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Sample records for alginate gel polymer

  1. Two kinds of ketoprofen enteric gel beads (CA and CS-SA using biopolymer alginate

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    Bingchao Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain expected rapid-release and sustained-release of ketoprofen gel beads, this paper adopted biopolymer alginate to prepare alginate beads and chitosan-alginate gel beads. Formulation factors were investigated and optimized by the single factor test. The release of ketoprofen from calcium alginate gel beads in pH 1.0 hydrochloric acid solution was less than 10% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 95% during 45 min, which met the requirements of rapid-release preparations. However, the drug release of chitosan-alginate gel beads in pH1.0 was less than 5% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 50% during 6 h and reached more than 95% during 12 h, which had a good sustained-release behavior. In addition, the release kinetics of keteprofen from the calcium alginate gel beads fitted well with the Korsmeyer–Peppas model and followed a case-II transport mechanism. However, the release of keteprofen from the chitosan-alginate gel beads exhibited a non-Fickian mechanism and based on the mixed mechanisms of diffusion and polymer relaxation from chitosan-alginate beads. In a word, alginate gel beads of ketoprofen were instant analgesic, while chitosan-alginate gel beads could control the release of ketoprofen during gastro-intestinal tract and prolong the drug's action time. Keywords: Gel beads, Enteric rapid-release, Enteric sustained-release, Ketoprofen

  2. γ radiation induced changes in the bioadhesion properties of Ca-alginate gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popeski-Dimovski, Riste

    2009-01-01

    The need for controlled release of drugs and their administration in specific zone of the organism asks for developing of carriers of drugs who will do the job. The two greatest needs, controlled release, and attention on the site, organ, of the organism that's treated its bioadhesion is best done with polymer gels. From the many choices of polymer gels, ether synthetic or natural the Na-alginate gels are the best suited because of their easy of access and good controlled release as being nontoxic to the living organisms and showing promising bioadhesion capability. Because of that examining the possibility for modification of the bioadhesion properties with gamma radiation is of interest. In this work Ca-alginate gels are irradiated with different absorbed doses to see if there will be any changes of the bioadhesion properties. For this mechanical compressibility tests and bioadhesion pull test are conducted on the irradiated samples. The results show that under irradiation gels louse their structural integrity becoming softer but the bioadhesive properties increase. But this increase is very small of up to 20% and its of no interest in practical circumstances where the practice is interested in changes of at least 100% and up, so changing the doses and properties of the gels to increase the bioadhesive properties might be of further interest. (Author)

  3. In vitro evaluation of calcium alginate gels as matrix for iontophoresis electrodes.

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    Haida, Haruka; Ando, Shizuka; Ogami, Saori; Wakita, Ryo; Kohase, Hikaru; Saito, Norio; Yoshioka, Tomohiko; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo; Umino, Masahiro; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2012-03-13

    Calcium alginate gel has some unique properties, such as the capability to keep the drugs, bioadhesiveness, safety, and low cost. The purpose of this study is to determine whether calcium alginate gel can be used as a matrix of electrodes for iontophoresis (IOP). We measured the concentration of lidocaine transported from calcium alginate gels with various concentrations of alginic acid using an in vitro experimental cell with square-wave alternating current (AC) application. Temperature and pH changes were also determined during AC-IOP. The results revealed that lidocaine was released from calcium alginate gels at concentrations nearly 1.71-fold larger at 5 V, 60 min after AC application than in the case of passive diffusion. Lidocaine transport depended on the alginic acid concentration in the gels. Although there were slight increases in temperature and pH, chemical and thermal burns were not severe enough to be a concern. In conclusion, the calcium alginate gel can be used as a possible matrix for IOP electrodes.

  4. Drying and Rehydration of Calcium Alginate Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, R.; Li, L.; Fang, Y.; Appelqvist, I.; Mendes, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the rehydration properties of air-dried calcium alginate gel beads. Rehydration is shown to depend on alginate source (i.e. mannuronic to guluronic acid ratio) and the salt concentration in the rehydration medium. Rehydration curves are described adequately by the empirical

  5. Mussel-inspired alginate gel promoting the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and anti-infection

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    Zhang, Shiwen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Department of Biochemistry & Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Manitoba Institute of Child Health, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Children Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Xu, Kaige; Darabi, Mohammad Ali [Children Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); Yuan, Quan [Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Xing, Malcolm [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Department of Biochemistry & Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Manitoba Institute of Child Health, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    Alginate hydrogels have been used in cell encapsulation for many years but a prevalent issue with pure alginates is that they are unable to provide enough bioactive properties to interact with mammalian cells. This paper discusses the modification of alginate with mussel-inspired dopamine for cell loading and anti-infection. Mouse bone marrow stem cells were immobilized into alginate and alginate-dopamine beads and fibers. Through live-dead and MTT assay, alginates modified by dopamine promoted cell viability and proliferation. In vitro cell differentiation results showed that such an alginate-dopamine gel can promote the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell after PCR and ALP assays. In addition to that, the adhesive prosperities of dopamine allowed for coating the surface of alginate-dopamine gel with silver nanoparticles, which provided the gel with significant antibacterial characteristics. Overall, these results demonstrate that a dopamine-modified alginate gel can be a great tool for cell encapsulation to promote cell proliferation and can be applied to bone regeneration, especially in contaminated bone defects. - Highlights: • Dopamine modified alginate bead and fiber promote cell viability and proliferation. • Alginate-dopamine gel promotes osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. • Dopamine reduced nanosilver for anti-infection. • Alginate-dopamine bead and fiber for delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)

  6. Mussel-inspired alginate gel promoting the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and anti-infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shiwen; Xu, Kaige; Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Yuan, Quan; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Alginate hydrogels have been used in cell encapsulation for many years but a prevalent issue with pure alginates is that they are unable to provide enough bioactive properties to interact with mammalian cells. This paper discusses the modification of alginate with mussel-inspired dopamine for cell loading and anti-infection. Mouse bone marrow stem cells were immobilized into alginate and alginate-dopamine beads and fibers. Through live-dead and MTT assay, alginates modified by dopamine promoted cell viability and proliferation. In vitro cell differentiation results showed that such an alginate-dopamine gel can promote the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell after PCR and ALP assays. In addition to that, the adhesive prosperities of dopamine allowed for coating the surface of alginate-dopamine gel with silver nanoparticles, which provided the gel with significant antibacterial characteristics. Overall, these results demonstrate that a dopamine-modified alginate gel can be a great tool for cell encapsulation to promote cell proliferation and can be applied to bone regeneration, especially in contaminated bone defects. - Highlights: • Dopamine modified alginate bead and fiber promote cell viability and proliferation. • Alginate-dopamine gel promotes osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. • Dopamine reduced nanosilver for anti-infection. • Alginate-dopamine bead and fiber for delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)

  7. Kefiran-alginate gel microspheres for oral delivery of ciprofloxacin.

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    Blandón, Lina M; Islan, German A; Castro, Guillermo R; Noseda, Miguel D; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2016-09-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic associated with gastric and intestinal side effects after extended oral administration. Alginate is a biopolymer commonly employed in gel synthesis by ionotropic gelation, but unstable in the presence of biological metal-chelating compounds and/or under dried conditions. Kefiran is a microbial biopolymer able to form gels with the advantage of displaying antimicrobial activity. In the present study, kefiran-alginate gel microspheres were developed to encapsulate ciprofloxacin for antimicrobial controlled release and enhanced bactericidal effect against common pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the hybrid gel microspheres showed a spherical structure with a smoother surface compared to alginate gel matrices. In vitro release of ciprofloxacin from kefiran-alginate microspheres was less than 3.0% and 5.0% at pH 1.2 (stomach), and 5.0% and 25.0% at pH 7.4 (intestine) in 3 and 21h, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of ciprofloxacin-kefiran showed the displacement of typical bands of ciprofloxacin and kefiran, suggesting a cooperative interaction by hydrogen bridges between both molecules. Additionally, the thermal analysis of ciprofloxacin-kefiran showed a protective effect of the biopolymer against ciprofloxacin degradation at high temperatures. Finally, antimicrobial assays of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhymurium, and Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated the synergic effect between ciprofloxacin and kefiran against the tested microorganisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Alginate Demonstration: Polymers, Food Science, and Ion Exchange

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    Waldman, Amy Sue; Schechinger, Linda; Govindarajoo, Geeta; Nowick, James S.; Pignolet, Louis H.

    1998-11-01

    We have recently devised a polymer demonstration involving the crosslinking and decrosslinking of alginate, a polysaccharide isolated from seaweed. The polymer is composed of D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid subunits and is a component of cell walls. It is commonly used as a thickener in foods such as ice cream and fruit-filled snacks. For the demonstration, a 2% solution of sodium alginate is poured into a 1% solution of calcium chloride. Nontoxic calcium alginate "worms" form due to crosslinking of the polymer. Alternatively, the commercially available antacid Gaviscon can be used as a source of sodium alginate. The crosslinks can then be broken by shaking the worms in brine. The demonstration is a fine addition to any chemical educator's repertoire of polymer experiments.

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Alginate Adhesion Barrier Gel in Compromised Intestinal Anastomosis.

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    Chaturvedi, Ankit A; Yauw, Simon T K; Lomme, Roger M L M; Hendriks, Thijs; van Goor, Harry

    For any anti-adhesive barrier developed for abdominal surgery, the use under conditions in which anastomotic healing is compromised needs to be investigated. The current study evaluates the effect of a new ultrapure alginate gel on early healing of high-risk anastomoses in the ileum and compares this with the gold standard used in clinical practice. In 75 adult male Wistar rats, a 5 mm ileal segment was resected and continuity was restored by construction of an inverted anastomosis. Rats were divided randomly into a control group and groups receiving either alginate gel or a sodium hyaluronate carboxymethylcellulose (HA/CMC) film around the anastomosis (n = 25 each). Carprofen, given in a daily dose of 1.25 mg/kg, was used to compromise anastomotic healing. At day three, animals were killed and scored for signs of anastomotic leakage and the presence of adhesions. The incidence of adhesion formation was 95% in the HA/CMC film group, which was significantly higher than in the controls (64%, p = 0.010) and the alginate gel group (52%, p = 0.004). The adhesion score was nearly 40% lower in the alginate gel group compared with the HA/CMC film group. The incidence of ileal leakage in the HA/CMC film group (92%) was significantly higher than in the controls (68%, p = 0.016). Leakage rate did not differ between the alginate gel and control groups. There was no significant difference between groups in either incision bursting pressure or incision breaking strength. Ultrapure alginate gel does not interfere with repair of ileal anastomoses constructed under conditions in which chances of anastomotic dehiscence are high. The alginate gel performs better than the HA/CMC film.

  10. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M.; Sanromán, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. ► New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. ► Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2–8). Around 98–100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87–98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  11. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain); Sanroman, M.A., E-mail: sanroman@uvigo.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2-8). Around 98-100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87-98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  12. Review: peripheral nerve regeneration using non-tubular alginate gel crosslinked with covalent bonds.

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    Hashimoto, Tadashi; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Kyoko; Nakashima, Toshihide; Tanihara, Masao; Ide, Chizuka

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a nerve regeneration material consisting of alginate gel crosslinked with covalent bonds. in the first part of this study, we attempted to analyze nerve regeneration through alginate gel in the early stages within 2 weeks. in the second part, we tried to regenerate cat peripheral nerve by using alginate tubular or non-tubular nerve regeneration devices, and compared their efficacies. Four days after surgery, regenerating axons grew without Schwann cell investment through the partially degraded alginate gel, being in direct contact with the alginate without a basal lamina covering. One to 2 weeks after surgery, regenerating axons were surrounded by common Schwann cells, forming small bundles, with some axons at the periphery being partly in direct contact with alginate. At the distal stump, numerous Schwann cells had migrated into the alginate 8-14 days after surgery. Remarkable restorations of the 50-mm gap in cat sciatic nerve were obtained after a long term by using tubular or non-tubular nerve regeneration material consisting mainly of alginate gel. However, there was no significant difference between both groups at electrophysiological and morphological evaluation. Although, nowadays, nerve regeneration materials being marketed mostly have a tubular structure, our results suggest that the tubular structure is not indispensable for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  13. Drug Release Profile from Calcium-Induced Alginate-Phosphate Composite Gel Beads

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    Yoshifumi Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-induced alginate-phosphate composite gel beads were prepared, and model drug release profiles were investigated in vitro. The formation of calcium phosphate in the alginate gel matrix was observed and did not affect the rheological properties of the hydrogel beads. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the calcium phosphate does not exist in crystalline form in the matrix. The initial release amount and release rate of a water-soluble drug, diclofenac, from the alginate gel beads could be controlled by modifying the composition of the matrix with calcium phosphate. In contrast, the release profile was not affected by the modification for hydrocortisone, a drug only slightly soluble in water.

  14. Outstanding features of alginate-based gel electrolyte with ionic liquid for electric double layer capacitors

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    Soeda, Kazunari; Yamagata, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masashi

    2015-04-01

    An alginate-based gel electrolyte with an ionic liquid (Alg/IL) is investigated for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) by using physicochemical and electrochemical measurements. The Alg/EMImBF4 (EMImBF4 = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) gel electrolyte is thermally stable up to 280 °C, where EMImBF4 decomposes. Furthermore, the EDLC with the gel electrolyte can be operated even at high temperature. The cell containing Alg/EMImBF4 is also electrochemically stable even under high voltage (∼3.5 V) operation. Thus, the alginate is a suitable host polymer for the gel electrolyte for EDLCs. According to the result of charge-discharge characteristics, the voltage drop in the charge-discharge curve for the cell with Alg/EMImBF4 gel electrolyte is considerably smaller than that with liquid-phase EMImBF4 electrolyte. To clarify the effect of Alg in contact with the activated carbon electrode, we also prepared an Alg-containing ACFC electrode (Alg + ACFC), and evaluated its EDLC characteristics in liquid EMImBF4. The results prove that the presence of Alg close to the active materials significantly reduces the internal resistance of the EDLC cell, which may be attributed to the high affinity of Alg to activated carbon.

  15. Hyper alginate gel microbead formation by molecular diffusion at the hydrogel/droplet interface.

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    Hirama, Hirotada; Kambe, Taisuke; Aketagawa, Kyouhei; Ota, Taku; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Torii, Toru

    2013-01-15

    We report a simple method for forming monodispersed, uniformly shaped gel microbeads with precisely controlled sizes. The basis of our method is the placement of monodispersed sodium alginate droplets, formed by a microfluidic device, on an agarose slab gel containing a high-osmotic-pressure gelation agent (CaCl(2) aq.): (1) the droplets are cross-linked (gelated) due to the diffusion of the gelation agent from the agarose slab gel to the sodium alginate droplets and (2) the droplets simultaneously shrink to a fraction of their original size (slab gel. We verified the mass transfer mechanism between the droplet and the agarose slab gel. This method circumvents the limitations of gel microbead formation, such as the need to prepare microchannels of various sizes, microchannel clogging, and the deformation of the produced gel microbeads.

  16. Reduction of Pulmonary Air Leaks with a Combination of Polyglycolic Acid Sheet and Alginate Gel in Rats

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    Mari Matoba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative air leaks remain a major cause of morbidity after lung resection. This study evaluated the effect of a combination of polyglycolic acid (PGA sheet and alginate gel on pulmonary air leaks in rats. Four pulmonary sealing materials were evaluated in lung injury: fibrin glue, combination of PGA sheet and fibrin glue, alginate gel, and combination of PGA sheet and alginate gel. With the airway pressure maintained at 20 cmH2O, a 2 mm deep puncture wound was created on the lung surface using a needle. Lowering the airway pressure to 5 cmH2O, each sealing material was applied. The lowest airway pressure that broke the seal was measured. The seal-breaking pressure in each experimental group was fibrin, 10.4±6.8 cmH2O; PGA + fibrin, 13.5±6.5 cmH2O; alginate gel, 10.3±4.9 cmH2O; and PGA + alginate, 35.8±11.9 cmH2O, respectively. The seal-breaking pressure was significantly greater in the PGA + alginate gel group than in the other groups (p<0.01. There were no significant differences among the other three groups. Alginate gel combined with a PGA sheet is a promising alternative to fibrin glue as a safe and low-cost material for air leak prevention in pulmonary surgery.

  17. Large strain deformation behavior of polymeric gels in shear- and cavitation rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemnejad, Seyed Meysam; Kundu, Santanu

    Polymeric gels are used in many applications including in biomedical and in food industries. Investigation of mechanical responses of swollen polymer gels and linking that to the polymer chain dynamics are of significant interest. Here, large strain deformation behavior of two different gel systems and with different network architecture will be presented. We consider biologically relevant polysaccharide hydrogels, formed through ionic and covalent crosslinking, and physically associating triblock copolymer gels in a midblock selective solvent. Gels with similar low-strain shear modulus display distinctly different non-linear rheological behavior in large strain shear deformation. Both these gels display strain-stiffening behavior in shear-deformation prior to macroscopic fracture of the network, however, only the alginate gels display negative normal stress. The cavitation rheology data show that the critical pressure for cavitation is higher for alginate gels than that observed for triblock gels. These distinctly different large-strain deformation behavior has been related to the gel network structure, as alginate chains are much stiffer than the triblock polymer chains.

  18. Alginate-polyvinyl alcohol based interpenetrating polymer network for prolonged drug therapy, Optimization and in-vitro characterization.

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    Anwar, Hina; Ahmad, Mahmood; Minhas, Muhammad Usman; Rehmani, Sahrish

    2017-06-15

    A new natural and synthetic polymeric blend to form interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels was synthesized utilizing sodium alginate and PVA as polymers by free radical polymerization employing 2-Acylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid as monomer (AMPS) and tramadol HCl as model drug through 3 2 level full factorial design to evaluate the impact of selected independent factors i.e. polymer (sodium alginate) and monomer (AMPS) contents on swelling index at 18th hour, percent drug release at 18th hour, time required for 80% drug release and drug entrapment efficiency as dependent variables. FTIR, SEM, sol-gel analysis, equilibrium swelling studies and in-vitro release kinetics were performedfor in-vitro characterization of formulated IPN hydrogels. In-vitro studies carried out at pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 revealed pH independent swelling and drug release from polymeric IPN, providing controlled drug release for an extended period of time with improved entrapment efficiency, thereby concluding that this polymeric blend may be a promising system for the prolonged drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic Acid) Base Biocompatible Gel for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing P.; Kung, Fu-Chen; Kuo, Yu-Lin; Yang, Ming-Chen; Lai, Wen-Fu Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A technique for synthesizing biocompatible hydrogels by cross-linking calcium-form poly(γ-glutamic acid), alginate sodium, and Pluronic F-127 was created, in which alginate can be cross-linked by Ca2+ from Ca–γ-PGA directly and γ-PGA molecules introduced into the alginate matrix to provide pH sensitivity and hemostasis. Mechanical properties, swelling behavior, and blood compatibility were investigated for each hydrogel compared with alginate and for γ-PGA hydrogel with the sodium form only. Adding F-127 improves mechanical properties efficiently and influences the temperature-sensitive swelling of the hydrogels but also has a minor effect on pH-sensitive swelling and promotes anticoagulation. MG-63 cells were used to test biocompatibility. Gelation occurred gradually through change in the elastic modulus as the release of calcium ions increased over time and caused ionic cross-linking, which promotes the elasticity of gel. In addition, the growth of MG-63 cells in the gel reflected nontoxicity. These results showed that this biocompatible scaffold has potential for application in bone materials. PMID:26504784

  20. Polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldock, C [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia); De Deene, Y [Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Doran, S [CRUK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Ibbott, G [Radiation Physics, UT M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Lepage, M [Centre d' imagerie moleculaire de Sherbrooke, Departement de medecine nucleaire et de radiobiologie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON (Canada); Oldham, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Schreiner, L J [Cancer Centre of South Eastern Ontario, Kingston, ON (Canada)], E-mail: c.baldock@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: yves.dedeene@ugent.be

    2010-03-07

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. (topical review)

  1. The Drug Release Profile from Calcium-induced Alginate Gel Beads Coated with an Alginate Hydrolysate

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    Susumu Kawashima

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-induced alginate gel bead (Alg-Ca coated with an alginate hydrolysate(Alg, e.g. the guluronic acid block (GB was prepared and the model drug, hydrocortisonerelease profiles were investigated under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Theirmolecular weights were one sixth or one tenth that of Alg and the diffraction patterns of thehydrolysates resembled that of Alg. The drug release rate from Alg-Ca coated with GBapparently lowered than that of Alg-Ca (coating-free in the gastric juice (pH1.2. And thecoating did not resist the disintegration of Alg-Ca in the intestinal juice (pH 6.8 and thegel erosion accelerated the drug release. On the other hand, for the coated Alg-Cacontaining chitosan, the drug release showed zero-order kinetics without rapid erosion ofAlg-Ca. The drug release rate from Alg-Ca was able to be controlled by the coating andmodifying the composition of the gel matrix.

  2. Granular gel support-enabled extrusion of three-dimensional alginate and cellular structures.

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    Jin, Yifei; Compaan, Ashley; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Huang, Yong

    2016-06-03

    Freeform fabrication of soft structures has been of great interest in recent years. In particular, it is viewed as a critical step toward the grand vision of organ printing--the on-demand design and fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) human organ constructs for implantation and regenerative medicine. The objective of this study is to develop a novel granular gel support material-enabled, two-step gelation-based 'printing-then-gelation' approach to fabricate 3D alginate structures using filament extrusion. Specifically, a granular Carbopol microgel bath holds the ungelled alginate structure being extruded, avoiding the instantaneous gelation of each printed layer as well as resultant surface tension-induced nozzle clogging. Since Carbopol microgels react with multivalent cations, which are needed for alginate crosslinking, gelatin is introduced as a sacrificial material to make an alginate and gelatin bioink for extrusion, which gels thermally (step-one gelation) to initially stabilize the printed structure for removal from Carbopol. Then gelatin is melted and diffused away while alginate is ionically crosslinked in a 37 °C calcium chloride bath (step-two gelation), resulting in an alginate structure. The proposed 'printing-then-gelation' approach works for alginate structure fabrication, and it is also applicable for the printing of cellular constructs and other similar homogeneous soft structures using a two-step or even multi-step approach. The main conclusions are: (1) 0.8% (w/v) Carbopol bath with a neutral pH value may be most suitable for soft structure printing; (2) it is most effective to use a 0.9% (w/v) NaCl solution to facilitate the removal of residual Carbopol; and (3) alginate structures fabricated using the proposed approach demonstrate better mechanical properties than those fabricated using the conventional 'gelation-while-printing' approach.

  3. ENTRAPMENT OF FLUORESCENT E. COLI CELLS IN ALGINATE GEL

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    T. VINTILA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available By this experiment we will demonstrate the possibility to obtain genetically modified microbial strains that can be used as markers in different studies. The trait transferred in this study is the fluorescence in UV light expressed by a gene isolated from jellyfish. This gene was insered into a plasmid carrying ampiciline resistance and in the operon for arabinose fermentation. The plasmid was called pGLO. E coli HB101 K-12, ampicillin resistant colonies has been obtained. The colonies on the LB/amp/ara plate fluoresce green under UV light and the transformed colonies can grow on ampicillin. Transformation efficiency = 362 transformed colonies/ μg DNA. The cells where immobilized by entrapment in alginate gel to study the phenomenon involved in cells immobilization. After immobilization in alginate gel, 5x104 cells of E. coli pGLO / capsule and 1,4 x 105 cells of E. coli HB101/capsule has been found. Fluorescent microscopy revealed the presence of pGLO carrying cells into the capsules. After cultivation of alginate capsules containing E. coli in LB broth, and fluorescent microscopy of the capsule sections, several observations of the phenomenon involved in continuous fermentation using biocatalysts in has been made. These cells grow and migrate to the cortical part of the matrix where they are immobilized.

  4. Regulation of the fate of dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells using engineered alginate-GelMA hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sahar; Sarrion, Patricia; Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi; Aghaloo, Tara; Wu, Benjamin M; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2017-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from dental and orofacial tissues provide an alternative therapeutic option for craniofacial bone tissue regeneration. However, there is still a need to improve stem cell delivery vehicles to regulate the fate of the encapsulated MSCs for high quality tissue regeneration. Matrix elasticity plays a vital role in MSC fate determination. Here, we have prepared various hydrogel formulations based on alginate and gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and have encapsulated gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) and human bone marrow MSCs (hBMMSCs) within these fabricated hydrogels. We demonstrate that addition of the GelMA to alginate hydrogel reduces the elasticity of the hydrogel mixture. While presence of GelMA in an alginate-based scaffold significantly increased the viability of encapsulated MSCs, increasing the concentration of GelMA downregulated the osteogenic differentiation of encapsulated MSCs in vitro due to decrease in the stiffness of the hydrogel matrix. The osteogenic suppression was rescued by addition of a potent osteogenic growth factor such as rh-BMP-2. In contrast, MSCs encapsulated in alginate hydrogel without GelMA were successfully osteo-differentiated without the aid of additional growth factors, as confirmed by expression of osteogenic markers (Runx2 and OCN), as well as positive staining using Xylenol orange. Interestingly, after two weeks of osteo-differentiation, hBMMSCs and GMSCs encapsulated in alginate/GelMA hydrogels still expressed CD146, an MSC surface marker, while MSCs encapsulated in alginate hydrogel failed to express any positive staining. Altogether, our findings suggest that it is possible to control the fate of encapsulated MSCs within hydrogels by tuning the mechanical properties of the matrix. We also reconfirmed the important role of the presence of inductive signals in guiding MSC differentiation. These findings may enable the design of new multifunctional scaffolds for spatial and temporal

  5. Effects of gelling bath on the physical properties of alginate gel beads and the biological characteristics of entrapped HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongsheng; Liu, Yang; Wu, Hao; Ren, Ying; Ma, Xiaojun; Wu, Huijian; Sun, Guangwei

    2018-03-01

    Optimizing alginate gel beads is necessary to support the survival, proliferation, and function of entrapped hepatocytes. In this study, gelling bath was modified by decreasing calcium ion concentration and increasing sodium ion concentration. Alginate gel beads (using 36% G sodium alginate) prepared in the modified gelling bath had more homogeneous structure and better mass transfer properties compared with the traditional gelling bath that contains only calcium ions. Moreover, alginate gel beads generated in the modified gelling bath could significantly promote the HepG2 cell proliferation and the growth of cell spheroids, and maintain the albumin secretion ability similar to alginate gel beads prepared in the traditional gelling bath with only calcium ions. The mass transfer properties and cell proliferation were similar in ALG beads with different M/G ratio (36% G and 55% G) generated in the modified gelling bath, whereas they were significantly increased compared with alginate gel beads (55% G) in traditional gelling bath. These results indicated that adjusting the gelling bath was a simple and convenient method to enhance the mass transfer properties of alginate gel beads for 3D hepatocyte culture, which might provide more hepatocytes for the bioartificial liver support system. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. EFFECTS OF IMMOBILIZATION IN Ba-ALGINATE ON NITRILE-DEPENDENT OXYGEN UPTAKE RATES OF CANDIDA GUILLIERMONDII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias João Carlos Teixeira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeast cells immobilized by entrapment in Ba-alginate gel were investigated for growth pattern and respiratory activity. The oxygen uptake rates (OUR of cells entrapped in gels with 4% alginate were 5.2 and 23% lower than the OUR of 2% alginate and free cells, respectively. The mass-transfer resistance offered by the matrix and growth of the entrapped cells determine a gradient of nutrients throughout the gel which is responsible for both a lower specific growth rate of immobilized cells with respect to that of free ones, and a heterogeneous biomass distribution, with progressively increasing cellular density from the inside to the outside of the matrix. Gel-matrix polymer concentration affected the maximum oxygen uptake of immobilized growing yeast cells.

  7. Determination of diffusion coefficients and diffusion characteristics for chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate in Ca-alginate gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jiyeon; Engler, Cady R; Lee, Seung Jae

    2008-07-01

    Diffusion characteristics of chlorferon and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) in Ca-alginate gel beads were studied to assist in designing and operating bioreactor systems. Diffusion coefficients for chlorferon and DETP in Ca-alginate gel beads determined at conditions suitable for biodegradation studies were 2.70 x 10(-11) m(2)/s and 4.28 x 10(-11) m(2)/s, respectively. Diffusivities of chlorferon and DETP were influenced by several factors, including viscosity of the bulk solution, agitation speed, and the concentrations of diffusing substrate and immobilized cells. Diffusion coefficients increased with increasing agitation speed, probably due to poor mixing at low speed and some attrition of beads at high speeds. Diffusion coefficients also increased with decreasing substrate concentration. Increased cell concentration in the gel beads caused lower diffusivity. Theoretical models to predict diffusivities as a function of cell weight fraction overestimated the effective diffusivities for both chlorferon and DETP, but linear relations between effective diffusivity and cell weight fraction were derived from experimental data. Calcium-alginate gel beads with radii of 1.65-1.70 mm used in this study were not subject to diffusional limitations: external mass transfer resistances were negligible based on Biot number calculations and effectiveness factors indicated that internal mass transfer resistance was negligible. Therefore, the degradation rates of chlorferon and DETP inside Ca-alginate gel beads were reaction-limited. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Surface characteristics determining the cell compatibility of ionically cross-linked alginate gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida-Sano, Ikuko; Hirakawa, Makoto; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Kamada, Mitsuki; Ogawa, Sakito; Satoh, Nao; Namiki, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated differences in the characteristics determining the suitability of five types of ion (Fe 3+ , Al 3+ , Ca 2+ , Ba 2+ and Sr 2+ )-cross-linked alginate films as culture substrates for cells. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured on each alginate film to examine the cell affinity of the alginates. Since cell behavior on the surface of a material is dependent on the proteins adsorbed to it, we investigated the protein adsorption ability and surface features (wettability, morphology and charge) related to the protein adsorption abilities of alginate films. We observed that ferric, aluminum and barium ion-cross-linked alginate films supported better cell growth and adsorbed higher amounts of serum proteins than other types. Surface wettability analysis demonstrated that ferric and aluminum ion-cross-linked alginates had moderate hydrophilic surfaces, while other types showed highly hydrophilic surfaces. The roughness was exhibited only on barium ion-cross-linked alginate surface. Surface charge measurements revealed that alginate films had negatively charged surfaces, and showed little difference among the five types of gel. These results indicate that the critical factors of ionically cross-linked alginate films determining the protein adsorption ability required for their cell compatibility may be surface wettability and morphology. (paper)

  9. Evaluation of calcium alginate gel as electrode material for alternating current iontophoresis of lidocaine using excised rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Tomoko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Haida, Haruka; Wakita, Ryo; Ando, Shizuka; Yoshioka, Tomohiko; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2014-06-27

    Iontophoresis (IOP) is a noninvasive method of delivering medication transcutaneously through the skin. The electrodes used in this method should tightly fit to rough and irregular surfaces and be biologically safe, easy to handle and prepare, and cost-effective. To satisfy these requirements, calcium alginate gel can be a candidate electrode for IOP. Using calcium alginate gel electrodes, we examined whether lidocaine can be effectively transported across an excised rat skin by squarewave alternating current (AC) application. A squarewave AC with either a 70% or 80% duty cycle was continuously applied to 0.5% calcium alginate gel electrodes containing 10% lidocaine at 10 V and 1 kHz for 60 min. Lidocaine concentration was measured using a spectrophotometer and the temperature of the gel was determined. The lidocaine concentrations for AC-IOP at the 70% and 80% duty cycles were significantly higher than that without AC-IOP. Furthermore, the group with the 80% duty cycle showed higher lidocaine concentrations than the group with the 70% duty cycle. The temperatures of all the groups were lower than 28 °C throughout the procedure. In conclusion, the calcium alginate gel can be used as a possible matrix for IOP electrodes.

  10. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  11. Polyionic hydrocolloids for the intestinal delivery of protein drugs: alginate and chitosan--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Meera; Abraham, T Emilia

    2006-08-10

    The protein pharmaceutical market is rapidly growing, since it is gaining support from the recombinant DNA technology. To deliver these drugs via the oral route, the most preferred route, is the toughest challenge. In the design of oral delivery of peptide or protein drugs, pH sensitive hydrogels like alginate and chitosan have attracted increasing attention, since most of the synthetic polymers are immunogenic and the incorporation of proteins in to these polymers require harsh environment which may denature and inactivate the desired protein. Alginate is a water-soluble linear polysaccharide composed of alternating blocks of 1-4 linked alpha-L-guluronic and beta-D-mannuronic acid residues where as chitosan is a co polymer of D-glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine. The incorporation of protein into these two matrices can be done under relatively mild environment and hence the chances of protein denaturation are minimal. The limitations of these polymers, like drug leaching during preparation can be overcome by different techniques which increase their encapsulation efficiency. Alginate, being an anionic polymer with carboxyl end groups, is a good mucoadhesive agent. The pore size of alginate gel microbeads has been shown to be between 5 and 200 nm and coated beads and microspheres are found to be better oral delivery vehicles. Cross-linked alginate has more capacity to retain the entrapped drugs and mixing of alginate with other polymers such as neutral gums, pectin, chitosan, and eudragit have been found to solve the problem of drug leaching. Chitosan has only limited ability for controlling the release of encapsulated compound due to its hydrophilic nature and easy solubility in acidic medium. By simple covalent modifications of the polymer, its physicochemical properties can be changed and can be made suitable for the peroral drug delivery purpose. Ionic interactions between positively charged amino groups in chitosan and the negatively charged mucus gel layer

  12. Polymer gels and networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osada, Yoshihito; Khokhlov, A. R

    2002-01-01

    ... or magnetic field, etc.). It was realized that not only can polymer gels absorb and hold a considerable volume of liquids, but they can also be forced to expel the absorbed liquid in a controlled manner. Of particular interest are hydrogels, i.e., polymer gels, which swell extensively in water. The most common hydrogels are polyelectrolyte gels: ...

  13. Evaluation of stress-strain for characterization of the rheological behavior of alginate and carrageenan gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Mammarella

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The stress-strain of samples deformed until failure and the relaxation response after 50% deformation of the initial height under constant stress were obtained. Uniaxial compression and stress-relaxation tests enabled satisfactory differentiation of the mechanical resistance of gels with different alginate and carrageenan concentrations. Higher values for initial force at the beginning of the relaxation test were associated with higher calcium uptake by the gels. An increment of failure stress during the uniaxial compression tests for higher concentration of calcium in the gel structure was also observed. The maximum amount of cation uptake was higher than the theoretical value for saturation of all the carboxylic groups available in alginate molecules due to structural rearrangements. Stress-relaxation tests indicated that the residual stress of the gel increased with kappa-carrageenan concentration.

  14. Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellakumar, P.; James Jebaseelan Samuel, E.; Supe, Sanjay S.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Z eff ), electron density (ρ e ), photon mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), photon mass energy absorption coefficient (μ en /ρ) and total stopping power (S/ρ) tot of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close ( en /ρ for all polymer gels were in close agreement ( tot of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application

  15. Polymer gel dosimeters with enhanced sensitivity for use in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirasek, A; Hilts, M; McAuley, K B

    2010-01-01

    A primary limitation of current x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry is the low contrast, and hence poor dose resolution, of dose images produced by the system. The low contrast is largely due to the low-dose sensitivity of current formulations of polymer gel for x-ray CT imaging. This study reports on the investigation of new dosimeter formulations with improved dose sensitivity for x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry. We incorporate an isopropanol co-solvent into an N-isopropylacrylamide-based gel formulation in order to increase the total monomer/crosslinker concentration (%T) within the formulation. It is shown that gels of high %T exhibit enhanced dose sensitivity and dose resolutions over traditional formulations. The gels are shown to be temporally stable and reproducible. A single formulation (16%T) is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry system in measuring known dose distributions. A 1 L gel volume is exposed to three separate irradiations: a single-field percent depth dose, a two-field 'cross' and a three-field 'test case'. The first two irradiations are used to generate a dose calibration curve by which images are calibrated. The calibrated images are compared with treatment planning predictions and it is shown that the x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry system is capable of capturing spatial and dose information accurately. The proposed new gel formulation is shown to be sensitive, stable and to improve the dose resolution over current formulations so as to provide a feasible gel for clinical applications of x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry.

  16. Alginate-modifying enzymes: Biological roles and biotechnological uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga eErtesvåg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alginate denotes a group of industrially important 1-4-linked biopolymers composed of the C-5-epimers β-D-mannuronic acid (M and α-L-guluronic acid (G. The polysaccharide is manufactured from brown algae where it constitutes the main structural cell wall polymer. The physical properties of a given alginate molecule, e.g. gel-strength, water-binding capacity, viscosity and biocompatibility, are determined by polymer length, the relative amount and distribution of G residues and the acetyl content, all of which are controlled by alginate modifying enzymes. Alginate has also been isolated from some bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Azotobacter, and bacterially synthesized alginate may be O-acetylated at O-2 and/or O-3. Initially, alginate is synthesized as polymannuronic acid, and some M residues are subsequently epimerized to G residues. In bacteria a mannuronan C-5-epimerase (AlgG and an alginate acetylase (AlgX are integral parts of the protein complex necessary for alginate polymerisation and export. All alginate-producing bacteria use periplasmic alginate lyases to remove alginate molecules aberrantly released to the periplasm. Alginate lyases are also produced by organisms that utilize alginate as carbon source. Most alginate-producing organisms encode more than one mannuronan C-5 epimerase, each introducing its specific pattern of G residues. Acetylation protects against further epimerization and from most alginate lyases. One enzyme with alginate deacetylase activity from Pseudomonas syringae has been reported. Functional and structural studies reveal that alginate lyases and epimerases have related enzyme mechanisms and catalytic sites. Alginate lyases are now utilized as tools for alginate characterization. Secreted epimerases have been shown to function well in vitro, and have been engineered further in order to obtain enzymes that can provide alginates with new and desired properties for use in medical and

  17. Polymer gel dosimeters with enhanced sensitivity for use in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Hilts, M [Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria BC V6R 2B6 (Canada); McAuley, K B, E-mail: jirasek@uvic.c [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queens University, Kingston, ON K7 L 3N6 (Canada)

    2010-09-21

    A primary limitation of current x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry is the low contrast, and hence poor dose resolution, of dose images produced by the system. The low contrast is largely due to the low-dose sensitivity of current formulations of polymer gel for x-ray CT imaging. This study reports on the investigation of new dosimeter formulations with improved dose sensitivity for x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry. We incorporate an isopropanol co-solvent into an N-isopropylacrylamide-based gel formulation in order to increase the total monomer/crosslinker concentration (%T) within the formulation. It is shown that gels of high %T exhibit enhanced dose sensitivity and dose resolutions over traditional formulations. The gels are shown to be temporally stable and reproducible. A single formulation (16%T) is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry system in measuring known dose distributions. A 1 L gel volume is exposed to three separate irradiations: a single-field percent depth dose, a two-field 'cross' and a three-field 'test case'. The first two irradiations are used to generate a dose calibration curve by which images are calibrated. The calibrated images are compared with treatment planning predictions and it is shown that the x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry system is capable of capturing spatial and dose information accurately. The proposed new gel formulation is shown to be sensitive, stable and to improve the dose resolution over current formulations so as to provide a feasible gel for clinical applications of x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry.

  18. Influence of hydrophobic modification in alginate-based hydrogels for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Soumitra

    Alginate has been exploited commercially for decades in foods, textiles, paper, pharmaceutical industries, and also as a detoxifier for removing heavy metals. Alginate is also popular in cell encapsulation because of its relatively mild gelation protocol and simple chemistry with which biological active entities can be immobilized. Surface modification of alginate gels has been explored to induce desired cell interactions with the gel matrix. These modifications alter the bulk properties, which strongly determine on how cells feel and response to the three-dimensional microenvironment. However, there is a need to develop strategies to engineer functionalities into bulk alginate hydrogels that not only preserve their inherent qualities but are also less toxic. In this thesis, our main focus was to optimize the mechanical properties of alginate-based hydrogels, and by doing so control the performance of the biomaterials. In the first scheme, we used alginate and hydrophobically modified ethyl hydroxy ethyl cellulose as components in interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) gels. The second network was used to control gelation time and rheological properties. We believe these experiments also may provide insight into the mechanical and structural properties of more complex biopolymer gels and naturally-occurring IPNs. Next, we worked on incorporating a hydrophobic moiety directly into the alginate chain, resulting in materials for extended release of hydrophobic drugs. We successfully synthesized hydrophobically modified alginate (HMA) by attaching octylamine groups onto the alginate backbone by standard carbodiimide based amide coupling reaction. Solubility of several model hydrophobic drugs in dilute HMA solutions was found to be increased by more than an order of magnitude. HMA hydrogels, prepared by crosslinking the alginate chains with calcium ions, were found to exhibit excellent mechanical properties (modulus ˜100 kPa) with release extended upto 5 days. Ability

  19. Modeling the controllable pH-responsive swelling and pore size of networked alginate based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ariel W; Neufeld, Ronald J

    2009-10-01

    Semisynthetic network alginate polymer (SNAP), synthesized by acetalization of linear alginate with di-aldehyde, is a pH-responsive tetrafunctionally linked 3D gel network, and has potential application in oral delivery of protein therapeutics and active biologicals, and as tissue bioscaffold for regenerative medicine. A constitutive polyelectrolyte gel model based on non-Gaussian polymer elasticity, Flory-Huggins liquid lattice theory, and non-ideal Donnan membrane equilibria was derived, to describe SNAP gel swelling in dilute and ionic solutions containing uni-univalent, uni-bivalent, bi-univalent or bi-bi-valent electrolyte solutions. Flory-Huggins interaction parameters as a function of ionic strength and characteristic ratio of alginates of various molecular weights were determined experimentally to numerically predict SNAP hydrogel swelling. SNAP hydrogel swells pronouncedly to 1000 times in dilute solution, compared to its compact polymer volume, while behaving as a neutral polymer with limited swelling in high ionic strength or low pH solutions. The derived model accurately describes the pH-responsive swelling of SNAP hydrogel in acid and alkaline solutions of wide range of ionic strength. The pore sizes of the synthesized SNAP hydrogels of various crosslink densities were estimated from the derived model to be in the range of 30-450 nm which were comparable to that measured by thermoporometry, and diffusion of bovine serum albumin. The derived equilibrium swelling model can characterize hydrogel structure such as molecular weight between crosslinks and crosslinking density, or can be used as predictive model for swelling, pore size and mechanical properties if gel structural information is known, and can potentially be applied to other point-link network polyelectrolytes such as hyaluronic acid gel.

  20. Effect of calcium chloride concentration on output force in electrical actuator made of sodium alginate gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuda; Zhao, Gang; Wei, Chengye; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yu; Liu, Xvxiong

    2018-01-01

    As a kind of artificial muscle intelligent material, the biological gel electric driver has the advantages of low driving voltage, large strain, good biological compatibility, good flexibility, low price, etc. The application prospect is broad and it has high academic value. Alginate, as a common substance in sea, has characteristics of low cost, green and pollution-free. Therefore,this paper obtains biological gel electric actuator by sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Effects on output force of the electric actuator is researched by changing the crosslinking of calcium chloride concentration and the output force enhancement mechanism is analyzed in this paper.

  1. Swelling Studies and in vitro Release of Acemetacin and BSA from Alginate Gel Beads Crosslinked with Ca2+ or Ba2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Pei; JIA Yuntao; ZHANG Liangke; ZHANG Jingqing; HU Wenjing; WANG Chengyuan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the swelling behavior and the in vitro release of acemetacin and bovine serum albumin from alginate gel beads crosslinked with Ca2+ or Ba2+.The release profiles suggested that the extent of swelling of the alginate beads played an important role in the release of drug.Small drugs are mainly released via diffusion through the alginate gel matrix.Compared with small drugs,large molecule drugs are difficult to diffuse through the pores of the matrix bead until the beads swell to a certain extent to provide enough large pores.The Ba2+ crosslinked alginate beads showed slower release rate compared with the Ca2+ crosslinked alginate beads,whether loaded the large molecules or small drugs.In conclusion,the Ba2+ crosslinked alginate beads are considered more suitable than Ca2+ crosslinked alginate beads for using as a sustained release vehicle especially for large molecule drugs.

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Alginate Adhesion Barrier Gel in Compromised Intestinal Anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaturvedi, A.; Yauw, S.T.K.; Lomme, R.M.L.M.; Hendriks, T.; Goor, H. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For any anti-adhesive barrier developed for abdominal surgery, the use under conditions in which anastomotic healing is compromised needs to be investigated. The current study evaluates the effect of a new ultrapure alginate gel on early healing of high-risk anastomoses in the ileum and

  3. Calcium alginate gels as stem cell matrix-making paracrine stem cell activity available for enhanced healing after surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schmitt

    Full Text Available Regeneration after surgery can be improved by the administration of anabolic growth factors. However, to locally maintain these factors at the site of regeneration is problematic. The aim of this study was to develop a matrix system containing human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs which can be applied to the surgical site and allows the secretion of endogenous healing factors from the cells. Calcium alginate gels were prepared by a combination of internal and external gelation. The gelling behaviour, mechanical stability, surface adhesive properties and injectability of the gels were investigated. The permeability of the gels for growth factors was analysed using bovine serum albumin and lysozyme as model proteins. Human MSCs were isolated, cultivated and seeded into the alginate gels. Cell viability was determined by AlamarBlue assay and fluorescence microscopy. The release of human VEGF and bFGF from the cells was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Gels with sufficient mechanical properties were prepared which remained injectable through a syringe and solidified in a sufficient time frame after application. Surface adhesion was improved by the addition of polyethylene glycol 300,000 and hyaluronic acid. Humans MSCs remained viable for the duration of 6 weeks within the gels. Human VEGF and bFGF was found in quantifiable concentrations in cell culture supernatants of gels loaded with MSCs and incubated for a period of 6 weeks. This work shows that calcium alginate gels can function as immobilization matrices for human MSCs.

  4. Cation-induced folding of alginate-bearing bilayer gels: an unusual example of spontaneous folding along the long axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athas, Jasmin C; Nguyen, Catherine P; Kummar, Shailaa; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2018-04-04

    The spontaneous folding of flat gel films into tubes is an interesting example of self-assembly. Typically, a rectangular film folds along its short axis when forming a tube; folding along the long axis has been seen only in rare instances when the film is constrained. Here, we report a case where the same free-swelling gel film folds along either its long or short axis depending on the concentration of a solute. Our gels are sandwiches (bilayers) of two layers: a passive layer of cross-linked N,N'-dimethylyacrylamide (DMAA) and an active layer of cross-linked DMAA that also contains chains of the biopolymer alginate. Multivalent cations like Ca2+ and Cu2+ induce these bilayer gels to fold into tubes. The folding occurs instantly when a flat film of the gel is introduced into a solution of these cations. The likely cause for folding is that the active layer stiffens and shrinks (because the alginate chains in it get cross-linked by the cations) whereas the passive layer is unaffected. The resulting mismatch in swelling degree between the two layers creates internal stresses that drive folding. Cations that are incapable of cross-linking alginate, such as Na+ and Mg2+, do not induce gel folding. Moreover, the striking aspect is the direction of folding. When the Ca2+ concentration is high (100 mM or higher), the gels fold along their long axis, whereas when the Ca2+ concentration is low (40 to 80 mM), the gels fold along their short axis. We hypothesize that the folding axis is dictated by the inhomogeneous nature of alginate-cation cross-linking, i.e., that the edges get cross-linked before the faces of the gel. At high Ca2+ concentration, the stiffer edges constrain the folding; in turn, the gel folds such that the longer edges are deformed less, which explains the folding along the long axis. At low Ca2+ concentration, the edges and the faces of the gel are more similar in their degree of cross-linking; therefore, the gel folds along its short axis. An analogy

  5. Alginate Production from Alternative Carbon Sources and Use of Polymer Based Adsorbent in Heavy Metal Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Kıvılcımdan Moral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate is a biopolymer composed of mannuronic and guluronic acids. It is harvested from marine brown algae; however, alginate can also be synthesized by some bacterial species, namely, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas. Use of pure carbohydrate sources for bacterial alginate production increases its cost and limits the chance of the polymer in the industrial market. In order to reduce the cost of bacterial alginate production, molasses, maltose, and starch were utilized as alternative low cost carbon sources in this study. Results were promising in the case of molasses with the maximum 4.67 g/L of alginate production. Alginates were rich in mannuronic acid during early fermentation independent of the carbon sources while the highest guluronic acid content was obtained as 68% in the case of maltose. The polymer was then combined with clinoptilolite, which is a natural zeolite, to remove copper from a synthetic wastewater. Alginate-clinoptilolite beads were efficiently adsorbed copper up to 131.6 mg Cu2+/g adsorbent at pH 4.5 according to the Langmuir isotherm model.

  6. Comparative study on the effects of negatively-charged biopolymers on chitosan-based gels for the development of instantaneous gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno, Austin Ed B.; Chakraborty, Soma

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric electrolytic complexes are solutions of charged/ionized chains. These solutions of positive and negative charge can be combined to make instantaneous networks bonded by electrostatic interactions, a gel network. These electrostatic interaction allows for easy application in injectable gels as the network can be temporarily distributed with the application of force and reformed on the relief of it. Possible applications for these injectable gels include drug delivery and wound-healing. κ-Carrageenan, dextran sulfate, alginate, and chitosan are polyelectrolytic biocompatible polymers which are widely studied and used for a variety of biomedical applications. Gel networks are made by combining a negatively-charged (κ-Carrageenan, dextran sulfate, or alginate) and positively charged (chitosan) solutions. The strong electrostatic interaction between the opposite charges from the gel network and the inherent biocompatibility of the polymers allow future biomedical applications. Quat 188-modified chitosan has additional sites for electrostatic bonding, can be dissolved in neutral, basic, and acidic pH, and has shown inherent antibacterial activity. The objectives of this study are the following: to formulate chitosan-based gels mixing solutions of chitosan with solutions of either κ-Carrageenan, dextran sulfate, or alginate, study the gelation of the gels as function of time and pH (4, 7, and 9) using UV-Vis, characterize the chitosan-based gels through DSC and DMA, characterize the physiological degradation of the chitosan-based gels, and compare results with those from Quat 188-modified chitosan-based gels. Polyelectrolytic solutions of chitosan and negatively-charged biopolymer of similar viscosities were mixed. It was determined from the UV-Vis spectroscopy of the chitosan-carrageenan gels under pH7 buffer that the increase of concentration by a factor of 5 for 0.006M-0.0095M and 1.25 for 0.0095M-0.0150M Chitosan-Carrageenan gels improved gelation by the

  7. The Efficiency of Vascular Embolization Using Alginate Gel : An Experimental Study in Rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woo Baek; Kang, Yeong Han; Kim, Jong Ki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of poly-L-guluronic alginate (PGA) gel in vascular embolization with angiography simulation. To prepare a gel-forming PGA from no guluronate-rich Laminaria japonica, a new acid hydrolysis method was employed with a lower HCL concentration (0.03 M) and a shorter treatment time (5 min). The obtained PGAs were selected based on gel stability and viscosity. Glass aneurysm model was used to simulate gel embolization in vitro. Then, finally, the PGA was used to embolize the renal vascular system by using a rabbit model and angiography. Glass aneurysm model was made to simulate gel embolization procedure. PGA solution was injected from pump through 2-way catheter. Subsequent injection of CaCl 2 successfully formed gels inside aneurysm model that conforming to its inner contour. In rabbit model, first, renal artery and aorta leading to the right kidney were ligated to block blood flow, then conventional contrast agent was injected through aorta to check the arterial patency to the left kidney. In sequential artery injection method, PGA and CaCl 2 were injected through renal artery sequentially via a single catheter. Re-injection of contrast agent after removing ligated aorta showed blood flow to the right kidney but no flow in the left kidney. This result demonstrated a complete blocking of blood flow due to gel formation in vascular bed of the left kidney. Instillation of calcium alginate into aneurysm model and arterial system in vivo produced an embolization that better fills and conforms to the contour of aneurysms or blocking vascular bed completely. Therefore, PGA was effective endovascular occlusion materials and provide an efficiency of vascular angiography.

  8. Investigation of in situ gelling alginate formulations as a sustained release vehicle for co-precipitates of dextromethrophan and Eudragit S 100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghraby Gamal Mohamed El

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alginate vehicles are capable of forming a gel matrix in situ when they come into contact with gastric medium in the presence of calcium ions. However, the gel structure is pH dependent and can break after gastric emptying, leading to dose dumping. The aim of this work was to develop modified in situ gelling alginate formulations capable of sustaining dextromethorphan release throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Alginate solution (2 %, m/m was used as a vehicle for the tested formulations. Solid matrix of the drug and Eudragit S 100 was prepared by dissolving the drug and polymer in acetone. The organic solvent was then evaporated and the deposited solid matrix was micronized, sieved and dispersed in alginate solution to obtain candidate formulations. The release behavior of dextromethorphan was monitored and evaluated in a medium simulating the gastric and intestinal pH. Drug-polymer compatibility and possible solid-state interactions suggested physical interaction through hydrogen bonding between the drug and the polymer. A significant decrease in the rate and extent of dextromethorphan release was observed with increasing Eudragit S 100 concentration in the prepared particles. Most formulations showed sustained release profiles similar to that of a commercial sustained-release liquid based on ion exchange resin. The release pattern indicated strict control of drug release both under gastric and intestinal conditions, suggesting the potential advantage of using a solid dispersion of drug-Eudragit S 100 to overcome the problem of dose dumping after the rupture of the pH dependent alginate gels

  9. Coordination Polymer Gels by Electron Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Ha; Cho, Young Je; Jung, Jong Hwa [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogenation of a pyridine derivative possessing tetrazole moieties as end groups, without long alkyl chain groups, results in the formation of a Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} coordination polymer gel. The polymer exhibits a strong fluorescence enhancement upon gel formation. 1 can also be gloated with a variety of magnesium anions such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -} and I{sup -}, indicating that the coordination polymer gel formation of 1 does not strongly depends on anions. The Seam and ABM images of Mg{sup 2+} coordination polymer gel 1 display a flabbier network with several micrometers long, widths in the range 60-70 nm and thicknesses of about 3 nm. In addition, photophysical studies show that the hydrogel exhibits a typical {pi}-{pi} transition and gives rise to high fluorescence behavior. The coordination polymer hydrogel exhibits viscoelastic behavior as evidenced from the rheological studies.

  10. Multifunctional nano-hydroxyapatite and alginate/gelatin based sticky gel composites for potential bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yurong; Yu, Juhong; Kundu, Subhas C.; Yao, Juming

    2016-01-01

    To improve the fixations of the implant and implant-bone integration after joint arthroplasty from locally preventing inflammation and promoting the bone regeneration, we design a multifunctional biomaterial consisting of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) and antibiotic loaded nano-hydroxyapatite with an alginate/gelatin sticky gel. We investigate its role for the prevention of the inflammation and possibility of inducing a new bone growth along with its adhesive ability. The stickiness exists in the composite, which may help to fix itself on the bone fracture surface. The composite sustains the antibacterial effect and promotes the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 cells in vitro. In vivo experimentation also shows that the composite gel has a role for the reduction of inflammation. It enhances the formation of new bone and blood vessels compared to both the sole rhBMP-2 and non-rhBMP-2/antibiotic loaded composite gels. The multifunctional composite provides a promising material for the prosthetic and bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • Multifunctional nanohydroxyapatite composite is fabricated. • The composite consists of nHAP, growth factor, antibiotic and alginate/gelatin gel. • The composite shows antibacterial effect and good cytocompatibility. • No adverse effect to the cells tested in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Multifunctional nano-hydroxyapatite and alginate/gelatin based sticky gel composites for potential bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yurong; Yu, Juhong [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab of Textile Fiber Materials & Processing Technology, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Kundu, Subhas C. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yao, Juming, E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab of Textile Fiber Materials & Processing Technology, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2016-09-15

    To improve the fixations of the implant and implant-bone integration after joint arthroplasty from locally preventing inflammation and promoting the bone regeneration, we design a multifunctional biomaterial consisting of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) and antibiotic loaded nano-hydroxyapatite with an alginate/gelatin sticky gel. We investigate its role for the prevention of the inflammation and possibility of inducing a new bone growth along with its adhesive ability. The stickiness exists in the composite, which may help to fix itself on the bone fracture surface. The composite sustains the antibacterial effect and promotes the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 cells in vitro. In vivo experimentation also shows that the composite gel has a role for the reduction of inflammation. It enhances the formation of new bone and blood vessels compared to both the sole rhBMP-2 and non-rhBMP-2/antibiotic loaded composite gels. The multifunctional composite provides a promising material for the prosthetic and bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • Multifunctional nanohydroxyapatite composite is fabricated. • The composite consists of nHAP, growth factor, antibiotic and alginate/gelatin gel. • The composite shows antibacterial effect and good cytocompatibility. • No adverse effect to the cells tested in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Polymer gel dosimeter with AQUAJOINT® as hydrogel matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeyama, Takuya; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Fukasaku, Kazuaki; Ishikawa, Kenichi L.; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa

    2018-05-01

    We report a polymer gel dosimeter based on a new gel matrix (AQUAJOINT®) that is a thermo-irreversible hydrogel formed by mixing two types of water-based liquids at room temperature. Normoxic N-vinylpyrrolidone-based polymer gels were prepared with AQUAJOINT® instead of gelatin. This AQUAJOINT®-based gel dosimeter exhibits a 2.5-fold increase in sensitivity over a gelatin-based gel dosimeter and a linear dose-response in the dose range of 0-8 Gy. This gel has heat resistance in a jar and controlled gel properties such as viscoelastic and mechanical characters, which may be useful for deformable polymer gel dosimetry.

  13. Controlled antiseptic release by alginate polymer films and beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis; Rizzello, Loris; Bayer, Ilker S; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Cingolani, Roberto; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2013-01-30

    Biodegradable polymeric materials based on blending aqueous dispersions of natural polymer sodium alginate (NaAlg) and povidone iodine (PVPI) complex, which allow controlled antiseptic release, are presented. The developed materials are either free standing NaAlg films or Ca(2+)-cross-linked alginate beads, which properly combined with PVPI demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activity, suitable for therapeutic applications, such as wound dressing. Glycerol was used as the plasticizing agent. Film morphology was studied by optical and atomic force microscopy. It was found that PVPI complex forms well dispersed circular micro-domains within the NaAlg matrix. The beads were fabricated by drop-wise immersion of NaAlg/PVPI/glycerol solutions into aqueous calcium chloride solutions to form calcium alginate beads encapsulating PVPI solution (CaAlg/PVPI). Controlled release of PVPI was possible when the composite films and beads were brought into direct contact with water or with moist media. Bactericidal and fungicidal properties of the materials were tested against Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The results indicated very efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity within 48 h. Controlled release of PVPI into open wounds is highly desired in clinical applications to avoid toxic doses of iodine absorption by the wound. A wide variety of applications are envisioned such as external and internal wound dressings with controlled antiseptic release, hygienic and protective packaging films for medical devices, and polymer beads as water disinfectants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Efficiency of Vascular Embolization Using Alginate Gel : An Experimental Study in Rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woo Baek; Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Ki [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Daegu Catholic University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of poly-L-guluronic alginate (PGA) gel in vascular embolization with angiography simulation. To prepare a gel-forming PGA from no guluronate-rich Laminaria japonica, a new acid hydrolysis method was employed with a lower HCL concentration (0.03 M) and a shorter treatment time (5 min). The obtained PGAs were selected based on gel stability and viscosity. Glass aneurysm model was used to simulate gel embolization in vitro. Then, finally, the PGA was used to embolize the renal vascular system by using a rabbit model and angiography. Glass aneurysm model was made to simulate gel embolization procedure. PGA solution was injected from pump through 2-way catheter. Subsequent injection of CaCl{sub 2} successfully formed gels inside aneurysm model that conforming to its inner contour. In rabbit model, first, renal artery and aorta leading to the right kidney were ligated to block blood flow, then conventional contrast agent was injected through aorta to check the arterial patency to the left kidney. In sequential artery injection method, PGA and CaCl{sub 2} were injected through renal artery sequentially via a single catheter. Re-injection of contrast agent after removing ligated aorta showed blood flow to the right kidney but no flow in the left kidney. This result demonstrated a complete blocking of blood flow due to gel formation in vascular bed of the left kidney. Instillation of calcium alginate into aneurysm model and arterial system in vivo produced an embolization that better fills and conforms to the contour of aneurysms or blocking vascular bed completely. Therefore, PGA was effective endovascular occlusion materials and provide an efficiency of vascular angiography.

  15. Actuator device utilizing a conductive polymer gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Douglas A.; Irvin, David J.

    2004-02-03

    A valve actuator based on a conductive polymer gel is disclosed. A nonconductive housing is provided having two separate chambers separated by a porous frit. The conductive polymer is held in one chamber and an electrolyte solution, used as a source of charged ions, is held in the second chamber. The ends of the housing a sealed with a flexible elastomer. The polymer gel is further provide with electrodes with which to apply an electrical potential across the gel in order to initiate an oxidation reaction which in turn drives anions across the porous frit and into the polymer gel, swelling the volume of the gel and simultaneously contracting the volume of the electrolyte solution. Because the two end chambers are sealed the flexible elastomer expands or contracts with the chamber volume change. By manipulating the potential across the gel the motion of the elastomer can be controlled to act as a "gate" to open or close a fluid channel and thereby control flow through that channel.

  16. Polymer architecture of magnetic gels: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Rudolf; Hermes, Melissa; Schmidt, Annette M.; Holm, Christian

    2018-02-01

    In this review article, we provide an introduction to ferrogels, i.e. polymeric gels with embedded magnetic particles. Due to the interplay between magnetic and elastic properties of these materials, they are promising candidates for engineering and biomedical applications such as actuation and controlled drug release. Particular emphasis will be put on the polymer architecture of magnetic gels since it controls the degrees of freedom of the magnetic particles in the gel, and it is important for the particle-polymer coupling determining the mechanisms available for the gel deformation in magnetic fields. We report on the different polymer architectures that have been realized so far, and provide an overview of synthesis strategies and experimental techniques for the characterization of these materials. We further focus on theoretical and simulational studies carried out on magnetic gels, and highlight their contributions towards understanding the influence of the gels’ polymer architecture.

  17. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, E J J; Sathiyaraj, P; Deena, T; Kumar, D S

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer

  18. Evaluation of fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation on alginate-gelatin crosslinked hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapi Sarker

    Full Text Available Due to the relatively poor cell-material interaction of alginate hydrogel, alginate-gelatin crosslinked (ADA-GEL hydrogel was synthesized through covalent crosslinking of alginate di-aldehyde (ADA with gelatin that supported cell attachment, spreading and proliferation. This study highlights the evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of synthesized ADA-GEL hydrogels of different compositions compared to alginate in the form of films. Moreover, in vitro cell-material interaction on ADA-GEL hydrogels of different compositions compared to alginate was investigated by using normal human dermal fibroblasts. Viability, attachment, spreading and proliferation of fibroblasts were significantly increased on ADA-GEL hydrogels compared to alginate. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility of ADA-GEL hydrogels was found to be increased with increasing gelatin content. These findings indicate that ADA-GEL hydrogel is a promising material for the biomedical applications in tissue-engineering and regeneration.

  19. Polymer and Polymer Gel of Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teppei Shimakawa; Naoki Yoshimoto; Jun-ichi Hanna

    2004-01-01

    It prepared a polymer and polymer gel of a liquid crystalline (LC) semiconductor having a 2-phenylnaphthalene moiety and studied their charge carrier transport properties by the time-of-flight technique. It is found that polyacrylate having the mesogenic core moiety of 2-phenylnaphtalene (PNP-acrylate) exhibited a comparable mobility of 10-4cm2/Vs in smectic A phase to those in smectic A (SmA) phase of small molecular liquid crystals with the same core moiety, e.g., 6-(4'-octylphenyl)- 2-dodecyloxynaphthalene (8-PNP-O12), and an enhanced mobility up to 10-3cm2/Vs in the LC-glassy phase at room temperature, when mixed with a small amount of 8-PNP-O12. On the other hand, the polymer gel consisting of 20 wt %-hexamethylenediacrylate (HDA)-based cross-linked polymer and 8-PNP-O12 exhibited no degraded mobility when cross-linked at the mesophase. These results indicate that the polymer and polymer composite of liquid crystalline semiconductors provide us with an easy way to realize a quality organic semiconductor thin film for the immediate device applications.

  20. Drug delivery matrices based on scleroglucan/alginate/borax gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricardi, Pietro; Onorati, Ilenia; Coviello, Tommasina; Alhaique, Franco

    2006-06-19

    The aim of this work is to obtain a new drug delivery matrix, especially designed for protein delivery, based on biodegradable and biocompatible polymers, and to describe its main physico-chemical properties. A polysaccharide based semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) was built up, composed by sodium alginate chains interspersed into a scleroglucan/borax hydrogel network. Tablets were obtained by compression of the resulting freeze-dried hydrogel. The different release and physico-chemical properties possessed by the two starting polymers in various aqueous media were combined in the new matrix. In this work, description is given of the in vitro ability of the matrix to deliver in a controlled manner a protein, Myoglobin, in distilled water, simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid; the release, simulating a gastric passage, followed by an enteric delivery, was also carried out. Water uptake data, colorimetric experiments and scanning electron microscopy images are given for the characterization of this new solid dosage form; the importance of the borax presence is also discussed.

  1. Investigating potential physicochemical errors in polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedaghat, Mahbod; Lepage, Martin; Bujold, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Measurement errors in polymer gel dosimetry can originate either during irradiation or scanning. One concern related to the exothermic nature of polymerization reaction was that the heat released in polymer gel dosimeters during irradiation modifies their dose response. In this paper, the effect of heat released from the exothermal polymerization reaction on the dose response of a number of dosimeters was studied. In addition, we investigated whether heat-generated geometric distortion existed in newly proposed gel dosimeters that contain highly thermoresponsive polymers. Our results suggest that despite a significant internal temperature increase in some gel compositions, their dose responses are not affected when oxygen is well expelled mechanically from the gel mixture. We also report on significant pre-irradiation instability in some recently developed polymer gel dosimeters but that geometric distortions were not observed. Data obtained by a set of small calibration vials are compared to those obtained from larger phantoms, and potential physicochemical causes of deviations between them are identified.

  2. Investigating potential physicochemical errors in polymer gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedaghat, Mahbod; Lepage, Martin [Centre d' imagerie moleculaire de Sherbrooke, Departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Bujold, Rachel, E-mail: martin.lepage@usherbrooke.ca [Service de radio-oncologie, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada)

    2011-09-21

    Measurement errors in polymer gel dosimetry can originate either during irradiation or scanning. One concern related to the exothermic nature of polymerization reaction was that the heat released in polymer gel dosimeters during irradiation modifies their dose response. In this paper, the effect of heat released from the exothermal polymerization reaction on the dose response of a number of dosimeters was studied. In addition, we investigated whether heat-generated geometric distortion existed in newly proposed gel dosimeters that contain highly thermoresponsive polymers. Our results suggest that despite a significant internal temperature increase in some gel compositions, their dose responses are not affected when oxygen is well expelled mechanically from the gel mixture. We also report on significant pre-irradiation instability in some recently developed polymer gel dosimeters but that geometric distortions were not observed. Data obtained by a set of small calibration vials are compared to those obtained from larger phantoms, and potential physicochemical causes of deviations between them are identified.

  3. Efficacy of alginate-based reflux suppressant and magnesium-aluminium antacid gel for treatment of heartburn in pregnancy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pontip Meteerattanapipat; Vorapong Phupong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of alginate-based reflux suppressant and magnesium-aluminium antacid gel for treatment of heartburn in pregnancy. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial was conducted. One hundred pregnant women at less than 36 weeks gestation with heartburn at least twice per week were randomized to either alginate-based reflux suppressant or to magnesium-aluminium antacid gel. Details of heartburn were recorded before beginning the treatm...

  4. Acoustic evaluation of polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, M.L.; De Deene, Y.; Baldock, C.; Whittaker, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Advances in radiotherapy treatment techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy are placing increasing demands on radiation dosimetry for verification of dose distributions in 3D. In response, polymer gel dosimeters that are capable of recording dose distributions in 3D are currently being developed. Recently, a new technique for evaluation of absorbed dose distributions in these dosimeters using ultrasound was introduced. The current work aims to demonstrate the potential of ultrasound as an evaluation technique for polymer gel dosimeters and to investigate the ultrasound properties of two different dosimeter formulations, PAG and MAGIC gels

  5. Fundamentals of Polymer Gel Dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Kim B.

    2006-12-01

    The recent literature on polymer gel dosimetry contains application papers and basic experimental studies involving polymethacrylic-acid-based and polyacrylamide-based gel dosimeters. The basic studies assess the relative merits of these two most commonly used dosimeters, and explore the effects of tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (THPC) antioxidant on dosimeter performance. Polymer gel dosimeters that contain THPC or other oxygen scavengers are called normoxic dosimeters, because they can be prepared under normal atmospheric conditions, rather than in a glove box that excludes oxygen. In this review, an effort is made to explain some of the underlying chemical phenomena that affect dosimeter performance using THPC, and that lead to differences in behaviour between dosimeters made using the two types of monomer systems. Progress on the development of new more effective and less toxic dosimeters is also reported.

  6. Effects of gel composition on the radiation induced density change in PAG polymer gel dosimeters: a model and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilts, M; Jirasek, A; Duzenli, C

    2004-01-01

    Due to a density change that occurs in irradiated polyacrylamide gel (PAG), x-ray computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a feasible method of performing polymer gel dosimetry. However, applicability of the technique is currently limited by low sensitivity of the density change to dose. This work investigates the effect of PAG composition on the radiation induced density change and provides direction for future work in improving the sensitivity of CT polymer gel dosimetry. A model is developed that describes the PAG density change (Δρ gel ) as a function of both polymer yield (%P) and an intrinsic density change, per unit polymer yield, that occurs on conversion of monomer to polymer (Δρ polymer ). %P is a function of the fraction of monomer consumed and the weight fraction of monomer in the unirradiated gel (%T). Applying the model to experimental CT and Raman spectroscopic data, two important fundamental properties of the response of PAG density to dose (Δρ gel dose response) are discovered. The first property is that Δρ polymer depends on PAG %C (cross-linking fraction of total monomer) such that low and high %C PAGs exhibit a higher Δρ polymer than do more intermediate %C PAGs. This relationship is opposite to the relationship of polymer yield to %C and is explained by the effect of %C on the type of polymer formed. The second property is that the Δρ gel dose response is linearly dependent on %T. From the model, the inference is that, at least for %T≤12%, monomer consumption and Δρ polymer depend solely on %C. In terms of optimizing CT polymer gel dosimetry for high sensitivity, these results indicate that Δρ polymer can be expected to vary with each polymer gel system and thus should be considered when choosing a polymer gel for CT gel dosimetry. However, Δρ polymer and %P cannot be maximized simultaneously and maximizing %P, by choosing gels with intermediate %C and high %T, is found to have the greatest impact on increasing the

  7. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Andersen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent, and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  8. An alginate-antacid formulation localizes to the acid pocket to reduce acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, Wout O.; Bennink, Roel J.; Smout, Andre J. P. M.; Thomas, Edward; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2013-01-01

    Alginate rafts (polysaccharide polymers that precipitate into a low-density viscous gel when they contact gastric acid) have been reported to form at the acid pocket, an unbuffered pool of acid that floats on top of ingested food and causes postprandial acid reflux. We studied the location of an

  9. Correlation between ionic conductivity and fluidity of polymer gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Ionic conductivity; ion aggregates; FTIR spectroscopy; gels; fluidity. 1. Introduction ... liquid and polymer gel electrolytes have been studied as functions of salt ..... Ratner M A 1987 in Polymer electrolyte reviews (eds) J R. MacCallum and C A ...

  10. Diffusion of Oxygen in Alginate Gels Related to the Kinetics of Methanol Oxidation by Immobilized Hansenula polymorpha Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Harry; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Harder, Willem

    1983-01-01

    In the yeast Hansenula polymorpha an oxygen-requiring enzyme, alcohol oxidase, catalyzes the conversion of methanol into formaldehyde. After growth on methanol cells of the organism were harvested and entrapped in barium-alginate gels. The diffusion of oxygen towards these cells is seriously

  11. Effects of a wax organogel and alginate gel complex on holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, James R; Rogers, Michael A; Cant, John P; McBride, Brian W; Osborne, Vern R

    2018-02-20

    The objectives of this study were to: (a) select an ideal organogel for the oil phase of a novel gel encapsulation technology, (b) optimize the formulation of an organogel and sodium alginate-based gel complex, and (c) examine the rumen protective ability of the gel by measuring 48-h in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production from encapsulated dried and ground holy basil leaves. A rice-bran wax and canola oil organogel was selected for the oil phase of the gel complex as this combination had a 48-h dry matter disappearance of 6%, the lowest of all organogels analyzed. The gel complex was formulated by homogenizing the organogel with a sodium alginate solution to create a low-viscosity oil-in-water emulsion. Average dry matter disappearance of gel-encapsulated holy basil was 19%, compared to 42% for the free, unprotected holy basil. However, gel encapsulation of holy basil stimulated gas production. Specifically, gas production of encapsulated holy basil was four times higher than the treatment with holy basil added on top of the gel prior to incubation rather than encapsulated within the gel. Although the gel itself was highly degradable, it is speculated encapsulation thwarted holy basil's antimicrobial activity. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Variations in Calcium and Alginate Ions Concentration in Relation to the Properties of Calcium Alginate Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Daemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alginate belongs to a group of natural polymers called polysaccharides. They have carboxylic functional groups beside hydroxyls which are common in all polysaccharides. These materials show interesting properties due to theirfunctional groups. One of these properties is the ability of this polymer as a suitable carrier of protecting and transferring drugs and biomolecules. The particle sizes of these polymers are very important for their applications, so different techniques were used for preparation of these materials. In this way polymeric nanoparticles of calcium alginate which are excellent carriers in drug delivery systems were prepared by addition of calcium chloride solution to dilute solution of sodium alginate. Investigation of the size and distribution of nanoparticles were analyzed by SEM method. The concentration effects of both alginate and calcium ions on the size and distribution of  nanoparticles were studied in this research. Results showed that the size of nanoparticles obviously decreased with decreasing polymeric alginate concentration because of lower active sites in polymer chain. On the other hand, thesize and distribution of nanoparticles are significantly improved with increase of calcium cation concentrations. The mean particle size 40-70 nm and spherical shape are the main characteristics of the prepared nanoparticles.

  13. Use of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters for measuring diagnostic doses on CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B; Venning, A J; Baldock, C

    2004-01-01

    X-ray CT has been used to evaluate polymer gel dosimeters for dose response in the therapeutic dose range. This method of polymer gel dosimeter evaluation has been shown to be useful for instance in the comparison of complex sterotactic field distributions with treatment plans. Image averaging and subtraction techniques are used for noise reduction in polymer gel dosimeters resulting in the delivery of several CT slices across the polymer gel dosimeters. It was a logical progression to evaluate normoxic polymer gel dosimeters with optimized CT scanning protocols. During these investigations it was found that unirradiated regions in irradiated normoxic polymer gel dosimetry phantoms polymerised possibly as a result of the evaluation using CT. This prompted an investigation of the CT diagnostic dose response of the normoxic polymer gel dosimeter in order to determine the dose contribution when evaluated using a CT scanner. Having established that there was an effect on the normoxic polymer gel dosimeter when evaluating with a CT scanner the suitability of these gels in the determination of CT diagnostic dose measurement was further investigated

  14. Implementation of nuclear magnetic resonance polymer-gel dosimetry into clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, Josef Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis research was to evaluate some basic properties of the polymer-gel dosimeter and test it in clinical practice. Dependence of polymer-gel dosimeter sensitivity on different photon and electron energies as well as on different mean dose rates of standard clinically used linear accelerator was studied. A physical/mathematical description of the effect of temperature on the polymer-gel dosimeter, able to correct a dosimeter 1/T2 response for different temperatures during the NMR measurement, was developed. The polymer-gel dosimeter was tested for the verification of stereotactic radiosurgery techniques with the Leksell Gamma Knife. There was an observed trend in polymer-gel dosimeter sensitivity dependence on quality index for the high-energy x ray beams. Similarly, there was an observed trend in dosimeter sensitivity dependence on mean electron energy. It was demonstrated that these trends were statistically significant. Polymer-gel dosimeter sensitivity was decreased with increased photon or electron energy. There was observed no trend in polymer-gel dosimeter sensitivity dependence on mean dose rates for both photon and electron beams within experimental errors. It was demonstrated in this study that the NMR 1/T2-dose response is increased for lower temperatures of the evaluated polymer-gel samples. The relaxation rate response can be expressed as a function consisting of two terms, one denoted for the temperature dependence and the other one for the dose dependence. Two clinical applications of the polymer-gel dosimeter were demonstrated in this study. The first experiment allowed a check of the entire stereotactic procedure with the Leksell gamma knife including target stereotactic localization on NMR, treatment planning, and irradiation. The second experiment evaluated dosimetric and geometric inaccuracies associated with the stereotactic irradiation of the experimental rat brain. It was demonstrated that polymer-gel can be effectively used

  15. Alginate and DNA Gels Are Suitable Delivery Systems for Diabetic Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, Ana; Silva, Eduardo A; Min, Jianghong; Leal, Ermelindo C; Auster, Michael E; Pradhan-Nabzdyk, Leena; Shih, William; Mooney, David J; Veves, Aristidis

    2015-06-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) represent a severe health problem and an unmet clinical challenge. In this study, we tested the efficacy of novel biomaterials in improving wound healing in mouse models of diabetes mellitus (DM). The biomaterials are composed of alginate- and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based gels that allow incorporation of effector cells, such as outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC), and provide sustained release of bioactive factors, such as neuropeptides and growth factors, which have been previously validated in experimental models of DM wound healing or hind limb ischemia. We tested these biomaterials in mice and demonstrate that they are biocompatible and can be injected into the wound margins without major adverse effects. In addition, we show that the combination of OEC and the neuropeptide Substance P has a better healing outcome than the delivery of OEC alone, while subtherapeutic doses of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are required for the transplanted cells to exert their beneficial effects in wound healing. In summary, alginate and DNA scaffolds could serve as potential delivery systems for the next-generation DFU therapies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Contaminant containment using polymer gel barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, M.I.M.; Rowe, R.K.; Maarel, van der J.R.C.; Pel, L.; Huinink, H.P.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Polymer gels are well known in the oil industry, but their potential for use as barriers to contaminant transport has not previously received significant study. As a first step, this paper examines the potential for a polyelectrolyte gel to serve as a barrier to the migration of sodium chloride. Two

  17. Structure and dynamics of alginate gels cross-linked by polyvalent ions probed via solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brus, Jiří; Urbanová, Martina; Czernek, Jiří; Pavelková, M.; Kubová, K.; Vyslouzil, J.; Abbrent, Sabina; Konefal, Rafal; Horský, Jiří; Vetchy, D.; Vysloužil, J.; Kulich, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 8 (2017), s. 2478-2488 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-04109S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : alginate gels * microbead formulations * external gelation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 5.246, year: 2016

  18. Performance of polymer nano composite membrane electrode assembly using Alginate as a dopant in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell [Journal of Physics. Conference Series (Online), v. 795(1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulijani, S.

    2017-01-01

    Polymer membrane and composite polymer for membrane electrode assembly (MEAs) are synthesized and studied for usage in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). In this study, we prepared 3 type of MEAs, polystyrene (PS), sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) and composite polymer SPS-alginat membrane via catalyst hot pressed method. The performance and properties of prepared MEAs were evaluated and analyzed by impedance spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result showed that, water up take of MEA composite polymer SPS-alginate was obtained higher than that in SPS and PS. The proton conductivity of MEA-SPS-alginate was also higher than that PS and PSS. SEM characterization revealed that the intimate contact between the carbon catalyst layers (CL) and the membranes, and the uniformly porous structure correlate positively with the MEAs prepared by hot pressed method, exhibiting high performances for DMFC. (paper)

  19. Efficacy of alginate-based reflux suppressant and magnesium-aluminium antacid gel for treatment of heartburn in pregnancy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteerattanapipat, Pontip; Phupong, Vorapong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of alginate-based reflux suppressant and magnesium-aluminium antacid gel for treatment of heartburn in pregnancy. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial was conducted. One hundred pregnant women at less than 36 weeks gestation with heartburn at least twice per week were randomized to either alginate-based reflux suppressant or to magnesium-aluminium antacid gel. Details of heartburn were recorded before beginning the treatment and the second week of study. Primary outcome measure was the improvement of heartburn frequency after treatment and secondary outcome were the improvement of heartburn intensity, quality of life, maternal satisfaction, maternal side effects, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. There was no difference between treatment and control groups in improvement of heartburn frequency (80% vs 88%, p = 0.275), 50% reduction of frequency of heartburn (56% vs 52%, p = 0.688), improvement of heartburn intensity (92% vs 92%, p = 1.000) and 50% reduction of heartburn intensity (68% vs 80% cases, p = 0.075). There were also no significant differences in quality of life, maternal satisfaction, maternal side effects, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Alginate-based reflux suppressant was not different from magnesium-aluminium antacid gel in the treatment of heartburn in pregnancy. PMID:28317885

  20. Alginate gelation-induced cell death during laser-assisted cell printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudapati, Hemanth; Yan, Jingyuan; Huang, Yong; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    Modified laser-induced forward transfer has emerged as a promising bioprinting technique. Depending on the operating conditions and cell properties, laser cell printing may cause cell injury and even death, which should be carefully elucidated for it to be a viable technology. This study has investigated the effects of alginate gelation, gelation time, alginate concentration, and laser fluence on the post-transfer cell viability of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Sodium alginate and calcium chloride are used as the gel precursor and gel reactant solution to form cell-laden alginate microspheres. It is found that the effects of gelation depend on the duration of gelation. Two-minute gelation is observed to increase the cell viability after 24 h incubation, mainly due to the protective cushion effect of the forming gel membrane during droplet landing. Despite the cushion effect from 10 min gelation, it is observed that the cell viability decreases after 24 h incubation because of the forming thick gel membrane that reduces nutrient and oxygen diffusion from the culture medium. In addition, the cell viability after 24 h incubation decreases as the laser fluence or alginate concentration increases. (paper)

  1. Conducting polymer electrodes for gel electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Bengtsson

    Full Text Available In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that π-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation.

  2. Conducting polymer electrodes for gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Katarina; Nilsson, Sara; Robinson, Nathaniel D

    2014-01-01

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that π-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation.

  3. Fabrication and evaluation of biomimetic scaffolds by using collagen-alginate fibrillar gels for potential tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Lin; Luo Dongmei; Xu Songmei; Wang Xiaoliang; Li Xudong

    2011-01-01

    Pore architecture and its stable functionality under cell culturing of three dimensional (3D) scaffolds are of great importance for tissue engineering purposes. In this study, alginate was incorporated with collagen to fabricate collagen-alginate composite scaffolds with different collagen/alginate ratios by lyophilizing the respective composite gels formed via collagen fibrillogenesis in vitro and then chemically crosslinking. The effects of alginate amount and crosslinking treatment on pore architecture, swelling behavior, enzymatic degradation and tensile property of composite scaffolds were systematically investigated. The relevant results indicated that the present strategy was simple but efficient to fabricate highly interconnected strong biomimetic 3D scaffolds with nanofibrous surface. NIH3T3 cells were used as a model cell to evaluate the cytocompatibility, attachment to the nanofibrous surface and porous architectural stability in terms of cell proliferation and infiltration within the crosslinked scaffolds. Compared with the mechanically weakest crosslinked collagen sponges, the cell-cultured composite scaffolds presented a good porous architecture, thus permitting cell proliferation on the top surface as well as infiltration into the inner part of 3D composite scaffolds. These composite scaffolds with pore size ranging from 150 to 300 μm, over 90% porosity, tuned biodegradability and water-uptake capability are promising for tissue engineering applications.

  4. Effect of alginate hydrogel containing polyproline-rich peptides on osteoblast differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubert, M; Monjo, M; Ramis, J M; Lyngstadaas, S P

    2012-01-01

    Polyproline-rich synthetic peptides have previously been shown to induce bone formation and mineralization in vitro and to decrease bone resorption in vivo. Alginate hydrogel formulations containing these synthetic peptides (P2, P5, P6) or Emdogain® (EMD) were tested for surface coating of bone implants. In an aqueous environment, the alginate hydrogels disclosed a highly compact structure suitable for cell adhesion and proliferation. Lack of cytotoxicity of the alginate-gel coating containing peptides was tested in MC3T3-E1 cell cultures. In the present study, relative mRNA expression levels of integrin alpha 8 were induced by P5 compared to untreated alginate gel, and osteopontin mRNA levels were increased after 21 days of culture by treatment with synthetic peptides or EMD compared to control. Further, in agreement with previous results when the synthetic peptides were administered in the culture media, osteocalcin mRNA was significantly upregulated after long-term treatment with the formulated synthetic peptides compared to untreated and EMD alginate gel. These results indicate that the alginate gel is a suitable carrier for the delivery of synthetic peptides, and that the formulation is promising as biodegradable and biocompatible coating for bone implants. (paper)

  5. Optical-CT scanning of polymer gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldham, M [Radiation Oncology Physics, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, NC (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The application of optical-CT scanning to achieve accurate high-resolution 3D dosimetry is a subject of current interest. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of past research and achievements in optical-CT polymer gel dosimetry, and to review current issues and challenges. The origins of optical-CT imaging of light-scattering polymer gels are reviewed. Techniques to characterize and optimize optical-CT performance are presented. Particular attention is given to studies of artifacts in optical-CT imaging, an important area that has not been well studied to date. The technique of optical-CT simulation by Monte-Carlo modeling is introduced as a tool to explore such artifacts. New simulation studies are presented and compared with experimental data.

  6. Optical-CT scanning of polymer gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldham, M

    2004-01-01

    The application of optical-CT scanning to achieve accurate high-resolution 3D dosimetry is a subject of current interest. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of past research and achievements in optical-CT polymer gel dosimetry, and to review current issues and challenges. The origins of optical-CT imaging of light-scattering polymer gels are reviewed. Techniques to characterize and optimize optical-CT performance are presented. Particular attention is given to studies of artifacts in optical-CT imaging, an important area that has not been well studied to date. The technique of optical-CT simulation by Monte-Carlo modeling is introduced as a tool to explore such artifacts. New simulation studies are presented and compared with experimental data

  7. Diffusion coefficient of alginate microcapsules used in pancreatic islet transplantation, a method to cure type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdahmadi, Avid; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.; Botvinick, Elliot

    2018-02-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising approach of providing insulin in type 1 diabetes. One strategy to protect islets from the host immune system is encapsulation within a porous biocompatible alginate membrane. This encapsulation provides mechanical support to the cells and allows selective diffusion of oxygen, nutrients and insulin while blocking immunoglobulins. These hydrogels form by diffusion of calcium ions into the polymer network and therefore they are highly sensitive to environmental changes and fluctuations in temperature. We investigated the effects of gel concentration, crosslinking time and ambient conditions on material permeability, volume, and rigidity, all of which may change the immunoisolating characteristics of alginate. To measure diffusion coefficient as a method to capture structural changes we studied the diffusion of fluorescently tagged dextrans of different molecular weight into the midplane of alginate microcapsules, the diffusion coefficient is then calculated by fitting observed fluorescence dynamics to the mathematical solution of 1-D diffusion into a sphere. These measurements were performed after incubation in different conditions as well as after an in vivo experiment in six immunocompetent mice for seven days. Additionally, the changes in gel volume after incubation at different temperatures and environmental conditions as well as changes in compression modulus of alginate gels during crosslinking were investigated. Our result show that increase of polymer concentration and crosslinking time leads to a decrease in volume and increase in compression modulus. Furthermore, we found that samples crosslinked and placed in physiological environment, experience an increase in volume. As expected, these volume changes affect diffusion rates of fluorescent dextrans, where volume expansion is correlated with higher calculated diffusion coefficient. This observation is critical to islet protection since higher permeability due

  8. Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Katarina; Nilsson, Sara; Robinson, Nathaniel D

    2014-01-01

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that p-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel ...

  9. Poly(vinylpyridine-co-styrene) based in situ cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sijin; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Changjin; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Kang, Yongku

    2011-01-01

    A gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) was successfully prepared by means of an in situ cross-linking reaction of poly(2-vinylpyridine-co-styrene) and oligo(ethylene oxide) with epoxide functional groups at 65 °C without using a polymerization initiator. A stable gel polymer electrolyte could be obtained by adding only 1% of a polymer gelator. The ionic conductivity of the GPE containing 99 wt% of liquid electrolyte was measured to be ca. 10 −2 S/cm at the ambient temperature. The ionic conductivity of the resulting GPE was comparable to that of a pure liquid electrolyte. The electrochemical stability window of the prepared gel polymer electrolytes was measured to be 5.2 V. The test cell carried a discharge capacity of 133.2 mAh/g at 0.1 C and showed good cycling performance with negligible capacity fading after the 200th cycle, maintaining 99.5% coulombic efficiency throughout 200 cycles. The resulting gel polymer electrolyte prepared by in situ thermal cross-linking without a polymerization initiator holds promise for application to on the high power lithium-ion polymer batteries.

  10. Carbon Redox-Polymer-Gel Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Melinte, S.; Gohy, J.-F.; Ajayan, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage devices that provide high specific power without compromising on specific energy are highly desirable for many electric-powered applications. Here, we demonstrate that polymer organic radical gel materials support fast bulk-redox charge storage, commensurate to surface double layer ion exchange at carbon electrodes. When integrated with a carbon-based electrical double layer capacitor, nearly ideal electrode properties such as high electrical and ionic conductivity, fast bulk redox and surface charge storage as well as excellent cycling stability are attained. Such hybrid carbon redox-polymer-gel electrodes support unprecedented discharge rate of 1,000C with 50% of the nominal capacity delivered in less than 2 seconds. Devices made with such electrodes hold the potential for battery-scale energy storage while attaining supercapacitor-like power performances. PMID:26917470

  11. Conductivity behaviour of polymer gel electrolytes: Role of polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of a container that can hold a large amount of solvent and as a result possesses the ... having high value of conductivity results in polymer gel electrolytes. They are ..... the availability of free ions provided by the acid. It gene- rally reaches a ...

  12. Alginate-Poly(ethylene glycol Hybrid Microspheres for Primary Cell Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouan Mahou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of medical therapies, which rely on the transplantation of microencapsulated living cells, depends on the quality of the encapsulating material. Such material has to be biocompatible, and the microencapsulation process must be simple and not harm the cells. Alginate-poly(ethylene glycol hybrid microspheres (alg-PEG-M were produced by combining ionotropic gelation of sodium alginate (Na-alg using calcium ions with covalent crosslinking of vinyl sulfone-terminated multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-VS. In a one-step microsphere formation process, fast ionotropic gelation yields spherical calcium alginate gel beads, which serve as a matrix for simultaneously but slowly occurring covalent cross-linking of the PEG-VS molecules. The feasibility of cell microencapsulation was studied using primary human foreskin fibroblasts (EDX cells as a model. The use of cell culture media as polymer solvent, gelation bath, and storage medium did not negatively affect the alg-PEG-M properties. Microencapsulated EDX cells maintained their viability and proliferated. This study demonstrates the feasibility of primary cell microencapsulation within the novel microsphere type alg-PEG-M, serves as reference for future therapy development, and confirms the suitability of EDX cells as control model.

  13. Surface Decontamination Studies of Cs-137 and Sr-85 Using Polymer Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, L.; Nguyen, C.; Nguyen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Strippable polymer coating is one of the methods for effective surface decontamination to remove isotopes on the contaminated surface. This method is applying in nuclear facilities on the World. In this paper, we present the results obtained in our laboratory from product the polymer coating to apply to remove radioisotopes of "1"3"7Cs and "8"5Sr from surface of glass, stainless steel, mild steel, ceramic, PVC plastic. This polymer gel solution consist of water soluble polymer preferably polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), plasticizing agent (glycerine) and chelating agents, (citric acid) which can be sprayed or pasted on to contaminated surface. After some hours, these gel solutions was dried to form a strong thin film and it was easily peeled off from a contaminated surface with the radioactive isotopes and can be disposed off as radioactive solid waste. In this study infrared spectrophotometry technique was used to examine the interaction of the cesium and strontium ions with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polymer gel and the results of the study were also presented. The results showed that decontamination efficiency of "1"3"7Cs and "8"5Sr strongly depended on property, porosity and smoothness of the contaminated surface and obtained from 95-99% on glass and stainless steel, ceramic and PVC plastic surfaces. The decontamination efficiency also depended on activity and coating thickness. Optimization of film thickness is around 0.2 mm. Decontamination efficiency of Polymer gel were compared with Decongel 1101 (product from USA) on surfaces. IR spectra studies indicated that Cs and Sr ions interacted with PVA and citric acid in Polymer gel through cacboxyl (C = O) group. Polymer gel could remove of "1"3"7Cs and "8"5Sr better than PVA gel does because of citric acid, which can form chelating complex with Cs and Sr ion. (author)

  14. Optimisation of decolourisation and degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, O; Fernández de Dios, M A; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the ability of the electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes and using a model diazo dye such as Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of main parameters, such as voltage, pH and iron concentration. Dye decolourisation, reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and energy consumption were studied. Central composite face-centred experimental design matrix and response surface methodology were applied to design the experiments and to evaluate the interactive effects of the three studied parameters. A total of 20 experimental runs were set, and the kinetic data were analysed using first-order and second-order models. In all cases, the experimental data were fitted to the empirical second-order model with a suitable degree for the maximum decolourisation of RB5, COD reduction and energy consumption by electro-Fenton-Fe alginate gel beads treatment. Working with the obtained empirical model, the optimisation of the process was carried out. The second-order polynomial regression model suggests that the optimum conditions for attaining maximum decolourisation, COD reduction and energy consumption are voltage, 5.69 V; pH 2.24 and iron concentration, 2.68 mM. Moreover, the fixation of iron on alginate beads suggests that the degradation process can be developed under this electro-Fenton process in repeated batches and in a continuous mode.

  15. How do monomeric components of a polymer gel dosimeter respond to ionising radiation: A steady-state radiolysis towards preparation of a 3D polymer gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozicki, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Ionising radiation-induced reactions of aqueous single monomer solutions and mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (Bis) in a steady-state condition are presented below and above gelation doses in order to highlight reactions in irradiated 3D polymer gel dosimeters, which are assigned for radiotherapy dosimetry. Both monomers are shown to undergo radical polymerisation and cross-linking, which result in the measured increase in molecular weight and radius of gyration of the formed polydisperse polymer coils. The formation of nanogels was also observed for Bis solutions at a low concentration. In the case of PEGDA-Bis mixtures, co-polymerisation is suggested as well. At a sufficiently high radiation dose, the formation of a polymer network was observed for both monomers and their mixture. For this reason a sol-gel analysis for PEGDA and Bis was performed gravimetrically and a proposition of an alternative to this method employing a nuclear magnetic resonance technique is made. The two monomers were used for preparation of 3D polymer gel dosimeters having the acronyms PABIG and PABIG nx . The latter is presented for the first time in this work and is a type of the formerly established PABIG polymer gel dosimeter. The elementary characteristics of the new composition are presented, underlining the ease of its preparation, low dose threshold, and slightly increased sensitivity but lower quasi-linear range of dose response in comparison to PABIG. - Highlights: → Steady-state radiolysis of Bis, PEGDA and Bis-PEGDA is examined. → High Mw products are formed at low absorbed doses. → Formation of Bis nanogels is likely; PEGDA solutions form hydrogels. → NMR technique can be used for sol-gel analysis. → Features of 3D polymer gel dosimeters made from PEGDA and Bis are shown.

  16. Hybrid 3D printing and electrodeposition approach for controllable 3D alginate hydrogel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wanfeng; Liu, Yanting; Wan, Wenfeng; Hu, Chengzhi; Liu, Zeyang; Wong, Chin To; Fukuda, Toshio; Shen, Yajing

    2017-06-07

    Calcium alginate hydrogels are widely used as biocompatible materials in a substantial number of biomedical applications. This paper reports on a hybrid 3D printing and electrodeposition approach for forming 3D calcium alginate hydrogels in a controllable manner. Firstly, a specific 3D hydrogel printing system is developed by integrating a customized ejection syringe with a conventional 3D printer. Then, a mixed solution of sodium alginate and CaCO 3 nanoparticles is filled into the syringe and can be continuously ejected out of the syringe nozzle onto a conductive substrate. When applying a DC voltage (∼5 V) between the substrate (anode) and the nozzle (cathode), the Ca 2+ released from the CaCO 3 particles can crosslink the alginate to form calcium alginate hydrogel on the substrate. To elucidate the gel formation mechanism and better control the gel growth, we can further establish and verify a gel growth model by considering several key parameters, i.e., applied voltage and deposition time. The experimental results indicate that the alginate hydrogel of various 3D structures can be formed by controlling the movement of the 3D printer. A cell viability test is conducted and shows that the encapsulated cells in the gel can maintain a high survival rate (∼99% right after gel formation). This research establishes a reliable method for the controllable formation of 3D calcium alginate hydrogel, exhibiting great potential for use in basic biology and applied biomedical engineering.

  17. Method of improving heterogeneous oil reservoir polymer flooding effect by positively-charged gel profile control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Xia, Huifen

    2018-01-01

    The project of polymer flooding has achieved great success in Daqing oilfield, and the main oil reservoir recovery can be improved by more than 15%. But, for some strong oil reservoir heterogeneity carrying out polymer flooding, polymer solution will be inefficient and invalid loop problem in the high permeability layer, then cause the larger polymer volume, and a significant reduction in the polymer flooding efficiency. Aiming at this problem, it is studied the method that improves heterogeneous oil reservoir polymer flooding effect by positively-charged gel profile control. The research results show that the polymer physical and chemical reaction of positively-charged gel with the residual polymer in high permeability layer can generate three-dimensional network of polymer, plugging high permeable layer, and increase injection pressure gradient, then improve the effect of polymer flooding development. Under the condition of the same dosage, positively-charged gel profile control can improve the polymer flooding recovery factor by 2.3∼3.8 percentage points. Under the condition of the same polymer flooding recovery factor increase value, after positively-charged gel profile control, it can reduce the polymer volume by 50 %. Applying mechanism of positively-charged gel profile control technology is feasible, cost savings, simple construction, and no environmental pollution, therefore has good application prospect.

  18. Dosimetric characteristics of PASSAG as a new polymer gel dosimeter with negligible toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhood, Bagher; Abtahi, Seyed Mohammad Mahdi; Geraily, Ghazale; Ghorbani, Mehdi; Mahdavi, Seied Rabi; Zahmatkesh, Mohammad Hasan

    2018-06-01

    Despite many advantages of polymer gel dosimeters, their clinical use is only not realized now. Toxicity of polymer gel dosimeters can be considered as one of their main limitations for use in routine clinical applications. In the current study, a new polymer gel dosimeter is introduced with negligible toxicity. For this purpose, 2-Acrylamido-2-Methy-1-PropaneSulfonic acid (AMPS) sodium salt monomer was replaced instead of acrylamide monomer used in PAGAT gel dosimeter by using %6 T and %50 C to the gel formula and the new formulation is called PASSAG (Poly AMPS Sodium Salt and Gelatin) polymer gel dosimeter. The irradiation of gel dosimeters was carried out using a Co-60 therapy machine. MRI technique was used to quantify the dose responses of the PASSAG gel dosimeter. Then, the MRI responses (R2) of the gel dosimeter was analyzed at different dose values, post-irradiation times, and scanning temperatures. The results showed that the new gel formulation has a negligible toxicity and it is also eco-friendly. In addition, carcinogenicity and genetic toxicity tests are negative for the monomer used in PASSAG. The radiological properties of PASSAG gel dosimeter showed that this substance can be considered as a soft tissue/water equivalent material. Furthermore, dosimetric evaluation of the new polymer gel dosimeter revealed an excellent linear R2-dose response in the evaluated dose range (0-15 Gy). The R2-dose sensitivity and dose resolution of PASSAG gel dosimeter were 0.081 s-1Gy-1 (in 0-15 Gy dose range) and 1 Gy (in 0-10 Gy dose range), respectively. Moreover, it was shown that the R2-dose sensitivity and dose resolution of the new gel dosimeter improves over time after irradiation. It was also found that the R2 response of the PASSAG gel dosimeter has less dependency to the 18, 20, and 24 °C scanning temperature in comparison to that of room temperature (22 °C).

  19. The Influence of Chitosan Cross-linking on the Properties of Alginate Microparticles with Metformin Hydrochloride—In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szekalska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium alginate is a polymer with unique ability to gel with different cross-linking agents in result of ionic and electrostatic interactions. Chitosan cross-linked alginate provides improvement of swelling and mucoadhesive properties and might be used to design sustained release dosage forms. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop and evaluate possibility of preparing chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles containing metformin hydrochloride by the spray-drying method. In addition, influence of cross-linking agent on the properties of microparticles was evaluated. Formulation of microparticles prepared by the spray drying of 2% alginate solution cross-linked by 0.1% chitosan was characterized by good mucoadhesive properties, high drug loading and prolonged metformin hydrochloride release. It was shown that designed microparticles reduced rat glucose blood level, delayed absorption of metformin hydrochloride and provided stable plasma drug concentration. Additionally, histopathological studies of pancreas, liver and kidneys indicated that all prepared microparticles improved degenerative changes in organs of diabetic rats. Moreover, no toxicity effect and no changes in rats behavior after oral administration of chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles were noted.

  20. An additive manufacturing-based PCL-alginate-chondrocyte bioprinted scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Joydip; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-11-01

    Regenerative medicine is targeted to improve, restore or replace damaged tissues or organs using a combination of cells, materials and growth factors. Both tissue engineering and developmental biology currently deal with the process of tissue self-assembly and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. In this investigation, additive manufacturing (AM) with a multihead deposition system (MHDS) was used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) cell-printed scaffolds using layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of polycaprolactone (PCL) and chondrocyte cell-encapsulated alginate hydrogel. Appropriate cell dispensing conditions and optimum alginate concentrations for maintaining cell viability were determined. In vitro cell-based biochemical assays were performed to determine glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), DNA and total collagen contents from different PCL-alginate gel constructs. PCL-alginate gels containing transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) showed higher ECM formation. The 3D cell-printed scaffolds of PCL-alginate gel were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous spaces of female nude mice. Histochemical [Alcian blue and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining] and immunohistochemical (type II collagen) analyses of the retrieved implants after 4 weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue and type II collagen fibril formation in the PCL-alginate gel (+TGFβ) hybrid scaffold. In conclusion, we present an innovative cell-printed scaffold for cartilage regeneration fabricated by an advanced bioprinting technology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Characterization of GDP-mannose dehydrogenase from the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus providing the precursor for the alginate polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhaken, Raimund; Voglas, Elena; Cock, J Mark; Neu, Volker; Huber, Christian G

    2011-05-13

    Alginate is a major cell wall polymer of brown algae. The precursor for the polymer is GDP-mannuronic acid, which is believed to be derived from a four-electron oxidation of GDP-mannose through the enzyme GDP-mannose dehydrogenase (GMD). So far no eukaryotic GMD has been biochemically characterized. We have identified a candidate gene in the Ectocarpus siliculosus genome and expressed it as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. The GMD from Ectocarpus differs strongly from related enzymes in bacteria and is as distant to the bacterial proteins as it is to the group of UDP-glucose dehydrogenases. It lacks the C-terminal ∼120 amino acid domain present in bacterial GMDs, which is believed to be involved in catalysis. The GMD from brown algae is highly active at alkaline pH and contains a catalytic Cys residue, sensitive to heavy metals. The product GDP-mannuronic acid was analyzed by HPLC and mass spectroscopy. The K(m) for GDP-mannose was 95 μM, and 86 μM for NAD(+). No substrate other than GDP-mannose was oxidized by the enzyme. In gel filtration experiments the enzyme behaved as a dimer. The Ectocarpus GMD is stimulated by salts even at low molar concentrations as a possible adaptation to marine life. It is rapidly inactivated at temperatures above 30 °C.

  2. Physicochemical properties of radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing for exudating wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asa, Anie Day DC.; De Guzman, Zenaida M.; Baldos, Davison T.; Asaad, Celia O.

    2013-01-01

    Honey is a well-known natural cure in promoting healing of wounds. Alginate, on the other hand, is a polysaccharide with pharmaceutical applications such as wound dressing and control release drugs. Calcium-alginate wound dressings have a gel-forming capability. in that, upon ion exchange between calcium ions in the dressing, and sodium ions in wound fluid, the dressing transforms into a gel. Cross-linked alginate gels can absorb would fluid, and also maintain a moist environment to the wound area. Combined with anti-microbial properties of honey and absorption and gelling properties of alginate, a honey alginate wound dressing is developed and irradiated for sterility. Its physicochemical properties are then analyzed. The honey-alginate wound dressing has lower pH (4.40±0.02) than alginate alone dressings (5.40±0.04) which is more favorable for wound healing. The dressing also has low moisture content (10.25±1.11%). Analysis of moisture vapour transmission rate shows a general increase with time for 48 hours. The wound dressing also has an absorbency of 19.00±1.80 g/100 cm 2 with a gel fraction of 18.44±0.63%. The rate of absorption analysis, meanwhile, shows a very rapid absorption rate upon exposure to wound fluid. After some time, a decrease in rate is observed which is accounted to the release of honey to the wound environment. For tensile strength, irradiation causes an effect in tensile strength in machine direction but is insignificant for cross machine direction. Physicochemical properties of the radiation-sterilized honey alginate wound dressing e.g. acidic pH, absorbency, moisture vapor permeability and absorption rate ascertain its characteristic as a good wound dressing for exudating wounds. Its low moisture content, meanwhile, allows for longer shelf-life of the developed product. (author)

  3. Aqueous clay suspensions stabilized by alginate fluid gels for coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Botao; Ma, Dong; Li, Fanglei; Li, Yong

    2017-11-01

    We have developed aqueous clay suspensions stabilized by alginate fluid gels (AFG) for coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control. Specially, this study aimed to characterize the effect of AFG on the microstructure, static and dynamic stability, and coal fire inhibition performances of the prepared AFG-stabilized clay suspensions. Compared with aqueous clay suspensions, the AFG-stabilized clay suspensions manifest high static and dynamic stability, which can be ascribed to the formation of a robust three-dimensional gel network by AFG. The coal acceleration oxidation experimental results show that the prepared AFG-stabilized clay suspensions can improve the coal thermal stability and effectively inhibit the coal spontaneous oxidation process by increasing crossing point temperature (CPT) and reducing CO emission. The prepared low-cost and nontoxic AFG-stabilized clay suspensions, exhibiting excellent coal fire extinguishing performances, indicate great application potentials in coal spontaneous combustion prevention and control.

  4. Preliminary investigation of PAGAT polymer gel radionuclide dosimetry of Tc-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kelly; Bailey, Dale; Hill, Brendan; Baldock, Clive

    2009-05-01

    PAGAT polymer gel was investigated as a suitable dosimeter materials for measuring absorbed dose from the unsealed source radionuclide Tc-99m. Differing amounts of Tc-99m over the range of 25-5000 MBq were introduced into a normoxic polymer gel mixture (PAGAT) in sealed nitrogen-filled P6 glass vials. After irradiation the gels were evaluated using MRI more than 48 hours after preparation to allow for radioactive decay. The dose delivered to the vial was also calculated empirically. R2 versus total activity curves were obtained over a number of experiments and these were used to evaluate the relationship between the amount of gel polymerization and the dose deposited by the radionuclide. A linear response up to 1000 MBq (corresponding to 20Gy) was displayed and was still behaving monotonically at 5000 MBq. Polymer gels offer the potential to measure radiation dose three-dimensionally using MRI.

  5. Fabrication of individual alginate-TCP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by means of powder printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Jorge; Pires, Inês; Gouveia, Barbara; Pereira, Manuel; Moseke, Claus; Groll, Jürgen; Ewald, Andrea; Vorndran, Elke

    2015-01-06

    The development of polymer-calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with tailored architectures and properties has great potential for bone regeneration. Herein, we aimed to improve the functional performance of brittle ceramic scaffolds by developing a promising biopolymer-ceramic network. For this purpose, two strategies, namely, direct printing of a powder composition consisting of a 60:40 mixture of α/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) powder and alginate powder or vacuum infiltration of printed TCP scaffolds with an alginate solution, were tracked. Results of structural characterization revealed that the scaffolds printed with 2.5 wt% alginate-modified TCP powders presented a uniformly distributed and interfusing alginate TCP network. Mechanical results indicated a significant increase in strength, energy to failure and reliability of powder-modified scaffolds with an alginate content in the educts of 2.5 wt% when compared to pure TCP, as well as to TCP scaffolds containing 5 wt% or 7.5 wt% in the educts, in both dry and wet states. Culture of human osteoblast cells on these scaffolds also demonstrated a great improvement of cell proliferation and cell viability. While in the case of powder-mixed alginate TCP scaffolds, isolated alginate gels were formed between the calcium phosphate crystals, the vacuum-infiltration strategy resulted in the covering of the surface and internal pores of the TCP scaffold with a thin alginate film. Furthermore, the prediction of the scaffolds' critical fracture conditions under more complex stress states by the applied Mohr fracture criterion confirmed the potential of the powder-modified scaffolds with 2.5 wt% alginate in the educts as structural biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

  6. Fabrication of individual alginate-TCP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by means of powder printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Jorge; Pires, Inês; Gouveia, Barbara; Pereira, Manuel; Moseke, Claus; Groll, Jürgen; Ewald, Andrea; Vorndran, Elke

    2015-01-01

    The development of polymer-calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with tailored architectures and properties has great potential for bone regeneration. Herein, we aimed to improve the functional performance of brittle ceramic scaffolds by developing a promising biopolymer–ceramic network. For this purpose, two strategies, namely, direct printing of a powder composition consisting of a 60:40 mixture of α/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) powder and alginate powder or vacuum infiltration of printed TCP scaffolds with an alginate solution, were tracked. Results of structural characterization revealed that the scaffolds printed with 2.5 wt% alginate-modified TCP powders presented a uniformly distributed and interfusing alginate TCP network. Mechanical results indicated a significant increase in strength, energy to failure and reliability of powder-modified scaffolds with an alginate content in the educts of 2.5 wt% when compared to pure TCP, as well as to TCP scaffolds containing 5 wt% or 7.5 wt% in the educts, in both dry and wet states. Culture of human osteoblast cells on these scaffolds also demonstrated a great improvement of cell proliferation and cell viability. While in the case of powder-mixed alginate TCP scaffolds, isolated alginate gels were formed between the calcium phosphate crystals, the vacuum-infiltration strategy resulted in the covering of the surface and internal pores of the TCP scaffold with a thin alginate film. Furthermore, the prediction of the scaffolds’ critical fracture conditions under more complex stress states by the applied Mohr fracture criterion confirmed the potential of the powder-modified scaffolds with 2.5 wt% alginate in the educts as structural biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. (paper)

  7. Synthesis of hydrogels of alginate for system controlled release of progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Marlon de F.; Rodriguez, Ruben J.S.; Silva, Ester C.C. da; Barreto, Gabriela N.S.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical modifications of natural polymers like alginate, has allowed the development of new formulations for controlled release systems. In this work we report the synthesis of a derivative of the amidic alginate with alkyl chain. The polymer was characterized by spectroscopic techniques: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fourier Transform Infrared. (author)

  8. Chemometric, physicomechanical and rheological analysis of the sol-gel dynamics and degree of crosslinking of glycosidic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choonara, Y E; Pillay, V; Singh, N; Ndesendo, V M K; Khan, R A

    2008-01-01

    The influence of calcium (Ca 2+ ), zinc (Zn 2+ ) and barium (Ba 2+ ) ions on the sol-gel interconversion dynamics, degree of crosslinking and the matrix resilience of crosslinked alginate gelispheres was determined. The dependent compositional and operational variables of crosslinking make it a challenging task to optimize the degree of crosslinking and the physicomechanical properties of alginate gelispheres. The combinatory approach of textural profiling, assessing pertinent rheological descriptors and chemometric model analysis of the sol-gel interconversion mechanisms and energy paradigms involved during crosslinking, hydration and erosion of gelispheres was explored. Molecular structural modelling of the gelispheres provided a mechanistic understanding of the sol-gel interconversion phenomena and their influence on the degree of crosslinking, the hydrational dynamics and gelisphere formation. Rheological analysis revealed offset yield point values of 6.1 mg ml -1 and 8.0 mg ml -1 were computed from fitted regression curves for determining the crosslinker concentration required for combinatory crosslinkers such as Ca/Zn/Ba ions and Ba/Zn, respectively. The influence of hydration on the erosion was a direct function of the gelispheres physicomechanical strength. Textural profiling characterized the gelisphere matrices for their resilience. The various crosslinkers interacted with monomeric units at varying intensities. Ba-crosslinked gelispheres were brittle with dense polymeric networks. Zn-crosslinked gelispheres produced permeable resilient matrices when hydrated and Ca-crosslinked gelispheres demonstrated intermediate resilience with greater G/M ratio alginate grades. Chemometrical analysis explicated a potential link between several phenomena such as the type of crosslinkers employed, the static shear-rate viscosity attained, the matrix resilience and the associated sol-gel mechanisms and energy paradigms of crosslinked gelispheres

  9. Effect of a novel amphipathic ionic liquid on lithium deposition in gel polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Nam-Soon; Koo, Bonjae; Yeon, Jin-Tak; Lee, Kyu Tae; Kim, Dong-Won

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Synthesis of a dimeric ionic liquid. · Gel polymer electrolytes providing uniform lithium deposit pathway. · An amphipathic ionic liquid locates at the interface between an electrolyte-rich phase and a polymer matrix in a gel polymer electrolyte. · The presence of PDMITFSI ionic liquid leads to the suppression of dendritic lithium formation on a lithium metal electrode. - Abstract: A novel dimeric ionic liquid based on imidazolium cation and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (TFSI) anion has been synthesized through a metathesis reaction. Its chemical shift values and thermal properties are identified via 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of the synthesized dimeric ionic liquid on the interfacial resistance of gel polymer electrolytes is described. Differences in the SEM images of lithium electrodes after lithium deposition with and without the 1,1'-pentyl-bis(2,3-dimethylimidazolium) bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide (PDMITFSI) ionic liquid in gel polymer electrolytes are clearly discernible. This occurs because the PDMITFSI ionic liquid with hydrophobic moieties and polar groups modulates lithium deposit pathways onto the lithium metal anode. Moreover, high anodic stability for a gel polymer electrolyte with the PDMITFSI ionic liquid was clearly observed.

  10. Influence of adding Sea Spaghetti seaweed and replacing the animal fat with olive oil or a konjac gel on pork meat batter gelation. Potential protein/alginate association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martín, F; López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2009-10-01

    Standard and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, MDSC) and dynamic rheological thermal analysis (DRTA) were used to in situ simulate the batter gelation process. Texture profile analysis (TPA) and conventional quality evaluations were applied to processed products. Sea Spaghetti seaweed addition was highly effective at reinforcing water/oil retention capacity, hardness and elastic modulus in all formulations. Olive oil substituting half pork fat yielded a presumably healthier product with slightly better characteristics than control. A konjac-starch mixed gel replacing 70% of pork fat produced a similar product to control but with nearly 10% more water. DSC revealed the currently unknown phenomenon that Sea Spaghetti alginates apparently prevented thermal denaturation of a considerable protein fraction. MDSC confirmed that this mainly concerned non-reversing effects, and displayed glass transition temperatures in the range of 55-65°C. DRTA and TPA indicated however much stronger alginate-type gels. It is tentatively postulated that salt-soluble proteins associate athermally with seaweed alginates on heating to constitute a separate phase in a thermal composite-gelling process.

  11. Investigation of vacuum pumping on the dose response of the MAGAS normoxic polymer gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venning, AJ.; Canberra Hospital, Canberra; University of Sydney, Sydney; Mather, ML.; Baldock, C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of vacuum pumping on the dose response of the MAGAS polymer gel dosimeter has been investigated. A delay of several days post-manufacture before irradiation was previously necessary due to the slow oxygen scavenging of ascorbic acid. The MAGAS polymer gel dosimeter was vacuum pumped before gelation to remove dissolved oxygen. The MAGAS polymer gel dosimeter was poured into glass screw-top vials, which were irradiated at various times, post-manufacture to a range of doses. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to determine the R2-dose response and /?2-dose sensitivity of the MAGAS polymer gel. The results were compared with a control batch of MAGAS polymer gel that was not vacuum pumped. It was shown that vacuum pumping on the MAGAS polymer gel solution immediately prior to sealing in glass screw-top vials initially increases the R2-dose response and R2-dose sensitivity of the dosimeter. An increase in the .R2-dose response and i?2-dose sensitivity was observed with increasing time between manufacture and irradiation. Over the range of post-manufacture irradiation times investigated, the greatest i?2-dose response and if 2 -dose sensitivity occurred at 96 hours

  12. Gel Formation in Polymers Undergoing Radiation-Induced Crosslinking and Scission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, V. N.; Singer, Klaus Albert Julius

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of the solubility of irradiated polyethylene. The experimental data were treated according to the Saito-Inokuti theory for gel formation in polymers exposed to ionizing radiation. Among other things, this theory is based upon the molecular weight distribution of the unirradiated...... polymer; in the present work, the actual distributions were determined by high-temperature gel permeation chromatography and corrected for long-chain branching. Under these circumstances, good agreement between theory and experimental data was obtained, which allowed the determination of the radiation...

  13. Cross-linked Composite Gel Polymer Electrolyte using Mesoporous Methacrylate-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Cho, Jinhyun; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Liquid electrolytes composed of lithium salt in a mixture of organic solvents have been widely used for lithium-ion batteries. However, the high flammability of the organic solvents can lead to thermal runaway and explosions if the system is accidentally subjected to a short circuit or experiences local overheating. In this work, a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte was prepared and applied to lithium-ion polymer cells as a safer and more reliable electrolyte. Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles containing reactive methacrylate groups as cross-linking sites were synthesized and dispersed into the fibrous polyacrylonitrile membrane. They directly reacted with gel electrolyte precursors containing tri(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, resulting in the formation of a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and favorable interfacial characteristics. The mesoporous SiO2 particles also served as HF scavengers to reduce the HF content in the electrolyte at high temperature. As a result, the cycling performance of the lithium-ion polymer cells with cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolytes employing methacrylate-functionalized mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles was remarkably improved at elevated temperatures. PMID:27189842

  14. Design, fabrication and characterization of oxidized alginate-gelatin hydrogels for muscle tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Hossein; Mashayekhan, Shohreh; Fadaoddini, Samira; Haghirsharifzamini, Yasamin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we reported the preparation of self cross-linked oxidized alginate-gelatin hydrogels for muscle tissue engineering. The effect of oxidation degree (OD) and oxidized alginate/gelatin (OA/GEL) weight ratio were examined and the results showed that in the constant OA/GEL weight ratio, both cross-linking density and Young's modulus enhanced by increasing OD due to increment of aldehyde groups. Furthermore, the degradation rate was increased with increasing OD probably due to decrement in alginate molecular weight during oxidation reaction facilitated degradation of alginate chains. MTT cytotoxicity assays performed on Wharton's Jelly-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells cultured on hydrogels with OD of 30% showed that the highest rate of cell proliferation belong to hydrogel with OA/GEL weight ratio of 30/70. Overall, it can be concluded from all obtained results that the prepared hydrogel with OA/GEL weight ratio and OD of 30/70 and 30%, respectively, could be proper candidate for use in muscle tissue engineering. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Novel decellularized liver matrix-alginate hybrid gel beads for the 3D culture of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongsheng; Liu, Yang; Wang, Huihui; Deng, Fei; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Shan; Ma, Xiaojun; Wu, Huijian; Sun, Guangwei

    2018-04-01

    Developing reliable three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems that can mimic native tumor microenvironments is necessary for investigating the mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis and screen therapeutic drugs. In the present study, we developed decellularized liver matrix-alginate (DLM-ALG) hybrid gel beads. DLM powder was prepared by optimized decellularization methods and liquid nitrogen grinding. DLM-ALG beads were generated by dropping alginate solution containing DLM powder into a gelling bath. DLM powder concentration in alginate solution was ≤1% (w/v) and had no effect on the sphericity and mechanical stability of the beads. In addition, HCCLM3 cells cultured in 1% (w/v) DLM-ALG beads presented gradually enhanced viability during in vitro culture. The protein expression of urokinase plasminogen activator system and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) of HCCLM3 cells, including MMP2 and MMP9, were more significantly promoted in DLM-ALG beads compared with that in conventional ALG beads without DLM powder. Moreover, the dose-dependent increase in HCCLM3 cell MMP activities was observed along with the DLM powder concentration in 0.5% and 1% DLM-ALG groups. Therefore, DLM-ALG beads might serve as a novel 3D culture system for exploring the mechanisms of HCC metastasis and screening therapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electroactive polymer gels based on epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samui, A. B.; Jayakumar, S.; Jayalakshmi, C. G.; Pandey, K.; Sivaraman, P.

    2007-04-01

    Five types of epoxy gels have been synthesized from common epoxy resins and hardeners. Fumed silica and nanoclay, respectively, were used as fillers and butyl methacrylate/acrylamide were used as monomer(s) for making interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) in three compositions. Swelling study, tensile property evaluation, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and electroactive property evaluation were done. The gels have sufficient mechanical strength and the time taken for bending to 20° was found to be 22 min for forward bias whereas it was just 12 min for reverse bias.

  17. TRANSPLANTATION OF CRYOPRESERVED FETAL LIVER CELLS SEEDED INTO MACROPOROUS ALGINATE-GELATIN SCAFFOLDS IN RATS WITH LIVER FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Grizay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the therapeutic potential of cryopreserved fetal liver cells seeded into macroporous alginategelatin scaffolds after implantation to omentum of rats with hepatic failure.Materials and methods.Hepatic failure was simulated by administration of 2-acetyl aminofl uorene followed partial hepatectomy. Macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds, seeded with allogenic cryopreserved fetal liver cells (FLCs were implanted into rat omentum. To prevent from colonization of host cells scaffolds were coated with alginate gel shell. Serum transaminase activity, levels of albumin and bilirubin as markers of hepatic function were determined during 4 weeks after failure model formation and scaffold implantation. Morphology of liver and scaffolds after implantation were examined histologically. Results. Macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds after implantation to healthy rats were colonized by host cells. Additional formation of alginate gel shell around scaffolds prevented the colonization. Implantation of macroporous scaffolds seeded with cryopreserved rat FLCs and additionally coated with alginate gel shell into omentum of rats with hepatic failure resulted in signifi cant improvement of hepatospecifi c parameters of the blood serum and positive changes of liver morphology. The presence of cells with their extracellular matrix within the scaffolds was confi rmed after 4 weeks post implantation.Conclusion. The data above indicate that macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds coated with alginate gel shell are promising cell carriers for the development of bioengineered liver equivalents.

  18. Ionic conductivity of polymer gels deriving from alkali metal ionic liquids and negatively charged polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogihara, Wataru; Sun Jiazeng; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Yoshizawa, Masahiro; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    We have prepared polymer gel electrolytes with alkali metal ionic liquids (AMILs) that inherently contain alkali metal ions. The AMIL consisted of sulfate anion, imidazolium cation, and alkali metal cation. AMILs were mixed directly with poly(3-sulfopropyl acrylate) lithium salt or poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) lithium salt to form polymer gels. The ionic conductivity of these gels decreased with increasing polymer fraction, as in general ionic liquid/polymer mixed systems. At low polymer concentrations, these gels displayed excellent ionic conductivity of 10 -4 to 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature. Gelation was found to cause little change in the 7 Li diffusion coefficient of the ionic liquid, as measured by pulse-field-gradient NMR. These data strongly suggest that the lithium cation migrates in successive pathways provided by the ionic liquids

  19. Preparation of micro-porous gel polymer for lithium ion polymer battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Je Young; Kim, Seok Koo; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Sang Young; Lee, Hyang Mok; Ahn, Soonho

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a micro-porous gelling polymer layer which is formed on both the sides of support polyolefin separator with wet or dry processing technique. Morphologies of gel-coated layer are dependent on the compositions and process conditions, such as solvent/non-solvent combination and stretching ratios. The micro-porous gelling layer is used for the assembly of the lithium ion polymer battery of LG Chemical Ltd. The structure of battery is given elsewhere and the battery has excellent discharge performance with 94% of 2C discharge performance at room temperature

  20. Synthesis of Thiolated Alginate and Evaluation of Mucoadhesiveness, Cytotoxicity and Release Retardant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, A. B.; Wasnik, M. N.; Nair, Hema A.

    2010-01-01

    Modification of polymers by covalent attachment of thiol bearing pendant groups is reported to impart many beneficial properties to them. Hence in the present study, sodium alginate–cysteine conjugate was synthesized by carbodiimide mediated coupling under varying reaction conditions and the derivatives characterized for thiol content. The thiolated alginate species synthesized had bound thiol content ranging from 247.8±11.03–324.54±10.107 ΅mol/g of polymer depending on the reaction conditions. Matrix tablets based on sodium alginate-cysteine conjugate and native sodium alginate containing tramadol hydrochloride as a model drug were prepared and mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release from the tablets were compared. Tablets containing 75 mg sodium alginate-cysteine conjugate could sustain release of 10 mg of model drug for 3 h, whereas 90% of the drug was released within 1 h from corresponding tablets prepared using native sodium alginate. An approximately 2-fold increase in the minimal detachment force of the tablets from an artificial mucin film was observed for sodium alginate–cysteine conjugate as compared to native sodium alginate. In vitro cytotoxicity studies in L-929 mouse fibroblast cells studied using an MTT assay revealed that at low concentrations of polymer, sodium alginate–cysteine conjugate was less toxic to L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line when compared to native sodium alginate. Hence, thiolation is found to be a simple route to improving polymer performance. The combination of improved controlled drug release and mucoadhesive properties coupled with the low toxicity of these new excipients builds up immense scope for the use of thiolated polymers in mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. PMID:21969750

  1. An investigation of the chemical stability of a monomer/polymer gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Deene, Y.; De Wagter, C.; De Neve, W.; Achten, E.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the temporal stability of a polyacrylamide gelatin hydrogel used for 3D monomer/polymer gel dosimetry techniques involving different methods of analysis. Long-term instabilities for a similar gel have recently been reported, but differ markedly from those described in this work. Two kinds of long-term instabilities are described. One affects the slope of the dose-R 2 plot and is related to post-irradiation polymerization of the comonomer/polymer aggregates. It is observed that post-irradiation polymerization only lasts 12 hours after irradiation. The other instability affects the intercept of the dose-R 2 plot, lasts for up to 30 days and is related to the gelation process of gelatin. Further studies were performed on gelatin gels of varying compositions to obtain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism that causes the instability due to gelation. The studies included observations of the spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation rates in combination with diffusion measurements and optical measurements. It is shown that the heating history during the manufacture of the gel affects the absolute R 2 value of the gel but not its variation. The findings presented in this study may help in producing more stable and reproducible monomer/polymer gel dosimeters. (author)

  2. Halloysite nanotubes as carriers of vancomycin in alginate-based wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczewska, Joanna; Pecyna, Paulina; Ratajczak, Magdalena; Gajęcka, Marzena; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2017-09-01

    The influence of an inorganic support - halloysite nanotubes - on the release rate and biological activity of the antibiotic encapsulated in alginate-based dressings was studied. The halloysite samples were loaded with approx. 10 wt.% of the antibiotic and then encapsulated in Alginate and Gelatin/Alginate gels. The material functionalized with aliphatic amine significantly extended the release of vancomycin from alginate-based gels as compared to that achieved when silica was used. After 24 h, the released amounts of the antibiotic immobilized at silica reached 70%, while for the drug immobilized at halloysite the released amount of vancomycin reached 44% for Alginate discs. The addition of gelatin resulted in even more prolonged sustained release of the drug. The antibiotic was released from the system with a double barrier with Higuchi kinetic model and Fickian diffusion mechanism. Only the immobilized drug encapsulated in Alginate gel demonstrated very good antimicrobial activity against various bacteria. The inhibition zones were greater than those of the standard discs for the staphylococci and enterococci bacteria tested. The addition of gelatin adversely affected the biological activity of the system. The inhibition zones were smaller than those of the reference samples. A reduction in the drug dose by half had no significant effect on changing the release rate and microbiological activity. The in vivo toxicity studies of the material with immobilized drug were carried out with Acutodesmus acuminatus and Daphnia magna . The material studied had no effect on the living organisms used in the bioassays. The proposed system with a double barrier demonstrated high storage stability.

  3. Heavy metal adsorptivity of calcium-alginate-modified diethylenetriamine-silica gel and its application to a flow analytical system using flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Masanobu; Suzuki, Toshinobu; Sugita, Tsuyoshi; Nagai, Daisuke; Hirayama, Kazuo; Onozato, Makoto; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Calcium-alginate-modified dien-silica gel adsorbed multivalent metal ions. • Metal ions adsorbed on CaAD were eluted using low acidic concentrations. • Flow system with CaAD-packed column enriched metal concentrations up to 50-fold. - Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the heavy metal adsorptivity of calcium-alginate-modified diethylenetriamine-silica gel (CaAD) and incorporate this biosorbent into a flow analytical system for heavy metal ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The biosorbent was synthesized by electrostatically coating calcium alginate onto diethylenetriamine (dien)-silica gel. Copper ion adsorption tests by a batch method showed that CaAD exhibited a higher adsorption rate compared with other biosorbents despite its low maximum adsorption capacity. Next, CaAD was packed into a 1 mL microcolumn, which was connected to a flow analytical system equipped with an FAAS instrument. The flow system quantitatively adsorbed heavy metals and enriched their concentrations. This quantitative adsorption was achieved for pH 3–4 solutions containing 1.0 × 10 −6 M of heavy metal ions at a flow rate of 5.0 mL min −1 . Furthermore, the metal ions were successfully desorbed from CaAD at low nitric acid concentrations (0.05–0.15 M) than from the polyaminecarboxylic acid chelating resin (Chelex 100). Therefore, CaAD may be considered as a biosorbent that quickly adsorbs and easily desorbs analyte metal ions. In addition, the flow system enhanced the concentrations of heavy metals such as Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Pb 2+ by 50-fold. This new enrichment system successfully performed the separation and determination of Cu 2+ (5.0 × 10 −8 M) and Zn 2+ (5.7 × 10 −8 M) in a river water sample and Pb 2+ (3.8 × 10 −9 M) in a ground water sample

  4. Investigation of optimal scanning protocol for X-ray computed tomography polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellakumar, P. [Bangalore Institute of Oncology, 44-45/2, II Cross, RRMR Extension, Bangalore 560 027 (India)], E-mail: psellakumar@rediffmail.com; James Jebaseelan Samuel, E. [School of Science and Humanities, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India); Supe, Sanjay S. [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Hosur Road, Bangalore 560 027 (India)

    2007-11-15

    X-ray computed tomography is one of the potential tool used to evaluate the polymer gel dosimeters in three dimensions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors which affect the image noise for X-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry. A cylindrical water filled phantom was imaged with single slice Siemens Somatom Emotion CT scanner. The imaging parameters like tube voltage, tube current, slice scan time, slice thickness and reconstruction algorithm were varied independently to study the dependence of noise on each other. Reductions of noise with number of images to be averaged and spatial uniformity of the image were also investigated. Normoxic polymer gel PAGAT was manufactured and irradiated using Siemens Primus linear accelerator. The radiation induced change in CT number was evaluated using X-ray CT scanner. From this study it is clear that image noise is reduced with increase in tube voltage, tube current, slice scan time, slice thickness and also reduced with increasing the number of images averaged. However to reduce the tube load and total scan time, it was concluded that tube voltage of 130 kV, tube current of 200 mA, scan time of 1.5 s, slice thickness of 3 mm for high dose gradient and 5 mm for low dose gradient were optimal scanning protocols for this scanner. Optimum number of images to be averaged was concluded to be 25 for X-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry. Choice of reconstruction algorithm was also critical. From the study it is also clear that CT number increase with imaging tube voltage and shows the energy dependency of polymer gel dosimeter. Hence for evaluation of polymer gel dosimeters with X-ray CT scanner needs the optimization of scanning protocols to reduce the image noise.

  5. Efficient functionalization of alginate biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalheim, Marianne Ø; Vanacker, Julie; Najmi, Maryam A; Aachmann, Finn L; Strand, Berit L; Christensen, Bjørn E

    2016-02-01

    Peptide coupled alginates obtained by chemical functionalization of alginates are commonly used as scaffold materials for cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. We here present an alternative to the commonly used carbodiimide chemistry, using partial periodate oxidation followed by reductive amination. High and precise degrees of substitution were obtained with high reproducibility, and without formation of by-products. A protocol was established using l-Tyrosine methyl ester as a model compound and the non-toxic pic-BH3 as the reducing agent. DOSY was used to indirectly verify covalent binding and the structure of the product was further elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. The coupling efficiency was to some extent dependent on alginate composition, being most efficient on mannuronan. Three different bioactive peptide sequences (GRGDYP, GRGDSP and KHIFSDDSSE) were coupled to 8% periodate oxidized alginate resulting in degrees of substitution between 3.9 and 6.9%. Cell adhesion studies of mouse myoblasts (C2C12) and human dental stem cells (RP89) to gels containing various amounts of GRGDSP coupled alginate demonstrated the bioactivity of the material where RP89 cells needed higher peptide concentrations to adhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electro-Fenton decolourisation of dyes in an airlift continuous reactor using iron alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, O; Rosales, E; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2013-04-01

    In this study, electro-Fenton dye degradation was performed in an airlift continuous reactor configuration by harnessing the catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads. Electro-Fenton experiments were carried out in an airlift reactor with a working volume of 1.5 L, air flow of 1.5 L/min and 115 g of Fe alginate gel beads. An electric field was applied by two graphite bars connected to a direct current power supply with a constant potential drop. In this study, Lissamine Green B and Reactive Black 5 were selected as model dyes. Fe alginate gel beads can be used as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the electro-Fenton process, as they are more efficient than the conventional electrochemical techniques. At optimal working conditions (3 V and pH 2), the continuous process was performed. For both dyes, the degree of decolourisation increases when the residence time augments. Taking into account hydrodynamic and kinetic behaviour, a model to describe the reactor profile was obtained, and the standard deviation between experimental and theoretical data was lower than 6%. The results indicate the suitability of the electro-Fenton technique to oxidise polluted effluents in the presence of Fe alginate gel beads. Moreover, the operation is possible in a continuous airlift reactor, due to the entrapment of iron in the alginate matrix.

  7. The role of the solvent in PMMA gel polymer\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, J.; Musil, M.; Sedlaříková, M.; Kořínek, Radim; Bartušek, Karel; Fedorková, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2016), s. 6-12 E-ISSN 2300-3545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : gel polymer electrolyte * TGA * NMR spectroscopy * conductivity * sodium polymer electrolyte Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/eetech.2016.2.issue-1/eetech-2016-0002/eetech-2016-0002.xml

  8. Radiation sensitive polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepage, M.; Back, S.A.J.; Baldock, C.; Whittaker, A.K.; Rintoul, L.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Radiation sensitive gels are studied for their potential to retain a permanent 3D dose distribution for applications in radiotherapy. Co-monomers dissolved in a tissue-equivalent hydrogel undergo a polymerization reaction upon absorption of ionizing radiation. The polymer formed influences the local spin-spin relaxation time (T 2 ) of the dosimeter that can be determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The relationship between T2 and the absorbed dose was studied for different initial chemical compositions. The aim was to find a model linking the changes in T 2 with absorbed dose to the initial composition of the dosimeter. It is believed this will help designing new gel dosimeters having desired properties to minimize the uncertainty in the determination of the dose distribution. 1 H, 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and FT-Raman spectroscopy were used to quantify the amount of monomers still remaining after the absorption of a given dose of radiation. This data is used to model the changes of T2 as a function of the absorbed dose. A model of fast exchange of magnetization between three proton pools was used, where the fraction of protons (f x H ) in the x th pool is obtained from the chemical composition of the dosimeter and the apparent T2 of each pool is determined for a given composition. Initially, the protons are contained in two pools; a mobile (mob), which contains the water protons and the monomers protons, and a gelatin (gela) proton pool. The mobile pool is partially depleted as polymer is formed, the protons are transferred into the polymer (pol) pool. In the figure, the experimental data along with the calculated values are plotted for three different monomer concentrations, with the gelatin concentration fixed. The model is seen to provide a good fit to the experimental data

  9. Systematic study of alginate-based microcapsules by micropipette aspiration and confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberger, Rachelle M; Burke, Nicholas A D; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Stöver, Harald D H

    2013-10-01

    Micropipette aspiration and confocal fluorescence microscopy were used to study the structure and mechanical properties of calcium alginate hydrogel beads (A beads), as well as A beads that were additionally coated with poly-L-lysine (P) and sodium alginate (A) to form, respectively, AP and APA hydrogels. A beads were found to continue curing for up to 500 h during storage in saline, due to residual calcium chloride carried over from the gelling bath. In subsequent saline washes, micropipette aspiration proved to be a sensitive indicator of gel weakening and calcium loss. Aspiration tests were used to compare capsule stiffness before and after citrate extraction of calcium. They showed that the initial gel strength is largely due to the calcium alginate gel cores, while the long term strength is solely due to the poly-L-lysine-alginate polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) shells. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that calcium chloride exposure after PLL deposition led to PLL redistribution into the hydrogel bead, resulting in thicker but more diffuse and weaker PEC shells. Adding a final alginate coating to form APA capsules did not significantly change the PEC membrane thickness and stiffness, but did speed the loss of calcium from the bead core. © 2013.

  10. Dispensing of very low volumes of ultra high viscosity alginate gels: a new tool for encapsulation of adherent cells and rapid prototyping of scaffolds and implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepp, Michael M; Ehrhart, Friederike; Shirley, Stephen G; Howitz, Steffen; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    We present a tool for dispensing very low volumes (20 nL or more) of ultra high viscosity (UHV) medical-grade alginate hydrogels. It uses a modified piezo-driven micrometering valve, integrated into a versatile system that allows fast prototyping of encapsulation procedures and scaffold production. Valves show excellent dispensing properties for UHV alginate in concentrations of 0.4% and 0.7% and also for aqueous liquids. An optimized process flow provides excellent handling of biological samples under sterile conditions. This technique allows the encapsulation of adherent cells and structuring of substrates for biotechnology and regenerative medicine. A variety of cell lines showed at least 70% viability after encapsulation (including cell lines that are relevant in regenerative medicine like Hep G2), and time-lapse analysis revealed cells proliferating and showing limited motility under alginate spots. Cells show metabolic activity, gene product expression, and physiological function. Encapsulated cells have contact with the substrate and can exchange metabolites while being isolated from macromolecules in the environment. Contactless dispensing allows structuring of substrates with alginate, isolation and transfer of cell-alginate complexes, and the dispensing of biological active hydrogels like extracellular matrix-derived gels.

  11. Alginate as immobilization matrix and stabilizing agent in a two-phase liquid system: application in lipase-catalysed reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, S; Kvittingen, L; Anthonsen, T; Skjåk-Braek, G

    1992-01-01

    Alginate was evaluated as an immobilization matrix for enzyme-catalyzed reactions in organic solvents. In contrast to most hydrogels, calcium alginate was found to be stable in a range of organic solvents and to retain the enzyme inside the gel matrix. In hydrophobic solvents, the alginate gel (greater than 95% water) thus provided a stable, two-phase liquid system. The lipase from Candida cylindracea, after immobilization in alginate beads, catalysed esterification and transesterification in n-hexane under both batch and continuous-flow conditions. The operational stability of the lipase was markedly enhanced by alginate entrapment. In the esterification of butanoic acid with n-butanol, better results were obtained in the typical hydrophilic calcium alginate beads than in less hydrophilic matrices. The effects of substrate concentration, matrix area, and polarity of the substrate alcohols and of the organic solvent on the esterification activity were examined. The transesterification of octyl 2-bromopropanoate with ethanol was less efficient than that of ethyl 2-bromopropanoate with octanol. By using the hydrophilic alginate gel as an immobilization matrix in combination with a mobile hydrophobic phase, a two-phase liquid system was achieved with definite advantages for a continuous, enzyme-catalysed process.

  12. Self-organized dysprosium-directed alginate hydrogels and its chemical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qianmin [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Gao, Jinwei [Institute for Advanced Materials, Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Peng, Huojun [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Qianming, E-mail: qmwang@scnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Rational use of self-organized materials may contribute in developing new structures and devices in practical technology. Synthetic metallo-supramolecular gels are generally designed with transitional metal-directed process. However, the assembly of both lanthanide and sodium alginate in macromolecular systems would find a new way of utilizing its physical properties. The stimuli-responsive molecule (alginate) could firmly form stable hydrogels upon the encapsulation of dysprosium ions. In addition, the immobilization of YVO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticle in the soft matrix has been achieved and it has never been explored in the fabrication of phosphor-incorporated luminescent alginate gels. The key feature of the present soft matter is that its red emission could be switched off in the presence of sodium ascorbate and the results may have a tremendous impact on the extension of photophysical application based on soft nanoscale devices. - Highlights: • Dy{sup 3+} can be used for the gelation of the dissolved alginate. • Lanthanide hydrogels could exhibit red emissions under excitations. • Luminescence could be switched “off” in the presence of sodium ascorbate.

  13. Halloysite nanotubes as carriers of vancomycin in alginate-based wound dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurczewska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an inorganic support – halloysite nanotubes – on the release rate and biological activity of the antibiotic encapsulated in alginate-based dressings was studied. The halloysite samples were loaded with approx. 10 wt.% of the antibiotic and then encapsulated in Alginate and Gelatin/Alginate gels. The material functionalized with aliphatic amine significantly extended the release of vancomycin from alginate-based gels as compared to that achieved when silica was used. After 24 h, the released amounts of the antibiotic immobilized at silica reached 70%, while for the drug immobilized at halloysite the released amount of vancomycin reached 44% for Alginate discs. The addition of gelatin resulted in even more prolonged sustained release of the drug. The antibiotic was released from the system with a double barrier with Higuchi kinetic model and Fickian diffusion mechanism. Only the immobilized drug encapsulated in Alginate gel demonstrated very good antimicrobial activity against various bacteria. The inhibition zones were greater than those of the standard discs for the staphylococci and enterococci bacteria tested. The addition of gelatin adversely affected the biological activity of the system. The inhibition zones were smaller than those of the reference samples. A reduction in the drug dose by half had no significant effect on changing the release rate and microbiological activity. The in vivo toxicity studies of the material with immobilized drug were carried out with Acutodesmus acuminatus and Daphnia magna. The material studied had no effect on the living organisms used in the bioassays. The proposed system with a double barrier demonstrated high storage stability.

  14. Incorporating allylated lignin-derivatives in thiol-ene gel-polymer electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncini, Elyse A; Stanzione, Joseph F

    2018-07-01

    Growing environmental and economic concerns as well as the uncertainty that accompanies finite petrochemical resources contributes to the increase in research and development of bio-based, renewable polymers. Concurrently, industrial and consumer demand for smaller, safer, and more flexible technologies motivates a global research effort to improve electrolytic polymer separators in lithium-ion batteries. To incorporate the aromatic structural advantages of lignin, a highly abundant and renewable resource, into gel-polymer electrolytes, lignin-derived molecules, vanillyl alcohol and gastrodigenin are functionalized and UV-polymerized with multi-functional thiol monomers. The resulting thin, flexible, polymer films possess glass transition temperatures ranging from -42.1°C to 0.3°C and storage moduli at 25°C ranging from 1.90MPa to 10.08MPa. The crosslinked polymer films swollen with electrolyte solution impart conductivities in the range of 7.04×10 -7 to 102.73×10 -7 Scm -1 . Thiol molecular weight has the most impact on the thermo-mechanical properties of the resulting films while polymer crosslink density has the largest effect on conductivity. The conducting abilities of the bio-based gel-polymer electrolytes in this study prove the viability of lignin-derived feedstock for use in lithium-ion battery applications and reveal structurally and thermally desirable traits for future work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel and high-effective redox-mediated gel polymer electrolyte for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Guofu; Feng, Enke; Sun, Kanjun; Peng, Hui; Li, Jiajia; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alkali and P-phenylenediamine doped polyvinyl alcohol gel electrolyte is prepared. • The PVA-KOH-PPD gel electrolyte can also be used as separator. • The introduction of PPD increases the ionic conductivity of electrolyte. • The supercapacitor exhibits flexible and high energy density. - Abstract: A supercapacitor utilize a novel redox-mediated gel polymer (PVA-KOH-PPD) as electrolyte and separator, and activated carbon as electrodes is assembled. The PVA-KOH-PPD gel polymer as potential electrolyte for supercapacitor is investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. It is found that the supercapacitor exhibits high ionic conductivity (25 mS cm −1 ), large electrode specific capacitance (611 F g −1 ) and high energy density (82.56 Wh kg −1 ). The high performance is attributed to the addition of quick redox reactions at the electrolyte|electrode interface as PPD undergoes a two-proton/two-electron reduction and oxidation during cycling. Furthermore, the supercapacitor with PVA-KOH-PPD gel polymer shows excellent charge-discharge stability, after 1000 charge-discharge cycles, the supercapacitor still retains a high electrode specific capacitance of 470 F g −1 . It is believed that the idea using redox mediator has a good prospect for improving the performances of supercapacitors

  16. EGSnrc calculated and MRI-polymer gel dosimeter measured dose distribution of gamma knife in presence of inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahverdi Pourfallah, T.; Allahverdi, M.; Riahi Alam, N.; Ay, M.; Zahmatkesh, M.; Ibbott, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Stereotactic gamma-knife radiosurgery plays an important role in managing small intracranial brain lesions. Currently, polymer gel dosimetry is still the only dosimetry method for directly measuring three-dimensional dose distributions. polymer gel dosimeters are tissue equivalent and can act as a phantom material. In this study effects of inhomogeneities on those distributions have been investigated using both EGSnrc calculation and PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter. (author)

  17. SU-E-T-243: MonteCarlo Simulation Study of Polymer and Radiochromic Gel for Three-Dimensional Proton Dose Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M; Jung, H; Kim, G; Ji, Y; Kim, K; Park, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the three dimensional dose distributions in a polymer gel and a radiochromic gel by comparing with the virtual water phantom exposed to proton beams by applying Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: The polymer gel dosimeter is the compositeness material of gelatin, methacrylic acid, hydroquinone, tetrakis, and distilled water. The radiochromic gel is PRESAGE product. The densities of polymer and radiochromic gel were 1.040 and 1.0005 g/cm3, respectively. The shape of water phantom was a hexahedron with the size of 13 × 13 × 15 cm3. The proton beam energies of 72 and 116 MeV were used in the simulation. Proton beam was directed to the top of the phantom with Z-axis and the shape of beam was quadrangle with 10 × 10 cm2 dimension. The Percent depth dose and the dose distribution were evaluated for estimating the dose distribution of proton particle in two gel dosimeters, and compared with the virtual water phantom. Results: The Bragg-peak for proton particles in two gel dosimeters was similar to the virtual water phantom. Bragg-peak regions of polymer gel, radiochromic gel, and virtual water phantom were represented in the identical region (4.3 cm) for 72 MeV proton beam. For 116 MeV proton beam, the Bragg-peak regions of polymer gel, radiochromic gel, and virtual water phantom were represented in 9.9, 9.9 and 9.7 cm, respectively. The dose distribution of proton particles in polymer gel, radiochromic gel, and virtual water phantom was approximately identical in the case of 72 and 116 MeV energies. The errors for the simulation were under 10%. Conclusion: This work indicates the evaluation of three dimensional dose distributions by exposing proton particles to polymer and radiochromic gel dosimeter by comparing with the water phantom. The polymer gel and the radiochromic gel dosimeter show similar dose distributions for the proton beams

  18. Synthesis of polymer gel electrolyte with high molecular weight poly(methyl methacrylate)-clay nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, Paulo; Qutubuddin, Syed; Webber, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposite gel electrolytes consisting of high molecular weight poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA-clay nanocomposite, ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) as plasticizer, and LiClO 4 electrolyte are reported. Montmorillonite clay was ion exchanged with a zwitterionic surfactant (octadecyl dimethyl betaine) and dispersed in methyl methacrylate, which was then polymerized to synthesize PMMA-clay nanocomposites. The nanocomposite was dissolved in a mixture of EC/PC with LiClO 4 , heated and pressed to obtain polymer gel electrolyte. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the gels indicated intercalated clay structure with d-spacings of 2.85 and 1.40 nm. In the gel containing plasticizer, the clay galleries shrink suggesting intercalation rather than partial exfoliation observed in the PMMA-clay nanocomposite. Ionic conductivity varied slightly and exhibited a maximum value of 8 x 10 -4 S/cm at clay content of 1.5 wt.%. The activation energy was determined by modeling the conductivity with a Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher expression. The clay layers are primarily trapped inside the polymer matrix. Consequently, the polymer does not interact significantly with LiClO 4 electrolyte as shown by FTIR. The presence of the clay increased the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the gel as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The PMMA nanocomposite gel electrolyte shows a stable lithium interfacial resistance over time, which is a key factor for use in electrochemical applications

  19. Effect of pH grade on polymer-gel dosimeter and its brachytherapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevacek, V.; Hrbacek, J.; Dvorak, P.; Cechak, T.; Novotny, J.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate impact of pH grade on characteristics of polymer-gel dosimeter and its application in dose distribution verification in brachytherapy. A polymer-gel dosimeter based on radiation induced polymerization and crosslinking of acrylic monomers (acrylic acid, N,N' methylen-bis-acrylamide) was investigated with respect to its pH grade. pH grade of a dosimeter was varied by concentration of natrium hydroxide. Afterwards, dosimeter was split into several samples which were uniformly irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays. The range of doses applied was usually from 0 to 50 Gy with the main interest in region up to 20 Gy. Evaluation of dosimeter dose response was performed using MRI (T2). Dose response curves obtained were evaluated with respect to pH grade as a parameter. In parallel, there was studied temperature resistance (melting temperature) of gels with various pH grade. pH grade modified polymer-gel dosimeter was then used to compare dose distribution calculated with brachytherapy treatment planning system for simple irradiation geometry with Ir-192 HDR source. Additionaly, Monte Carlo calculated data were also included in the brachytherapy study. There was observed effect of pH grade on dose-response curve parameters (slope of linear fit, background response, linear range and maximum measurable dose). In general, the lower pH grade the higher sensitivity. Another positive effect of decreased pH grade is significantly higher maximum measurable dose. Maximum melting temperature of a gel was observed with pH grade between 3.5 and 4. For both higher and lower pH grades the melting temperature was lower. Using pH modified polymer-gel dosimeter simple brachytherapy dose distribution was measured and compared with calculated and Monte Carlo simulated data. There was observed strong dependence of dose-response relationship on pH grade of polymer-gel dosimeter resulting in significant improvement of dosimeter characteristics, namely sensitivity, applicable range of

  20. Efficient and Stable Photovoltaic Characteristics of Quasi-Solid State DSSC using Polymer Gel Electrolyte Based on Ionic Liquid in Organosiloxane Polymer Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiarti, H.; Arsyad, W. S.; Shobih; Muliani, L.; Hidayat, R.

    2018-04-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is still one of the promising solar cell types among the third generation of solar cells because of easiness of fabrication and variety of available materials. In this type of solar cell, the electrolyte is one of the important components for regenerating excited dyes and transporting electric charge carriers to the counter electrode. Indeed, the power conversion efficiency of DSSC can be then significantly affected by the chemical and physical properties of the electrolyte. The simplest electrolyte system of an I-/I3 - redox couple in an organic solvent, however, has some drawbacks due to corrosive properties, volatile and leakage problem. Use of solid phase or gel phase electrolyte may overcome those problems, but it is often considered to suppress the efficiency due to low ion diffusion. Here, we report the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSC using polymer gel electrolyte (PGE), which is composed of ionic liquid and an organosiloxane polymer gel. The better cell performance with power conversion efficiency of about 6% has been obtained by optimizing the mesoporous size of the TiO2 layer and the PGE viscosity.

  1. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ∼2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ∼127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ∼76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  2. Polymer sol-gel composite inverse opal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoran; Blanchard, G J

    2015-03-25

    We report on the formation of composite inverse opal structures where the matrix used to form the inverse opal contains both silica, formed using sol-gel chemistry, and poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. We find that the morphology of the inverse opal structure depends on both the amount of PEG incorporated into the matrix and its molecular weight. The extent of organization in the inverse opal structure, which is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical reflectance data, is mediated by the chemical bonding interactions between the silica and PEG constituents in the hybrid matrix. Both polymer chain terminus Si-O-C bonding and hydrogen bonding between the polymer backbone oxygens and silanol functionalities can contribute, with the polymer mediating the extent to which Si-O-Si bonds can form within the silica regions of the matrix due to hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  3. Alginate: Current Use and Future Perspectives in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szekalska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, alginates, natural multifunctional polymers, have increasingly drawn attention as attractive compounds in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields due to their unique physicochemical properties and versatile biological activities. The focus of the paper is to describe biological and pharmacological activity of alginates and to discuss the present use and future possibilities of alginates as a tool in drug formulation. The recent technological advancements with using alginates, issues related to alginates suitability as matrix for three-dimensional tissue cultures, adjuvants of antibiotics, and antiviral agents in cell transplantation in diabetes or neurodegenerative diseases treatment, and an update on the antimicrobial and antiviral therapy of the alginate based drugs are also highlighted.

  4. Microencapsulation of probiotics using sodium alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Araújo Etchepare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of probiotics is constantly growing due to the numerous benefits conferred on the health of consumers. In this context, Microencapsulation is a technology that favors the viability of probiotic cultures in food products, mainly by the properties of protection against adverse environmental conditions and controlled release. Currently there are different procedures for microencapsulation using polymers of various types of natural and synthetic origin. The use of sodium alginate polymers is one of the largest potential application in the encapsulation of probiotics because of their versatility, biocompatibility and toxicity exemption. The aim of this review is to present viable encapsulation techniques of probiotics with alginate, emphasizing the internal ionic gelation and external ionic gelation, with the possibility of applying, as well as promising for improving these techniques.

  5. Release Behavior and Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan/Alginate Blends with Aloe vera and Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Chabala, Luisa Fernanda; Cuartas, Claudia Elena Echeverri; López, Martha Elena Londoño

    2017-10-24

    Aloe vera is a perennial plant employed for medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes that is rich in amino acids, enzymes, vitamins and polysaccharides, which are responsible for its therapeutic properties. Incorporating these properties into a biopolymer film obtained from alginate and chitosan allowed the development of a novel wound dressing with antibacterial capacity and healing effects to integrate the antibacterial capacity of silver nanoparticles with the healing and emollient properties of Aloe vera gel. Three alginate-chitosan matrices were obtained through blending methods using different proportions of alginate, chitosan, the Aloe vera (AV) gel and silver nanoparticles (AgNps), which were incorporated into the polymeric system through immersion methods. Physical, chemical and antibacterial characteristics were evaluated in each matrix. Interaction between alginate and chitosan was identified using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR), porosity was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling degree was calculated by difference in weight, Aloe vera gel release capacity was estimated by applying a drug model (Peppas) and finally antibacterial capacity was evaluated against S. Aureus and P. aeruginosa . Results show that alginate-chitosan (A (1:3 Chit 1/Alg 1); B (1:3 Chit 1.5/Alg 1) and C (3:1 Chit 1/Alg 1/B12)) matrices with Aloe vera (AV) gel and silver nanoparticles (AgNps) described here displayed antibacterial properties and absorption and Aloe vera release capacity making it a potential wound dressing for minor injuries.

  6. An alginate-antacid formulation localizes to the acid pocket to reduce acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohof, Wout O; Bennink, Roel J; Smout, Andre J P M; Thomas, Edward; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2013-12-01

    Alginate rafts (polysaccharide polymers that precipitate into a low-density viscous gel when they contact gastric acid) have been reported to form at the acid pocket, an unbuffered pool of acid that floats on top of ingested food and causes postprandial acid reflux. We studied the location of an alginate formulation in relation to the acid pocket and the corresponding effects on reflux parameters and acid pocket positioning in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic GERD and large hiatal hernias to groups who were given either (111)In-labeled alginate-antacid (n = 8, Gaviscon Double Action Liquid) or antacid (n = 8, Antagel) after a standard meal. The relative positions of labeled alginate and acid pocket were analyzed for 2 hours by using scintigraphy; reflux episodes were detected by using high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring. The alginate-antacid label localized to the acid pocket. The number of acid reflux episodes was significantly reduced in patients receiving alginate-antacid (3.5; range, 0-6.5; P = .03) compared with those receiving antacid (15; range, 5-20), whereas time to acid reflux was significantly increased in patients receiving alginate-antacid (63 minutes; range, 23-92) vs those receiving antacid (14 minutes; range, 9-23; P = .01). The acid pocket was located below the diaphragm in 71% of patients given alginate-antacid vs 21% of those given antacid (P = .08). There was an inverse correlation between a subdiaphragm position of the acid pocket and acid reflux (r = -0.76, P acid pocket and displaces it below the diaphragm to reduce postprandial acid reflux. These findings indicate the importance of the acid pocket in GERD pathogenesis and establish alginate-antacid as an appropriate therapy for postprandial acid reflux. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling of the inhomogeneous interior of polymer gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shew, C-Y; Iwaki, Takafumi

    2006-01-01

    A simple model has been investigated to elucidate the mean squared displacement (MSD) of probe molecules in cross-linked polymer gels. In the model, we assume that numerous cavities distribute in the inhomogeneous interior of a gel, and probe molecules are confined within these cavities. The individual probe molecules trapped in a gel are treated as Brownian particles confined to a spherical harmonic potential. The harmonic potential is chosen to model the effective potential experienced by the probe particle in the cavity of a gel. Each field strength is corresponding to the characteristic of one type of effective cavity. Since the statistical distribution of different effective cavity sizes is unknown, several distribution functions are examined. Meanwhile, the calculated averaged MSDs are compared to the experimental data by Nisato et al (2000 Phys. Rev. E 61 2879). We find that the theoretical results of the MSD are sensitive to the shape of the distribution function. For low cross-linked gels, the best fit is obtained when the interior cavities of a gel follow a bimodal distribution. Such a result may be attributed to the presence of at least two distinct classes of cavity in gels. For high cross-linked gels, the cavities in the gel can be depicted by a single-modal uniform distribution function, suggesting that the range of cavity sizes becomes smaller. These results manifest the voids inside a gel, and the shape of distribution functions may provide the insight into the inhomogeneous interior of a gel

  8. Development and Characterization of In Situ Oral Gel of Spiramycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the optimization, formulation, and characterization of oral in situ gel of spiramycin. Sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose were used as cross-linking and viscosifying agents, respectively. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a floating agent. In preformulation studies, the melting point, pH, and partition coefficient were found to be 133°C, 9.5, and 0.193, respectively. The drug had retention time at around 2.65 minutes in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. During compatibility studies of drug with all polymers, we observed that there were no changes in the FTIR spectra of a mixture of drug and polymers. All the formulations showed good pourability. Floating time and total floating time were ~30 sec and >12 hours, respectively. During in vitro drug release studies, the drug was released from the formulation around 80–100% for 12–16 hrs. In TEM analysis, we found that the drug molecules were well entrapped in the polymer and the drug was released slowly for up to 12 hrs. In these studies, we found that the concentration of sodium alginate and HPMC had significant influence on floating lag time, gelling capacity, and cumulative percentage drug release. During antimicrobial studies, we found that the formulation containing spiramycin showed good zone of inhibition against different microbial strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  9. Extraction of americium (III) by thermosensitive polymer gel copolymerized with acidic phosphorus compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Nakano, Yoshio; Matsumura, Tatsuro

    2001-01-01

    A new gel-liquid extraction using a thermosensitive gel was proposed. The thermosensitive gel shows the conformational change of polymer network with temperature, which is known as the phase transition phenomena of gel. The extraction rate and equilibrium of Am(III) in an aqueous solution containing nitrate ion were measured batchwise by using a thermosensitive gel, N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) copolymerized with 2-methacryloyloxy- ethylacidphosphate (MR). The effects of the conformational change of polymer network on the extraction rate and equilibrium were discussed. The distribution ratio of Am(III) showed a large value at higher than LCST (low critical solution temperature; 34degC) and was decreased by the phase transition of gel from shrinking to swelling with decreasing temperature. The extraction of Am(III) in the aqueous solution and the release of Am(III) extracted in the gel were repeated stably by the temperature swing operation between 40 and 3degC. The extraction mechanism of Am(III) was described simply as Am 3+ + 3R - OH=(R-O) 3 Am + 3H + (R-OH: MR). The equilibrium constant at the shrinking state (40degC) was more than 3 times of that at swelling state (3degC). The gel-phase diffusivity of Eu(III) used as a substitute of Am(III) was evaluated as the order of 10 -12 m 2 /s at either of 3 or 40degC, which was similar to those for practical extraction chromatographic resins. The temperature-response of gel for the extraction of Eu(III) was very excellent without delay even for the rapid temperature change at 10degC/min. These results suggest that the extraction and release of Am(III) in an aqueous solution can be controlled by the conformational change of polymer network of thermosensitive gel. (author)

  10. Thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on succinonitrile and ionic liquid for high-performance solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaind P.; Liu, Tao; Hancock, Cody; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Li, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A flexible, free-standing, thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMImBF4) entrapped in copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) is prepared and optimized for application in solvent-free solid-state supercapacitors. The synthesized gel polymer electrolyte exhibits a high ionic conductivity over a wide temperature range (from ∼5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at -30 °C up to ∼1.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C) with good electrochemical stability window (-2.9 to 2.5 V). Thermal studies confirm that the SN containing gel polymer electrolyte remains stable in the same gel phase over a wide temperature range from -30 to 90 °C. The electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have been fabricated using activated carbon as active materials and new gel polymer electrolytes. Electrochemical performance of the EDLCs is assessed through cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling and impedance spectroscopy. The EDLC cells with the proper SN-containing gel polymer electrolyte has been found to give high specific capacitance 176 F g-1 at 0.18 A g-1 and 138 F g-1 at 8 A g-1. These solid-state EDLC cells show good cycling stability and the capability to retain ∼80% of the initial capacitance after 10,000 cycles.

  11. How a gel polymer electrolyte affects performance of lithium/sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sheng S.; Tran, Dat T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Conventional separator is coated with a 50PEO-50SiO 2 (wt.%) composite layer. •Composite coating increases tensile strength and electrolyte wettability. •Coated separator offers an alternative approach for making gel polymer Li/S battery. •Li/S battery takes benefits of gel polymer electrolyte at the expense of capacity. -- Abstract: Gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) and composite gel polymer electrolyte (CGPE) have been widely employed to improve the safety and cycling performance of rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries. In order to determine whether this approach is applicable to lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery, we examine the effect of CGPE on the cycling and storage performances of Li/S cells by comparing a 50PEO-50SiO 2 (wt.%) composite coated separator (C-separator) with a pristine separator (P-separator). Results show that the composite coating significantly enhances the wettability of liquid electrolyte on the separator and that resulting CGPE can tightly glue the separator and electrode together. In comparison with the P-separator, the C-separator offers Li/S cells similar capacity retention and rate capability; however it greatly affects the specific capacity of sulfur. The analysis on the impedance spectrum of a lithium polysulfide (PS) solution reveal that the reduction of sulfur specific capacity is due to the high viscosity of the CGPE and the strong adsorption of SiO 2 filler to the PS species, which trap PS species in the separator and hence reduce the utilization of sulfur active material. Therefore, the benefits of the GPE and CGPE to the Li/S batteries can be taken only at the expense of sulfur specific capacity

  12. Novel Stable Gel Polymer Electrolyte: Toward a High Safety and Long Life Li-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jin; Liu, Xizheng; Guo, Shaohua; Zhu, Kai; Xue, Hailong; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-10-28

    Nonaqueous Li-air battery, as a promising electrochemical energy storage device, has attracted substantial interest, while the safety issues derived from the intrinsic instability of organic liquid electrolytes may become a possible bottleneck for the future application of Li-air battery. Herein, through elaborate design, a novel stable composite gel polymer electrolyte is first proposed and explored for Li-air battery. By use of the composite gel polymer electrolyte, the Li-air polymer batteries composed of a lithium foil anode and Super P cathode are assembled and operated in ambient air and their cycling performance is evaluated. The batteries exhibit enhanced cycling stability and safety, where 100 cycles are achieved in ambient air at room temperature. The feasibility study demonstrates that the gel polymer electrolyte-based polymer Li-air battery is highly advantageous and could be used as a useful alternative strategy for the development of Li-air battery upon further application.

  13. SU-E-T-753: Three-Dimensional Dose Distributions of Incident Proton Particle in the Polymer Gel Dosimeter and the Radiochromic Gel Dosimeter: A Simulation Study with MCNP Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M; Kim, G; Ji, Y; Kim, K; Park, S; Jung, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to estimate the three-dimensional dose distributions in the polymer and the radiochromic gel dosimeter, and to identify the detectability of both gel dosimeters by comparing with the water phantom in case of irradiating the proton particles. Methods: The normoxic polymer gel and the LCV micelle radiochromic gel were used in this study. The densities of polymer and the radiochromic gel dosimeter were 1.024 and 1.005 g/cm 3 , respectively. The dose distributions of protons in the polymer and radiochromic gel were simulated using Monte Carlo radiation transport code (MCNPX, Los Alamos National Laboratory). The shape of phantom irradiated by proton particles was a hexahedron with the dimension of 12.4 × 12.4 × 15.0 cm 3 . The energies of proton beam were 50, 80, and 140 MeV energies were directed to top of the surface of phantom. The cross-sectional view of proton dose distribution in both gel dosimeters was estimated with the water phantom and evaluated by the gamma evaluation method. In addition, the absorbed dose(Gy) was also calculated for evaluating the proton detectability. Results: The evaluation results show that dose distributions in both gel dosimeters at intermediated section and Bragg-peak region are similar with that of the water phantom. At entrance section, however, inconsistencies of dose distribution are represented, compared with water. The relative absorbed doses in radiochromic and polymer gel dosimeter were represented to be 0.47 % and 2.26 % difference, respectively. These results show that the radiochromic gel dosimeter was better matched than the water phantom in the absorbed dose evaluation. Conclusion: The polymer and the radiochromic gel dosimeter show similar characteristics in dose distributions for the proton beams at intermediate section and Bragg-peak region. Moreover the calculated absorbed dose in both gel dosimeters represents similar tendency by comparing with that in water phantom

  14. Formulation of Sodium Alginate Nanospheres Containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    controlled gellification method and to evaluate the role of the nanospheres as a ... method, and the particle size analysis was carried out by scanning electron ... capacity of sodium alginate was evaluated in terms of drug to polymer ratio.

  15. Diffusion of Acetic Acid Across Oil/Water Interface in Emulsification-Internal Gelation Process for Preparation of Alginate Gel Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-dong; YU Wei-ting; LIN Jun-zhang; MA Xiao-jun; YUAN Quan

    2007-01-01

    Alginate has been widely used in cell microencapsulation and drug delivery systems in the form of gel beads or microcapsules. Although an alternative novel emulsification-internal gelation technology has been established and both the properties and the potential applications of the beads in drug delivery systems have been studied, the mechanism has not been well understood compared with the traditional droplet method( external gelation technology). On the basis of our previous knowledge that the novel technology is composed of complicatedly consecutive processes with multistep diffusion and re action, and the diffusion of acetic acid across oil/water interface being the prerequisite that determines the occurrence and rate for the reactions and the structures and properties of final produced gel beads, a special emphasis was placed on the diffusion process. With the aid of diffusion modeling and simple experimental design, the diffusion rate constant and diffusion coefficient of acetic acid across oil/water interface were determined to be in the orders of magnitude of 10-6 and 10-16, respectively. This knowledge will be of particular importance in understanding and interpreting the formation, structure of the gel beads and the relationship between the structure and properties and guiding the preparation and quality control of the gel beads.

  16. Physical and chemical characterization of titanium-alginate samples for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morani, L.M.; Ribeiro, A.A.; Oliveira, M.V. de; Dantas, F.M.L., E-mail: marize.varella@int.gov.b [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leao, M.H.M.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The sol-gel technique combined with powder metallurgy may be an alternative to produce titanium parts for bioengineering, with the advantage of eliminating the powder compaction step, which may introduce defects. The present work introduces a system consisted of titanium powder and sodium alginate suspension, which undergoes reticulation in contact with a calcium salt solution, obtaining titanium/calcium alginate hydrogel with granule morphology. The characterization of the raw materials and granules of calcium alginate and titanium/calcium alginate was performed by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The granules topography was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy/EDS. Titanium and sodium alginate chemical composition were adequate for use as raw materials, showing that the methodology used is suitable for processing titanium samples for further consolidation by sintering, in order to produce titanium parts. (author)

  17. The spatial resolution in dosimetry with normoxic polymer-gels investigated with the dose modulation transfer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayreder, Christian; Schoen, Robert; Wieland, M.; Georg, Dietmar; Moser, Ewald; Berg, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The verification of dose distributions with high dose gradients as appearing in brachytherapy or stereotactic radiotherapy for example, calls for dosimetric methods with sufficiently high spatial resolution. Polymer gels in combination with a MR or optical scanner as a readout device have the potential of performing the verification of a three-dimensional dose distribution within a single measurement. The purpose of this work is to investigate the spatial resolution achievable in MR-based polymer gel dosimetry. The authors show that dosimetry on a very small spatial scale (voxel size: 94x94x1000 μm 3 ) can be performed with normoxic polymer gels using parameter selective T2 imaging. In order to prove the spatial resolution obtained we are relying on the dose-modulation transfer function (DMTF) concept based on very fine dose modulations at half periods of 200 μm. Very fine periodic dose modulations of a 60 Co photon field were achieved by means of an absorption grid made of tungsten-carbide, specifically designed for quality control. The dose modulation in the polymer gel is compared with that of film dosimetry in one plane via the DMTF concept for general access to the spatial resolution of a dose imaging system. Additionally Monte Carlo simulations were performed and used for the calculation of the DMTF of both, the polymer gel and film dosimetry. The results obtained by film dosimetry agree well with those of Monte Carlo simulations, whereas polymer gel dosimetry overestimates the amplitude value of the fine dose modulations. The authors discuss possible reasons. The in-plane resolution achieved in this work competes with the spatial resolution of standard clinical film-scanner systems

  18. Electron beam dosimetry in heterogeneous phantoms using a MAGIC normoxic polymer gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghahraman Asl, R.; Nedaie, H.; Bolouri, B.; Arbabi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays radiosensitive polymer gels are used as a reliable dosimetry tool for verification of 3D dose distributions. Special characteristics of these dosimeters have made them useful for verification of complex dose distributions in clinical situations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the capability of a normoxic polymer gel to determine electron dose distributions in different slab phantoms in presence of small heterogeneities. Materials and Methods: Different cylindrical phantoms consisting gel were used under slab phantoms during each irradiation. MR images of irradiated gel phantoms were obtained to determine their R2 relaxation maps. 1D and 2D lateral dose profiles were acquired at depths of 1 cm for an 8 MeV beam and 1 and 4 cm for the 15 MeV energy, and then compared with the lateral dose profiles measured using a diode detector. In addition, 3D dose distributions around these heterogeneities for the same energies and depths were measured using a gel dosimeter. Results: Dose resolution for MR gel images at the range of 0-10 Gy was less than 1.55 Gy. Mean dose difference and distance to agreement for dose profiles were 2.6% and 2.2 mm, respectively. The results of the MAGIC-type polymer gel for bone heterogeneity at 8 MeV showed a reduction in dose of approximately 50%, and 30% and 10% at depths 1 and 4 cm at 15 MeV. However, for air heterogeneity increases in dose of approximately 50% at depth 1 cm under the heterogeneity at 8 MeV and 20% and 45% respectively at 15 MeV were observed. Discussion and Conclusion: Generally, electron beam distributions are significantly altered in the presence of tissue inhomogeneities such as bone and air cavities, this being related to mass stopping and mass scattering powers of heterogeneous materials. At the same time, hot and cold scatter lobes under heterogeneity regions due to scatter edge effects were also seen. However, these effects (increased dose, reduced dose, hot and cold spots) at deeper depths, are

  19. Feasibility of quantitative PET/CT dosimetry for proton therapy using polymer gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidan, O A; Hsi, W C; Lopatiuk-Tirpak, O; Sriprisan, S I; Meeks, S L; Kupelian, P A; Li, Z; Palta, J R, E-mail: lenatirpak@gmail.co

    2010-11-01

    A feasibility study of proton beam PET/CT off-line quantitative dosimetry using polymer gels is presented. A newly developed proton-sensitive polymer gel dosimeter (BANG( (registered)) 3-Pro2) is used as a dosimeter and a tissue-equivalent phantom medium for this study. We explore a new approach to correlating measured proton 3-dimensional (3D) dose distributions directly to measured positron emission from in the gel medium using PET/CT imaging. A large cylindrical volume (2.2 Litres) of the gel was irradiated with a clinical modulated proton beam using irregular-shaped aperture geometry. The gel was imaged in a nearby PET/CT unit immediately (<3 min) after irradiation. Dose distribution in the gel was generated using an optical tomography scanning system. Direct 3D spatial comparison of dose and positron emission distributions was then performed. Profiles along the beam path show that the distal fall-off of the dose is nearly 2 cm deeper than the activity profile which is comparable to previous studies with plastic phantoms and Monte Carlo simulations of activity distributions. Planar PET and dose distributions at depth and perpendicular to beam axis show a strong one-to-one spatial correlation. This phantom study demonstrates that the gel medium could be potentially useful for quantifying various physical factors that can influence the PET activity range verification method in patients.

  20. Synthesis and in vitro characterization of a novel S-protected thiolated alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptstein, Sabine; Dezorzi, Stefanie; Prüfert, Felix; Matuszczak, Barbara; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-06-25

    The object of this study was to synthesize and characterize a novel S-protected thiolated polymer with a high degree of modification. In this regard, an alginate-cysteine and an alginate-cysteine-2-mercaptonicotinic acid conjugate were synthesized. To achieve a high coupling rate of the thiol group bearing ligand cysteine to the polymer, the carbohydrate was activated by an oxidative ring opening with sodium periodate followed by a reductive amination to bind the primary amino group of cysteine to resulting reactive aldehyde groups. The obtained thiolated polymer displayed 1561±130μmol thiol groups per gram polymer. About one third of these thiol groups were S-protected by the implementation of a thiol bearing aromatic protection group via disulfide bond formation. Test tablets of both modified polymers showed improved stability against oxidation in aqueous environment compared to the unmodified alginate and exhibit higher water-uptake capacity. Rheological investigations revealed an increased viscosity of the S-protected thiolated polymer whereat the thiolated non S-protected polymer showed gelling properties after the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The mucoadhesive properties could be improved significantly for both derivatives and no alteration in biocompatibility tested on Caco-2 cell monolayer employing an MTT assay could be detected after modification. According to these results, both new derivatives seem promising for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of non-electrophoresis grade with electrophoresis grade BIS in NIPAM polymer gel preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Khajeali, Azim; Farajollahi, Ali Reza; Hajalioghli, Parisa; Raeisi, Noorallah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:The main objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of replacing electrophoresis cross-linker with non-electrophoresis N, N′-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) in N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel and its possible effect on dose response. Methods: NIPAM polymer gel was prepared from non-electrophoresis grade BIS and the relaxation rate (R2) was measured by MR imaging after exposing the gel to gamma radiation from Co-60 source. To compare the response of this gel with the one that contains electrophoresis grade BIS, two sets of NIPAM gel were prepared using electrophoresis and non-electrophoresis BIS and irradiated to different gamma doses. Results: It was found that the dose–response of NIPAM gel made from the non-electrophoresis grade BIS is coincident with that of electrophoresis grade BIS. Conclusion:Taken all, it can be concluded that the non-electrophoresis grade BIS not only is a suitable alternative for the electrophoresis grade BIS but also reduces the cost of gel due to its lower price. PMID:26457250

  2. Immobilization of myoglobin in sodium alginate composite membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cecília de Souza Figueiredo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe immobilization of myoglobin in sodium alginate films was investigated with the aim of evaluating the protein stability in an ionic polymeric matrix. Myoglobin was chosen due to the resemblance to each hemoglobin tetramer. Sodium alginate, being a natural polysaccharide, was selected as the polymeric matrix because of its chemical structure and film-forming ability. To improve the mechanical resistance of sodium alginate films, the polymer was deposited over the surface of a cellulose acetate support by means of ultrafiltration. The ionic crosslink of sodium alginate was investigated by calcium ions. Composite membrane characterization comprised water swelling tests, water flux, SEM images and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrostatic interaction between the protein and the polysaccharide did not damage the UV-visible pattern of native myoglobin. A good affinity between sodium alginate and cellulose acetate was observed. The top layer of the dense composite membrane successfully immobilized Myoglobin, retaining the native UV-visible pattern for two months.

  3. Effects of alginate hydrogel cross-linking density on mechanical and biological behaviors for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jinah; Seol, Young-Joon; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Kundu, Joydip; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2014-09-01

    An effective cross-linking of alginate gel was made through reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3). We used human chondrocytes as a model cell to study the effects of cross-linking density. Three different pore size ranges of cross-linked alginate hydrogels were fabricated. The morphological, mechanical, and rheological properties of various alginate hydrogels were characterized and responses of biosynthesis of cells encapsulated in each gel to the variation in cross-linking density were investigated. Desired outer shape of structure was maintained when the alginate solution was cross-linked with the applied method. The properties of alginate hydrogel could be tailored through applying various concentrations of CaCO3. The rate of synthesized GAGs and collagens was significantly higher in human chondrocytes encapsulated in the smaller pore structure than that in the larger pore structure. The expression of chondrogenic markers, including collagen type II and aggrecan, was enhanced in the smaller pore structure. It was found that proper structural morphology is a critical factor to enhance the performance and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling studies: Adsorption of aniline blue by using Prosopis Juliflora carbon/Ca/alginate polymer composite beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M; Tamilarasan, R

    2013-02-15

    The research article describes the experimental and modeling study for the adsorptive removal of aniline blue dye (AB dye) from aqueous matrices using a Prosopis Juliflora modified carbon/Ca/alginate polymer bead as a low cost and eco-friendly adsorbent. The rate of adsorption was investigated under various experimental parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, pH and temperature. The kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies were assessed to find out the efficiency of the adsorption process. The equilibrium uptake capacity of the adsorption process was found with Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm equations and it was evaluated by dimensionless separation factor (R(L)). The dynamics of adsorption was predicted by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order Lagergren's equation and intra particle diffusion model. Adsorption feasibility was assessed with thermodynamic parameters such as isosteric heat of adsorption (ΔH°), standard entropy (ΔS°) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) using VantHoff plot. The alginate bead was characterized with FTIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruisi; Chen, Yuanfen; Montazami, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol %) were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  6. Sustained release of verapamil hydrochloride from sodium alginate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, S Ayesha; Shantakumar, S M; Shyale, Somashekar; Shalam, Md; Narasu, Laxmi

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release microcapsules of verapamil hydrochloride (VH) using biodegradable polymers. For this purpose microcapsules embedded verapamil hydrochloride were prepared using sodium alginate alone and also by incorporating some co polymers like methyl cellulose (MC), sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC) , poly vinyl pyrollidone (PVP) and xanthan gum by employing complex emulsion method of microencapsulation. Microcapsules were prepared in various core: coat ratios to know the effect of polymer and co polymers on drug release. Overall ten formulations were prepared and evaluated for flow behaviour, sieve analysis, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution studies, stability studies, including scanning electron microscopy and DSC. The resulting microcapsules were discrete, large, spherical and also free flowing. The drug content in all the batches of microcapsules was found to be uniform. The release was depended on core: coat ratio and nature of the polymers. FTIR analysis revealed chemical integrity between Verapamil hydrochloride (VH), sodium alginate and between the copolymers. Among the four copolymers used methyl cellulose retarded the drug release more than the other three, hence the same formulation was subjected for in vivo studies. The drug release from the microcapsules was found to be following non fickian diffusion. Mechanism of drug release was diffusion controlled first order kinetics. Drug diffusion co efficient and correlation co efficient were also assessed by using various mathematical models. In vivo result analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters revealed that t max of reference and test formulations were almost same. From the study it was concluded that, sustained release Verapamil hydro chloride microcapsules could be achieved with success using sodium alginate alone and also in combination with other biodegradable polymers.

  7. Characterization of long-term dose stability of N-isopropylacrylamide polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.J.; Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung City, Taiwan, ROC; Chen, C.H.; Hsieh, B.T.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the detailed characteristics, including spatial uniformity, dose distributions, inter-batch variability, reproducibility, and long-term temporal stability, of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel dosimeter were investigated. A commercial 10x fast optical computed tomography scanner (OCTOPUS TM -10×, MGS Research, Inc., Madison, CT, USA) was used to measure NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter. A cylindrical NIPAM gel phantom that measured 10 cm × 10 cm was irradiated via a single-field treatment plan with a field size of 4 cm × 4 cm. The maximum standard deviation of spatial uniformity for NIPAM gel was less than 0.29 %. The average standard deviation among the three batches of gel dosimeters was less than 1 %. The gamma pass rate could reach as high as 96.76 % when a 3 % dose difference and a 3 mm dose-to-agreement criteria were used. The long-term measurement of irradiated NIPAM gel dosimeter indicated that the dose maps attained a gradually stable value 15 h post-irradiation and remained stable until 72 h post-irradiation. The gamma pass rate could achieve a maximum value between 24 and 72 h post-irradiation. The edge enhancement effect that occurred around the irradiated region was observed 72 h post-irradiation. Thus, the results from this study suggest that NIPAM gel dosimeter should be measured approximately 24 h post-irradiation to reduce the occurrence of the edge enhancement effect. (author)

  8. Study of the influence of gold particles on the absorbed dose in soft tissue using polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonso, Luciana Caminha

    2011-01-01

    The presence of high-Z material adjacent to soft tissue, when submitted to irradiation, enhances locally the absorbed dose in these soft tissues. Such effect occurs due to the outscattering of photoelectrons from the high-Z material. Polymer gel dosimeters have been used to investigate this effect. Analytic calculations to estimate the dose enhancement and Monte Carlo simulations have been performed. Samples containing polymer gel (PG) with 0.005 gAu/gPG and pure polymer gel have been irradiated using an X-rays beam produced by 150 kV, filtered with 4 mm Al and 5 mm Cu, which resulted in an approximately 20% higher absorbed dose in the samples with gold in comparison to those with pure polymer gel. The analytic calculations and the Monte Carlo simulation resulted in a dose enhancement factor of approximately 30%. (author)

  9. Use of Magic polymer gels for dosimetry of unsealed source of yttrium 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meynard, K.; Bordage, M.C.; Cassol, E.; Courbon, F.; Ravel, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer gels are relative chemical dosimeters. They allow to access to three-dimensional dose distribution. The aim of this study has been to investigate the preparation and the use of a polymer gel with a tissue equivalent density known as MAGIC gel from magnetic resonance imaging and x-ray computed tomography for non-sealed source dosimetry. This kind of gel is 'normoxic' because it can be manufactured and used in normal room atmosphere. In the first part of this study, its accuracy and sensibility were studied using external beam irradiation by photons. Spin-spin relaxation rate (R 2 ) and Computed Tomography (CT) number had been used to record gel responses. Using the same manufacture process. radiolabelled gels composed of 95% MAGIC gel and 5% of 90 Y termed 90 Y-MAGIC 95 with varying activity ranged from 0 to 30 MBq were made. In case of photon external beam irradiation, a linear response is observed whatever the calibration method and the imaging system used (the correlation coefficient r 2 > 0.98 in all cases). 90 Y-MAGIC 95 radiolabelled gel responses were recorded after 28. 76 and 124 h. The R 2 /dose curves are not linear: three phases can be described. the first being linear with a slow slope (0.14 s -1 Gy -1 instead of 0.41 s -1 Gy -1 for external beam irradiation of the same gel batch). This study shows safety of radiolabelled MAGIC gels manufacturing process and their large dosimetric feasibility. 90 Y-MAGIC 95 gel response appears to be reproducible and related to the absorbed dose, thus this gel is a promising tool for non-sealed source dosimetry. (authors)

  10. Surface structure of polymer Gels and emerging functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kobiki, Y

    1999-01-01

    We report the surface structure of polymer gels on a submicrometer scale during the volume phase transition. Sponge-like domains with a mesoscopic scale were directly observed in water by using at atomic force microscope (AFM). The surface structure characterized by the domains is discussed in terms of the root-mean-square roughness and the auto-correlation function, which were calculated from the AFM images. In order to demonstrate the role of surface structure in determining the macroscopic properties of film-like poly (N-isopropylacrylamide: NIPA) gels. It was found that the temperature dependence, as well as the absolute values of the static contact angle, were strongly dependent on the bulk network inhomogeneities. The relation between the mesoscopic structure and the macroscopic properties is qualitatively discussed in terms of not only the changes in the chemical, but also in the physical, surface properties of the NIPA gels in response to a temperature change.

  11. Formulation of Convenient, Easily Scalable, and Efficient Granisetron HCl Intranasal Droppable Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Howida K; Abdel Malak, Nevine S; Abdel Halim, Sally A

    2015-06-01

    Deacetylated gellan gum and two sodium alginate polymer types were used each at three concentrations in the suitable range for their sol-gel transition. The prepared nine droppable gels were evaluated in vitro, ex vivo through sheep nasal mucosa, as well as in vivo in comparison to drug solution given intravenously and orally at the same dose. The prepared formulas gelled instantaneously in simulated nasal fluid and the obtained gels sustained their shear thinning and thixotropic behavior up to 48 h. Polymer type and concentration had significant effects on the apparent viscosities and the in vitro release profile of granisetron from the prepared gels. The drug release data best fitted a modified Higuchi equation with initial burst and followed Fickian diffusion mechanism. A 0.5% gellan-gum-based formula sustained the in vitro drug release up to 3 h and enhanced the drug permeation without need for an enhancer. The histopatholgical study revealed the safety of the tested formula. Intranasal delivery recorded double the drug bioavailabilty in comparison to the oral route. It had an absolute bioavailability of 0.6539 and the maximum plasma drug concentration reached after 1.5 h. The developed formula could be promising for the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting regarding its improved bioavailability, patient acceptability, and ease of production.

  12. Investigation of radiation gamma-sterilization effect on sodium alginate hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valueva, M.I.; Oltarzhevskaya, N.D.; Maksimova, Yu.S.; Fenin, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of gamma-radiation in doses ensuring materials sterility (6-15 kGy) on alginate hydrogels is studied. For conservation of polymer solutions viscosity after sterilization it is necessary to introduce in polymer matrix different additives inhibiting the radiolysis process. Substances-antioxidants (aqueous extracts of sea-buckthorn and blueberry), polyvinylpyrrolidone, pectin, polyethylene oxides with molecular mass from 400 to 40000 have been studied as the additives. The additives selected have the positive effect on the result of alginate hydrogels sterilization. It is established, that the problem of human tissue radiation protection is closely connected with the problem of biopolymer hydrogels radiation protection [ru

  13. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol % were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  14. Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers for Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great effort should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2 O 2 to natural polymers (carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC), chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate) during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated CMC, chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. On the other hand, radiation crosslinking of PAAm or PNIPAAm is affected by the presence of natural polymer like CMC-Na and carrageenan due to their degradability which could be controlled according to its concentration in the bulk medium and irradiation dose. Accordingly, the gel content, thermo-sensitivity (LCST) and swelling properties of PNIPAAm based natural polymers could be controlled. The swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was investigated for its possible use in personal care articles particularly diapers or as carriers for drug delivery systems. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na /PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper

  15. The study of the structural properties of very low viscosity sodium alginate by small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badita, C. R., E-mail: ramona@tandem.nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, ramona@tandem.nipne.ro, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomiştilor 405, CP MG - 11, RO – 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Aranghel, D., E-mail: daranghe@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, ramona@tandem.nipne.ro, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Extreme Light Intrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Radulescu, A. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, 85747 Garching (Germany); Anitas, E. M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, ramona@tandem.nipne.ro, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-25

    Sodium alginate is a linear polymer extract from brown algae and it is used in the biomedical, food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries as solution property modifiers and gelling agents. But despite the extensive studies of the alginate gelation process, still some fundamental questions remain unresolved. The fractal behavior of very low viscosity sodium alginate solutions and their influence on the critical gelation of alginate induced by Ca{sup 2+} ions were investigated using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) measurements. SANS data are interpreted using both standard linear plots and the Beaucage model. The scattering intensity is dependent by alginate concentration and Ca{sup 2+} concentration. From a critical concentration of 1.0 % w/w our polymer swelled forming spherical structures with rough surfaces. Also the addition of the salt induces the collapse and the appearance of the aggregation and clusters formation.

  16. Tubular array, dielectric, conductivity and electrochemical properties of biodegradable gel polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar, Y.N. [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Selvakumar, M., E-mail: chemselva78@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Bhat, D. Krishna [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore (India)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A new finding of tubular array of 10–20 μm in length and 1–2 μm in thickness of gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) having 2.2 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} conductivity is reported. • Thermal and electrochemical characterizations of GPEs show good interaction among the polymer, plasticizer and salt. • GPE based supercapacitor demonstrates high capacitance of 186 F g{sup −1}. • Low temperature studies did not influence much on capacitance values obtained from AC impedance studies. • Charge–discharge exhibits high capacity with excellent cyclic stability and energy density. -- Abstract: A supercapacitor based on a biodegradable gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) has been fabricated using guar gum (GG) as the polymer matrix, LiClO{sub 4} as the doping salt and glycerol as the plasticizer. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the gel polymer showed an unusual tubular array type surface morphology. FTIR, DSC and TGA results of the GPE indicated good interaction between the components used. Highest ionic conductivity and lowest activation energy values were 2.2 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} and 0.18 eV, respectively. Dielectric studies revealed ionic behavior and good capacitance with varying frequency of the GPE system. The fabricated supercapacitor showed a maximum specific capacitance value of 186 F g{sup −1} using cyclic voltammetry. Variation of temperature from 273 K to 293 K did not significantly influence the capacitance values obtained from AC impedance studies. Galvanostatic charge–discharge study of supercapacitor indicated that the device has good stability, high energy density and power density.

  17. Introduction of N-cadherin-binding motif to alginate hydrogels for controlled stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Won; An, Hyoseok; Lee, Kuen Yong

    2017-07-01

    Control of stem cell fate and phenotype using biomimetic synthetic extracellular matrices (ECMs) is an important tissue engineering approach. Many studies have focused on improving cell-matrix interactions. However, proper control of cell-cell interactions using synthetic ECMs could be critical for tissue engineering, especially with undifferentiated stem cells. In this study, alginate hydrogels were modified with a peptide derived from the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), which is known to bind to N-cadherin, as a cell-cell interaction motif. In vitro changes in the morphology and differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal cells (D1 stem cells) cultured in LRP5-alginate hydrogels were investigated. LRP5-alginate gels successfully induced stem cell aggregation and enhanced chondrogenic differentiation of D1 stem cells, compared to RGD-alginate gels, at low cell density. This approach to tailoring synthetic biomimetic ECMs using cell-cell interaction motifs may be critical in tissue engineering approaches using stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. X-ray computer tomography, ultrasound and vibrational spectroscopic evaluation techniques of polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Since Gore et al published their paper on Fricke gel dosimetry, the predominant method of evaluation of both Fricke and polymer gel dosimeters has been magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). More recently optical computer tomography (CT) has also been a favourable evaluation method. Other techniques have been explored and developed as potential evaluation techniques in gel dosimetry. This paper reviews these other developments

  19. Alginate nanobeads interspersed fibrin network as in situ forming hydrogel for soft tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, S; Jayakumar, R

    2018-06-01

    Hydrogels are a class of materials that has the property of injectability and in situ gel formation. This property of hydrogels is manipulated in this study to develop a biomimetic bioresorbable injectable system of alginate nanobeads interspersed in fibrin network. Alginate nanobeads developed by calcium cross-linking yielded a size of 200-500 nm. The alginate nanobeads fibrin hydrogel was formed using dual syringe apparatus. Characterization of the in situ injectable hydrogel was done by SEM, FTIR and Rheometer. The developed hydrogel showed mechanical strength of 19 kPa which provides the suitable compliance for soft tissue engineering. Cytocompatibility studies using human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells showed good attachment, proliferation and infiltration within the hydrogel similar to fibrin gel. The developed in situ forming hydrogel could be a suitable delivery carrier of stem cells for soft tissue regeneration.

  20. Dose response evaluation of a low-density normoxic polymer gel dosimeter using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsson, P [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Department of Radiation Physics, Finsen Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Karlsson, A [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Wieslander, E [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Gustavsson, H [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Baeck, S A J [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden)

    2006-02-21

    A low-density ({approx}0.6 g cm{sup -3}) normoxic polymer gel, containing the antioxidant tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosponium (THP), has been investigated with respect to basic absorbed dose response characteristics. The low density was obtained by mixing the gel with expanded polystyrene spheres. The depth dose data for 6 and 18 MV photons were compared with Monte Carlo calculations. A large volume phantom was irradiated in order to study the 3D dose distribution from a 6 MV field. Evaluation of the gel was carried out using magnetic resonance imaging. An approximately linear response was obtained for 1/T2 versus dose in the dose range of 2 to 8 Gy. A small decrease in the dose response was observed for increasing concentrations of THP. A good agreement between measured and Monte Carlo calculated data was obained, both for test tubes and the larger 3D phantom. It was shown that a normoxic polymer gel with a reduced density could be obtained by adding expanded polystyrene spheres. In order to get reliable results, it is very important to have a uniform distribution of the gel and expanded polystyrene spheres in the phantom volume.

  1. Dose response evaluation of a low-density normoxic polymer gel dosimeter using MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, P.; Karlsson, A.; Wieslander, E.; Gustavsson, H.; Bäck, S. Å. J.

    2006-02-01

    A low-density (~0.6 g cm-3) normoxic polymer gel, containing the antioxidant tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosponium (THP), has been investigated with respect to basic absorbed dose response characteristics. The low density was obtained by mixing the gel with expanded polystyrene spheres. The depth dose data for 6 and 18 MV photons were compared with Monte Carlo calculations. A large volume phantom was irradiated in order to study the 3D dose distribution from a 6 MV field. Evaluation of the gel was carried out using magnetic resonance imaging. An approximately linear response was obtained for 1/T2 versus dose in the dose range of 2 to 8 Gy. A small decrease in the dose response was observed for increasing concentrations of THP. A good agreement between measured and Monte Carlo calculated data was obained, both for test tubes and the larger 3D phantom. It was shown that a normoxic polymer gel with a reduced density could be obtained by adding expanded polystyrene spheres. In order to get reliable results, it is very important to have a uniform distribution of the gel and expanded polystyrene spheres in the phantom volume.

  2. Ionic liquids in a poly ethylene oxide cross-linked gel polymer as an electrolyte for electrical double layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudoy, V.; Tran Van, F.; Deschamps, M.; Ghamouss, F.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, we developed a gel polymer electrolyte via the incorporation of a room temperature ionic liquid into a cross-linked polymer matrix. The cross-linked gel electrolyte was prepared using a free radical polymerization of methacrylate and dimethacrylate oligomers dissolved in 1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide. Combining the advantages of the ionic liquids and of conventional polymers, the cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte was used both as a separator and as an electrolyte for a leakage-free and non-flammable EDLC supercapacitor. The quasi-all solid-state supercapacitors showed rather good capacitance, power and energy densities by comparison to a liquid electrolyte-based EDLC.

  3. Carbon beam dosimetry using VIP polymer gel and MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantemiris, I; Petrokokkinos, L; Angelopoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    VIP polymer gel dosimeter was used for Carbon ion beam dosimetry using a 150 MeV/n beam with 10 Gy plateau dose and a SOBP irradiation scheme with 5 Gy Bragg peak dose. The results show a decrease by 8 mm in the expected from Monte Carlo simulation range in water, suggesting that the dosimeter...

  4. Ca alginate as scaffold for iron oxide nanoparticles synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Finotelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nanotechnology has developed to a stage that makes it possible to process magnetic nanoparticles for the site-specific delivery of drugs. To this end, it has been proposed as biomaterial for drug delivery system in which the drug release rates would be activated by a magnetic external stimuli. Alginate has been used extensively in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical industries for their gel forming properties in the presence of multivalent cations. In this study, we produced iron oxide nanoparticles by coprecipitation of Fe(III and Fe(II. The nanoparticles were entrapped in Ca alginate beads before and after alginate gelation. XRD analysis showed that particles should be associated to magnetite or maghemite with crystal size of 9.5 and 4.3 nm, respectively. Studies using Mössbauer spectroscopy corroborate the superparamagnetic behavior. The combination of magnetic properties and the biocompatibility of alginate suggest that this biomaterial may be used as biomimetic system.

  5. Autonomous Oscillation of Nonthermoresponsive Polymers and Gels Induced by the Belousov–Zhabotinsky Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Hara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review introduces the self-oscillating behavior of two types of nonthermoresponsive polymer systems with Ru catalyst moieties for the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ reaction: one with a poly-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP main chain, and the other with a poly(2-propenamide (polyacrylamide (PAM main chain. The amplitude of the VP-based self-oscillating polymer chain and the activation energy for self-oscillation are hardly affected by the initial concentrations of the BZ substrates. The influences of the initial concentrations of the BZ substrates and the temperature on the period of the swelling-deswelling self-oscillation are examined in detail. Logarithmic plots of the period against the initial concentration of one BZ substrate, when the concentrations of the other two BZ substrates are fixed, show good linear relationships. The period of the swelling-deswelling self-oscillation decreases with increasing temperature, in accordance with the Arrhenius equation. The maximum frequency (0.5 Hz of the poly(VP-co-Ru(bpy3 gel is 20 times that of the poly(NIPAAm-co-Ru(bpy3 gel. It is also demonstrated that the amplitude of the volume self-oscillation for the gel has a tradeoff with the self-oscillation period. In addition, this review reports the self-oscillating behavior of an AM-based self-oscillating polymer chain as compared to that of the VP-based polymer chain.

  6. Study to produce polymer gel for decontamination on the surface of steel, ceramic, plastic, glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Quynh Luong; Nguyen Van Chinh; Nguyen Thu Trang; Nguyen An Thai; Nguyen Dinh Lam

    2015-01-01

    Strippable polymer coating is one of the methods for effective surface decontamination. A gel solution of a water soluble polymer, preferably polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chelating agent is applied to remove radioisotopes of Cs"1"3"7, Sr"8"5, I"1"3"1, P"3"2 and Tc"9"9"m on the surface of stainless steel, mild steel, ceramic, PVC plastic. After cleaning is completed, the gel solution is dried, formed a strong thin film, which is easily peeled off from a contaminated surface and can be disposed of as radioactive solid waste. Decontamination efficient of this gel polymer for radioisotopes have been studied on the surfaces and compared with Decongel 1101. The influence of decontamination agents, activity, film thickness to decontamination factor have been studied. The infrared spectrophotometer has been conducted to study mechanism of the decontamination for this radioisotope. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional bioprinting of complex cell laden alginate hydrogel structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabriz, Atabak Ghanizadeh; Hermida, Miguel A; Leslie, Nicholas R; Shu, Wenmiao

    2015-12-21

    Different bioprinting techniques have been used to produce cell-laden alginate hydrogel structures, however these approaches have been limited to 2D or simple three-dimension (3D) structures. In this study, a new extrusion based bioprinting technique was developed to produce more complex alginate hydrogel structures. This was achieved by dividing the alginate hydrogel cross-linking process into three stages: primary calcium ion cross-linking for printability of the gel, secondary calcium cross-linking for rigidity of the alginate hydrogel immediately after printing and tertiary barium ion cross-linking for long-term stability of the alginate hydrogel in culture medium. Simple 3D structures including tubes were first printed to ensure the feasibility of the bioprinting technique and then complex 3D structures such as branched vascular structures were successfully printed. The static stiffness of the alginate hydrogel after printing was 20.18 ± 1.62 KPa which was rigid enough to sustain the integrity of the complex 3D alginate hydrogel structure during the printing. The addition of 60 mM barium chloride was found to significantly extend the stability of the cross-linked alginate hydrogel from 3 d to beyond 11 d without compromising the cellular viability. The results based on cell bioprinting suggested that viability of U87-MG cells was 93 ± 0.9% immediately after bioprinting and cell viability maintained above 88% ± 4.3% in the alginate hydrogel over the period of 11 d.

  8. Sol-gel derived polymer composites for energy storage and conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kuo

    Sol-gel process is a simple chemistry to convert the small precursor molecules into an inorganic polymer, which could be applied to synthesize inorganic materials, modify the interface of materials, bridge the organic and inorganic materials, etc. In this dissertation, novel sol-gel derived composites have been developed for high dielectric breakdown capacitors, low high frequency loss capacitors and flexible piezoelectrics. Numerous efforts have been made in the past decades to improve the energy storage capability of composite materials by incorporating nanometer scale ceramic addictives with high dielectric permittivity into dielectric polymers with high breakdown strength. However, most composites suffer from the low breakdown strength and make the potential gain in energy density small. Here, a new chemical strategy is proposed that, through sol-gel reactions between ceramic precursors and functional groups at the end of the functionalized Poly(vinylidene fluoride -co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) chains, amorphous low permittivity ceramics was in-situ generated in the polymer matrix and cross-linked the polymer chains simultaneously. By carefully tuning precursors, the polymer/precursors feeding ratios, a series of nanocomposites were systematically designed. All the samples are comprehensively characterized and the structure-property correlations are well investigated. The optimal samples exhibit higher breakdown strength than the pristine polymer. The enhanced breakdown strength ascribed to low contrast in permittivity, great dispersion and improved electrical and mechanical properties. This newly developed approach has shown great promise for new composite capacitors. The percolative polymer composites have recently exhibited great potential in energy storage due to their high dielectric permittivities at the neighborhood of the percolation threshold. Yet high energy dissipation and poor voltage endurance of the percolative composites resulted from electrical

  9. Bacteriophage-derived enzyme that depolymerizes the alginic acid capsule associated with cystic fibrosis isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonti, T; Chanishvili, N; Taylor, P W

    2010-02-01

    To identify enzymes associated with bacteriophages infecting cystic fibrosis (CF) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are able to degrade extracellular alginic acids elaborated by the host bacterium. Plaques produced by 21 Ps. aeruginosa-specific phages were screened for the presence of haloes, an indicator of capsule hydrolytic activity. Four phages produced haloed plaques, and one (PT-6) was investigated further. PT-6 was shown by electron microscopy to belong to Podoviridae family C1, to reduce the viscosity of four alginate preparations using a rolling ball viscometer and to release uronic acid-containing fragments from the polymers, as judged by spectrophotometry and thin layer chromatography. The alginase was partially purified by gel filtration chromatography and shown to be a 37 kDa polypeptide. Infection of CF strains of Ps. aeruginosa by phage PT-6 involves hydrolysis of the exopolysaccharide secreted by the host. The alginase produced by PT-6 has the potential to increase the well-being of CF suffers by improving the surface properties of sputum, accelerating phagocytic uptake of bacteria and perturbing bacterial growth in biofilms.

  10. Polymer gel dosimetry for synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy and iodine dose-enhancement measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudou, C; Tropres, I; Rousseau, J; Lamalle, L; Adam, J F; Esteve, F; Elleaume, H

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSR) is a radiotherapy technique that makes use of the interactions of monochromatic low energy x-rays with high atomic number (Z) elements. An important dose-enhancement can be obtained if the target volume has been loaded with a sufficient amount of a high-Z element, such as iodine. In this study, we compare experimental dose measurements, obtained with normoxic polymer gel (nPAG), with Monte Carlo computations. Gels were irradiated within an anthropomorphic head phantom and were read out by magnetic resonance imaging. The dose-enhancement due to the presence of iodine in the gel (iodine concentration: 5 and 10 mg ml -1 ) was measured at two radiation energies (35 and 80 keV) and was compared to the calculated factors. nPAG dosimetry was shown to be efficient for measuring the sharp dose gradients produced by SSR. The agreement between 3D gel dosimetry and calculated dose distributions was found to be within 4% of the dose difference criterion and a distance to agreement of 2.1 mm for 80% of the voxels. Polymer gel doped with iodine exhibited higher sensitivity, in good agreement with the calculated iodine-dose enhancement. We demonstrate in this preliminary study that iodine-doped nPAG could be used for measuring in situ dose distributions for iodine-enhanced SSR treatment

  11. Monte Carlo verification of polymer gel dosimetry applied to radionuclide therapy: a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gear, J I; Partridge, M; Flux, G D; Charles-Edwards, E

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the dosimetric performance of the polymer gel dosimeter 'Methacrylic and Ascorbic acid in Gelatin, initiated by Copper' and its suitability for quality assurance and analysis of I-131-targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry. Four batches of gel were manufactured in-house and sets of calibration vials and phantoms were created containing different concentrations of I-131-doped gel. Multiple dose measurements were made up to 700 h post preparation and compared to equivalent Monte Carlo simulations. In addition to uniformly filled phantoms the cross-dose distribution from a hot insert to a surrounding phantom was measured. In this example comparisons were made with both Monte Carlo and a clinical scintigraphic dosimetry method. Dose-response curves generated from the calibration data followed a sigmoid function. The gels appeared to be stable over many weeks of internal irradiation with a delay in gel response observed at 29 h post preparation. This was attributed to chemical inhibitors and slow reaction rates of long-chain radical species. For this reason, phantom measurements were only made after 190 h of irradiation. For uniformly filled phantoms of I-131 the accuracy of dose measurements agreed to within 10% when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. A radial cross-dose distribution measured using the gel dosimeter compared well to that calculated with Monte Carlo. Small inhomogeneities were observed in the dosimeter attributed to non-uniform mixing of monomer during preparation. However, they were not detrimental to this study where the quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution of polymer gel dosimetry were far superior to that calculated using scintigraphy. The difference between Monte Carlo and gel measurements was of the order of a few cGy, whilst with the scintigraphic method differences of up to 8 Gy were observed. A manipulation technique is also presented which allows 3D scintigraphic dosimetry measurements to be compared to polymer

  12. Characteristics of Immobilized Urease on Grafted Alginate Bead Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas N. Danial

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the biological importance of immobilized urease enzyme over the free urease. The support material used for urease immobilization was alginate. Generally, the immobilization of urease in alginate gel showed a marked increase in Km and Vmax. However, the immobilized urease showed higher thermal stability than that of free enzyme. The rate of thermal inactivation of the immobilized enzyme decreased due to entrapment in gel matrix. Also, the activity of the immobilized urease was more stable in retention than that of the free enzyme during the storage in solution, although the activity of the immobilized enzyme was lower in comparison with the free enzyme. A stable immobilized system and long storage life are convenient for applications that would not be feasible with a soluble enzyme system. These results highlighted the technical and biochemical benefits of immobilized urease over the free enzyme.

  13. Towards a fully synthetic substitute of alginate: optimization of a thermal gelation/chemical cross-linking scheme ("tandem" gelation) for the production of beads and liquid-core capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellesi, F; Weber, W; Fussenegger, M; Hubbell, J A; Tirelli, N

    2004-12-20

    Fully synthetic polymers were used for the preparation of hydrogel beads and capsules, in a processing scheme that, originally designed for calcium alginate, was adapted to a "tandem" process, that is the combination a physical gelation with a chemical cross-linking. The polymers feature a Tetronic backbone (tetra armed Pluronics), which exhibits a reverse thermal gelation in water solutions within a physiological range of temperatures and pHs. The polymers bear terminal reactive groups that allow for a mild, but effective chemical cross-linking. Given an appropriate temperature jump, the thermal gelation provides a hardening kinetics similar to that of alginate. With slower kinetics, the chemical cross-linking then develops an irreversible and elastic gel structure, and determines its transport properties. In the present article this process has been optimized for the production of monodisperse, high elastic, hydrogel microbeads, and liquid-core microcapsules. We also show the feasibility of the use of liquid-core microcapsules in cell encapsulation. In preliminary experiments, CHO cells have been successfully encapsulated preserving their viability during the process and after incubation. The advantages of this process are mainly in the use of synthetic polymers, which provide great flexibility in the molecular design. This, in principle, allows for a precise tailoring of mechanical and transport properties and of bioactivity of the hydrogels, and also for a precise control in material purification.

  14. Radiation Modification of Some Natural Polymers and Their Potential Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refaee, A.M.E.A.

    2012-01-01

    (PAAm) which is one of the most popular polymers used to reduce water runoff and increase infiltration rates in field agricultural applications. There are different methods to improve water holding capacity of PAAm among of them; adjusting the density of its crosslinking network structure. Radiation technique is promising for preparation of hydrogels because a polymer in aqueous solution or in the water swollen state readily undergoes crosslinking on irradiation to yield a gel-like material. Irradiation dose can control the crosslinking yield of polymer. Addition of few amount of degraded natural polymer during the irradiation processing of PAAm can also reduce the hydrogel network structural density and influences its water holding capacity. Moreover, the low molecular weight natural polymer like alginate or chitosan incorporated in PAAm hydrogel help in promoting the plant growth when such hydrogels used as water supplied soil conditioner. In this connection, the crosslinked copolymers of γ-rays degraded alginate, chitosan or both of them with PAAm were prepared using ionizing radiation. The preparation conditions of the polyacrylamide/alginate (PAAm/Alg), polyacrylamide/chitosan (PAAm/CS) and polyacrylamide/alginate/chitosan (PAAm/Alg/CS) crosslinked hydrogels, such as the effect of the irradiation dose and the copolymer composition on the matrix gel content and water absorbency will be studied. The effect of different types of cations or fertilizers or buffers of different pH's on water absorbency of prepared hydrogels will be investigated. The possible use of such copolymer hydrogels in the field of agriculture for some plants will be investigated.

  15. Alginate nanobeads interspersed fibrin network as in situ forming hydrogel for soft tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deepthi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are a class of materials that has the property of injectability and in situ gel formation. This property of hydrogels is manipulated in this study to develop a biomimetic bioresorbable injectable system of alginate nanobeads interspersed in fibrin network. Alginate nanobeads developed by calcium cross-linking yielded a size of 200–500 nm. The alginate nanobeads fibrin hydrogel was formed using dual syringe apparatus. Characterization of the in situ injectable hydrogel was done by SEM, FTIR and Rheometer. The developed hydrogel showed mechanical strength of 19 kPa which provides the suitable compliance for soft tissue engineering. Cytocompatibility studies using human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells showed good attachment, proliferation and infiltration within the hydrogel similar to fibrin gel. The developed in situ forming hydrogel could be a suitable delivery carrier of stem cells for soft tissue regeneration.

  16. Incorporating Graphene Oxide into Alginate Polymer with a Cationic Intermediate To Strengthen Membrane Dehydration Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Kecheng; Liang, Feng; Zhu, Haipeng; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Wanqin

    2018-04-25

    Two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO) in hybrid membranes provides fast water transfer across its surface due to the abundant oxygenated functional groups to afford water sorption and the hydrophobic basal plane to create fast transporting pathways. To establish more compatible and efficient interactions for GO and sodium alginate (SA) polymer chains, cations sourced from lignin are employed to decorate GO (labeled as cation-functionalized GO (CG)) nanosheets via cation-π and π-π interactions, providing more interactive sites to confer synergetic benefits with polymer matrix. Cations from CG are also functional to partially interlock SA chains and intensify water diffusion. And with the aid of two-dimensional pathways of CG, fast selective water permeation can be realized through hybrid membranes with CG fillers. In dehydrating aqueous ethanol solution, the hybrid membrane exhibits considerable performance compared with bare SA polymer membrane (long-term stable permeation flux larger than 2500 g m -2 h -1 and water content larger than 99.7 wt %, with feed water content of 10 wt % under 70 °C). The effects of CG content in SA membrane were investigated, and the transport mechanism was correspondingly studied through varying operation conditions and membrane materials. In addition, such a membrane possesses long-term stability and almost unchanged high dehydration capability.

  17. A colourimetric method for the determination of the degree of chemical cross-linking in aspartic acid-based polymer gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gyarmati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS-based assay is developed to determine the degree of chemical cross-linking in aspartic acid-based polymer gels. The conventional colourimetric method for the quantitative determination of amine groups is difficult to use in polymer networks; thus, an improved method is developed to analyse polymer gels swollen in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. Reaction products of the derivatizing reaction are examined by NMR. The chemical stability of the reagent is increased in DMSO, and the method shows satisfactory linearity and accuracy. The degree of chemical cross-linking in the investigated gels is close to its theoretical maximum, but the conversion of the pendant amine groups to cross-linking points is strongly dependent on the feed composition of the gels.

  18. Dye-sensitized solar cell with natural gel polymer electrolytes and f-MWCNT as counter-electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanya, A. C.; Amaechi, C. I.; Ekwealor, A. B. C.; Osuji, R. U.; Maaza, M.; Ezema, F. I.

    2015-05-01

    Samples of DSSCs were made with gel polymer electrolytes using agar, gelatin and DNA as the polymer hosts. Anthocyanine dye from Hildegardia barteri flower is used to sensitize the TiO2 electrode, and the spectrum of the dye indicates strong absorptions in the blue region of the solar spectrum. The XRD pattern of the TiO2 shows that the adsorption of the dye did not affect the crystallinity of the electrode. The f-MWCNT indicates graphite structure of the MWCNTs were acid oxidized without significant damage. Efficiencies of 3.38 and 0.1% were obtained using gelatin and DNA gel polymer electrolytes, respectively, for the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells.

  19. Physicochemical characterization and biocompatibility of alginate-polycation microcapsules designed for islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan Kimberly

    Microencapsulation represents a method for immunoprotecting transplanted therapeutic cells or tissues from graft rejection using a physical barrier. This approach is advantageous in that it eliminates the need to induce long-term immunosuppression and allows the option of transplanting non-cadaveric cell sources, such as animal cells and stem cell-derived tissues. The microcapsules that we have investigated are designed to immunoprotect islets of Langerhans (i.e. clusters of insulin-secreting cells), with the goal of treating insulin-dependent diabetes. With the aid of techniques for physicochemical analysis, this research focused on understanding which properties of the microcapsule are the most important for determining its biocompatibility. The objective of this work was to elucidate correlations between the chemical make-up, physicochemical properties, and in vivo biocompatibility of alginate-based microcapsules. Our approach was based on the hypothesis that the immune response to the microcapsules is governed by, and can therefore be controlled by, specific physicochemical properties of the microcapsule and its material components. The experimental work was divided into five phases, each associated with a specific aim : (1) To prove that immunoglobulins adsorb to the surface of alginate-polycation microcapsules, and to correlate this adsorption with the microcapsule chemistry. (2) To test interlaboratory reproducibility in making biocompatible microcapsules, and evaluate the suitability of our materials and fabrication protocols for subsequent studies. (3) To determine which physicochemical properties of alginates affect the in vivo biocompatibility of their gels. (4) To determine which physiochemical properties of alginate-polycation microcapsules are most important for determining their in vivo biocompatibility (5) To determine whether a modestly immunogenic membrane hinders or helps the ability of the microcapsule to immunoprotect islet xenografts in

  20. Development of Gel Polymer Electrolytes Using Radiation for Lithium Secondary Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Ki; Lee, Jun Young; Lee, Dong Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Recently, demands of high performance lithium battery are increased. Development of battery materials for high power, high capacity, high safety are also needed. This project deals with the new gel polymer electrolyte based on the microporous matrix with specific functions using radiation techniques.

  1. Intragastric Gelation of Heated Soy Protein Isolate-Alginate Mixtures and Its Effect on Sucrose Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaozhi; Gruen, Ingolf; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2018-06-15

    The goal of our study was to investigate the effect of alginate on in vitro gastric digestion and sucrose release of soy protein isolate (SPI) in model beverages. Model beverages containing 5% w/w SPI, 0% to 0.20% w/w alginate, and 10% w/w sucrose were prepared by heating the mixtures at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 6.0 or 7.0. Characterizations of beverages included determination of zeta potential, particle size and rheological properties. Digestion patterns and sucrose release profiles were determined during 2 hr in vitro gastric digestion using SDS-PAGE and HPLC analysis, respectively. Increasing alginate concentration led to increased negative surface charge, particle size, as well as viscosity and pseudoplastic behavior; however, no phase separation was observed. SPI beverages formed intragastric gel during in vitro gastric digestion when the formulations contained alginate or at pH 6.0 without alginate. Formation of the intragastric gel led to delayed protein digestion and release of sucrose. Higher resistance to digestion and a slower sucrose release rate were exhibited at increased alginate concentration, and to a lesser extent, at pH 6.0. This suggests that electrostatic interaction between SPI and alginate that occurred when the beverages were under gastric condition could be responsible for the intragastric gelation. These results could potentially lead to the formulation of SPI beverages with functionality to lower postprandial glycemic response. The results could be used to design beverages or semi solid food products with altered digestion properties and lowered or slower glucose release. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Radiation processing of natural polymers for industrial and agricultural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; AbdEl-Rehim, H.; Diaa, D.A.; El-Barbary, A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great efforts should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2 O 2 to natural polymers (carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate) during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated CMC, chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. On the other hand, radiation crosslinking of PAAm or PNIPAAm is affected by the presence of natural polymer like CMC-Na and carrageenan due to their degradability which could be controlled according to its concentration in the bulk medium and irradiation dose. Accordingly, the gel content, thermo-sensitivity (LCST) and swelling properties of PNIPAAm based natural polymers could be controlled. The swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was investigated for its possible use in personal care articles particularly diapers or as carriers for drug delivery systems. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na/PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper

  3. Manipulation and Characterization of Alginate Exo polysaccharides produced by Azotobacter Vinelandii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bialy, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Exo polysaccharides (EPS) have been found in a wide range of applications in food industry and in the biomedical field. In the present study, the effect of nutritional factors (carbon and nitrogen sources) and gamma irradiations on alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii was investigated. To understand the direct and indirect relations among these variables, a two way factorial design experiment was set up. At low concentration of carbon source (≤ 20 g/l), the alginate yield was influenced by the type of nitrogen substrate and C/N ratio, whereas the role of these factors on alginate production was minimized at high concentration of carbon source (> 20 g/l). Batch fermentation of alginate exo polysaccharides was manipulated by maintaining the ph value of the cultures at 7 along the incubation period and reducing the agitation speed to 100 rpm after 24 h at the time of inoculation. This process succeeded to increase the alginate yield exponentially with time by 50%. Exposing A. vinelandii cells to gamma irradiation at dose level 0.5 kGy decreased their activity to synthesis alginate by 44%. The produced alginate was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC).

  4. Alginate Biosynthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii: Overview of Molecular Mechanisms in Connection with the Oxygen Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Pacheco-Leyva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii can synthetize the biopolymer alginate that has material properties appropriate for plenty of applications in industry as well as in medicine. In order to settle the foundation for improving alginate production without compromising its quality, a better understanding of the polymer biosynthesis and the mechanism of regulation during fermentation processes is necessary. This knowledge is crucial for the development of novel production strategies. Here, we highlight the key aspects of alginate biosynthesis that can lead to producing an alginate with specific material properties with particular focus on the role of oxygen availability linked with the molecular mechanisms involved in the alginate production.

  5. A study on the reproducibility and spatial uniformity of N-isopropylacrylamide polymer gel dosimetry using a commercial 10X fast optical-computed tomography scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y J; Lin, J Q; Hsieh, B T; Chen, C H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the reproducibility and spatial uniformity of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel as well as the reproducibility of a NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter. A commercial 10X fast optical computed tomography scanner (OCTOPUS-10X, MGS Research, Inc., Madison, CT, USA) was used as the readout tool of the NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter. A cylindrical NIPAM gel phantom measuring 10 cm (diameter) by 10 cm (height) by 3 mm (thickness) was irradiated by the four-field box treatment with a field size of 3 cm × 3 cm. The dose profiles were found to be consistent at the depths of 2.0 cm to 5.0 cm for two independent gel phantom batches, and the average uncertainty was less than 2%. The gamma pass rates were calculated to be between 94% and 95% at depths of 40 mm for two independent gel phantom batches using 4% dose difference and 4 mm distance-to-agreement criterion. The NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter was highly reproducible and spatially uniform. The results highlighted the potential of the NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter in radiotherapy.

  6. Chitosan/alginate based multilayers to control drug release fromophthalmic lens

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Diana; Pinto, Luís F. V.; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Santos, Luís F.; Serro, Ana Paula; Saramago, Benilde

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using layer-by-layer deposition, based in natural polymers (chitosan and alginate), to control the release of different ophthalmic drugs from three types of lens materials: a silicone-based hydrogel recently proposed by our group as drug releasing soft contact lens (SCL) material and two commercially available materials: CI26Y for intraocular lens (IOLs) and Definitive 50 for SCLs. The optimised coating, consisting in one double layer of (algin...

  7. Creation of Dosimetric Verification for Implementation of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Validates Using Polymer Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.Sh.E.

    2015-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeter is a technique that has the ability to map absorbed radiation dose distributions in three dimensions (3D) with high spatial resolution, it offers a number of advantages over traditional dosimeters such as ionization chambers, thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLD) and radiographic film. These gels are reproducible in response and stable 0 n post-irradiation. It is used as the monomer N-iso propyl acryl amide (NIPAM) and N, N- methylene bis acryl amide (Bis) as the cross linker. A historical overview of gel dosimeter was discussed in detail, inside the theses this case; nearly all data met the expected measurement error of 5 % of the maximum dose (50 c Gy). Relative errors were determined to decrease from 25 % at a 2 Gy irradiation to 9.2% for a 10 Gy irradiation The NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter system proved to be an invaluable method for the quantification of the 3-D dose distribution provided by IMRT. A measurement error of less than 5% was achieved. Toxicity and uncertain response to particular environmental characteristics (i.e., temperature and aging) upon the gel are of important concern about the use of the gel at this time. A PAG gel dosimeter is a method verifying dose delivered for prostate cancer radiotherapy treatment, which has been evaluated in this work. A comparison of DVH for PTV between the two treatment plans was verified experimentally. MRI response, the possibility was demonstrated of manufacturing gel dosimeters suitable for 3D dosimeter in the dose range. The results show that IMRT technique not only provides a better conformal dose to the prostate target volume than conventional Seven-field technique, but also reduces doses to the surrounding normal tissues, The aim of this study was to investigate the basic characteristics of the modified gel dosimeter such as temperature effects, magnetic field strength, Ph, aging, energy and dose rate dependence This includes studies of relaxation time dose response, and stability of the

  8. Synthesis of alginate oligomers by gamma irradiation and to investigate its antioxidant and prebiotic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoir, S.A.; Chawla, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Alginate oligomers formed by alginate lyase have been reported to possess antioxidant activity as well as prebiotic activity. Hence, utility of gamma radiation to depolymerise alginate in its aqueous solution was investigated and its antioxidant and prebiotic activities were screened. 1% aqueous solution of sodium alginate was subjected to gamma irradiation and it's reducing power and ability to scavenge DPPH". and O_2"."."-, chelate iron and prevent heat induced β-carotene bleaching was determined. Prebiotic activity was determined by using alginate oligomers to promote prebiotic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum against E coli. Gamma radiation induced depolymerisation of alginate resulted in formation of oligomers with antioxidant and prebiotic activity. These polymers are potential candidates for utilization as natural preservatives and functional foods

  9. Preparation of alginate coated chitosan microparticles for vaccine delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei YuQuan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Absorption of antigens onto chitosan microparticles via electrostatic interaction is a common and relatively mild process suitable for mucosal vaccine. In order to increase the stability of antigens and prevent an immediate desorption of antigens from chitosan carriers in gastrointestinal tract, coating onto BSA loaded chitosan microparticles with sodium alginate was performed by layer-by-layer technology to meet the requirement of mucosal vaccine. Results The prepared alginate coated BSA loaded chitosan microparticles had loading efficiency (LE of 60% and loading capacity (LC of 6% with mean diameter of about 1 μm. When the weight ratio of alginate/chitosan microparticles was greater than 2, the stable system could be obtained. The rapid charge inversion of BSA loaded chitosan microparticles (from +27 mv to -27.8 mv was observed during the coating procedure which indicated the presence of alginate layer on the chitosan microparticles surfaces. According to the results obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the core-shell structure of BSA loaded chitosan microparticles was observed. Meanwhile, in vitro release study indicated that the initial burst release of BSA from alginate coated chitosan microparticles was lower than that observed from uncoated chitosan microparticles (40% in 8 h vs. about 84% in 0.5 h. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE assay showed that alginate coating onto chitosan microparticles could effectively protect the BSA from degradation or hydrolysis in acidic condition for at least 2 h. The structural integrity of alginate modified chitosan microparticles incubated in PBS for 24 h was investigated by FTIR. Conclusion The prepared alginate coated chitosan microparticles, with mean diameter of about 1 μm, was suitable for oral mucosal vaccine. Moreover, alginate coating onto the surface of chitosan microparticles could modulate the release behavior of BSA from alginate coated chitosan

  10. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability

  11. Polymer gel dosimeter based on itaconic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattea, Facundo; Chacón, David

    2015-01-01

    A new polymeric dosimeter based on itaconic acid and N, N’-methylenebisacrylamide was studied. The preparation method, compositions of monomer and crosslinking agent and the presence of oxygen in the dosimetric system were analyzed. The resulting materials were irradiated with an X-ray tube at 158 cGy/min, 226 cGy min and 298 cGy/min with doses up to 1000 Gy. The dosimeters presented a linear response in the dose range 75–1000 Gy, sensitivities of 0.037 1/Gy at 298 cGy/min and an increase in the sensitivity with lower dose rates. One of the most relevant outcomes in this study was obtaining different monomer to crosslinker inclusion in the formed gel for the dosimeters where oxygen was purged during the preparation method. This effect has not been reported in other typical dosimeters and could be attributed to the large differences in the reactivity among these species. - Highlights: • A novel polymer gel dosimeters based on itaconic acid is presented and characterized. • The typical linear trend of the dose behavior in a specific dose range was found. • Different gel structures were formed when oxygen and an antioxidant were present. • Absorbed dose is univocally correlated with optic absorbance and Raman spectroscopy. • Itaconic acid appears as a reliable radiation dosimeter that may be further improved.

  12. 3-D dose verification for IMRT using optical CT based polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuu, C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Xu, Y [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Maryanski, M J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); MGS Research Inc., Madison, Connecticut (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In this study BANG[reg] polymer gels in conjunction with OCTOPUS{sup TM} optical CT scanner (MGS Research Inc., Madison, CT) was employed to measure the relative 3D dose distribution of an IMRT treatment. Measured relative dose distributions from the gel measurement were compared with those from treatment planning system calculations and EDR2 film measurements with regard to planar dose distributions in axial, coronal, and sagittal orientations.

  13. 3-D dose verification for IMRT using optical CT based polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuu, C; Xu, Y; Maryanski, M J

    2004-01-01

    In this study BANG[reg] polymer gels in conjunction with OCTOPUS TM optical CT scanner (MGS Research Inc., Madison, CT) was employed to measure the relative 3D dose distribution of an IMRT treatment. Measured relative dose distributions from the gel measurement were compared with those from treatment planning system calculations and EDR2 film measurements with regard to planar dose distributions in axial, coronal, and sagittal orientations

  14. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.

  15. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Roed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ortho-voltage energies are often used for treatment of patients’ superficial lesions, and also for small- animal irradiations. Polymer-Gel dosimeters such as MAGAT (Methacrylic acid Gel and THPC are finding increasing use for 3-dimensional verification of radiation doses in a given treatment geometry. For mega-voltage beams, energy dependence of MAGAT has been quoted as nearly energy-independent. In the kilo-voltage range, there is hardly any literature to shade light on its energy dependence.Methods: MAGAT was used to measure depth-dose for 250 kVp beam. Comparison with ion-chamber data showed a discrepancy increasing significantly with depth. An over-response as much as 25% was observed at a depth of 6 cm.Results and Conclusion: Investigation concluded that 6 cm water in the beam resulted in a half-value-layer (HVL change from 1.05 to 1.32 mm Cu. This amounts to an effective-energy change from 81.3 to 89.5 keV. Response measurements of MAGAT at these two energies explained the observed discrepancy in depth-dose measurements. Dose-calibration curves of MAGAT for (i 250 kVp beam, and (ii 250 kVp beam through 6 cm of water column are presented showing significant energy dependence.-------------------Cite this article as: Roed Y, Tailor R, Pinksy L, Ibbott G. Energy dependence of polymer gels in the orthovoltage energy range. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:020232. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0202.32 

  16. Optimized spray drying process for preparation of one-step calcium-alginate gel microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popeski-Dimovski, Riste [Department of physic, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, “ss. Cyril and Methodius” University, Arhimedova 3, 1000 Skopje, R. Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2016-03-25

    Calcium-alginate micro particles have been used extensively in drug delivery systems. Therefore we establish a one-step method for preparation of internally gelated micro particles with spherical shape and narrow size distribution. We use four types of alginate with different G/M ratio and molar weight. The size of the particles is measured using light diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Measurements showed that with this method, micro particles with size distribution around 4 micrometers can be prepared, and SEM imaging showed that those particles are spherical in shape.

  17. Dosimetric evaluation of a novel polymer gel dosimeter for proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidan, O. A.; Sriprisan, S. I.; Lopatiuk-Tirpak, O.; Kupelian, P. A.; Meeks, S. L.; Hsi, W. C.; Li, Z.; Palta, J. R.; Maryanski, M. J. [M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, Florida 32806 (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida 32206 (United States); MGS Research, Inc., Madison, Connecticut 06443 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric performance of a newly developed proton-sensitive polymer gel formulation for proton therapy dosimetry. Methods: Using passive scattered modulated and nonmodulated proton beams, the dose response of the gel was assessed. A next-generation optical CT scanner is used as the readout mechanism of the radiation-induced absorbance in the gel medium. Comparison of relative dose profiles in the gel to ion chamber profiles in water is performed. A simple and easily reproducible calibration protocol is established for routine gel batch calibrations. Relative stopping power ratio measurement of the gel medium was performed to ensure accurate water-equivalent depth dose scaling. Measured dose distributions in the gel were compared to treatment planning system for benchmark irradiations and quality of agreement is assessed using clinically relevant gamma index criteria. Results: The dosimetric response of the gel was mapped up to 600 cGy using an electron-based calibration technique. Excellent dosimetric agreement is observed between ion chamber data and gel. The most notable result of this work is the fact that this gel has no observed dose quenching in the Bragg peak region. Quantitative dose distribution comparisons to treatment planning system calculations show that most (>97%) of the gel dose maps pass the 3%/3 mm gamma criterion. Conclusions: This study shows that the new proton-sensitive gel dosimeter is capable of reproducing ion chamber dose data for modulated and nonmodulated Bragg peak beams with different clinical beam energies. The findings suggest that the gel dosimeter can be used as QA tool for millimeter range verification of proton beam deliveries in the dosimeter medium.

  18. Dosimetric evaluation of a novel polymer gel dosimeter for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeidan, O. A.; Sriprisan, S. I.; Lopatiuk-Tirpak, O.; Kupelian, P. A.; Meeks, S. L.; Hsi, W. C.; Li, Z.; Palta, J. R.; Maryanski, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric performance of a newly developed proton-sensitive polymer gel formulation for proton therapy dosimetry. Methods: Using passive scattered modulated and nonmodulated proton beams, the dose response of the gel was assessed. A next-generation optical CT scanner is used as the readout mechanism of the radiation-induced absorbance in the gel medium. Comparison of relative dose profiles in the gel to ion chamber profiles in water is performed. A simple and easily reproducible calibration protocol is established for routine gel batch calibrations. Relative stopping power ratio measurement of the gel medium was performed to ensure accurate water-equivalent depth dose scaling. Measured dose distributions in the gel were compared to treatment planning system for benchmark irradiations and quality of agreement is assessed using clinically relevant gamma index criteria. Results: The dosimetric response of the gel was mapped up to 600 cGy using an electron-based calibration technique. Excellent dosimetric agreement is observed between ion chamber data and gel. The most notable result of this work is the fact that this gel has no observed dose quenching in the Bragg peak region. Quantitative dose distribution comparisons to treatment planning system calculations show that most (>97%) of the gel dose maps pass the 3%/3 mm gamma criterion. Conclusions: This study shows that the new proton-sensitive gel dosimeter is capable of reproducing ion chamber dose data for modulated and nonmodulated Bragg peak beams with different clinical beam energies. The findings suggest that the gel dosimeter can be used as QA tool for millimeter range verification of proton beam deliveries in the dosimeter medium.

  19. Microfluidic Production of Alginate Hydrogel Particles for Antibody Encapsulation and Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazutis, Linas; Vasiliauskas, Remigijus; Weitz, David A

    2015-12-01

    Owing to their biocompatibility and reduced side effects, natural polymers represent an attractive choice for producing drug delivery systems. Despite few successful examples, however, the production of monodisperse biopolymer-based particles is often hindered by high viscosity of polymer fluids. In this work, we present a microfluidic approach for production of alginate-based particles carrying encapsulated antibodies. We use a triple-flow micro-device to induce hydrogel formation inside droplets before their collection off-chip. The fast mixing and gelation process produced alginate particles with a unique biconcave shape and dimensions of the mammalian cells. We show slow and fast dissolution of particles in different buffers and evaluate antibody release over time. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Crosslinked Hydrogel Polyacrylamide (PAAM)-Co-Alginate Prepared by Gama Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erizal; Tita P; Dewi SP

    2008-01-01

    Crosslinked poly(acrylamide) (PAAM)-co-alginate hydrogels were prepared by gamma irradiation (γ-irradiation) and their conditions such as irradiation dose and alginate concentration were studied. PAAM-co-alginate was crosslinked to yield water sorption materials with various ability to absorb water (swelling) depending on the preparation conditions (e.g. γ-irradiation dosage>20 kGy) and alginate concentration (0.5 - 1 wt %). With an increase of γ-irradiation dosage and alginate concentration, the gels content and water absorption were increasing markedly. The swelling properties of hydrogel in urea and NaCl solution and the effect of temperature were also investigated. Intensity decreasing of functional goups of OH and NH 2 in the IR spectrum indicated that IPN (Interpenetreting Network) structure occured in the network of hydrogels. The ability of hydrogel to absorp and retain a large amount of water suggested their possible uses in health care and agriculture. (author)

  1. Hydroxyapatite scaffolds processed using a TBA-based freeze-gel casting/polymer sponge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Young; Lee, Jung Min; Yoon, Seog Young; Park, Hong Chae

    2010-05-01

    A novel freeze-gel casting/polymer sponge technique has been introduced to fabricate porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds with controlled "designer" pore structures and improved compressive strength for bone tissue engineering applications. Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) was used as a solvent in this work. The merits of each production process, freeze casting, gel casting, and polymer sponge route were characterized by the sintered microstructure and mechanical strength. A reticulated structure with large pore size of 180-360 microm, which formed on burn-out of polyurethane foam, consisted of the strut with highly interconnected, unidirectional, long pore channels (approximately 4.5 microm in dia.) by evaporation of frozen TBA produced in freeze casting together with the dense inner walls with a few, isolated fine pores (<2 microm) by gel casting. The sintered porosity and pore size generally behaved in an opposite manner to the solid loading, i.e., a high solid loading gave low porosity and small pore size, and a thickening of the strut cross section, thus leading to higher compressive strengths.

  2. How does the chemistry of polymer gel dosimeters affect their performance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirasek, A; McAuley, K B; Lepage, M

    2009-01-01

    This review article describes the primary chemical processes affecting polymerization in polymer-based radiosensitive gel dosimeters. Furthermore, recently studied environmental factors and gelation processes affecting polymerization and gel dose response are discussed. Finally, the predominant physical factors affecting dose-response sensitivity for each of the three imaging modalities (MRI, Optical CT, x-ray CT) are outlined. Emphasis is concentrated on recent literature in this area, as prior literature was summarized in review articles submitted to DOSGEL 2006 in Sherbrooke (J. Conf. Series, 56, 2006). Discussions from the recent DOSGEL conference (2008) are incorporated into this review.

  3. How does the chemistry of polymer gel dosimeters affect their performance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Lepage, M [Centre d' imagerie moleculaire de Sherbrooke, Universite de Sherbrooke, 3001 12e Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke QC J1H 5N4 (Canada)], E-mail: jirasek@uvic.ca, E-mail: kim.mcauley@chee.queensu.ca, E-mail: martin.lepage@usherbrooke.ca

    2009-05-01

    This review article describes the primary chemical processes affecting polymerization in polymer-based radiosensitive gel dosimeters. Furthermore, recently studied environmental factors and gelation processes affecting polymerization and gel dose response are discussed. Finally, the predominant physical factors affecting dose-response sensitivity for each of the three imaging modalities (MRI, Optical CT, x-ray CT) are outlined. Emphasis is concentrated on recent literature in this area, as prior literature was summarized in review articles submitted to DOSGEL 2006 in Sherbrooke (J. Conf. Series, 56, 2006). Discussions from the recent DOSGEL conference (2008) are incorporated into this review.

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery photon field profile dosimetry using conventional dosimeters and polymer gel dosimetry. Analysis and inter-comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, E; Maris, T G; Zacharopoulou, F; Papadakis, A [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 711 10 Stavrakia-Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Manolopoulos, S; Green, S [Queen Elizabeth Medical Centre, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Trust, Birmingham B15 2TH (United Kingdom); Wojnecki, C, E-mail: epappas@edu.med.uoc.gr

    2009-05-01

    Small photon fields are increasingly used in modern radiotherapy and especially in IMRT and SRS/SRT treatments. Accurate beam profile measurements of such beams are crucial for a precise and effective treatment. In this work four different dosimetric methods have been used for profile measurements of three small 6 MV circular fields having diameters of 7.5, 15.0 and 30.0 mm. A small sensitive volume air ion chamber, a diamond detector, a novel silicon-diode array and Vinyl-Pyrrolidone based polymer gel dosimetry. The results of this work reveal the well-known disadvantages and/or problems of the conventional dosimeters for this kind of measurements and support that polymer gel dosimetry may overcome these problems. Conclusively, it is estimated that polymer gels could play an important role towards the minimization of the total SRS/SRT treatment error that is related with small field profile measurements.

  5. Effect of the exothermal polymerization reaction on polymer gel dosimetric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedaghat, Mahbod; Bujold, Rachel; Lepage, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Discrepancies in polymer gel dosimetric measurements have been observed between containers of different sizes receiving the same radiation dose. We hypothesized that these deviations are caused by a change in the rate of polymerization due to internal heat increase in the gel containers resulting from the exothermic polymerization of monomers. Here, we test this hypothesis in a polyacrylamide gel dosimeter by recording the temperature in glass phantoms of different sizes during and after irradiation. The dose response of the samples was determined with magnetic resonance imaging. The difference of R 2 values along the depth of the containers was below ±1%. We discuss that this small difference can be attributed to variations in the rate of gelatin cooling during manufacture rather than to the measured heat increase during irradiation.

  6. Bioactive apatite incorporated alginate microspheres with sustained drug-delivery for bone regeneration application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Fei; Ye, Song; Wu, Yingying; Zhu, Kaiping; Wang, Deping, E-mail: wdpshk@tongji.edu.cn

    2016-05-01

    The strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite microspheres (SrHA) incorporated alginate composite microspheres (SrHA/Alginate) were prepared via adding SrHA/alginate suspension dropwise into calcium chloride solution, in which the gel beads were formed by means of crosslinking reaction. The structure, morphology and in vitro bioactivity of the composite microspheres were studied by using XRD, SEM and EDS methods. The biological behaviors were characterized and analyzed through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), CCK-8, confocal laser microscope and ALP activity evaluations. The experimental results indicated that the synthetic SrHA/Alginate showed similar morphology to the well-known alginate microspheres (Alginate) and both of them possessed a great in vitro bioactivity. Compared with the control Alginate, the SrHA/Alginate enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and ALP activity by releasing osteoinductive and osteogenic Sr ions. Furthermore, vancomycin was used as a model drug to investigate the drug release behaviors of the SrHA/Alginate, Alginate and SrHA. The results suggested that the SrHA/Alginate had a highest drug-loading efficiency and best controlled drug release properties. Additionally, the SrHA/Alginate was demonstrated to be pH-sensitive as well. The increase of the pH value in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) accelerated the vancomycin release. Accordingly, the multifunctional SrHA/Alginate can be applied in the field of bioactive drug carriers and bone filling materials. - Highlights: • The pH-sensitive composite alginate beads incorporating Sr-doped HA microspheres (SrHA) have been prepared. • The incorporation of the SrHA enhanced the drug loading and release properties of the alginate microspheres. • The composite microspheres showed excellent osteogenic effect by releasing osteogenic Sr ions.

  7. In vitro propagation of Acacia hybrid through alginate-encapsulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed collected from Acacia hybrid trees yields highly variable and poorly performing offspring and are not commonly used in regeneration. The present study described the incapsulation of Acacia hybrid shoots and axillary buds in the calcium alginate gel. The aim of the study was to evaluate the germination of the buds in ...

  8. Radiation Synthesis of Superabsorbent Polymers Based on Natural Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Murat; Hayrabolulu, Hande

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of proposed research contract were first synthesize superabsorbent polymers based on natural polymers to be used as disposable diapers and soil conditioning materials in agriculture, horticulture and other super adsorbent using industries. We have planned to use the natural polymers; locust beam gum, tara gum, guar gum and sodium alginate on the preparation of natural superabsorbent polymers(SAP). The aqueous solution of natural polymers and their blends with trace amount of monomer and cross-linking agents will be irradiated in paste like conditions by gamma rays for the preparation of cross-linked superabsorbent systems. The water absorption and deswellling capacity of prepared super adsorbents and retention capacity, absorbency under load, suction power, swelling pressure and pet-rewet properties will be determined. Use of these materials instead of synthetic super absorbents will be examined by comparing the performance of finished products. The experimental studies achieved in the second year of project mainly on the effect of radiation on the chemistry of sodium alginate polymers in different irradiation conditions and structure-property relationship particularly with respect to radiation induced changes on the molecular weight of natural polymers and preliminary studies on the synthesis of natural-synthetic hydride super adsorbent polymers were given in details

  9. In vitro and in vivo Biocompatibility of Alginate Dialdehyde/Gelatin Hydrogels with and without Nanoscaled Bioactive Glass for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Rottensteiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to good mechanical properties needed for three-dimensional tissue engineering, the combination of alginate dialdehyde, gelatin and nano-scaled bioactive glass (45S5 is supposed to combine excellent cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation properties, good biocompatibility and predictable degradation rates. The goal of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility as a first step on the way to its use as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering. In vitro evaluation showed good cell adherence and proliferation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded on covalently crosslinked alginate dialdehyde-gelatin (ADA-GEL hydrogel films with and without 0.1% nano-Bioglass® (nBG. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH- and mitochondrial activity significantly increased in both ADA-GEL and ADA-GEL-nBG groups compared to alginate. However, addition of 0.1% nBG seemed to have slight cytotoxic effect compared to ADA-GEL. In vivo implantation did not produce a significant inflammatory reaction, and ongoing degradation could be seen after four weeks. Ongoing vascularization was detected after four weeks. The good biocompatibility encourages future studies using ADA-GEL and nBG for bone tissue engineering application.

  10. Electrospining method to synthesize compositebased on alginate-polyvinyl alcohol with addition of snail (Achatina fulica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meilanny DKP; Pranjono; Dyah Hikmawati

    2015-01-01

    Many materials that can be used as wound coverings, one is alginate. Alginate has a high absorption capacity and has a role as a gelling agent which has hemostatic properties. Rigid and brittle nature is weakness of alginate and to improve the properties of the alginate can be mixed with the vinyl polymers are compatible and flexible. PVA is a water-soluble polymer, has a good ability to form fibers, biocompatible, has a chemical resistance, and biodegradable. For further improve the quality of wound closure, this research used the method electrospining . This experiment was carried out at a distance of 8 cm with a voltage of 17 kV, 20 kV, 23 kV, 25 kV and 27 kV. Testing is done using FTIR test to determine functional groups which is formed and analysis of the microstructure using SEM. FTIR test results showed that with the addition of lendr snail does not produce new functional groups. At a voltage of 23 kV can produce a fibers with micro size with nano fiber produced is also very continuous. (author)

  11. Enhanced Proton Conductivity and Methanol Permeability Reduction via Sodium Alginate Electrolyte-Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Bio-membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, N.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Basri, S.; Shyuan, L. K.; Masdar, M. S.; Nordin, D.

    2018-03-01

    The high methanol crossover and high cost of Nafion® membrane are the major challenges for direct methanol fuel cell application. With the aim of solving these problems, a non-Nafion polymer electrolyte membrane with low methanol permeability and high proton conductivity based on the sodium alginate (SA) polymer as the matrix and sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) as an inorganic filler (0.02-0.2 wt%) was prepared by a simple solution casting technique. The strong electrostatic attraction between -SO3H of SGO and the sodium alginate polymer increased the mechanical stability, optimized the water absorption and thus inhibited the methanol crossover in the membrane. The optimum properties and performances were presented by the SA/SGO membrane with a loading of 0.2 wt% SGO, which gave a proton conductivity of 13.2 × 10-3 Scm-1, and the methanol permeability was 1.535 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 at 25 °C, far below that of Nafion (25.1 × 10-7 cm2 s-1) at 25 °C. The mechanical properties of the sodium alginate polymer in terms of tensile strength and elongation at break were improved by the addition of SGO.

  12. in Situ Formation of a Biocatalytic Alginate Membrane by Enhanced Concentration Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marpani, Fauziah; Luo, Jianquan; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2015-01-01

    A thin alginate layer induced on the surface of a commercial polysulfone membrane was used as a matrix for noncovalent immobilization of enzymes. Despite the expected decrease of flux across the membrane resulting from the coating, the initial hypothesis was that such a system should allow high...... immobilized enzyme loadings, which would benefit from the decreased flux in terms of increased enzyme/substrate contact time. The study was performed in a sequential fashion: first, the most suitable types of alginate able to induce a very thin, sustainable gel layer by pressure-driven membrane filtration...... were selected and evaluated. Then, an efficient method to make the gel layer adhere to the surface of the membrane was developed. Finally, and after confirming that the enzyme loading could remarkably be enhanced by using this method, several strategies to increase the permeate flux were evaluated...

  13. Capability of NIPAM polymer gel in recording dose from the interaction of 10B and thermal neutron in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajeali, Azim; Reza Farajollahi, Ali; Kasesaz, Yaser; Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Khalili, Assef; Naseri, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The capability of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel to record the dose resulting from boron neutron capture reaction in BNCT was determined. In this regard, three compositions of the gel with different concentrations of 10 B were prepared and exposed to gamma radiation and thermal neutrons. Unlike irradiation with gamma rays, the boron-loaded gels irradiated by neutron exhibited sensitivity enhancement compared with the gels without 10 B. It was also found that the neutron sensitivity of the gel increased by the increase of concentration of 10 B. It can be concluded that NIPAM gel might be suitable for the measurement of the absorbed dose enhancement due to 10 B and thermal neutron reaction in BNCT. - Highlights: • Three compositions of NIPAM gel with different concentration of 10 B have been exposed by gamma and thermal neutron. • The vials containing NIPAM gel have been irradiated by an automatic system capable of providing for dose uniformity. • Suitability of NIPAM polymer gel in measuring radiation doses in BNCT has been investigated.

  14. Effect of thiolated polymers to textural and mucoadhesive properties of vaginal gel formulations prepared with polycarbophil and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevher, Erdal; Sensoy, Demet; Taha, Mohamed A M; Araman, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and evaluate of mucoadhesive gel formulations for the vaginal application of clomiphene citrate (CLM) for local treatment of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. Chitosan (CHI) and polycarbophil (PC) were covalently modified using the thioglycolic acid and L-cysteine, respectively. The formation of thiol conjugates of chitosan (CHI-TG) and polycarbophil (PC-CYS) were confirmed by FT-IR analysis and PC-CYS and CHI-TG were found to have 148.42 +/- 4.16 and 41.17 +/- 2.34 micromol of thiol groups per gram of polymer, respectively. One percent CLM gels were prepared by combination of various concentrations of PC and CHI with thiolated conjugates of these polymers. Hardness, compressibility, elasticity, adhesiveness and cohesiveness of the gels were measured by Texture profile analysis and the vaginal mucoadhesion was investigated by mucoadhesion test. The increasing in the amount of the thiol conjugates was found to enhance the elasticity, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and mucoadhesion of the gel formulations but not their hardness and compressibility when compared to gels prepared using their respective parent formulations. Slower release rate of CLM from gels was achieved when the polymer concentrations were increased in the gel formulations. PC and its thiol conjugate were found to prolong the release of CLM longer than 70 h unlike gel formulations prepared using CHI and its thiol conjugate which were able to release CLM up to 12 h. Stability of CLM was preserved during the 3 month stability analysis under controlled room temperature and accelerated conditions.

  15. Design of Autonomous Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce autonomous gel actuators driven by chemical energy. The polymer gels prepared here have cyclic chemical reaction networks. With a cyclic reaction, the polymer gels generate periodical motion. The periodic motion of the gel is produced by the chemical energy of the oscillatory Belouzov-Zhabotinsky (BZ reaction. We have succeeded in making synthetic polymer gel move autonomously like a living organism. This experimental fact represents the great possibility of the chemical robot.

  16. The chemical and mechanical differences between alginate-like exopolysaccharides isolated from aerobic flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y. M.; Sharma, P. K.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences in the gel matrix of aerobic granular sludge and normal aerobic flocculent sludge. From both types of sludge that fed with the same municipal sewage, the functional gel-forming exopolysaccharides, alginate-like exopolysaccharides, were isolated. These two

  17. The impact of the oxygen scavenger on the dose-rate dependence and dose sensitivity of MAGIC type polymer gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muzafar; Heilemann, Gerd; Kuess, Peter; Georg, Dietmar; Berg, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Recent developments in radiation therapy aimed at more precise dose delivery along with higher dose gradients (dose painting) and more efficient dose delivery with higher dose rates e.g. flattening filter free (FFF) irradiation. Magnetic-resonance-imaging based polymer gel dosimetry offers 3D information for precise dose delivery techniques. Many of the proposed polymer gels have been reported to exhibit a dose response, measured as relaxation rate ΔR2(D), which is dose rate dependent. A lack of or a reduced dose-rate sensitivity is very important for dosimetric accuracy, especially with regard to the increasing clinical use of FFF irradiation protocols with LINACs at high dose rates. Some commonly used polymer gels are based on Methacrylic-Acid-Gel-Initiated-by-Copper (MAGIC). Here, we report on the dose sensitivity (ΔR2/ΔD) of MAGIC-type gels with different oxygen scavenger concentration for their specific dependence on the applied dose rate in order to improve the dosimetric performance, especially for high dose rates. A preclinical x-ray machine (‘Yxlon’, E  =  200 kV) was used for irradiation to cover a range of dose rates from low \\dot{D} min  =  0.6 Gy min-1 to high \\dot{D} max  =  18 Gy min-1. The dose response was evaluated using R2-imaging of the gel on a human high-field (7T) MR-scanner. The results indicate that all of the investigated dose rates had an impact on the dose response in polymer gel dosimeters, being strongest in the high dose region and less effective for low dose levels. The absolute dose rate dependence \\frac{(Δ R2/Δ D)}{Δ \\dot{D}} of the dose response in MAGIC-type gel is significantly reduced using higher concentrations of oxygen scavenger at the expense of reduced dose sensitivity. For quantitative dose evaluations the relative dose rate dependence of a polymer gel, normalized to its sensitivity is important. Based on this normalized sensitivity the dose rate sensitivity was reduced distinctly

  18. An evaluation of the dosimetric performance characteristics of N-vinylpyrrolidone-based polymer gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, A E [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete (Greece); Maris, T G [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete (Greece); Zacharopoulou, F [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete (Greece); Pappas, E [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete (Greece); Zacharakis, G [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), PO Box 1527, Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Damilakis, J [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, Iraklion 71003, Crete (Greece)

    2007-08-21

    The aim of this work was to investigate the dosimetric performance properties of the N-vinylpyrrolidone argon (VIPAR) based polymer gel as a dosimetric tool in clinical radiotherapy. VIPAR gels with a larger concentration of gelatin than the standard recipe were manufactured and irradiated up to 68 Gy using a 6 and 18 MV linear accelerator. Using MRI, the R2-dose response was recorded at different imaging sessions within a 34 day time period post-irradiation. The R2-dose response was found to be linear between 5 and 68 Gy. Although dose sensitivity did not show significant variation with time, the measured R2-dose values showed an increasing trend, which was less evident beyond 17 days. At one day post-irradiation, calculated dose standard uncertainties at 20 Gy and 56 Gy were 2.2% and 1.7%, providing a dose resolution of 0.45 Gy and 0.97 Gy, respectively. Although these values fulfilled the 2% limit of ICRU, when gels were imaged at one day post-irradiation, it was shown that the temporal evolution of the R2 values deteriorated the per cent standard uncertainty and the dose resolution by {approx}57%, when imaged 17 days post-irradiation. Variation in the coagulation temperature of the gels did not impact the R2-dose sensitivity. This study has shown that the VIPAR gel has the properties of a dosimetric tool required in clinical radiotherapy, especially in applications where a wide dose dynamic range is employed. For results with the lowest per cent uncertainty and the optimum dose resolution, the dosimetry gels used in this work should be MR scanned at one day post-irradiation. Furthermore, a preliminary study on the R2-dose response of a new normoxic N-vinylpyrrolidone-based polymer gel showed that it could potentially replace the traditional VIPAR gel formulation, while preserving the wide dynamic dose response inherent to that monomer.

  19. Safety assessment of thiolated polymers: effect on ciliary beat frequency in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmberger, Thomas F; Augustijns, Patrick; Vetter, Anja; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the nasal safety of gel formulations of thiolated polymers (thiomers) by assessing their effect on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in human nasal epithelial cells. Poly(acrylic acid) 450 kDa-cysteine (PAA-cys) and alginate-cysteine (alg-cys) were synthesized by covalent attachment of L-cysteine to the polymeric backbone. The cationic polymer chitosan-thiobutylamidine (chito-TBA) was synthesized by attaching iminothiolane to chitosan. CBF using was measured by a photometric system. CBF was measured before incubating the cells with test gels, during incubation and after washing out the polymeric test gels to evaluate reversibility of cilio-inhibition. The influence of viscosity on CBF was determined by using hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)-gels of various concentrations. Ciliary beating was observed to be affected by viscosity, but cilia were still beating in the presence of a HEC-gel displaying an apparent viscosity of 25 Pa.s. In case of thiolated polymers and their unmodified control, a concentration-dependent decrease in CBF could be observed. PAA-cys, alg-cys, chito-TBA and their corresponding unmodified controls exhibited a moderate cilio-inhibitory effect, followed by a partial recovery of CBF when used at a concentration of 1%. Alg-cys 2% and chito-TBA 2% (m/v) gels exhibited severe cilio-inhibition, which was partially reversible. L-cysteine and reduced glutathione led to mild cilio-inhibition at concentrations of 3% (m/v). Taking into account that dilution after application and cilio-modifying effects is usually more pronounced under in vitro conditions, thiomers can be considered as suitable excipients for nasal drug delivery systems.

  20. The use of static light scattering for the structure analysis of radiosensitive polymer gels: a literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussche, E Vanden [Department of Radiotherapy Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Deene, Y de [Department of Radiotherapy Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dubruel, P [Polymer Material Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vergote, K [Department of Radiotherapy Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Schacht, E [Polymer Material Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Wagter, C de [Department of Radiotherapy Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2004-01-01

    Static light scattering (SLS) could be a worthy technique to perform a structure analysis of the polymer structures inside radiation sensitive gels. The information obtained with SLS is a static characterization of the particle structures inside the gel. SLS will be combined with NMR relaxometry and NMR diffusion measurements, which deliver a hydrodynamic characterization of the microstructure of the gels.

  1. Dynamic covalent gels assembled from small molecules:from discrete gelators to dynamic covalent polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Yong Zhang; Li-Hua Zeng; Juan Feng

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic covalent chemistry has emerged recently to be a powerful tool to construct functional materials.This article reviews the progress in the research and development of dynamic covalent chemistry in gels assembled from small molecules.First dynamic covalent reactions used in gels are reviewed to understand the dynamic covalent bonding.Afterwards the catalogues of dynamic covalent gels are reviewed according to the nature of gelators and the interactions between gelators.Dynamic covalent bonding can be involved to form low molecular weight gelators.Low molecular weight molecules with multiple functional groups react to form dynamic covalent cross-linked polymers and act as gelators.Two catalogues of gels show different properties arising from their different structures.This review aims to illustrate the structure-property relationships of these dynamic covalent gels.

  2. In vitro fermentation of alginate and its derivatives by human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaomiao; Li, Guangsheng; Shang, Qingsen; Chen, Xiuxia; Liu, Wei; Pi, Xiong'e; Zhu, Liying; Yin, Yeshi; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Alginate (Alg) has a long history as a food ingredient in East Asia. However, the human gut microbes responsible for the degradation of alginate and its derivatives have not been fully understood yet. Here, we report that alginate and the low molecular polymer derivatives of mannuronic acid oligosaccharides (MO) and guluronic acid oligosaccharides (GO) can be completely degraded and utilized at various rates by fecal microbiota obtained from six Chinese individuals. However, the derivative of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) was not hydrolyzed. The bacteria having a pronounced ability to degrade Alg, MO and GO were isolated from human fecal samples and were identified as Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides xylanisolvens, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Alg, MO and GO can increase the production level of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), but GO generates the highest level of SCFA. Our data suggest that alginate and its derivatives could be degraded by specific bacteria in the human gut, providing the basis for the impacts of alginate and its derivates as special food additives on human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extremity Regeneration of Soft Tissue Injury Using Growth Factor-Impregnated Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Repeated injections of growth factor-alginate material are... Vascularized endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) Alginate gel Ischemia-reperfusion Large animal model...operative complications including skin necrosis and seroma development. The IACUC protocol was reevaluated and modified thought multiple discussions

  4. Cycling Performance of Li4Ti5O12 Electrodes in Ionic Liquid-Based Gel Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Dong Won; Kang, Yong Ku

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the cycling behavior of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 electrode in a cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte based on non-flammable ionic liquid consisting of 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide and vinylene carbonate. The Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 electrodes in ionic liquid-based gel polymer electrolytes exhibited reversible cycling behavior with good capacity retention. Cycling data and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses revealed that the optimum content of the cross-linking agent necessary to ensure both acceptable initial discharge capacity and good capacity retention was about 8 wt %

  5. Influence of Sodium Alginate on Hypoglycemic Activity of Metformin Hydrochloride in the Microspheres Obtained by the Spray Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szekalska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate microspheres with metformin hydrochloride were prepared by the spray drying method in order to improve residence time of drug in the stomach. Nine formulations (F1–F9 with various drug : polymer ratio (1 : 2, 1 : 1, and 2 : 1 and different sodium alginate concentration (1%, 2%, and 3% were evaluated for size, morphology, drug loading, Zeta potential, and swelling degree. In vitro drug release, mathematical release profile, and physical state of microspheres were also evaluated. Optimal formulation characterized by the highest drug loading was formulation F6 (drug : polymer ratio 2 : 1 and 2% alginate solution. Based on glucose uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and α-amylase inhibition tests, it could be concluded that alginate microspheres enhance hypoglycemic activity of metformin hydrochloride evaluated in vitro. Designed microspheres are promising as alternative, multicompartment dosage form for metformin hydrochloride delivery.

  6. In vivo evaluation of EPO-secreting cells immobilized in different alginate-PLL microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, S; Orive, G; Hernández, R M; Gascón, A R; Canals, J M; Muñoz, M T; Pedraz, J L

    2006-11-01

    Alginates are the most employed biomaterials for cell encapsulation due to their abundance, easy gelling properties and apparent biocompatibility. However, as natural polymers different impurities including endotoxins, proteins and polyphenols can be found in their composition. Several purification protocols as well as different batteries of assays to prove the biocompatibility of the alginates in vitro have been recently developed. However, little is known about how the use of alginates with different purity grade may affect the host immune response after their implantation in vivo. The present paper investigates the long-term functionality and biocompatibility of murine erythropoietin (EPO) secreting C2C12 cells entrapped in microcapsules elaborated with alginates with different properties (purity, composition and viscosity). Results showed that independently of the alginate type employed, the animals presented elevated hematocrit levels until day 130, remaining at values between 70-87%. However, histological analysis of the explanted devices showed higher overgrowth around non-biomedical grade alginate microcapsules which could be directly related with higher impurity content of this type of alginate. Although EPO delivery may be limited by the formation of a fibrotic layer around non-biomedical grade alginate microcapsules, the high EPO secretion of the encapsulated cells together with the pharmacodynamic behaviour and the angiogenic and immune-modulatory properties of EPO result in no direct correlation between the biocompatibility of the alginate and the therapeutic response obtained.

  7. The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Physico-Chemical Properties of Sodium Alginate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erizal; Sudrajat, A.; Dewi SP; Rahayu Chosdu; Tatiek Martati

    2004-01-01

    In the order to develop application of radiation to improve the quality of natural polymers, irradiation effects on physico-chemical characterization of Na-alginate has been carried out. Both Na-alginate powder and solution were irradiated by gamma rays at doses of 0;10;30; and 50 kGy. The parameters observed consisting of viscosity, pH, tensile strength, IR and UV spectra of irradiated and unirradiated samples. The results showed that irradiation up to 50 kGy, did not give effect on pH and no new peak appeared in the IR spectra. However, tensile strength and viscosity decreased with increasing irradiation dose up 50 kGy, which showed the possibility of degradation process on Na-alginate. (author)

  8. Determine the Dose Distribution Using Ultrasound Parameters in MAGIC-f Polymer Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Masoumi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper (MAGIC-f polymer gel after megavoltage energy exposure, the sensitivity of the ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient dose-dependent parameters was evaluated. The MAGIC-f polymer gel was irradiated under 1.25 MeV cobalt-60, ranging from 0 to 60 Gy in 2-Gy steps, and received dose uniformity and accuracy of ±2%. After calibration of the ultrasonic systems with a frequency of 500 kHz, the parameters of ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient of the irradiated gel samples were measured. According to the dose–response curve, the ability of ultrasonic parameters was evaluated in dose rate readings. Based on a 4-order polynomial curve, fitted on the dose–response parameters of ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient and observed at 24 hours after irradiation, ultrasonic parameters had more sensitivity. The sensitivity of the dose–velocity and dose-attenuation coefficient curves was observed as 50 m/s/Gy and 0.06 dB/MHz/Gy over the linear range of 4 to 44 Gy, respectively. The ultrasonic parameters at 5°C, 15°C, and 25°C on the gel dosimeter after 0 to 60 Gy irradiation showed that readings at 25°C have higher sensitivity compared to 15°C and 5°C. Maximum sensitivity time and temperature readings of the MAGIC-f ultrasonic parameters were concluded 24 hours after irradiation and at a temperature of 25°C.

  9. Gelation Behavior Study of a Resorcinol–Hexamethyleneteramine Crosslinked Polymer Gel for Water Shut-Off Treatment in Low Temperature and High Salinity Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongpeng Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mature oilfields usually encounter the problem of high watercut. It is practical to use chemical methods for water-shutoff in production wells, however conventional water-shutoff agents have problems of long gelation time, low gel strength, and poor stability under low temperature and high salinity conditions. In this work a novel polymer gel for low temperature and high salinity reservoirs was developed. This water-shutoff agent had controllable gelation time, adjustable gel strength and good stability performance. The crosslinking process of this polymer gel was studied by rheological experiments. The process could be divided into an induction period, a fast crosslinking period, and a stable period. Its gelation behaviors were investigated in detail. According to the Gel Strength Code (GSC and vacuum breakthrough method, the gel strength was displayed in contour maps. The composition of the polymer gel was optimized to 0.25~0.3% YG100 + 0.6~0.9% resorcinol + 0.2~0.4% hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA + 0.08~0.27% conditioner (oxalic acid. With the concentration increase of the polymer gel and temperature, the decrease of pH, the induction period became shorter and the crosslinking was more efficient, resulting in better stability performance. Various factors of the gelation behavior which have an impact on the crosslinking reaction process were examined. The relationships between each impact factor and the initial crosslinking time were described with mathematical equations.

  10. Design of cissus-alginate microbeads revealing mucoprotection properties in anti-inflammatory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunlola, Adenike; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Lamprecht, Alf; Oyagbemi, Ademola A; Oridupa, Olayinka A; Aina, Oluwasanmi O

    2015-08-01

    Cissus gum has been employed as polymer with sodium alginate in the formulation of diclofenac microbeads and the in vivo mucoprotective properties of the polymer in anti-inflammatory therapy assessed in rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema in comparison to diclofenac powder and commercial diclofenac tablet. A full 2(3) factorial experimental design has been used to investigate the influence of concentration of cissus gum (X1); concentration of calcium acetate (X2) and stirring speed (X3) on properties of the microbeads. Optimized small discrete microbeads with size of 1.22±0.10 mm, entrapment efficiency of 84.6% and t80 of 15.2±3.5 h were obtained at ratio of cissus gum:alginate (1:1), low concentration of calcium acetate (5% w/v) and high stirring speed (400 rpm). In vivo studies showed that the ranking of percent inhibition of inflammation after 3h was diclofenac powder>commercial tablet=cissus>alginate. Histological damage score and parietal cell density were lower while crypt depth and mucosal width were significantly higher (pdiclofenac microbeads than those administered with diclofenac powder and commercial tablet, suggesting the mucoprotective property of the gum. Thus, cissus gum could be suitable as polymer in the formulation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ensuring sustained release while reducing gastric side effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transient gels in colloid-polymer mixtures studied with fluorescence confocal scanning laser microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, N.A.M.; Asnaghi, D.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    1999-01-01

    We study the structure and the time evolution of transient gels formed in colloid-polymer mixtures, by means of uorescence Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM). This technique is used in conjunction with novel colloidal silica particles containing a uorescent core. The confocal micrographs

  12. Thiomers: a new generation of mucoadhesive polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2005-11-03

    Thiolated polymers or designated thiomers are mucoadhesive basis polymers, which display thiol bearing side chains. Based on thiol/disulfide exchange reactions and/or a simple oxidation process disulfide bonds are formed between such polymers and cysteine-rich subdomains of mucus glycoproteins building up the mucus gel layer. Thiomers mimic therefore the natural mechanism of secreted mucus glycoproteins, which are also covalently anchored in the mucus layer by the formation of disulfide bonds-the bridging structure most commonly encountered in biological systems. So far the cationic thiomers chitosan-cysteine, chitosan-thiobutylamidine as well as chitosan-thioglycolic acid and the anionic thiomers poly(acylic acid)-cysteine, poly(acrylic acid)-cysteamine, carboxy-methylcellulose-cysteine and alginate-cysteine have been generated. Due to the immobilization of thiol groups on mucoadhesive basis polymers, their mucoadhesive properties are 2- up to 140-fold improved. The higher efficacy of this new generation of mucoadhesive polymers in comparison to the corresponding unmodified mucoadhesive basis polymers could be verified via various in vivo studies on various mucosal membranes in different animal species and in humans. The development of first commercial available products comprising thiomers is in progress. Within this review an overview of the mechanism of adhesion and the design of thiomers as well as delivery systems comprising thiomers and their in vivo performance is provided.

  13. Compliant gel polymer electrolyte based on poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl alcohol) for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xianguo; Huang, Xinglan; Gao, Jiandong; Zhang, Shu; Deng, Zhenghua; Suo, Jishuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Compliant gel polymer electrolyte based on P(MA-co-AN)/PVA is facilely prepared for flexible lithium-ion batteries. •The compliant gel polymer electrolyte displays high ionic conductivity, self-standing and mechanical flexible. •The compliant gel polymer electrolyte exhibits excellent chemical and electrochemical performances. -- Abstract: In this report, mechanically compliant gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) for flexible lithium-ion batteries is facilely fabricated. The GPE that based on the poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (P(MA-co-AN)/PVA) was prepared via emulsion polymerization. Herein, the P(MA-co-AN) copolymer is anticipated to exert beneficial for the bendability of the GPE, as well as swollen with the liquid electrolyte to provide a facile pathway for ion movement. The PVA serves as a stabilizer during the emulsion polymerization and a mechanical framework for the compliant polymer membrane. Performance benefits of the mechanically compliant membrane are elucidated in terms of mechanical behavior, thermostability and ionic conductivity. The GPE is still self-standing and mechanical flexible after swollen with liquid electrolyte. The GPE displays a conductivity of 0.98 mS cm −1 with the uptake electrolyte up to 150% of its own weight at 30 °C, excellent electrochemical stability window (5.2 V vs. Li/Li + ) and favorable interfacial characteristics. When used in flexible lithium-ion batteries, such a GPE demonstrates satisfactory compatibility with LiCoO 2 and graphite electrodes

  14. The Relation between the Rheological Properties of Gels and the Mechanical Properties of Their Corresponding Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingze Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of low density, highly porous clay/poly(vinyl alcohol composite aerogels, incorporating ammonium alginate, were fabricated via a convenient and eco-friendly freeze drying method. It is significant to understand rheological properties of precursor gels because they directly affect the form of aerogels and their processing behaviors. The introduction of ammonium alginate impacted the rheological properties of colloidal gels and improved the mechanical performance of the subject aerogels. The specific compositions and processing conditions applied to those colloidal gel systems brought about different aerogel morphologies, which in turn translated into the observed mechanical properties. The bridge between gel rheologies and aerogel structures are established in the present work.

  15. Electrolyte transport in neutral polymer gels embedded with charged inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Reghan

    2005-11-01

    Ion permeable membranes are the basis of a variety of molecular separation technologies, including ion exchange, gel electrophoresis and dialysis. This work presents a theoretical model of electrolyte transport in membranes comprised of a continuous polymer gel embedded with charged spherical inclusions, e.g., biological cells and synthetic colloids. The microstructure mimics immobilized cell cultures, where electric fields have been used to promote nutrient transport. Because several important characteristics can, in principle, be carefully controlled, the theory provides a quantitative framework to help tailor the bulk properties for enhanced molecular transport, microfluidic pumping, and physicochemical sensing applications. This talk focuses on the electroosmotic flow driven by weak electric fields and electrolyte concentration gradients. Also of importance is the influence of charge on the effective ion diffusion coefficients, bulk electrical conductivity, and membrane diffusion potential.

  16. Design and characterization of self-assembled fish sarcoplasmic protein-alginate nanocomplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; Mattebjerg, Maria Ahlm; Wattjes, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Macrostructures based on natural polymers are subject to large attention, as the application range is wide within the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study we present nanocomplexes (NCXs) made from electrostatic self-assembly between negatively charged alginate and positively charged...... fish sarcoplasmic proteins (FSP), prepared by bulk mixing. A concentration screening revealed that there was a range of alginate and FSP concentrations where stable NCXs with similar properties were formed, rather than two exact concentrations. The size of the NCXs was 293 +/- 3 nm, and the zeta...

  17. Comparison of selected physico-chemical properties of calcium alginate films prepared by two different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossingham, Yazmin J; Kerr, Philip G; Kennedy, Ross A

    2014-10-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) is a naturally occurring, non-toxic, polysaccharide that is able to form gels after exposure to calcium. These gels have been used in food and biomedical industries. This is the first direct comparison of two different methods of calcium alginate film production, namely interfacial gelation (IFG) and dry cast gelation (DCG). IFG films were significantly thicker than DCG films, and were more extensively rehydrated in water and 0.1M HCl than the DCG films. During rehydration in 0.1M HCl almost all calcium ions were lost. Under scanning electron microscopy, IFG films appeared less dense than DCG films. IFG films were mechanically weaker than DCG films, and both types of film were weaker after rehydration in 0.1M HCl compared with deionized water. Permeation of theophylline (TPL) was evaluated in-vitro; the diffusion coefficient (D) of the TPL was almost 90 times lower in DCG films than IFG films when both were rehydrated in water. Although the 0.1M HCl rendered both gels more permeable to TPL, D of TPL was still about five times lower in DCG compared to IFG films. The evaluation of selected physico-chemical properties of films is important, since this information may inform the choice of gelation technique used to produce calcium alginate coatings on pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of dyes adsorption properties of TiO2-alginate biohybrid material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrón Zambrano, J A; Ávila Ortega, A; Muñoz Rodríguez, D; Carrera Figueiras, C; Sánchez Morales, G

    2013-01-01

    In this study a TiO 2 -alginate biohybrid material was obtained by the sol gel method and its adsorption properties were compared to those of its precursors using eosin B (anionic) as model dye. The results showed that the TiO 2 and biohybrid have a greater affinity for eosine B than alginate. The maximum adsorption capacity for the eosin B was obtained at pH = 10. Kinetic studies showed that the biohybrid has greater rate and adsorption capacity than its precursors. Kinetic data were fitted to a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The experimental isotherms were fitted to the Langmuir model.

  19. Bioinspired preparation of alginate nanoparticles using microbubble bursting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Mohamed; Huang, Jie; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are considered to be one of the most advanced tools for drug delivery applications. In this research, alginate (a model hydrophilic polymer) nanoparticles 80 to 200 nm in diameter were obtained using microbubble bursting. The natural process of bubble bursting occurs through a number of stages, which consequently produce nano- and microsized droplets via two main production mechanisms, bubble shell disintegration and a jetting process. In this study, nano-sized droplets/particles were obtained by promoting the disintegrating mechanism and suppressing (limiting) the formation of larger microparticles resulting from the jetting mechanism. A T-junction microfluidic device was used to prepare alginate microbubbles with different sizes in a well-controlled manner. The size of the bubbles was varied by controlling two processing parameters, the solution flow rate and the bubbling pressure. Crucially, the bubble size was found to be the determining factor for inducing (or limiting) the bubble shell disintegration mechanism and the size needed to promote this process was influenced by the properties of the solution used for preparing the bubbles, particularly the viscosity. The size of alginate nanoparticles produced via the disintegration mechanism was found to be directly proportional to the viscosity of the alginate solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In situ immobilization on the silica gel surface and adsorption capacity of polymer-based azobenzene on toxic metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Irina; Yanovska, Elina; Sternik, Dariusz; Kychkyruk, Olga; Ol'khovik, Lidiya; Polonska, Yana

    2018-03-01

    In situ immobilization of poly[(4-methacryloyloxy-(4'-carboxy)azobenzene] on silica gel surface has been performed by radical polymerization of monomer. The fact of polymer immobilization is confirmed by IR spectroscopy. TG and DSC-MS analysis showed that the mass of the immobilized polymer was 10.61%. The SEM-microphotograph-synthesized composite analysis showed that the immobilized polymer on the silica gel surface is placed in the form of fibers. It has been found that the synthesized composite exhibits the sorption ability in terms of microquantities of Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Mn(II) and Fe(III) ions in a neutral aqueous medium. The quantitative sorption of microquantities of Pb(II) and Fe(III) ions has been recorded. It has been found that immobilization of the silica gel surface leads to an increase in its sorption capacitance for Fe(III), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions by half.

  1. Influence of solvent on the poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jihuai; Lan, Zhang; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Hao, Shancun; Fang, Leqing

    2007-01-01

    The influence of solvents on the property of poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) polymer gel electrolyte and photovoltaic performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. Solvents or mixed solvents with large donor number enhance the liquid electrolyte absorbency, which further influences the ionic conductivity of polymer gel electrolyte. A polymer gel electrolyte with ionic conductivity of 4.45 mS cm -1 was obtained by using poly (acrylic acid)-oligo-(ethylene glycol) as polymer matrix, and absorbing 30 vol.% N-methyl pyrrolidone and 70 vol.% γ-butyrolactone with 0.5 M NaI and 0.05 M I 2 . By using this polymer gel electrolyte coupling with 0.4 M pyridine additive, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with conversion efficiency of 4.74% was obtained under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5)

  2. Encapsulation of protease from Aspergillus oryzae and lipase from Thermomyces lanuginoseus using alginate and different copolymer types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Thi Mong Thu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the application of enzymes in food as a food processing aid and enzyme supplement is of interest and widely used, the enzymes can be easily deactivated or lose their activity due to many causes such as pH and moisture as well as through the introduction of incompatible ingredients during food processing and storage. These problems can be solved by the encapsulation technique, especially in a gel matrix. The influences were studied of the alginate concentration, types of copolymer and their concentrations on the bead size, encapsulation yield (EY, encapsulation efficiency (EE, leakage and the retention of enzyme activity during storage period of encapsulated protease from Aspergillus oryzae and lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus beads. A solution of purified protease or lipase was encapsulated in calcium alginate-chitosan beads (CACB, calcium alginate-xanthan gum beads (CAXB and calcium alginate-maltodextrin beads (CAMB using the extrusion method. Increasing the alginate and copolymer concentrations in the solution increased the bead size, EY, EE and the retention of enzyme activity during the storage period and reduced leakage of both the encapsulated protease and lipase. In addition, different types of copolymer significantly (p ≤ 0.05 affected these properties of both encapsulated enzymes. Furthermore, protease encapsulated using 2.0% alginate and 0.2% chitosan provided the highest EY (81.7% and EE (77.2% with a bead size of 1.85 mm and 8.1% leakage. The retention of encapsulated protease activity and the shelf-life of encapsulated enzyme which was expressed as half-life, the time required for the enzyme activity to decrease by half (thalf life were 75.8% and 27.2 wk, respectively after storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. For lipase, encapsulation using 2.0% alginate and 0.4% xanthan gum provided the highest EY (42.5% and EE (43.9% and the bead size and leakage were 1.81 mm and 6.2%, respectively. The retention of encapsulated

  3. Localized internal radiotherapy with 90Y particles embedded in a new thermosetting alginate gel: a feasibility study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holte, Oyvind; Skretting, Arne; Bach-Gansmo, Tore; Hol, Per Kristian; Johnsrud, Kjersti; Tønnesen, Hanne Hjorth; Karlsen, Jan

    2006-02-01

    Internal radiotherapy requires the localization of the radionuclide to the site of action. A new injectable alginate gel formulation intended to undergo immediate gelation in tissues and capable of encapsulating radioactive particles containing 90Y was investigated. The formulation was injected intramuscularly, into the bone marrow compartment of the femur and intravenously, respectively, in pigs. The distribution of radioactivity in various tissues was determined. Following intramuscular injection, more than 90% of the radioactivity was found at the site of injection. Following injection into bone marrow, 30-40% of the radioactivity was retained at the site of injection, but a considerable amount of radioactivity was also detected in the lungs (35-45%) and the liver (5-18%). Following intravenous injection, 80-90% of the radioactivity was found in the lungs. The present formulation appears suitable for localized radiotherapy in organs and tissues having low perfusion.

  4. Comparison of Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs and Ca-alginate gel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of 96 h fermentation, the ethanol yields were 64.67 ± 0.016 and 65.21 ± 0.030 g/l molasses, with luffa and Ca-alginate entrapped S. cerevisiae cells exhibiting 89.90 ± 0.008 and 91.86 ± 0.072% sugar conversion, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference [Fisher's least significance difference ...

  5. Determination of bound and unbound water in dental alginate irreversible hydrocolloid by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, C M; Thomas, G A

    2009-04-01

    Alginate materials are considered unsuitable for precise fixed prosthetic rehabilitation due to their tendency to undergo spontaneous syneresis. Commercial alginate impression materials were investigated using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy to probe the relation between changes in the microscopic water environment and dimensional change to obtain a better understanding of spontaneous syneresis. NMR was used to measure the spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) of (1)H nuclei in water in alginate matrices to characterize changes in gel structure over time. These results were related to the dimensional stabilities of the alginate impression materials, their chemical compositions, and the Moisture Sorption Isotherms (MSI) obtained by incubation at fixed relative humidities. The rate of change of T(1) with time was found to be a better predictor of dimensional stability than MSI. The greatest dimensional stability for the alginate powders investigated was associated with a high filler:alginate ratio and a high Ca:Na ratio. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy may used to measure changes in alginate impression materials under conditions where no dimensional change can be observed directly. Changes occurred rapidly even at 100% humidity, suggesting the dimensional stability of alginate impression materials is partially independent of the rate of dehydration. The results may open a way to formulate alginate impression materials more suitable for precise fabrication of dental prostheses.

  6. 3D dosimetry study of 188Re liquid balloon for intravascular brachytherapy using BANG polymer gel dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuu, S.; Schiff, P.B.; Maryanski, M.; Liu, T.; Borzillary, S.; Weinberger, J.

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that the combination of intravascular brachytherapy and coronary stent implantation may result in further reduction of restenosis after percutaneous balloon angioplasty. The use of an angioplasty balloon filled with a P 188 Re liquid beta source for intravascular brachytherapy provides the advantage of accurate source positioning and uniform dose distribution to the coronary vessel wall. The effect of source edge and stent on the dose distribution of the target tissue may be clinically important. In BANG gels, the absorbed radiation produces free-radical chain polymerisation of acrylic monomers that are initially dissolved in the gel. The number of polymer particles is proportional to the absorbed dose. In this study, 3D dose distributions are presented for 188 Re balloons, with and without stents, using a prototype He-Ne laser CT scanner and the proprietary BANG polymer gel dosemeters. (author)

  7. Measurement of relative dose distributions in stereotactic radiosurgery by the polymer-gel dosimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný ml., J.; Spěváček, V.; Hrbáček, J.; Judas, L.; Novotný, J.; Dvořák, P.; Tlacháčová, D.; Schmitt, M.; Tintěra, J.; Vymazal, J.; Čechák, T.; Michálek, Jiří; Přádný, Martin; Liščák, R.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2004), s. 225-235 ISSN 1024-2651. [International Stereotactic Radiosurgery Society Meeting /6./. Kyoto, 22.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7460 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : stereotactic radiosurgery * polymer-gel dosimeter Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology

  8. Integration of molecular machines into supramolecular materials: actuation between equilibrium polymers and crystal-like gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Goujon, Antoine; Moulin, Emilie; Rawiso, Michel; Giuseppone, Nicolas; Buhler, Eric

    2017-11-30

    In this article, the dynamic structure of complex supramolecular polymers composed of bistable [c2]daisy chain rotaxanes as molecular machines that are linked by ureidopyrimidinones (Upy) as recognition moieties was studied. pH actuation of the integrated mechanically active rotaxanes controls the contraction/extension of the polymer chains as well as their physical reticulation. Small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering were used to study in-depth the nanostructure of the contracted and extended polymer aggregates in toluene solution. The supramolecular polymers comprising contracted nanomachines were found to be equilibrium polymers with a mass that is concentration dependent in dilute and semidilute regimes. Surprisingly, the extended polymers form a gel network with a crystal-like internal structure that is independent of concentration and reminiscent of a pearl-necklace network.

  9. A 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine-imprinted polymer gel surface plasmon resonance sensor based on template-responsive shrinkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Chunyan; Gao, Jigang; Zhang, Lili; Zhou, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Based on template-responsive shrinkage of imprinted gel film, a novel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is prepared. •The relevant electrochemical parameters are optimized. •The imprinted gel-SPR system has great capability for providing highly sensitive and selective analysis of 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine. •The present SPR sensor was successfully employed to detect 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine in tap water and soil samples. -- Abstract: Molecularly imprinted polymer gel film on the gold substrate of a chip was prepared with minute amount of cross-linker for the fabrication of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor sensitive to 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine. The molecularly imprinted gel film was anchored on a gold chip by a surface-bound photo-radical initiator. The sensing of 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine is based on responsive shrinkage of the imprinted polymer gel film that is triggered by target binding. This change can improve the responsiveness of the imprinted SPR sensor to 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine. The molecularly imprinted polymer gel film was characterized with contact angle measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammogram, swelling measurements and atomic force microscopy. The changes of SPR spectroscopy wavenumber shifts revealed that the imprinted gel sensing film can ‘memorize’ the binding of 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine compared to non-imprinted one. The imprinted gel-SPR sensor showed a linear response in the range of 9.0 × 10 −12 to 5.0 × 10 −10 mol L −1 (R 2 = 0.9998) for the detection of 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine, and it also exhibited high selectivity to 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine compared to its structurally related analogues. We calculated the detection limits to be 0.471 ng L −1 for tap water and 0.772 ng kg −1 for soil based on a signal to noise ratio of 3. The method showed good recoveries and precision for the samples spiked with 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine. This suggest

  10. Alginate/nanohydroxyapatite scaffolds with designed core/shell structures fabricated by 3D plotting and in situ mineralization for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongxiang; Lode, Anja; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang; Gelinsky, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Composite scaffolds, especially polymer/hydroxyapatite (HAP) composite scaffolds with predesigned structures, are promising materials for bone tissue engineering. Various methods including direct mixing of HAP powder with polymers or incubating polymer scaffolds in simulated body fluid for preparing polymer/HAP composite scaffolds are either uncontrolled or require long times of incubation. In this work, alginate/nano-HAP composite scaffolds with designed pore parameters and core/shell structures were fabricated using 3D plotting technique and in situ mineralization under mild conditions (at room temperature and without the use of any organic solvents). Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, microcomputer tomography, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to characterize the fabricated scaffolds. Mechanical properties and protein delivery of the scaffolds were evaluated, as well as the cell response to the scaffolds by culturing human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC). The obtained data indicate that this method is suitable to fabricate alginate/nano-HAP composite scaffolds with a layer of nano-HAP, coating the surface of the alginate strands homogeneously and completely. The surface mineralization enhanced the mechanical properties and improved the cell attachment and spreading, as well as supported sustaining protein release, compared to pure alginate scaffolds without nano-HAP shell layer. The results demonstrated that the method provides an interesting option for bone tissue engineering application.

  11. Investigation of the Spatial Resolution of MR-Based Polymer Gel Dosimetry versus Film Densitometry using Dose Modulation Transfer Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Moghadam-Drodkhani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The conventional methods of dosimetry are not capable of dosimetry in such a small volume of less than one cubic millimeter. Although the polymer gel dosimetry method based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI could achieve three dimensional dosimetry with high resolution, a spatial resolution evaluation based on gel dose modulation transfer function has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, the spatial resolution of two systems of film densitometry and polymer gel dosimetry based on MRI has been evaluated by using the dose modulation transfer function (DMTF.   Material and Methods: Kodak therapy verification films and MAGICA polymer gel samples were positioned below a brass absorption grid with different periodic slices (a/2= 280, 525, 1125 μm, which was placed in a water bath container to avoid regions of dose build-up just below the absorption grid and then irradiated with Cobalt-60 photons on a Theratron external-beam treatment unit. Dose variation under the brass grid was determined using a calibration curve, while transverse relaxation time (T2 as the selective parameter in a dose image based on multiple echo MRI with 1.5 Tesla GE Signa Echo Speed system (FOV=10 cm, matrix size=512 ×512, pixel size =0.199×0.199 mm2, TE = 20, 40, 60, 80 ms, TR=4200 ms, NEX = 4, slice thickness=2 mm, gap=1 mm was calculated. DMTF from the modulation depths of T2 and variation in film optical density after calibration would be achieved. The results of polymer gel were compared with film. Results: After deriving the dose distribution profile under the absorption grid, minima and maxima at the smallest period of a = 560 μm could scarcely be resolved, but the modulations due to a=2250 μm and a = 1050 μm grids could be discerned. The modulation depth for a=2250 μm grid was set to 100% and the other modulations were subsequently referred to this maximum modulation. For film densitometry at a = 1050 μm, the modulation depth was

  12. Selective removals of heavy metals (Pb(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+)) from wastewater by gelation with alginate for effective metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Lu, Xingwen; Li, Xiao-yan

    2016-05-05

    A novel method that uses the aqueous sodium alginate solution for direct gelation with metal ions is developed for effective removal and recovery of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. The experimental study was conducted on Pb(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) as the model heavy metals. The results show that gels can be formed rapidly between the metals and alginate in less than 10 min and the gelation rates fit well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The optimum dosing ratio of alginate to the metal ions was found to be between 2:1 and 3:1 for removing Pb(2+) and around 4:1 for removing Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) from wastewater, and the metal removal efficiency by gelation increased as the solution pH increased. Alginate exhibited a higher gelation affinity toward Pb(2+) than Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), which allowed a selective removal of Pb(2+) from the wastewater in the presence of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) ions. Chemical analysis of the gels suggests that the gelation mainly occurred between the metal ions and the -COO(-) and -OH groups on alginate. By simple calcination of the metal-laden gels at 700 °C for 1 h, the heavy metals can be well recovered as valuable resources. The metals obtained after the thermal treatment are in the form of PbO, CuO, and CdO nanopowders with crystal sizes of around 150, 50, and 100 nm, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of aminated chitosan/alginate scaffold containing halloysite nanotubes with improved cell attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir Afshar, Hamideh; Ghaee, Azadeh

    2016-10-20

    The chemical nature of biomaterials play important role in cell attachment, proliferation and migration in tissue engineering. Chitosan and alginate are biodegradable and biocompatible polymers used as scaffolds for various medical and clinical applications. Amine groups of chitosan scaffolds play an important role in cell attachment and water adsorption but also associate with alginate carboxyl groups via electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding, consequently the activity of amine groups in the scaffold decreases. In this study, chitosan/alginate/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) composite scaffolds were prepared using a freeze-drying method. Amine treatment on the scaffold occurred through chemical methods, which in turn caused the hydroxyl groups to be replaced with carboxyl groups in chitosan and alginate, after which a reaction between ethylenediamine, 1-ethyl-3,(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and scaffold triggered the amine groups to connect to the carboxyl groups of chitosan and alginate. The chemical structure, morphology and mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated by FTIR, CHNS, SEM/EDS and compression tests. The electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding between chitosan, alginate and halloysite was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Chitosan/alginate/halloysite scaffolds exhibit significant enhancement in compressive strength compared with chitosan/alginate scaffolds. CHNS and EDS perfectly illustrate that amine groups were effectively introduced in the aminated scaffold. The growth and cell attachment of L929 cells as well as the cytotoxicity of the scaffolds were investigated by SEM and Alamar Blue (AB). The results indicated that the aminated chitosan/alginate/halloysite scaffold has better cell growth and cell adherence in comparison to that of chitosan/alginate/halloysite samples. Aminated chitosan/alginate/halloysite composite scaffolds exhibit great potential for applications in tissue engineering, ideally in

  14. Review of radiation processing of natural polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, natural polymers are being investigated with renewed interest because of their abundant quantity and unique characteristics such as inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and renewable. It is also known as green polymer. Natural polymers such as carrageen, alginate, chitin/chitosan and starch are traditionally used in food-based industry. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge-driven areas such as healthcare, agro-technology and industry. Radiation degraded alginates, carrangeenan and chitosan as plant growth promoter and protector have been developed. Radiation degraded chitosan, carraneenan and starch have also been used together with synthetic polymers for hydrogel production to be used for wound dressing, skin moisturization and for biodegradable packaging films and foams. Radiation crosslinking of natural polymer derivatives such as carboxymethyl chitosan, carboxymethyl starch have been successfully developed in Japan and used for various applications such as removal of pollutants, removal of waters from liverstock excrete as well as for bedsores protection mat. (author)

  15. Highly Efficient Malolactic Fermentation of Red Wine Using Encapsulated Bacteria in a Robust Biocomposite of Silica-Alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Guillermo; Vila-Crespo, Josefina; Fernández-Fernández, Encarnación; Ruipérez, Violeta; Rodríguez-Nogales, José Manuel

    2017-06-28

    Bacteria encapsulation to develop malolactic fermentation emerges as a biotechnological strategy that provides significant advantages over the use of free cells. Two encapsulation methods have been proposed embedding Oenococcus oeni, (i) interpenetrated polymer networks of silica and Ca-alginate and (ii) Ca-alginate capsules coated with hydrolyzed 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (hAPTES). On the basis of our results, only the first method was suitable for bacteria encapsulation. The optimized silica-alginate capsules exhibited a negligible bacteria release and an increase of 328% and 65% in L-malic acid consumption and mechanical robustness, respectively, compared to untreated alginate capsules. Moreover, studies of capsule stability at different pH and ethanol concentrations in water solutions and in wine indicated a better behavior of silica-alginate capsules than untreated ones. The inclusion of silicates and colloidal silica in alginate capsules containing O. oeni improved markedly their capacity to deplete the levels of L-malic acid in red wines and their mechanical robustness and stability.

  16. Optimization of lactic acid production with immobilized Rhizopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sule

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Lactic acid is the most widely utilized organic acid in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and chemical industries. One of its most promising applications is for used biodegradable and ... polymer supports, by embedding with natural polymers like alginate gels and synthetic polymers (Tamada et al.,. 1992).

  17. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of uranium biosorption by calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Jing; Fan, Fangli; Wu, Xiaolei; Tian, Wei; Zhao, Liang; Yin, Xiaojie; Fan, Fuyou; Li, Zhan; Tian, Longlong; Wang, Yang; Qin, Zhi; Guo, Junsheng

    2013-01-01

    Calcium alginate beads are potential biosorbent for radionuclides removal as they contain carboxyl groups. However, until now limited information is available concerning the uptake behavior of uranium by this polymer gel, especially when sorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics are concerned. In present work, batch experiments were carried out to study the equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of uranium sorption by calcium alginate beads. The effects of initial solution pH, sorbent amount, initial uranium concentration and temperature on uranium sorption were also investigated. The determined optimal conditions were: initial solution pH of 3.0, added sorbent amount of 40 mg, and uranium sorption capacity increased with increasing initial uranium concentration and temperature. Equilibrium data obtained under different temperatures were fitted better with Langmuir model than Freundlich model, uranium sorption was dominated by a monolayer way. The kinetic data can be well depicted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The activation energy derived from Arrhenius equation was 30.0 kJ/mol and the sorption process had a chemical nature. Thermodynamic constants such as ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔG 0 were also evaluated, results of thermodynamic study showed that the sorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. -- Highlights: • Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of uranium sorption by CaAlg were studied. • Equilibrium studies show that Langmuir isotherm better fit with experimental data. • Pseudo-second-order kinetics model is found to be well depicting the kinetic data. • Thermodynamic study shows that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous

  18. Three dimensional measurement of dose distributions produced by a robot-mounted linac using magnetic resonance imaging of bang polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.P.; Garwood, D.P.; Clarke, G.D.; McColl, R.W.; Maryanski, M.J.; Gore, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: A novel image-guided robotic radiosurgical system, capable of irradiating 102 non-coplanar nodes in 3 π geometry, produces complex dose distributions which are difficult or impractical to measure with conventional dosimetry instrumentation. The recently developed BANG polymer gel dosimetry system provides accurate, high resolution and three dimensional dose distributions data and is ideally suited for the task described above. In this study, the polymer gels were used for imaging the dose distributions produced by this extremely flexible radiosurgical system. Materials and Methods: The dosimeter materials consist of 2-liter BANG polymer gels in spherical, clear glass flasks, closed with ground glass stoppers, with glass rods extending to the center of the gel that serve as a target for the frameless robotic radiosurgery. A compact 6 MV x-band linac (285 lbs) is mounted and maneuvered by a 6 degree-of-freedom robotic arm. The gels were irradiated using a 25 mm circular insert. A total of 10 Gy was delivered at isocenter at a dose rate of 300 cGy/min using all of the available 102 nodes. The gels were then imaged by MRI(GE Signa) at 1.5 T, using a series of Hahn spin echoes of TR = 3s, TE = 20,100,200,400 ms. Transverse relaxation rate (R 2 ) maps were constructed from those multiple images, using the non-linear least-squares Lavenberg-Marquardt algorithm and a data analysis and display program 'DoseMap' which was written using the scientific computational program MATLAB. R 2 maps were converted to dose maps using an R 2 -to-dose calibration curve. Dose maps and isodose curves were then compared with corresponding data from the treatment planning computer software. Results: The dose dependence of the NMR transverse relaxation rate, R 2 , is reproducible (less than 2 % variation) and is linear up to about 10 Gy, with a slope of 0.25 s -1 Gy -1 at 1.5 Tesla. Isodose curves in three orthogonal (axial, sagittal and coronal) planes show excellent

  19. Polymers in cell encapsulation from an enveloped cell perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Lazarjani, Hamideh Aghajani; Poncelet, Denis; Faas, Marijke M.

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, many polymers have been proposed for producing immunoprotective capsules. Examples include the natural polymers alginate, agarose, chitosan, cellulose, collagen, and xanthan and synthetic polymers poly(ethylene glycol), polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, poly(ether-sulfone),

  20. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in mineralized alginate matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhrin, Marita; Xie, Minli; Olderøy, Magnus Ø; Sikorski, Pawel; Strand, Berit L; Standal, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Mineralized biomaterials are promising for use in bone tissue engineering. Culturing osteogenic cells in such materials will potentially generate biological bone grafts that may even further augment bone healing. Here, we studied osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in an alginate hydrogel system where the cells were co-immobilized with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for gradual mineralization of the microenvironment. MSC were embedded in unmodified alginate beads and alginate beads mineralized with ALP to generate a polymer/hydroxyapatite scaffold mimicking the composition of bone. The initial scaffold mineralization induced further mineralization of the beads with nanosized particles, and scanning electron micrographs demonstrated presence of collagen in the mineralized and unmineralized alginate beads cultured in osteogenic medium. Cells in both types of beads sustained high viability and metabolic activity for the duration of the study (21 days) as evaluated by live/dead staining and alamar blue assay. MSC in beads induced to differentiate in osteogenic direction expressed higher mRNA levels of osteoblast-specific genes (RUNX2, COL1AI, SP7, BGLAP) than MSC in traditional cell cultures. Furthermore, cells differentiated in beads expressed both sclerostin (SOST) and dental matrix protein-1 (DMP1), markers for late osteoblasts/osteocytes. In conclusion, Both ALP-modified and unmodified alginate beads provide an environment that enhance osteogenic differentiation compared with traditional 2D culture. Also, the ALP-modified alginate beads showed profound mineralization and thus have the potential to serve as a bone substitute in tissue engineering.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan impregnated calcium alginate beads for removal of uranium from aquatic stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Manisha, V.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Sawant, Manjiri; Kamane, Suman

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the feasibility of chitosan impregnated calcium alginate beads (Cal-Alg-Chi) to sorb the excess uranium from the aquatic stream. Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked D glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). The optimal composition of calcium alginate chitosan beads is 4 % (wt/vol) alginate gel having 5% loading of chitosan. The nature and morphology of pure and uranium sorbed calcium alginate chitosan beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATRFTIR). The results of batch sorption experiments suggest that Cal-Alg-Chi beads are very effective for removal of uranium in the pH range of 2.0-5.0 and sorption is more than 80 % in the concentration range of 1-100 mgL -1

  2. Optimization of pectinase immobilization on grafted alginate-agar gel beads by 24 full factorial CCD and thermodynamic profiling for evaluating of operational covalent immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Wahab, Walaa A; Karam, Eman A; Hassan, Mohamed E; Kansoh, Amany L; Esawy, Mona A; Awad, Ghada E A

    2018-07-01

    Pectinase produced by a honey derived from the fungus Aspergillus awamori KX943614 was covalently immobilized onto gel beads made of alginate and agar. Polyethyleneimine, glutaraldehyde, loading time and enzyme's units were optimized by 2 4 full factorial central composite design (CCD). The immobilization process increased the optimal working pH for the free pectinase from 5 to a broader range of pH4.5-5.5 and the optimum operational temperature from 55°C to a higher temperature, of 60°C, which is favored to reduce the enzyme's microbial contamination. The thermodynamics studies showed a thermal stability enhancement against high temperature for the immobilized formula. Moreover, an increase in half-lives and D-values was achieved. The thermodynamic studies proved that immobilization of pectinase made a remarkable increase in enthalpy and free energy because of enzyme stability enhancement. The reusability test revealed that 60% of pectinase's original activity was retained after 8 successive cycles. This gel formula may be convenient for immobilization of other industrial enzymes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of bulking, viscous and gel-forming dietary fibres on satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Anne J; Jonathan, Melliana C; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Mars, Monica; Schols, Henk A; Feskens, Edith J M; de Graaf, Cees

    2013-04-14

    The objective was to determine the effects of dietary fibre with bulking, viscous and gel-forming properties on satiation, and to identify the underlying mechanisms. We conducted a randomised crossover study with 121 men and women. Subjects were healthy, non-restrained eaters, aged 18-50 years and with normal BMI (18.5-25 kg/m²). Test products were cookies containing either: no added fibre (control), cellulose (bulking, 5 g/100 g), guar gum (viscous, 1.25 g/100 g and 2.5 g/100 g) or alginate (gel forming, 2.5 g/100 g and 5 g/100 g). Physico-chemical properties of the test products were confirmed in simulated upper gastrointestinal conditions. In a cinema setting, ad libitum intake of the test products was measured concurrently with oral exposure time per cookie by video recording. In a separate study with ten subjects, 4 h gastric emptying rate of a fixed amount of test products was assessed by ¹³C breath tests. Ad libitum energy intake was 22 % lower for the product with 5 g/100 g alginate (3.1 (sd 1.6) MJ) compared to control (4.0 (sd 2.2) MJ, P< 0.001). Intake of the other four products did not differ from control. Oral exposure time for the product with 5 g/100 g alginate (2.3 (sd 1.9) min) was 48 % longer than for control (1.6 (sd 0.9) min, P= 0.01). Gastric emptying of the 5 g/100 g alginate product was faster compared to control (P< 0.05). We concluded that the addition of 5 g/100 g alginate (i.e. gel-forming fibre) to a low-fibre cookie results in earlier satiation. This effect might be due to an increased oral exposure time.

  4. Development and manufacture of printable next-generation gel polymer ionic liquid electrolyte for Zn/MnO2 batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, R; Wang, Z; Wright, P; Wu, C H; Kim, B; Evans, J; Keif, M

    2013-01-01

    While much energy storage research focuses on the performance of individual components, such as the electrolyte or a single electrode, few investigate the electrochemical system as a whole. This research reports on the design, composition, and performance of a Zn/MnO 2 battery as affected by the manufacturing method and next-generation gel polymer electrolyte composed of the ionic liquid [BMIM][Otf], ZnOtf salt, and PVDF-HFP polymer binder. Materials and manufacturing tests are discussed with a focus on water concentration, surface features as produced by printing processes, and the effect of including a gel polymer phase. Cells produced for this research generated open circuit voltages from 1.0 to 1.3 V. A dry [BMIM][Otf] electrolyte was found to have 87.3 ppm of H 2 O, while an electrolyte produced in ambient conditions contained 12400 ppm of H 2 O. Cells produced in a dry, Ar environment had an average discharge capacity of 0.0137 mAh/cm 2 , while one produced in an ambient environment exhibited a discharge capacity at 0.05 mAh/cm 2 . Surface features varied significantly by printing method, where a doctor blade produced the most consistent features. The preliminary results herein suggest that water, surface roughness, and the gel polymer play important roles in affecting the performance of printed energy storage

  5. Development and manufacture of printable next-generation gel polymer ionic liquid electrolyte for Zn/MnO2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, R.; Wu, C. H.; Wang, Z.; Kim, B.; Keif, M.; Evans, J.; Wright, P.

    2013-12-01

    While much energy storage research focuses on the performance of individual components, such as the electrolyte or a single electrode, few investigate the electrochemical system as a whole. This research reports on the design, composition, and performance of a Zn/MnO2 battery as affected by the manufacturing method and next-generation gel polymer electrolyte composed of the ionic liquid [BMIM][Otf], ZnOtf salt, and PVDF-HFP polymer binder. Materials and manufacturing tests are discussed with a focus on water concentration, surface features as produced by printing processes, and the effect of including a gel polymer phase. Cells produced for this research generated open circuit voltages from 1.0 to 1.3 V. A dry [BMIM][Otf] electrolyte was found to have 87.3 ppm of H2O, while an electrolyte produced in ambient conditions contained 12400 ppm of H2O. Cells produced in a dry, Ar environment had an average discharge capacity of 0.0137 mAh/cm2, while one produced in an ambient environment exhibited a discharge capacity at 0.05 mAh/cm2. Surface features varied significantly by printing method, where a doctor blade produced the most consistent features. The preliminary results herein suggest that water, surface roughness, and the gel polymer play important roles in affecting the performance of printed energy storage.

  6. Alginate oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkeborg, Mia; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Gianfico, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    the presence of the conjugated alkene acid structure formed during enzymatic depolymerization. According to the resonance hybrid theory, the parent radicals of AOs are delocalized through allylic rearrangement, and as a consequence, the reactive intermediates are stabilized. AOs were weak ferrous ion chelators......Alginate oligosaccharides (AOs) prepared from alginate, by alginate lyase-mediated depolymerization, were structurally characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared spectrometry and thin layer chromatography. Studies of their antioxidant activities revealed that AOs were able to completely (100....... This work demonstrated that AOs obtained from a facile enzymatic treatment of abundant alginate is an excellent natural antioxidant, which may find applications in the food industry....

  7. Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of the biocorrosion of copper by alginic acid polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, John G.; Geesey, Gill G.; Hankins, Michael R.; Wright, Randy B.; Wichlacz, Paul L.

    1989-08-01

    Thin films (3.4 nm) of copper on germanium substrates were exposed to 2% alginic acid polysaccharide aqueous solution. Pre- and post-exposure characterization were done by Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ancillary graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the removal process of the copper thin film from the germanium substrate. Results indicate that some of the copper was oxidized by the alginic acid solution. Some of the copper was removed from the Cu/Ge interface and incorporated into the polymer matrix. Thus, biocorrosion of copper was exhibited by the alginic acid polysaccharide.

  8. The polymer gel electrolyte based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and its application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongxun; Huang Miaoliang; Wu Jihuai; Lan Zhang; Hao Sancun; Lin Jianming

    2008-01-01

    Using poly(methyl methacrylate) as polymer host, ethylene carbonate, 1,2-propanediol carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as organic mixture solvents, sodium iodide and iodine as source of I - /I 3 - , a polymer gel electrolyte PMMA-EC/PC/DMC-NaI/I 2 with ionic conductivity of 6.89 mS cm -1 was prepared. Based on the polymer gel electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was fabricated. The quasi-solid-state DSSC possessed a good long-term stability and a light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of 4.78% under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 simulated sunlight, which is almost equal to that of DSSC with a liquid electrolyte

  9. Gel nano-particulates against radioactivity; Des nanoparticules en gel contre la radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deroin, Ph

    2004-11-01

    The Argonne research center (USA) has developed a 'super-gel' compound, a polymer close to those used in baby's diapers, which can reach a 90% efficiency in the radioactive decontamination of porous materials, like bricks or concrete. The contaminated materials are sprayed with a mixture of polymer gel and wetting agent with nano-particulates in suspension. Under the action of the wetting agent, radioactivity migrates from the pores to the gel and is trapped by the nano-particulates. The drying and recycling of the gel allows to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes. Short paper. (J.S.)

  10. Synthesis of Silica Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel: Size-Dependent Properties, Surface Modification, and Applications in Silica-Polymer Nano composites-A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.R.; Vejayakumaran, P.

    2012-01-01

    Application of silica nanoparticles as fillers in the preparation of nano composite of polymers has drawn much attention, due to the increased demand for new materials with improved thermal, mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. Recent developments in the synthesis of monodispersed, narrow-size distribution of nanoparticles by sol-gel method provide significant boost to development of silica-polymer nano composites. This paper is written by emphasizing on the synthesis of silica nanoparticles, characterization on size-dependent properties, and surface modification for the preparation of homogeneous nano composites, generally by sol-gel technique. The effect of nano silica on the properties of various types of silica-polymer composites is also summarized.

  11. Preparation, characterization and biological evaluation of curcumin loaded alginate aldehyde–gelatin nanogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R., E-mail: sarikapaithal@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); James, Nirmala Rachel, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Anil Kumar, P.R., E-mail: anilkumarpr@sctimst.ac.in [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Raj, Deepa K., E-mail: kdeeps3@gmail.com [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India)

    2016-11-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenol exhibits chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities towards cancer. In order to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy, curcumin is encapsulated in alginate aldehyde–gelatin (Alg Ald-Gel) nanogels. Alginate aldehyde–gelatin nanogels are prepared by inverse miniemulsion technique. Physicochemical properties of the curcumin loaded nanogels are evaluated by, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), NMR spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Curcumin loaded nanogels show hydrodynamic diameter of 431 ± 8 nm and a zeta potential of − 36 ± 4 mV. The prepared nanogels exhibit an encapsulation efficiency of 72 ± 2%. In vitro drug release studies show a controlled release of curcumin from nanogels over a period of 48 h. Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the nanogels are evaluated. Bare nanogels are cytocompatible and curcumin loaded nanogels induce anticancer activity towards MCF-7 cells. In vitro cellular uptake of the curcumin loaded nanogels using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirms the uptake of nanogels in MCF-7 cells. Hence, the developed nanogel system can be a suitable candidate for curcumin delivery to cancer cells. - Highlights: • Curcumin loaded alginate aldehyde–gelatin nanogels are prepared. • Alg Ald-Gel nanogels maintained spherical morphology after curcumin loading. • Curcumin release is higher at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. • Cytotoxicity analysis proved the toxicity of the nanogels in MCF-7 cells. • Green fluorescence in MCF-7 cells confirmed the intra cellular uptake.

  12. Introduction of a deformable x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, E.; Heath, E.; Hilts, M.; Jirasek, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study introduces the first 3D deformable dosimetry system based on x-ray computed tomography (CT) polymer gel dosimetry and establishes the setup reproducibility, deformation characteristics and dose response of the system. A N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-based gel formulation optimized for x-ray CT gel dosimetry was used, with a latex balloon serving as the deformable container and low-density polyethylene and polyvinyl alcohol providing additional oxygen barrier. Deformable gels were irradiated with a 6 MV calibration pattern to determine dosimetric response and a dosimetrically uniform plan to determine the spatial uniformity of the response. Wax beads were added to each gel as fiducial markers to track the deformation and setup of the gel dosimeters. From positions of the beads on CT images the setup reproducibility and the limits and reproducibility of gel deformation were determined. Comparison of gel measurements with Monte Carlo dose calculations found excellent dosimetric accuracy, comparable to that of an established non-deformable dosimetry system, with a mean dose discrepancy of 1.5% in the low-dose gradient region and a gamma pass rate of 97.9% using a 3%/3 mm criterion. The deformable dosimeter also showed good overall spatial dose uniformity throughout the dosimeter with some discrepancies within 20 mm of the edge of the container. Tracking of the beads within the dosimeter found that sub-millimetre setup accuracy is achievable with this system. The dosimeter was able to deform and relax when externally compressed by up to 30 mm without sustaining any permanent damage. Internal deformations in 3D produced average marker movements of up to 12 mm along the direction of compression. These deformations were also shown to be reproducible over 100 consecutive deformations. This work has established several important characteristics of a new deformable dosimetry system which shows promise for future clinical applications, including the

  13. Controlled Sol-Gel Transitions of a Thermoresponsive Polymer in a Photoswitchable Azobenzene Ionic Liquid as a Molecular Trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caihong; Hashimoto, Kei; Tamate, Ryota; Kokubo, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2018-01-02

    Producing ionic liquids (ILs) that function as molecular trigger for macroscopic change is a challenging issue. Photoisomerization of an azobenzene IL at the molecular level evokes a macroscopic response (light-controlled mechanical sol-gel transitions) for ABA triblock copolymer solutions. The A endblocks, poly(2-phenylethyl methacrylate), show a lower critical solution temperature in the IL mixture containing azobenzene, while the B midblock, poly(methyl methacrylate), is compatible with the mixture. In a concentrated polymer solution, different gelation temperatures were observed in it under dark and UV conditions. Light-controlled sol-gel transitions were achieved by a photoresponsive solubility change of the A endblocks upon photoisomerization of the azobenzene IL. Therefore, an azobenzene IL as a molecular switch can tune the self-assembly of a thermoresponsive polymer, leading to macroscopic light-controlled sol-gel transitions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Recent trends on gellan gum blends with natural and synthetic polymers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Tabasum, Shazia; Khan, Muhammad Faris; Akram, Nadia; Akhter, Naheed; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Gellan gum (GG), a linear negatively charged exopolysaccharide,is biodegradable and non-toxic in nature. It produces hard and translucent gel in the presence of metallic ions which is stable at low pH. However, GG has poor mechanical strength, poor stability in physiological conditions, high gelling temperature and small temperature window.Therefore,it is blended with different polymers such as agar, chitosan, cellulose, sodium alginate, starch, pectin, polyanaline, pullulan, polyvinyl chloride, and xanthan gum. In this article, a comprehensive overview of combination of GG with natural and synthetic polymers/compounds and their applications in biomedical field involving drug delivery system, insulin delivery, wound healing and gene therapy, is presented. It also describes the utilization of GG based materials in food and petroleum industry. All the technical scientific issues have been addressed; highlighting the recent advancement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. based gel polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (PVdF) as a host polymer, lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium triflate ... TG/DTA studies showed the thermal stability of the polymer electrolytes. .... are observed while comparing pure XRD spectra with .... batteries as its operating temperature is normally in the .... chain ion movements and the conductivity of the polymer.

  16. Stimuli responsive ion gels based on polysaccharides and other polymers prepared using ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kamalesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Sharma, Mukesh; Freire, Mara G; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Bhatt, Jitkumar

    2018-01-15

    Ion gels and self-healing gels prepared using ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been largely investigated in the past years due to their remarkable applications in different research areas. Herewith we provide an overview on the ILs and DESs used for the preparation of ion gels, highlight the preparation and physicochemical characteristics of stimuli responsive gel materials based on co-polymers and biopolymers, with special emphasis on polysaccharides and discuss their applications. Overall, this review summarizes the fundamentals and advances in ion gels with switchable properties prepared using ILs or DESs, as well as their potential applications in electrochemistry, in sensing devices and as drug delivery vehicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alginato bacteriano: aspectos tecnológicos, características e produção Bacterial alginate: technological aspects, characteristics and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispin Humberto Garcia-Cruz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate is a biopolymer used for a variety of industrial applications, for example, in the textiles, cosmetics, foods, agricultural and biotechnological industries. This biopolymer is traditionally extracted from some brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae and can be produced by bacteria isolated from soil, as Azotobacter vinelandii, like capsular polysaccharide using glucose, sucrose, among others as carbon sources. The main difference between the alginate of seaweed and the bacterial ones, is the biggest degree of acetylation of this last one, with great influence in the gel force. These chemical characteristics and production of bacterial alginate are presented in this work.

  18. Initial investigation of a novel light-scattering gel phantom for evaluation of optical CT scanners for radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosi, Stephen; Naseri, Pourandokht; Puran, Alicia; Davies, Justin; Baldock, Clive

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for stable gel materials for phantoms used to validate optical computerized tomography (CT) scanners used in conjunction with radiation-induced polymerizing gel dosimeters. Phantoms based on addition of light-absorbing dyes to gelatine to simulate gel dosimeters have been employed. However, to more accurately simulate polymerizing gels one requires phantoms that employ light-scattering colloidal suspensions added to the gel. In this paper, we present the initial results of using an optical CT scanner to evaluate a novel phantom in which radiation-exposed polymer gels are simulated by the addition of colloidal suspensions of varying turbidity. The phantom may be useful as a calibration transfer standard for polymer gel dosimeters. The tests reveal some phenomena peculiar to light-scattering gels that need to be taken into account when calibrating polymer gel dosimeters

  19. Crystal growth of calcium carbonate in silk fibroin/sodium alginate hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jinfa; Zuo, Baoqi

    2014-01-01

    As known, silk fibroin-like protein plays a pivotal role during the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals in the nacre sheets. Here, we have prepared silk fibroin/sodium alginate nanofiber hydrogels to serve as templates for calcium carbonate mineralization. In this experiment, we report an interesting finding of calcium carbonate crystal growth in the silk fibroin/sodium alginate nanofiber hydrogels by the vapor diffusion method. The experimental results indicate calcium carbonate crystals obtained from nanofiber hydrogels with different proportions of silk fibroin/sodium alginate are mixture of calcite and vaterite with unusual morphologies. Time-dependent growth study was carried out to investigate the crystallization process. It is believed that nanofiber hydrogels play an important role in the process of crystallization. This study would help in understanding the function of organic polymers in natural mineralization, and provide a novel pathway in the design and synthesis of new materials related unique morphology and structure.

  20. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in mineralized alginate matrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Westhrin

    Full Text Available Mineralized biomaterials are promising for use in bone tissue engineering. Culturing osteogenic cells in such materials will potentially generate biological bone grafts that may even further augment bone healing. Here, we studied osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC in an alginate hydrogel system where the cells were co-immobilized with alkaline phosphatase (ALP for gradual mineralization of the microenvironment. MSC were embedded in unmodified alginate beads and alginate beads mineralized with ALP to generate a polymer/hydroxyapatite scaffold mimicking the composition of bone. The initial scaffold mineralization induced further mineralization of the beads with nanosized particles, and scanning electron micrographs demonstrated presence of collagen in the mineralized and unmineralized alginate beads cultured in osteogenic medium. Cells in both types of beads sustained high viability and metabolic activity for the duration of the study (21 days as evaluated by live/dead staining and alamar blue assay. MSC in beads induced to differentiate in osteogenic direction expressed higher mRNA levels of osteoblast-specific genes (RUNX2, COL1AI, SP7, BGLAP than MSC in traditional cell cultures. Furthermore, cells differentiated in beads expressed both sclerostin (SOST and dental matrix protein-1 (DMP1, markers for late osteoblasts/osteocytes. In conclusion, Both ALP-modified and unmodified alginate beads provide an environment that enhance osteogenic differentiation compared with traditional 2D culture. Also, the ALP-modified alginate beads showed profound mineralization and thus have the potential to serve as a bone substitute in tissue engineering.

  1. Tailoring the degradation rate and release kinetics from poly(galactitol sebacate) by blending with chitosan, alginate or ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Janeni; Madras, Giridhar; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2016-12-01

    Despite significant advances in recent times, the investigation of discovering a perfect biomaterial is perennial. In this backdrop, blending of natural and synthetic polymers is gaining popularity since it is the easiest way to complement the drawbacks and attain a superlative material. Based on this, the objective of this study was to synthesize a novel polyester, poly(galactitol sebacate), and subsequently blend this polymer with one of the three natural polymers such as alginate, chitosan or ethyl cellulose. FT-IR showed the presence of both the polymers in the blends. 1 H NMR confirmed the chemical structure of the synthesized poly (galactitol sebacate). Thermal characterization was performed by DSC revealing that the polymers were amorphous in nature and the glass transition temperatures increased with the increase in ratio of the natural polymers in the blends. SEM imaging showed that the blends were predominantly homogeneous. Contact angle measurements demonstrated that the blending imparted the hydrophilic nature into poly (galactitol sebacate) when blending with alginate or chitosan and hydrophobic when blending with ethyl cellulose. In vitro hydrolytic degradation studies and dye release studies indicated that the polymers became more hydrophilic in alginate and chitosan blends and thus accelerated the degradation and release process. The reverse trend was observed in the case of ethyl cellulose blends. Modeling elucidated that the degradation and dye release followed first order kinetics and Higuchi kinetics, respectively. In vitro cell studies confirmed the cytocompatible nature of the blends. It can be proposed that the chosen natural polymers for blending showed wide variations in hydrophilicity resulting in tailored degradation, release and cytocompatibility properties and thus are promising candidates for use in drug delivery and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cleaning and Restoration of an Oil Painting with a Polymer Gel in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyamak Alizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major stages in the conservation and restoration of a painting is to clean its colored surface of unwanted stains, and old and darkened varnishes. Various solvents have been used to date for this purpose; however, new cleaning materials have also come onto the market in the past decade that are still unknown and may never have been employed in Iran. The present study aims to introduce a polymer gel and use an in vitro sample of the substance for cleaning and to then present the results of the tests carried out. Applying a polymer gel in the cleaning of paintings yielded better results and greater advantages over the solvents previously used to clean artworks. The advantages include, performing on the surface without penetrating the lower layers, the absence of residues after application, flexibility, solubility and the gentle removal of old stains and varnishes, maintaining clarity and cleaning the surface by simple removal of the thin dried layer, which requires no mechanical pressure. Microscopic examinations and pH testing showed that this new alternative technique can be of use in cleaning the color layers of oil paintings.

  3. A novel fabrication of PVA/Alginate-Bioglass electrospun for biomedical engineering application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rafienia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objecttive (s: Polyvinylalcohol (PVA is among the most natural polymers which have interesting properties such as nontoxic nature, biodegradability and high resistance to bacterial attacks making it applicable for tissue scaffolds, protective clothing, and wound healing.Materials and Methods: In the current work, PVA and Na-Alginate nanocomposite scaffolds were prepared using the electrospinning (ELS technique in an aqueous solution. Also, (5% and 10% addition of bioglass (BG ceramic to the nanocomposite scaffold were investigated. The blended nanofibres are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR, also the bioactivity evaluation of nanocomposite scaffold performed in simulated body fluid (SBF solutions.Results: The FTIR analysis indicated that PVA and Alginate may have H+ bonding interactions. The results revealed that with a higher amount of BG, a superior degradation as well as a higher chemical and biological stability could be obtained in the nanobiocomposite blend fibres. Furthermore, the blend nanofibre samples of 10% BG powders exhibit a significant improvement during bioactivity and mechanical testing.Conclusion: The increasing water-contact angle on the polymer surface with decreasing PVA and Alginate content indicated that the scaffold were more hydrophobic than were PVA molecules. Also, In addition, the average diameter of fibers in the sample with 10% BG have the highest porosity compared to the other scaffold samples.

  4. Catalytic Mechanism and Mode of Action of the Periplasmic Alginate Epimerase AlgG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfram, Francis; Kitova, Elena N.; Robinson, Howard; Walvoort, Marthe T. C.; Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Klassen, John S.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Background: The alginate epimerase AlgG converts mannuronate to its C5 epimer guluronate at the polymer level. Results: The structure of Pseudomonas syringae AlgG has been determined, and the protein has been functionally characterized. Conclusion: His(319) acts as the catalytic base, whereas

  5. Novel copper (II) alginate hydrogels and their potential for use as anti-bacterial wound dressings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinkajon, Wimonwan; Supaphol, Pitt

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of a metal ion, with antimicrobial activity, into an alginate dressing is an attractive approach to minimize infection in a wound. In this work, copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels were successfully prepared using a two-step cross-linking procedure. In the first step, solid alginate films were prepared using a solvent-casting method from soft gels of alginate solutions that had been lightly cross-linked using a copper (II) (Cu 2+ ) sulfate solution. In the second step, the films were further cross-linked in a corresponding Cu 2+ sulfate solution using a dipping method to further improve their dimensional stability. Alginate solution (at 2%w/v) and Cu 2+ sulfate solution (at 2%w/v) in acetate buffer at a low pH provided soft films with excellent swelling behavior. An increase in either Cu 2+ ion concentration or cross-linking time led to hydrogels with more densely-cross-linked networks that limited water absorption. The hydrogels clearly showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes, which was proportional to the Cu 2+ ion concentration. Blood coagulation studies showed that the tested copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels had a tendency to coagulate fibrin, and possibly had an effect on pro-thrombotic coagulation and platelet activation. Conclusively, the prepared films are likely candidates as antibacterial wound dressings. (paper)

  6. Preliminary investigation of the NMR, optical and x-ray CT dose-response of polymer gel dosimeters with cosolvents and increased crosslinker levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeva, V I; McAuley, K B; Jirasek, A; Schreiner, L J

    2009-01-01

    Three co-solvents (glycerol, N-propanol and isopropanol) have been investigated for increasing the solubility of N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide (Bis) crosslinker in polymer gel dosimeter recipes. Using isopropanol, the crosslinker solubility increased from approximately from 3 to 10% by weight, enabling the manufacture of polymer gel dosimeters with higher levels of crosslinking than was previously possible. The new dosimeter recipes can be imaged effectively using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), optical and x-ray Computed Tomography (CT) techniques.

  7. Preliminary investigation of the NMR, optical and x-ray CT dose-response of polymer gel dosimeters with cosolvents and increased crosslinker levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeva, V I; McAuley, K B [Chemical Engineering Department, Queen' s University, Kingston, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, V8W 6V5 (Canada); Schreiner, L J [Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, K7L 5P9 (Canada)], E-mail: Kim.McAuley@chee.queensu.ca

    2009-05-01

    Three co-solvents (glycerol, N-propanol and isopropanol) have been investigated for increasing the solubility of N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide (Bis) crosslinker in polymer gel dosimeter recipes. Using isopropanol, the crosslinker solubility increased from approximately from 3 to 10% by weight, enabling the manufacture of polymer gel dosimeters with higher levels of crosslinking than was previously possible. The new dosimeter recipes can be imaged effectively using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), optical and x-ray Computed Tomography (CT) techniques.

  8. Preliminary investigation of the NMR, optical and x-ray CT dose-response of polymer gel dosimeters incorporating cosolvents to improve dose sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeva, V I; McAuley, K B; Olding, T; Jirasek, A; Schreiner, L J

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on efforts to increase the dose sensitivity of polymer gel dosimeters used in 3D radiation dosimetry. The potential of several different cosolvents is investigated, with the aim of increasing the solubility of N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide crosslinker in polymer gel dosimeters. Glycerol and isopropanol increase the limit for the crosslinker solubility from approximately 3% to 5% and 10% by weight, respectively. This enables the manufacture of polymer gel dosimeters with much higher levels of crosslinking than was previously possible. New dosimeter recipes containing up to 5 wt% N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide were subjected to spatially uniform radiation and were studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as x-ray and optical CT techniques. The resulting dosimeters exhibit dose sensitivities that are up to 2.7 times higher than measured for a typical dosimeters with 3% N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide without the addition of cosolvent. Two additional cosolvents (n-propanol and sec-butanol) were deemed unsuitable for practical dosimeters due to incompatibility with gelatin, cloudiness prior to irradiation, and immiscibility with water when large quantities of cosolvent were used. The dosimeters with high N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide content that used isopropanol or glycerol as cosolvents had high optical clarity prior to irradiation, but did not produce suitable optical CT results for non-uniformly irradiated gels due to polymer development outside of the high dose regions of the pencil beams and significant light scatter. Further experiments are required to determine whether cosolvents can be used to manufacture gels with sufficiently high dose sensitivity for readout using x-ray computed tomography.

  9. A soft tissue adhesive based on aldehyde-sodium alginate and amino-carboxymethyl chitosan preparation through the Schiff reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Yuan, Liu; Sheng, Nai-an; Gu, Zi-qi; Feng, Wen-hao; Yin, Hai-yue; Morsi, Yosry; Mo, Xiu-mei

    2017-09-01

    Sodium alginate and carboxymethyl chitosan have been extensively applied in tissue engineering and other relative fields due to their low price and excellent biocompatibility. In this paper, we oxidized sodium alginate with sodium periodate to convert 1,2-hydroxyl groups into aldehyde groups to get aldehyde-sodium alginate (ASA). Carboxymethyl chitosan was modified with ethylenediamine (ED) in the presence of water-soluble N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) to introduce additional amino groups to get amino-carboxymethyl chitosan (A-CS). Upon mixing the A-SA and A-CS aqueous solutions together, a gel rapidly formed based on the Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups in A-SA and amino groups in A-CS. FTIR analysis confirmed the characteristic peak of Schiff's base group in the hydrogel. It was confirmed that the gelation time be dependent on the aldehyde group content in A-SA and amino group content in A-CS. The fasted hydrogel formation takes place within 10 min. The data of bonding strength and cytotoxicity measurement also showed that the hydrogel had good adhesion and biocompatibility. All these results support that this gel has the potential as soft tissue adhesive.

  10. Review: efficacy of alginate supplementation in relation to appetite regulation and metabolic risk factors: evidence from animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg Jensen, M; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, M; Frost, G; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity of digesta and slowed nutrient absorption in the small intestine upon alginate gel formation. Despite reasonable efficacy and tolerability from the acute or short-term studies, we still realize there is a critical need for development of optimal alginate types and vehicles as well as studies on further long-term investigation on alginate supplementation in humans before inferring that it could be useful in the management of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Studies of Magnesium-Based Polymethylmethacrylate Gel Polymer Electroytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z.; Zainol, N.H.; Samin, S.M.; Chong, W.G.; Md Isa, K.B.; Othman, L.; Supa’at, I.; Sonsudin, F.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium-based rechargeable batteries might be an interesting future alternative to lithium-based batteries since magnesium compounds are highly abundant in the earth and are environmental friendly. In this work, we have prepared polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) films containing two different magnesium salts, which is magnesium triflate, Mg(CF 3 SO 3 ) 2 and magnesium perchlorate, Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 using solution casting technique . The ionic conductivity of both gel polymer electrolyte systems was evaluated using a.c impedance spectroscopy. Results show that at room temperature, GPE-Mg(CF 3 SO 3 ) 2 system exhibits the highest conductivity value at 1.27 × 10 −3 S cm −1 for the film containing 20 wt.% of Mg(CF 3 SO 3 ) 2 salt, while the highest conductivity value for the GPE-Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 system is 3.13 × 10 −3 S cm −1 for the film containing 15 wt.% of Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 salt. The conductivity-temperature studies of both GPE systems follow the Arrhenius behavior. The activation energies for ionic conduction were determined to be in the range of 0.18–0.26 eV. The transport numbers of magnesium ions in both GPE systems were evaluated using the combination of a.c impedance spectroscopy and d.c polarization techniques. The results obtained indicate that the charge carriers in the GPE films for both systems are predominantly due to ions

  12. Radiation effect on polystyrene deposited and grafted on silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Y.; Udagawa, A.; Takehisa, M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of radiation on polystyrene was studied in the presence and absence of silica gel by molecular weight measurement with gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Polystyrene crosslinked under vacuum in the absence of silica gel, but it either crosslinked or degraded by radiation, depending on the molecular weight of the polymer in the presence of silica gel. part of the deposited polymer bonded to silica gel by radiation; the G value for graft-chain formation is in the range of 0.01 to 0.1. Irradiation of polystyrene grafted on silica gel resulted in degradation of the graft chain because of the transfer of energy from silica gel. The G value for main chain scission was about 2 when graft polymer was irradiated in the absence of homopolymer. The degradation of graft polymer was suppressed when the polymer was irradiated in the presence of homopolymer, and the amount of unextractable polymer from silica gel increased with increasing irradiation. This adds evidence to the estimation that an increase in grafting percent coupled with a slight decrease in molecular weight at a later stage of radiation-induced polymerization of styrene adsorbed on slica gel is due to a secondary effect of radiation on the polymer

  13. Composite gel polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Roya

    Composite gel polymer electrolyte (CGPE) films, consisting of poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) as the membrane, DMF and PC as solvent and plasticizing agent, mixture of charge modified TiO2 and SiO 2 nano particles as ionic conductors, and LiClO4+LiPF 6 as lithium salts were fabricated. Following the work done by Li et al., CGPE was coated on an O2-plasma treated trilayer polypropylene-polyethylene-polypropylene membrane separator using solution casting technique in order to improve the adhesive properties of gel polymer electrolyte to the separator membrane and its respective ionic conductivity due to decreasing the bulk resistance. In acidic CGPE with, the mixture of acid treated TiO2 and neutral SiO2 nano particles played the role of the charge modified nano fillers with enhanced hydroxyl groups. Likely, the mixture of neutral TiO 2 nano particles with basic SiO2 prepared through the hydrolization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) provided a more basic environment due to the residues of NH4OH (Ammonium hydroxide) catalyst. The O2 plasma treated separator was coated with the solution of PVDF-HFP: modified nano fillers: Organic solvents with the mixture ratio of 0.1:0.01:1. After the evaporation of the organic solvents, the dried coated separator was soaked in PC-LiClO4+LiPF6 in EC: DMC:DEC (4:2:4 in volume) solution (300% wt. of PVDF-HFP) to form the final CGPE. Lim et al. has reported the enhanced ionic conductivity of 9.78*10-5 Scm-1 in an acidic composite polystyrene-Al2O3 solid electrolyte system with compared to that of basic and neutral in which the ionic conductivity undergoes an ion hopping process in solid interface rather than a segmental movement of ions through the plasticized polymer chain . Half-cells with graphite anode and Li metal as reference electrode were then assembled and the electrochemical measurements and morphology examinations were successfully carried out. Half cells demonstrated a considerable change in their

  14. Basic investigations on the performance of a normoxic polymer gel with tetrakis-hydroxy-methyl-phosphonium chloride as an oxygen scavenger: Reproducibility, accuracy, stability, and dose rate dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayreder, Christian; Georg, Dietmar; Moser, Ewald; Berg, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR)-based polymer gel dosimetry using normoxic polymer gels, represents a new dosimetric method specially suited for high-resolution three-dimensional dosimetric problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the dose response with regard to stability, accuracy, reproducibility, and the dose rate dependence. Tetrakis-hydroxy-methyl-phosphonium chloride (THPC) is used as an oxygen scavenger, and methacrylic acid as a monomer. Accuracy, reproducibility, and dose resolution were determined for MR protocols at low spatial resolution (typical for clinical scanners), medium, and microimaging-resolution protocols at three different dose levels. The dose-response stability and preirradiation-induced variations in R2, related to the time interval between preparation and irradiation of the polymer gel, were investigated. Also postirradiation stability of the polymer gel was considered. These experiments were performed using a 60 Co beam (E=1.2 MV) in a water phantom. Moreover, we investigated the dose rate dependence in the low, medium, and saturation dose region of the normoxic polymer gel using a linear accelerator at photon energy of 25 MV. MR scanning was performed on a 3 T whole body scanner (MEDSPEC 30/80, BRUKER BIOSPIN, Ettlingen, Germany) using several coils and different gradient systems adapted to the acquired spatial resolution investigated. For T2-parameter selective imaging and determination of the relaxation rate R2=1/T2, a multiple spin echo sequence with 20 equidistant echoes was used. With regard to preirradiation induced variations R2 increases significantly with the increasing time interval between the polymer gel preparation and irradiation. Only a slight increase in R2 can be observed for varying the postirradiation-time solely. The dose reproducibility at voxel volumes of about 1.4x1.4x2 mm 3 is better than 2%. The accuracy strongly depends on the calibration curve. THPC represents a very effective oxygen scavenger in

  15. Small field dose delivery evaluations using cone beam optical computed tomography-based polymer gel dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Olding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the combination of cone beam optical computed tomography with an N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM-based polymer gel dosimeter for three-dimensional dose imaging of small field deliveries. Initial investigations indicate that cone beam optical imaging of polymer gels is complicated by scattered stray light perturbation. This can lead to significant dosimetry failures in comparison to dose readout by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. For example, only 60% of the voxels from an optical CT dose readout of a 1 l dosimeter passed a two-dimensional Low′s gamma test (at a 3%, 3 mm criteria, relative to a treatment plan for a well-characterized pencil beam delivery. When the same dosimeter was probed by MRI, a 93% pass rate was observed. The optical dose measurement was improved after modifications to the dosimeter preparation, matching its performance with the imaging capabilities of the scanner. With the new dosimeter preparation, 99.7% of the optical CT voxels passed a Low′s gamma test at the 3%, 3 mm criteria and 92.7% at a 2%, 2 mm criteria. The fitted interjar dose responses of a small sample set of modified dosimeters prepared (a from the same gel batch and (b from different gel batches prepared on the same day were found to be in agreement to within 3.6% and 3.8%, respectively, over the full dose range. Without drawing any statistical conclusions, this experiment gives a preliminary indication that intrabatch or interbatch NIPAM dosimeters prepared on the same day should be suitable for dose sensitivity calibration.

  16. Self-assembled chitosan-alginate polyplex nanoparticles containing temoporfin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brezaniova, I.; Trousil, Jiří; Černochová, Zulfiya; Král, V.; Hrubý, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 295, č. 8 (2017), s. 1259-1270 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02870S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25781A; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chitosan * sodium alginate * temoporfin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2016

  17. An Investigation of the Dose Distribution from LDR Ir-192 Wires in the Triangular Implants of the Paris System using Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Rahimi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polymer gels are modern dosimeters providing three dimensional dose distributions. These dosimeters can be used in brachytherapy in which the tumor dimension is relatively small and the dose gradient is high. In this study, the ability of the MAGICA polymer gel was investigated for assessing the absolute dose values as well as the dose distribution of low dose rate (LDR Ir-192 wires in interstitial brachytherapy based in triangular implants of the Paris system. Material and Methods: A suitable phantom was made from Perspex. Glass tubes were used as the external tubes for holding the Ir-192 wires in the phantom. The MAGICA polymer gel was made and placed in the phantom. The phantom and the calibration tubes were irradiated using LDR Ir-192 wires and a Co-60 teletherapy unit respectively. They were subsequently imaged using an MRI scanner. The R2 (=1/T2 maps were extracted from several sequential T2-weighted MRI images. The dose values resulting from the polymer gel measurements at the reference points were compared with those from the common calculation method at the same points. In addition, the isodose curves resulting from gel dosimetry were compared with those from a brachytherapy treatment planning system (Flexiplan. Results: The average of the dose values measured with the gel at the reference points was 62.75% higher than those calculated at the same points. Investigating the isodose curves revealed that the maximum distance to agreement (DTAmax between the isodoses resulting from the gel and those obtained from the treatment planning system was less than 3 mm at different dose levels. Discussion and Conclusion: Although the MAGICA gel indicates a higher absolute dose value than those calculated commonly, it can give the relative dose values accurately. Therefore, it can be recommended to be used for the assessment of dose distributions for the treatment of tissues as well as quality control of the treatment planning systems.

  18. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H T P; Munnier, E; Souce, M; Perse, X; David, S; Bonnier, F; Cohen-Jonathan, S; Chourpa, I; Vial, F; Yvergnaux, F; Perrier, T

    2015-01-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ∼200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ∼ − 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ∼95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery. (paper)

  19. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. T. P.; Munnier, E.; Souce, M.; Perse, X.; David, S.; Bonnier, F.; Vial, F.; Yvergnaux, F.; Perrier, T.; Cohen-Jonathan, S.; Chourpa, I.

    2015-06-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ˜200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ˜ - 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ˜95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery.

  20. Monte-Carlo based assessment of MAGIC, MAGICAUG, PAGATUG and PAGATAUG polymer gel dosimeters for ovaries and uterus organ dosimetry in brachytherapy, nuclear medicine and Tele-therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinehvand, Karim; Rahatabad, Fereidoun Nowshiravan

    2018-06-01

    Calculation of 3D dose distribution during radiotherapy and nuclear medicine helps us for better treatment of sensitive organs such as ovaries and uterus. In this research, we investigate two groups of normoxic dosimeters based on meta-acrylic acid (MAGIC and MAGICAUG) and polyacrylamide (PAGATUG and PAGATAUG) for brachytherapy, nuclear medicine and Tele-therapy in their sensitive and critical role as organ dosimeters. These polymer gel dosimeters are compared with soft tissue while irradiated by different energy photons in therapeutic applications. This comparison has been simulated by Monte-Carlo based MCNPX code. ORNL phantom-Female has been used to model the critical organs of kidneys, ovaries and uterus. Right kidney is proposed to be the source of irradiation and another two organs are exposed to this irradiation. Effective atomic numbers of soft tissue, MAGIC, MAGICAUG, PAGATUG and PAGATAUG are 6.86, 7.07, 6.95, 7.28, and 7.07 respectively. Results show the polymer gel dosimeters are comparable to soft tissue for using in nuclear medicine and Tele-therapy. Differences between gel dosimeters and soft tissue are defined as the dose responses. This difference is less than 4.1%, 22.6% and 71.9% for Tele-therapy, nuclear medicine and brachytherapy respectively. The results approved that gel dosimeters are the best choice for ovaries and uterus in nuclear medicine and Tele-therapy respectively. Due to the slight difference between the effective atomic numbers of these polymer gel dosimeters and soft tissue, these polymer gels are not suitable for brachytherapy since the dependence of photon interaction to atomic number, for low energy brachytherapy, had been so effective. Also this dependence to atomic number, decrease for photoelectric and increase for Compton. Therefore polymer gel dosimeters are not a good alternative to soft tissue replacement in brachytherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microfluidics-assisted generation of stimuli-responsive hydrogels based on alginates incorporated with thermo-responsive and amphiphilic polymers as novel biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakasyan, C; Mathos, J; Lack, S; Davy, J; Marquis, M; Renard, D

    2015-11-01

    We used a droplet-based microfluidics technique to produce monodisperse responsive alginate-block-polyetheramine copolymer microgels. The polyetheramine group (PEA), corresponding to a propylene oxide /ethylene oxide ratio (PO/EO) of 29/6 (Jeffamine(®) M2005), was condensed, via the amine link, to alginates with various mannuronic/guluronic acids ratios and using two alginate:jeffamine mass ratios. The size of the grafted-alginate microgels varied from 60 to 80 μm depending on the type of alginate used and the degree of substitution. The droplet-based microfluidics technique offered exquisite control of both the dimension and physical chemical properties of the grafted-alginate microgels. These microgels were therefore comparable to isolated grafted-alginate chains in retaining both their amphiphilic and thermo-sensitive properties. Amphiphilicity was demonstrated at the oil-water interface where grafted-alginate microgels were found to decrease interfacial tension by ∼ 50%. The thermo-sensitivity of microgels was clearly demonstrated and a 10 to 20% reduction in size between was evidenced on increasing the temperature above the lower critical solution temperature (TLCST) of Jeffamine. In addition, the reversibility of thermo-sensitivity was demonstrated by studying the oil-water affinity of microgels with temperature after Congo red labeling. Finally, droplet-based microfluidics was found to be a good and promising tool for generating responsive biobased hydrogels for drug delivery applications and potential new colloidal stabilizers for dispersed systems such as Pickering emulsions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sodium alginate/gelatin with silica nanoparticles a novel hydrogel for 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Raghav; Roopavath, Uday Kiran; Mahanta, Urbashi; Deshpande, A. S.; Rath, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    Sodium alginate/gelatin hydrogels are promising materials for 3D bio-printing due to its good biocompatibility and biodegradability. Gelatin is used for thermal crosslinking and its cell adhesion properties. Hence patient specific sodium alginate/gelatin hydrogel scaffolds can be bio-fabricated in a temperature range of 4-14 oC. In this study we made an attempt to introduce silica (SiO2) nanoparticles in the polymer network of sodium alginate (2.5%)/gelatin (8%) hydrogel at different concentrations (w/v) as 0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5%. The effect of silica nanoparticles on viscosity, swelling behavior, and degradation rate are analyzed. Hydrogels with 5% silica nanoparticles show significantly less swelling and degradation when compared to other concentrations. The viscosity of the hydrogels gradually increases up to 5% addition of silica nanoparticles enhancing the stability of 3D printed structures.

  3. Photocrosslinked alginate with hyaluronic acid hydrogels as vehicles for mesenchymal stem cell encapsulation and chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Emily E; Riggin, Corinne N; Fisher, John P

    2013-07-01

    Ionic crosslinking of alginate via divalent cations allows for high viability of an encapsulated cell population, and is an effective biomaterial for supporting a spherical chondrocyte morphology. However, such crosslinking chemistry does not allow for injectable and stable hydrogels which are more appropriate for clinical applications. In this study, the addition of methacrylate groups to the alginate polymer chains was utilized so as to allow the free radical polymerization initiated by a photoinitiator during UV light exposure. This approach establishes covalent crosslinks between methacrylate groups instead of the ionic crosslinks formed by the calcium in unmodified alginate. Although this approach has been well described in the literature, there are currently no reports of stem cell differentiation and subsequent chondrocyte gene expression profiles in photocrosslinked alginate. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of photocrosslinked alginate hydrogels containing interpenetrating hyaluronic acid chains to support stem cell chondrogenesis. We report high cell viability and no statistical difference in metabolic activity between mesenchymal stem cells cultured in calcium crosslinked alginate and photocrosslinked alginate for up to 10 days of culture. Furthermore, chondrogenic gene markers are expressed throughout the study, and indicate robust differentiation up to the day 14 time point. At early time points, days 1 and 7, the addition of hyaluronic acid to the photocrosslinked scaffolds upregulates gene markers for both the chondrocyte and the superficial zone chondrocyte phenotype. Taken together, we show that photocrosslinked, injectable alginate shows significant potential as a delivery mechanism for cell-based cartilage repair therapies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of the Accuracy of Polymer Gels for Determining Electron Dose Distributions in the Presence of Small Heterogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, R Ghahraman; Nedaie, H A; Banaee, N

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the application and accuracy of polymer gels for determining electron dose distributions in the presence of small heterogeneities made of bone and air. Different cylindrical phantoms containing MAGIC (Methacrylic and Ascorbic acid in Gelatin Initiated by Copper) normoxic polymer gel were used under the slab phantoms during irradiation. MR images of the irradiated gel phantoms were obtained to determine their R2 (spin-spin) relaxation maps for conversion to absorbed dose. One- and 2-dimensional lateral dose profiles were acquired at depths of 1 and 4 cm for 8 and 15 MeV electron beams. The results were compared with the doses measured by a diode detector at the same positions. In addition, the dose distribution in the axial orientation was measured by the gel dosimeter. The slope and intercept for the R2 versus dose curve were 0.509 ± 0.002 Gy s and 4.581 ± 0.005 s, respectively. No significant variation in dose-R2 response was seen for the two electron energies within the applied dose ranges. The mean dose difference between the measured gel dose profiles was smaller than 3% compared to those measured by the diode detector. These results provide further demonstration that electron dose distributions are significantly altered in the presence of tissue inhomogeneities such as bone and air cavity and that MAGIC gel is a useful tool for 3-dimensional dose visualization and qualitative assessment of tissue inhomogeneity effects in electron beam dosimetry.

  5. Preliminary investigation of the NMR, optical and x-ray CT dose-response of polymer gel dosimeters incorporating cosolvents to improve dose sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeva, V I; McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Olding, T [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Schreiner, L J [Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, ON, K7L5P9 (Canada)], E-mail: kim.mcauley@chee.queensu.ca

    2009-05-07

    This study reports on efforts to increase the dose sensitivity of polymer gel dosimeters used in 3D radiation dosimetry. The potential of several different cosolvents is investigated, with the aim of increasing the solubility of N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide crosslinker in polymer gel dosimeters. Glycerol and isopropanol increase the limit for the crosslinker solubility from approximately 3% to 5% and 10% by weight, respectively. This enables the manufacture of polymer gel dosimeters with much higher levels of crosslinking than was previously possible. New dosimeter recipes containing up to 5 wt% N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide were subjected to spatially uniform radiation and were studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as x-ray and optical CT techniques. The resulting dosimeters exhibit dose sensitivities that are up to 2.7 times higher than measured for a typical dosimeters with 3% N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide without the addition of cosolvent. Two additional cosolvents (n-propanol and sec-butanol) were deemed unsuitable for practical dosimeters due to incompatibility with gelatin, cloudiness prior to irradiation, and immiscibility with water when large quantities of cosolvent were used. The dosimeters with high N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide content that used isopropanol or glycerol as cosolvents had high optical clarity prior to irradiation, but did not produce suitable optical CT results for non-uniformly irradiated gels due to polymer development outside of the high dose regions of the pencil beams and significant light scatter. Further experiments are required to determine whether cosolvents can be used to manufacture gels with sufficiently high dose sensitivity for readout using x-ray computed tomography.

  6. Rheological and DSC study of sol-gel transition in aqueous dispersions of industrially important polymers and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishinari, K. [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Food and Nutrition

    1997-12-01

    Gelation kinetics, mechanical spectra, thermal scanning rheology (TSR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in aqueous solutions of gelling polymers and colloids such as seaweed polysaccharides (agarose, carrageenans), microbial polysaccharides (gellan, curdlan), plant polysaccharides (methylcellulose), globular proteins (casein, glycinin, {beta}-conglycinin), fibrous proteins (gelatin, fibrin), and polyvinyl alcohol, which are related to foods, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, are described. Some gelation processes at a constant temperature have been treated successfully by an equation of first order kinetics or by other modified equations, and the molecular mechanism of gel formation is discussed briefly. For water-soluble polymers, the criterion of the gel or sol based on the frequency dependence of storage and loss moduli gives valuable informations. TSR and DSC are complementary, and the combination of these methods has been proved to be useful. (orig.) 81 refs.

  7. Gel nano-particulates against radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deroin, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    The Argonne research center (USA) has developed a 'super-gel' compound, a polymer close to those used in baby's diapers, which can reach a 90% efficiency in the radioactive decontamination of porous materials, like bricks or concrete. The contaminated materials are sprayed with a mixture of polymer gel and wetting agent with nano-particulates in suspension. Under the action of the wetting agent, radioactivity migrates from the pores to the gel and is trapped by the nano-particulates. The drying and recycling of the gel allows to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes. Short paper. (J.S.)

  8. Recent applications of ionic liquids in the sol-gel process for polymer-silica nanocomposites with ionic interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Donato, K. Z.; Matějka, Libor; Mauler, R. S.; Donato, R. K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-25, č. článku 5. E-ISSN 2504-5377 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : ionic liquids * sol-gel * ionic interfaces Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science

  9. Polymer gel measurement of dose homogeneity in the breast: comparing MLC intensity modulation with standard wedged delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, P A; Evans, P M; Leach, M O; Webb, S

    2003-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimetry has been used to measure the radiotherapy dose homogeneity in a breast phantom for two different treatment methods. The first 'standard' method uses two tangential wedged fields while the second method has three static fields shaped by multileaf collimators (MLCs) in addition to the standard wedged fields to create intensity modulated fields. Gel dose distributions from the multileaf modulation treatment show an improved dose uniformity in comparison to the standard treatment with a decreased volume receiving doses over 105%

  10. A systematic review of the precision and accuracy of dose measurements in photon radiotherapy using polymer and Fricke MRI gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, N.D.; Pitchford, W.G.; Smith, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to undertake a critical appraisal of the evidence in the published literature concerning the basic parameters of accuracy and precision associated with the use of Fricke and polymer gels (in conjunction with MR imaging) as radiation dosimeters in photon radiotherapy, condensing and analysing the body of published information (to the end of April 2002). A systematic review was undertaken addressing specific issues of precision and accuracy asking defined questions of the published literature. Accuracy and precision in relation to gel dosimetry were defined. Information was obtained from published, peer-reviewed journals. A defined search strategy utilizing MeSH headings and keywords, with extensive use of cross-referencing, identified 115 references dealing with gel dosimetry. Exclusion criteria were used to select only data from publications which would give unequivocal evidence. For accuracy, results had to be compared with an ionization chamber as gold standard and all gel samples had to be manufactured in the same batch. For precision, in addition to gels being from the same batch, samples must all have been irradiated at the same time and scanned simultaneously (or within a short time frame). Many results were found demonstrating 'dose mapping' examples using gels. However, there were very few publications containing firm evidence of precision and accuracy. There was no evidence which fulfilled our criteria about accuracy or precision using Fricke gels. For polymer gels only one paper was found for accuracy (4% (Low et al 1999 Med. Phys. 26 1542-51)) and precision (1.7% (Baldock et al 1998 Phys. Med. Biol. 43 695-702)); however, both were carried out at only one dose level. If the exclusion criteria were relaxed to include accuracy results comparing gel to a non gold standard dosimeter (e.g. TLD), results give a median accuracy of 10% (range 8-23.5%) for polymer gel (Cosgrove et al 2000 Phys. Med. Biol. 45 1195-210, De Deene et al

  11. Preparation and properties of poly(ethylene oxide) gel filled polypropylene separators and their corresponding gel polymer electrolytes for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hao; Ma Xiaoting; Shi Junli; Yao Zhikan [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Engineering Center of Membrane and Water Treatment, Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization (EMC), Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhu Baoku, E-mail: zhubk@zju.edu.c [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Engineering Center of Membrane and Water Treatment, Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization (EMC), Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhu Liping [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Engineering Center of Membrane and Water Treatment, Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization (EMC), Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) filled polypropylene separators (GFPSs) are designed by means of thermal cross-linking of entrapped poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGMEA) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as gel constituents. The intrinsic properties of GFPS and their corresponding gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) are characterized by DSC, SEM, contact angle and electrochemical methods. It is found the stability of liquid electrolyte uptake in GPE could be improved obviously. For the GPE prepared from GFPS with filled polyether content of 14.3 wt%, the ionic conductivity could reach 1.12 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} while the electrochemically stable window reach 5.0 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}). These primary results show great promise of this simple method to prepare GPE for practical application in lithium ion batteries.

  12. Preparation and properties of poly(ethylene oxide) gel filled polypropylene separators and their corresponding gel polymer electrolytes for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hao; Ma Xiaoting; Shi Junli; Yao Zhikan; Zhu Baoku; Zhu Liping

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) filled polypropylene separators (GFPSs) are designed by means of thermal cross-linking of entrapped poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGMEA) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as gel constituents. The intrinsic properties of GFPS and their corresponding gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) are characterized by DSC, SEM, contact angle and electrochemical methods. It is found the stability of liquid electrolyte uptake in GPE could be improved obviously. For the GPE prepared from GFPS with filled polyether content of 14.3 wt%, the ionic conductivity could reach 1.12 x 10 -3 S cm -1 while the electrochemically stable window reach 5.0 V (vs. Li/Li + ). These primary results show great promise of this simple method to prepare GPE for practical application in lithium ion batteries.

  13. Viscoplastic fracture transition of a biopolymer gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieberg, Bradley R; Garatsa, Ray-Shimry; Jones, Ronald L; Bachert, John O; Crawshaw, Benjamin; Liu, X Michael; Chan, Edwin P

    2018-06-13

    Physical gels are swollen polymer networks consisting of transient crosslink junctions associated with hydrogen or ionic bonds. Unlike covalently crosslinked gels, these physical crosslinks are reversible thus enabling these materials to display highly tunable and dynamic mechanical properties. In this work, we study the polymer composition effects on the fracture behavior of a gelatin gel, which is a thermoreversible biopolymer gel consisting of denatured collagen chains bridging physical network junctions formed from triple helices. Below the critical volume fraction for chain entanglement, which we confirm via neutron scattering measurements, we find that the fracture behavior is consistent with a viscoplastic type process characterized by hydrodynamic friction of individual polymer chains through the polymer mesh to show that the enhancement in fracture scales inversely with the squared of the mesh size of the gelatin gel network. Above this critical volume fraction, the fracture process can be described by the Lake-Thomas theory that considers fracture as a chain scission process due to chain entanglements.

  14. Adaptive mean filtering for noise reduction in CT polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilts, Michelle; Jirasek, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) as a method of extracting 3D dose information from irradiated polymer gel dosimeters is showing potential as a practical means to implement gel dosimetry in a radiation therapy clinic. However, the response of CT contrast to dose is weak and noise reduction is critical in order to achieve adequate dose resolutions with this method. Phantom design and CT imaging technique have both been shown to decrease image noise. In addition, image postprocessing using noise reduction filtering techniques have been proposed. This work evaluates in detail the use of the adaptive mean filter for reducing noise in CT gel dosimetry. Filter performance is systematically tested using both synthetic patterns mimicking a range of clinical dose distribution features as well as actual clinical dose distributions. Both low and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situations are examined. For all cases, the effects of filter kernel size and the number of iterations are investigated. Results indicate that adaptive mean filtering is a highly effective tool for noise reduction CT gel dosimetry. The optimum filtering strategy depends on characteristics of the dose distributions and image noise level. For low noise images (SNR ∼20), the filtered results are excellent and use of adaptive mean filtering is recommended as a standard processing tool. For high noise images (SNR ∼5) adaptive mean filtering can also produce excellent results, but filtering must be approached with more caution as spatial and dose distortions of the original dose distribution can occur

  15. Heterogeneity phantoms for visualization of 3D dose distributions by MRI-based polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoichi; Mooij, Rob; Mark Perera, G.; Maryanski, Marek J.

    2004-01-01

    Heterogeneity corrections in dose calculations are necessary for radiation therapy treatment plans. Dosimetric measurements of the heterogeneity effects are hampered if the detectors are large and their radiological characteristics are not equivalent to water. Gel dosimetry can solve these problems. Furthermore, it provides three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions. We used a cylindrical phantom filled with BANG-3 registered polymer gel to measure 3D dose distributions in heterogeneous media. The phantom has a cavity, in which water-equivalent or bone-like solid blocks can be inserted. The irradiated phantom was scanned with an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Dose distributions were obtained by calibrating the polymer gel for a relationship between the absorbed dose and the spin-spin relaxation rate of the magnetic resistance (MR) signal. To study dose distributions we had to analyze MR imaging artifacts. This was done in three ways: comparison of a measured dose distribution in a simulated homogeneous phantom with a reference dose distribution, comparison of a sagittally scanned image with a sagittal image reconstructed from axially scanned data, and coregistration of MR and computed-tomography images. We found that the MRI artifacts cause a geometrical distortion of less than 2 mm and less than 10% change in the dose around solid inserts. With these limitations in mind we could make some qualitative measurements. Particularly we observed clear differences between the measured dose distributions around an air-gap and around bone-like material for a 6 MV photon beam. In conclusion, the gel dosimetry has the potential to qualitatively characterize the dose distributions near heterogeneities in 3D

  16. Preparation and performance of a novel gel polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinylidene fluoride)/graphene separator for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiuqing; Wu, Xiufeng; He, Junying; Li, Jie; Lai, Yanqing

    2017-01-01

    Poly(vinylidenefluoride)/graphene (PVDF/graphene) gel polymer electrolyte is prepared via non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) technique for lithium ion battery application. The effect of graphene on the ion conductivity is investigated by AC impedance measurement. The relationship among the chemical structure, PVDF crystallinity, the graphene on macroporous formation and the ion conductivity are investigated. The results indicate that the graphene disperses homogenously in PVDF, and it also increases the porosity and decreases the crystallinity of the PVDF. At the same time, the unique structure increases the liquid uptake capability of PVDF/graphene polymer electrolyte. The ionic conductivity of the PVDF/graphene polymer electrolyte increases significantly from 1.85 mS cm"−"1 in pristine PVDF to 3.61 mS cm"−"1 with 0.002 wt% graphene. It is found that graphene not only increases the ionic conductivity but also markedly enhances the rate capability and the cycling performances of coin cell. This study shows that PVDF/graphene gel polymer electrolyte is a very promising material for lithium ion batteries.

  17. A simple, quantitative method using alginate gel to determine rat colonic tumor volume in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Amy A; Young, Lindsay B; Pleiman, Jennifer K; Konrath, Michael J; Marzella, Blake; Nonte, Michael; Cacciatore, Justin; Ford, Madeline R; Clipson, Linda; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Dove, William F

    2014-04-01

    Many studies of the response of colonic tumors to therapeutics use tumor multiplicity as the endpoint to determine the effectiveness of the agent. These studies can be greatly enhanced by accurate measurements of tumor volume. Here we present a quantitative method to easily and accurately determine colonic tumor volume. This approach uses a biocompatible alginate to create a negative mold of a tumor-bearing colon; this mold is then used to make positive casts of dental stone that replicate the shape of each original tumor. The weight of the dental stone cast correlates highly with the weight of the dissected tumors. After refinement of the technique, overall error in tumor volume was 16.9% ± 7.9% and includes error from both the alginate and dental stone procedures. Because this technique is limited to molding of tumors in the colon, we utilized the Apc(Pirc/+) rat, which has a propensity for developing colonic tumors that reflect the location of the majority of human intestinal tumors. We have successfully used the described method to determine tumor volumes ranging from 4 to 196 mm³. Alginate molding combined with dental stone casting is a facile method for determining tumor volume in vivo without costly equipment or knowledge of analytic software. This broadly accessible method creates the opportunity to objectively study colonic tumors over time in living animals in conjunction with other experiments and without transferring animals from the facility where they are maintained.

  18. Review on recent and advanced applications of monoliths and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Mercedes; Paull, Brett

    2010-01-01

    This review critically summarises recent novel and advanced achievements in the application of monolithic materials and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices appearing within the literature over the period of the last 5 years (2005-2010). The range of monolithic materials has developed rapidly over the past decade, with a diverse and highly versatile class of materials now available, with each exhibiting distinct porosities, pore sizes, and a wide variety of surface functionalities. A major advantage of these materials is their ease of preparation in micro-fluidic channels by in situ polymerisation, leading to monolithic materials being increasingly utilised for a larger variety of purposes in micro-fluidic platforms. Applications of porous polymer monoliths, silica-based monoliths and related homogeneous porous polymer gels in the preparation of separation columns, ion-permeable membranes, preconcentrators, extractors, electrospray emitters, micro-valves, electrokinetic pumps, micro-reactors and micro-mixers in micro-fluidic devices are discussed herein. Procedures used in the preparation of monolithic materials in micro-channels, as well as some practical aspects of the micro-fluidic chip fabrication are addressed. Recent analytical/bioanalytical and catalytic applications of the final micro-fluidic devices incorporating monolithic materials are also reviewed.

  19. PEGDA/PVdF/F127 gel type polymer electrolyte membranes for lithium secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan-Jie; Kim, Dukjoon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Polymer Technology Institute, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi 440-746 (Korea)

    2007-03-30

    A novel porous gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) membrane based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF), and polyethylene oxide-co-polypropylene oxide-co-polyethylene oxide (PEO-PPO-PEO, F127) was fabricated by a phase inversion technique. The PEGDA cross-linking oligomer could be randomly mixed with unraveled PVdF polymer chains to form the interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure. Several experimental techniques including infrared (IR) spectra, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiostat/galvanostat were employed to investigate the characteristics of the polymer membranes. PEGDA and F127 influenced the porous size and structure. The mechanical strength and flexibility of the membrane were controlled by its composition. The membrane with the composition of PEGDA/PVdF/F127 (0/4/4) showed the highest electrolyte uptake of 152.6% and the maximum ionic conductivity of 2.0 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature. All GPEs prepared in this study were electrochemically stable up to 4.5 V. (author)

  20. Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays DE DeGroot, RS Thomas, and SO SimmonsNational Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC USAThe EPA’s ToxCast program utilizes a wide variety of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints. A key criticism of using HTS assays for toxicity assessment is the lack of xenobiotic metabolism (XM) which precludes both metabolic detoxification as well as bioactivation of chemicals tested in vitro thereby mischaracterizing the potential risk posed by these chemicals. To address this deficiency, we have developed an extracellular platform to retrofit existing HTS assays with XM activity. This platform utilizes the S9 fraction of liver homogenate encapsulated in an alginate gel network which reduces the cytotoxicity caused by direct addition of S9 to cells in culture. Alginate microspheres containing encapsulated human liver S9 were cross-linked to solid supports extending from a 96-well plate lid and were assayed using a pro-luciferin substrate specific for CYP3A4 (IPA). We demonstrate that S9 was successfully encapsulated and remained enzymatically active post-encapsulation with 5-10X the CYP3A4 activity as compared to 1 µg solubilized human liver S9. Ketoconazole, a known inhibitor of human CYP3A4, inhibited CYP3A4 activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50: 0.27 µM) and inhibiti

  1. Effect of free calcium concentration and ionic strength on alginate fouling in cross-flow membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Smith, G.; Temmink, B.G.; Loosdrecht, van M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are generally negatively charged polymers. Membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) by EPS is therefore influenced by the water chemistry of the mixed liquor (calcium concentration, foulant concentration and ionic strength). We used alginate as a model

  2. A theory for fracture of polymeric gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yunwei; Anand, Lallit

    2018-06-01

    A polymeric gel is a cross-linked polymer network swollen with a solvent. If the concentration of the solvent or the deformation is increased to substantial levels, especially in the presence of flaws, then the gel may rupture. Although various theoretical aspects of coupling of fluid permeation with large deformation of polymeric gels are reasonably well-understood and modeled in the literature, the understanding and modeling of the effects of fluid diffusion on the damage and fracture of polymeric gels is still in its infancy. In this paper we formulate a thermodynamically-consistent theory for fracture of polymeric gels - a theory which accounts for the coupled effects of fluid diffusion, large deformations, damage, and also the gradient effects of damage. The particular constitutive equations for fracture of a gel proposed in our paper, contain two essential new ingredients: (i) Our constitutive equation for the change in free energy of a polymer network accounts for not only changes in the entropy, but also changes in the internal energy due the stretching of the Kuhn segments of the polymer chains in the network. (ii) The damage and failure of the polymer network is taken to occur by chain-scission, a process which is driven by the changes in the internal energy of the stretched polymer chains in the network, and not directly by changes in the configurational entropy of the polymer chains. The theory developed in this paper is numerically implemented in an open-source finite element code MOOSE, by writing our own application. Using this simulation capability we report on our study of the fracture of a polymeric gel, and some interesting phenomena which show the importance of the diffusion of the fluid on fracture response of the gel are highlighted.

  3. Dosimetry Evolution in Teletherapy: Polimer Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, J. H.; Peixoto, J. G. P.

    2018-03-01

    Polymer gels evolution and chemical composition used in dosimetry. Type Composition First gels Folin’s Phenol or Gallic Acid Polymer Gel Agarose and N,N’-methylene-bis-acrylamide BANANA Bis, acrylamide, nitrous oxide and agarose BANG-1TM Bis, acrylamide, nitrogen and gelatin BANG-2TM Bis, acrylic acid, sodium hydroxide, nitrogen and gelatin BANG-3TM Bis, methacrylate acid, sodium hydroxide, nitrogen and gelatin MAGIC Methacrylate acid, ascorbic acid, gelatin and copper sulphate

  4. Fast, three-dimensional, MR Imaging for polymer gel dosimetric applications involving high dose and steep dose gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandilos, Panagiotis; Baras, Panagiotis; Georgiou, Evangelos; Dardoufas, Konstantinos; Karaiskos, Pantelis; Papagiannis, Panagiotis; Paschalis, Theodoros; Tatsis, Elias; Torrens, Michael; Vlahos, Lampros

    2006-01-01

    Polymer gels constitute water equivalent integrating detectors, which, combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can provide accurate three dimensional (3D) dose distributions in contemporary radiotherapy applications where the small field dimensions and steep dose gradients induce limitations to conventional dosimeters. One of the main obstacles for adapting the method for routine use in the clinical setting is the cost effectiveness of the MRI readout method. Currently, optimized Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) multiple spin echo imaging pulse sequences are commonly used which however result in long imaging times. This work evaluates the efficiency of 3D, dual-echo, k-space segmented turbo spin echo (TSE) scanning sequences for accurate dosimetry with sub-millimetre spatial resolution in strenuous radiation therapy applications. PABIG polymer gel dosimeters were irradiated with an 192 Ir High Dose Rate brachytherapy source, the 4 mm and 8 mm collimator helmets of a gamma knife unit and a custom made x-knife collimator of 1 cm diameter. Profile and dose distribution measurements using TSE are benchmarked against corresponding findings obtained by the commonly used, but time consuming, CPMG sequence as well as treatment planning calculations, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and film measurements. The implementation of a high Turbo factor was found to provide comparable accuracy, allowing a 64-fold MRI scan acceleration compared to conventional multi-echo sequences. The availability of TSE sequences in typical MRI installations greatly facilitates the introduction of polymer gel dosimetry in the clinical environment as a practicable tool for the determination of full 3D dose distributions in contemporary radiotherapy applications

  5. Fast, three-dimensional, MR Imaging for polymer gel dosimetric applications involving high dose and steep dose gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandilos, Panagiotis [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Areteion Hospital, 76 Vas. Sofias Ave., 115 28 Athens (Greece); Baras, Panagiotis [Philips Hellas Medical Systems, 44 Kifissias Ave., Maroussi 151 25, Athens (Greece); Georgiou, Evangelos [Medical Physics Department, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 115 27 Athens (Greece); Dardoufas, Konstantinos [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Areteion Hospital, 76 Vas. Sofias Ave., 115 28 Athens (Greece): Hygeia Hospital, Kiffisias Avenue and 4 Erythrou Stavrou, Marousi, 151 23 Athens (Greece); Karaiskos, Pantelis [Medical Physics Department, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 115 27 Athens (Greece): Hygeia Hospital, Kiffisias Avenue and 4 Erythrou Stavrou, Marousi, 151 23 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: p.karaiskos@hygeia.gr; Papagiannis, Panagiotis [Physics Department, Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Paschalis, Theodoros [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Areteion Hospital, 76 Vas. Sofias Ave., 115 28 Athens (Greece); Tatsis, Elias [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Areteion Hospital, 76 Vas. Sofias Ave., 115 28 Athens (Greece); Torrens, Michael [Hygeia Hospital, Kiffisias Avenue and 4 Erythrou Stavrou, Marousi, 151 23 Athens (Greece); Vlahos, Lampros [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Areteion Hospital, 76 Vas. Sofias Ave., 115 28 Athens (Greece)

    2006-12-20

    Polymer gels constitute water equivalent integrating detectors, which, combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can provide accurate three dimensional (3D) dose distributions in contemporary radiotherapy applications where the small field dimensions and steep dose gradients induce limitations to conventional dosimeters. One of the main obstacles for adapting the method for routine use in the clinical setting is the cost effectiveness of the MRI readout method. Currently, optimized Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) multiple spin echo imaging pulse sequences are commonly used which however result in long imaging times. This work evaluates the efficiency of 3D, dual-echo, k-space segmented turbo spin echo (TSE) scanning sequences for accurate dosimetry with sub-millimetre spatial resolution in strenuous radiation therapy applications. PABIG polymer gel dosimeters were irradiated with an {sup 192}Ir High Dose Rate brachytherapy source, the 4 mm and 8 mm collimator helmets of a gamma knife unit and a custom made x-knife collimator of 1 cm diameter. Profile and dose distribution measurements using TSE are benchmarked against corresponding findings obtained by the commonly used, but time consuming, CPMG sequence as well as treatment planning calculations, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and film measurements. The implementation of a high Turbo factor was found to provide comparable accuracy, allowing a 64-fold MRI scan acceleration compared to conventional multi-echo sequences. The availability of TSE sequences in typical MRI installations greatly facilitates the introduction of polymer gel dosimetry in the clinical environment as a practicable tool for the determination of full 3D dose distributions in contemporary radiotherapy applications.

  6. Structural basis for alginate secretion across the bacterial outer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, J.C.; Robinson, H.; Hay, I. D.; Li, C.; Eckford, P. D. W.; Amaya, M. F.; Wood, L. F.; Ohman, D. E.; Bear, C. E.; Rehm, B. H.; Howell, P. L.

    2011-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  7. Structural Basis for Alginate Secretion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Whitney; I Hay; C Li; P Eckford; H Robinson; M Amaya; L Wood; D Ohman; C Bear; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  8. Gel electrolytes based on poly(acrylonitrile)/sulpholane with hybrid TiO2/SiO2 filler for advanced lithium polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurc, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Paper describes properties of gel electrolyte based on PAN with TMS and TiO 2 -SiO 2 . • The TiO 2 -SiO 2 oxide composite was precipitated in the emulsion system and used as the fillers. • The capacity of the graphite anode depends on the current rate and the amount of TiO 2 -SiO 2 . • For PE3 electrolyte was obtained practical capacity more than 90% of the theoretical capacity. - Abstract: This paper describes the synthesis and properties of a new type of ceramic fillers for composite polymer gel electrolytes. Hybrid TiO 2 -SiO 2 ceramic powders have been obtained by co-precipitation from titanium(IV) sulfate solution using sodium silicate as the precipitating agent. The resulting submicron-size powders have been applied as fillers for composite polymer gel electrolytes for Li-ion batteries based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. The powders and gel electrolytes have been examined structurally and electrochemically, showing favorable properties in terms of electrolyte uptake and electrochemical characteristics in Li-ion cells

  9. Electrochemical impedimetric sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymers/sol-gel chemistry for methidathion organophosphorous insecticide recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Idriss; Hayat, Akhtar; Piletsky, Sergey; Piletska, Elena; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Noguer, Thierry; Rouillon, Régis

    2014-12-01

    We report here a novel method to detect methidathion organophosphorous insecticides. The sensing platform was architected by the combination of molecularly imprinted polymers and sol-gel technique on inexpensive, portable and disposable screen printed carbon electrodes. Electrochemical impedimetric detection technique was employed to perform the label free detection of the target analyte on the designed MIP/sol-gel integrated platform. The selection of the target specific monomer by electrochemical impedimetric methods was consistent with the results obtained by the computational modelling method. The prepared electrochemical MIP/sol-gel based sensor exhibited a high recognition capability toward methidathion, as well as a broad linear range and a low detection limit under the optimized conditions. Satisfactory results were also obtained for the methidathion determination in waste water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF MUCOADHESIVE MICROCAPSULES OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE USING NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS AND IN VITRO CHARACTERIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Yellanki Shiva Kumar; Deb Sambit kumar; Goranti Sharada; Nerella Naveen kumar

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop optimized and systematically evaluate performances of mucoadhesive microcapsules of antihyperglycemic agent drug Metformin. Alginate microcapsules coated with mucoadhesive natural or synthetic polymers were prepared by Orifice-Ionic Gelation technique utilizing calcium chloride as a cross linking agent. The effect of type (natural or synthetic) and concentration of coating polymers and concentration of alginate on formulation was investigated. Prepare...

  11. Molecular and bioengineering strategies to improve alginate and polydydroxyalkanoate production by Azotobacter vinelandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espín Guadalupe

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several aspects of alginate and PHB synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii at a molecular level have been elucidated in articles published during the last ten years. It is now clear that alginate and PHB synthesis are under a very complex genetic control. Genetic modification of A. vinelandii has produced a number of very interesting mutants which have particular traits for alginate production. One of these mutants has been shown to produce the alginate with the highest mean molecular mass so far reported. Recent work has also shed light on the factors determining molecular mass distribution; the most important of these being identified as; dissolved oxygen tension and specific growth rate. The use of specific mutants has been very useful for the correct analysis and interpretation of the factors affecting polymerization. Recent scale-up/down work on alginate production has shown that oxygen limitation is crucial for producing alginate of high molecular mass, a condition which is optimized in shake flasks and which can now be reproduced in stirred fermenters. It is clear that the phenotypes of mutants grown on plates are not necessarily reproducible when the strains are tested in lab or bench scale fermenters. In the case of PHB, A. vinelandii has shown itself able to produce relatively large amounts of this polymer of high molecular weight on cheap substrates, even allowing for simple extraction processes. The development of fermentation strategies has also shown promising results in terms of improving productivity. The understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of PHB synthesis, and of its metabolic relationships, has increased considerably, making way for new potential strategies for the further improvement of PHB production. Overall, the use of a multidisciplinary approach, integrating molecular and bioengineering aspects is a necessity for optimizing alginate and PHB production in A. vinelandii.

  12. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T.; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C -0.68 , with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  13. A rechargeable Li-CO{sub 2} battery with a gel polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chao; Guo, Ziyang; Yang, Bingchang; Liu, Yao; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao [Dept. of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Lab. of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Inst. of New Energy, iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials), Fudan Univ. (China)

    2017-07-24

    The utilization of CO{sub 2} in Li-CO{sub 2} batteries is attracting extensive attention. However, the poor rechargeability and low applied current density have remained the Achilles' heel of this energy device. The gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), which is composed of a polymer matrix filled with tetraglyme-based liquid electrolyte, was used to fabricate a rechargeable Li-CO{sub 2} battery with a carbon nanotube-based gas electrode. The discharge product of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} formed in the GPE-based Li-CO{sub 2} battery exhibits a particle-shaped morphology with poor crystallinity, which is different from the contiguous polymer-like and crystalline discharge product in conventional Li-CO{sub 2} battery using a liquid electrolyte. Accordingly, the GPE-based battery shows much improved electrochemical performance. The achieved cycle life (60 cycles) and rate capability (maximum applied current density of 500 mA g{sup -1}) are much higher than most of previous reports, which points a new way to develop high-performance Li-CO{sub 2} batteries. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Development of a novel colorimetric sensor based on alginate beads for monitoring rainbow trout spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdinasab, Marjan; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hashem; Sepidname, Marziyeh; Negahdarifar, Manizheh; Li, Peiwu

    2018-05-01

    Alginate is a non-toxic, renewable, and linear copolymer obtained from the brown algae Laminaria digitata that can be easily shaped into beads. Its good gel forming properties have made it useful for entrapping food and pharmaceutical ingredients. In this study, alginate beads were used in a novel application as a colorimetric sensor in food intelligent packaging. Colorimetric sensor was developed through entrapping red cabbage extract as a pH indicator in alginate beads. The pH indicator beads were used in rainbow trout packaging for monitoring fillets spoilage. Color change of beads during fish storage was measured using the CIELab method. The alginate bead colorimetric sensor is validated by measuring total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) levels and microbial populations in fish samples. Moreover, peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated during storage. Results indicated that increasing the bacterial population during storage and production of proteolytic enzymes resulted in protein degradation, accumulation of volatile amine compounds, increase in the pH and finally color change of alginate beads. The values of TVB-N, pH, PV and TBARS increased with time of storage. The results of TVB-N and microbial growth were in accordance with color change of beads and CIELab data. Therefore, the proposed system enjoys a high sensitivity to pH variations and is capable of monitoring the spoilage of fish or other protein-rich products through its wide range of color changes. The alginate beads containing the red cabbage extract can, thus, be used as a low-cost colorimetric sensor for intelligent packaging applications.

  15. Oxygen transfer rate during the production of alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii under oxygen-limited and non oxygen-limited conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Carlos F

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oxygen transfer rate (OTR and dissolved oxygen tension (DOT play an important role in determining alginate production and its composition; however, no systematic study has been reported about the independent influence of the OTR and DOT. In this paper, we report a study about alginate production and the evolution of the molecular mass of the polymer produced by a wild-type A. vinelandii strain ATCC 9046, in terms of the maximum oxygen transfer rate (OTRmax in cultures where the dissolved oxygen tension (DOT was kept constant. Results The results revealed that in the two dissolved oxygen conditions evaluated, strictly controlled by gas blending at 0.5 and 5% DOT, an increase in the agitation rate (from 300 to 700 rpm caused a significant increase in the OTRmax (from 17 to 100 mmol L-1 h-1 for DOT of 5% and from 6 to 70 mmol L-1 h-1 for DOT of 0.5%. This increase in the OTRmax improved alginate production, as well as the specific alginate production rate (SAPR, reaching a maximal alginate concentration of 3.1 g L-1 and a SAPR of 0.031 g alg g biom-1 h-1 in the cultures at OTRmax of 100 mmol L-1 h-1. In contrast, the mean molecular mass (MMM of the alginate isolated from cultures developed under non-oxygen limited conditions increased by decreasing the OTRmax, reaching a maximal of 550 kDa at an OTRmax of 17 mmol L-1 h-1 . However, in the cultures developed under oxygen limitation (0.5% DOT, the MMM of the polymer was practically the same (around 200 kDa at 300 and 700 rpm, and this remained constant throughout the cultivation. Conclusions Overall, our results showed that under oxygen-limited and non oxygen-limited conditions, alginate production and its molecular mass are linked to the OTRmax, independently of the DOT of the culture.

  16. Encapsulated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by alginate gel beads as an in vitro metastasis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiao-xi; Liu, Chang; Liu, Yang; Li, Nan; Guo, Xin; Wang, Shu-jun; Sun, Guang-wei; Wang, Wei; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and often forms metastases, which are the most important prognostic factors. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the progression and metastasis of HCC, a culture system mimicking the in vivo tumor microenvironment is needed. In this study, we investigated the metastatic ability of HCC cells cultured within alginate gel (ALG) beads. In the culture system, HCC cells formed spheroids by proliferation and maintained in nuclear abnormalities. The gene and protein expression of metastasis-related molecules was increased in ALG beads, compared with the traditional adhesion culture. Furthermore, several gene expression levels in ALG bead culture system were even closer to liver cancer tissues. More importantly, in vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion cells derived from ALG beads was 7.8-fold higher than adhesion cells. Our results indicated that the in vitro three-dimensional (3D) model based on ALG beads increased metastatic ability compared with adhesion culture, even partly mimicked the in vivo tumor tissues. Moreover, due to the controllable preparation conditions, steady characteristics and production at large-scale, the 3D ALG bead model would become an important tool used in the high-throughput screening of anti-metastasis drugs and the metastatic mechanism research. -- Highlights: •We established a 3D metastasis model mimicking the metastatic ability in vivo. •The invasion ability of cells derived from our model was increased significantly. •The model is easy to reproduce, convenient to handle, and amenable for large-scale

  17. Dose characterization of the new Bebig IsoSeed'' (registered) I25.S17 using polymer gel and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelis, Evaggelos [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: vpantelis@phys.uoa.gr; Baltas, Dimos [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece): Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach, 63069 Offenbach (Germany); Georgiou, Evaggelos [Medical Physics Department, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 115 27 Athens (Greece); Karaiskos, Pantelis [Medical Physics Department, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 115 27 Athens (Greece): Medical Physics Department, Hygeia Hospital, Kiffisias Avenue and 4 Erythrou Stavrou, Marousi, 151 23 Athens (Greece); Lymperopoulou, Georgia [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Papagiannis, Panagiotis [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Sakelliou, Loukas [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Seimenis, Ioannis [Philips Hellas Medical Systems, 44 Kifissias Ave., Maroussi 151 25, Athens (Greece); Stilliaris, Efstathios [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece): Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications (IASA), P.O. Box 17214, GR-10024, Athens (Greece)

    2006-12-20

    A new, molybdenum core, {sup 125}I interstitial brachytherapy seed is marketed by Bebig GmbH (IsoSeed'' (registered) I25.S17) and our group has performed its Dosimetric characterization using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) as recommended by the AAPM TG-43U1 prior to the clinical implementation of new low-energy seeds. This work presents the results of a supplementary experimental dosimetry study performed using PABIG polymer gel and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). One new I25.S17 seed and a commercially available, gold core, Bebig IsoSeed'' (registered) I25.S06 {sup 125}I seed were positioned at two different locations in a vial filled with water equivalent, PABIG-polymer gel. The gel with the sources in place was MR scanned in 3D at various time intervals after seed placement using a time efficient, 3D, dual echo Turbo Spin Echo pulse sequence. The consensus dosimetry parameters published in the TG-43U1 for the I25.S06 seed were used to derive the gel response calibration curve for each scanning session. The calibration data were then used to provide dosimetry results for the new I25.S17 seed. Experimental results for the new seed in the form of dose distributions as well as dosimetric quantities in the prevalent TG-43 dosimetric formalism were found to be in close agreement with corresponding MC and TLD results. This finding suggests that the polymer gel-MRI method could at least play a supplementary role to TLD dosimetry in the dose characterization of low energy/low dose rate brachytherapy sources, especially in view of its potential for measurements with a fine spatial resolution down to short distances which are inhibitory to conventional experimental techniques.

  18. Influence of Sodium Alginate on Hypoglycemic Activity of Metformin Hydrochloride in the Microspheres Obtained by the Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Szekalska, Marta; Wróblewska, Magdalena; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Winnicka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Alginate microspheres with metformin hydrochloride were prepared by the spray drying method in order to improve residence time of drug in the stomach. Nine formulations (F1–F9) with various drug : polymer ratio (1 : 2, 1 : 1, and 2 : 1) and different sodium alginate concentration (1%, 2%, and 3%) were evaluated for size, morphology, drug loading, Zeta potential, and swelling degree. In vitro drug release, mathematical release profile, and physical state of microspheres were also evaluated. Op...

  19. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.; Viner, Veronika G.

    2017-09-05

    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.

  20. 4.4 V lithium-ion polymer batteries with a chemical stable gel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Takeru; Hara, Tomitaro; Akashi, Hiroyuki [Sony Corporation, Energy Business Group, R and D Division, 1-1 Aza, Shimosugishita, Takakura, Hiwada-machi, Koriyama-shi, Fukushima 963-0531 (Japan); Segawa, Ken; Honda, Kazuo [Sony Energy Device Corporation, PB Technology Center, 1-1 Aza, Shimosugishita, Takakura, Hiwada-machi, Koriyama-shi, Fukushima 963-0531 (Japan)

    2007-12-06

    We tested 4.2 V Li-ion polymer batteries (LIPB) with physical gel electrolyte, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), 4.4 V LIPB and 4.4 V Li-ion batteries (LIB) with a liquid electrolyte. The discharge capacity of the 4.4 V LIPB reached 520 Wh l{sup -1} which was 9% higher than that of the 4.2 V LIPB. The 4.4 V LIPB had a high capacity retention ratio of 91.4% at 3 C because of the excellent ion conductivity of the PVDF gel. The capacity retention ratio of the 4.4 V LIPB was 82% after 500 cycles, which is comparable to those of some commercial LIBs. The 4.4 V LIPB retained its original thickness even after many cycles and after being stored at 90 C, whereas the 4.4 V LIB swelled by over 20%. Peaks in the FT-IR spectrum of the discolored separator in the 4.4 V LIB after storage were assigned to C=C double bonds, suggesting that the separator in direct contact with the 4.4 V cathode had been oxidized. The PVDF gel electrolyte not only had a high ionic conductivity but also completely suppressed oxidation. The 4.4 V LIPB with PVDF gel electrolyte has properties suitable for practical cells, namely, high energy density, high permanence and it is safe to use. (author)

  1. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C{sup -0.68}, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  2. Controlling Radiation Degradation of Natural Polymers for Industrial and Agricultural application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E.A.; AbdEl-Rehim, H

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great effort should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2O2 to natural polymers such as chitosan and Na-alginate during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated chitosan, and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na /PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper application. (author)

  3. A novel strategy for preparing mechanically robust ionically cross-linked alginate hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jejurikar, Aparna; Lawrie, Gwen; Groendahl, Lisbeth; Martin, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The properties of alginate films modified using two cross-linker ions (Ca 2+ and Ba 2+ ), comparing two separate cross-linking techniques (the traditional immersion (IM) method and a new strategy in a pressure-assisted diffusion (PD) method), are evaluated. This was achieved through measuring metal ion content, water uptake and film stability in an ionic solution ([Ca 2+ ] = 2 mM). Characterization of the internal structure and mechanical properties of hydrated films were established by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing, respectively. It was found that gels formed by the PD technique possessed greater stability and did not exhibit any delamination after 21 day immersion as compared to gels formed by the IM technique. The Ba 2+ cross-linked gels possessed significantly higher cross-linking density as reflected in lower water content, a more dense internal structure and higher Young's modulus compared to Ca 2+ cross-linked gels. For the Ca 2+ cross-linked gels, a large improvement in the mechanical properties was observed in gels produced by the PD technique and this was attributed to thicker pore walls observed within the hydrogel structure. In contrast, for the Ba 2+ cross-linked gels, the PD technique resulted in gels that had lower tensile strength and strain energy density and this was attributed to phase separation and larger macropores in this gel.

  4. Sol-Gel Entrapped Levonorgestrel Antibodies: Activity and Structural Changes as a Function of Different Polymer Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Moran; Miriam, Altstein

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes development of a sol-gel based immunoaffinity method for the steroid hormone levonorgestrel (LNG) and the effects of changes in the sol-gel matrix format on the activity of the entrapped antibodies (Abs) and on matrix structure. The best sol-gel format for Ab entrapment was found to be a tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) based matrix at a TMOS:water ratio of 1:8, containing 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG) of MW 0.4 kDa. Addition of higher percentages of PEG or a higher MW PEG did not improve activity. No activity was obtained with a TMOS:water ratio of 1:12, most likely because of the very dense polymer that resulted from these polymerization conditions. Only minor differences in the non-specific binding were obtained with the various formats. TMOS was found to be more effective than tetrakis (2-hydroxyethyl)orthosilicate (THEOS) for entrapment of anti-levonorgestrel (LNG) Abs. However, aging the THEOS-based sol-gel for a few weeks at 4 °C stabilized the entrapped Abs and increased its binding capacity. Confocal fluorescent microscopy with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled immunoglobulines (IgGs) entrapped in the sol-gel matrix showed that the entrapped Abs were distributed homogenously within the gel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images have shown the diverse structures of the various sol-gel formats and precursors. PMID:28880001

  5. Electric double-layer capacitors with tea waste derived activated carbon electrodes and plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, M.; Deraman, M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Omar, R.; Hashim, M. A.; Basri, N. H.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.; Jasni, M. R. M.

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel configuration of symmetrical electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) comprising a plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) based flexible polymer gel electrolyte, incorporated with sodium trifluoromethane sulfonate (NaTf) immobilised in a host polymer poly (vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP). The cost-effective activated carbon powder possessing a specific surface area (SSA) of ~ 1700 m2g-1 containing a large proportion of meso-porosity has been derived from tea waste to use as supercapacitor electrodes. The high ionic conductivity (~3.6×10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature) and good electrochemical stability render the gel polymer electrolyte film a suitable candidate for the fabrication of EDLCs. The performance of the EDLCs has been tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The performance of the EDLC cell is found to be promising in terms of high values of specific capacitance (~270 F g-1), specific energy (~ 36 Wh kg-1), and power density (~ 33 kW kg-1).

  6. Electric double-layer capacitors with tea waste derived activated carbon electrodes and plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, M; Deraman, M; Othman, M A R; Omar, R; Basri, N H; Nor, N S M; Dolah, B N M; Hanappi, M F Y M; Hamdan, E; Sazali, N E S; Tajuddin, N S M; Jasni, M R M; Hashim, M A

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel configuration of symmetrical electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) comprising a plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) based flexible polymer gel electrolyte, incorporated with sodium trifluoromethane sulfonate (NaTf) immobilised in a host polymer poly (vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP). The cost-effective activated carbon powder possessing a specific surface area (SSA) of ∼ 1700 m 2 g -1 containing a large proportion of meso-porosity has been derived from tea waste to use as supercapacitor electrodes. The high ionic conductivity (∼3.6×10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature) and good electrochemical stability render the gel polymer electrolyte film a suitable candidate for the fabrication of EDLCs. The performance of the EDLCs has been tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The performance of the EDLC cell is found to be promising in terms of high values of specific capacitance (∼270 F g -1 ), specific energy (∼ 36 Wh kg -1 ), and power density (∼ 33 kW kg -1 ). (paper)

  7. Performance and biocompatibility of extremely tough alginate/polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Max C; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Mehta, Manav; Johnson, Christopher; Arany, Praveen R; Suo, Zhigang; Mooney, David J

    2013-11-01

    Although hydrogels now see widespread use in a host of applications, low fracture toughness and brittleness have limited their more broad use. As a recently described interpenetrating network (IPN) of alginate and polyacrylamide demonstrated a fracture toughness of ≈ 9000 J/m(2), we sought to explore the biocompatibility and maintenance of mechanical properties of these hydrogels in cell culture and in vivo conditions. These hydrogels can sustain a compressive strain of over 90% with minimal loss of Young's Modulus as well as minimal swelling for up to 50 days of soaking in culture conditions. Mouse mesenchymal stem cells exposed to the IPN gel-conditioned media maintain high viability, and although cells exposed to conditioned media demonstrate slight reductions in proliferation and metabolic activity (WST assay), these effects are abrogated in a dose-dependent manner. Implantation of these IPN hydrogels into subcutaneous tissue of rats for 8 weeks led to mild fibrotic encapsulation and minimal inflammatory response. These results suggest the further exploration of extremely tough alginate/PAAM IPN hydrogels as biomaterials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cosolvent-free polymer gel dosimeters with improved dose sensitivity and resolution for x-ray CT dose response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, J N M; McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Schreiner, L J, E-mail: kim.mcauley@chee.queensu.ca [Cancer Centre of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, K7L 5P9 (Canada)

    2011-04-07

    This study reports new N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel recipes with increased dose sensitivity and improved dose resolution for x-ray CT readout. NIPAM can be used to increase the solubility of N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (Bis) in aqueous solutions from approximately 3% to 5.5% by weight, enabling the manufacture of dosimeters containing up to 19.5%T, which is the total concentration of NIPAM and Bis by weight. Gelatin is shown to have a mild influence on dose sensitivity when gels are imaged using x-ray CT, and a stronger influence when gels are imaged optically. Phantoms that contain only 3% gelatin and 5 mM tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride are sufficiently stiff for dosimetry applications. The best cosolvent-free gel formulation has a dose sensitivity in the linear range ({approx}0.88 H Gy{sup -1}) that is a small improvement compared to the best NIPAM-based gels that incorporate isopropanol as a cosolvent ({approx}0.80 H Gy{sup -1}). This new gel formulation results in enhanced dose resolution ({approx}0.052 Gy) for x-ray CT readout, making clinical applications of this imaging modality more feasible.

  9. Cosolvent-free polymer gel dosimeters with improved dose sensitivity and resolution for x-ray CT dose response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chain, J N M; McAuley, K B; Jirasek, A; Schreiner, L J

    2011-01-01

    This study reports new N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel recipes with increased dose sensitivity and improved dose resolution for x-ray CT readout. NIPAM can be used to increase the solubility of N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (Bis) in aqueous solutions from approximately 3% to 5.5% by weight, enabling the manufacture of dosimeters containing up to 19.5%T, which is the total concentration of NIPAM and Bis by weight. Gelatin is shown to have a mild influence on dose sensitivity when gels are imaged using x-ray CT, and a stronger influence when gels are imaged optically. Phantoms that contain only 3% gelatin and 5 mM tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride are sufficiently stiff for dosimetry applications. The best cosolvent-free gel formulation has a dose sensitivity in the linear range (∼0.88 H Gy -1 ) that is a small improvement compared to the best NIPAM-based gels that incorporate isopropanol as a cosolvent (∼0.80 H Gy -1 ). This new gel formulation results in enhanced dose resolution (∼0.052 Gy) for x-ray CT readout, making clinical applications of this imaging modality more feasible.

  10. Preparation and analysis of multilayer composites based on polyelectrolyte complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation); Orekhov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Chernyakov, D. D. [St. Petersburg State Chemical Pharmaceutical Academy (Russian Federation); Baklagina, Yu. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation); Romanov, D. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Grebenshchikov Institute of Silicate Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kononova, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation); Volod’ko, A. V.; Ermak, I. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch (Russian Federation); Klechkovskaya, V. V., E-mail: klechvv@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Skorik, Yu. A., E-mail: yury-skorik@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Macromolecular Compounds (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    A method for preparing multilayer film composites based on chitosan has been developed by the example of polymer pairs: chitosan–hyaluronic acid, chitosan–alginic acid, and chitosan–carrageenan. The structure of the composite films is characterized by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the deposition of a solution of hyaluronic acid, alginic acid, or carrageenan on a chitosan gel film leads to the formation of a polyelectrolyte complex layer at the interface, which is accompanied by the ordering of chitosan chains in the surface region; the microstructure of this layer depends on the nature of contacting polymer pairs.

  11. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate

  12. The effect of biomass concentration on polymer alginate in the immobilized biosorbent formation during the sorption processof heavy metal Cu2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinanti, A.; Jonathan, D.; Silalahi, M. D. S.; Fachrul, M. F.; Hadisoebroto, R.

    2018-01-01

    A research in environmental biotechnology has been done to analysis adsorption of ion Cu2+ by biomass of microalgae (Chlorella sp, Ankistrodesmus braunii, Scenedesmus quadricauda) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto alginate polymeras immobilized biosorbent on laboratory scale. The purpose of this study is to achieve the optimum biomass concentration which gives the best biosorption performance. Biosorption of Cu2+ was carried out in continuous fixed-bed column reactor system, volume of 1.5 L, equipped with peristaltic pump with a flow rate of 13 mL/min. Biosorption of Cu2+ was investigated using immobilized biosorbent with concentration of (g biomass/g polymer) 0.25; 0.5; 1, at pH4,initial concentration Cu2+15 mg/L and 26°C±1. The results of this study showed that the increasing of biomass concentration (0 to 0.5 g/g) would result in better biosorption performance but soon decreased its performance at biomass concentration of 1 g/g. Biosorption capacity and highest removal efficiency of 0.1025 mg Cu2+/g biosorbent and 66.36% occurred by immobilized biosorbent with 0.5 g/g concentration. The connection between the variation of biomass concentration in alginate to the biosorption performance by immobilized biosorbent shown by breakthrough curve, total adsorbed metal mass(qtotal ), efficiency of removal (%R) and biosorption capacity at breakthrough(qe ). Excessive biomass concentrations lead to reduced porosity of the beads thus slowing down the adsorption process.

  13. Structural changes in alginate-based microspheres exposed to in vivo environment as revealed by confocal Raman microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroneková, Z.; Pelach, M.; Mazancová, P.; Uhelská, L.; Treľová, D.; Rázga, F.; Némethová, V.; Szalai, S.; Chorvát, D.; McGarrigle, J. J.; Omami, M.; Isa, D.; Ghani, S.; Majková, E.; Oberholzer, J.; Raus, Vladimír; Šiffalovič, P.; Lacík, I.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, 26 January (2018), s. 1-12, č. článku 1637. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : confocal Raman microscopy * alginate * microcapsule Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  14. Method of making ionic liquid mediated sol-gel sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abdul; Shearrow, Anne M.

    2017-01-31

    Ionic liquid (IL)-mediated sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic materials present enormous potential for effective use in analytical microextraction. One obstacle to materializing this prospect arises from high viscosity of ILs significantly slowing down sol-gel reactions. A method was developed which provides phosphonium-based, pyridinium-based, and imidazolium-based IL-mediated advanced sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid materials for capillary microextraction. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrate that ILs can serve as porogenic agents in sol-gel reactions. IL-mediated sol-gel coatings prepared with silanol-terminated polymers provided up to 28 times higher extractions compared to analogous sol-gel coatings prepared without any IL in the sol solution. This study shows that IL-generated porous morphology alone is not enough to provide effective extraction media: careful choice of the organic polymer and the precursor with close sol-gel reactivity must be made to ensure effective chemical bonding of the organic polymer to the created sol-gel material to be able to provide the desired sorbent characteristics.

  15. User`s guide and documentation manual for ``PC-Gel`` simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Gao, Hong W.

    1993-10-01

    PC-GEL is a three-dimensional, three-phase (oil, water, and gas) permeability modification simulator developed by incorporating an in-situ gelation model into a black oil simulator (BOAST) for personal computer application. The features included in the simulator are: transport of each chemical species of the polymer/crosslinker system in porous media, gelation reaction kinetics of the polymer with crosslinking agents, rheology of the polymer and gel, inaccessible pore volume to macromolecules, adsorption of chemical species on rock surfaces, retention of gel on the rock matrix, and permeability reduction caused by the adsorption of polymer and gel. The in-situ gelation model and simulator were validated against data reported in the literature. The simulator PC-GEL is useful for simulating and optimizing any combination of primary production, waterflooding, polymer flooding, and permeability modification treatments. A general background of permeability modification using crosslinked polymer gels is given in Section I and the governing equations, mechanisms, and numerical solutions of PC-GEL are given in Section II. Steps for preparing an input data file with reservoir and gel-chemical transport data, and recurrent data are described in Sections III and IV, respectively. Example data inputs are enclosed after explanations of each input line to help the user prepare data files. Major items of the output files are reviewed in Section V. Finally, three sample problems for running PC-GEL are described in Section VI, and input files and part of the output files of these problems are listed in the appendices. For the user`s reference a copy of the source code of PC-GEL computer program is attached in Appendix A.

  16. Production of extra-cellular polymer in Azotobacter and biosorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Azotobacter strains were isolated from alkaline and acid soils. The production of alginate and exopolymer from these two strains showed that, strain AC2 produced high polymer in 2% beet molasses or 1% sucrose broth and addition of nitrogen sources (yeast extract) reduced production of this polymer. The optimum ...

  17. Injectable alginate-O-carboxymethyl chitosan/nano fibrin composite hydrogels for adipose tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikumar, Dhanya; Sajesh, K M; Soumya, S; Nimal, T R; Chennazhi, K P; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2015-03-01

    Injectable, biodegradable scaffolds are required for soft tissue reconstruction owing to its minimally invasive approach. Such a scaffold can mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM), provide uniform distribution of cells and overcome limitations like donor site morbidity, volume loss, etc. So, here we report two classes of biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogel blend systems namely, Alginate/O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC) and Alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with the inclusion of fibrin nanoparticles in each. The hydrogels were prepared by ionic cross-linking method. The developed hydrogels were compared in terms of its swelling ratio, degradation profile, compressive strength and elastic moduli. From these preliminary findings, it was concluded that Alginate/O-CMC formed a better blend for tissue engineering applications. The potential of the formed hydrogel as an injectable scaffold was revealed by the survival of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the scaffold by its adhesion, proliferation and differentiation into adipocytes. Cell differentiation studies of fibrin incorporated hydrogel scaffolds showed better differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O staining technique. These injectable gels have potential in soft tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility study of basic characterization of MAGAT polymer gel using CBCT attached in linear accelerator: Preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyaraj, P.; Samuel, E. James jebaseelan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the methacrylic acid, gelatin and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride gel (MAGAT) by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) attached with modern linear accelerator. To compare the results of standard diagnostic computed tomography (CT) with CBCT, different parameters such as linearity, sensitivity and temporal stability were checked. MAGAT gel showed good linearity for both diagnostic CT and CBCT measurements. Sensitivity and temporal stability were also comparable with diagnostic CT measurements. In both the modalities, the sensitivity of the MAGAT increased to 4 days and decreased till the 10th day of post irradiation. Since all measurements (linearity, sensitivity and temporal stability) from diagnostic CT and CBCT were comparable, CBCT could be a potential tool for dose analysis study for polymer gel dosimeter.

  19. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara; Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lee, Taek Seung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive 60 Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  20. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo [Decontamination and Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taek Seung, E-mail: tslee@cnu.ac.kr [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive {sup 60}Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  1. Design of Self-Oscillating Gels and Application to Biomimetic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Yoshida

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As a novel biomimetic polymer, we have developed polymer gels with an autonomous self-oscillating function. This was achieved by utilizing oscillating chemical reactions, called the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ reaction, which is recognized as a chemical model for understanding several autonomous phenomena in biological systems. Under the coexistence of the reactants, the polymer gel undergoes spontaneous swelling-deswelling changes without any on-off switching by external stimuli. In this review, our recent studies on the self-oscillating polymer gels and application to biomimetic actuators are summarized.

  2. Immobilization of Electroporated Cells for Fabrication of Cellular Biosensors: Physiological Effects of the Shape of Calcium Alginate Matrices and Foetal Calf Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Katsanakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the physiological effect of transfected cell immobilization in calcium alginate gels, we immobilized electroporated Vero cells in gels shaped either as spherical beads or as thin membrane layers. In addition, we investigated whether serum addition had a positive effect on cell proliferation and viability in either gel configuration. The gels were stored for four weeks in a medium supplemented or not with 20% (v/v foetal calf serum. Throughout a culture period of four weeks, cell proliferation and cell viability were assayed by optical microscopy after provision of Trypan Blue. Non-elaborate culture conditions (room temperature, non-CO2 enriched culture atmosphere were applied throughout the experimental period in order to evaluate cell viability under less than optimal storage conditions. Immobilization of electroporated cells was associated with an initially reduced cell viability, which was gradually increased. Immobilization was associated with maintenance of cell growth for the duration of the experimental period, whereas electroporated cells essentially died after a week in suspension culture. Considerable proliferation of immobilized cells was observed in spherical alginate beads. In both gel configurations, addition of serum was associated with increased cell proliferation. The results of the present study could contribute to an improvement of the storability of biosensors based on electroporated, genetically or membrane-engineered cells.

  3. Phthaloylchitosan-Based Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthaloylchitosan-based gel polymer electrolytes were prepared with tetrapropylammonium iodide, Pr4NI, as the salt and optimized for conductivity. The electrolyte with the composition of 15.7 wt.% phthaloylchitosan, 31.7 wt.% ethylene carbonate (EC, 3.17 wt.% propylene carbonate (PC, 19.0 wt.% of Pr4NI, and 1.9 wt.% iodine exhibits the highest room temperature ionic conductivity of 5.27 × 10−3 S cm−1. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC fabricated with this electrolyte exhibits an efficiency of 3.5% with JSC of 7.38 mA cm−2, VOC of 0.72 V, and fill factor of 0.66. When various amounts of lithium iodide (LiI were added to the optimized gel electrolyte, the overall conductivity is observed to decrease. However, the efficiency of the DSSC increases to a maximum value of 3.71% when salt ratio of Pr4NI : LiI is 2 : 1. This cell has JSC, VOC and fill factor of 7.25 mA cm−2, 0.77 V and 0.67, respectively.

  4. Synergetic effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter and determination of optimal wavelength to choose light source for optical computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiya Raj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The ultimate aim of this study is to observe the effect of Green tea as a co-antioxidant in PAGAT gel dosimeter and evaluate the appropriate light source for scanning the PAGAT and NIPAM polymer gel.Methods: Both PAGAT (Poly Acrylamide Gelatin Tetrakis hydroxyl phosphonium chloride and NIPAM (N-Isopropyl acrylamide gel were prepared in normoxic condition. The green tea extract (GTE was prepared and tested only on PAGAT. Co-60 teletherapy machine has been used for irradiation purpose, and the gel samples were scanned using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Water equivalency of the gel has been tested in terms of their electron density, effective atomic number and Ratio of oxygen and hydrogen (O/H. We have used NIST XCOM database to test the water equivalency.Results: In this study we found that the GTE added to the gel do not respond to the given doses. By adding sugar we can enhance the sensitivity of the gel. Further investigations are required to use Green tea as a co antioxidant concentration of THPC (Tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride. The optimal wavelength with different region for scanning the PAGAT is 450 to 480 nm (Blue region, for NIPAM it is 540 nm and 570 nm (Green and yellow region. The PAGAT and NIPAM showed better sensitivity at 510 nm. Both gels have their effective atomic number closer to water (NIPAM-7.2, PAGAT-7.379.Conclusion: As per our results, we concluded that GTE alone is not an effective co-antioxidant for polymer gels. When the GTE is combined with sugar and THPC, it protects the gel from pre-polymerization. This study strongly suggests that the blue light is an optimal source for scanning the PAGAT and green to yellow light for NIPAM gel. Though both gels were considered as water equivalent, the PAGAT is equivalent to water and the temporal stability of this gel is higher than NIPAM.

  5. Water swelling, brine soluble imidazole based zwitterionic polymers-synthesis and study of reversible UCST behaviour and gel-sol transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasantha, Vivek Arjunan; Jana, Satyasankar; Parthiban, Anbanandam; Vancso, Julius G.

    2014-01-01

    New vinylbenzene substituted imidazole based zwitterionic polymers with unique characteristics like swelling in water and solubility in concentrated brine solution in which they exhibited a reversible upper critical solution temperature (UCST) and gel-sol transitions are reported herein. © 2014 The

  6. The dose distribution of low dose rate Cs-137 in intracavitary brachytherapy: comparison of Monte Carlo simulation, treatment planning calculation and polymer gel measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, M; Love, P A; Verhaegen, F; Nalder, C; Bidmead, A M; Leach, M; Webb, S

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the dose distribution delivered by low dose rate Cs-137 brachytherapy sources was investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) techniques and polymer gel dosimetry. The results obtained were compared with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). The 20 mm and the 30 mm diameter Selectron vaginal applicator set (Nucletron) were used for this study. A homogeneous and a heterogeneous-with an air cavity-polymer gel phantom was used to measure the dose distribution from these sources. The same geometrical set-up was used for the MC calculations. Beyond the applicator tip, differences in dose as large as 20% were found between the MC and TPS. This is attributed to the presence of stainless steel in the applicator and source set, which are not considered by the TPS calculations. Beyond the air cavity, differences in dose of around 5% were noted, due to the TPS assuming a homogeneous water medium. The polymer gel results were in good agreement with the MC calculations for all the cases investigated

  7. Physicochemical properties of marine collagen-alginate biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, K. S.; Hii, S. L.; Wong, C. L.; Leong, L. K.; Woo, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Collagen base biomaterials are widely applied in the field of tissue engineering. However, these fibrous proteins in animal connective tissues are insufficient to fulfill the mechanical properties for such applications. Therefore, alginate as a natural polysaccharide was incorporated. In this study, Smooth wolf herring skins was collected from the local fish ball processing industry for collagen extraction using acid solubilisation method. On the other hand, alginate from brown seaweed (Sargassum polycystum) was extracted with calcium carbonate at 50 °C. The composite films of different collagen and alginate ratio were prepared by lyophilisation with pure collagen film as control. The effects of alginate on swelling behaviour, porosity, collagenase degradation and tensile strength of the composite films were investigated. Swelling behaviour increased with alginate content, 50 % alginate film achieved 1254.75 % swelling after 24 h. All composite films achieved more than 80 % porosity except the film with 80 % collagen (65.41 %). Porosity was highest in 100 % alginate (94.30 %). Highest tensile strength (1585.87 kPa) and young modulus (27.05 MPa) was found in 50 % alginate film. In addition, resistance to collagenase degradation was improved with alginate content, lowest degradation rate was determined in 80 % alginate film. Results indicated alginate is efficient in improving some mechanical properties of the composite film.

  8. Cleaning and Restoration of an Oil Painting with a Polymer Gel in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Siyamak Alizadeh

    2018-01-01

    One of the major stages in the conservation and restoration of a painting is to clean its colored surface of unwanted stains, and old and darkened varnishes. Various solvents have been used to date for this purpose; however, new cleaning materials have also come onto the market in the past decade that are still unknown and may never have been employed in Iran. The present study aims to introduce a polymer gel and use an in vitro sample of the substance for cleaning and to then present the res...

  9. The use of polymer gel dosimetry to measure dose distribution around metallic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahata, Tomomasa; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Monzen, Hajime; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2014-01-01

    A semi-solid polymer dosimetry system using agar was developed to measure the dose distribution close to metallic implants. Dosimetry of heterogeneous fields where electron density markedly varies is often problematic. This prompted us to develop a polymer gel dosimetry technique using agar to measure the dose distribution near substance boundaries. Varying the concentration of an oxygen scavenger (tetra-hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride) showed the absorbed dose and transverse relaxation rate of the magnetic resonance signal to be linear between 3 and 12 Gy. Although a change in the dosimeter due to oxidization was observed in room air after 24 hours, no such effects were observed in the first 4 hours. The dose distribution around the metal implants was measured using agar dosimetry. The metals tested were a lead rod, a titanium hip joint, and a metallic stent. A maximum 30% dose increase was observed near the lead rod, but only a 3% increase in the absorbed dose was noted near the surface of the titanium hip joint and metallic stent. Semi-solid polymer dosimetry using agar thus appears to be a useful method for dosimetry around metallic substances. (author)

  10. [The use of polymer gel dosimetry to measure dose distribution around metallic implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahata, Tomomasa; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Monzen, Hajime; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2014-10-01

    A semi-solid polymer dosimetry system using agar was developed to measure the dose distribution close to metallic implants. Dosimetry of heterogeneous fields where electron density markedly varies is often problematic. This prompted us to develop a polymer gel dosimetry technique using agar to measure the dose distribution near substance boundaries. Varying the concentration of an oxygen scavenger (tetra-hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride) showed the absorbed dose and transverse relaxation rate of the magnetic resonance signal to be linear between 3 and 12 Gy. Although a change in the dosimeter due to oxidization was observed in room air after 24 hours, no such effects were observed in the first 4 hours. The dose distribution around the metal implants was measured using agar dosimetry. The metals tested were a lead rod, a titanium hip joint, and a metallic stent. A maximum 30% dose increase was observed near the lead rod, but only a 3% increase in the absorbed dose was noted near the surface of the titanium hip joint and metallic stent. Semi-solid polymer dosimetry using agar thus appears to be a useful method for dosimetry around metallic substances.

  11. Synthesis of magnetic resonance–, X-ray– and ultrasound-visible alginate microcapsules for immunoisolation and noninvasive imaging of cellular therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Brad P; Arepally, Aravind; Stuber, Matthias; Arifin, Dian R; Kraitchman, Dara L; Bulte, Jeff W M

    2011-01-01

    Cell therapy has the potential to treat or cure a wide variety of diseases. Non-invasive cell tracking techniques are, however, necessary to translate this approach to the clinical setting. This protocol details methods to create microcapsules that are visible by X-ray, ultrasound (US ) or magnetic resonance (MR) for the encapsulation and immunoisolation of cellular therapeutics. Three steps are generally used to encapsulate cellular therapeutics in an alginate matrix: (i) droplets of cell-containing liquid alginate are extruded, using an electrostatic generator, through a needle tip into a solution containing a dissolved divalent cation salt to form a solid gel; (ii) the resulting gelled spheres are coated with polycations as a cross-linker; and (iii) these complexes are then incubated in a second solution of alginate to form a semipermeable membrane composed of an inner and an outer layer of alginate. The microcapsules can be rendered visible during the first step by adding contrast agents to the primary alginate layer. Such contrast agents include superparamagnetic iron oxide for detection by 1H MR imaging (MRI); the radiopaque agents barium or bismuth sulfate for detection by X-ray modalities; or perfluorocarbon emulsions for multimodal detection by 19F MRI, X-ray and US imaging. The entire synthesis can be completed within 2 h. PMID:21799484

  12. Nanostructured magnetic alginate composites for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedê, Pedro Marins; Silva, Marcelo Henrique Prado da; Figueiredo, André Ben-Hur da Silva, E-mail: marceloprado@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Finotelli, Priscilla Vanessa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmácia

    2017-07-01

    This is a study of the preparation and characterization of polymeric-magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles used were magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} ) and the chosen polymers were alginate and chitosan. Two types of samples were prepared: uncoated magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in polymeric matrix. The samples were analyzed by XRD, light scattering techniques, TEM, and magnetic SQUID. The XRD patterns identified magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} ) as the only crystalline phase. TEM analyses showed particle sizes between 10 and 20nm for magnetite, and 15 and 30nm for the encapsulated magnetite. The values of magnetization ranged from 75 to 100emu/g for magnetite nanoparticles, and 8 to 12emu/g for coated with chitosan, at different temperatures of 20K and 300K. The saturation of both samples was in the range of 49 to 50KOe. Variations of results between the two kinds of samples were attributed to the encapsulation of magnetic nanoparticles by the polymers. (author)

  13. Detoxification of Hg(II) from aqueous and enzyme media: Pristine vs. tailored calcium alginate hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kangkana; Ansari, Zarina; Sen, Kamalika

    2016-10-01

    Calcium alginate (CA) hydrogels were tailored using phenolic compounds (PC) like, thymol, morin, catechin, hesperidin, during their preparation. The PC incorporated gels show modified surface features as indicated by scanning electron microscopic images (SEM). The rheological studies show that excepting the hesperidin incorporated gels all the other kinds including calcium alginate pristine have similar mechanical strength. The hesperidine incorporated CA gels had the maximum capacity to adsorb Hg. The Freundlich adsorption isotherms show higher values of adsorption capacity for all PC incorporated CA beads than the pristine CA (PCA). The hesperidin incorporated CA gels were found to show the best adsorption condition at neutral pH and an optimum contact time of 2.5h at 25°C. Considering the possibility of ingested Hg detoxification from human alimentary tract, the hesperidin and morin incorporated CA beads were further modified through incorporation of cod liver oil as the digestion time of fat in stomach is higher. In vitro uptake capacities of Hg in pepsin and pancreatin containing enzyme media were studied with hesperidin and morin incorporated beads and their corresponding fat incorporated beads also. In the pepsin medium, there was no uptake by hesperidin and fat-hesperidin incorporated beads, which is possibly due to the higher acidity of the medium. But in pancreatin medium Hg was taken up by both kinds of beads. Morin and morin-fat incorporated beads were efficient to uptake Hg from both the pepsin and pancreatin medium. The tailored CA beads may therefore serve as efficient scaffolds to rescue Hg ingested individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-disinfecting Alginate vs Conventional Alginate: Effect on Surface Hardness of Gypsum Cast-An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Ranjith; George, Navia; Thummala, Niharika R; Ravi, S V; Nagpal, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    For the construction of any dental prosthesis, accurate impressions are necessary. Hence, we undertook the present study to evaluate and compare the surface hardness of gypsum casts poured from impressions made using conventional alginate and self-disinfecting alginate. A total of 30 impressions of stainless steel die were made, out of which 15 impressions were made with conventional alginate and 15 were made with self-disinfecting alginate and poured using Type III dental stone. Thirty stone specimens were subjected for hardness testing. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test to compare the mean surface hardness. Difference in surface hardness was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Surface hardness of gypsum casts poured using impressions made from self-disinfecting alginate and conventional alginates were comparable. Self-disinfecting alginates may be employed in clinical practice as safe and effective materials to overcome the infection control issues without compromising on the properties of the material.

  15. Controlled swelling and degradation studies of alginate microbeads in dilute natrium-citrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Dragana D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate hydrogels are widely used in biomedicine due to alginate availability, hydrophilic nature, biocompatibility and biodegradability. Alginate microbeads are particularly attractive for applications in pharmacy and regenerative medicine due to high surface to volume ratio, low mass transfer limitations and simple implantation by injection. Aim of this work was to investigate possibilities for controlled degradation of alginate microbeads in cell culture medium (Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium with Na-citrate added in small concentrations (0.05 - 0.5 mM. Alginate microbeads (1.5% w/w, 800 m in diameter were produced by electrostatic droplet extrusion and evaluated over a period of 10 days regarding appearance, kinetics and degree of swelling as well as biomechanical properties determined in a novel bioreactor with mechanical stimulation under in vivo-like conditions in articular cartilage (10% strain, 337.5 m/s compression rate. In the citrate concentration range investigated, microbeads initially swelled reaching an equilibrium value (~150-170% with respect to the initial mass, upon which they appeared stable for a certain period of time (1 to over 7 days followed by bead bursting and degradation. This degradation process indicated that Na+ ions from the solution initially replaced Ca2+ ions bound mainly to COO- groups in polymannuronate sequences inducing electrostatic repulsion of polymer chains and, consequently, swelling of the beads. Citrate ions assisted in this process by forming insoluble calcium citrate. Thus, the specific rate of the bead swelling increased with the increase in citrate concentration approaching a maximal value of ~0.34 d-1. In the last phase, the beads burst into pieces, which slowly continued to degrade by replacement of Ca2+ ions bonded to polyguluronate blocks in the egg-box structure. Compression moduli for packed beds of control, freshly produced microbeads, and microbeads swelled at the equilibrium

  16. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-alginate scaffolds for seeding human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Sneha G; Pawar, S H

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan and alginate are two natural and accessible polymers that are known to be biocompatible, biodegradable and possesses good antimicrobial activity. When combined, they exhibit desirable characteristics and can be created into a scaffold for cell culture. In this study interaction of chitosan-alginate scaffolds with mesenchymal stem cells are studied. Mesenchymal stem cells were derived from human umbilical cord tissues, characterized by flow cytometry and other growth parameters studied as well. Proliferation and viability of cultured cells were studied by MTT Assay and Trypan Blue dye exclusion assay. Besides chitosan-alginate scaffold was prepared by freeze-drying method and characterized by FTIR, SEM and Rheological properties. The obtained 3D porous structure allowed very efficient seeding of hUMSCs that are able to inhabit the whole volume of the scaffold, showing good adhesion and proliferation. These materials showed desirable rheological properties for facile injection as tissue scaffolds. The results of this study demonstrated that chitosan-alginate scaffold may be promising biomaterial in the field of tissue engineering, which is currently under a great deal of examination for the development and/or restoration of tissue and organs. It combines the stem cell therapy and biomaterials.

  17. Synthesis of zinc-crosslinked thiolated alginic acid beads and their in vitro evaluation as potential enteric delivery system with folic acid as model drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, M O; Aiedeh, K M; Al-Hiari, Y; Al-Khatib, H

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the potential of synthetic modifications of alginic acid as a method to enhance the stability of its complexes with divalent cations under physiological conditions. A fraction of algin's carboxylic acid moieties was substituted with thiol groups to different substitution degrees through conjugating alginate to cysteine to produce alginate-cysteine (AC) conjugates. Infrared spectrophotometry and iodometry were used to characterize the resulting polymeric conjugates in terms of structure and degree of substitution. Moreover, zinc ions were used to crosslink the resulting AC polymers. Folic acid loaded beads were prepared from Zinc-crosslinked AC polymers (AC-Zn) of different cysteine substitution degrees. The generated beads were then investigated in vitro for their capacity to modify folic acid release. AC-Zn polymeric beads resisted drug release under acidic conditions (pH 1.0). However, upon transfer to a phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0) they released most of their contents almost immediately. This change in drug release behavior is most probably due to the sequestering of zinc cations by phosphate ions within the buffer solution to form insoluble chelates and, to a lesser extent, the ionization of the carboxylic acid and thiol moieties. Removal of zinc ions from the polymeric matrix seems to promote polymeric disintegration and subsequent drug release. A similar behavior is expected in vivo due to the presence of natural zinc sequestering agents in the intestinal fluids. AC-Zn polymers provided a novel approach for enteric drug delivery as drug release from these matrices complied with the USP specifications for enteric dosage forms.

  18. Reduced dose uncertainty in MRI-based polymer gel dosimetry using parallel RF transmission with multiple RF sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang-Young Kim; Jung-Hoon Lee; Jin-Young Jung; Do-Wan Lee; Seu-Ran Lee; Bo-Young Choe; Hyeon-Man Baek; Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon; Dae-Hyun Kim; Jung-Whan Min; Ji-Yeon Park

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present the feasibility of using a parallel RF transmit with multiple RF sources imaging method (MultiTransmit imaging) in polymer gel dosimetry. Image quality and B 1 field homogeneity was statistically better in the MultiTransmit imaging method than in conventional single source RF transmission imaging method. In particular, the standard uncertainty of R 2 was lower on the MultiTransmit images than on the conventional images. Furthermore, the MultiTransmit measurement showed improved dose resolution. Improved image quality and B 1 homogeneity results in reduced dose uncertainty, thereby suggesting the feasibility of MultiTransmit MR imaging in gel dosimetry. (author)

  19. Hydroxyapatite-alginate nanocomposite as drug delivery matrix for sustained release of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbu, G Devanand; Ramasamy, S; Ramakrishnan, V; Kumar, J

    2011-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite is a bioceramic which has a wide range of medical application for bone diseases. To enhance its usage, we have prepared ciprofloxacin loaded nano hydroxyapatite (HA) composite with a natural polymer, alginate, using wet chemical method at low temperature. The prepared composites were analyzed by various physicochemical methods. The results show that the nano HA crystallites are well intact with the alginate macromolecules. For the composite system FT-IR and micro Raman results are reported in this paper. Studies on the drug loading and drug release have been done. The drug is pre-adsorbed onto the ceramic particle before the formation of composite. The thermal behavior of composite has been studied using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). This work, reports that the nanocomposite prepared under optimum condition could prolong the release of ciprofloxacin compared with the ciprofloxacin loaded hydroxyapatite.

  20. Chitosan/alginate based multilayers to control drug release from ophthalmic lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diana; Pinto, Luís F V; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Santos, Luís F; Serro, Ana Paula; Saramago, Benilde

    2016-11-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using layer-by-layer deposition, based in natural polymers (chitosan and alginate), to control the release of different ophthalmic drugs from three types of lens materials: a silicone-based hydrogel recently proposed by our group as drug releasing soft contact lens (SCL) material and two commercially available materials: CI26Y for intraocular lens (IOLs) and Definitive 50 for SCLs. The optimised coating, consisting in one double layer of (alginate - CaCl2)/(chitosan+glyoxal) topped with a final alginate-CaCl2 layer to avoid chitosan degradation by tear fluid proteins, proved to have excellent features to control the release of the anti-inflammatory, diclofenac, while keeping or improving the physical properties of the lenses. The coating leads to a controlled release of diclofenac from SCL and IOL materials for, at least, one week. Due to its high hydrophilicity (water contact angle≈0) and biocompatibility, it should avoid the use of further surface treatments to enhance the useŕs comfort. However, the barrier effect of this coating is specific for diclofenac, giving evidence to the need of optimizing the chemical composition of the layers in view of the desired drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of Enzymatically Treated Alginate/Chitosan Hydrosols in Sponges Formation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zimoch-Korzycka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to produce 3D sponges based on enzymatically modified lysozyme selected polysaccharides and assess their physicochemical properties. The alginate/chitosan sponges were formed from polymers hydrosols in different proportions at a final concentration of 1% polysaccharides. Hydrosols were modified by lysozyme addition of 1000 U. Hydrosols without or with enzyme were analyzed for their reducing sugar content, rheological properties and ability to scavenge free radicals. Sponges formed from hydrosols were tested for solubility and compressive properties. Only chitosan was hydrolyzed by lysozyme. The morphology of sponges was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was proven that the antioxidant properties of hydrosols are dependent on the concentration of chitosan. It was also shown that the addition of lysozyme negatively affected the free radical scavenging ability of single hydrosols of alginate and chitosan, and their mixtures. The Ostwald de Waele as well as Herschel–Bulkley models of rheological properties fitted the experimental data well (R2 is between 0.947 and 1.000. Increase in textural features values of sponges was observed. Sponges with pure alginate and pure chitosan were almost completely soluble. The enzyme addition significantly changed the characteristics of the cross-section structure of sponges, and made the surface smoother.

  2. Buckling of paramagnetic chains in soft gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shilin; Pessot, Giorgio; Cremer, Peet; Weeber, Rudolf; Holm, Christian; Nowak, Johannes; Odenbach, Stefan; Menzel, Andreas M.; Auernhammer, Günter K.

    We study the magneto-elastic coupling behavior of paramagnetic chains in soft polymer gels exposed to external magnetic fields. To this end, a laser scanning confocal microscope is used to observe the morphology of the paramagnetic chains together with the deformation field of the surrounding gel network. The paramagnetic chains in soft polymer gels show rich morphological shape changes under oblique magnetic fields, in particular a pronounced buckling deformation. The details of the resulting morphological shapes depend on the length of the chain, the strength of the external magnetic field, and the modulus of the gel. Based on the observation that the magnetic chains are strongly coupled to the surrounding polymer network, a simplified model is developed to describe their buckling behavior. A coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation model featuring an increased matrix stiffness on the surfaces of the particles leads to morphologies in agreement with the experimentally observed buckling effects.

  3. Adsorption characteristics, recognition properties, and preliminary application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by sol–gel surface imprinting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Sen; Zhang, Wen; Long, Wei; Hou, Dan; Yang, Xuechun; Tan, Ni, E-mail: tannii@21cn.com

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nordihydroguaiaretic acid imprinted polymer with imprinting factor 2.12 was prepared for the first time through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between the template molecules and the bifunctional monomers. • The obtained surface molecularly imprinting polymers exhibited high affinity and selectivity to the template molecules. • The prepared surface molecularly imprinted polymers were used in separation the natural active component nordihydroguaiaretic acid from medicinal plants. - Abstract: In this paper, a new core-shell composite of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) molecularly imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (MIP@SiO{sub 2}) was prepared through sol–gel technique and applied as a material for extraction of NDGA from Ephedra. It was synthesized using NDGA as the template molecule, γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTEOS) as the functional monomers, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the cross-linker and ethanol as the porogenic solvent in the surface of silica. The non-imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (NIP@SiO{sub 2}) were prepared with the same procedure, but with the absence of template molecule. In addition, the optimum adsorption affinity occurred when the molar ratio of NDGA:APTS:MTEOS:TEOS was 1:6:2:80. The prepared MIP@SiO{sub 2} and NIP@SiO{sub 2} were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Their affinity properties to NDGA were evaluated through dynamic adsorption, static adsorption, and selective recognition experiments, and the results showed the saturated adsorption capacity of MIP@SiO{sub 2} could reach to 5.90 mg g{sup −1}, which was two times more than that of NIP@SiO{sub 2}. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the extraction of NDGA from the medicinal plant ephedra by the above prepared materials, and the results

  4. Adsorption characteristics, recognition properties, and preliminary application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by sol–gel surface imprinting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Sen; Zhang, Wen; Long, Wei; Hou, Dan; Yang, Xuechun; Tan, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nordihydroguaiaretic acid imprinted polymer with imprinting factor 2.12 was prepared for the first time through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between the template molecules and the bifunctional monomers. • The obtained surface molecularly imprinting polymers exhibited high affinity and selectivity to the template molecules. • The prepared surface molecularly imprinted polymers were used in separation the natural active component nordihydroguaiaretic acid from medicinal plants. - Abstract: In this paper, a new core-shell composite of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) molecularly imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (MIP@SiO_2) was prepared through sol–gel technique and applied as a material for extraction of NDGA from Ephedra. It was synthesized using NDGA as the template molecule, γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTEOS) as the functional monomers, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the cross-linker and ethanol as the porogenic solvent in the surface of silica. The non-imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (NIP@SiO_2) were prepared with the same procedure, but with the absence of template molecule. In addition, the optimum adsorption affinity occurred when the molar ratio of NDGA:APTS:MTEOS:TEOS was 1:6:2:80. The prepared MIP@SiO_2 and NIP@SiO_2 were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Their affinity properties to NDGA were evaluated through dynamic adsorption, static adsorption, and selective recognition experiments, and the results showed the saturated adsorption capacity of MIP@SiO_2 could reach to 5.90 mg g"−"1, which was two times more than that of NIP@SiO_2. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the extraction of NDGA from the medicinal plant ephedra by the above prepared materials, and the results indicated that the MIP@SiO_2 had

  5. Pulsed-low intensity ultrasound enhances extracellular matrix production by fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti PM Bohari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of pulsed-low intensity ultrasound on cell proliferation, collagen production and glycosaminoglycan deposition by 3T3 fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate was evaluated. Hoechst 33258 assay for cell number, hydroxyproline assay for collagen content and dimethylamine blue assay for glycosaminoglycan content were performed on samples from cell cultures treated with pulsed-low intensity ultrasound and a control group. Pulsed-low intensity ultrasound shows no effect on cell proliferation, while collagen and glycosaminoglycan contents were consistently higher in the samples treated with pulsed-low intensity ultrasound, showing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 on day 10. Alcian blue staining showed that glycosaminoglycans were deposited around the cells in both groups. These results suggest that pulsed-low intensity ultrasound shows no effect on cell proliferation but has potential for inducing collagen and glycosaminoglycan production in cells cultured in alginate gels.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity of aqueous solutions of some natural polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tan Man; Truong Thi Hanh; Le Quang Luan; Le Hai; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2000-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity of aqueous solution of alginate and carbon xylmethyl cellulose (CMC) irradiated in solid state has been carried out. the viscosity of aqueous solution of alginate and CMC decreased remarkably with increasing dose and the viscosity of 2% solution of above polymers irradiated at 50 kGy was about 100 times lower than the original one. (author)

  7. Influence of hydrophilic polymers on functional properties and wound healing efficacy of hydrocolloid based wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung Giu; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Jin Ki; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different hydrophilic polymers on the swelling, bioadhesion and mechanical strength of hydrocolloid wound dressings (HCDs) in order to provide an appropriate composition for a hydrocolloid wound dressing system. In this study, the HCDs were prepared with styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer (SIS) and polyisobutylene (PIB) as the base using a hot melting method. Additionally, numerous SIS/PIB-based HCDs were prepared with six hydrophilic polymers, and their wound dressing properties were assessed. Finally, the wound healing efficacy of the selected formulations was compared to a commercial wound dressing. The swelling ratio, bioadhesive force and mechanical strengths of HCDs were increased in the order of sodium alginate>sodium CMC=poloxamer=HPMC>PVA=PVP, sodium alginate>sodium CMC=poloxamer>PVA>HPMC=PVP and sodium alginate≥PVA>PVP=HPMC=sodium CMC>poloxamer, respectively. Among the hydrophilic polymers tested, sodium alginate most enhanced the swelling capacity, bioadhesive force and mechanical strengths. Thus, the hydrophilic polymers played great role in the swelling, bioadhesion and mechanical strength of SIS/PIB-based HCDs. The HCD formulation composed of PIB, SIS, liquid paraffin and sodium alginate at the weight ratio of 20/25/12/43 gave better wound dressing properties and more excellent wound healing efficacy than the commercial wound dressing. Therefore, the novel HCD formulation could be a promising hydrocolloid system for wound dressings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. PLGA/alginate composite microspheres for hydrophilic protein delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Peng; Chen, X.B.; Schreyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres were prepared by a novel double emulsion and solvent evaporation technique and loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or rabbit anti-laminin antibody protein. The addition of alginate and the use of a surfactant during microsphere preparation increased the encapsulation efficiency and reduced the initial burst release of hydrophilic BSA. Confocal laser scanning microcopy (CLSM) of BSA-loaded PLGA/alginate composite microspheres showed that PLGA, alginate, and BSA were distributed throughout the depths of microspheres; no core/shell structure was observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that PLGA microspheres erode and degrade more quickly than PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. When loaded with anti-laminin antibody, the function of released antibody was well preserved in both PLGA and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. The biocompatibility of PLGA and PLGA/alginate microspheres were examined using four types of cultured cell lines, representing different tissue types. Cell survival was variably affected by the inclusion of alginate in composite microspheres, possibly due to the sensitivity of different cell types to excess calcium that may be released from the calcium cross-linked alginate. - Highlights: • A double emulsion technique is used to prepare protein-loaded PLGA or PLGA/alginate microspheres. • PLGA, alginate and protein are distributed evenly within microsphere structure. • Addition of alginate improves loading efficiency and slows degradation and protein release. • PLGA/alginate microspheres have favorable biocompatibility

  9. PLGA/alginate composite microspheres for hydrophilic protein delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Peng [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5E5 (Canada); Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada); Chen, X.B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada); Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada); Schreyer, David J., E-mail: david.schreyer@usask.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5E5 (Canada); Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, S7N5A9 (Canada)

    2015-11-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres were prepared by a novel double emulsion and solvent evaporation technique and loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or rabbit anti-laminin antibody protein. The addition of alginate and the use of a surfactant during microsphere preparation increased the encapsulation efficiency and reduced the initial burst release of hydrophilic BSA. Confocal laser scanning microcopy (CLSM) of BSA-loaded PLGA/alginate composite microspheres showed that PLGA, alginate, and BSA were distributed throughout the depths of microspheres; no core/shell structure was observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that PLGA microspheres erode and degrade more quickly than PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. When loaded with anti-laminin antibody, the function of released antibody was well preserved in both PLGA and PLGA/alginate composite microspheres. The biocompatibility of PLGA and PLGA/alginate microspheres were examined using four types of cultured cell lines, representing different tissue types. Cell survival was variably affected by the inclusion of alginate in composite microspheres, possibly due to the sensitivity of different cell types to excess calcium that may be released from the calcium cross-linked alginate. - Highlights: • A double emulsion technique is used to prepare protein-loaded PLGA or PLGA/alginate microspheres. • PLGA, alginate and protein are distributed evenly within microsphere structure. • Addition of alginate improves loading efficiency and slows degradation and protein release. • PLGA/alginate microspheres have favorable biocompatibility.

  10. Radiation degradation of alginate and chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Mitomo, Hiroshi [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Alginate and chitosan were irradiated in solid or aqueous solution condition with Co{sup 60} gamma rays in the dose range of 20 to 500 kGy. Degradation was observed both in solid and solution conditions. The degradation in solution was remarkably greater than that in solid. For example, the molecular weight of alginate in 4%(w/v) solution decreased from 2 x 10{sup 5} for 0 kGy to 6 x 10{sup 3} for 50 kGy irradiation while the equivalent degradation by solid irradiation required 500 kGy. The activated species from irradiated water must be responsible for the degradation in solution. The degradation was also accompanied with the color change of alginate: the color became deep brown for highly degraded alginate. UV spectra showed a distinct absorption peak at 265 nm for colored alginates, increasing with dose. The fact that discoloration of colored alginate was caused on exposure to ozone suggests a formation of double bond in pyranose-ring by scission of glycosidic bond. Degradation behavior of chitosan in irradiation was almost the same as that of alginate. (author)

  11. Sensitivity calibration procedures in optical-CT scanning of BANG 3 polymer gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.; Wuu, Cheng-Shie; Maryanski, Marek J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032 and MGS Research Inc., Madison, Connecticut 06443 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The dose response of the BANG 3 polymer gel dosimeter (MGS Research Inc., Madison, CT) was studied using the OCTOPUS laser CT scanner (MGS Research Inc., Madison, CT). Six 17 cm diameter and 12 cm high Barex cylinders, and 18 small glass vials were used to house the gel. The gel phantoms were irradiated with 6 and 10 MV photons, as well as 12 and 16 MeV electrons using a Varian Clinac 2100EX. Three calibration methods were used to obtain the dose response curves: (a) Optical density measurements on the 18 glass vials irradiated with graded doses from 0 to 4 Gy using 6 or 10 MV large field irradiations; (b) optical-CT scanning of Barex cylinders irradiated with graded doses (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 Gy) from four adjacent 4x4 cm{sup 2} photon fields or 6x6 cm{sup 2} electron fields; and (c) percent depth dose (PDD) comparison of optical-CT scans with ion chamber measurements for 6x6 cm{sup 2}, 12 and 16 MeV electron fields. The dose response of the BANG 3 gel was found to be linear and energy independent within the uncertainties of the experimental methods (about 3%). The slopes of the linearly fitted dose response curves (dose sensitivities) from the four field irradiations (0.0752{+-}3%, 0.0756{+-}3%, 0.0767{+-}3%, and 0.0759{+-}3% cm{sup -1} Gy{sup -1}) and the PDD matching methods (0.0768{+-}3% and 0.0761{+-}3% cm{sup -1} Gy{sup -1}) agree within 2.2%, indicating a good reproducibility of the gel dose response within phantoms of the same geometry. The dose sensitivities from the glass vial approach are different from those of the cylindrical Barex phantoms by more than 30%, owing probably to the difference in temperature inside the two types of phantoms during gel formation and irradiation, and possible oxygen contamination of the glass vial walls. The dose response curve obtained from the PDD matching approach with 16 MeV electron field was used to calibrate the gel phantom irradiated with the 12 MeV, 6x6 cm{sup 2} electron field. Three-dimensional dose distributions

  12. Electrochemical performance of trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate-based gel polymer electrolyte prepared by in situ thermal polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dong; Fan, Li-Zhen; Fan, Huanhuan; Shi, Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Cross-linked trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate-based gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) were prepared by in situ thermal polymerization. The ionic conductivity of the GPEs are >10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C, and continuously increased with the increase of liquid electrolyte content. The GPEs have excellent electrochemical stability up to 5.0 V versus Li/Li + . The LiCoO 2 |TMPTMA-based GPE|graphite cells exhibit an initial discharge capacity of 129 mAh g −1 at the 0.2C, and good cycling stability with around 83% capacity retention after 100 cycles. Both the simple fabricating process of polymer cell and outstanding electrochemical performance of such new GPE make it potentially one of the most promising electrolyte materials for next generation lithium ion batteries

  13. Effect of natural polymers on the survival of Lactobacillus casei encapsulated in alginate microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fábio J; Omura, Michele H; Cedran, Marina F; Dekker, Robert F H; Barbosa-Dekker, Aneli M; Garcia, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Linseed and okra mucilages, the fungal exopolysaccharide botryosphaeran, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were used to microencapsulate Lactobacillus casei LC-01 and L. casei BGP 93 in sodium alginate microspheres by the extrusion technique in calcium chloride. The addition of carbohydrate biopolymers from linseed, okra and the fungal exocellular (1 → 3)(1 → 6)-β-D-glucan, named botryosphaeran provided higher encapsulation efficiency (EE) (>93% and >86%) for L. casei LC 01 and L. casei BGP 93, respectively. The use of linseed, okra and botryosphaeran improved the stability of probiotics encapsulated in the microspheres during the storage period over 15 d at 5 °C when compared to microspheres formulated with sodium alginate alone as the main encapsulating agent (p ≤ 0.05). In in vitro gastrointestinal simulation tests, the use of FOS combined with linseed mucilage was shown to be more effective in protecting L. casei cells LC-01 and L. casei BGP 93.

  14. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  15. 21 CFR 582.7187 - Calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 582.7187 Section 582.7187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium alginate. (a) Product. Calcium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. Ionic conduction in 70-MeV C5+-ion-irradiated poly(vinylidenefluoride- co-hexafluoropropylene)-based gel polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, D.; Kumar, A.; Singh, F.; Avasthi, D.K.; Mishra, N.C.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to increase the Li + -ion diffusivity, poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-(propylene carbonate+diethyl carbonate)-lithium perchlorate gel polymer electrolyte system has been irradiated with 70-MeV C 5+ -ion beam of nine different fluences. Swift heavy-ion irradiation shows enhancement in ionic conductivity at lower fluences and decrease in ionic conductivity at higher fluences with respect to unirradiated gel polymer electrolyte films. Maximum room-temperature (303 K) ionic conductivity is found to be 2x10 -2 S/cm after irradiation with a fluence of 10 11 ions/cm 2 . This interesting result could be attributed to the fact that for a particular ion beam with a given energy, a higher fluence provides critical activation energy for cross linking and crystallization to occur, which results in the decrease in ionic conductivity. X-ray-diffraction results show decrease in the degree of crystallinity upon ion irradiation at low fluences (≤10 11 ions/cm 2 ) and increase in crystallinity at higher fluences (>10 11 ions/cm 2 ). Analysis of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy results suggests the bond breaking at a fluence of 5x10 9 ions/cm 2 and cross linking at a fluence of 10 12 ions/cm 2 and corroborate conductivity and x-ray-diffraction results. Scanning electron micrographs exhibit increased porosity of the polymer electrolyte after ion irradiation

  17. Incorporating multislice imaging into x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, H., E-mail: holly.johnston@utsw.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2 (Canada); Hilts, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada and Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada); Jirasek, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada and Department of Physics, University of British Columbia—Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate multislice computed tomography (CT) scanning for fast and reliable readout of radiation therapy (RT) dose distributions using CT polymer gel dosimetry (PGD) and to establish a baseline assessment of image noise and uniformity in an unirradiated gel dosimeter. Methods: A 16-slice CT scanner was used to acquire images through a 1 L cylinder filled with water. Additional images were collected using a single slice machine. The variability in CT number (N{sub CT}) associated with the anode heel effect was evaluated and used to define a new slice-by-slice background subtraction artifact removal technique for CT PGD. Image quality was assessed for the multislice system by evaluating image noise and uniformity. The agreement in N{sub CT} for slices acquired simultaneously using the multislice detector array was also examined. Further study was performed to assess the effects of increasing x-ray tube load on the constancy of measured N{sub CT} and overall scan time. In all cases, results were compared to the single slice machine. Finally, images were collected throughout the volume of an unirradiated gel dosimeter to quantify image noise and uniformity before radiation is delivered. Results: Slice-by-slice background subtraction effectively removes the variability in N{sub CT} observed across images acquired simultaneously using the multislice scanner and is the recommended background subtraction method when using a multislice CT system. Image noise was higher for the multislice system compared to the single slice scanner, but overall image quality was comparable between the two systems. Further study showed N{sub CT} was consistent across image slices acquired simultaneously using the multislice detector array for each detector configuration of the slice thicknesses examined. In addition, the multislice system was found to eliminate variations in N{sub CT} due to increasing x-ray tube load and reduce scanning time by a factor of 4 when compared to

  18. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  19. Preparation of poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) gel electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Zheng; He Xiangming; Pu Weihua; Wan Chunrong; Jiang Changyin

    2006-01-01

    Poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) gel polymer electrolyte was prepared for lithium ion batteries. The preparation started with synthesis of poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) by radical emulsion polymerization, followed by phase inversion to produce microporous membrane. Then, the microporous gel polymer electrolytes (MGPEs) was prepared with the microporous membrane and LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate. The dry microporous membrane showed a fracture strength as high as 18.98 MPa. As-prepared gel polymer electrolytes presented ionic conductivity in excess of 3.0 x 10 -3 S cm -1 at ambient temperature and a decomposition voltage over 6.6 V. The results showed that the as-prepared gel polymer electrolytes were promising materials for Li-ion batteries

  20. Tracer diffusion in a polymer gel: simulations of static and dynamic 3D networks using spherical boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerlin, Natasha; Elvingson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated an alternative to the standard periodic boundary conditions for simulating the diffusion of tracer particles in a polymer gel by performing Brownian dynamics simulations using spherical boundary conditions. The gel network is constructed by randomly distributing tetravalent cross-linking nodes and connecting nearest pairs. The final gel structure is characterised by the radial distribution functions, chain lengths and end-to-end distances, and the pore size distribution. We have looked at the diffusion of tracer particles with a wide range of sizes, diffusing in both static and dynamic networks of two different volume fractions. It is quantitatively shown that the dynamical effect of the network becomes more important in facilitating the diffusional transport for larger particle sizes, and that one obtains a finite diffusion also for particle sizes well above the maximum in the pore size distribution. (paper)

  1. Improvement of Biodesulfurization Rate of Alginate Immobilized Rhodococcus erythropolis R1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikvand, Peyman; Etemadifar, Zahra

    2014-03-01

    Sulfur oxides released from the burning of oil causes severe environmental pollution. The sulfur can be removed via the 4S pathway in biodesulfurization (BDS). Immobilization approaches have been developed to prevent cell contamination of oil during the BDS process. The encapsulation of Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 in calcium alginate beads was studied in order to enhance conversion of dibenzothiophene (DBT) to 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HBP) as the final product. Also the effect of different factors on the BDS process was investigated. Calcium alginate capsules were prepared using peristaltic pumps with different needle sizes to control the beads sizes. Scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry methods were used to study the distribution and viability of encapsulated cells, respectively. Two non-ionic surfactants and also nano Ƴ-Al2O3were used with the ratio of 0.5% (v/v) and 1:5 (v/v) respectively to investigate their BDS efficiency. In addition, the effect of different bead sizes and different concentrations of sodium alginate in BDS activity was studied. The 2% (w/v) sodium alginate beads with 1.5mm size were found to be the optimum for beads stability and efficient 2-HBP production. The viability of encapsulated cells decreased by 12% after 20 h of desulfurization, compared to free cells. Adding the non-ionic surfactants markedly enhanced the rate of BDS, because of increasing mass transfer of DBT to the gel matrix. In addition, Span 80 was more effective than Tween 80. The nanoƳ-Al2O3 particles could increase BDS rate by up to two-folds greater than that of the control beads. The nano Ƴ-Al2O3 can improve the immobilized biocatalyst for excellent efficiency of DBT desulfurization. Also the BDS activity can be enhanced by setting the other explained factors at optimum levels.

  2. Colon-specific delivery of 5-aminosalicylic acid from chitosan-Ca-alginate microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovska, K; Raicki, R S; Janevik, E I; Ristoski, T; Pavlova, M J; Kavrakovski, Z; Dodov, M G; Goracinova, K

    2007-09-05

    Chitosan-Ca-alginate microparticles for colon-specific delivery and controlled release of 5-aminosalicylic acid after peroral administration were prepared using spray drying method followed by ionotropic gelation/polyelectrolyte complexation. Physicochemical characterization pointed to the negatively charged particles with spherical morphology having a mean diameter less than 9 microm. Chitosan was localized dominantly in the particle wall, while for alginate, a homogeneous distribution throughout the particles was observed. (1)H NMR, FTIR, X-ray and DSC studies indicated molecularly dispersed drug within the particles with preserved stability during microencapsulation and in simulated in vivo drug release conditions. In vitro drug release studies carried out in simulated in vivo conditions in respect to pH, enzymatic and salt content confirmed the potential of the particles to release the drug in a controlled manner. The diffusional exponents according to the general exponential release equation indicated anomalous (non-Fickian) transport in 5-ASA release controlled by a polymer relaxation, erosion and degradation. Biodistribution studies of [(131)I]-5-ASA loaded chitosan-Ca-alginate microparticles, carried out within 2 days after peroral administration to Wistar male rats in which TNBS colitis was induced, confirmed the dominant localization of 5-ASA in the colon with low systemic bioavailability.

  3. Biosorption of uranium from wastewater by ZVI-SRB immobilized in calcium alginate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aihe; Zhang Wei; Hu Kaiguang

    2009-01-01

    A ZVI-SRB was immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads,and the immobilized ZVI-SRB was used for removing uranium from wasterwater. The kinetics of uranium biosorption by the immobilized ZVI-SRB and the immobilized SRB was investigated. The results show that the immobilized ZVI-SRB and SRB were effective in removing uranium from wasterwater, and their maximal absorption capacities were up to 312.50 and 256.41 mg/g respectively. The kinetics of uranium biosorption onto the immobilized ZVI-SRB and SRB followed pseudo-second order model. (authors)

  4. Rapid, quantitative analysis of ppm/ppb nicotine using surface-enhanced Raman scattering from polymer-encapsulated Ag nanoparticles (gel-colls).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Steven E J; Sirimuthu, Narayana M S

    2004-11-01

    Rapid, quantitative SERS analysis of nicotine at ppm/ppb levels has been carried out using stable and inexpensive polymer-encapsulated Ag nanoparticles (gel-colls). The strongest nicotine band (1030 cm(-1)) was measured against d(5)-pyridine internal standard (974 cm(-1)) which was introduced during preparation of the stock gel-colls. Calibration plots of I(nic)/I(pyr) against the concentration of nicotine were non-linear but plotting I(nic)/I(pyr) against [nicotine](x)(x = 0.6-0.75, depending on the exact experimental conditions) gave linear calibrations over the range (0.1-10 ppm) with R(2) typically ca. 0.998. The RMS prediction error was found to be 0.10 ppm when the gel-colls were used for quantitative determination of unknown nicotine samples in 1-5 ppm level. The main advantages of the method are that the gel-colls constitute a highly stable and reproducible SERS medium that allows high throughput (50 sample h(-1)) measurements.

  5. Preparation of the polyelectrolyte complex hydrogel of biopolymers via a semi-dissolution acidification sol-gel transition method and its application in solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Chen, Yu; Yao, Ying; Tong, Zong-Rui; Li, Pu-Wang; Yang, Zi-Ming; Jin, Shao-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hydrogels have drawn many attentions as the solid-state electrolytes in flexible solid-state supercapacitors (SCs) recently. Among them, the polyelectrolyte complex hydrogel (PECH) electrolytes of natural polymers are more competitive because of their environmentally friendly property and low cost. However, while mixing two biopolymer solutions with opposite charges, the strong electrostatic interactions between the cationic and anionic biopolymers may result in precipitates instead of hydrogels. Here we report a novel method, semi-dissolution acidification sol-gel transition (SD-A-SGT), for the preparation of the PECH of chitosan (CTS) and sodium alginate (SA), with the controllable sol-gel transition and uniform composition and successfully apply it as the hydrogel electrolyte of solid-state supercapacitors (SCs). The CTS-SA PECH exhibits an extremely high ionic conductivity of 0.051 S·cm-1 and reasonable mechanical properties with a tensile strength of 0.29 MPa and elongation at break of 109.5%. The solid-state SC fabricated with the CTS-SA PECH and conventional polyaniline (PANI) nanowire electrodes provided a high specific capacitance of 234.6 F·g-1 at 5 mV·s-1 and exhibited excellent cycling stability with 95.3% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. Our work may pave a novel avenue to the preparation of biodegradable PECHs of full natural polymers, and promote the development of environmentally friendly electronic devices.

  6. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam

    2015-12-01

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton's law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization.

  7. Preparation of poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) gel electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Zheng [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He Xiangming [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: hexm@tsinghua.edu.cn; Pu Weihua [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wan Chunrong [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang Changyin [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-10-25

    Poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) gel polymer electrolyte was prepared for lithium ion batteries. The preparation started with synthesis of poly(acrylonitrile-butyl acrylate) by radical emulsion polymerization, followed by phase inversion to produce microporous membrane. Then, the microporous gel polymer electrolytes (MGPEs) was prepared with the microporous membrane and LiPF{sub 6} in ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate. The dry microporous membrane showed a fracture strength as high as 18.98 MPa. As-prepared gel polymer electrolytes presented ionic conductivity in excess of 3.0 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at ambient temperature and a decomposition voltage over 6.6 V. The results showed that the as-prepared gel polymer electrolytes were promising materials for Li-ion batteries.

  8. Enhancement of osteoblastic differentiation in alginate gel beads with bioactive octacalcium phosphate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Kosei; Anada, Takahisa; Suzuki, Osamu; Yamada, Masumi; Seki, Minoru; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether alginate (Alg) hydrogel microbeads have a role in maintaining mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and release the cells after being stimulated by synthetic octacalcium phosphate (OCP), which is a mineral crystal capable of stimulating osteoblastic differentiation during a conversion process to hydroxyapatite (HA). The ST-2 cell suspension in the alginate solution, which contained various concentrations of OCP granules with diameters less than 53 μm, was extruded drop-wise into a stirred gelation solution containing BaCl 2 using an encapsulator with nitrogen gas stream. The Alg-microbeads (Alg/OCP · ST-2 microbeads) that were generated, which had a diameter of approximately 400 μm, were incubated for up to 14 d and then assessed for osteoblastic differentiation. Alg-microbeads with cells were also incubated to identify the possible conversion from OCP to HA. Osteoblast differentiation markers in ST-2 cells, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type I, were up-regulated in the presence of higher amounts of OCP. X-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the OCP tended to convert to HA over time, suggesting that the OCP in Alg-microbeads interacts three-dimensionally with ST-2 cells and stimulates its osteoblastic differentiation. The release of ST-2 cells from the microbeads was also estimated. ST-2 cells were identified outside of the microbeads, although the cell number tended to decrease with increasing OCP. These results suggest that Alg/OCP microbeads could be used as a vehicle to activate osteoblastic cells and deliver them to sites where bone regeneration is needed. (paper)

  9. Three-dimensional visualization and measurement of conformal dose distributions using magnetic resonance imaging of bang polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Maryanski, Marek J.; Eastman, Peter; Holcomb, Stephen D.; Yashan, Zhang; Avison, Robin G.; Sanders, Michael; Gore, John C.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The measurement of complex dose distributions (those created by irradiation through multiple beams, multiple sources, or multiple source dwell positions) requires a dosimeter that can integrate the dose during a complete treatment. Integrating dosimeter devices generally are capable of measuring only dose at a point (ion chamber, diode, TLD) or in a plane (film). With increasing use of conformal dose distributions requiring shaped, non coplanar beams, there will be an increased requirement for a dosimeter that can record and display a 3D dose distribution. The use of a 3D dosimeter will be required to confirm the accuracy of treatment plans produced by the current generation of 3D treatment-planning computers. Methods and Materials: The use of a Fricke-infused gel and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the localization of stereotactic beams has been demonstrated (11). The recently developed BANG polymer gel dosimetry system (MGS Research, Inc., Guilford, CT), based on radiation-induced chain polymerization of acrylic monomers dispersed in a tissue-equivalent gel, surpasses the Fricke-gel method by providing accurate, quantitative dose distribution data that do not deteriorate with time (6, 9). The improved BANG2 formulation contains 3% N,N'-methylene-bis acrylamide, 3% acrylic acid, 1% sodium hydroxide, 5% gelatin, and 88% water, where all percentages are by weight. The gel was poured into volumetric flasks, of dimensions comparable to a human head. The gels were irradiated with complex beam arrangements, similar to those used for conformal radiation therapy. Images of the gels were acquired using a Siemens 1.5T imager and a Hahn spin-echo pulse sequence (90 deg. -τ-180 deg. -τ-acquire, for different values of τ). The images were transferred via network to a Macintosh computer for which a data analysis and display program was written. The program calculates R2 maps on the basis of multiple TE images, using a monoexponential

  10. Preparation, Characterization and Properties of Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic acid) Composite Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongrui; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yang; Tong, Li; Chu, Jiamian; Xiao, Kecen; Zhou, Zhiyu; Dong, Wenbo; Chu, Xingwu

    2017-04-11

    Alginate (Alg) is a renewable polymer with excellent hemostatic properties and biocapability and is widely used for hemostatic wound dressing. However, the swelling properties of alginate-based wound dressings need to be promoted to meet the requirements of wider application. Poly( γ -glutamic acid) (PGA) is a natural polymer with high hydrophility. In the current study, novel Alg/PGA composite microparticles with double network structure were prepared by the emulsification/internal gelation method. It was found from the structure characterization that a double network structure was formed in the composite microparticles due to the ion chelation interaction between Ca 2+ and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA and the electrostatic interaction between the secondary amine group of PGA and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA. The swelling behavior of the composite microparticles was significantly improved due to the high hydrophility of PGA. Influences of the preparing conditions on the swelling behavior of the composites were investigated. The porous microparticles could be formed while compositing of PGA. Thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis method. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility test of microparticles exhibited good biocompatibility with L929 cells. All results indicated that such Alg/PGA composite microparticles are a promising candidate in the field of wound dressing for hemostasis or rapid removal of exudates.

  11. Molecular models of alginic acid: Interactions with calcium ions and calcite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Thomas D.; Cygan, Randall T.; Mitchell, Ralph

    2006-07-01

    Cation binding by polysaccharides is observed in many environments and is important for predictive environmental modeling, and numerous industrial and food technology applications. The complexities of these cation-organic interactions are well suited for predictive molecular modeling and the analysis of conformation and configuration of polysaccharides and their influence on cation binding. In this study, alginic acid was chosen as a model polymer system and representative disaccharide and polysaccharide subunits were developed. Molecular dynamics simulation of the torsion angles of the ether linkage between various monomeric subunits identified local and global energy minima for selected disaccharides. The simulations indicate stable disaccharide configurations and a common global energy minimum for all disaccharide models at Φ = 274 ± 7°, Ψ = 227 ± 5°, where Φ and Ψ are the torsion angles about the ether linkage. The ability of disaccharide subunits to bind calcium ions and to associate with the (101¯4) surface of calcite was also investigated. Molecular models of disaccharide interactions with calcite provide binding energy differences for conformations that are related to the proximity and residence densities of the electron-donating moieties with calcium ions on the calcite surface, which are controlled, in part, by the torsion of the ether linkage between monosaccharide units. Dynamically optimized configurations for polymer alginate models with calcium ions were also derived.

  12. Intra-articular Administration of Chitosan Thermosensitive In Situ Hydrogels Combined With Diclofenac Sodium-Loaded Alginate Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaole; Qin, Xiaoxue; Yang, Rong; Qin, Jiayi; Li, Wenyan; Luan, Kun; Wu, Zhenghong; Song, Li

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to prepare fine intra-articular-administrated chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels combined with alginate microspheres and to investigate the possibility of those hydrogels as a drug delivery system for promoting the anti-inflammation effect. Diclofenac sodium containing alginate microspheres was prepared by a modified emulsification and/or gelation method and then dispersed into injectable thermosensitive hydrogels, consisting of chitosan and β-glycerophosphate. The final combined hydrogels were evaluated in terms of their morphology properties, rheological properties, in vitro drug release, and in vivo biocompatibility and pharmacodynamics behaviors. The optimized formulation exhibited sol-gel transition at 31.72 ± 0.42°C and quickly turned into gel within 5 min, with sustained drug release characteristics followed Ritger-Peppas equation, which could prolong the in vitro drug release to 5 days. In addition, the anti-inflammation efficacy of the combined hydrogels in rabbits with experimental rheumatoid arthritis was higher than that of drug solution and pure chitosan hydrogels. Those results demonstrated that these combined hydrogels could become a potential drug delivery system for improving the therapeutic effect of diclofenac sodium and suggested an important technology platform for intra-articular administration. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High power, gel polymer lithium-ion cells with improved low temperature performance for NASA and DoD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Yu, Ji-Sang; Plichta, Edward P.

    2004-01-01

    Both NASA and the U.S. Army have interest in developing secondary energy storage devices that are capable of meeting the demanding performance requirements of aerospace and man-portable applications. In order to meet these demanding requirements, gel-polymer electrolyte-based lithium-ion cells are being actively considered, due to their promise of providing high specific energy and enhanced safety aspects.

  14. Evaluation of Radiation Processed Polymers as Materials for Agricultural Purposes. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Rehim, H. Abd [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-15

    The use of ionizing radiation in the development of natural and synthetic polymers for agricultural purposes has proven to be successful. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate are easily degraded through ionizing radiation which is considered to be a safe, clean, and an environment-friendly method. As a result, different kinds of biologically active fragments possessing growth promotion properties for plant performance and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic microorganisms for food preservation were obtained. Several factors such as preparation conditions, quality of the new materials, safety of the materials especially where the environment is concerned, and economic feasibility and production cost have been studied in its aim to commercialize the products. The required dose for degradation of soluble polysaccharide is relatively low when compared with that of solid polysaccharides. From the economic point of view, the choice to degrade polysaccharide with the use of viscous polysaccharide solutions containing 0.5–1 wt% oxidizing agent such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is necessary to decrease the dose required for degradation in the range of 20–30 kGy. Average molecular weights (MW) as well as molecular weights distributions were accurately determined by using different techniques like gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and viscometer. Large scale field studies of degraded polysaccharide materials as a growth promoter or an elicitor for different crops like wheat, faba bean, zea maze, and other vegetables and fruits (e.g. tomato, hot pepper, and banana crops) have been carried out. It was found that the treatment with low MW alginate of plants such as wheat increased its productivity by 25–30%, improved the quality of the crop, and enhanced the capability of wheat seeds to be used for long-term cultivation. The use of irradiated polysaccharides in stimulating defense reactions against some diseases in some plants was studied. Sodium alginates

  15. Development of pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar

    2011-11-01

    The present study deals with the development of novel pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology by full 3(2) factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TSP) and cross-linker (CaCl(2)) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and drug release from diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads prepared by ionotropic gelation was optimized. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The DEE (%) of these beads containing diclofenac sodium was within the range between 72.23±2.14 and 97.32±4.03% with sustained in vitro drug release (69.08±2.36-96.07±3.54% in 10 h). The in vitro drug release from TSP-alginate composite beads containing diclofenac sodium was followed by controlled-release pattern (zero-order kinetics) with case-II transport mechanism. Particle size range of these beads was 0.71±0.03-1.33±0.04 mm. The swelling and degradation of the developed beads were influenced by different pH of the test medium. The FTIR and NMR analyses confirmed the compatibility of the diclofenac sodium with TSP and sodium alginate used to prepare the diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads. The newly developed TSP-alginate composite beads are suitable for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium for prolonged period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermo-controlled rheology of electro-assembled polyanionic polysaccharide (alginate) and polycationic thermo-sensitive polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Pape Momar; Huang, Zhiwei; Dulong, Virginie; Souguir, Zied; Le Cerf, Didier; Picton, Luc

    2016-03-30

    Several thermo-sensitive polyelectrolyte complexes were prepared by ionic self-association between an anionic polysaccharide (alginate) and a monocationic copolymer (polyether amine, Jeffamine®-M2005) with a 'Low Critical Solubility Temperature' (LCST). We show that electro-association must be established below the aggregation temperature of the free Jeffamine®, after which the organization of the system is controlled by the thermo-association of Jeffamine® that was previously electro-associated with the alginate. Evidence for this comes primarily from the rheology in the semi-dilute region. Electro- and thermo-associative behaviours are optimal at a pH corresponding to maximum ionization of both compounds (around pH 7). High ionic strength could prevent the electro-association. The reversibility of the transition is possible only at temperatures lower than the LCST of Jeffamine®. Similar behaviour has been obtained with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), which suggests that this behaviour can be observed using a range of anionic polyelectrolytes. In contrast, no specific properties have been found for pullulan, which is a neutral polysaccharide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New ethanol and propylene glycol free gel formulations containing a minoxidil-methyl-β-cyclodextrin complex as promising tools for alopecia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopedota, Angela; Cutrignelli, Annalisa; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Lopalco, Antonio; Selva, Stefano; Ragni, Lorella; Tongiani, Serena; Franco, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    New topical totally aqueous formulations that improve the low water solubility of minoxidil and realize an adequate permeability of drug in the skin are proposed. These formulations are lacking in propylene glycol and alcohol that are the principal irritant ingredients present in minoxidil commercial solutions. In order to enhance poor water solubility of minoxidil randomly methyl-β-cyclodextrin was used, and four hydrogels such as, calcium alginate, sodium alginate, carbopol 934 and hydroxyethylcellulose were utilized to ensure a prolonged time of contact with the scalp. The inclusion complex minoxidil/methyl-β-cyclodextrin with a molar ratio 1:1 was obtained by freeze drying and evaluated by NMR, FT-IR and DSC analysis. An apparent stability constant of formed inclusion complex was calculated by phase solubility diagram and its value was 400 M(-1). The solid inclusion complex was used to prepare gel formulations with similar dose to minoxidil commercial solution. The gels were evaluated for various technological parameters including rheological behavior, in vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation through pig skin. The best performance was observed for the calcium alginate formulation.

  18. Investigation of percentage depth dose and dose rate dependence of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter for photon beams using MRI technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadbakht, B.; Hadad, K.; Zahmatkesh, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the investigation of the normoxic Pagan polymer-gel dosimeter percentage depth dose and it's dose rate dependence has been made. Using MRI, the formulation to give the maximum change in the transverse relaxation rate R2 was determined to be 4.5% N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide(bis), 4.5% acrylamide, 5% gelatine, 5 m M tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride, 0.01 m M hydroquinone and 86% HPLC(Water). Irradiation of vials was performed using photon beams of Co-60 therapy unit and an Elec ta linear accelerator. Gel dosimeters were imaged in a Siemens Symphony 1.5 Tesla clinical MRI scanner using a head coil. Post-manufacture irradiation and post imaging times were both selected to be 1 day. For determining the percentage depth dose of the Pagan gel it was found that at the depth of 21 cm, the percentage depth dose for 1.25 MeV γ-ray photons of 60 Co and for 4,6 and 18 MV x-ray photons of Elec ta linear accelerator, are 48%, 52%, 57.3% and 59.73%, respectively. Thus, in the case of the higher energy photon beams, a higher dose can he delivered. to deep-seated tumors. The dose rate dependence of percentage depth dose was studied for 6 MV x-ray photons with the use of dose rates of 80, 160, 240, 320, 400 and 480 c Gy/min. No trend in polymer-gel dosimeter 1/T 2 dependence was found on the mean dose rate and energy for the photon beams.

  19. Fabrication of Collagen Gel Hollow Fibers by Covalent Cross-Linking for Construction of Bioengineering Renal Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Zhang, Guoliang; Wang, Qichen; Meng, Qin

    2015-09-09

    Collagen, the most used natural biomacromolecule, has been extensively utilized to make scaffolds for cell cultures in tissue engineering, but has never been fabricated into the configuration of a hollow fiber (HF) for cell culture due to its poor mechanical properties. In this study, renal tubular cell-laden collagen hollow fiber (Col HF) was fabricated by dissolving sacrificial Ca-alginate cores from collagen shells strengthened by carbodiimide cross-linking. The inner/outer diameters of the Col HF were precisely controlled by the flow rates of core alginate/shell collagen solution in the microfluidic device. As found, the renal tubular cells self-assembled into renal tubules with diameters of 50-200 μm post to the culture in Col HF for 10 days. According to the 3D reconstructed confocal images or HE staining, the renal cells appeared as a tight tubular monolayer on the Col HF inner surface, sustaining more 3D cell morphology than the cell layer on the 2D flat collagen gel surface. Moreover, compared with the cultures in either a Transwell or polymer HF membrane, the renal tubules in Col HF exhibited at least 1-fold higher activity on brush border enzymes of alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltransferase, consistent with their gene expressions. The enhancement occurred similarly on multidrug resistance protein 2 and glucose uptake. Such bioengineered renal tubules in Col HF will present great potential as alternatives to synthetic HF in both clinical use and pharmaceutical investigation.

  20. Optical CT evaluation on normoxic polymer gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, E. James Jebaseelan

    2013-01-01

    Optical computed tomography has been shown to be a potentially useful imaging tool for the radiation therapy physicists. In radiation therapy, researchers have used optical CT for the readout of 3D dosimeters. The purpose of this paper is to explicate the initial evaluation of a newly fabricated laser CT scanner for '3D gel dosimetry' which works in the first generation principle. The normoxic PAGAT (Polyacrylamide Gelatin and Tetrakis) gel is used as a dosimeter for this analysis. When laser passes through this gel phantom, absorption and scattering of photon take place. The optical attenuation coefficient of the laser can be obtained by measuring its intensity after passing through the gel by a sensor.The scanner motion is controlled by the program written in Microsoft Visual C++. Reconstruction and data analysis on the irradiated gel phantom is performed by suitable algorithm using Matlab software. (author)

  1. Multiple-phase behavior and memory effect of polymer gel

    CERN Document Server

    Annaka, M; Nakahira, T; Sugiyama, M; Hara, K; Matsuura, T

    2002-01-01

    A poly(4-acrylamidosalicylic acid) gel (PASA gel) exhibits multiple phases as characterized by distinct degrees of swelling; the gel can take one of four different swelling values, but none of the intermediate values. The gel has remarkable memory: the phase behavior of the gel depends on whether the gel has experienced the most swollen phase or the most collapsed phase in the immediate past. The information is stored and reversibly erased in the form of a macroscopic phase transition behavior. The structure factors corresponding to these four phases were obtained by SANS, which indicated the presence of characteristic structures depending on pH and temperature, particularly in the shrunken state. (orig.)

  2. Papain wound dressings obtained from poly(vinyl alcohol)/calcium alginate blends as new pharmaceutical dosage form: Preparation and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, J A P; Carvalho, S G; Zampirolli, A C D; Daltoé, R D; Teixeira, R M; Careta, F P; Cotrim, M A P; Oréfice, R L; Villanova, J C O

    2017-04-01

    Transparent, soft, flexible, mechanically resistant films, which are ideal for use as wound dressings were prepared in the presence of 2% papain, a proteolytic enzyme that can play a role in the chemical debridement of the skin and can accelerate the healing process. The films, based on poly(vinyl alcohol):calcium alginate blends with increasing concentrations of polysaccharide (10, 20, and 30% v/v), were obtained by casting method. FTIR and DSC analyses were performed to assess the composition and miscibility of blends. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elasticity modulus, and elongation at breakpoint were evaluated. The influence of different concentrations of calcium alginate on physical attributes of films like wettability, swelling capacity and mechanical properties was determined. The stability of papain in the films was assessed indirectly by hemolytic activity assay employing direct contact method and confirmed by technique based on blood agar diffusion. Preliminary cytotoxicity was evaluated with the XTT method. The results showed that at the polymer concentrations tested, the blends were miscible. The increase in the content of the calcium alginate increased the wettability and swelling capacity of the films, which is desirable in wound dressings. On the other hand, mechanical resistance decreased without causing breakage of the films during the swelling tests. The hemolytic activity of the films was maintained during the studied period, suggesting the stability of papain in the proposed formulations. Cellular viability indicated that the films were non-toxic. The analysis of the results showed that it is possible to prepare interactive and bioactive wound dressing containing papain from blends of PVA and calcium alginate polymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular and biopharmaceutical investigation of alginate-inulin synbiotic coencapsulation of probiotic to target the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atia, Abdelbasset; Gomma, Ahmed I; Fliss, Ismail; Beyssac, Eric; Garrait, Ghislain; Subirade, Muriel

    2017-03-01

    Colon targeting, as a site-specific delivery for oral formulation, remains a major challenge, especially for sensitive bioactive components such as therapeutic forms of phages, live attenuated virus and prebiotics-probiotics association. Synbiotics could be used to protect encapsulated probiotics during the gastrointestinal tract and control their release in the colon. To achieve these goals, effective prebiotics, such as inulin, could be combined with alginate - the most exploited polymer used for probiotic encapsulation - in the form of beads. This work aimed to study the biopharmaceutical behaviour of alginate beads (A) and inulin-alginate beads of different inulin concentrations (5 or 20%) in 2% alginate (AI5, AI20). Beads were loaded with three probiotic strains (Pediococcus acidilactici Ul5, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus salivarius). Dissolution of beads was studied by USP4 under conditions simulating the gastrointestinal condition. The survival rates of the bacterial strains were measured by a specific qPCR bacterial count. Mucoadhesiveness of beads was studied by an ex vivo method using intestinal mucosa. To understand the behaviour of each formulation, the ultrastructure of the polymeric network was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Molecular interactions between alginate and inulin were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). Dissolution results suggested that the presence of inulin in beads provided more protection for the tested bacterial strains against the acidic pH. AI5 was the most effective formulation to deliver probiotics to the colon simulation conditions. FTIR and SEM investigations explained the differences in behaviour of each formula. The developed symbiotic form provided a promising matrix for the development of colonic controlled release systems.

  4. Technical Note: Preliminary investigations into the use of a functionalised polymer to reduce diffusion in Fricke gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S. T., E-mail: s164.smith@qut.edu.au; Masters, K.-S.; Hosokawa, K.; Blinco, J. P.; Trapp, J. V. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000 (Australia); Crowe, S. B. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000, Australia and Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Brisbane 4006 (Australia); Kairn, T. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000, Australia and Genesis Cancer Care Queensland, Brisbane 4066 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: A modification of the existing PVA-FX hydrogel has been made to investigate the use of a functionalised polymer in a Fricke gel dosimetry system to decrease Fe{sup 3+} diffusion. Methods: The chelating agent, xylenol orange, was chemically bonded to the gelling agent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to create xylenol orange functionalised PVA (XO-PVA). A gel was created from the XO-PVA (20% w/v) with ferrous sulfate (0.4 mM) and sulfuric acid (50 mM). Results: This resulted in an optical density dose sensitivity of 0.014 Gy{sup −1}, an auto-oxidation rate of 0.0005 h{sup −1}, and a diffusion rate of 0.129 mm{sup 2} h{sup −1}; an 8% reduction compared to the original PVA-FX gel, which in practical terms adds approximately 1 h to the time span between irradiation and accurate read-out. Conclusions: Because this initial method of chemically bonding xylenol orange to polyvinyl alcohol has inherently low conversion, the improvement on existing gel systems is minimal when compared to the drawbacks. More efficient methods of functionalising polyvinyl alcohol with xylenol orange must be developed for this system to gain clinical relevance.

  5. Comparative study of nuclear magnetic resonance and UV-visible spectroscopy dose-response of polymer gel based on N-(Isobutoxymethyl) acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, S.; Basfar, A. A.; Moftah, B.; Al-Moussa, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    A comparative study of nuclear magnetic resonance and UV-visible spectroscopy of dose-response for polymer gel dosimeters was performed. Dosimeters were prepared using N-(Isobutoxymethyl) acrylamide (NIBMA) as a new monomer via radiation induced polymerization for use in radiotherapy planning. The prepared dosimeters were irradiated with doses up to 30 Gy at a constant dose rate of 600 MU/min. Using a medical linear accelerator at irradiation energies of 6, 10 and 18 MV photon beam. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), via spin-spin relaxation rate (R2) for water proton surrounding the polymer formulation and UV-Visible spectroscopy, via the optical absorbance measurements of irradiated dosimeters at selected wavelengths of 500 nm, was used to investigate the dose response of NIBMAGAT gel dosimeters. Scavenge of oxygen was done using tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC). The THPC optimum concentration in the dosimeters formulations were 5 and 10 mM for the NMR and optical absorbance measurements respectively. The quantitative investigation of the dosimeters components reveals the selective formulations based on 4% w/w gelatin, 1% w/w NIBMA, 3% w/w BisAAm, 5 or 10 mM THPC and 17% w/w glycerol which significantly increase the dosimeters dose response. The prepared dosimeters were found to be dose rate and photon beam irradiation energy independent. The stability study shows no change in the relaxation rate or in the optical absorbance of the gel dosimeters up to 8 days post-irradiation. The prepared polymer gel dosimeters at the energies of 6, 10 and 18 MV photon beam irradiation in the range of 1-30 Gy have the linearity of the dose response function in the case of R2 is better than in the case of absorbance measurements; correlation coefficient (r2) equals 0.995 and 0.991, respectively. Dose sensitivity, R2 of NIBMAGAT dosimeters (0.0775 s-1 Gy-1). The absorption band intensity increases linearly with a dose sensitivity of 0.016 cm-1 Gy-1. The

  6. Recent developments in polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Schreiner, L.; Olding, Tim; Holmes, Oliver; McAuley, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Modern radiation therapy particularly with intensity modulation techniques (IMRT) offers the potential to improve patient outcomes by better limiting high doses to the tumour alone. In this presentation we report our progress in developing gel dosimetry with new less toxic dosimeters using a fast commercial optical computed tomography (OCT) scanner. We will demonstrate that these adjustments in the approach to gel dosimetry help facilitate its introduction into clinical use. We will review practical advances in system quality assurance and scatter correction to improve optical CT quantification, and show an example of a clinical implementation of an IGRT treatment validation

  7. Gel polymer electrolyte lithium-ion cells with improved low temperature performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, M.C.; Ratnakumar, B.V.; Behar, A.; Whitcanack, L.D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Yu, J.-S. [LG Chem/Research Park, P.O. Box 61Yu Song, Science Town, Daejon (Korea); Alamgir, M. [Compact Power, Inc., 1857 Technology Drive, Troy, MI 48083 (United States)

    2007-03-20

    For a number of NASA's future planetary and terrestrial applications, high energy density rechargeable lithium batteries that can operate at very low temperature are desired. In the pursuit of developing Li-ion batteries with improved low temperature performance, we have also focused on assessing the viability of using gel polymer systems, due to their desirable form factor and enhanced safety characteristics. In the present study we have evaluated three classes of promising liquid low-temperature electrolytes that have been impregnated into gel polymer electrolyte carbon-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based Li-ion cells (manufactured by LG Chem. Inc.), consisting of: (a) binary EC + EMC mixtures with very low EC-content (10%), (b) quaternary carbonate mixtures with low EC-content (16-20%), and (c) ternary electrolytes with very low EC-content (10%) and high proportions of ester co-solvents (i.e., 80%). These electrolytes have been compared with a baseline formulation (i.e., 1.0 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC + DEC + DMC (1:1:1%, v/v/v), where EC, ethylene carbonate, DEC, diethyl carbonate, and DMC, dimethyl carbonate). We have performed a number of characterization tests on these cells, including: determining the rate capacity as a function of temperature (with preceding charge at room temperature and also at low temperature), the cycle life performance (both 100% DOD and 30% DOD low earth orbit cycling), the pulse capability, and the impedance characteristics at different temperatures. We have obtained excellent performance at low temperatures with ester-based electrolytes, including the demonstration of >80% of the room temperature capacity at -60 C using a C/20 discharge rate with cells containing 1.0 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC + EMC + MB (1:1:8%, v/v/v) (MB, methyl butyrate) and 1.0 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC + EMC + EB (1:1:8%, v/v/v) (EB, ethyl butyrate) electrolytes. In addition, cells containing the ester-based electrolytes were observed to support 5C pulses at -40 C, while still

  8. Storage duration effect on deformation recovery of repacked alginates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manufacturers supply alginate impression materials as a powder that is packaged in bulk and in individual container. Some Indonesian dental suppliers often repackage the bulk alginate into individual plastic packages which are not tied tightly and stored in the display room without air conditioner. It is known that critical factors to the shelf life of alginate includer avoidance of moisture contamination which may lead to premature setting of the alginate and avoidance of high temperature which may cause depolymerization of the alginate. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine storage duration effect of repacked alginates on deformation recovery. Methods: Two brands of alginates (Tulip®TU, and Aroma Fine DF III®AF were repacked into 120 plastic containers. The samples were stored in room condition (temperature 29° C ± 1° C, relative humidity 60% ± 10% for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks. The alginates setting time and recovery from deformation were measured according to the ANSI/ADA specification number 18 (ISO 1563. result: The results revealed that there was decreased setting time during 5 weeks but there was slight decreased in deformation recovery after 3 weeks storage. The ANOVA showed there was no significant difference of alginates deformation recovery among the storage times (p > 0.05. Conclusion: Storage duration of repacked alginates in plastic containers during 5 weeks in room condition do not influence the alginate deformation recovery.

  9. Application of monomer/polymer gel dosimetry to study the effects of tissue inhomogeneities on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergote, Koen; De Deene, Yves; Claus, Filip; De Gersem, Werner; Van Duyse, Bart; Paelinck, Leen; Achten, Eric; De Neve, Wilfried; De Wagter, Carlos

    2003-04-01

    When planning an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment in a heterogeneous region (e.g. the thorax), the dose computation algorithm of a treatment planning system may need to account for these inhomogeneities in order to obtain a reliable prediction of the dose distribution. An accurate dose verification technique such as monomer/polymer gel dosimetry is suggested to verify the outcome of the planning system. The effects of low-density structures: (a) on narrow high-energy (18 MV) photon beams; and (b) on a class-solution IMRT treatment delivered to a thorax phantom have been examined using gel dosimetry. The used phantom contained air cavities that could be filled with water to simulate a homogeneous or heterogeneous configuration. The IMRT treatment for centrally located lung tumors was delivered on both cases, and gel derived dose maps were compared with computations by both the GRATIS and Helax-TMS planning system. Dose rebuildup due to electronic disequilibrium in a narrow photon beam is demonstrated. The gel measurements showed good agreement with diamond detector measurements. Agreement between measured IMRT dose maps and dose computations was demonstrated by several quantitative techniques. An underdosage of the planning target volume (PTV) was revealed. The homogeneity of the phantom had only a minor influence on the dose distribution in the PTV. An expansion of low-level isodoses in the lung volume was predicted by collapsed cone computations in the heterogeneous case. For the class-solution described, the dose in centrally located mediastinal tumors can be computed with sufficient accuracy, even when neglecting the lower lung density. Polymer gel dosimetry proved to be a valuable technique to verify dose calculation algorithms for IMRT in 3D in heterogeneous configurations.

  10. Microencapsulated Aliivibrio fischeri in Alginate Microspheres for Monitoring Heavy Metal Toxicity in Environmental Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Futra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article a luminescence fiber optic biosensor for the microdetection of heavy metal toxicity in waters based on the marine bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri (A. fischeri encapsulated in alginate microspheres is described. Cu(II, Cd(II, Pb(II, Zn(II, Cr(VI, Co(II, Ni(II, Ag(I and Fe(II were selected as sample toxic heavy metal ions for evaluation of the performance of this toxicity microbiosensor. The loss of bioluminescence response from immobilized A. fischeri bacterial cells corresponds to changes in the toxicity levels. The inhibition of the luminescent biosensor response collected at excitation and emission wavelengths of 287 ± 2 nm and 487 ± 2 nm, respectively, was found to be reproducible and repeatable within the relative standard deviation (RSD range of 2.4–5.7% (n = 8. The toxicity biosensor based on alginate micropsheres exhibited a lower limit of detection (LOD for Cu(II (6.40 μg/L, Cd(II (1.56 μg/L, Pb(II (47 μg/L, Ag(I (18 μg/L than Zn(II (320 μg/L, Cr(VI (1,000 μg/L, Co(II (1700 μg/L, Ni(II (2800 μg/L, and Fe(III (3100 μg/L. Such LOD values are lower when compared with other previous reported whole cell toxicity biosensors using agar gel, agarose gel and cellulose membrane biomatrices used for the immobilization of bacterial cells. The A. fischeri bacteria microencapsulated in alginate biopolymer could maintain their metabolic activity for a prolonged period of up to six weeks without any noticeable changes in the bioluminescence response. The bioluminescent biosensor could also be used for the determination of antagonistic toxicity levels for toxicant mixtures. A comparison of the results obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and using the proposed luminescent A. fischeri-based biosensor suggests that the optical toxicity biosensor can be used for quantitative microdetermination of heavy metal toxicity in environmental water samples.

  11. Improvement of Biodesulfurization Rate of Alginate Immobilized Rhodococcus erythropolis R1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikvand, Peyman; Etemadifar, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sulfur oxides released from the burning of oil causes severe environmental pollution. The sulfur can be removed via the 4S pathway in biodesulfurization (BDS). Immobilization approaches have been developed to prevent cell contamination of oil during the BDS process. Objectives: The encapsulation of Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 in calcium alginate beads was studied in order to enhance conversion of dibenzothiophene (DBT) to 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HBP) as the final product. Also the effect of different factors on the BDS process was investigated. Materials and Methods: Calcium alginate capsules were prepared using peristaltic pumps with different needle sizes to control the beads sizes. Scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry methods were used to study the distribution and viability of encapsulated cells, respectively. Two non-ionic surfactants and also nano Ƴ-Al2O3were used with the ratio of 0.5% (v/v) and 1:5 (v/v) respectively to investigate their BDS efficiency. In addition, the effect of different bead sizes and different concentrations of sodium alginate in BDS activity was studied. Results: The 2% (w/v) sodium alginate beads with 1.5mm size were found to be the optimum for beads stability and efficient 2-HBP production. The viability of encapsulated cells decreased by 12% after 20 h of desulfurization, compared to free cells. Adding the non-ionic surfactants markedly enhanced the rate of BDS, because of increasing mass transfer of DBT to the gel matrix. In addition, Span 80 was more effective than Tween 80. The nanoƳ-Al2O3 particles could increase BDS rate by up to two-folds greater than that of the control beads. Conclusions: The nano Ƴ-Al2O3 can improve the immobilized biocatalyst for excellent efficiency of DBT desulfurization. Also the BDS activity can be enhanced by setting the other explained factors at optimum levels. PMID:25147685

  12. Development of alginate gel beads with a potential use in the treatment against acute lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtat, Djamel; Bouaicha, Malika Nawel; Benamer, Samah; Nacer-Khodja, Assia; Mahlous, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    The objective was to develop alginate beads that could adsorb lead ions in gastric pH, in view to preconize their use in gastric lavage following lead poisoning. The swelling measurements of both, dry and hydrated beads, were carried out in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The sorption kinetics was examined at lead concentrations ranging from 50 to 200mg/l. Calcium released during the sorption process was investigated. The swelling rate of the dry beads increased considerably with time increase and reached the equilibrium at 736% after 240min; concerning the hydrated beads, the equilibrium swelling reached 139% after 180min. The adsorption of Pb (II) in SGF by dry beads increased with the increase of time and initial lead concentration. The adsorption kinetics of Pb ions by hydrated alginate beads indicated a rapid binding of Pb ions to the sorbent during the first 15min for all the concentrations, followed by a slow increase until the equilibrium was reached after 90min. The adsorption capacity of Pb ions increased with the increase of the storage time in water at 4°C and with the weight. The amount of Ca 2+ released by the beads increased with the increase of Pb ions a rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of addition of inulin and fenugreek on the survival of microencapsulated Enterococcus durans 39C in alginate-psyllium polymeric blends in simulated digestive system and yogurt

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    Babak Haghshenas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of biopolymers for probiotic microencapsulation has been investigated in this paper. The objectives are to enhance its survival rate, colonic release, and stability of these probiotic cultures in digestive condition during storage time. Nine types of biopolymers (alginate-psyllium blend with different concentration of prebiotic; (inulin or fenugreek were used as candidate for microencapsulation matrix. One strain of probiotic candidates, namely; Enterococcus durans 39C was used in this study. The microencapsulation of this strain with the respective polymer blend was performed by using a simple extrusion method. All blend of formulations have recorded high encapsulation efficiency at value >98%. The survival rate of viable probiotic cells under simulated digestive conditions was also high with value above 47% as compared to non-microencapsulated cells. These nine gel formulations also displayed the high survival rate of viable probiotic cells during storage time (28 d. Their release occurred after 2 h in colonic condition and sustained until 12th h of incubation period. An increase of prebiotic effect value added was observed in incorporated inulin and fenugreek formulations. In short, this study revealed that a new herbal-based psyllium and fenugreek polymers have suitable potential as a matrix for probiotic microencapsulation.

  14. Transformation of metal-organic framework to polymer gel by cross-linking the organic ligands preorganized in metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Takumi; Furukawa, Yuki; Sugikawa, Kouta; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki

    2013-04-10

    Until now, seamless fusion of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalently cross-linked polymer gels (PG) at molecular level has been extremely rare, since these two matters have been regarded as opposite, that is, hard versus soft. In this report, we demonstrate transformation of cubic MOF crystals to PG via inner cross-linking of the organic linkers in the void space of MOF, followed by decomposition of the metal coordination. The obtained PG behaved as a polyelectrolyte gel, indicating the high content of ionic groups inside. Metal ions were well adsorbed in the PG due to its densely packed carboxylate groups. A chimera-type hybrid material consisting of MOF and PG was obtained by partial hydrolysis of resulting cross-linked MOF. The shape of resulting PG network well reflected the crystal structure of MOF employed as a template. Our results will connect the two different network materials that have been ever studied in the two different fields to provide new soft and hard hybrid materials, and the unique copolymerization in the large void space of the MOF will open a new horizon toward "ideal network polymers" never prepared before now.

  15. NATURAL POLYMERS: CELLULOSE, CHITIN, CHITOSAN, GELATIN, STARCH, CARRAGEENAN, XYLAN AND DEXTRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Zohra Benabid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have been investigated for drug fields. They are widely being studied because of their non-toxic and biocompatible in nature. Biopolymers are used in industries as diverse as paper, plastics, food, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.This review covers different natural polymers, recent techniques applied in their processing and characterization. Advanced applications of natural polymers, including chitin, chitosan, alginate, etc., are discussed.

  16. Poly (vinyl alcohol-alginate physically crosslinked hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: Characterization and bio-evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbadawy A. Kamoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PVA-sodium alginate (SA hydrogel membranes containing sodium ampicillin as a topical antibiotic were developed using the freeze–thawing method for wound dressing application. Aqueous solution of sodium alginate has been blended in a certain ratio with PVA, followed by the crosslinking method has been conducted by freeze–thawing method as physical crosslinking instead of the use of traditional chemical crosslinking to avoid riskiness of chemical reagents and crosslinkers. The physicochemical properties of PVA-SA membranes e.g. gel fraction and water uptake % have been performed. Increased SA content with PVA decreased gel fraction, elasticity, and elongation to break of PVA-SA membranes. However, it resulted in an increase in swelling degree, protein adsorption, and roughness of membrane surface. High SA content in PVA membranes had apparently an impact on surface morphology structure of hydrogel membranes. Pore size and pore area distribution have been observed with addition of high SA concentration. However, high SA content had an insignificant effect on the release of ampicillin. The hydrolytic degradation of PVA-SA membranes has prominently increased with increasing SA content. Furthermore, hemolysis (% and in vitro inhibition (% for both Gram positive and negative bacteria have been sharply affected by addition of SA into PVA, indicating the improved blood hemocompatibility. Thus, PVA-SA hydrogel membrane based wound dressing system containing ampicillin could be a good polymeric membrane candidate in wound care.

  17. Gadolinium-loaded gel scintillators for neutron and antineutrino detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Akers, Douglas William; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Paviet, Patricia Denise; Drigert, Mark William

    2016-11-29

    A gadolinium (Gd) loaded scintillation gel (Gd-ScintGel) compound allows for neutron and gamma-ray detection. The unique gel scintillator encompasses some of the best features of both liquid and solid scintillators, yet without many of the disadvantages associated therewith. Preferably, the gel scintillator is a water soluble Gd-DTPA compound and water soluble fluorophores such as: CdSe/ZnS (or ZnS) quantum dot (Q-dot) nanoparticles, coumarin derivatives 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid, and Alexa Fluor 350 as well as a carbostyril compound, carbostyril 124 in a stable water-based gel, such as methylcellulose or polyacrylamide polymers. The Gd-loaded ScintGel allows for a homogenious distribution of the Gd-DTPA and the fluorophores, and yields clean fluorescent emission peaks. A moderator, such as deuterium or a water-based clear polymer, can be incorporated in the Gd-ScintGel. The gel scintillators can be used in compact detectors, including neutron and antineutrino detectors.

  18. Molecular structure effects on the post irradiation diffusion in polymer gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattea, F.; Romero, M.; Strumia, M. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal / CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Vedelago, J. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Quiroga, A. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Matematica / CONICET, Oficina 318 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Valente, M., E-mail: fmattea@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisica E. Gaviola / CONICET, LIIFAMIRx, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Polymer gel dosimeters have specific advantages for recording 3D radiation dose distribution representing a key factor for most of the therapeutic and diagnostic radiation techniques. Radiation-induced polymerization and crosslinking reactions that take place in the dosimeter have been studied for different monomers like acrylamide and N,N-methylene-bis acrylamide (Bis) and most recently for less toxic monomers like N-isopropylacrylamide and Bis. In this work a novel system based on itaconic acid and Bis is proposed, the radical polymerization or gel formation of these monomers has been already studied for the formation of an hydrogel for non dosimetric applications and their reactivity are comparable with the already mentioned systems. Although the 3D structure is maintained after the dosimeter has been irradiated, it is not possible to eliminate the diffusion of the reacted and monomer species in regions of dose gradients within the gel after irradiation. As a consequence the dose information of the dosimeters loose quality over time. The mobility within the gelatin structure of the already mentioned species is related to their chemical structure, and nature. In this work the effect of changes in the chemical structure of the monomers over the dosimetric sensitivity and over the post-irradiation diffusion of species is studied. One of the acrylic acid groups of the itaconic acid molecule is modified to obtain molecules with similar reactivity but different molecular sizes. Dosimetric systems with these modified species, Bis, an antioxidant to avoid oxygen polymerization inhibition, water and gelatin are irradiated in an X-ray tomography at different doses, and the resulting dosimeters are characterized by Raman spectroscopy and optical absorbance to study their feasibility and capabilities as dosimetric systems, and by optical-CT to analyze the diffusion degree after being irradiated. (Author)