bacteria having a pronounced ability to degrade Alg, MO and GO were isolated from human fecal samples and were identified as Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides xylanisolvens, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Alg, MO and GO can increase the production level of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), but GO generates the highest level of SCFA. Our data suggest that alginate and its derivatives could be degraded by specific bacteria in the human gut, providing the basis for the impacts of alginate and its derivates as special food additives on human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimicrobial cerium ion-chitosan crosslinked alginate biopolymer films: A novel and potential wound dressing.

    Kaygusuz, Hakan; Torlak, Emrah; Akın-Evingür, Gülşen; Özen, İlhan; von Klitzing, Regine; Erim, F Bedia

    2017-12-01

    Wound dressings require good antiseptic properties, mechanical strength and, more trustably, natural material ingredients. Antimicrobial properties of cerium ions and chitosan are known and alginate based wound dressings are commercially available. In this study, the advantages of these materials were combined and alginate films were crosslinked with cerium(III) solution and chitosan added cerium(III) solution. Films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), light transmittance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling experiments, water vapor transmittance tests, and mechanical stretching tests. The antibacterial and physical properties of the films were compared with those of conventional calcium alginate films. Both cerium ion crosslinked and cerium ion-chitosan crosslinked alginate films gained antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Cerium alginate-chitosan films showed high resistance to being deformed elastically. Results show that cerium alginate-chitosan films can be flexible, ultraviolet-protecting, and antibacterial wound dressings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A computational modeling approach for the characterization of mechanical properties of 3D alginate tissue scaffolds.

    Nair, K; Yan, K C; Sun, W

    2008-01-01

    Scaffold guided tissue engineering is an innovative approach wherein cells are seeded onto biocompatible and biodegradable materials to form 3-dimensional (3D) constructs that, when implanted in the body facilitate the regeneration of tissue. Tissue scaffolds act as artificial extracellular matrix providing the environment conducive for tissue growth. Characterization of scaffold properties is necessary to understand better the underlying processes involved in controlling cell behavior and formation of functional tissue. We report a computational modeling approach to characterize mechanical properties of 3D gellike biomaterial, specifically, 3D alginate scaffold encapsulated with cells. Alginate inherent nonlinearity and variations arising from minute changes in its concentration and viscosity make experimental evaluation of its mechanical properties a challenging and time consuming task. We developed an in silico model to determine the stress-strain relationship of alginate based scaffolds from experimental data. In particular, we compared the Ogden hyperelastic model to other hyperelastic material models and determined that this model was the most suitable to characterize the nonlinear behavior of alginate. We further propose a mathematical model that represents the alginate material constants in Ogden model as a function of concentrations and viscosity. This study demonstrates the model capability to predict mechanical properties of 3D alginate scaffolds.

  2. Effect of alginate hydrogel containing polyproline-rich peptides on osteoblast differentiation

    Rubert, M; Monjo, M; Ramis, J M; Lyngstadaas, S P

    2012-01-01

    Polyproline-rich synthetic peptides have previously been shown to induce bone formation and mineralization in vitro and to decrease bone resorption in vivo. Alginate hydrogel formulations containing these synthetic peptides (P2, P5, P6) or Emdogain® (EMD) were tested for surface coating of bone implants. In an aqueous environment, the alginate hydrogels disclosed a highly compact structure suitable for cell adhesion and proliferation. Lack of cytotoxicity of the alginate-gel coating containing peptides was tested in MC3T3-E1 cell cultures. In the present study, relative mRNA expression levels of integrin alpha 8 were induced by P5 compared to untreated alginate gel, and osteopontin mRNA levels were increased after 21 days of culture by treatment with synthetic peptides or EMD compared to control. Further, in agreement with previous results when the synthetic peptides were administered in the culture media, osteocalcin mRNA was significantly upregulated after long-term treatment with the formulated synthetic peptides compared to untreated and EMD alginate gel. These results indicate that the alginate gel is a suitable carrier for the delivery of synthetic peptides, and that the formulation is promising as biodegradable and biocompatible coating for bone implants. (paper)

  3. Novel copper (II) alginate hydrogels and their potential for use as anti-bacterial wound dressings

    Klinkajon, Wimonwan; Supaphol, Pitt

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of a metal ion, with antimicrobial activity, into an alginate dressing is an attractive approach to minimize infection in a wound. In this work, copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels were successfully prepared using a two-step cross-linking procedure. In the first step, solid alginate films were prepared using a solvent-casting method from soft gels of alginate solutions that had been lightly cross-linked using a copper (II) (Cu 2+ ) sulfate solution. In the second step, the films were further cross-linked in a corresponding Cu 2+ sulfate solution using a dipping method to further improve their dimensional stability. Alginate solution (at 2%w/v) and Cu 2+ sulfate solution (at 2%w/v) in acetate buffer at a low pH provided soft films with excellent swelling behavior. An increase in either Cu 2+ ion concentration or cross-linking time led to hydrogels with more densely-cross-linked networks that limited water absorption. The hydrogels clearly showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes, which was proportional to the Cu 2+ ion concentration. Blood coagulation studies showed that the tested copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels had a tendency to coagulate fibrin, and possibly had an effect on pro-thrombotic coagulation and platelet activation. Conclusively, the prepared films are likely candidates as antibacterial wound dressings. (paper)

  4. Bilateral PLA/alginate membranes for the prevention of postsurgical adhesions.

    Kessler, Martina; Esser, Eva; Groll, Jürgen; Tessmar, Jörg

    2016-11-01

    A bilateral barrier membrane for the prevention of postsurgical adhesions was developed. Thereby, a smooth PLA side was supposed to keep the affected tissues glidingly separated, while a mucoadhesive side made of alginate was meant to keep the barrier resident on the site of injury so that suturing becomes redundant or at least the membrane stays long enough to facilitate surgical handling. Because hydrophilic alginate and lipophilic PLA films show only low cohesion, solution electrospun meshes of PLA and PLA-PEG-PLA triblock copolymers with varying poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG] content were investigated as cohesion promoter to avoid an easy separation of the functionally different layers. Using direct electrospinning onto the PLA film, a modified contact surface of the mesh was created, which allowed the tested alginate solutions (3%, 5%) to infiltrate to different extents. Thereby, an increasing content of hydrophilic PEG within the mesh copolymer and a lower alginate concentration facilitated the infiltration. As a result, the PLA film with a PLA35k-PEG10k-PLA35k (racemic PLA chains) mesh and an alginate layer cast from a 3% alginate solution appeared to be the most effective combination as examined by means of a t peel test, a mucoadhesion test, a tensile test and optical evaluations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1563-1570, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of gene expression and alginate production in response to oxygen transfer in continuous culture of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Alvaro Díaz-Barrera

    Full Text Available Alginates are polysaccharides used as food additives and encapsulation agents in biotechnology, and their functional properties depend on its molecular weight. In this study, different steady-states in continuous cultures of A. vinelandii were established to determine the effect of the dilution rate (D and the agitation rate on alginate production and expression of genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. Both, the agitation and dilution rates, determined the partitioning of the carbon utilization from sucrose into alginate and CO2 under oxygen-limiting conditions. A low D (0.07 h(-1 and 500 rpm resulted in the highest carbon utilization into alginate (25%. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the transcription level of six genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. In chemostat cultures at 0.07 h(-1, the gene expression was affected by changes in the agitation rate. By increasing the agitation rate from 400 to 600 rpm, the algE7 gene expression decreased tenfold, whereas alyA1, algL and alyA2 gene expression increased between 1.5 and 2.8 times under similar conditions evaluated. Chemostat at 0.07 h(-1 showed a highest alginate molecular weight (580 kDa at 500 rpm whereas similar molecular weights (480 kDa were obtained at 400 and 600 rpm. The highest molecular weight was not explained by changes in the expression of alg8 and alg44 (genes involved in alginate polymerization. Nonetheless, a different expression pattern observed for lyases could explain the highest alginate molecular weight obtained. Overall, the results suggest that the control of alginate molecular weight in A. vinelandii cells growing in continuous mode is determined by a balance between the gene expression of intracellular and extracellular lyases in response to oxygen availability. These findings better our understanding of the biosynthesis of bacterial alginate and help us progress toward obtain

  6. One-step purification and characterization of alginate lyase from a clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa with destructive activity on bacterial biofilm

    Parinaz Ghadam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pseudomonas aeruginosais a Gram-negative and aerobic rod bacterium that displays mucoid and non-mucoid phenotype. Mucoid strains secrete alginate, which is the main agent of biofilms in chronic P. aeruginosa infections, show high resistance to antibiotics; consequently, the biological disruption of mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms is an attractive area of study for researchers. Alginate lyase gene (algl is a member of alginate producing operon which by glycosidase activity produces primer for other enzymes in this cluster. Also this activity can destroy the extracellular alginate; therefore this enzyme participates in alginate production and destruction pathway. Alginate lyase causes detachment of a biofilm by reducing its adhesion to the surfaces, and increases phagocytosis and antibiotic susceptibility. In this study, alginate lyase was purified in just one step and its properties were investigated. Materials and Methods: The purification was done by affinity chromatography, analysed by SDS-PAGE, and its effect on P. aeruginosa biofilms was surveyed by micro titer plate assay and SEM. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was determined by PCR. Results: Alginate lyase from isolate 48 was purified in one step. It is more thermally resistant than alginate lyase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and poly M, poly G and poly MG alginate were the substrate of this enzyme. Moreover, it has an eradication effect on biofilms from P. aeruginosa 48 and PAO1. Conclusion: In this study an alginate lyase with many characteristics suitable in medicine such as thermal stability, effective on poly M alginate, and bacterial biofilm destructive was introduced and purified.

  7. Effect of Storage Time of Extended-Pour and Conventional Alginate Impressions on Dimensional Accuracy of Casts

    Rohanian, Ahmad; Ommati Shabestari, Ghasem; Zeighami, Somayeh; Samadi, Mohammad Javad; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Some manufacturers claim to have produced new irreversible hydro-colloids that are able to maintain their dimensional stability during storage. The present study evaluated the effect of storage time on dimensional stability of three alginates: Hydrogum 5, Tropicalgin and Alginoplast. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in-vitro trial, a total of 90 alginate impressions were made from a Dentoform model using Hydrogum 5, Tropicalgin and Alginoplast alginates. The impressions...

  8. Novel coating compositions

    Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    An acrylic coating composition rapidly hardenable by irradiating with ionizing radiations or light beams is given using hydroxyl group-containing vinyl monomers, polycarboxylic acid anhydrides, epoxy group-containing vinyl monomers and an organic solvent having a boiling point of at least 120 0 C. The process comprises the steps of first and second reactions. The first reaction takes place between one mol of a hydroxyl group of a basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of polycarboxylic acid anhydride, wherein the basic polymer has a molecular weight ranging from 5,000 to 100,000 and consists of 1-40% by weight of vinyl monomer containing hydroxyl group, at least 30% of (meth)acrylic monomer and other vinyl monomers if required. The second reaction takes place between one mol of hydroxyl plus a carboxyl group of the thus obtained basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy group-containing vinyl monomer to produce a prepolymer. The prepolymer is mixed with a solvent such as ethyl benzene to produce the coating material. The electron beam accelerator energy level may be 0.1-2.0 MeV. In light beam polymerization, benzoin is particularly utilized as an intensifying substance. In one example, a basic polymer is produced by reacting 39 parts of styrene, 37 parts of ethyl acrylate, 24 parts of 2-hydroxyl ethyl acrylate, 4 parts of dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate and others. A prepolymer is produced by reacting this basic polymer with 30 parts of glycidyl acrylate and others. (Iwakiri, K.)

  9. Vegetable oil-derived epoxy monomers and polymer blends: A comparative study with review

    T. P. Schuman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS and linseed oil (EGL have been synthesized to have higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than epoxidized soybean oil (ESO or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO. The EGS and ESO, for comparison, were used neat and in blends with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA. Thermosetting resins were fabricated with the epoxy monomers and either BF3 catalyst or anhydride. The curing behaviors, glass transition temperatures, crosslink densities and mechanical properties were tested. The results indicated that polymer glass transition temperatures were mostly a function of oxirane content with additional influence of glycidyl versus internal oxirane reactivity, pendant chain content, and chemical structure and presence of saturated components. EGS provided better compatibility with DGEBA, improved intermolecular crosslinking and glass transition temperature, and yielded mechanically stronger polymerized materials than materials obtained using ESO. Other benefits of the EGS resin blend systems were significantly reduced viscosities compared to either DGEBA or ESO-blended DGEBA counterparts. Therefore, EGS that is derived from renewable sources has improved potential for fabrication of structural and structurally complex epoxy composites, e.g., by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding.

  10. Effect of residual monomer from polyacrylamide on head lettuce grown in peat substrate.

    Mroczek, Ewelina; Kleiber, Tomasz; Konieczny, Piotr; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the migration of the acrylamide monomer (AMD) to lettuce chosen as a test plant growing in an organic medium (peat substrate). Polyacrylamide (PAM)-based flocculant added to the growing medium contained no more than 1000 mg kg(-1) of AMD. Plants were grown with varied doses of PAM preparation (0.5-3.0 mg dm(-3) of peat substrate) to compare the results with the control sample. The determination of AMD content, chlorophyll content, weight of the lettuce head, and also analysis of macro- and micro-elements in lyophilised test material was made under the same analytical conditions. The results showed that lettuce plants absorb AMD to the leaves from the peat substrate. The AMD uptake has a negative impact on the growth of lettuce. It reduces the average fresh weight of heads and destabilises the mineral composition of the plant. Therefore, concern related to the transfer risk of the residual AMD from sludge used for organic fertilisation of edible plants still remains a crucial question from a food and consumer safety point of view. To ensure consumer safety, the fate of the AMD following the application of PAM to cropland should be carefully monitored in the whole food chain.

  11. Properties of PHA bi-, ter-, and quarter-polymers containing 4-hydroxybutyrate monomer units.

    Zhila, Natalia; Shishatskaya, Ekaterina

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigates physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers containing 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) synthesized in Cupriavidus eutrophus B10646 culture. In poly(3-hydroxybutyrate/4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB/4HB)] bipolymers, 4HB varied between 10.4 and 75.0 mol%; in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate/3-hydroxyvalerate/4-hydroxybutyrate) terpolymers, 4HB constituted 28.7-55.6 mol%; and in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate/3-hydroxyvalerate/4-hydroxybutyrate/3-hydroxyhexanoate) quaterpolymers, 4HB varied between 9.3 and 13.3 mol%. The degree of crystallinity of P(3HB/4HB) copolymers decreased consistently with an increase in 4HB content, reaching 38%. The incorporation of 3-hydroxyvalerate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate into copolymers enhanced that effect. The effect of 4HB monomer units on temperature properties of copolymers was exhibited as lowering of the melting temperature and crystallization temperature, which improved the processing-related properties of the copolymers. All copolymers containing 4HB showed enhanced elongation at break compared to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). Polymer films prepared from PHAs with different chemical composition had similar microstructure and porosity and had no toxic effect on mouse fibroblast NIH 3 T3 cells, proving their high biocompatibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Response of ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) to simulant Hanford tank waste

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    2000-02-01

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the author performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. The author has determined that EPDM rubber has excellent resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that EPDM is an excellent seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.

  13. Catalytically important amino-acid residues of abalone alginate lyase HdAly assessed by site-directed mutagenesis

    Yamamoto, Sayo; Sahara, Takehiko; Sato, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Kosei; Ohgiya, Satoru; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Alginate lyase is an enzyme that degrades alginate chains via β-elimination and has been used for the production of alginate oligosaccharides and protoplasts from brown algae. Previously, we deduced the amino-acid sequence of an abalone alginate lyase, HdAly, from its cDNA sequence and, through multiple amino-acid sequence alignment, found that several basic amino-acid residues were highly conserved among the polysaccharide-lyase family 14 (PL-14) enzymes including HdAly. In the present study...

  14. Preparation and application of agar/alginate/collagen ternary blend functional food packaging films.

    Wang, Long-Feng; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-09-01

    Ternary blend agar/alginate/collagen (A/A/C) hydrogel films with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and grapefruit seed extract (GSE) were prepared. Their performance properties, transparency, tensile strength (TS), water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water swelling ratio (SR), water solubility (WS), and antimicrobial activity were determined. The A/A/C film was highly transparent, and both AgNPs and GSE incorporated blend films (A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE)) exhibited UV-screening effect, especially, the A/A/C(GSE) film had high UV-screening effect without sacrificing the transmittance. In addition, the A/A/C blend films formed efficient hydrogel film with the water holding capacity of 23.6 times of their weight. Both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The test results of fresh potatoes packaging revealed that all the A/A/C ternary blend films prevented forming of condensed water on the packaged film surface, both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films prevented greening of potatoes during storage. The results indicate that the ternary blend hydrogel films incorporated with AgNPs or GSE can be used not only as antifogging packaging films for highly respiring fresh agriculture produce, but also as an active food packaging system utilizing their strong antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide loaded sodium alginate micro-particles prepared via electrospraying in controlled deposition environments.

    Yao, Zhi-Cheng; Jin, Li-Jie; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Huang, Jie; Chang, Ming-Wei; Li, Jing-Song

    2017-05-30

    Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP) is a functional food source deployed in preventative medicine. However, applications utilizing GLP are limited due to oxidative and acidic environmental damage. Advances in preserving GLP structure (and therefore function), in situ, will diversify their applications within biomedical fields (drug and antibacterial active delivery via the enteral route). In this study, GLP loaded sodium alginate (NaAlg) micro-particles (size range 225-355μm) were generated using the electrospray (ES) process. The loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of GLP for composite particles (collected at different temperatures) were ∼23% and 71%, respectively. The collection substrate (CaCl 2 , 1-20w/v%) concentration was explored and preliminary findings indicated a 10w/v% solution to be optimal. The process was further modified by manipulating the collection environment temperature (∼25 to 50°C). Based on this, NaAlg/GLP micro-particles were engineered with variable surface morphologies (porous and crinkled), without effecting the chemical composition of either material (GLP and NaAlg). In-vitro release studies demonstrated pH responsive release rates. Modest release of GLP from micro-particles in simulated gastric fluid (pH ∼1.7) was observed, while rapid release was exhibited under simulated intestinal conditions (pH ∼7.4). Release of GLP from NaAlg beads was the greatest from samples prepared at elevated environmental temperatures. These findings demonstrate a facile route to fabricate GLP-NaAlg loaded micro-particles with various shapes, surface topographies and release characteristics via a one-step ES process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Production and in vitro evaluation of macroporous, cell-encapsulating alginate fibres for nerve repair

    Lin, Sharon Chien-Yu, E-mail: sharonlin114@gmail.com [The University of Queensland, Pharmacy Australia Centre of Excellence, 20 Cornwall Street, Woolloongabba, Brisbane QLD 4102 (Australia); Wang, Yiwei, E-mail: yiweiwang@anzac.edu.au [The University of Queensland, Pharmacy Australia Centre of Excellence, 20 Cornwall Street, Woolloongabba, Brisbane QLD 4102 (Australia); Wertheim, David F., E-mail: d.wertheim@kingston.ac.uk [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT1 2EE (United Kingdom); Coombes, Allan G.A., E-mail: allancoombes@pharmacy.psu.ac.th [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand)

    2017-04-01

    The prospects for successful peripheral nerve repair using fibre guides are considered to be enhanced by the use of a scaffold material, which promotes attachment and proliferation of glial cells and axonal regeneration. Macroporous alginate fibres were produced by extraction of gelatin particle porogens from wet spun fibres produced using a suspension of gelatin particles in 1.5% w/v alginate solution. Gelatin loading of the starting suspension of 40.0, 57.0, and 62.5% w/w resulted in gelatin loading of the dried alginate fibres of 16, 21, and 24% w/w respectively. Between 45 and 60% of the gelatin content of hydrated fibres was released in 1 h in distilled water at 37 °C, leading to rapid formation of a macroporous structure. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and image processing provided qualitative and quantitative analysis of mean equivalent macropore diameter (48–69 μm), pore size distribution, estimates of maximum porosity (14.6%) and pore connectivity. CLSM also revealed that gelatin residues lined the macropore cavities and infiltrated into the body of the alginate scaffolds, thus, providing cell adhesion molecules, which are potentially advantageous for promoting growth of glial cells and axonal extension. Macroporous alginate fibres encapsulating nerve cells [primary rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs)] were produced by wet spinning alginate solution containing dispersed gelatin particles and DRGs. Marked outgrowth was evident over a distance of 150 μm at day 11 in cell culture, indicating that pores and channels created within the alginate hydrogel were providing a favourable environment for neurite development. These findings indicate that macroporous alginate fibres encapsulating nerve cells may provide the basis of a useful strategy for nerve repair. - Highlights: • Nerve cells were encapsulated in macroporous alginate fibres for use in nerve repair. • Fibres were produced from alginate solution containing gelatin porogens and cells.

  17. Investigation on physical behavior of styrene wood-polymer in different concentrations of monomer

    maryam ghorbani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the effect of different concentrations of styrene lumen monomer on the physical properties of beech wood. Physical test samples were prepared according to ASTM-D1037 standard and treated with vacuum-pressure method at five concentration levels; 0, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent of soluble monomer. For polymerization, treated samples were heated in oven for two 24-hour period at 90 and 103ºC respectively. Monomer and polymer absorption, density variation, water absorption, swelling and anti-swelling efficiency (ASE were determined. According to the results, Monomer and polymer absorption were increment by monomer concentration increase, and they were reported 38.2% and 26% in highest level. With polymer absorption enhancement, density of wood increased from 0/63g/cm³ in control to 0/91g/cm³ in the highest monomer concentration level that reduces pores in wood-polymer structure. Absorbed polymer enhancement decreased hydrophilicity and dimensional changes of treated samples, so that water absorption and swelling volume of the samples saturated with 100% concentration of monomer were decreased 64% and 45.3% after the longest immersion time. Highest Anti-swelling efficiency of Styrene-saturated samples was determined 56.15% in the maximum concentration level of treatment.

  18. A comparative evaluation of effect of modern-curing lights and curing modes on conventional and novel-resin monomers

    Roy, Konda Karthik; Kumar, Kanumuru Pavan; John, Gijo; Sooraparaju, Sujatha Gopal; Nujella, Surya Kumari; Sowmya, Kyatham

    2018-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare and to evaluate effect of curing light and curing modes on the nanohybrid composite resins with conventional Bis-GMA and novel tricyclodecane (TCD) monomers. Methodology: Two nanohybrid composites, IPS empress direct and charisma diamond were used in this study. Light-emitting diode (LED)-curing unit and quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH)-curing unit which were operated into two different modes: continuous and soft start. Based on the composite resin, curing lights, and mode of curing used, the samples were divided into 8 groups. After polymerization, the samples were stored for 48 h in complete darkness at 37°C and 100% humidity. The Vickers hardness (VK) of the surface was determined with Vickers indenter by the application of 200 g for 15 s. Three VK readings were recorded for each sample surface both on top and bottom surfaces. For all the specimens, the three hardness values for each surface were averaged and reported as a single value. The mean VK and hardness ratio were calculated. The depth of cure was assessed based on the hardness ratio. Results: Comparison of mean hardness values and hardness ratios was done using ANOVA with post hoc Tukey's test. Conclusion: Both QTH- and LED-curing units had shown the adequate depth of cure. Soft-start-curing mode in both QTH- and LED-curing lights had effectively increased microhardness than the continuous mode of curing. TCD monomer had shown higher hardness values compared with conventional Bis-GMA-containing resin. PMID:29628651

  19. Novel biocompatible hydrogel nanoparticles: generation and size-tuning of nanoparticles by the formation of micelle templates obtained from thermo-responsive monomers mixtures

    Khandadash, Raz; Machtey, Victoria [Bar Ilan University, Department of Chemistry (Israel); Shainer, Inbal [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Neurobiology, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences (Israel); Gottlieb, Hugo E. [Bar Ilan University, Department of Chemistry (Israel); Gothilf, Yoav [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Neurobiology, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, and Sagol School of Neuroscience (Israel); Ebenstein, Yuval [Tel Aviv University, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Chemistry (Israel); Weiss, Aryeh [Bar Ilan University, School of Engineering (Israel); Byk, Gerardo, E-mail: gerardo.byk@biu.ac.il [Bar Ilan University, Department of Chemistry (Israel)

    2014-12-15

    Biocompatible hydrogel nanoparticles are prepared by polymerization and cross-linking of N-isopropyl acrylamide in a micelle template formed by block copolymers macro-monomers at high temperature. Different monomer ratios form, at high temperature, well-defined micelles of different sizes which are further polymerized leading to nanoparticles with varied sizes from 20 to 390 nm. Physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles demonstrates their composition and homogeneity. The NPs were tested in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility assays, and their lack of toxicity was proven. The NPs can be labeled with fluorescent probes, and their intracellular fate can be visualized and quantified using confocal microscopy. Their uptake by live stem cells and distribution in whole developing animals is reported. On the basis of our results, a mechanism of nanoparticle formation is suggested. The lack of toxicity makes these nanoparticles especially attractive for biological applications such as screening and bio-sensing.

  20. Vogel-Fulcher dependence of relaxation rates in a nematic monomer and elastomer

    Shenoy, D.; Filippov, S.; Aliev, F.; Keller, P.; Thomsen, D.; Ratna, B.

    2000-12-01

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy is used to study the relaxation processes in a nematic monomer and the corresponding cross-linked polymer nematic liquid crystal (elastomer). In the frequency window 10 mHz to 2 GHz the monomer liquid crystal shows a single relaxation whereas the polymer exhibits three relaxation processes, two of which are quantitatively analyzed. The temperature dependence of relaxation times in both the monomer and polymer follows a Vogel-Fulcher behavior. The relaxation processes are identified with specific molecular motions and activation energies are calculated in a linear approximation for comparison with literature data.