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Sample records for algerian organizations

  1. Lithofacies prediction from well log data using a multilayer perceptron (MLP) and Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) - a case study from the Algerian Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadfeul, S.-A.; Aliouane, L.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a combination of supervised and unsupervised leanings is used for lithofacies classification from well log data. The main idea consists of enhancing the multilayer perceptron (MLP) learning by the output of the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network. Application to real data of two wells located the Algerian Sahara clearly shows that the lithofacies model built by the neural combination is able to give better results than a self-organizing map.

  2. Behavior of some organic pollutants in the waters of Meboudja's plain (North - East Algerian)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassane, Amina; Kherici, Nacer; Bouguerra, Hamza; Haouli, Zouina

    2016-07-01

    Meboudja's plain is a huge surface and groundwater reservoir in terms of amount and quality. Currently this region is facing various pollution problems, the present study conducted allowed the identification of factors responsible for water resources degradation and assessment of aquifers by organic pollutantsand determining the water quality, for each pointby the mostdowngradingparameter. In a contaminated aquifer site located along the river Meboudja (Annaba, Algeria). Chemical analysis of water (ground and surface) were performed, to measure the dissolved oxygen (O2), and detect the concentration (NO3), (NO2), (NH4) and (BOD5). The intensive use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture as well as disorganized water resources, exploitation has worsen the environmental situation. Chemical analyzes on water samples taken were conducted, the results show that: water quality in the study area was considerably deteriorated in recent years. According to the WHO standard World Health Organization and the results of selected parameters, it is estimated that the water quality of the area in question,classified mainly, in poor and very poor quality,due to uncontrolled industrial discharges. Moreover, the quality between, good and very good in some sites, such as drilling is explained by the depth of the water table. The results confirm what has been written before about the area, now it would be better to approach the part relating to pollution because, the situation has reached threshold of no return.

  3. First Algerian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, both the Algerian Commissariat of New Energies and the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission plus the firm INVAP S.E., started a series of mutual visits aimed at defining the mechanisms for cooperation in the nuclear field. Within this framework, a commercial contract was undersigned covering the supply of a low-power reactor (RUN), designed for basic and applied research in the fields of reactor physics and nuclear engineering. The reactor may also be used for performing experiences with neutron beams, for the irradiation of several materials and for the training of technicians, scientists and operators

  4. An Algerian Minister visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Algerian Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Rachid Haraoubia, visited CERN on 14 November. His party included the Rector of the University of Blida and the Director of the Algerian Ecole Nationale Polytechnique. Welcomed by CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, and Secretary-General, Maximilien Metzger, he signed the VIP Visitors' Book before going on to visit the ATLAS experiment and the LHC tunnel. He then had the opportunity to meet Algerian scientists working at CERN. Some fifteen Algerian physicists attached to European and US institutes are participating in the LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS. A formal collaboration agreement between Algeria and CERN is expected to be drawn up in the near future.

  5. Melissopalynological Characterization of North Algerian Honeys

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Nair; Boumedienne Meddah; Abdelkader Aoues

    2013-01-01

    A pollen analysis of Algerian honey was conducted on a total of 10 honey samples. The samples were prepared using the methodology described by Louveaux et al., that was then further adapted by Ohe et al. The samples were subsequently observed using light microscopy. A total of 36 pollen taxa were discovered and could be identified in the analyzed honey samples. Seventy percent of the studied samples belonged to the group ofmonofloral honeys represented by Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus vulgaris,...

  6. Evaluation of the Algerian photovoltaic market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Algerian energy sector will certainly face a crisis this century with the gradual diminution of oil and gas reserves estimated at 4.2 billion Toe (Tons of oil equivalent), which can last for only a few decades at today's production levels. In the meantime the population and its energy needs will have doubled. This situation is complicated by the fact that the energy sector is Algeria's major source of revenue, and finances the national economy at a level of 66%. Many decision-makers now agree that time has come to implement a new energy policy, based on energy diversification, and to set up new mechanisms. The Algerian energy sector is still dominated by hydrocarbons, and has promoted a major effort to reach a mean national electrification rate of 96%. Nevertheless, the remaining zones are very isolated and widespread. The conventional electrification solutions or grid extensions are no longer economically viable. The recourse to renewable energies in general and PV solar energy in particular has become a reality. This source represents a good alternative for 85% of Algerian territory, which is composed of arid and semi-arid zones, characterized by low population density and limited energy needs. These regions represent a strategic alternative in order to reverse the population migration and to encourage a new migration to the south, since northern Algeria is less and less welcoming (high population density, unemployment, shrinkage of agricultural land, inflation). In this paper we try to evaluate the potential of the Algerian PV market in order to inform decision-makers and future investors. To this end, and after identifying the PV solar energy segments, we attempt to estimate them under different scenarios. (Author)

  7. PREFACE: 1st Franco-Algerian Workshop on Neutrino Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebarki, N.; Mimouni, J.; Vanucci, F.; Aissaoui, H.

    2015-04-01

    The first Franco-Algerian workshop on neutrino physics was held on 22-23 October 2013 at the University of Mentouri, Constantine, Algeria. It was jointly organized by the Laboratory of Mathematical and Subatomic Physics (LPMS) and the Direction of Scientific Research (DGRSTD) for the Algerian side, and for the French part by the IN2P3, CNRS and CEA IRFU. It is one of a series of international scientific meetings organized every two years by the LPMS at Constantine on high energy physics (theoretical, nuclear physics, classical and quantum cosmology, astrophysics, mathematical physics and quantum computing etc...) to maintain a high quality in scientific research and education at Algerian universities. This specific meeting brought together experts in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology from France and Algeria. It touched upon several theoretical, phenomenological as well as experimental aspects of the neutrinos. The workshop participants were mostly young researchers from many universities and research institutes in Algeria. The physics of neutrinos is a very active field in particle physics, hence the importance for the High Energy community in Algeria to gain expertise in this ''strategic'' area at the intersection of various topics in theoretical physics and high energy astrophysics (SM physics, CP violation, in general, SNe explosions, baryogenesis...). The neutrino proposed by Pauli back in 1930 as a ''desperate remedy'' to save the law of energy conservation in beta decay had a bright early history. Discovered in 1956 in the Cowan-Reines experiment despite all odds, this elusive particle which enabled us to understand the chiral nature of the weak interactions which later lead to the electro-weak unification finally appears to hold a key role in understanding subatomic physics as well as the structure and structuration of the Universe. It is also, after the discovery of the Higgs particle at the LHC in 2012, the only grey area left today in the

  8. Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghrib: Algerian Challenge or Global Threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Filiu, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, established in January 2007, is the latest in a long line of Algerian jihadi groups. Like many terrorist organizations, AQIM enjoys global media exposure on activist Internet sites, but unlike other al-Qaeda franchises, it has managed to maintain its indigenous leadership. The group has become known for fearsome suicide attacks, which were previously unheard of in Algeria, but has failed to incorporate the jihadi outfi ts from neighboring Morocco and Tunisia. ...

  9. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Algerian Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Hua Gan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4. Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg, flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg, ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg, AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg, protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90 contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18 and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants.

  10. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ibrahim; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boukraâ, Laïd; Benhanifia, Mokhtar; Islam, Asiful; Islam, Nazmul; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg), flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg), ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg), AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg), protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg) and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90) contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18) and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II)/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants. PMID:22996344

  11. Performance of Algerian SME: evaluation by the FDH approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nabil BELOUARD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to apply the nonparametric frontier analysis to evaluate the performance of the Algerian private SMS. The interest of a good measure of firm performance is to have a good reference (benchmark. For that, it seems important and useful to present an appropriate approach to construct the Benchmarking, and to illustrate it through an application upon a sample of Algerian SMS’s in order to evaluate suitably their performance.

  12. Performance of Algerian SME: evaluation by the FDH approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Nabil BELOUARD

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to apply the nonparametric frontier analysis to evaluate the performance of the Algerian private SMS. The interest of a good measure of firm performance is to have a good reference (benchmark). For that, it seems important and useful to present an appropriate approach to construct the Benchmarking, and to illustrate it through an application upon a sample of Algerian SMS’s in order to evaluate suitably their performance.

  13. Melissopalynological Characterization of North Algerian Honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Nair

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A pollen analysis of Algerian honey was conducted on a total of 10 honey samples. The samples were prepared using the methodology described by Louveaux et al., that was then further adapted by Ohe et al. The samples were subsequently observed using light microscopy. A total of 36 pollen taxa were discovered and could be identified in the analyzed honey samples. Seventy percent of the studied samples belonged to the group ofmonofloral honeys represented by Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus vulgaris, Citrus sp. and Lavandula angustifolia. Multifloral honeys comprised 30% of the honey samples, with pollen grains of Lavandula stoechas (28.49% standing out as the most prevalent. Based on cluster analysis, two different groups of honey were observed according to different pollen types found in the samples. The identified pollen spectrum of honey confirmed their botanical origin.

  14. Analysis Algerian's Gallstones with Infrared Spectrum and Methods of Prevention and Treatment for Cholelithiasis in Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the type of Algerian's gallstones and put forward relative measures of prevention and treatment, The NICOLET 170SX FT-IR spectrometer was used to measure the infra-red spectrum and analyze the feature of spectrum of Algerian's gallstones. The results shown that Algerian have cholesterol gallstones. Reasons to form Algerian's multiple cholesterol gallstones were investigated. We have put forward five suggestions to prevent and treat cholelithiasis.

  15. An Algerian dialect: Study and Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salima Harrat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arabic is the official language overall Arab coun-tries, it is used for official speech, news-papers, public adminis-tration and school. In Parallel, for everyday communication, non-official talks, songs and movies, Arab people use their dialects which are inspired from Standard Arabic and differ from one Arabic country to another. These linguistic phenomenon is called disglossia, a situation in which two distinct varieties of a language are spoken within the same speech community. It is observed Throughout all Arab countries, standard Arabic widely written but not used in everyday conversation, dialect widely spoken in everyday life but almost never written. Thus, in NLP area, a lot of works have been dedicated for written Arabic. In contrast, Arabic dialects at a near time were not studied enough. Interest for them is recent. First work for these dialects began in the last decade for middle-east ones. Dialects of the Maghreb are just beginning to be studied. Compared to written Arabic, dialects are under-resourced languages which suffer from lack of NLP resources despite their large use. We deal in this paper with Arabic Algerian dialect a non-resourced language for which no known resource is available to date. We present a first linguistic study introducing its most important features and we describe the resources that we created from scratch for this dialect.

  16. Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deba, Tahria; Calafell, Francesc; Benhamamouch, Soraya; Comas, David

    2015-01-01

    The demographic history of human populations in North Africa has been characterized by complex processes of admixture and isolation that have modeled its current gene pool. Diverse genetic ancestral components with different origins (autochthonous, European, Middle Eastern, and sub-Saharan) and genetic heterogeneity in the region have been described. In this complex genetic landscape, Algeria, the largest country in Africa, has been poorly covered, with most of the studies using a single Algerian sample. In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been analyzed in several Berber- and Arab-speaking groups. Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow. In addition, we have found that external sources of gene flow into North Africa have been carried more often by females than males, while the North African autochthonous component is more frequent in paternally transmitted genome regions. Our results highlight the different demographic history revealed by different markers and urge to be cautious when deriving general conclusions from partial genomic information or from single samples as representatives of the total population of a region. PMID:26402429

  17. COL2A1 Mutation in Spondylometaphyseal Dysplasia Algerian Type

    OpenAIRE

    Matsubayashi, S; Ikema, M.; Ninomiya, Y.; Yamaguchi, K; Ikegawa, S.; Nishimura, G

    2013-01-01

    Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia Algerian type (SMD-A) is an autosomal dominant disorder that was first reported in an Algerian family by Kozlowski et al. [Pediatr Radiol 1988;18:221-226]. Kozlowski's group reported a sporadic case in a 12-year-old Polish boy. They proposed SMD-A as a distinctive skeletal dysplasia and also suggested that a case of SMD reported by Schmidt et al. [J Pediatr 1963;63:106-112] might have had the same disorder. Afterwards, however, no additional report has emerged to...

  18. Algerian Jewish Sign language: its emergence and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Lanesman, Sara

    2016-01-01

    "This book is concerned with Algerian Jewish Sign Language (AJSL) and the Algerian Jewish Sign Language community. AJSL developed naturally in the Jewish quarter of Ghardaia, a town in the sub-Saharan part of Algeria. A high percentage of deaf people lived in this quarter, and because of that a sign language emerged, and was used by both deaf and hearing members of the community. Many members of the AJSL community migrated to Israel in the middle of the twentieth century, where they have cont...

  19. A new type of spondylo-metaphyseal dysplasia - Algerian type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new, dominantly inherited, severe form of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia in five members of an Algerian family is reported. Another child, not investigated, was also probably affected. The disease is characterised by a unique clinical and radiological set of features: dwarfism, genu valgum deformity, progressive kypho-scoliosis, wrist deformity, myopia and severe metaphyseal dysplasia, with moderate spinal changes and minimal changes in the hands and feet. In view of the geographical localisation of the disorder and the anatomical distribution we propose the name Algerian type of spondylo-metaphyseal dysplasia. (orig.)

  20. Algerian renewable energy assessment: The challenge of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algeria plays a very important role in world energy markets, both as a significant hydrocarbon producer and as an exporter, as well as a key participant in the renewable energy market. Due to its geographical location, Algeria holds one of the highest solar potentials in the world. This paper presents a review of the present renewable energy situation and assesses present and future potential of renewable energy sources (RESs) in Algeria. This paper also discusses the trends and expectation in solar systems applications and the aspects of future implementation of renewable energies in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region status. The problem related to the use of RES and polices to enhance the use of these sources are also analysed in this paper. In addition the available capacity building, the technical know-how for each RES technology and localizing manufacturing of renewable energy equipments are defined. The co-importance of both policy and technology investments for the future Algerian markets of RES and competitiveness of the solar/wind approach is emphasized. Some examples of policy significantly impacting Algerian markets are reviewed, and the intention of the new Algerian RES initiative is discussed.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Organophilic Montmorillonite (12-maghnite Using Algerian Clay

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    Djamal Eddine Kherroub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain an organophilic montmorillonite with Algerian modified clay (termed 12-maghnite. The organic surfactant used in this preparation is 12-aminolauric acid. The functionalization of the organophilic clay was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (IR. The obtained organoclay was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD which shows a remarkable increase of the basal distance that reaches up to 17.62 Å. The transmission electron microscopy analysis (TEM supports fully the result obtained by XRD analysis. The novelty of this work is the exploitation of local clay that is widely available, inexpensive and has excellent properties and high quality features, which make it the subject of continuing research. These results will be a starting point and an essential reference for a comparative study, with the results of future works concerning the synthesis of Polymer/12-Maghnite nanocomposites.

  2. Tissues and hair residues and histopathology in wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and Algerian mice (Mus spretus Lataste) from an abandoned mine area (Southeast Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data gathered in this study suggested the exposure of rats and Algerian mice, living in an abandoned mining area, to a mixture of heavy metals. Although similar histopathological features were recorded in the liver and spleen of both species, the Algerian mouse has proved to be the strongest bioaccumulator species. Hair was considered to be a good biological material to monitor environmental contamination of Cr in rats. Significant positive associations were found between the levels of this element in hair/kidney (r = 0.826, n = 9, p < 0.01) and hair/liver (r = 0.697, n = 9, p = 0.037). Although no association was found between the levels of As recorded in the hair and in the organs, the levels of this element recorded in the hair, of both species, were significantly higher in animals captured in the mining area, which met the data from the organs analysed. Nevertheless, more studies will be needed to reduce uncertainty about cause-effect relationships. - The bioaccumulation of As and Cd and signs of renal histopathological injury proved the value of Algerian mice as a bioindicator species in the risk assessment of contaminated sites

  3. Genetic diversity in Algerian sheep breeds, using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two breeds - Ouled-Djellal and Hamra (85 animals) - were genotyped for 12 microsatellites using PCR and sequencing. Allele number and frequency were calculated, and 141 different alleles were found for these microsatellites, reflecting high genetic variability within these breeds. This study is being extended to other Algerian breeds to estimate variability and genetic distances between them. In parallel, blood samples from the various breeds are being collected to build up a DNA bank. The results should support establishment of a strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)

  4. Religion and Diasporic Dwelling: Algerian Muslim Women in Ireland

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    Yafa Shanneik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will look at the different conceptions of ‘home’ as narrated by Algerian Muslim women living in Ireland. It explores the dynamic processes of their self-identification(s and their different forms of (recreation of diasporic home(s influenced by their religious, cultural, social and economic environment. I will use Thomas A. Tweed’s notion of ‘crossing and dwelling’ to analyse these essentialized identity constructions that become manifest in Tweed’s four ‘chronotopes’: the gendered body, the domestic home, the imagined homeland and the transnational and global cosmos. The conscious or unconscious negotiations and implications for belonging to a specific identity or community that can be observed among Algerian women in Ireland will be examined, together with the different pre- and post-migratory social, political and religious factors that influence such negotiations. This ethnographic study is the first of its kind and fills a gap in the study of Muslim migrants in Europe.

  5. TOWARD A MINOR THEATRE: MYRIAM BEN’S ALGERIAN ANTIGONE

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    Kelley, Caroline

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I read Myriam Ben’s Leïla, poème scénique en deux actes et un prologueas a reinterpretation of Sophocles’ Antigone. I contend that this blend of Algerian theatre, history and Greek tragedy yields a variety of ‘minor theatre’ that sets out to undermine established dramaturgical structures and prevailing historical narratives about the Algerian Revolution (1954-1962. Working in the outline of a canonical work, the playwright decentres the classic tragedyby way of a thought-provoking technical adaptation while, at the same time, refuting the fictions shrouding the events of the liberation struggle, the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN and, especially, the military overthrow of President Ahmed Ben Bella by his Defence Minister Houari Boumediene in 1965. Despite the specificity of its context, however, the allegorical nature of the play allows for a sense of universality. While its milieu is undoubtedly post-revolution Algeria, the story it communicates might take place in any country past or present –dictatorships not being limited to North Africa.

  6. The political awakening of Algerian society through revolts, submission, assimilation and nationalism.1830-1936

    OpenAIRE

    Gheziel, Abla

    2015-01-01

    The political awakening of Algerian society through revolts, submission, assimilation and nationalism.1830-1936. More than fifteen years after his independence, Algerian colonial history is and stills always a painful and sensitive subject for the two sides of the Mediterranean Sea. As the French colonial expansion took place, members of society of former regency of Algiers see their way of living changing. And, this in function of reforms and measures of colonial administration which drive a...

  7. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS ON ALGERIAN ECONOMY

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    Zeyneb GUELLIL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Economic Crisis and 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s , The financial crisis, brewing for a while, really started to show its effects in the middle of 2007 and into 2008. It is a situation where macro indicator like economic growth rate fall in most countries across the world. “Although economists largely failed to predict this global economic seismic shock, they have since made up for their oversight by generating a large and growing literature explaining the crisis.” In this discussion paper explores what happened and what issues arise from the Global Financial Crisis on the global economy and the Algerian economic in particular.

  8. Hydrodynamic framework of eastern Algerian Sahara: influence on hydrocarbon occurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarelli, A.

    1978-04-01

    Patterns of water, pressure, salinity, and chemical content within a basin can give much useful information for oil exploration. In the eastern Algerian Sahara a substantial increase in exploration efficiency has been achieved by combining regional hydrodynamic studies with classic geologic and geophysical studies. This prolific area shows a wide variety of hydrodynamic phenomena. Two distinct areas, each with its own ''style,'' are present. (1) The northeast Sahara basin roughly coincides with the limit of Triassic salt occurrence and reservoir beds are sealed both vertically and laterally under abnormally high pressure. No flushing has taken place. The chemical characteristics of underground water are uniform within the basin. (2) The southern Sahara basin coincides with the Illizi sedimentary basin. Slightly saline water moves hydrodynamically from the outcrop toward the central part of the basin. Hydrodynamic studies are of value here in defining the most prospective zone, in understanding the oil entrapment mechanism, and in facilitating correlations between different reservoirs.

  9. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution on the Algerian west coast using caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

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    Jean-Claude Amiard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An active biomonitoring study was carried out on the Algerian west coast using wild reference mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from the Kristel (K site and transplanted in net cages during one month (between May and June 2007 to Oran Harbour (OH and Mostaganem Harbour (MH, areas characterised by high levels of urban and industrial pollution. The biological response of the mussels was evaluated by their condition index and the use of a general stress biomarker (evaluation of lysosomal membrane stability: the neutral red retention time (NRRT method, a genotoxic effects biomarker (determination of micronuclei (MN frequency and a neurotoxic effects biomarker (determination of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE concentration.       Compared to the K reference specimens, OH and MH caged mussels presented a significant decrease of NRRT in lysosomal haemocytes (56.45 ± 26.48 min and 67.25 ± 22.77 min, respectively (78 ± 16.97 min for K mussels, an MN frequency respectively 7.3 and 9 times higher in the haemocytes and the gill cells of the OH caged mussels, and 7.2 and 6.4 times higher in the two tissues of the MH caged mussels. Significant inhibition of AChE activity was noted in the gills (16.93 ± 3.1 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 and the digestive gland (7.69 ± 1.79 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the OH mussels, but only in the gills (23.21 ± 5.94 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the MH mussels, compared to the organs of the K control specimens (35.9 ± 6.4 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the gills and 11.17 ± 0.49 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the digestive gland.       This study reflects the interest in such in situ biomonitoring assays and the utility of these biomarkers for assessing the effects of pollution in the Algerian coastal marine environment.

  10. Monitoring the biological effects of pollution on the Algerian west coast using mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

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    Zoheïr M. Taleb

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Algerian west coast is the prime recipient of several forms of pollution; hence, the necessity for an impact assessment ofthis coastal pollution using a suite of recommended marine biomarkers, including lysosomal membrane stability in living cells by the Neutral Red Retention Time (NRRT method, the evaluation of micronucleus (MN frequency, and the determination ofacetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, sampled from the large, polluted Oran Harbour (OH and the Maârouf (Mrf marine mussel farm between July 2005 and April 2006. The difference in the variations of the annual physical parameters between OH and Mrf corresponds to the influence of the domestic and industrial sewage discharged by the city of Oran. The biological data of the mussels (condition index, protein content recorded at both sites were related to their natural reproductive cycle. This indicated that intrinsic variation between the sites due to different mussel development phases was minimal. The variation in the AChE activity of some organs of OH and Mrf mussels, with minimal inhibition in July and a higher NRRT recorded in the granular haemocytes in the Mrf than in the OH mussels during the autumn and spring, depends on the quality of the biotope and on generic stress factors. Moreover, the variation in MN frequency, in general reflecting a non-significant seasonal and spatial genotoxic effect of the contamination at the two sampling sites, requires further investigations regarding biotic and abiotic variations.

  11. Contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Germline Mutations to Early Algerian Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henouda, Sarra; Bensalem, Assia; Reggad, Rym; Serrar, Nedda; Rouabah, Leila; Pujol, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy and the leading cancer mortality cause among Algerian women. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in patients with early-onset breast cancer have not been clearly identified within the Algerian population. It is necessary to study the BRCA1/2 genes involvement in the Algerian breast cancer occurrence. We performed this study to define germline mutations in BRCA1/2 and their implication in breast cancer among young women from eastern Algeria diagnosed or treated with primary invasive breast cancer at the age of 40 or less who were referred to Anti-Cancer Center of Setif, Algeria. Case series were unselected for family history. Eight distinct pathogenic mutations were identified in eight unrelated families. Three deleterious mutations and one large genomic rearrangement involving deletion of exon 2 were found in BRCA1 gene. In addition, four mutations within the BRCA2 gene and one large genomic rearrangement were identified. Novel mutation was found among Algerian population. Moreover, five variants of uncertain clinical significance and favor polymorphisms were identified. Our data suggest that BRCA1/2 mutations are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer in Algerian young women. PMID:26997744

  12. Geodetic Network Analysis of three Algerian periodic GPS campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlouche, Salem; Djelabi, Brahim; Touam, Said

    2013-04-01

    An important geodynamical activity characterises northern Algeria, which is formed by a chain of mountains constituted of the Tell Atlas. This chain of mountains which includes the Eurasia-Africa plate boundary, is the site of an intense tectonic activity characterized by strong earthquakes, often catastrophic: El Asnam (1954, Ms 6.7; 1980, Ms 7.3), Oran (1959, Ms 5.5), Ain Témouchent (1999, Ms 5.9), Boumerdes (2003, Ms 6.8), etc.. In order to understand the geodynamics of this region, several works using geodetic networks are performed since 1980 (terrestrial network at the El Asnam Fault). In 1998, the Algerian institution (Centre of Space Techniques / CTS, National Institute of Cartography /INCT) started the ALGEONET (Algerian Geodynamical Network) project where three GPS observing campaigns were performed during June 1998 , May 2001 and June 2005, on more than six sites. The use of the data collected on the IGS permanent stations located in southern Europe and non permanent stations located in the inner Algeria, provided some preliminary results, processed with the Gamit/GlobK software, about the behaviour of the deformation activity on the area. The results of Gamit are the coordinates adjustments and the variance-covariance matrices (in Q,H-files) which used forward by GlobK to obtain the time series, the combined positions and velocities of the stations based on Kalman filtering. For the data validation, the 9.7 mm of the rms of the phase raw data are caused by a water vapour and/or multipath effects on the measurements. The values mean normalised (nrms) on one day are satisfied as they oscillate between 0.15 to 0.20 mm. In general, for all the stations of the network, we obtained a better value of the repeatability on the planimetric components (N,E) than the altimetric one (H) . For the first time, we can evaluate the quality of our results, by analysing the values of the posterior standard deviation. The velocities of the stations are about 7 to 12 mm

  13. Rentierism in the Algerian economy based on oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machin Alvarez, Alejandra [Grupo de Investigacion sobre Economia Politica de la Mundializacion, Departamento de Economia Aplicada I, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Campus de Somosaguas, 28223 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This essay analyzes Algeria's degree of adaptation toward possessing the constituent features of an oil and gas rentier economy, and whether its current status could be threatened by changes to its energy policy. With this aim, the article first uses empirical evidence to analyze different rentier features of the Algerian economy (the importance of the hydrocarbon sector, Algerian NOC Sonatrach's role in energy policy and revenue distribution). Second, the circuit that perpetuates rentier logic is described, the main conclusion being that the Algerian economy does indeed offer the very conditions that guarantee the self-perpetuation of rentierism. However, this conclusion is jeopardized by uncertainties stemming from two potential changes in the national status of the hydrocarbons sector: a greater presence of foreign hydrocarbon companies in Algeria, and growing internationalization by Sonatrach. (author)

  14. Rentierism in the Algerian economy based on oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This essay analyzes Algeria's degree of adaptation toward possessing the constituent features of an oil and gas rentier economy, and whether its current status could be threatened by changes to its energy policy. With this aim, the article first uses empirical evidence to analyze different rentier features of the Algerian economy (the importance of the hydrocarbon sector, Algerian NOC Sonatrach's role in energy policy and revenue distribution). Second, the circuit that perpetuates rentier logic is described, the main conclusion being that the Algerian economy does indeed offer the very conditions that guarantee the self-perpetuation of rentierism. However, this conclusion is jeopardized by uncertainties stemming from two potential changes in the national status of the hydrocarbons sector: a greater presence of foreign hydrocarbon companies in Algeria, and growing internationalization by Sonatrach.

  15. Interpretation results of the western Algerian Atlas Megaregional Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagne, A.J.; Smith, N.G. [CGG American Services, Houston, TX (United States); Gouri, A. [Sonatrach, Boumerdes (Algeria)

    1995-08-01

    The International Megaregional Project is a worldwide project involving the compilation and interpretation of long regional seismic lines which cross several basins with the same transect. The goal of the project is to synthesize the current geologic knowledge of the areas traversed and to identify new areas of exploration interest. The international Megaregional framework which has been established serves as a focus for the geologic efforts and seismic data compilation. This project is conducted with the cooperation of a consortium of multinational oil companies as well as Sonatrach and CGG. Megaregional lines can provide new insights into: (1) what is and is not basement, (2) maturation history and migration pathways, (3) regional structure, and (4) regional stratigraphy. The lines can thereby lead to the development of new exploration concepts. The poster session discusses the interpretation of a seismic segment that traverses the Saharan Atlas, Hauts Plateaux, Telagh Basin, Cheliff Basin and terminates in the deep Mediterranean. The line shows the complex history of the area and varying thicknesses of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. After the Hercynian Orogeny, during the Triassic, crust was extended and thinned slightly. During the Jurassic and Cretaceous, salt flowage resulted in the formation of pillows and extensional faults. This was locally followed by tectonic overprinting in the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic (Alpine Orogeny). Although the tectonic history of the area is complex, selected parts of the western Algerian Atlas may be prospective.

  16. Rigorous geometrical modeling of ALSAT-2A Algerian satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerch, Issam; Hadied, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Redouane; Takarli, Bachir; Hasni, Kamel

    2012-09-01

    The use of the national very high resolution space system Alsat-2A is a primordial task having a significant technological and economical interest assuring the strengthening autonomy in terms of availability and coverage in the satellite data. Also it allows us to improve and update the base and thematic mapping throughout the national territory. Firstly, the characteristics of ALSAT-2A are presented, namely the images and the imaging system with a brief history of ALSAT program. Secondly, as a prerequisite, knowing the internal parameters is essentials to modelize the geometry of such imaging system. From metadata given by the images distributor and ground control points, several test are described and the results are presented. The test data are supplied by ASAL (Algerian Space Agency), the first dataset comprise a panchromatic image over the region of El Bayadh in the North West of Algeria equipped with nine GPS surveyed points. The second dataset is an along track stereoscopic panchromatic 1A level images over the town of sevilla in the south of Spain with 24 GCPs. Finally, a discussion on obtained results is dressed showing the geometric capability of ALSAT-2A.

  17. Remembering Bodies: Gender, Race, and Nationality in the French-Algerian War

    OpenAIRE

    Quinan, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation interrogates images and narratives of the body during the French-Algerian War, an eight-year conflict that began in 1954 and ended with Algerian independence in 1962. Moving between Algeria and France in my analyses and considering documents from the period in question and from later years that reflect back on it, I analyze literary works, films, memoirs, and a legal case in order to consider how physical violence and trauma produce a variety of forms of psychological and c...

  18. New type of spondylo-metaphyseal dysplasia - Algerian type. Report of five cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Bacha, L.; Massen, R.; Ayati, M.; Sator, S.; Brahimi, L.

    1988-04-01

    A new, dominantly inherited, severe form of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia in five members of an Algerian family is reported. Another child, not investigated, was also probably affected. The disease is characterised by a unique clinical and radiological set of features: dwarfism, genu valgum deformity, progressive kypho-scoliosis, wrist deformity, myopia and severe metaphyseal dysplasia, with moderate spinal changes and minimal changes in the hands and feet. In view of the geographical localisation of the disorder and the anatomical distribution we propose the name Algerian type of spondylo-metaphyseal dysplasia.

  19. Clinical and biological observations on seven accidentally irradiated algerian persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On may 5th 1978 an Ir 192 source of 15 Curies for gammagraphy set in a pencil-like holder fell from a truck on the road from Algiers to Setif. It was found 2 or 3 days later by two young boys 3 and 7 years old (AEK and RAB). They handled this bright metallic object for some hours. Later their Grandmother (Mrs ARA, 47 years old) took the source away from them, brought it into their house and hid it in the kitchen. The Iridium source remained for 6 weeks in this room where 5 persons were irradiated depending on various conditions of time, posture and dose rate. Two young female patients DJA (22 years old) and FMA (20 years old and pregnant) regularly frequented the working area of the kitchen at a distance of between 0.80 and 1.50 meters from the source which delivered a dose rate in the range of 8 Roentgen/hour at one meter. The exposure was estimated to be 6 to 8 hours daily. Two girls, FAH (17 years old) and NOU (19 years old) usually spent several hours in the kitchen doing their homework. After 4 weeks, the pregnant woman FMA suffered a malaise and decided to leave the house and go to another house. From this time on the two younger girls replaced FMA in the kitchen and were irradiated from 6 to 8 hours daily. Moreover, Mrs ARA, the Grandmother, came frequently into the kitchen and often leaned against the shelf where the source had been hidden and was thus often very close to it. The Algerian authorities looked actively for the missing and finally located it on June 12, 38 days after it had been lost. On June 14th, the seven injured persons were evacuated from Algiers to Paris where they were taken to the Curie Foundation Hospital (Dr. Jammet)

  20. Plutonium Isotopes Concentration in Seawater along the Algerian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benkrid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Atomic Energy Agency has organised in the framework of the regional project RAF/7/004, in collaboration with “Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique” (COMENA and “Institut des Sciences de la Mer et de l'Aménagement du Littoral” (ISMAL, during August 2001, a scientific campaign along the Algerian coast, on board of the research vessel M.S. Benyahia of ISMAL is. Three stations, at the centre, east and west, were selected to collect five seawater samples for each water column reaching a maximum depth of 2000 m, using a stainless-steel water sampler of a volume of 250 litres. After recording the marine environment parameters (temperature and conductivity, seawater samples were conditioned and preconcentrated to precipitate plutonium isotopes using MnCl2 in the form of MnO2 in order to proceed to plutonium extraction by radiochemical separation and prepare the source by coprecipitation using neodymium fluoride (NdF3 by vacuum filtration and an evaluation of the activity by alpha spectrometry. Concentration results in units of μBq/l of plutonium isotopes were obtained in the range of 6.7±1.00 to 25.5±3.70 for P239+240u and 0.21±0.04 to 0.77±0.15 for P238u. Distribution of Pu through the plot of its profile was studied and the concentration was estimated. The obtained results were compared toC137s and those found by other authors in the same Mediterranean area.

  1. The Algerian Seismic Network: Performance from data quality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelles, Abdelkarim; Allili, Toufik; Alili, Azouaou

    2013-04-01

    densify the network and to enhance performance of the Algerian Digital Seismic Network.

  2. Co-infection with Multiple Respiratory Pathogens Contributes to Increased Mortality Rates in Algerian Poultry Flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sid, Hicham; Benachour, Karine; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory infections are a common cause for increased mortality rates in poultry worldwide. To improve intervention strategies, circulating pathogens have to be identified and further characterized. Because of the lack of diagnostic tools, it was not known what pathogens contribute to the high mortality rates in association with respiratory disease in Algeria. Our objective was to determine if primary pathogens including Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), known to be present in neighboring countries, can also be detected in Algerian chicken and turkey flocks. Results demonstrate the circulation of the investigated pathogens in Algerian poultry flocks as multi-infections. Phylogenetic characterization of the Algerian IBV strains confirmed the circulation of nephropathogenic viruses that are different from the strains isolated in neighboring countries. This could suggest the existence of a new IBV genotype in North Africa. Additionally, we detected for the first time an aMPV subtype B field strain and avian influenza virus. Interestingly, all viral pathogens were present in co-infections with MG, which could exacerbate clinical disease. Additional pathogens may be present and should be investigated in the future. Our results suggest that multiple respiratory infections may be responsible for high mortality in Algerian poultry flocks and very probably also in other regions of the world, which demonstrates the need for the establishment of more comprehensive control strategies. PMID:26478165

  3. Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Smaltz, 1814) (Crustacea: Branchiura) parasitic on Algerian fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdane, Zouhir; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2012-04-01

    Eighteen female specimens of Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Smaltz, 1814) were recently collected from the Algerian coast. As until now this species was poorly described, this contribution redescribes this species with more precise drawings on the general morphology and appendages, using this fresh material. For the first time, two new hosts are identified. Host specificity and some ecological data are also reported. PMID:21987102

  4. THE EFFECT OF TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE – CASE STUDY OF 5 ALGERIAN BANKING INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bousbia Brahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine what managers thought about the organizational results performed by utilizing different leadership styles in a part of the banking sector in Algeria. A quantitative survey instrument was designed to analyze their opinions. Quantitative survey instrument design was adopted as the most cost efficient for this research. Convenience sampling method was utilized. As far as the research time frame was concerned, it was performed in a cross-sectional manner, in the summer of 2014. Out of 174 sent out surveys, the responses were collected from 132 surveyed individuals. The survey was the main instrument for data collection and it was designed in a “5 - point Likert’s scale”, in addition to descriptive statistics questions. The collected data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The analysis of variance (ANOVA was utilized as the tool of inferential statistics in order to determine differences in leadership between multiple groups of respondents, by age groups and mployment within the organization. The research was conducted to see how efficiently and effectively managers used available human and other material and financial resources to satisfy customers and achieve organizational goals. The paper investigated the impact of transactional leadership style on employees’ performance in Algerian banks. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationship between transactional leadership style and employees performance, The recommendation was made that managers adopt leadership style(s, such as transformational and Level 5 leadership that will enable them to successfully integrate and maximize available resources within the internal and external environment for attainment of organizational goals.

  5. Anticyclonic eddy energy and pathways in the Algerian basin (1993-2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessini, Federica; Perilli, Angelo; Olita, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The Algero-Provençal basin plays a key role in the circulation of the entire Mediterranean Sea. Consequently, in the past its hydrodynamics has been intensively studied with infrared and colour satellite imagery, moorings, surface drifters and altimetry observations. The basin is divided into two sub-basins by the North Balearic front, a thermal front characterized by a high seasonal variability: the Provençal sub-basin in the north and the Algerian sub-basin in the south. The Algerian basin is dominated by mesoscale phenomena, especially anti-cyclonic eddies. The Algerian current becomes unstable and meanders; often giving rise to mesoscale eddies of both signs. The anti-cyclonic eddies (hereafter Algerian Eddies or AEs) can grow rapidly in horizontal and vertical extension. They can also detach from the Algerian slope and circulate for several months within the sub-basin, while the cyclonic ones quickly disappear. In spite of its limited dimensions, the Algerian sub-basin can contain as many as three long-life AEs, which can interact with each other and with sub-basin dynamics. In spite of the current body of research, a study on the tracking, energy and interaction of these long-life eddies in time and space is still lacking. In order to fill this gap, we applied the automated eddy detection and tracking method created by Penven (2005), which reveals the complex movements and dynamics of eddies in the Algerian sub-basin. The Penven algorithm combines the detection of the largest closed contours in SSH (Sea Surface Height) with a positive value of the relevant Okubo-Weiss parameter. The latter has already been successfully used in the Algerian Basin by Isern-Fontanet et al. (2003). The eddy-tracking algorithm is based on the minimization of a general distance that takes into account the difference in coordinates, radius, vorticity, mean height and amplitude between eddies of consecutive temporal steps. The code was modified and adapted in order to optimize its

  6. Characteristics and use of grey literature in scientific journals articles of Algerian researchers: Case study of University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene (Physics, Chemistry and computer sciences)

    OpenAIRE

    Chalabi, Lydia (CERIST); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines grey literature in research articles of Algerian teachers-researchers across the STM(Physics, Chemistry & Computer science) sciences at Algerian University of Science and Technology "USTHB". Each of these disciplines is respectively high ranked according to the report of Algerian general directorate of scientific research and technological development about Top emerged disciplines in Algeria. The purpose of the study is to reports the important and use of electronic resour...

  7. Seismic vulnerability: theory and application to Algerian buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebarki, Ahmed; Boukri, Mehdi; Laribi, Abderrahmane; Farsi, Mohammed; Belazougui, Mohamed; Kharchi, Fattoum

    2014-04-01

    results to the observed damages. For pre-earthquake analysis, the methodology widely used around the world relies on the prior calibration of the seismic response of the structures under given expected scenarios. As the structural response is governed by the constitutive materials and structural typology as well as the seismic input and soil conditions, the damage prediction depends intimately on the accuracy of the so-called fragility curve and response spectrum established for each type of structure (RC framed structures, confined or unconfined masonry, etc.) and soil (hard rock, soft soil, etc.). In the present study, the adaptation to Algerian buildings concerns the specific soil conditions as well as the structural dynamic response. The theoretical prediction of the expected damages is helpful for the calibration of the methodology. Thousands (˜3,700) of real structures and the damages caused by the earthquake (Algeria, Boumerdes: Mw = 6.8, May 21, 2003) are considered for the a posteriori calibration and validation process. The theoretical predictions show the importance of the elastic response spectrum, the local soil conditions, and the structural typology. Although the observed and predicted categories of damage are close, it appears that the existing form used for the visual damage inspection would still require further improvements, in order to allow easy evaluation and identification of the damage level. These methods coupled to databases, and GIS tools could be helpful for the local and technical authorities during the post-earthquake evaluation process: real time information on the damage extent at urban or regional scales as well as the extent of losses and the required resources for reconstruction, evacuation, strengthening, etc.

  8. A Sociolinguistic Study of Communication and Language Barriers in Algerian Health Care Settings

    OpenAIRE

    khadidja, belaskri

    2014-01-01

    In medicine, a satisfactory medical care depends upon effective communication between patients and health providers. Ineffective communication can result in wrong diagnosis and delayed or unsuitable medical treatment. It is assumed that poor communication reduces the healthcare quality and causes anger and a lack of trust among patients. The main purpose of this study is to examine language use in the Algerian healthcare settings where a multilingual situation is prevailing. It reports on ...

  9. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Zineb Benmechernene; Hanane Fatma Chentouf; Bellil Yahia; Ghazi Fatima; Marcos Quintela-Baluja; Pilar Calo-Mata; Jorge Barros-Velázquez

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as le...

  10. Optimal Power Flow of the Algerian Electrical Network using an Ant Colony Optimization Method

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek BOUKTIR; Linda SLIMANI

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF) problem of a power system via an Ant Colony Optimization Meta-heuristic method. The objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of thermal generating units and also conserve an acceptable system performance in terms of limits on generator real and reactive power outputs, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors, transformers tap-setting and power flow of transmission lines. Simulation results on the Algerian Electrical Network show that...

  11. Pulsed excimer laser radiation influences in vitro culture of Algerian ivy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of gamma rays and X rays with in vitro cultures has been used to isolate unique plant types (Chevreau et al., 1989). Exposure of in vitro cultures to gamma and X-ray radiation has resulted in the mutagenesis of grape (Kim et al., 1989) and reduced regeneration of maize lants (Moustafa et al., 1989). Our study was initiated to find an alternative method for the elimination of biological contaminants from in vitro cultures of Algerian ivy (Hedera canariensis L.)

  12. Effect of Algerian Varieties Dates on Glycemic, Arterial Blood Pressure and Satiety Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Gourchala Freha, Mihoub Fatma, Derradj Meriem, Henchiri Cherifa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to determine the Glycemic Indexes (GIs)of three Algerians varieties of dates in healthy subjects, evaluate the satiety and effect on arterial pressure after their consumption. We have first documented the chemical composition of the dates. 10 healthy subjects consumed the dates (carbohydrates content of 50 g) in order to determine the GIs. The responses of glycaemia were monitored during two hours after the dates taking and compared to the reference glucose. In a r...

  13. Response of Bone Resorption Markers to Aristolochia longa Intake by Algerian Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bachir Benarba; Boumedienne Meddah; Aicha Tir Touil

    2014-01-01

    Aristolochia longa is widely used in traditional medicine in Algeria to treat breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of bone resorption markers to A. longa intake by Algerian breast cancer postmenopausal women. According to the A. longa intake, breast cancer patients were grouped into A. longa group (Al) (n = 54) and non-A. longa group (non-Al) (n = 24). 32 women constituted the control group. Bone resorption markers (from urine) pyridinoline (PYD) and deo...

  14. Flavonoid profile, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of different extracts from Algerian Rhamnus alaternus L. bark

    OpenAIRE

    Soulef Boussahel; Antonio Speciale; Saliha Dahamna; Yacine Amar; Irene Bonaccorsi; Francesco Cacciola; Francesco Cimino; Paola Donato; Guido Ferlazzo; Daoud Harzallah; Mariateresa Cristani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rhamnus alaternus (Rhamnaceae) L. has been traditionally used for treatment of many diseases. Objective: In this study, we determined the antioxidant/free radical scavenger properties, the flavonoid profile and the cytotoxicity of aqueous and methanolic extracts obtained by maceration from Algerian R. alaternus bark, like also of aqueous extract prepared by decoction according to the traditional method. This to estimate the usefulness of the drug traditional preparation and compar...

  15. Polyphenolic fraction of Algerian propolis protects rat kidney against acute oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin

    OpenAIRE

    Boutabet, K.; Kebsa, W.; Alyane, M.; Lahouel, M.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of propolis extract on renal oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin throughout an analytical and pharmacological study of the eastern Algerian propolis using thin layer chromatography, ultra-violet-high-performance liquid chromatography) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The pharmacological study was carried out in vivo on Wistar rat pre-treated with propolis extract 100 mg/kg/day for seven days. Doxorubicin at 10 mg/kg of body weight was administered intrave...

  16. Natural infection of Algerian hedgehog, Atelerix algirus (Lereboullet 1842) with Leishmania parasites in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemkhi, Jomaa; Souguir, Hejer; Ali, Insaf Bel Hadj; Driss, Mehdi; Guizani, Ikram; Guerbouj, Souheila

    2015-10-01

    In Tunisia, Leishmania parasites are responsible of visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania infantum species while three cutaneous disease forms are documented: chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania killicki, sporadic cutaneous form (SCL) caused by L. infantum and the predominant zoonotic cutaneous leishmanaisis (ZCL) due to Leishmania major. ZCL reservoirs are rodents of the Psammomys and Meriones genera, while for SCL the dog is supposed to be a reservoir. Ctenodactylus gundii is involved in the transmission of L. killicki. However, other mammals could constitute potential reservoir hosts in Tunisia and other North African countries. In order to explore the role of hedgehogs as potential reservoirs of leishmaniasis, specimens (N=6) were captured during July-November period in 2011-2013 in an SCL endemic area in El Kef region, North-Western Tunisia. Using morphological characteristics, all specimens were described and measured. Biopsies from liver, heart, kidney and spleen of each animal were used to extract genomic DNA, which was further used in PCR assays to assess the presence of Leishmania parasites. Different PCRs targeting kinetoplast minicircles, ITS1, mini-exon genes and a repetitive Leishmania- specific sequence, were applied. To further identify Leishmania species involved, RFLP analysis of amplified fragments was performed with appropriate restriction enzymes. Using morphological characters, animals were identified as North African hedgehogs, also called Algerian hedgehogs, that belong to the Erinaceidae family, genus Atelerix Pomel 1848, and species algirus (Lereboullet, 1842). PCR results showed in total that all specimens were Leishmania infected, with different organs incriminated, mainly liver and spleen. Results were confirmed by direct sequencing of amplified fragments. Species identification showed that all specimens were infected with L. major, three of which were additionally co-infected with L. infantum. The present study

  17. Tectonic inheritance and Pliocene-Pleistocene inversion of the Algerian margin around Algiers: Insights from multibeam and seismic reflection data

    OpenAIRE

    Strzerzynski, P.; Déverchère, J.; Cattaneo, A.; Domzig, A.; Yelles, K.; B. Mercier de Lépinay; Babonneau, N.; Boudiaf, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Algerian margin has originated from the opening of the Algerian basin about 25-30 Ma ago. The central margin provides evidence for large-scale normal faults of Oligo-Miocene age, whereas transcurrent tectonics characterizes the western margin. A set of NW-SE oriented dextral transform faults was active during basin opening and divided the 600 km long central margin into segments of similar to 120-150 km. The upper Miocene, Plio-Quaternary, and present-day tectonic setting is, however, com...

  18. Recent Inversion, Seismic Potential, and Neogene Kinematics of the Algerian Margin (Western Mediterranean) from Offshore Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverchere, J.; Yelles, K.; Bracene, R.; Mercier de Lepinay, B. F.; Cattaneo, A.; Medaouri, M.; Gaullier, V.; Babonneau, N.; Ratzov, G.; Boudiaf, A.; Graindorge, D.; Kherroubi, A.; Strzerzynski, P. H.; Authemayou, C.; Djellit, H.; Heddar, A.; Maradja'03; Maradja-Samra'05 Scientific Teams

    2011-12-01

    The reasons to study the Algerian margin (Western Mediterranean) are at least threefold: (1) the seismic hazard offshore is obviously present but unconstrained, (2) the way the opening of the Algerian basin occurred is highly debated, and (3) this margin represents one of the rare examples on Earth of an ongoing subduction inception. We present an overview of recent findings on the tectonic evolution of this margin, where most of the plate convergence between Africa and Europe is taken up today, mostly from cruises MARADJA and MARADJA2/SAMRA led by joint Algerian and French teams. Large, overlapping active thrust faults and folds apparently dominate the seismotectonic pattern from the Atlas domain on land to the foot of the margin offshore, with a clear segmentation. Strain is distributed across the whole area, with a significant part of the relative plate convergence taken up offshore. Fault activity offshore is tenuous and most often indirect (Plio-Quaternary growth strata, folds, uplifted basins, scars and slope breaks). Along the eastern margin, faults form stepwise, en-échelon systems on the slope and in the deep basin. Some thrusts identified turn to fault-propagation folds at the sub-surface. Thrusts interact with the sediment flux, Messinian salt and seafloor currents, forming complex structures at deep-sea fans and scarps or scars on the main slope breaks. The 2003 Mw 6.9 Boumerdes rupture is correlated segmented cumulative scarps on the slope and at the foot of the margin. Using various VHR seismic reflection and coring analyses, we show that the record of turbidite deposition since ca. 10.000 yrs can be identified and correlated over long distances within or across large segments of the margin affected by the 1954, 1980 and 2003 events. The consequences in term of earthquake size and recovery of their recurrences (identification of paleo-events) are explored and discussed. Although we cannot associate the triggering of large turbidity currents to a

  19. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from inpatients with infected diabetic foot ulcers in an Algerian University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djahmi, N; Messad, N; Nedjai, S; Moussaoui, A; Mazouz, D; Richard, J-L; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen cultured from diabetic foot infection (DFI). The consequence of its spread to soft tissue and bony structures is a major causal factor for lower-limb amputation. The objective of the study was to explore ecological data and epidemiological characteristics of S. aureus strains isolated from DFI in an Algerian hospital setting. Patients were included if they were admitted for DFI in the Department of Diabetology at the Annaba University Hospital from April 2011 to March 2012. Ulcers were classified according to the Infectious Diseases Society of America/International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot classification system. All S. aureus isolates were analysed. Using oligonucleotide arrays, S. aureus resistance and virulence genes were determined and each isolate was affiliated to a clonal complex. Among the 128 patients, 277 strains were isolated from 183 samples (1.51 isolate per sample). Aerobic Gram-negative bacilli were the most common isolated organisms (54.9% of all isolates). The study of ecological data highlighted the extremely high rate of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) (58.5% of all isolates). The situation was especially striking for S. aureus [(85.9% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)], Klebsiella pneumonia (83.8%) and Escherichia coli (60%). Among the S. aureus isolates, 82.2% of MRSA belonged to ST239, one of the most worldwide disseminated clones. Ten strains (13.7%) belonged to the European clone PVL+ ST80. ermA, aacA-aphD, aphA, tetM, fosB, sek, seq, lukDE, fnbB, cap8 and agr group 1 genes were significantly associated with MRSA strains (p <0.01). The study shows for the first time the alarming prevalence of MDROs in DFI in Algeria. PMID:23521557

  20. Processing Code-Switching in Algerian Bilinguals: Effects of Language Use and Semantic Expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheder, Souad; Kaan, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Using a cross-modal naming paradigm this study investigated the effect of sentence constraint and language use on the expectancy of a language switch during listening comprehension. Sixty-five Algerian bilinguals who habitually code-switch between Algerian Arabic and French (AA-FR) but not between Standard Arabic and French (SA-FR) listened to sentence fragments and named a visually presented French target NP out loud. Participants' speech onset times were recorded. The sentence context was either highly semantically constraining toward the French NP or not. The language of the sentence context was either in Algerian Arabic or in Standard Arabic, but the target NP was always in French, thus creating two code-switching contexts: a typical and recurrent code-switching context (AA-FR) and a non-typical code-switching context (SA-FR). Results revealed a semantic constraint effect indicating that the French switches were easier to process in the high compared to the low-constraint context. In addition, the effect size of semantic constraint was significant in the more typical code-switching context (AA-FR) suggesting that language use influences the processing of switching between languages. The effect of semantic constraint was also modulated by code-switching habits and the proficiency of L2 French. Semantic constraint was reduced in bilinguals who frequently code-switch and in bilinguals with high proficiency in French. Results are discussed with regards to the bilingual interactive activation model (Dijkstra and Van Heuven, 2002) and the control process model of code-switching (Green and Wei, 2014). PMID:26973559

  1. Temporal assessment of wind energy resource at four locations in Algerian Sahara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Work: wind energy assessment at four locations in Algerian Sahara with reactualization of wind data (last decade). • Annual, seasonal and monthly wind energy efficiency extractable for wind energy conversion system of 600 kW rated capacity. • Regions situated in extreme south of Algeria are windiest. • The better wind energy potential is given in hottest months in Summer and Spring. - Abstract: This paper presents a statistical analysis of wind characteristics of four locations situated in Algerian Sahara, namely Bordj Badji Mokhtar, Djanet, Illizi and Tamanrasset, using Weibull distribution function on wind speed data at 10 m height collected in the last decade by the Algerian Meteorological Office. The monthly, seasonal and annual variations were examined by statistical analyses, while wind speeds at 50 m were assessed by extrapolating the 2-parameter Weibull using the power law. It is shown that Bordj Badji Mokhtar has the highest wind potential with the annual mean wind speed Vm = 5 m/s. The average monthly mean wind speed variation ranged from 2.54 m/s at Tamanrasset to 4.94 m/s at Bordj Badji Mokhtar, while the minimum seasonal mean wind speed is recorded at Djanet with 2.65 m/s and the maximum is found to be 5.79 m/s at Bordj Badji Mokhtar. Annual wind power density ranged from 48 W/m2 at Tamanrasset to 204 W/m2 at Bordj Badji Mokhtar is recorded. Weibull parameters k and A together were estimated and compared with the variation of air temperature for the respective locations. Results indicate that wind speed is most important and most uniform in hottest periods. Additionally, the analysis of energy efficiency for wind turbine of 600 kW rated capacity was made for calculating electricity generation and capacity factor for all periods

  2. Processing Code-Switching in Algerian Bilinguals: Effects of Language Use and Semantic Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheder, Souad; Kaan, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Using a cross-modal naming paradigm this study investigated the effect of sentence constraint and language use on the expectancy of a language switch during listening comprehension. Sixty-five Algerian bilinguals who habitually code-switch between Algerian Arabic and French (AA-FR) but not between Standard Arabic and French (SA-FR) listened to sentence fragments and named a visually presented French target NP out loud. Participants’ speech onset times were recorded. The sentence context was either highly semantically constraining toward the French NP or not. The language of the sentence context was either in Algerian Arabic or in Standard Arabic, but the target NP was always in French, thus creating two code-switching contexts: a typical and recurrent code-switching context (AA-FR) and a non-typical code-switching context (SA-FR). Results revealed a semantic constraint effect indicating that the French switches were easier to process in the high compared to the low-constraint context. In addition, the effect size of semantic constraint was significant in the more typical code-switching context (AA-FR) suggesting that language use influences the processing of switching between languages. The effect of semantic constraint was also modulated by code-switching habits and the proficiency of L2 French. Semantic constraint was reduced in bilinguals who frequently code-switch and in bilinguals with high proficiency in French. Results are discussed with regards to the bilingual interactive activation model (Dijkstra and Van Heuven, 2002) and the control process model of code-switching (Green and Wei, 2014). PMID:26973559

  3. BRCA1 mutations in Algerian breast cancer patients: high frequency in young, sporadic cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Uhrhammer, Amina Abdelouahab, Laurence Lafarge, Viviane Feillel, Ahmed Ben Dib, Yves-Jean Bignon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer rates and median age of onset differ between Western Europe and North Africa. In Western populations, 5 to 10 % of breast cancer cases can be attributed to major genetic factors such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, while this attribution is not yet well defined among Africans. To help determine the contribution of BRCA1 mutations to breast cancer in a North African population, we analysed genomic DNA from breast cancer cases ascertained in Algiers. Both familial cases (at least three breast cancers in the same familial branch, or two with one bilateral or diagnosed before age 40 and sporadic cases less than 38 years of age were studied. Complete sequencing plus quantitative analysis of the BRCA1 gene was performed. 9.8 % (5/51 of early-onset sporadic and 36.4 % (4/11 of familial cases were found to be associated with BRCA1 mutations. This is in contrast 10.3 % of French HBOC families exhibiting a BRCA1 mutation. One mutation, c.798_799delTT, was observed in two Algerian families and in two families from Tunisia, suggesting a North African founder allele. Algerian non-BRCA1 tumors were of significantly higher grade than French non-BRCA tumors, and the age at diagnosis for Algerian familial cases was much younger than that for French non-BRCA familial cases. In conclusion, we observed a much higher frequency of BRCA1 mutations among young breast cancer patients than observed in Europe, suggesting biological differences and that the inclusion criterea for analysis in Western Europe may not be applicable for the Northern African population.

  4. Complete genome sequence and description of Lactococcus garvieae M14 isolated from Algerian fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moumene

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe using a polyphasic approach that combines proteomic by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF analysis, genomic data and phenotypic characterization the features of Lactococcus garvieae strain M14 newly isolated from the fermented milk (known as raib of an Algerian cow. The 2 188 835 bp containing genome sequence displays a metabolic capacity to form acid fermentation that is very useful for industrial applications and encodes for two bacteriocins responsible for its eventual bioprotective properties.

  5. Optimal Power Flow of the Algerian Electrical Network using an Ant Colony Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek BOUKTIR

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF problem of a power system via an Ant Colony Optimization Meta-heuristic method. The objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of thermal generating units and also conserve an acceptable system performance in terms of limits on generator real and reactive power outputs, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors, transformers tap-setting and power flow of transmission lines. Simulation results on the Algerian Electrical Network show that the Ant Colony Optimization method converges quickly to the global optimum.

  6. Characterization and performances of an Algerian diatomite-based gas chromatography support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjadj-Aoul, O. [Departement Genie-Chimique, Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Avenue Pasteur, El-Harrach, Alger (Algeria)]. E-mail: Ouassini_ha@yahoo.fr; Belabbes, R. [Departement Genie-Chimique, Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Avenue Pasteur, El-Harrach, Alger (Algeria); Belkadi, M. [Centre de Recherche et Developpement (CRD), Sonatrach, Avenue du 1er Novembre, Boumerdes (Algeria)]. E-mail: belkadi_mu@yahoo.fr; Guermouche, M.H. [Laboratoire de Chromatographie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Alger (Algeria)]. E-mail: hguermouche@voila.fr

    2005-02-15

    A sample of an Algerian diatomite is characterized and treated in order to use it as gas chromatographic solid column support. This sample has been characterized by various analytical methods such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic absorption and emission spectrometries and mercury porosimetry. Tests of separation of various hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures have been performed. Results show that the prepared supports have similar performances than those of commercial products. On the other hand, enrichment process does not show any significant increase in the support quality.

  7. Characterization and performances of an Algerian diatomite-based gas chromatography support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample of an Algerian diatomite is characterized and treated in order to use it as gas chromatographic solid column support. This sample has been characterized by various analytical methods such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic absorption and emission spectrometries and mercury porosimetry. Tests of separation of various hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures have been performed. Results show that the prepared supports have similar performances than those of commercial products. On the other hand, enrichment process does not show any significant increase in the support quality

  8. Removal of natural uranium from water produced in the oil industry using Algerian bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch sorption experiments have been carried out to remove natural uranium (NORM) from water obtained together with crude oil and natural gas, using Algerian bentonites. The effect of some important factors such as S/L ratio, pH, initial concentration, particle size was evaluated and a kinetic study performed. The value of the distribution coefficient (Kd) at equilibrium for natural uranium varied from 30 to 600 cm3 x g-1 and 50 to 1100 cm3 x g-1 (∼ 10% margin error) using natural bentonite and drilling bentonite, respectively. The isotherms showed that the data are consistent with both Freundlich and Langmuir models. (author)

  9. Mass-transport deposits on the Algerian margin (Algiers area) : morphology, lithology and sedimentary processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dan, Gabriela; Sultan, Nabil; Cattaneo, Antonio; Déverchère, Jacques; Yelles, Karim

    2009-01-01

    On 21st May 2003, a damaging earthquake of Mw: 6.9 struck the region of Boumerdès 40 km east of Algiers in northern Algeria. The seismic shocks had devastating effects in the offshore area between the cities of Algiers and Dellys, where numerous cable breaks were observed. The submarine area encompassing the 2003 Boumerdès epicenter (central Algerian margin) was recently investigated using geophysical and sampling tools. It has been observed that small-size slides and mass-transport deposits ...

  10. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

    OpenAIRE

    Allaf, Karim S.; Farid Chemat; Baya Berka-Zougali; Aicha Hassani; Mohamed-Amine Ferhat

    2012-01-01

    Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed...

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Four Algerian Plants: Cistus ladaniferus, Crataegus oxyacantha, Lavandula stoechas and Smyrnium olusatrum

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMEDI, Z.; ATIK, F.

    2011-01-01

    The crude extracts of four Algerian plants were screened for their antioxidant properties using free radical method and ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2`-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl. Ascorbic acid and Crataegus oxyacantha extract showed strong antioxidant activity with the DPPH method according to their EC50. This activity was classified in order: ascorbic acid (1.04 mu g mL(-1)) > Crataegus oxyacantha extracts (2.75 mu g mL(-1)) > La...

  12. Evaluation of ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima isolated from the Algerian Jijel province poultry farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study represents the first description of ionophore resistance in Eimeria recovered from commercial Algerian (Jijel-Algeria) broiler farms. Microscopy and ITS1 PCR revealed only 2 Eimeria species present in litter from these farms- namely E. acervulina and E. maxima. A pool of these is...

  13. Hair-zinc levels determination in Algerian psoriatics using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. Zinc has a positive impact on psoriasis. The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. 58 psoriatics and 31 normal controls of both genders were selected. Hair zinc levels were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique (INAA). Student's t-test and One-Way ANOVA were applied. The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively. They are not significantly different (p>0.05). Zn concentration for males and females controls and patients were 171±27 μg/g, 151±37 μg/g and 145±59 μg/g, 178±58 μg/g respectively. However, for females we have observed a significant difference (p<0.05). - Highlights: ► Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease with an unknown etiology. ► About 2–5% of global population in the world suffers from psoriasis. ► The aim of this study is to determine hair-zinc concentration in Algerian psoriatics. ► The average zinc concentration for controls and patients were 152±53 μg/g and 167±52 μg/g respectively.

  14. The colonial identity of wine: the "Leakey Affair" and the Franco-Algerian order of things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, John

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the 1905 crisis of French and Algerian viticulture that came to be known as the "Leakey Affair." It explains why metropolitan French observers reacted so strongly to Leakey's contract and subsequent advertising of Algerian wine on the British market, first from a socio-economic perspective, and second by reference to the importance of wine in French culture and identity. The final section of the article explains the response of Algeria's colonists to their metropolitan critics. Throughout, wine is used as a prism through which to explore the nature of identity in modern France and the complex colonial relationship in which the wine industry played such a major role. The Leakey Affair revealed the fragility of colonial cultural formations and the importance of wine as a conduit of ideas, and a symbol for fierce wrangling over identity, belonging, and the nature of empire. What was at stake was no less than the intellectual ownership of a mainstay of France's cultural mythology -- wine -- and the relationship between an imperial power and its colonial world. PMID:20063499

  15. Linguistic Analysis of Verbal Humour in Algerian Stand-up Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia HASSAINE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Being a universal trait of human language behaviour, verbal humour has ultimately been a recognized field of research in linguistics. Such subject of study infuses different forms of distraction such as stand-up comedy where laughter thrives. This response is considerably noticed in the shows of Abdelkader Secteur, an Algerian comedian. On the basis of such reaction, this paper aims to disclose the linguistic reasons behind the comedian’s verbal humour which lead to laughter. The question that arises “what makes the stand- up comedian’s discourse humorous?” suggests that the comedian uses a figurative language embodied in a chunk of opposite scripts which mark his performance. To check the proposed hypothesis, an empirical study is given based on a selection of the humorist’s two performances derived from You Tube downloads given to a to an sample of thirty-two Algerian participants be watched then analyzed through the general theory of verbal humour (hereafter, GTVH.

  16. Antimicrobial Effects of Algerian Honey on Pathogenic Food-Related Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Nedji

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to characterize the physicochemical properties and the antibacterial activity of honey samples collected from different sites of Northeast Algeria. The antibacterial activity of honey against Bacillus cereus (IPA, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923R, Escherichia coli (ATCC25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27893R was evaluated by the disc diffusion method and determined as an equivalent of the inhibition zones diameters after incubation of the cultures at 37°C for 24 h. The moisture content, pH, Electrical conductivity and Ash were measured and the investigation of the polyphenol and flavonoid contents were done spectrophotometrically in each honey sample. Results showed that Algerian honey inhibited the growth of all examined microorganisms with the highest antimicrobial activity against the Gram positive bacteria. Physicochemical parameters were similar between the honey samples collected from different sites and polyphenol and flavonoid contents were variable, depending on the honey samples. The strong antimicrobial activity of Algerian honey may be due to high total phenolic and flavonoid contents and this study suggests potential use of honey in foods.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Algerian honey on subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated from goat's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bourabah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated from goat's milk and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Algerian honey on mastitis causing bacteria. Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity against the isolated bacteria was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, using the agar incorporation method. Results: The results showed that both Micrococcus spp. and Klebsiella spp. were susceptible to Streptomycin and tetracycline, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E coli, Enterobacter spp., Bacillus spp., and Coagulase Negative Staphyloccoci (CNS were preferentially susceptible to Streptomycin. However, Streptococcus D was the most resistant to the tested antibiotics whereas Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to all the studied antibiotics. As regards to the antimicrobial activity of honey, the measured values were comprised between 11 and 14%. Conclusion: The results reveal that antimicrobial drugs susceptibility tests in goat subclinical mastitis might be necessary before the treatment. Algerian honey exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activity against different isolated bacteria in goat mastitis.

  18. Algerian experience in radiation protection training and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Algeria the training in radiation protection began from the end of seventeen's. Then since 1980 a training program was established which allowed to obtain a qualified human power with different degree (technician, magister and specialized engineers) both in radiological safety and in medical physic. The syllabus of the different education were defined and the basic theoretical education was performed in Algeria while the practical training was carried out in foreign laboratories with financial support of the EU and the IAEA. The syllabus were revised in 1985 to take into account the experience of the first certified persons. In addition, the opportunity was given to some persons, through education grants, to prepare PhD degree in radiation protection and medical physics in European universities. All these training actions allowed to about one hundred persons to get different degrees. Beside these academic education our staff fellow an on-going training mainly through bilateral and regional cooperation with the IAEA (TC project, AFRA, RAF). Over the last ten years, the education was stopped by reason of no need for training and now it is necessary to review the former syllabus to adapt them to the new radiation protection environment and to educate other persons to assure the relieving and the replacement of all those who have left the institution. As an regulatory prescription, our institution organize radiation protection courses and workshops to the end users of radiation sources and to the bodies (customer, immigration officer, fire-brigade) which are involved in the control of the possession and uses of these sources. An average of one hundred workers are trained annually. (author)

  19. The Algerian gas is on the verge of changing its religion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algeria has not forged, during the years 2000, a natural gas 'diplomacy' comparable - by far - to the Russian one. Three obstacles were on its way: first, proved reserves are six time less than those of the top world producer; secondly, its maneuver margin has been for a long time reduced by long term supply contracts (to South Europe essentially); thirdly, Algeria experienced a great political difficulty to define a strategy that could be adapted to the new world context of rarefied energy sources, a context that is clearer since 2003-2004. The author explains the changes that have happened within these three constraint lines since 2008. He notably comments the geopolitical incidence of the end of the long term sale contracts, the role of LNG in the global energy mix, and analyses the Algerian gas production perspectives and the possibility of an agreement between gas producing countries

  20. Optimal power flow using the league championship algorithm: A case study of the Algerian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Optimal power flow. • Reducing electrical energy loss. • Saving electrical energy. • Optimal operation. - Abstract: A new efficient optimization method, called the League Championship Algorithm (LCA) is proposed in this paper for solving the optimal power flow problem. This method is inspired by the competition of sport teams in an artificial sport league for several weeks and over a number of seasons. The proposed method has been applied to the Algerian power system network for different objectives. Furthermore, in order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed LCA method the obtained results using this method have been compared to those obtained using other methods reported in the literature. The obtained results and the comparison with other techniques indicate that the league championship algorithm provides effective and high-quality solution when solving the optimal power flow problem

  1. A first-of-its-kind visit for 12 Algerian professors and students

    CERN Multimedia

    Kate Shaw

    2014-01-01

    The Cirta-Science competition is open to 51 high schools in the Constantine region of Algeria. This year the prize for the winners was a historic visit to see the place where the Higgs boson was discovered and meet scientists working at CERN, some of whom are from Algeria.   The group was composed of two physics professors from Constantine University and ten students from the Algerian Sirius Astronomy Association, including three laureates of the Cirta-Science scientific competition. Abdelhak Djouadi, a theoretical physicist at CERN from Algeria, was invited to announce the winners of this prestigious competition. The group of visitors had a very tight schedule, including a number of meetings with CERN scientists and visits to the SC, ATLAS and CMS. Since 2008 Algeria has had an international cooperation agreement with CERN, and in May 2014 a Protocol was signed which will involve the ATLAS and ISOLDE experiments.

  2. Open Innovation: A New Mechanism For Adoption Of Organizational Innovation Empirical Evidence From Algerian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayra Aichouche

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the openness degree of companies and organizational innovation. The openness degree is defined as the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal Innovation, and to expend markets for external use of innovation (Chesbrough, 2006. The research utilizes causality models and suggests a conceptual schema subsequent to a comprehensive analysis of the literature linked to open innovation field. A sample of 120 managers and employees of Algerian pharmaceutical company is used. The SEM is used to analyze and approve the proposal of the conceptual schema. Results of the empirical research show that open innovation is positively and significantly related to organizational innovation, on the other hand, these results indicate that there is a positive and significant impact of organizational innovation on organizational performance.

  3. APPLICATION OF STIMULUS & RESPONSE MODEL TO IMPULSE BUYING BEHAVIOR OF ALGERIAN CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Graa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of situational factors on the impulse buying behavior usinga Mehrabian and Russell's (1974 framework (Stimulus & response model. The results suggest thata consumer's emotions can be a mediating factor in the impulse purchase process. In this study, weidentify and explore how situational factors and emotional states may influence various dimensionsof impulse purchase behavior of Algerian shoppers. By tapping the responses of 687 consumers inthe area of Algeria’ west, we obtain that there is a positive relationship between independent anddependent variables.According to the results, pleasure was associated with design, whereas arousal was associatedwith perception of crowding, but dominance was linked to time spent in the store. Retailers can takethese findings to maintain trained their employees and provide adequate signs and best environmentwhenever some relocation of products took place.

  4. Social Media Use in Algerian Universities: University of Constantine 2 Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdja Boumarafi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Social media technologies initially used for socializing, and entertainment have in recent years expanded their reaches into learning activities providing an open space for students’ engagement. The positive effect of such technologies on pedagogy is to make learning applicable to the cyber environment to achieve independent and collaborative learning. Students learn to communicate and collaborate electronically. This requires rethinking the way pedagogical activities are carried out to develop synergistic learning relationships to create the best learning model in line with this new educational paradigm. This paper investigates Algerian students’ engagement to understand the developmental implications of academic achievement. The author seeks to advance the use of instructional interactions in two ways: i: enhancing the academic validity of social networking, ii: making the link to students’ collaborative learning explicit. Data is collected from 300 students. Findings show that social media are used for a multitude of purposes and Facebook is most popular.

  5. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina Mokhtaria Boufadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO. By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 µM.

  6. Study of genetic diversity in Algerian sheep breeds using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to realize the preservation and exploitation of domestic animal biodiversity and to define a global strategy for the management of Algerian sheep genetic resources, the goals of our research are the knowledge of the degree of genetic variability, the partition of this variability and the genetic distance among ovine breeds. This information will be obtained by analyzing directly the genome at molecular level. In this study DNA of 85 animals from two breeds, Ouled-Djellal and Hamra, was PCR amplified at the following microsatellite loci: McM42, TGLA53, MAF65, McM527, OarFCB20, INRA49, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, MAF36, Oar HH56 and ILST05. Number of alleles and allele frequencies were calculated. The results showed that these breeds presented a polymorphism with these microsatellite markers reflecting a genetic variability among them. However, highest differences in allele frequencies were found at loci: McM527, ILSTS05, OarFCB20, INRA49, MAF36, McM42, MAF65, OarFCB11, OarCP49, CSSM66, while at the other loci the alleles at the highest frequency are the same. This study is being extended to five other Algerian breeds: Taadmit, Barbarine, D'men, Sidaou and Berbere to estimate their variability and genetic distance between them. Now, we are collecting blood from these different breeds to constitute a DNA bank. The results will allow establishment of the strategy to promote the use and development of locally adapted sheep resources. (author)

  7. Comparing Effects of TCR and TSC on MHO Distance Protection Setting in 400 kV Algerian Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the performances of distance relays setting in 400 kV in Eastern Algerian transmission networks at Sonelgaz Group (Algerian company of Electrical and Gas compensated by shunt Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS. The facts are used for controlling transmission voltage, power flow, reactive power, and damping of power system oscillations in high power transfer levels. The effects of SVC devices i.e. Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR and the Thyristor Switched Capacitors (TSC insertion, on the total impedance of a transmission line protected by MHO distance relay are investigated. The modified setting zones protections for three forward zones (Z1, Z2 and Z3 have been calculated in order to improve the performances of distance relay protection and prevent circuit breaker nuisance tripping.

  8. A scanning electron microscopy study of Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814) (Crustacea: Branchiura) from Algerian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ider, Djamila; Ramdane, Zouhir; Courcot, Lucie; Amara, Rachid; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-06-01

    A study of the Algerian Branchiura, Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1814) was conducted using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). New morphological features are reported for the first time (mouth con, first maxilla, second maxilla, structures and ornamentation of thoracic segments, structure of semen papillae, etc.). The morphology of small and large female specimens was compared. Two new hosts, Pagellus erythrinus L. and Sparus aurata L., are reported for this species. Until now, six host species were reported for A. vittatus, and stenoxenic specificity for Sparid fishes was observed for Algerian specimens. The biogeographical distribution of this species seems to be restricted to the eastern coast of Algeria. Additional information about the host specificity, ecology, and life cycle of this parasitic species were given. PMID:24728522

  9. Phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts from ten Algerian Ficus carica L. varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Souhila Mahmoudi; Mustapha Khali; Abderahim Benkhaled; Karima Benamirouche; Imen Baiti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic leaf extracts of ten Algerian fig (Ficus carica L.) varieties (uniferous, biferous and caprifig tree). Methods: Phenolics were extracted by Soxhlet method and analyzed by the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Flavonoids were determined by aluminum trichloride assay and the antioxidant capacity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ass...

  10. Estimation of Canine Leishmania Infection Prevalence in Six Cities of the Algerian Littoral Zone Using a Bayesian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Amel, A; Abatih, E.; N. Speybroeck; Soukehal, A; Boughedour, R; Boughalem, K; Bouhbal, A; Djerbal, M; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, D. (Dirk)

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale study on canine Leishmania infection (CanL) was conducted in six localities along a west-east transect in the Algerian littoral zone (Tlemcen, Mostaganem, Tipaza, Boumerdes, Bejaia, Jijel) and covering two sampling periods. In total 2,184 dogs were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT). Combined multiple-testing and several statistical methods were compared to estimate the CanL true prevalence and tests characteristics (se...

  11. Clinical, immunological and genetic features in eleven Algerian patients with major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djidjik Réda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presenting processed antigens to CD4+ lymphocytes during the immune response involves major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. MHC class II genes transcription is regulated by four transcription factors: CIITA, RFXANK, RFX5 and RFXAP. Defects in these factors result in major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency, a primary combined immunodeficiency frequent in North Africa. Autosomal recessive mutations in the RFXANK gene have been reported as being the principal defect found in North African patients with this disorder. In this paper, we describe clinical, immunological and genetic features of 11 unrelated Algerian patients whose monocytes display a total absence of MHC class II molecules. They shared mainly the same clinical picture which included protracted diarrhoea and respiratory tract recurrent infections. Genetic analysis revealed that 9 of the 11 patients had the same RFXANK founder mutation, a 26 bp deletion (named I5E6-25_I5E6+1, also known as 752delG26. Immunological and genetic findings in our series may facilitate genetic counselling implementation for Algerian consanguineous families. Further studies need to be conducted to determine 752delG26 heterozygous mutation frequency in Algerian population.

  12. The deep Algerian margin structure revisited by the Algerian-French SPIRAL research program, stage 2 : Wide-ange seismic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Yellès, Abdelkarim; Bracène, Rabah; Graindorge, David; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Schnürle, Philippe; Scientific Party, Spiral

    2010-05-01

    During the second leg of the Algerien - French SPIRAL (Sismique Profonde et Investigation Regionale du Nord de l'ALgerie) cruise conducted on the R/V Atalante in October and November 2009 an extensive wide-angle seismic data-set was acquired on 5 regional transects off Algeria, from Arzew bay to the west, to Annaba to the east. The profiles are between 80 and 180 km in length and around 40 ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed on each profile. A 8350 cu. inch tuned airgun array consisting of 10 Bolt airguns was used to generate of deep frequency to allow for a good penetration. All profiles were extended on land up to 150 km by land-stations to better constrain the structure of the margin and the nature of the ocean-continent transition zone. Coincident reflection seismic, gravity and magnetic data were acquired on all profiles during the first leg of the cruise. The resulting data quality is very good with deep penetrating arrivals on most of the instruments. Only on very few instruments a deep salt layer inhibits deeper penetration of the seismic energy. Two instruments were lost and all other yielded useful information on geophone and hydrophone channels. Instruments located close to the coast show arrivals from thick sedimentary layers. Instruments located on oceanic crust indicate a relatively thin crust overlying a mantle layer characterised by seismic velocities of 8 km/s. Forward and inverse modelling of the wide-angle seismic data will help constrain the deep structure of the margin, the nature of the crust and might help to constrain possible existence of a detached slab in the upper mantle. Integration of the wide-angle seismic data with multichannel seismic, gravity and magnetic data will enable us to better understand the tectonic history and the structure of the Algerian margin.

  13. Seasonal assessment of biological indices, bioaccumulation and bioavailability of heavy metals in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from Algerian west coast, applied to environmental monitoring

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    Omar Rouane-Hacene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to broaden our knowledge on the variability of trace metals in mussel tissues, focusing on seasonal fluctuations in the three different sampling sites of Algerian west coast (Oran Harbor (S1, Ain Defla (S2 and Hadjaj (S3. For this purpose, the bioavailability (metal indices and bioaccumulation (metal concentrations in soft tissues of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, and the physiological characteristics (e.g. biological indices such as condition index (CI of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis have been assessed and related to seasons and sites. In S1, the highest levels of metal concentrations and indices were obtained in mussels sampled in winter for Zn, Cu and Cd, but in summer for Pb. The biological indices significantly decreased in winter. In S2, the levels of concentrations and indices of all metals varied whatever the seasons, excepting in summer where the values were the lowest. In summer and spring, the biological indices were lower than in autumn and winter. The low growth of organisms in spring and summer might be correlated to the reproductive period and the low trophic level known in S2. S3, considered as a “pristine” area, showed low metal concentrations and indices, and high biological indices, reflecting the favorable physiological conditions for the mussel growth. This approach might be used in the monitoring of the quality of coastal waters and the present work provided a useful data set for Mediterranean monitoring network.

  14. The Algerian Margin: an Example of a Reactivation in Compression of a Complex Cenozoic Passive Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domzig, A.; Deverchere, J.; Yelles, K.; Govers, R.; Wortel, R.; Petit, C.; Cataneo, A.; Kherroubi, A.; Teams, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Western Mediterranean underwent a complex Cenozoic history involving subduction of the Tethys Ocean as well as subduction roll-back and associated opening of back-arc basins. During the Oligo-Miocene, the subduction roll-back to the south led to the collision of the Kabylies into the African plate, but subduction continued towards west, causing the Alboran slab to migrate towards the Gibraltar Arc. Northern Africa is at the southern border of this system and is therefore a major study area in the context of slow convergent plates to study the reactivation in compression of a Cenozoic passive margin but also the records of past geodynamic processes. This work aims to characterize the multi-scale structure of the offshore Algerian margin, based on the MARADJA'03 and MARADJA2/SAMRA'05 cruises data (multibeam bathymetry, seismic-reflection, side-scan sonar, backscattering, CHIRP, gravimetry). Tectonic (geomorphology, folds, faults) records reveal large recent and active structures as well as the geological inheritance of the margin. In western Algeria, slab roll-back is likely to have been accompanied by lithospheric tearing (STEP fault) as it has been modelled at a regional scale (Govers and Wortel, 2005): we provide first evidence for the presence of such structure(s) offshore Algeria. The geodynamical conditions have now changed, and we are facing new types of structures. Two main tectonic styles are identified: reverse to the centre and east; and strike-slip to the west. In Central Algeria, the compressional structures are active blind thrusts (Plio-Quaternary) verging to the north (opposite to pre-existing features) expressed as asymmetrical folds, sub-perpendicular to the convergence direction and often en echelon. These faults may all trigger M=6-7.5 earthquakes (e.g. Khair al Din fault near Algiers). Among them, the fault associated with the 2003 Boumerdes event (Mw=6.8) would continue to the surface by flats and ramps creating piggy-back basins or

  15. Lactobacilli isolated from Algerian goat's milk as adjunct culture in dairy products

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    Ahmed Marroki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nineteen Lactobacillus isolated from Algerian goat's milk, 13 belonging to L. plantarum, three to L. pentosus, two to L. rhamnosus and one to L. fermentum, were examined in vitro in order to be used as adjunct culture in dairy products. The strains were tested for their proteolytic activity, sensory and safety properties. Strains LbMS16 and LbMS21 L. plantarum and LbMF25 L. rhamnosus presented the highest proteolytic activity. All the tested lactobacilli were able to grow on MRS agar containing 0.5 and 1% (W/V of oxgall, whereas none produced biogenic amine (BA from the four tested amino acids and were resistant to pH 2.0 and 3.0, but some strains were able to grow at pH 3.5. None of examined strains were β-haemolytic when grown in hors blood agar. Result of antibiotic resistance showed that all the strains were susceptible to penicillin, erythromycin and resistant to vancomycin. Diacetyl production was observed for two strains of L. plantarum and one of L. rhamnosus. Most of strains were able to produce pleasant flavours in fermented milk and gave a good acceptance. According to these results, the strains LbMS16, LbMS21and LbMF25 could be good candidates to be used as adjunct culture, playing a probiotic role in dairy products manufacture in Algeria.

  16. Ethanolic Extract of Algerian Propolis and Galangin Decreased Murine Melanoma T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benguedouar, Lamia; Lahouel, Mesbah; Gangloff, Sophie C; Durlach, Anne; Grange, Florent; Bernard, Philippe; Antonicelli, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is the more dangerous skin cancer, and metastatic melanoma still carries poor prognosis. Despite recent therapeutic advances, prolonged survival remains rare and research is still required. Propolis extracts from many countries have attracted a great deal of attention for their biological properties. We here investigated the ability of an ethanolic extract of Algerian propolis (EEP) to control melanoma tumour growth when given to mice bearing B16F1melanoma tumour either as preventive or as therapeutic treatment. EEP given after tumour occurrence increased mice survival (+30%) and reduced tumour growth (-75%). This was associated with a decrease of the Mitotic Index (-75%) and of Ki-67 (-50%) expression. When given either before or both before and after tumour occurrence, EEP reduced tumour growth but without prolonging mice life. Isolation of B16F1 melanoma cells from resected tumour showed that preventive and curative EEP treatments reduced invasiveness by 55% and 40% respectively compared to control. Galangin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in propolis, significantly reduced the number of melanoma cells in vitro and induced autophagy/apoptosis dose dependently. In conclusion, we showed that EEP reduced melanoma tumour progression/dissemination and could extend mice lifespan when used as therapeutic treatment. Then, EEP may help patients with melanoma when used as a complementary therapy to classical treatment for which autophagy is not contraindicated. PMID:26863880

  17. Oral Fat Sensing and CD36 Gene Polymorphism in Algerian Lean and Obese Teenagers

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    Hadjer Daoudi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing number of evidences have suggested that oral fat sensing, mediated by a glycoprotein CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36, plays a significant role in the development of obesity. Indeed, a decreased expression of CD36 in some obese subjects is associated with high dietary fat intake. In the present study, we examined whether an increase in body mass index (BMI is associated with altered oleic acid lingual detection thresholds and blood lipid profile in young Algerian teenagers (n = 165. The obese teenagers (n = 83; 14.01 ± 0.19 years; BMI z-score 2.67 ± 0.29 exhibited higher lingual detection threshold for oleic acid than lean participants (n = 82, 13.92 ± 0.23 years; BMI z-score 0.03 ± 0.0001. We also studied the association between rs1761667 polymorphism of CD36 gene and obesity. The AA and AG genotypes were more frequent in obese teenagers, whereas GG genotype was more common in lean participants. The A-allele frequency was higher in obese teenagers than that in lean children. We report that rs1761667 polymorphism of CD36 gene and oro-gustatory thresholds for fat might play a significant role in the development of obesity in young teenagers.

  18. Radium and 40K in Algerian bottled mineral waters and consequent doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in the five most popular Algerian bottled mineral waters have been found to be 13.9 to 148.9 mBq l-1, 7.2 to 52.9 mBq l-1 and -1, respectively. Ratios of 226Ra to 228Ra activities ranged from 1.0 to 13.66 with a mean of 5.62. The annual effective doses due to ingestion of these waters have been estimated for three age categories (infants, children and adults) using the measured activities of these radionuclides and assuming the World Health Organisation's default water intake rate. Annual doses for children and adults have been found to be well below the 0.1 mSv y-1 reference dose level, whereas for the most vulnerable group the annual effective dose from all the waters exceeds the reference value and contributes 12% to the mean annual dose from natural exposure. (authors)

  19. Repression and black holes in Laurent Mauvignier novel about Algerian War

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    Giacomo Raccis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available XXth century history obliged narrators to clash with events that was literally inexpressible, measuring the potential and the lack of literary means. Laurent Mauvignier made this confrontarion the centre of his poetics: from minimal, private tragedies to great, historical dramas, passing through the media mystification of absurd fait divers, his novels face the Evil problem and its representation in words. With Des hommes (2009, Mauvignier addresses his question to one of the most problematic repression object in historical French memory: Algerian War. Building a polyphonic novel, he deals with an event deeply characterized by silence (the veteran silence studied by Benjamin Stora and Andrea Brazzoduro and that has been manipulated by the institutional and mediatic vulgata. Infact, the narration shows how the amnesty of collective faults is based on the "order to say nothing" (overturning Foucault, first of all caused by the social load of an history that nobody wants. This paper aims at showing how Mauvignier's work, inspired by modernist novel and "nouveau roman" (Duras, Simon, resorts to literary experimentalism to "défamiliariser" this historical event using the tools of a fiction claiming the value of a "secondary experience" to redeem a piece of history refused by the public discourse.

  20. Development of Virus-Induced Gene Expression and Silencing Vector Derived from Grapevine Algerian Latent Virus

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    Sang-Ho Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV is a member of the genus Tombusvirus in the Tombusviridae and infects not only woody perennial grapevine plant but also herbaceous Nicotiana benthamiana plant. In this study, we developed GALV-based gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS vectors in N. benthamiana. The GALV coat protein deletion vector, pGMG, was applied to express the reporter gene, green fluorescence protein (GFP, but the expression of GFP was not detected due to the necrotic cell death on the infiltrated leaves. The p19 silencing suppressor of GALV was engineered to inactivate its expression and GFP was successfully expressed with unrelated silencing suppressor, HC-Pro, from soybean mosaic virus. The pGMG vector was used to knock down magnesium chelatase (ChlH gene in N. benthamaina and the silencing phenotype was clearly observed on systemic leaves. Altogether, the GALV-derived vector is expected to be an attractive tool for useful gene expression and VIGS vectors in grapevine as well as N. benthamiana.

  1. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Chentouf, Hanane Fatma; Yahia, Bellil; Fatima, Ghazi; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4) in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters. PMID:24392451

  2. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Benmechernene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains (B7 and Z8 of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4 in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters.

  3. Technological aptitude and applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides bioactive strains isolated from Algerian raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Chentouf, Hanane Fatma; Yahia, Bellil; Fatima, Ghazi; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4) in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters. PMID:24392451

  4. Optimal Power Flow Solution of the Algerian Electrical Network using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Bouktir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF problem of a power system via Differential Evolution (DE algorithm. The purpose of an electric power system is to deliver real power to the greatest number of users at the lowest possible cost all the time. So the objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units and also maintaining an acceptable system performance in terms of limits on generator reactive power outputs, bus voltages, Static VAR Compensator (SVC parameters and overload in transmission lines. CPU times can be reduced by decomposing the problem in two subproblems, the first subproblem minimize the fuel cost of generation and the second subproblem is a reactive power dispatch so optimum bus voltages can be determined and reduce the losses by controlling tap changes of the transformers and the static Var Compensators (SVC. To verify the proposed approach and for comparison purposes, we perform simulations on the Algerian network with 114 buses, 175 branches (lines and transformers and 15 generators. The obtained results indicate that DE is an easy to use, fast, robust and powerful optimization technique compared to the other global optimization methods such as PSO and GA.  

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Algerian honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Lu, Zhi-Xiang; Haddad, Nizar; Noureddine, Adjlane; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; Wang, Yong-Zhi; Zhao, Ren-Bin; Zhang, Ai-Ling; Guan, Xin; Zhang, Hai-Xi; Niu, Hua

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Algerian honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa, is analyzed for the first time. The results show that this genome is 16,336 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). The overall base composition is A (43.2%), C (9.8%), G (5.6%), and T (41.4%), so the percentage of A and T (84.6%) is considerably higher than that of G and C. All the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for four subunit genes (ND1, ND4, ND4L, and ND5), two rRNA genes (12S and 16S rRNA), and eight tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here would be useful for further phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetic studies in A. m. intermissa. PMID:25259457

  6. REGAT: The Algerian Permanent GPS Network. Strategy, configuration and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelles-Chaouche, Abdelkarim; Lammali, Kamel; Bellik, Amar; Mahsas, Abdelhakim; Bacha, Wahab; Bougrine, Amina

    2013-04-01

    Northern Algeria, located along the Eurasiatic-African boundary plate is characterised by a moderate to strong seismic activity. During History, some violent earthquakes occurred mainly in the Atlas region, particularly in the Tellian area, leading sometimes to destruction of major cities of Algeria (Algiers, 1716; Oran, 1790; Blida, 1825; El Asnam, 1980; Constantine, 1985; Boumerdes, 2003…). In order to improve the knowledge of the deformation pattern of the Atlasic region, and more globally of the African (Nubia)-Eurasia plate boundary along the Algerian margin, the Research Center of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Geophysics (CRAAG) started since six year to implement a permanent GPS network. The REGAT (REseau Géodésique de l'Atlas), consists on a set of 56 continuous GPS stations deployed in the Atlas region, from the coastal area to the Sahara Platform with one station at Tamanrasset, in the southern part of the country. The deployment strategy consisted in two phases: - The first one began on 2004 with 14 stations installed - The second phase, which started in 2011concerns a set of 42 stations. We present here the procedure used to collect, store and process the GPS data from the REGAT network and present the preliminary results of the stations which observed more than three years. Keywords: Earthquake, GPS, Networks, REGAT.

  7. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Myrtus communis L. Leaves Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim S. Allaf

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of Algerian Myrtle leaf essential oils: solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME and conventional hydrodistillation (HD. Essential oils analyzed by GC and GC-MS presented 51 components constituting 97.71 and 97.39% of the total oils, respectively. Solvent-Free-Microwave-Extract Essential oils SFME-EO were richer in oxygenated compounds. Their major compounds were 1,8-cineole, followed by α-pinene as against α-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole for HD. Their antimicrobial activity was investigated on 12 microorganisms. The antioxidant activities were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radical scavenging method. Generally, both essential oils showed high antimicrobial and weak antioxidant activities. Microstructure analyses were also undertaken on the solid residue of myrtle leaves by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM; it showed that the SFME-cellular structure undergoes significant modifications compared to the conventional HD residual solid. Comparison between hydrodistillation and SFME presented numerous distinctions. Several advantages with SFME were observed: faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields: 0.32% dry basis, in 30 min as against 180 min for HD.

  8. Flavonoid profile, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of different extracts from Algerian Rhamnus alaternus L. bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soulef Boussahel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhamnus alaternus (Rhamnaceae L. has been traditionally used for treatment of many diseases. Objective: In this study, we determined the antioxidant/free radical scavenger properties, the flavonoid profile and the cytotoxicity of aqueous and methanolic extracts obtained by maceration from Algerian R. alaternus bark, like also of aqueous extract prepared by decoction according to the traditional method. This to estimate the usefulness of the drug traditional preparation and compare it with those made in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using five different redox-based assays, all involving one redox reaction with the oxidant. High-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify and quantify the fl avonoids content. Cytotoxicity on human monocytic leukemia cells (U937 was also carried out. Results: All the extracts tested showed a good antioxidant/free radical scavenger activity and a similar flavonoid fingerprint. However, the methanolic one presented the best antioxidant activity that can be due to the highest flavonoid amount and significantly reduced the proliferation of leukemia cells. The results confirm that the extract prepared by decoction contains efficient antioxidant compounds and this justifies in part the therapeutic and preventive usefulness. Moreover, the methanolic extract exerted excellent cytotoxicity on U937 that could be attributed to kaempferol and rhamnocitrin glycosides.

  9. Analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and evaluation of some biological activities of Algerian Senecio delphinifolius (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidjani, Soukaina; Okusa, Philippe N; Zellagui, Amar; Banuls, Laetitia Moreno Y; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; Rhouati, Salah

    2013-04-01

    Although Senecio species are known as sources of potentially toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), some species of this genus are traditionally used as remedies, notably in Algeria. In this paper, the evaluation of biological activities and the analysis of PAs of Algerian specimens of Senecio delphinifolius Vahl are reported. The n-butanolic extract of the herb showed a weak antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli with a MIC of 1 mg/mL, but was inactive against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The n-butanolic extracts of the roots, stems and herb showed a modest antioxidant activity, scavenging the free radical DPPH with respective IC50 values of 55.3, 50.2 and 13.3 microg/mL. A cytotoxic effect against a series of human tumor cell lines was observed with the n-butanolic extract from stems (IC50 ranging between 34 and 88 microg/mL). The herb of the evaluated sample contains 140 ppm of PAs (senecionine, seneciphylline, integerrimine, senkirkine) and PA-related alkaloids (dehydrosenkirkine and neosenkirkine). As the major PAs belong to the toxic series (1,2-unsaturation in the pyrrolizidine cycle and macrocyclic diester), the use of S. delphinifolius should be discouraged in traditional medicine. PMID:23738446

  10. Multiphased tectonic evolution of the Central Algerian margin from combined wide-angle and reflection seismic data off Tipaza, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprêtre, A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Graindorge, D.; Schnurle, P.; Beslier, M. O.; Yelles, K.; Déverchère, J.; Bracene, R.

    2013-08-01

    The origin of the Algerian margin remains one of the key questions still discussed in the Western Mediterranean sea, due to the imprecise nature and kinematics of the associated basin during the Neogene. For the first time, the deep structure of the Maghrebian margin was explored during the SPIRAL seismic survey. In this work, we present a N-S transect off Tipaza (west of Algiers), a place where the margin broadens due to a topographic high (Khayr-al-Din Bank). New deep penetration seismic profiles allow us to image the sedimentary sequence in the Algerian basin and the crustal structure at the continent-ocean boundary. Modeling of the wide-angle data shows thinning of the basement, from more than 15km in the continental upper margin to only 5-6km of oceanic-type basement in the Algerian basin, and reveals a very narrow or absent transitional zone. Analysis of the deep structure of the margin indicates features inherited from its complex evolution: (1) an oceanic-type crust in the deep basin, (2) similarities with margins formed in a transform-type setting, (3) a progressive deepening of the whole sedimentary cover, and the thickening of the Plio-Quaternary sediments at the margin foot, coeval with (4) a downward flexure of the basement in the basin. These features argue for a multiphased evolution of the margin, including (1) an early stage of rifting and/or spreading, (2) a late transcurrent episode related to the westward migration of the Alboran domain, and (3) a diffuse Plio-Quaternary compressional reactivation of the margin.

  11. Effect of rainfed cereal crops on the wind erosion in the Algerian steppe (Case study in Laghouat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houyou, Zohra; Bielders, Charles L.; Boutmedjet, Ahmed; Dellal, Abdelkader

    2014-05-01

    Summary The Algerian steppe 20 million ha, bounded on the north by the 400 mm isohyets and south by the 100 mm isohyets. This territory is subject to increasing human pressure. For several decades, this area has been home to rainfed cereal cropping subjecting soils to a strong fragmentation during seedbed preparation, thereby facilitating the degradation of soil by wind erosion. This study was conducted within the agricultural area of Mokrane (Laghouat), a region of the Algerian steppe. In 2009 and 2010, sediment mass flux densities were measured using BSNE sand-traps on a plot of 1.35 ha cropped with rainfed barley (Hordeum vulgare). A weather station equipped with anemometers, a wind vane and a saltiphone was used to acquire the data needed to characterize erosive events. The results show that in Laghouat sandstorms can last for several days. However, the actual erosive periods were highly variable in terms of duration, ranging from a few minutes to several hours interspersed with calm periods. Erosive winds originated from the west and north. The average wind speeds during saltation were between 6.2 and 7.3 m/s. The threshold velocity had low seasonality and varied between 5.7 m/s and 7.6 m/s. The measured mass balances were negative and fluctuated between -74.5 t/ha -2.8 t/ha depending on the measurement periods. The total soil loss measured over a period of two years confirms that rainfed cultivation induces severe degradation of soil by wind erosion in the Algerian steppe and should be discouraged. Keywords: Wind erosion, rainfed cereal cropping, steppe, Algeria.

  12. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Unclassified Variants and Missense Polymorphisms in Algerian Breast/Ovarian Cancer Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Cherbal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations predispose heterozygous carriers to hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. However, unclassified variants (UVs (variants with unknown clinical significance and missense polymorphisms in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes pose a problem in genetic counseling, as their impact on risk of breast and ovarian cancer is still unclear. The objective of our study was to identify UVs and missense polymorphisms in Algerian breast/ovarian cancer patients and relatives tested previously for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes germline mutations analysis.

  13. THE STRUCTURES OF BREEDING DAIRY CATTLE IN THE SAHARA: THE STATUS IN THE M’ZAB VALLEY (SOUTHERN ALGERIAN SHARA)

    OpenAIRE

    H. BENSAHA; F. ARBOUCHE

    2014-01-01

    The dairy milk sector is a strategic sector in the Algerian agriculture with 2.39 billion liters in 2009, 2.7 billion in 2010 and 2.93 billion in 2011. The milk collection reached 572 million liters in 2011. The enthusiasm for milk production in the M’zab valley led to the creation of many cattle farms. The objective of this study is to investigate the dairy cattle infrastructures and its impacts on milk production. The conducted through a questionnaire over 53 farms representing 57.7% of the...

  14. Recent and active deformation pattern off the easternmost Algerian margin, Western Mediterranean Sea: New evidence for contractional tectonic reactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Kherroubi, Abdelaziz; Déverchère, Jacques; Yelles, Abdelkarim; Mercier De Lépinay, Bernard; Domzig, Anne; Cattaneo, Antonio; Bracène, Rabah; Gaullier, Virginie; Graindorge, David

    2009-01-01

    We describe for the first time a set of large active thrusts and folds near the foot of the easternmost Algerian margin, Western Mediterranean, from swath bathymetry and high-resolution seismic data acquired in 2005 during the Maradja2/Samra cruise. This active system resumes a previous passive margin and creates growth strata deposition on the limbs of large folds, resulting in the development of perched basins at the foot of the margin since less than similar to 1 Ma. They form a set of ove...

  15. Optimization of the Algerian crude and condensate network; Optimisation du reseau algerien de transport de brut et de condensat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smati, A.; Zeraibi, N. [Universite de Boumerdes, Institut des hydrocarbures et de la Chimie, Dept. Energetique, Boumerdes (Algeria); Touabti, M.C. [Universite de Setif, Lab. de Genie du Gaz, Setif (Algeria)

    2000-07-01

    The diagnosis and the optimal extension of the Algerian crude and condensate network, as a result of the escalation of production rhythms, necessitate the development of systemic procedures of modeling. In this context, the batching is represented by a two-commodity network flow. The theory of graphs and the maximal flow problem, associated with a model of reliability, are then put to contribution. The global model can then be used as an experimentation stand where the impact of any decision or event is released by simulation. However, because of the nonlinearity of costs, the optimal extension of the network is submitted to the resolution of a nonlinear programming model. (authors)

  16. New determination method of the neutron diffraction system resolution at the Algerian Es-Salam research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this article is to determine the resolution of the neutron diffraction system (NDS) installed around the Algerian Es Salam research reactor. By using a new method based on neutron radiography technique we have measured the beam divergence at the exit of Soller Collimator (α2) and hence determine effective collimations. The determination of the adequate resolution of our NDS is performed on experimental results obtained from neutron diffraction patterns for different collimation divergences (α2) and (α3) values obtained from several apertures sizes (S2) and (S3). (author)

  17. New determination method of the neutron diffraction system resolution at the Algerian Es-Salam research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this article is to determine the resolution of the neutron diffraction system (NDS) installed around the Algerian Es Salam research reactor. By using a new method based on neutron radiography technique we have measured the beam divergence at the exit of Soller Collimator (a2) and hence determine effective collimations. The determination of the adequate resolution of our NDS is performed on experimental results obtained from neutron diffraction patterns for different collimation divergences (a2) and (a3) values obtained from several apertures sizes (S 2) and (S 3).

  18. The study of the cumulative effects of the application of urban sewage sludge on an eroded soil cultivated in the Algerian steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutmedjet, Ahmed; Boukkaya, Nassira; Houyou, zohra; Ouakid, Mohamed; Bielders, Charles

    2014-05-01

    Since the seventies, desertification is one of the major problems faced by the Mediterranean climate regions. These problems are inherent in the soil and climate characteristics of these regions, but their magnitude and acuity depend mainly on human activities. The process of desertification that affects more and more land is more pronounced as soil degradation, which accelerates constantly reduced resources farmland and pasture. Especially in areas bordering the Sahara, as the Algerian steppe, a real belt between the Sahara and the Algerian tell As part of the study of the cumulative effect of the application of urban sewage sludge on sandy soil and culture that is a cereal (barley), we had results that enabled us to identify some precepts,. The short-term effects studied in this experiment indicate that the amendment of the sewage sludge had a beneficial effect on the fertilizing qualities of the soil and therefore the performance of barley. To observations of Culture (barley), indicate that the best grain yield was obtained with D3 (28.76 quintals / ha) and D2 (33.91 quintals / ha). This is due to the effect of the sludge by the addition of required nutrients crop production. The lowest yield (24.11 quintals / ha) being obtained for the control (D0). It is the same for straw yield, with 47.5 quintals / ha in D2. The D3 treatment (30 t / ha) has previously presented the best results, but after 3 years we noticed that the best yields are obtained with D2 (10 t / ha). Except the pH and the rate of limestone that are related to changes in the characteristics of the site, there was an improvement in some physical and chemical properties of the soil. The contributions of sewage sludge amended greater quality soil biology D2 (number and effective species collected). Increasing the organic matter content (1.45%) and electrical conductivity (0.18 microseconds / cm) in the soil is only significant for the highest dose (30t/ha), although a tendency to enrichment in

  19. Chemical composition and digestibility of some browse plant species collected from Algerian arid rangelands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boufennara, S.; Lopez, S.; Boussebouna, H.; Bodas, R.; Bouazza, L.

    2012-11-01

    Many wild browse and bush species are undervalued mainly because of insufficient knowledge about their potential feeding value. The objective was to evaluate some nutritional attributes of various Algerian browse and shub species (Atriplex halimus, Artemisia campestris, Artemisia herba-alba, Astragalus gombiformis, Calobota saharae, Retama raetam, Stipagrostis pungens, Lygeum spartum and Stipa tenacissima). Chemical composition, phenols and tannins concentration, in vitro digestibility, in vitro gas production kinetics and in vitro bio-assay for assessment of tannins using buffered rumen fluid, and in situ disappearence of the edible parts of the plants (leaves, thin twigs and flowers) were determined. In general, protein content in dicotyledon species was always greater than in monocotyledon grasses, these showing higher neutral and acid detergent fibre and lower lignin contents than dicots. The tannin concentrations varied considerably between species, but in general the plants investigated in this study had low tannin contents (except for Artemisia spp. and S. tenacissima). Monocots showed lower in vitro and in situ digestibilities, fermentation rate, cumulative gas production and extent of degradation than dicot species. The plants were clustered by principal components analysis in two groups: poor-quality grasses and the most digestible dicot species. Chemical composition (neutral detergent fibre and protein) and digestibility were the main influential variables determining the ranking. In conclusion, A. halimus, A. campestris, A. herba-alba and A. gombiformis can be considered of greater nutritional value than the highly fibrous and low digestible grasses (S. pungens, L. spartum and S. tenacissima) that should be considered emergency roughages. (Author) 46 refs.

  20. Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I in an Algerian Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Tebani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS’s represent a subgroup of lysosomal storage diseases related to a deficiency of enzymes that catalyze glycosaminoglycans degradation. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of α-l-iduronidase encoded by the IDUA gene. Partially degraded heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate accumulate progressively and lead to multiorgan dysfunction and damage. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, biochemical, and molecular characteristics of 13 Algerian patients from 11 distinct families. MPS I diagnosis was confirmed by molecular study of the patients’ IDUA gene. Clinical features at the diagnosis and during the follow-up are reported. Eighty-four percent of the studied patients presented with a mild clinical phenotype. Molecular study of the IDUA gene allowed the characterization of four pathological variations at the homozygous or compound heterozygote status: IDUA NM_00203.4:c.1598C>G-p.(Pro533Arg in 21/26 alleles, IDUA NM_00203.4:c.532G>A-p.(Glu178Lys in 2/26 alleles, IDUA NM_00203.4:c.501C>G-p.(Tyr167* in 2/26 alleles, and IDUA NM_00203. 4: c.1743C>G-p.(Tyr581* in 1/26 alleles. This molecular study unveils the predominance of p.(Pro533Arg variation in our MPS I patients. In this series, the occurrence of some clinical features linked to the Scheie syndrome is consistent with the literature, such as systematic valvulopathies, corneal opacity, and umbilical hernia; however, storage signs, facial dysmorphic features, and hepatomegaly were more frequent in our series. Screening measures for these debilitating diseases in highly consanguineous at-risk populations must be considered a priority health problem.

  1. Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I in an Algerian Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebani, Abdellah; Zanoutene-Cheriet, Lahouaria; Adjtoutah, Zoubir; Abily-Donval, Lenaig; Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Laquerrière, Annie; Marret, Stephane; Chalabi Benabdellah, Abla; Bekri, Soumeya

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS's) represent a subgroup of lysosomal storage diseases related to a deficiency of enzymes that catalyze glycosaminoglycans degradation. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of α-l-iduronidase encoded by the IDUA gene. Partially degraded heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate accumulate progressively and lead to multiorgan dysfunction and damage. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, biochemical, and molecular characteristics of 13 Algerian patients from 11 distinct families. MPS I diagnosis was confirmed by molecular study of the patients' IDUA gene. Clinical features at the diagnosis and during the follow-up are reported. Eighty-four percent of the studied patients presented with a mild clinical phenotype. Molecular study of the IDUA gene allowed the characterization of four pathological variations at the homozygous or compound heterozygote status: IDUA NM_00203.4:c.1598C>G-p.(Pro533Arg) in 21/26 alleles, IDUA NM_00203.4:c.532G>A-p.(Glu178Lys) in 2/26 alleles, IDUA NM_00203.4:c.501C>G-p.(Tyr167*) in 2/26 alleles, and IDUA NM_00203. 4: c.1743C>G-p.(Tyr581*) in 1/26 alleles. This molecular study unveils the predominance of p.(Pro533Arg) variation in our MPS I patients. In this series, the occurrence of some clinical features linked to the Scheie syndrome is consistent with the literature, such as systematic valvulopathies, corneal opacity, and umbilical hernia; however, storage signs, facial dysmorphic features, and hepatomegaly were more frequent in our series. Screening measures for these debilitating diseases in highly consanguineous at-risk populations must be considered a priority health problem. PMID:27196898

  2. Assessment of radiation protection of patients and staff in interventional procedures in four Algerian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was aimed to assess patient dosimetry in interventional cardiology (IC) and radiology (IR) and radiation safety of the medical operating staff. For this purpose, four major Algerian hospitals were investigated. The data collected cover radiation protection tools assigned to the operating staff and measured radiation doses to some selected patient populations. The analysis revealed that lead aprons are systematically worn by the staff but not lead eye glasses, and only a single personal monitoring badge is assigned to the operating staff. Measured doses to patients exhibited large variations in the maximum skin dose (MSD) and in the dose area product (DAP). The mean MSD registered values are as follows: 0.20, 0.14 and 1.28 Gy in endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP), coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedures, respectively. In PTCA, doses to 3 out of 22 patients (13.6 %) had even reached the threshold value of 2 Gy. The mean DAP recorded values are as follows: 21.6, 60.1 and 126 Gy cm2 in ERCP, CA and PTCA procedures, respectively. Mean fluoroscopic times are 2.5, 5 and 15 min in ERCP, CA and PTCA procedures, respectively. The correlation between DAP and MSD is fair in CA (r = 0.62) and poor in PTCA (r = 0.28). Fluoroscopic time was moderately correlated with DAP in CA (r = 0.55) and PTCA (r = 0.61) procedures. Local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in CA and PTCA procedures have been proposed. In conclusion, this study stresses the need for a continuous patient dose monitoring in interventional procedures with a special emphasis in IC procedures. Common strategies must be undertaken to substantially reduce radiation doses to both patients and medical staff. (authors)

  3. Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I in an Algerian Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebani, Abdellah; Zanoutene-Cheriet, Lahouaria; Adjtoutah, Zoubir; Abily-Donval, Lenaig; Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Laquerrière, Annie; Marret, Stephane; Chalabi Benabdellah, Abla; Bekri, Soumeya

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS’s) represent a subgroup of lysosomal storage diseases related to a deficiency of enzymes that catalyze glycosaminoglycans degradation. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of α-l-iduronidase encoded by the IDUA gene. Partially degraded heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate accumulate progressively and lead to multiorgan dysfunction and damage. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, biochemical, and molecular characteristics of 13 Algerian patients from 11 distinct families. MPS I diagnosis was confirmed by molecular study of the patients’ IDUA gene. Clinical features at the diagnosis and during the follow-up are reported. Eighty-four percent of the studied patients presented with a mild clinical phenotype. Molecular study of the IDUA gene allowed the characterization of four pathological variations at the homozygous or compound heterozygote status: IDUA NM_00203.4:c.1598C>G-p.(Pro533Arg) in 21/26 alleles, IDUA NM_00203.4:c.532G>A-p.(Glu178Lys) in 2/26 alleles, IDUA NM_00203.4:c.501C>G-p.(Tyr167*) in 2/26 alleles, and IDUA NM_00203. 4: c.1743C>G-p.(Tyr581*) in 1/26 alleles. This molecular study unveils the predominance of p.(Pro533Arg) variation in our MPS I patients. In this series, the occurrence of some clinical features linked to the Scheie syndrome is consistent with the literature, such as systematic valvulopathies, corneal opacity, and umbilical hernia; however, storage signs, facial dysmorphic features, and hepatomegaly were more frequent in our series. Screening measures for these debilitating diseases in highly consanguineous at-risk populations must be considered a priority health problem. PMID:27196898

  4. Introducing the Algerian Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Profiles into the North African Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekada, Asmahan; Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente M.; Larruga, José M.; Pestano, José; Benhamamouch, Soraya; González, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    North Africa is considered a distinct geographic and ethnic entity within Africa. Although modern humans originated in this Continent, studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome genealogical markers provide evidence that the North African gene pool has been shaped by the back-migration of several Eurasian lineages in Paleolithic and Neolithic times. More recent influences from sub-Saharan Africa and Mediterranean Europe are also evident. The presence of East-West and North-South haplogroup frequency gradients strongly reinforces the genetic complexity of this region. However, this genetic scenario is beset with a notable gap, which is the lack of consistent information for Algeria, the largest country in the Maghreb. To fill this gap, we analyzed a sample of 240 unrelated subjects from a northwest Algeria cosmopolitan population using mtDNA sequences and Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphisms, focusing on the fine dissection of haplogroups E and R, which are the most prevalent in North Africa and Europe respectively. The Eurasian component in Algeria reached 80% for mtDNA and 90% for Y-chromosome. However, within them, the North African genetic component for mtDNA (U6 and M1; 20%) is significantly smaller than the paternal (E-M81 and E-V65; 70%). The unexpected presence of the European-derived Y-chromosome lineages R-M412, R-S116, R-U152 and R-M529 in Algeria and the rest of the Maghreb could be the counterparts of the mtDNA H1, H3 and V subgroups, pointing to direct maritime contacts between the European and North African sides of the western Mediterranean. Female influx of sub-Saharan Africans into Algeria (20%) is also significantly greater than the male (10%). In spite of these sexual asymmetries, the Algerian uniparental profiles faithfully correlate between each other and with the geography. PMID:23431392

  5. Assessment of radiation protection of patients and staff in interventional procedures in four Algerian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelassi-Toutaoui, N; Toutaoui, A; Merad, A; Sakhri-Brahimi, Z; Baggoura, B; Mansouri, B

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to assess patient dosimetry in interventional cardiology (IC) and radiology (IR) and radiation safety of the medical operating staff. For this purpose, four major Algerian hospitals were investigated. The data collected cover radiation protection tools assigned to the operating staff and measured radiation doses to some selected patient populations. The analysis revealed that lead aprons are systematically worn by the staff but not lead eye glasses, and only a single personal monitoring badge is assigned to the operating staff. Measured doses to patients exhibited large variations in the maximum skin dose (MSD) and in the dose area product (DAP). The mean MSD registered values are as follows: 0.20, 0.14 and 1.28 Gy in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedures, respectively. In PTCA, doses to 3 out of 22 patients (13.6 %) had even reached the threshold value of 2 Gy. The mean DAP recorded values are as follows: 21.6, 60.1 and 126 Gy cm(2) in ERCP, CA and PTCA procedures, respectively. Mean fluoroscopic times are 2.5, 5 and 15 min in ERCP, CA and PTCA procedures, respectively. The correlation between DAP and MSD is fair in CA (r = 0.62) and poor in PTCA (r = 0.28). Fluoroscopic time was moderately correlated with DAP in CA (r = 0.55) and PTCA (r = 0.61) procedures. Local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in CA and PTCA procedures have been proposed. In conclusion, this study stresses the need for a continuous patient dose monitoring in interventional procedures with a special emphasis in IC procedures. Common strategies must be undertaken to substantially reduce radiation doses to both patients and medical staff. PMID:25646525

  6. Evaluation of the Physical Components in Algerian High-School Pupils (16-19 Years): Determination of the Somatotype in Relation to Choice of Sports Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbane, M.; Remaoun, M.; Harchaoui, Y.; Abdelkader, A.; Karrou, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore the somatotype of Algerian high-school pupils of 16-19 years old. Various works in the field of sport have shown that athletic performance is a result of multiple factors that could be classified under psychological, physiological and physical. This last factor relates to the physical aspects. It gathers anthropometric…

  7. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrine Lenchi

    Full Text Available The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations. Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera

  8. Distribution of Natural Radioactivity, 137Cs, 90Sr, and Plutonium Isotopes in a Water Column and Sediment Core along the Algerian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Boudjenoun

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of natural (40K, 210Pb, uranium, and thorium series and artificial radioelements (137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu were determined in seawater and sediment samples collected from stations along the Algerian coast. Seawater was collected from the surface to a maximum depth of 2000 m; the sediment cores were sampled from a depth of around 1500 m. This work was carried out in August 2001, in the framework of the Regional African project /7/004 (RAF, by the accomplishment of an oceanographic campaign organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA in collaboration with Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (COMENA and L'Institut des Sciences de la Mer et de L'Amenagement du Littoral (ISMAL, on board of the research vessel of M.S. Benyahia of ISMAL. In addition to the record of the conductivity (mS and temperature (°C data at each station, seawater samples were treated and preconcentrated on board, those of sediment cores were divided into different layers in order to undergo analyses in the laboratory of radiological impact studies of Algiers. Concentration results were obtained for 137Cs and 90Sr in mBq/L and 239+240Pu in μBq/L in seawater, and also for natural and artificial radionuclides in Bq/kg dry weight in the layers of the sediment cores. The different profiles of 137Cs, 239+240Pu, 90Sr, and 210Pb concentrations against depth were presented to show artificial radioactivity distribution in the water column and sediment core. Concentrations of 137Cs in the sediment core were also used to identify the 137Cs peak in the area of interest.

  9. Using the Messinian and Plio-Quaternary deposits as markers of the vertical motions in the tectonically inverted Algerian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzerzynski, P.; Lofi, J.; Sage-Khadir, F.; Gaullier, V.; Cattaneo, A.; Déverchère, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Algerian margin represents one of the rare examples of tectonically inverted margins worldwide. The inversion is characterized by blind reverse thrust faults dipping landwards the below the continental slope, and by uplift of the coastal domain. The inversion process is active as evidenced by the offshore seismicity of Algeria (2003 Boumerdes earthquake, Mw 6.9); however the onset of inversion is poorly constrained. The morphology of the Algerian margin results from the interplay between tectonic and sedimentation together with periodic sea level changes during Quaternary. A major sea level fall at the end of Miocene marks the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). In this study, we focus on a part of the Algerian margin located west of Algiers: the Khair al Din Bank (KADB). The KADB is a major structure interpreted as a tilted block originated during the opening of the Algerian basin in early Miocene. Because of its weak (low) slope, the sedimentary record all along the continental slope is better preserved than in the rest of the Algerian margin. The aim of this study is to constrain deformation and vertical motion of several sedimentary units in order to quantify the amount of uplift and the timing of inversion. We selected for uplift calculations 6 sedimentary units as follows. Sedimentary units onshore are: the highest marine terrace, the marine-continental transition and the MIS 5.5 uplifted beach. Sedimentary units offshore are: the boundary of the upper Unit of the MSC, and the erosion surfaces of the MIS 6 and MIS 2 sea level lowstand. The age of these units ranges between 5.6 Ma and 20 ka BP and permits to estimate the uplift and uplift rates all along the Plio-Quaternary time. Our interpretation is based on geophysical data acquired in 2003 (Maradja 1 cruise). We describe the main characteristics of the MSC erosion surface, i.e. the initial stage, and the sedimentary evolution during the Plio-Quaternary time. During the MSC sea level lowstand

  10. Identification of Algerian Field-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are known to transmit Leishmania parasites, bacteria and viruses that affect humans and animals in many countries worldwide. Precise sand fly identification is essential to prevent phlebotomine-borne diseases. Over the past two decades, progress in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS has emerged as an accurate tool for arthropod identification. The objective of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for identifying field-caught phlebotomine.Sand flies were captured in four sites in north Algeria. A subset was morphologically and genetically identified. Six species were found in these areas and a total of 28 stored frozen specimens were used for the creation of the reference spectrum database. The relevance of this original method for sand fly identification was validated by two successive blind tests including the morphological identification of 80 new specimens which were stored at -80°C, and 292 unknown specimens, including engorged specimens, which were preserved under different conditions. Intra-species reproducibility and inter-species specificity of the protein profiles were obtained, allowing us to distinguish specimens at the gender level. Querying of the sand fly database using the MS spectra from the blind test groups revealed concordant results between morphological and MALDI-TOF MS identification. However, MS identification results were less efficient for specimens which were engorged or stored in alcohol. Identification of 362 phlebotomine sand flies, captured at four Algerian sites, by MALDI-TOF MS, revealed that the subgenus Larroussius was predominant at all the study sites, except for in M'sila where P. (Phlebotomus papatasi was the only sand fly species detected.The present study highlights the application of MALDI-TOF MS for monitoring sand fly fauna captured in the field. The low cost, reliability and

  11. Optimization, selection and feasibility study of solar parabolic trough power plants for Algerian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    study proposes Tamanrasset, as the best location for erection of a parabolic trough solar thermal power plant with a low LCOE of 7.55 ¢/kW h, and a high annual power generation (more than 266 GW h). According to the feasibility analysis, the semi-arid and arid Algerian sites are suitable for realization of PTSTPP with integrated TES and FBS; especially the southern locations (19°N–32°N, 8°W–12°E)

  12. Identification of Algerian Field-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors by MALDI-TOF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; Almeras, Lionel; Bitam, Idir; Caputo, Aurelia; Yssouf, Amina; Forestier, Claire-Lise; Izri, Arezki; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Phlebotomine sand flies are known to transmit Leishmania parasites, bacteria and viruses that affect humans and animals in many countries worldwide. Precise sand fly identification is essential to prevent phlebotomine-borne diseases. Over the past two decades, progress in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as an accurate tool for arthropod identification. The objective of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for identifying field-caught phlebotomine. Methodology/Principal Findings Sand flies were captured in four sites in north Algeria. A subset was morphologically and genetically identified. Six species were found in these areas and a total of 28 stored frozen specimens were used for the creation of the reference spectrum database. The relevance of this original method for sand fly identification was validated by two successive blind tests including the morphological identification of 80 new specimens which were stored at -80°C, and 292 unknown specimens, including engorged specimens, which were preserved under different conditions. Intra-species reproducibility and inter-species specificity of the protein profiles were obtained, allowing us to distinguish specimens at the gender level. Querying of the sand fly database using the MS spectra from the blind test groups revealed concordant results between morphological and MALDI-TOF MS identification. However, MS identification results were less efficient for specimens which were engorged or stored in alcohol. Identification of 362 phlebotomine sand flies, captured at four Algerian sites, by MALDI-TOF MS, revealed that the subgenus Larroussius was predominant at all the study sites, except for in M’sila where P. (Phlebotomus) papatasi was the only sand fly species detected. Conclusion The present study highlights the application of MALDI-TOF MS for monitoring sand fly fauna captured in the field

  13. Learner and Teacher Readiness for Constructivism in the Algerian EFL Classroom: The Case of 3rd Year Literary Classrooms in Colonel Abd Elhadi Secondary School (Sidi Bel-Abbes)

    OpenAIRE

    KHELIFI, Khayreddine

    2014-01-01

    By the rise of the twenty first century, the Algerian educational system was reformed adopting the Competency-Based Approach inspired from constructivist learning theory. Thus, the aim of this work was to explore, through a case study design, the readiness of both learners and teachers for constructivism in the Algerian EFL classroom (3rd year literary classrooms). The analysis and triangulation of the data obtained from a set of research instruments (learners’ questionnaire, t...

  14. Active Deformation Along the Algerian Margin (MARADJA Cruise): Framework of the May 21, 2003, Mw-6.8 Boumerdes Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverchère, J.; Yelles, K.; Calais, E.

    2003-12-01

    The May 21, 2003, Mw=6.8 Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria) ruptured a ˜60 km long fault, previously unknown, located a few km off the coast of Algeria, causing major damage and casualties on land. The MARADJA cruise (Suroit R/V, Aug.-Sept. 2003), dedicated to a survey of the Algerian margin in order to determine its present-day tectonic regime and identify potentially active faults, allowed for a detailed study of the Boumerdes earthquake rupture area. From a high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and back-scattering data, 3.5 kHz profiles (Chirp), 6 and 24-channel seismic reflection lines, we produced the first detailed morpho-tectonic map of the central Algerian margin and deep basin. The margin and the proximal part of the deep basin show a series of north-verging reverse faults and folds, probably developping over south-dipping ramps. The northern front of this compressional deformation zone reaches ˜20 km into the deep basin, where it interacts with salt-related deformation of the Messinian evaporites, possibly gravity driven in part, widespread in the deep basin. In the area of the May 21, 2003, earthquake, we found active fault scarps delineating a ˜60 km long fault zone at the bottom of the continental slope and at midslope, ˜17 km offshore and roughly parallel to the coast. The fault consists of at least two major segments striking N65 and N71. It might represent the place of rupture of the Boumerdes earthquake. Its location is consistent with the aftershock distribution and with preliminary dislocation models based on GPS data and uplfit observations onland. The MARADJA Scientific Party: Bouillin J-P., Bracene R., Gaullier V., Kherroubi A., Mercier de Lepinay B., Le Roy P., Pauc H., Savoye B.

  15. Calibration of survey meters at the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, which became a Regional AFRA Designated Centre for French spoken countries, in the field of calibration since 2005, has developed and implemented methodologies for the calibration of radiation protection instruments such as survey meters. These instruments were initially calibrated in terms of air kerma free in air (NK) in 60Co, 137Cs gamma radiations. Although the recommended calibration quantity is H*(10) (Sv/h), most of instruments measure different physical quantities and problems about the expression of calibration factor in the calibration certificates are always raised. In order to switch to calibrations in terms of H*(10), a feasibility study was performed using instruments submitted for calibration at the SSDL. This paper presents the variation of the calibration coefficients, Fc, obtained since 2005 for three types of survey meters. The uncertainty components involved in the determination of Fc are analysed in details. Material and method: This study included the most used survey meters in Algeria and received at the SSDL in 2005 and 2006 which consist of 127 survey-meters of type Automess (different models), 80 Ludlum model 3 and 23 Graetz X 5 DE. Calibrations were performed using the beam output decay method. This output was determined with the Reference Standard chamber of type NE 2575 in 2005 and LS01 in 2006, both calibrated at the IAEA calibration laboratory. The average calibration coefficients, Fc, which converts the instruments reading to ambient equivalent absorbed dose, are calculated and the relative standard deviations assessed. The variation of calibration coefficients, for each type of instruments, is compared to the overall stated uncertainty for this coefficient. Results and discussion: The mean calibration coefficients in terms of H*(10) were lying from 0.993 ± 2.55% and 1.039 ± 3.16% for the Automess survey meters and from . The results are 1.215 ± 5.93%, 1.149 ± 14

  16. Algerian mint species: high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmi Fatiha; Madani Khodir; Stévigny Caroline; Chibane Mohamed; Duez Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints, Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata), Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation. Methods: The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform: acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v) as the mobile phase....

  17. «I shall Intervene, With Nomad Memory and Intermittent Voice»: Resurrecting Collective Memory in Assia Djebar’s Fantasia, an Algerian Cavalcade

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Salem, Lobna

    2011-01-01

    In Assia Djebar’s war narratives, it is women’s voices and experiences that are at the centre of narration, in contrast to traditional male-centred narratives of war and conflict. In Fantasia,an Algerian Cavalcade, there are multiple female protagonists, survivors of independence war, who, through storytelling, present shifting perspectives and a multiplicity of voices that contest monological historical versions. By reassembling the fragments of individual identities, lost and forgotten by h...

  18. Morphologic and structural evolution of the Algerian Margin since Messinian (-6 Myr); First results of a new experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, S.; Strzerzynski, P.; Déverchère, J.; Boudiaf, A.; Yelles, K.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of the ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche) DANACOR Project, dedicated to the seismo-tectonic study of the Algerian Margin, we have developed an experimental approach based on a new type of analog models to investigate its morpho-structural evolution over the last 6 Myr. Present day structure of the Algerian margin results from a polyphased geologic evolution starting, during Late Oligocene, with the opening of the Western Mediterranean Sea. During lower Miocene, back-arc extension and slab roll-back, associated to the Tethyan oceanic subduction induced accretion of the Kabylian crustal blocks against the North African passive margin. At the end of Miocene, a main tectono-climatic event occurred, the Messinian salinity crisis, that left a significant footprint on the marine sedimentation and coastal morphology. Finally, during Upper Pliocene and Quaternary, due to the ongoing crustal convergence between Africa and Eurasia, the Algerian Margin experienced active compression as shown by north dipping thrusts located onland (Yelles et al., 2006) and south dipping reverse faults located at sea (Déverchère et al. 2005, Domzig et al., 2006). The occurrence of moderate to strong compressive earthquakes, such as the Boumerdes earthquake (Mw 6.9, 2003) indicates that the deformation is still active. In such a context, the objectives of our study are to evaluate the impact of the Messinian salinity crisis on the morphological and sedimentological evolution of the margin and to test different hypothesis concerning the recent compressive tectonic event that developed in the last millions years and more particularly how it affects the margin and coastal domain tectonics. To model a whole continental margin, we've modified a recent experimental technique developed initially to study the interactions between Tectonics-Erosion-Sedimentation (TES) in active mountain foreland (Graveleau and Dominguez, 2008). Erosion of emerged topographies (coastal domain) is

  19. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become in...... considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  20. E-learning in engineering education: a theoretical and empirical study of the Algerian higher education institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchicou, Soraya; Aichouni, Mohamed; Nehari, Driss

    2010-06-01

    Technology-mediated education or e-learning is growing globally both in scale and delivery capacity due to the large diffusion of the ubiquitous information and communication technologies (ICT) in general and the web technologies in particular. This statement has not yet been fully supported by research, especially in developing countries such as Algeria. The purpose of this paper was to identify directions for addressing the needs of academics in higher education institutions in Algeria in order to adopt the e-learning approach as a strategy to improve quality of education. The paper will report results of an empirical study that measures the readiness of the Algerian higher education institutions towards the implementation of ICT in the educational process and the attitudes of faculty members towards the application of the e-learning approach in engineering education. Three main objectives were targeted, namely: (a) to provide an initial evaluation of faculty members' attitudes and perceptions towards web-based education; (b) reporting on their perceived requirements for implementing e-learning in university courses; (c) providing an initial input for a collaborative process of developing an institutional strategy for e-learning. Statistical analysis of the survey results indicates that the Algerian higher education institution, which adopted the Licence - Master and Doctorate educational system, is facing a big challenge to take advantage of emerging technological innovations and the advent of e-learning to further develop its teaching programmes and to enhance the quality of education in engineering fields. The successful implementation of this modern approach is shown to depend largely on a set of critical success factors that would include: 1. The extent to which the institution will adopt a formal and official e-learning strategy. 2. The extent to which faculty members will adhere and adopt this strategy and develop ownership of the various measures in the

  1. Ministerial Presentation: Algeria. Intervention of the Algerian Delegation [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of Mr Chakib Khelil, Minister of Energy and Mining, I would like to congratulate the Chinese authorities for their warm hospitality and excellent organization of the work of this important conference, in which he regrets being unable to participate owing to prior engagements. The Algerian delegation would also like to take this opportunity of expressing its appreciation to the co-organizers - the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency - for this highly useful discussion on the challenges of nuclear energy. As highlighted by the Chinese Vice Premier at the opening session and all the speakers, including the Director General of the IAEA and the Secretary-General of the OECD, nuclear energy is a credible and sustainable alternative not only to meet growing electricity needs up to 2030 and beyond, but also to preserve the environment and fossil fuels. Algeria's move towards renewable energy and nuclear energy is part of this global energy transition phase, which has led it to favour strongly sustainable energy development based on diversification of national energy supply, taking into account its uranium reserves and its renewable energy potential. This national energy mix policy involves renewable energy reaching 10% of national electricity output by 2020, in addition to nuclear power with the commissioning of a nuclear power plant expected in 2025. In this context, priority is given to training of human resources, R and D and local integration as regards equipment and services. This strategy has been fully integrated into the socio-economic development programmes adopted by the Algerian Government which focus on the following main areas: Development and conservation of hydrocarbon resources; Development of the use of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, which are less polluting energy sources that are widely available in Algeria, to reduce reliance on petroleum products; Promotion of renewable energy, particularly

  2. Evaluation of ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima isolated from the Algerian to Jijel province poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemai, Samir; Mekroud, Abdeslam; Jenkins, Mark C

    2016-07-15

    The present study represents the first description of ionophore resistance in recovered from commercial Algerian (Jijel-Algeria) broiler farms. Microscopy and intervening transcribed sequence 1 PCR (ITS1 PCR) revealed only 2 Eimeria species present in litter from these farms- namely Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima. A pool of these isolates were evaluated in broiler chickens (Cobb 500) for sensitivity to 5 anticoccidial compounds-diclazuril (1ppm), lasalocid (125ppm), monensin (125ppm), narasin (70ppm) and salinomycin (60ppm). As indicated by anticoccidial sensitivity profiles based on lesion scores and anticoccidial index (ACI), complete resistance to monensin and narasin, partial resistance to salinomycin and lasalocid, and complete sensitivity to diclazuril was observed. While lack of sensitivity to monensin is not surprising given its use for years as the sole anticoccidial compound, the resistance to monoether (narasin) and polyether (lasalocid) ionophores suggests that cross-resistance has developed in a segment of the Eimeria population. The fairly uniform Eimeria species composition among all poultry farms suggests that E. acervulina and E. maxima more rapidly develop resistance to ionophore drugs. PMID:27270394

  3. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Launaea lanifera Pau grown in Algerian arid steppes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarek; Benmeddour; Hocine; Laouer; Salah; Akkal; Guido; Flamini

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the essential oil composition and the antibacterial activity of an Algerian endemic plant, Launaea lanifera Pau(L. lanifera), grown in arid steppe regions.Methods: L. lanifera essential oil was isolated from aerial parts by steam distillation and its chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatographyflame ionization detector and gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry. Furthermore, its in vitro antibacterial activity against four bacterial strains was tested following the agar disk diffusion method.Results: This species had a very low essential oil yield(0.005%). Twenty-four(92.6%)individual components were identified. The main constituents were hexahydrofarnesyl acetone(31.6%),(E)-b-ionone(8.5%),(E)-b-damascenone(7.0%), 2-methyltetradecane(3.8%), n-heptadecane(3.8%), limonene(2.8%) and b-caryophyllene(2.8%). No noteworthy antimicrobial activity was observed on the tested bacteria, neither Gram negative nor Gram positive.Conclusions: This is the first report on the volatile constituents and antibacterial activity of L. lanifera. The studied essential oil does not possess significant activity against the tested microorganisms.

  4. Study of hydrogen production by three strains of Chlorella isolated from the soil in the Algerian Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chader, Samira [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables Bouzareah, BP 62, Alger (Algeria); Hacene, Hocine [Laboratory of Microbiology, USTHB, BP 32, Alger (Algeria); Agathos, Spiros N. [Unit of Bioengineering, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, the photosynthetic hydrogen production rates by some strains of green microalgae were investigated. Three strains of Chlorella isolated from arid soil and foggaras's water in the Algerian Sahara were used. Chlorella sorokiniana strain Ce, Chlorella salina strain Mt and Chlorella sp strain Pt6 produced hydrogen gas under sulphur-deprived conditions, but its rate was dependent on strain type and oxygen partial pressure in medium. In C. sorokiniana strain Ce, the maximum value of hydrogen accumulated was 147 ml at 222 h at 2% of O{sub 2} pressure. Compared to C. sorokiniana strain Ce, C. salina strain Mt and Chlorella sp strain Pt6 produced less amount of hydrogen, but they were able to sustain with an O{sub 2} partial pressure of up to 11-15.4%. Our data were compared with hydrogen production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In this communication, the relationship between physiological behaviour, biochemical characteristic (starch and protein) and rates gas production (O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}) was also specified. (author)

  5. Isolation, Structural Characterization, and Valorization of Pectic Substances from Algerian Argan Tree Leaves (Argania spinosa (L. Skeels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadda Hachem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectic polysaccharides were solubilized from Algerian argan tree leaves by sequential extraction with water at 100°C (water-soluble pectin; AL-WSP and EDTA solution at 80°C (chelating-soluble pectin; AL-CSP. Both AL-WSP and AL-CSP were rich in arabinose (28% and 74.5%, resp. and had a high content of uronic acid (38.5% and 21.5%, resp.. Pectic substances were deesterified and fractionated by anion exchange chromatography, giving five fractions for each extract. Most of the fractions were characterized by methylation analysis and then analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that AL-WSP consisted of rhamnogalacturonan type I, with arabinan and galactan branching at the O-4 position of the main rhamnose chain, while AL-CSP consisted of rhamnogalacturonan type I and a block of homogalacturonan. Antioxidant activities of AL-WSP and AL-CSP were evaluated by electronic spin resonance. The results showed that the antioxidant potential of AL-WSP (8.1% and AL-CSP (−1.2% was significantly lower than that of vitamin E.

  6. Estimation of canine Leishmania infection prevalence in six cities of the Algerian littoral zone using a Bayesian approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Adel

    Full Text Available A large-scale study on canine Leishmania infection (CanL was conducted in six localities along a west-east transect in the Algerian littoral zone (Tlemcen, Mostaganem, Tipaza, Boumerdes, Bejaia, Jijel and covering two sampling periods. In total 2,184 dogs were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT and a direct agglutination test (DAT. Combined multiple-testing and several statistical methods were compared to estimate the CanL true prevalence and tests characteristics (sensitivity and specificity. The Bayesian full model showed the best fit and yielded prevalence estimates between 11% (Mostaganem, first period and 38% (Bejaia, second period. Sensitivity of IFAT varied (in function of locality between 86% and 88% while its specificity varied between 65% and 87%. DAT was less sensitive than IFAT but showed a higher specificity (between 80% and 95% in function of locality or/and season. A general increasing trend of the CanL prevalence was noted from west to east. A concordance between the present results and the incidence of human cases of visceral leishmaniasis was observed, where also a maximum was recorded for Bejaia. The results of the present study highlight the dangers when using IFAT as a gold standard.

  7. Estimation of canine Leishmania infection prevalence in six cities of the Algerian littoral zone using a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Amel; Abatih, Emmanuel; Speybroeck, Niko; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Bouguedour, Rachid; Boughalem, Karim; Bouhbal, Abdelmalek; Djerbal, Mouloud; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale study on canine Leishmania infection (CanL) was conducted in six localities along a west-east transect in the Algerian littoral zone (Tlemcen, Mostaganem, Tipaza, Boumerdes, Bejaia, Jijel) and covering two sampling periods. In total 2,184 dogs were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT). Combined multiple-testing and several statistical methods were compared to estimate the CanL true prevalence and tests characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). The Bayesian full model showed the best fit and yielded prevalence estimates between 11% (Mostaganem, first period) and 38% (Bejaia, second period). Sensitivity of IFAT varied (in function of locality) between 86% and 88% while its specificity varied between 65% and 87%. DAT was less sensitive than IFAT but showed a higher specificity (between 80% and 95% in function of locality or/and season). A general increasing trend of the CanL prevalence was noted from west to east. A concordance between the present results and the incidence of human cases of visceral leishmaniasis was observed, where also a maximum was recorded for Bejaia. The results of the present study highlight the dangers when using IFAT as a gold standard. PMID:25793942

  8. Distribution of Natural Radioactivity, 137Cs, 90Sr, and Plutonium Isotopes in a Water Column and Sediment Core along the Algerian Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine, A; M. BENKRID; R. Maoui; Menacer, M.; R. BOUDJENOUN

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of natural (40K, 210Pb, uranium, and thorium series) and artificial radioelements (137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu) were determined in seawater and sediment samples collected from stations along the Algerian coast. Seawater was collected from the surface to a maximum depth of 2000 m; the sediment cores were sampled from a depth of around 1500 m. This work was carried out in August 2001, in the framework of the Regional African project /7/004 (RAF), by the accomplishment of an oceanogra...

  9. Multiphased tectonic evolution of the Central Algerian margin from combined wide-angle and reflection seismic data off Tipaza, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Leprêtre, Angélique; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Graindorge, David; Schnurle, Philippe; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Yelles, Karim; Déverchère, Jacques; Bracene, Rabah

    2013-01-01

    [1] The origin of the Algerian margin remains one of the key questions still discussed in the Western Mediterranean sea, due to the imprecise nature and kinematics of the associated basin during the Neogene. For the first time, the deep structure of the Maghrebian margin was explored during the SPIRAL seismic survey. In this work, we present a N-S transect off Tipaza (west of Algiers), a place where the margin broadens due to a topographic high (Khayr-al-Din Bank). New deep penetration seismi...

  10. Radionuclide tracing of water masses and processes in the water column and sediment in the Algerian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noureddine, A.; Benkrid, M.; Maoui, R.; Menacer, M.; Boudjenoun, R. [Laboratoire des Etudes d' Impact Radiologique, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, Alger-Gare, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Kadi-hanifi, M. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Bab-Ezzouar (Algeria); Lee, S.-H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Division of Metrology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Povinec, P.P. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Mlynska dolina F-1, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)], E-mail: Povinec@fmph.uniba.sk

    2008-08-15

    Caesium-137 and {sup 239,240}PU were analysed in the water column along the Algerian coast. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in surface water increased from the west to the east from 1.6 to 3.3 mBq L{sup -1}, documenting a presence of Modified Atlantic Water (MAW) in the region. Higher concentrations observed in deep waters may be due to an intrusion of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), which has been carrying higher levels of {sup 137}Cs from Chernobyl accident. The {sup 239,240}Pu sub-surface concentration peaked at about 250 m water depth as a result of biogeochemical processes in the water column. The observed {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratio at the surface (0.003) was significantly lower than that in global fallout (0.04). This decrease exceeds that expected from radioactive decay of {sup 137}Cs, and confirms that Pu due to its adsorption on sinking particles is more effectively removed from surface layers than is {sup 137}Cs. An increase of the {sup 239,240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratio with depth suggests that {sup 239,240}Pu, similarly as {sup 137}Cs, should be also transported by advection to maintain the observed ratios in deep waters. An intrusion of LIW may enhance therefore both the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu concentrations in deep waters. The average {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239+240}Pu activity ratio in seawater was 0.03 {+-} 0.02, confirming a global fallout origin of Pu in the Algerian Basin. Caesium-137 and {sup 239,240}Pu inventories in the water column were estimated to be from 2.7 {+-} 0.5 kBq m{sup -2} to 3.8 {+-} 0.7 kBq m{sup -2}, and from 13.8 {+-} 2.6 Bq m{sup -2} to 41 {+-} 7 Bq m{sup -2}, respectively. The {sup 137}Cs massic activities in surface sediment were almost constant, the average activity was 9.0 {+-} 0.8 Bq kg{sup -1}. Sedimentation rates obtained using the {sup 210}Pb method were from 0.1 to 0.7 cm y{sup -1}, and resulting penetration depths of {sup 137}Cs in the sediment cores were from 15 to over 40 cm. The

  11. Tectonic Inversion of the Algerian Continental Margin off Great Kabylia (North Algeria) - Insights from new MCS data (SPIRAL cruise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidi, Chafik; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Yelles-Chaouche, Karim; Ribodetti, Alessandra; Bracene, Rabah; Schenini, Laure; Djellit, Hamou; Sage, Françoise; Déverchère, Jacques; Medaouri, Mourad; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Abtout, Abdeslam; Charvis, Philippe; Bounif, Abdallah

    2014-05-01

    Sub-marine active faulting threatens the coastline of Algeria, as shown by the major Mw 6.9 May 21, 2003 earthquake that occurred in Great Kabylia close to Boumerdes. We present here the structures associated to the Plio-Quaternary (P-Q) tectonic inversion of the central part of the Algerian margin offshore Great Kabylia using new deep multichannel seismic (MCS) lines. Five MCS lines were acquired in the study area during the Algerian-French SPIRAL cruise (September 2009, R/V Atalante). Four lines were acquired using a 3040 cu. in. air-gun array and a 4.5 km 360 channel digital streamer and a 8350 cu. in. source favoring deep penetration was used for one coincident WAS profile and the fifth MCS line. All profiles are pre-stack time migrated and additional pre-stack depth migration was performed in key areas. The MCS lines crosscut the margin from the upper slope to the deep Algero-Provençal Basin either in a N-S direction sub-perpendicular to the structural trend of the margin, or in a NW-SE direction parallel to the actual convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates. Tectonic inversion is expressed on all profiles at the deep margin. The eastern line displays a flat-ramp compressive system in the deep sedimentary series, which emerges at the foot of the continental slope and marks the seaward limit of a P-Q basin perched at mid-slope. The south-dipping ramps are neo-formed structures, whereas the flats use inherited lithologic discontinuities (base of the Messinian evaporitic series, top of the acoustic basement). Westward in the Boumerdes area, the compressive deformation is expressed deeper in the acoustic basement where a southward dipping reflector is interpreted as a blind thrust on top of which all the sedimentary series (Miocene to P-Q) are bent in an antiform that uplifts the base of the Messinian series. A second antiform prolongates this uplift 20 km northward although no clear reverse structure is imaged underneath. These antiforms delimit two

  12. THE STRUCTURES OF BREEDING DAIRY CATTLE IN THE SAHARA: THE STATUS IN THE M’ZAB VALLEY (SOUTHERN ALGERIAN SHARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BENSAHA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The dairy milk sector is a strategic sector in the Algerian agriculture with 2.39 billion liters in 2009, 2.7 billion in 2010 and 2.93 billion in 2011. The milk collection reached 572 million liters in 2011. The enthusiasm for milk production in the M’zab valley led to the creation of many cattle farms. The objective of this study is to investigate the dairy cattle infrastructures and its impacts on milk production. The conducted through a questionnaire over 53 farms representing 57.7% of the exploitations in the M’zab valley. The results show that 25% of farms have mechanical means for milking (milking trolley and that 92% of buildings are equipped with troughs in a poor condition and do not meet accepted standards. All farms surveyed practice stalls. 32.92% of the buildings are designed with unsuited materials (tin, zinc, shrubs trunks, etc., 49.88% are designed with a blend of modern (blocks and traditional (Reeds, Diss materials, and 17.20% are built with hard poles, walls in cement mortar and asbestos cement roof. The sanitary and hygienic appearance is a function of investments, which are supported by state subsidies in the context of the promotion of the dairy industry. This investigation gave rise to a set of proposals for the upgrading and modernization of the dairy cattle infrastructures, which meet specific climatic conditions, in order to improve the quality and the quantity of milk production in the region of the M’zab Valley with specific climatic conditions.

  13. Comparison of solar radiation models and their validation under Algerian climate – The case of direct irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We focus on solar energy assessment where measurements are not available. • Seventeen broadband models have been reviewed, and then evaluated. • Predictions have been compared with measured data of Gherdaia, Algeria. • Simple models that require few inputs perform better than some complex models. • ASHRAE predicts the DNI with good accuracy, particularly in developing countries. - Abstract: The accurate prediction of direct solar irradiance is essential in many solar energy applications, particularly those relying on concentrating solar technologies. The present paper is aimed at a detailed assessment of a large range of clear-sky solar radiation models under Algerian climate to select the more accurate one for estimating the performance of solar power projects where meteorological and radiometric measurement stations are not available. To this end, seventeen models have been reviewed and their performance compared to measured irradiance of Ghardaia (Southern Algeria). The validation methodology presented herein is very helpful for ranking the models. A new statistical accuracy indicator has been originally introduced to find out the most accurate ones. A thorough analysis of selected models has shown that the more complex models, that seem at first sight more sophisticated, are not necessary the most accurate; while simpler models depending on a limited number of parameters are more suitable. In other words, the suitability and accuracy of a model do not necessarily improve with an increase in the number of its parameters. This important finding is in good agreement with the previous published studies. This fact is important to take into account, in the case where measured data are not available, for the selection of the most suitable locations for the installation of the future concentrating solar power plants in Algeria or even in other countries

  14. Physiological damage in Algerian mouse Mus spretus (Rodentia, Muridae) exposed to crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio M.R. Da Silva Júnior; RITA I. MONARCA; DEODÁLIA DIAS; MARIA G. RAMALHINHO; MARIA L. MATHIAS; Ana L. Muccillo-Baisch

    2012-01-01

    Small mammals have been used to predict ecotoxicological damage caused by metals in field studies and laboratory exposure. In natural ecosystems, rodents play an important role either as seed dispersers or food providers for various predators since they represent intermediate links in the food chain. Several studies have already focused on the effects of metals on wild rodents, but data provided on the effects of organic contaminants, such as crude oil, are scarce. Among the possible biologic...

  15. Algerian Economy and Multilateral Trading System: Why Is It So Hard to Join the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayreddine Belaaze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to provide a overview on different stages of the negotiations with World Trade Organization, since 1987 date of submission the application for accession, Algeria still trying to snatch accession card with minimum cost, where it tries to provide small guarantees, but some WTO members raises reservations over some issues like aspects related to investment, for example: the Rule of 49/51, and domestic component, prevention of exporting, besides the agricultural issue which takes advantage of domestic subsidies and exporting subsides, also services industry knows low degree of openness, especially In some sensitive areas such as financial services, telecommunications.

  16. The Algerian Foreign Trade between the Multilateral Trading System and the Regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayreddine Belaaze

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims at highlighting a major challenge facing global trade and trade in developing countries. Indeed, regional and preferential trade agreements are now more than ever inconsistent and incoherent and one of the principles of the World Trade Organization, the clause of the most favored nation requiring eliminated all forms of discrimination between trading parties, but what we see in regional trade agreements that the preferential tariffs based on a principle of discrimination. All regional trade agreements granting preferential tariffs between member countries, these preferences do not include the remains of non-member countries (rest of world. On the other hand, preferential tariffs are lower than MFN rates. Meanwhile, the number of regional agreements has doubled since 1995 date creation of the WTO, and Algeria like other developing countries considered one of countries which have not benefit a lot from this situation.

  17. Freeze-dried radiation sterilized human amniotic membrane in the treatment of burn wound - Algerian experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out in order to evaluate the usefulness of human amniotic membrane as a biological dressing and its efficacy in the management of bum wound. Fresh human amniotic membranes were procured from donors exempted of any infection. We reported the practical methods of collection, preparation and preservation by freeze-drying. Radiation sterilisation was applied to freeze-dried human arymiotic membrane, doubly packed in polyethylene bags. Sterility control was carried out in two steps: i) Bacteriological test done on three representative samples of each batch. ii) Viability control of a radioresistant micro-organism: B. pimulus E601. The methodology of clinical application was reported. Eighty patients were treated as outpatients in the Bums Centre 'Sidi Bennour', Algiers. Pain, infection, and the progress of healing were monitored. Covering the wound with the amniotic membrane showed some good results in ten-ns of increased rate of healing, pain relief and absence of infection. It is concluded that freeze-dried radiation sterilized human amniotic membrane should be more widely used in the treatment of bum wound in respect to its good therapeutic effect

  18. Screening for Genes Coding for Putative Antitumor Compounds, Antimicrobial and Enzymatic Activities from Haloalkalitolerant and Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria Strains of Algerian Sahara Soils

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    Okba Selama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environments may often contain unusual bacterial groups whose physiology is distinct from those of normal environments. To satisfy the need for new bioactive pharmaceuticals compounds and enzymes, we report here the isolation of novel bacteria from an extreme environment. Thirteen selected haloalkalitolerant and haloalkaliphilic bacteria were isolated from Algerian Sahara Desert soils. These isolates were screened for the presence of genes coding for putative antitumor compounds using PCR based methods. Enzymatic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined by using cultural dependant methods. Several of these isolates are typical of desert and alkaline saline soils, but, in addition, we report for the first time the presence of a potential new member of the genus Nocardia with particular activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition to their haloalkali character, the presence of genes coding for putative antitumor compounds, combined with the antimicrobial activity against a broad range of indicator strains and their enzymatic potential, makes them suitable for biotechnology applications.

  19. Algerian hydrocarbon magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algeria is the world's seventh largest gas producer and currently boasts one of the biggest gas fields - Hassi R'Mel -discovered to date. Recording the highest number of oil and gas discoveries anywhere in the world in 1994, the country is proving to be a magnet for foreign oil companies despite its continued political instability and the security risks posed by Islamic fundamentalists. Some 40,000 lives have been lost since Islamic militants began fighting the government in 1992, including a number of foreign journalists and two foreign pipeline workers. (author)

  20. Glider and satellite high resolution monitoring of a mesoscale eddy in the Algerian basin: effects on the mixed layer depth and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotroneo, Yuri; Aulicino, Giuseppe; Ruiz, Simón; Pascual, Ananda; Budillon, Giorgio; Fusco, Giannetta; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2016-04-01

    Despite of the extensive bibliography about the circulation of the Mediterranean Sea and its sub-basins, the debate on mesoscale dynamics and its impacts on biochemical processes is still open because of their intrinsic time scales and of the difficulties in sampling. In order to clarify some of these processes, the "Algerian BAsin Circulation Unmanned Survey - ABACUS" project was proposed and realized through access to JERICO Trans National Access (TNA) infrastructures between September and December 2014. In this framework, a deep glider cruise was carried out in the area between Balearic Islands and Algerian coasts to establish an endurance line for monitoring the basin circulation. During the mission, a mesoscale eddy, identified on satellite altimetry maps, was sampled at high-spatial horizontal resolution (4 km) along its main axes and from surface to 1000 m depth. Data were collected by a Slocum glider equipped with a pumped CTD and biochemical sensors that collected about 100 complete casts inside the eddy. In order to describe the structure of the eddy, in situ data were merged with new generation remotely sensed data as daily synoptic sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll concentration (Chl-a) images from MODIS satellites as well as sea surface height and geostrophic velocities from AVISO. From its origin along the Algerian coast in the eastern part of the basin, the eddy propagated to north-west at a mean speed of about 4 km/day with a mean diameter of 112/130 km, a mean elevation of 15.7 cm and clearly distinguished by the surrounding waters thanks to its higher SST and Chl-a values. Temperature and salinity values along the water column confirm the origin of the eddy from the AC showing the presence of recent Atlantic water in the surface layer and Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in the deeper layer. Eddy footprint is clearly evident in the multiparametric vertical sections conducted along its main axes. Deepening of temperature, salinity and

  1. The Impact of Knowledge-based Economy on the Development of Innovation in Services: Case of Algerian Banks and Insurance Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherchem Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature that exists on the contents of the Knowledge Based-Economy (KBE, concept approaches you through different themes distinguished as: knowledge and information, cooperation and coordination of public and private actors and KBE, human resources and KBE, Technology Information and Communication in the knowledge economy and innovation in services. We found that innovation and service are the pillars for the development of KBE. Indicators of the knowledge economy are most frequently the manufacturing industry. The role of services in the innovation process has been long regarded as secondary. Yet innovation is affecting more and more service activities.The objective of this work is to link these two issues by focusing on the issue of innovation in services and The KBE. An empirical study allows us to evaluate and estimate the perceptions of banks and insurance Algerian public to the concept of the KBE and innovation as well as responsible attitudes towards new products and services and The KBE. This paper works to shed light on this issue.

  2. Algerian mint species: high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

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    Brahmi Fatiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints, Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata, Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation. Methods: The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform: acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method. Results: Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1 000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox® equivalents as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  3. Algerian mint species:high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brahmi Fatiha; Madani Khodir; Stvigny Caroline; Chibane Mohamed; Duez Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints,Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata), Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation.Methods:The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform:acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v) as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method.Results:Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively). The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox®equivalents) as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation.Conclusions:Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  4. A novel killer protein from Pichia kluyveri isolated from an Algerian soil: purification and characterization of its in vitro activity against food and beverage spoilage yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbani, Fatima-Zohra Kenza; Turchetti, Benedetta; Bennamoun, Leila; Dakhmouche, Scheherazad; Roberti, Rita; Corazzi, Lanfranco; Meraihi, Zahia; Buzzini, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    A novel killer protein (Pkkp) secreted by a Pichia kluyveri strain isolated from an Algerian soil was active against food and beverage spoilage yeasts of the genera Dekkera, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, Saccharomyces, Torulaspora, Wickerhamomyces and Zygosaccharomyces. After purification by gel filtration chromatography Pkkp revealed an apparent molecular mass of 54 kDa with SDS-PAGE. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of purified Pkkp exhibited a high in vitro activity against Dekkera bruxellensis (MICs from 64,000- to 256,000-fold lower than that exhibited by potassium metabisulphite) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MICs from 32,000- to 64,000- fold lower than potassium sorbate). No in vitro synergistic interactions (calculated by FIC index - Σ FIC) were observed when Pkkp was used in combination with potassium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, or ethanol. Pkkp exhibited a dose-response effect against D. bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae in a low-alcoholic drink and fruit juice, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that Pkkp could be proposed as a novel food-grade compound useful for the control of food and beverage spoilage yeasts. PMID:25618417

  5. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off and promotion of tomato plant growth by endophytic actinomycetes isolated from native plants of Algerian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudjal, Yacine; Toumatia, Omrane; Yekkour, Amine; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Mathieu, Florence; Zitouni, Abdelghani

    2014-01-20

    Thirty-four endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from the roots of native plants of the Algerian Sahara. Morphological and chemical studies showed that twenty-nine isolates belonged to the Streptomyces genus and five were non-Streptomyces. All isolates were screened for their in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. The six that had the greatest pathogen inhibitory capacities were subsequently tested for their in vivo biocontrol potential on R. solani damping-off in sterilized and non-sterilized soils, and for their plant-growth promoting activities on tomato seedlings. In both soils, coating tomato seeds with antagonistic isolates significantly reduced (Pdamping-off of tomato seedlings. Among the isolates tested, the strains CA-2 and AA-2 exhibited the same disease incidence reduction as thioperoxydicarbonic diamide, tetramethylthiram (TMTD) and no significant differences (Pseed-treated seedlings compared to the control. The taxonomic position based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies indicated that the strains CA-2 and AA-2 were related to Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T) (100% of similarity) and Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus JCM 4364(T) (100% of similarity), respectively. PMID:23920229

  6. Radioactivity Distribution In Surface And Core Sediment Of The Central Part Of The Algerian Coast: An Estimation Of The Recent Sedimentation Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NOUREDDINE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sediment core samples and marine surface sediments of identical composition, mostly muddy, were collected using a Van Veen type grab and a box corer on board the M.S. Benyahia research vessel (ISMAL, along the Algerian littoral, between Algiers (36Ζ49.9 N/ 03Ζ 02.3 E and Cherchell (36Ζ 39.4 N/ 02Ζ 12.4 E, during a sampling cruise in September 1997. The samples were analysed to determine the activity concentration of natural radionuclides (uranium and thorium series and 40 K as well and artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs and Pu isotopes, using a direct gamma spectrometry for gamma emitters and radiochemical separations and alpha spectrometry for alpha emitters. The horizontal and vertical distribution of the examined radionuclides were studied in the surface and core samples and an effort to estimate the sedimentation rate was attempted.The measured values range was: 17 - 26 Bq/Kg dry for uranium series radioisotopes, 18 – 32 Bq/Kg dry for thorium series radioisotopes, 311 - 690 Bq/Kg dry for 40 K, 0.4 - 11 Bq/Kg dry, for 137 Cs and 0.4 – 1.0 Bq/Kg dry for 239 + 240 Pu.

  7. Green Synthesis of Cationic Polyacrylamide Composite Catalyzed by An Ecologically Catalyst Clay Called Maghnite-H+ (Algerian MMT Under Microwave Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmouni Abdelkader

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel green cationic hydrogel of cationic polyacrylamide composite have been prepared and investigated. The synthesis of green cationic polyacrylamide composite was evaluated for its solubility in water. The reactions were performed using acrylamide monomer, solvent, catalyst (clay fin called maghnite and solution of  H2SO4 (0.25 M, with the system under microwave irradiation (160 ºC for 4 min. Major factors affecting the polymerization reaction were studied with a view to discover appropriate conditions for preparation of the composite. The cationic polyacrylamide obtained is the subject of future studies of modification and transformation. The resulting polymer has been characterized by a variety of characterization techniques, such as: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra and 1H NMR spectra.  Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th June 2015; Revised: 2nd September 2015; Accepted: 5th January 2016 How to Cite: Abdelkader, R., Mohammed, B. (2016. Green Synthesis of Cationic Polyacrylamide Composite Catalyzed by An Ecologically  Catalyst Clay Called Maghnite-H+ (Algerian MMT Under Microwave Irradiation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 170-175 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.543.170-175 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.543.170-175

  8. Isolation and characterization of a new steroid derivative as a powerful antioxidant from Cleome arabica in screening the in vitro antioxidant capacity of 18 Algerian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeridane, Amar; Yousfi, Mohamed; Brunel, Jean Michel; Stocker, Pierre

    2010-10-01

    Hydromethanolic extracts from 18 Algerian medicinal plants were screened for their phenolic contents and radical scavenging activities. The phenolic extract of Cleome arabica (Capparaceae) was found to be the most active one. Purification of this extract by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography led to the isolation and identification of new steroid derivative. The structure of the active principle is proposed as (17-(4-hydroxy-1,5-dimethylhexyl)-2,3,7-(acetyloxy) gona-1,3,5(10)-trien-15-ol). Compared to six other standard antioxidants which were ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, Trolox, (+) catechin, p-coumaric acid and gallic acid, the isolated compound was found to be significantly more active in the radical scavenging assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Similar results were obtained in the hemolysis assay. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extract of C. arabica and its principle compound indicate that this plant may be an important source of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic natural products activity. PMID:20600536

  9. Evidence for fault-related directionality and localized site effects from strong motion recordings of the 2003 Boumerdes (Algeria) earthquake : consequences on damage distribution and the Algerian seismic code

    OpenAIRE

    Laouami, N.; Slimani, A.; Bouhadad, Y.; Chatelain, Jean-Luc; Nour, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Algiers-Boumerdes region has been struck by a destructive magnitude 6.8 (M-w) earthquake on May 21, 2003. The study presented in this paper is based on main shock strong motions from 13 stations of the Algerian accelerograph network. A maximum 0.58g peak ground acceleration (PGA) has been recorded at 20 km from the epicenter, only about 150 in away from a PGA of 0.34g, with both a central frequency around 5 Hz, explained by a strong very localized site effect, confirmed by receiver functi...

  10. The Sahara from the Middle Jurassic to the Middle Cretaceous: Data on environments and climates based on outcrops in the Algerian Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busson, G.; Cornée, A.

    The period investigated, succeeded the Upper Triassic and Liassic-Lower Dogger arid sedimentation which was characterized by the development of large evaporitic deposits. The north-eastern part of the Algerian Sahara is specially interesting as it constitutes part of the few dated continental Jurassic outcrops in North Africa (except in the Maghreb). Continental Lower-Middle Cretaceous is also well developed in the same region. The grading of these continental series into marine series particularly in the north-eastern part of the Maghreb has been investigated from an adequate number of well spaced wells. The Middle-Upper Jurassic (Lower Taouratine) consists of an argillaceous-sandy-ferruginous series, often grey coloured and rich in filicean wood and vertebrate remains in some levels. The ferralitic alteration products denote a more humid climate than that which prevailed during the Liassic-Lower-Dogger times. These products alternate with sandy conglomeratic events confirming the influences of alternating important run-off and aeolian winnowing. The large continental Lower and Middle Cretaceous detrital nappes are discussed. They constitute the uppermost part of the series, south of the Tinrhert Hamada (Alba-Vraconian series with the more detrital lateral equivalent), west of Tademait (Gara Samani). Data on lithology and paleobiology (fishes, Dinosaurs, other vertebrates, pelecypods, gastropods, wood debris, palynoflora) permit the reconstruction of the palaeo-environment and the conditions of deposition. This is similar to the sub-desertic terrestrial sedimentation by violent and ephemeral hydrodynamism model based on the modern Darfour example. The desertic conditions which prevailed in these Saharan areas during the Cretaceous are reflected as well as their possible consequences on the sedimentation of nearby oceanic areas (Atlantic and Tethys). This detrital sedimentation is finally reviewed in the context of its tectonic origins and an attempt is made to

  11. Ex vivo immunomodulatory effect of all-trans-retinoic acid during Behçet's disease: a study in Algerian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeraba, Zineb; Boumedine, Karim; Arroul-Lammali, Amina; Otmani, Fifi; Belguendouz, Houda; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2014-02-01

    Uveitis, recurrent oral and genital ulcerations associated with skin lesions are the major symptoms of a chronic multisystemic inflammatory disorder known as Behçet's disease (BD). High prevalence of this dreaded disease has been observed in the Mediterranean basin, including Algeria and along the Silk Road. Although the etiologic agent of this disease remains uncertain, many hypotheses have been advanced in its pathogenesis. Our team has previously reported high levels of nitric oxide (NO) in sera of BD patients, suggesting its deleterious effect during chronic inflammation. In our current study, the aim is to investigate the ex vivo immunomodulatory effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on NO pathway in Algerian BD patients. First, peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from active and inactive BD patients and healthy controls were cultured with different concentrations of ATRA. NO production was estimated with the Griess method. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of ATRA effect on NO production, we analyze inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity by immunofluorescence test. Our results revealed a higher production of NO in active BD compared with the inactive stage and healthy controls. We observed that ATRA inhibits NO production in BD both in active and inactive stages and inhibits NF-κB translocation. In conclusion, we report a relationship between NO production and the disease activity. ATRA down-regulates NO production in BD patients. This immunomodulatory effect seems to be mediated through NF-κB pathway. All these findings suggest that ATRA could be considered as a promising therapy for BD. PMID:24369064

  12. New evidence for active deformation off the Annaba region (easternmost Algerian margin): Estimates of Quaternary shortening and slip rates from folding analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kherroubi, A.; Deverchere, J.; Yelles, A.; Mercier de Lepinay, B.; Domzig, A.; Graindorge, D.; Bracene, R.; Cattaneo, A.; Gaullier, V.

    2007-12-01

    From the first marine investigations off the region of Annaba (easternmost part of Algeria) made after the MARADJA2 survey in November 2005, a set of large active faults and folds was discovered near the foot of the margin. This active thrust system resumes a previous passive margin and creates growth strata deposition on the backlimbs of large Quaternary folds, resulting in the development of perched basins at the foot of the margin since less than 1 Ma. The system forms a set of overlapping fault segments verging towards the Algerian basin. From the seismic line analysis (high-resolution and Chirp data), and using sedimentation rates obtained from coring and extrapolated, a shortening rate of about 0.9 mm/yr is estimated. If we consider a single fault dipping at about 45° (hypothesized from the Boumerdès 2003 rupture zone), a fault slip rate of about 1.3 mm/yr can be postulated. Considering recent kinematic studies, this fault-related fold system could accommodate a significant part of the present-day submarine shortening rate between the European and African plates, predicted by Stich et al. (2006) to be 1.5 mm/yr from GPS modelling. This faulting is apparently active at a faster rate than the similar faulting observed at the foot of the margin NW of Algiers. This system of faults off Annaba represents a major threat for the region. Indeed, the location of this system changes drastically the seismic hazard assessment of the region, since no large historical earthquake is reported there since 3 centuries at least.

  13. New Method for Nucleophilic Substitution on Hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene by Allylamine Using an Algerian Proton Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay (Maghnite-H+ as a Green Solid Catalyst

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    Lahouaria Medjdoub

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nucleophilic substitution on hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCTP with allylamine in order to give hexa(allylaminocyclotriphosphazene (HACTP  is performed for the first time under mild conditions by using diethylether as solvent to replace benzene which is very toxic. The reaction time is reduced to half and also performed at room temperature but especially in the presence of an eco-catalyst called Maghnite-H+. This catalyst has a significant role in the industrial scale. In fact, the use of Maghnite is preferred for its many advantages: a very low purchase price compared to other catalysts, the easy removal of the reaction mixture. Then, Maghnite-H+ is became an excellent catalyst for many chemical reactions. The structure of HACTP synthesized in the presence of Maghnite-H+ to 5% by weight is confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 31P-NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry is used to establish the molecular weight of HACTP which is 471 g/mol. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetery and TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis show that HACTP is a crystalline product with a melting point of 88 °C. It is reactive after melting but is degraded from 230 °C. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 28th September 2015; Revised: 5th December 2015; Accepted: 4th January 2016 How to Cite: Medjdoub, L., Mohammed, B. (2016. New Method for Nucleophilic Substitution on Hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene by Allylamine Using an Algerian Proton Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay (Maghnite-H+ as a Green Solid Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 151-160 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.541.151-160 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.541.151-160

  14. Ex vivo effects of flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba on cytokines and nitric oxide production in Algerian patients with Adamantiades-Behçet's disease

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    Messaoudene Djamel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adamantiades-Behçet's disease (ABD is a chronic multisystemic inflammation with unknown pathophysiology. This disorder is associated with a dysregulation of the cytokine network that hyperactivates neutrophils and macrophages. In this study, we investigate the modulatory effects of flavonoïd compounds extracted from Algerian medicinal plant Artemisia herba alba on Th1 and Th2 cytokines and nitric oxide production. Methods The modulatory effects of flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba on cytokines and nitric oxide production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from Algerian ABD patients and healthy controls were respectively measured by means of ELISA assays and Griess modified method. Results Our results show that flavonoïds significantly reduce the production of interleukin-12, the key effector of T helper 1 (Th1 cells and nitric oxide in a dose-dependent manner in Adamantiades-Behçet's disease. In contrast, the production of IL-4, the key marker of Th2 cells was increased. Conclusion This study suggests that in vitro supplementation with flavonoïds extracted from Artemisia herba alba could have potential immuno-modulatory effects characterised by a down-regulation and up-regulation of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, respectively. Moreover, flavonoïds may prevent nitric oxide induced damages.

  15. Ethos collectif et Rhétorique de polarisation : le discours des étudiants en France pendant la guerre d’Algérie Collective Ethos and Rhetoric of Polarization: Students’ discourse in France during the Algerian War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eithan Orkibi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse la construction de l’ethos collectif des étudiants français durant la guerre d’Algérie. Troublée par les événements, une partie importante au sein de la direction de l’Union Nationale des Étudiants de France (UNEF, seule organisation représentative du milieu étudiant à cette période, revendique la politisation de l’UNEF et la mobilisation de ses adhérents en faveur d’une paix négociée en Algérie en soutien des aspirations nationales du peuple algérien. A travers une production discursive exceptionnellement riche, les responsables étudiants de ce courant, promoteurs du syndicalisme étudiant, ont créé une nouvelle image du milieu étudiant dans l’intention de remplacer l’image folklorique de l’étudiant par celle d’un citoyen responsable politiquement engagé. Cette procédure de re-travail d’un l’ethos préalable a contribué à légitimer l’expression politique du groupe et a facilité la mobilisation de ses adhérents. Elle a été également utilisée dans une rhétorique de polarisation par laquelle les étudiants plus proches du syndicalisme se sont détachés de leurs adversaires de l’UNEF, défenseurs d’un corporatisme étudiant non-politique. Remplissant plusieurs objectifs rhétoriques, le nouvel ethos collectif des étudiants renvoie à une population en train de se massifier dans un contexte social et politique unique.This article analyzes the construction of the French students’ collective ethos during the Algerian War. Unsettled by the events, a large fraction within the leadership of the National Union of the Students of France (UNEF, the only representative organization of this population at the time, promoted the politicization of the UNEF and the mobilization of its members in favour of peace negotiations in Algeria and in support of the Algerian people’s national aspirations. Through an exceptionally rich discursive production, the leaders of this movement

  16. Estimation of the temperature, heat gain and heat loss by solar parabolic trough collector under Algerian climate using different thermal oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Estimation of direct solar radiations for different tracking systems at six typical locations in Algeria. • PTC thermal model uses energy balances from the HTF to the atmosphere. • The model depends on the collector type, nature of HTF, optical properties, and ambient conditions. • Estimation of temperature, heat gain and energy cost of thermal oils used in the model. • Comparison between monthly mean heat gain of the various thermal oils for six Algerian locations. - Abstract: Algeria is blessed with a very important renewable, and more particularly solar, energy potential. This potential opens for Algeria reel opportunities to cope with the increasing energy demand and the growing environmental problems link to the use of fossil fuel. In order to develop and to promote concrete actions in the areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency, Algeria has introduced a national daring program for the period 2011–2030. In this program, solar energy, and more particularly solar thermal energy plays an important role. In this paper, the potential of direct solar irradiance in Algeria and the performance of solar parabolic trough collector (PTC) are estimated under the climate conditions of the country. These two factors are treated as they play an important role in the design of solar thermal plant. In order to determine the most promising solar sites in Algeria, monthly mean daily direct solar radiation have been estimated and compared for different locations corresponding to different climatic region. Different tilted and tracking collectors are considered so as to determine the most efficient system for the PTC. In order to evaluate the performance of a tracking solar parabolic trough collector, a heat transfer model is developed. The receiver, heat collector element (HCE), is divided into several segments and heat balance is applied in each segment over a section of the solar receiver. Different oils are considered to determine the thermal

  17. Atherosclerosis and atherosensitivity in two southwest Algerian desert rodents, Psammomys obesus and Gerbillus gerbillus, and in Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Aoufi S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salima El-Aoufi,1 Mohamed-Amine Lazourgui,1 Lakhdar Griene,2 Boubekeur Maouche31Laboratoire de Biologie et de Physiologie des Organismes/MMDED, Faculté des Sciences Biologiques, USTHB, El-Alia, Dar El Beida, Algeria; 2Laboratoire d'Hormonologie, Centre Pierre et Marie Curie, C.H.U Mustapha, Algeria; 3Laboratoire de Physicochimie Théorique et Chimie Informatique, Faculté de Chimie, USTHB, El-Alia, Dar El Beida, AlgeriaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis, is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes worldwide; thus, it is a major medical concern. The endothelium contributes to the control of many vascular functions, and clinical observations show that it is a primary target for diabetic syndrome. To get better insight into the mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis, we studied the interspecific differences in the arterial metabolisms of two, Psammomys obesus and Gerbillus gerbillus, as well as Rattus norvegicus (Wistar rat, well known for its atheroresistance. Twenty-two enzymatic activities and six macromolecular substances were histochemically compared in the two desert species and in Wistar aortas (abdominal and thoracic and arteries (femoral and caudal embedded in a common block. In the healthy adult rodents, enzyme activities were very intense. They demonstrated that aortic myocytes are capable of various synthesis and catabolism processes. However, considering the frequency of atherosclerosis and its phenotypes, significant differences appeared between the species studied. Our comparative study shows that aortic atherosensitive animals have several common metabolic characteristics, which are found in Psammomys rich in metachromatic glycosaminoglycans (involved in the inhibition of lipolysis and in calcification of the organic matrix, reduced activity in enzymes related to the Krebs cycle (weakening energetic power, and low lipolytic enzyme, adenosine triphosphatase, and adenosine diphosphatase activities

  18. [Hemoglobin Boumerdès alpha 2(37) (C2) Pro----Arg beta 2: a new variant of the alpha chain associated with hemoglobin S in an Algerian family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmane-Arbane, M; Blouquit, Y; Arous, N; Bardakdjian, J; Benamani, M; Riou, J; Benabadji, M; Rosa, J; Galacteros, F

    1987-01-01

    We report the first case of Hb Boumerdes, an alpha chain variant alpha 2(37) (C2) Pro----Arg beta 2, in an Algerian family. The propositus was also homozygous for the sickle cell gene. The abnormal hybrid Hb alpha 2Boum. beta 2S had an electrophoretic mobility on cellulose acetate pH 8.7 electrophoresis between those of Hb S and Hb A2. Its expression was about 16%. The alpha 2Boum. beta 2A fraction has a mobility between those of Hb F and Hb S. The effects of this mutation on Hb oxygen affinity and deoxy Hb S polymer formation were not studied. The propositus' sickle cell phenotype was benign. PMID:3438164

  19. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OS. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OS intellectual...

  20. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  1. Africa tomorrow: The challenge of the future; Overview of a gas Africa; Energy for all; The impact of world energetic transformations on the Algerian economy; Towards a gas Eldorado? To cook and to live; 1,2,3... biogas, the AFG in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of articles first proposes a brief overview of the energetic challenge faced by Africa for its development, and then an overview and discussion of gas production and consumption in North Africa, in Sub-Saharan Africa, in West Africa, in Central Africa, and in South Africa. As access to energy has been defined as a priority for the 2014-2024 decade and is part of the Millennium objectives for development, a third article comments this issue: unequal and vital access, struggle against energy poverty, how Total, Engie and EDF are concerned and involved. The opportunity of gas-cogeneration is evoked. An article discusses the impact of world energetic transformations on the Algerian economy (influence of price decrease on Sonatrach incomes and on trade balance, Algerian strategy in front of energy transition, improvement of energy efficiency, development of renewable energies, possibility of exploitation of shale gas, possibility of a global reform). The next article comments the expected strong increase of the share of natural gas in the African energy mix, and the fact that the Sub-Saharan natural gas production is predicted to be higher than the Russian one in 2040. An article then comments the issue of energy poverty, health risks related to the use of solid fuels in housing for cooking, and the possible alternative provided by LPG. The last articles outline the high potential represented by biogas, notably in rural and isolated areas, and the commitment of AFG's subsidiaries in Africa

  2. SILURIAN – DEVONIAN OF THE ORIENTAL ALGERIAN SAHARA: implication of new field data from Tassili n'Ajjer outcrops and Berkine Basin (SE, Algeria) for shale gas exploration.

    OpenAIRE

    Djouder, Hocine; Boulvain, Frédéric; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Musial, Geoffray; Murat, Bruno; Lüning, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The Silurian – Devonian succession have been deposited in wide sags and sub-basins in a cratonic setting, along the northwestern passive margin of the Gondwana during the opening of the proto-Tethyan ocean. During this Siluro-Devonian Period, a high subsidence occurs stacked sediment bodies and organic-rich shales were deposited in many places that respectively form important hydrocarbon reservoirs and source rocks throughout North Africa basins and Arabia (Boot et al., 1998 ; Lüning et al...

  3. Study of the geometrical configuration of a Set-Up for the purpose of analysing organic matter using neutron backscattering with an AM-BE source and a HE3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron backscattering is a powerful technique to analyse organic matter and recently a set-up has been developed by our laboratory to determine bitumen content in asphalt concrete [1].This set-up is mainly composed of an Am-Be neutron source and a He-3 detector, the source being placed under the He-3 detector. In this work, we study two geometrical configurations, the first where the source is placed under the detector and the other one is when the source and the detector are side by side. The calibration curves for the determination of bitumen content in asphalt concrete, hydrogen and the ratio C/H are built for the two geometries and then compared in terms of sensitivity. Finally, some Algerian oil samples are analysed with these setups

  4. Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their death. One strategy is simply to permit organ sale by changing the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA), the federal law that bans organ sales. Then, individuals would be free to broker contracts ...

  5. influence of some types of Algerian soil on the development of rot-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria (Tylenchida,Meloidogynidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crops under greenhouses offer the possibility of vegetables production of high added value by focusing on earliness. They help to spread the availability timing of vegetables and fruits in the market throughout the year. However, these crops are subject to numerous attacks entailing heavy losses of yield quantity and quality. The plant parasitic nematodes especially rot-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered dangerous enemies of these cultures. The evolution study of these nematodes in different soil types allows one to compare the migration and movement of these nematodes in sandy soils considered as light soils, in clay soils heavy and intermediate silty clay soils. These soils have also rates of organic matter and a percentage of magnesium and calcium that might provide better conditions to the survival and migration of second stage larvae inoculated at a rate of 650 juveniles per pot of 24 cm in diameter where plants of melon Cucumis melo var. (Charentais) known to be susceptible to Meloidogyne was cultivated. The results for the population development of Meloidogyne, after a growing period of 3 months show an increase in the number of eggs, juvenile stages, inflated, swollen females and males in the 3 types of soil and that independently of clay fraction although clay soil may asphyxiate Meloidogyne. The development of the three species of Meloidogyne studied in these soils, the parameters taken into consideration (index of galls, which were 1.58, 1.75 and 1.5 for the sandy clay and the middle ground soils, vigour index and the evolution of populations of Meloidogyne and roots and soil as well as parameters related to production reveal the adaptation of these root-knot nematodes to the clay and sandy loam soils. At the end of culture, the final populations are important in the soils studied; 2680 for soil S. (sandy), 2272 for soil A (clay) and 2327 for soil I (intermediate) with a multiplication rate almost similar ( 4.12, 3.49 and 3

  6. Matching Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Organs With Transplant Candidates When a deceased organ donor is identified, a transplant coordinator from an organ ... transplant candidate, you are registered on the national organ transplant waiting list. A living donor may also be identified and evaluated for living ...

  7. Natural radioactivity in Algerian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of natural and manufactured building materials collected from Algiers have been analysed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K using a high-resolution HPGe spectrometry system. The specific concentrations for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, for the selected building materials, were ranging from (12 - 65 Bq.kg-1), (7 - 51 Bq.kg-1) and (36 - 675 Bq.kg-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared to the reported data of other countries and to the world average activity of soil. Radium equivalent activities were calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards arising from using those materials in construction of dwellings. All building materials showed Raeq activities lower than the limit set up in the OECD report (370 Bq.kg-1), equivalent to external gamma dose of 1.5 mSv.y-1. (author)

  8. Strong Algerian earthquake strikes near capital city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Judy

    On 21 May 2003, a damaging earthquake of Mw 6.8 struck the region of Boumerdes 40 km east of Algiers in northern Algeria (Figure 1). The main shock, which lasted ˜36-40 s, had devastating effects and claimed about 2300 victims, caused more than 11,450 injuries, and left about 200,000 people homeless. It destroyed and seriously damaged around 180,000 housing units and 6000 public buildings with losses estimated at $5 billion. The main shock was widely felt within a radius of ˜400 km in Algeria. To the north, the earthquake was felt in southeastern Spain, including the Balearic Islands, and also in Sardinia and in southern France.

  9. Organic spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the emerging field of organic spintronics, where organic materials are applied as a medium to transport and control spin-polarized signals. The contacts for injecting and detecting spins are formed by ferromagnetic metals, oxides, or inorganic semiconductors. First, the basic concepts of spintronics and organic electronics are addressed, and phenomena which are in particular relevant for organic spintronics are highlighted. Experiments using different organic materials, including carbon nanotubes, organic thin films, self-assembled monolayers and single molecules are then reviewed. Observed magnetoresistance points toward successful spin injection and detection, but spurious magnetoresistance effects can easily be confused with spin accumulation. A few studies report long spin relaxation times and lengths, which forms a promising basis for further research. We conclude with discussing outstanding questions and problems. (topical review)

  10. Organic electroluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Kafafi, Zakya H

    2005-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diode(OLED) technology has achieved significant penetration in the commercial market for small, low-voltage and inexpensive displays. Present and future novel technologies based on OLEDs involve rigid and flexible flat panel displays, solid-state lighting, and lasers. Display applications may range from hand-held devices to large flat panel screens that can be rolled up or hung flat on a wall or a ceiling. Organic Electroluminescence gives an overview of the on-going research in the field of organic light-emitting materials and devices, covering the principles of electroluminescence in organic thin films, as well as recent trends, current applications, and future potential uses. The book begins by giving a background of organic electroluminescence in terms of history and basic principles. It offers details on the mechanism(s) of electroluminescence in thin organic films. It presentsin-depth discussions of the parameters that control the external electroluminescence quantum efficien...

  11. Transnational Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing question for institutional theory is how organizing occurs transnationally, where institution building occurs in a highly ambiguous environment. This article suggests that at the core of transnational organizing is competition and coordination within professional and organizational...... networks over who controls issues. Transnational issues are commonly organized through professional battles over how issues are treated and what tasks are involved. These professional struggles are often more important than what organization has a formal mandate over an issue. We highlight how ‘issue...... should be treated and governed by organizations. Using network and career sequences methods, we provide a case of transnational organizing through professionals who attempt issue control and network management on transnational environmental sustainability certification. The article questions how...

  12. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices. This...... study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium is...... closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  13. Organic optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wenping; Gong, Xiong; Zhan, Xiaowei; Fu, Hongbing; Bjornholm, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Written by internationally recognized experts in the field with academic as well as industrial experience, this book concisely yet systematically covers all aspects of the topic.The monograph focuses on the optoelectronic behavior of organic solids and their application in new optoelectronic devices. It covers organic electroluminescent materials and devices, organic photonics, materials and devices, as well as organic solids in photo absorption and energy conversion. Much emphasis is laid on the preparation of functional materials and the fabrication of devices, from materials synthesis a

  14. Organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Organic Synthesis Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory activities are centered on the chemistry of natural products, which have a biological activity and on the development of new reactions, useful in the organic synthesis. The research works involve the following domains: the natural products chemistry which are applied in pharmacology, the plants and insects chemistry, the organic synthesis, the radical chemistry new reactions and the bio-organic physicochemistry. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed

  15. K-Ar chronology and geochemistry of the Miocene magmatism of Collo-Bougaroun and Edough-Cap de Fer areas (NE Algeria). Temporal constraints on geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Algerian margin between 6° and 8°E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassene, F.; Bellon, H.; Chazot, G.; Ouabadi, A.

    2013-12-01

    The ''Petite Kabylie'' corresponds to the eastern Algerian coastal magmatic chain outcropping from Jijel to the west, up to the plain of Annaba to the east. In this area, the Collo-Bougaroun volcano-plutonic complex, of ca. 300 km2, comprises (1) granular rocks, mainly cordierite bearing peraluminous granites, (2) gabbros that occur at the northern and southern parts of Cap Bougaroun pluton where they are associated with ultramafic rocks and form the layered complex of Yadene?; (3) microgranular rocks, mainly microgranites, that outcrop at the eastern part of the Bougaroun pluton, in Collo basin and El Milia, microdiorites in Bouserdoum and some doleritic or microgabbroic metric veins at Cap Bougaroun and (4) of rhyolitic lava in Kef Cheraïa. The Bougaroun complex form a huge elliptical batholite along a major axis of 20km oriented ENE- WSW that intrudes serpentinized peridotites and kinzigites of the Bougaroun basement to the east. This granitic pluton gives time constraints as it induces deformation and contact metamorphism of the Oligo-Miocene Kabyle sediments of Collo-Oued Zhour basin in the south. These sediments reach the Upper Burdigalien which suggests that the lower limit of emplacement of this granite is coeval at least with this age. The majority of these magmatic rocks show subalkaline affinity with strong enrichment (0.13 to 4.13 %) in K2O during fractionation to calc-alkaline and high-K calc-alkaline affinity for the most differentiated rocks. The felsic rocks (granites, microgranites and rhyolites) are marked by a significant crustal contamination (ξNd = -10, I Sr = 0.720, δ18O = +12 ‰ [1], [2]) during their petrogenesis. However, the presence of basic rocks (gabbros and dolerites) that are depleted in K2O (0.13 to 0.44%) provides information on mantle composition and origin of magmas. The geochemical data on these rocks are discussed in the very particular geodynamic context of the northern Algerian margin.Twenty-four 40K-40Ar analyses were

  16. Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must be just and fair. Value judgments and economic considerations affect who is admitted to waiting lists and who gets available organs, calling into question the justice and fairness of the allocation system. It is essential to increase the supply of donated organs; one ...

  17. Organic Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Romea, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Organic Synthesis is a one-semester course of the fourth year of the Chemistry Degree at the Universitat de Barcelona. This course covers the most important transformations in Organic Chemistry, including a short introduction to the Retrosynthetic Analysis. The aim is to provide a solid knowledge of the main reactions and their mechanism, which could later be improved during Master studies.

  18. Organ Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in certain types of transplants. Discover data and statistics for each center. Visit the OPTN's Organ DataSource now > I am looking for >> About organ allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA Calculator - KDPI Calculator - LAS Calculator - MELD ...

  19. Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs that can be transplanted include Heart Intestine Kidney Liver Lung Pancreas You often have to wait a long time for an organ transplant. Doctors must match donors to recipients to reduce the risk of transplant rejection. Rejection happens when your immune system attacks the ...

  20. Organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN

  1. Organic carbon inputs to the sea bottom of the Mallorca continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqual, Catalina; Calafat, Antoni; Lopez-Fernandez, Pilar; Pusceddu, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    To assess the origin and degradation state of the organic particles sinking towards the sea bottom of the Mallorca continental slope, the major inorganic and organic components of the total mass flux and its biochemical composition (in terms of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and phytopigment contents) have been analysed. Two instrumented lines were deployed at the western (Sóller station, Balearic sub-basin) and southern (Cabrera station, Algerian sub-basin) slopes of Mallorca Island, 900 m depth from November 2009 to January 2011. The two locations are characterized by putatively different environmental settings. Settled material at Sóller station has higher lithogenic contents when compared with the Cabrera one. Such difference can be explained by the synergistic presence in the Sóller station of large inputs of resuspended material due to the mesoscale variability of the Balearic current and the impact of bottom trapped waves. On the other hand, at the Cabrera station sinking particles are characterized by OM and opal percentages higher than those recorded at the Sóller station. This result points out that organic particles reaching the sea floor at the Cabrera station have a pre-eminent pelagic origin. Based on analyses of the C and N stable isotopes of the sinking material, our results also highlight that, overall, the OM reaching the sea floor at the Mallorca slope is mostly of marine origin. In general, the OM settled at the Sóller station has a higher nutritional value than that at the Cabrera one. Such a difference, occurring across a relatively reduced spatial scale, let us hypothesizing that the nutritionally richer particles descending in the Cabrera station are exposed to a less energetic environment than that in the Sóller setting. This would lead to higher settling velocity of particles in the Sóller setting which in turn would result in lower degradation rates of particles during their descent towards the sea bottom.

  2. Multicultural organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the attention towards demographic diversity has increased among academics and practitioners dealing with organization management. Finding a possible connection between diversity and group performance has been the objective of much extant research. Still, however, results are...

  3. Colloidal organization

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Tsuneo

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal Organization presents a chemical and physical study on colloidal organization phenomena including equilibrium systems such as colloidal crystallization, drying patterns as an example of a dissipative system and similar sized aggregation. This book outlines the fundamental science behind colloid and surface chemistry and the findings from the author's own laboratory. The text goes on to discuss in-depth colloidal crystallization, gel crystallization, drying dissipative structures of solutions, suspensions and gels, and similar-sized aggregates from nanosized particles. Special emphas

  4. Organic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of superconductivity is traced and the recent discovery of the property in organic materials is discussed. It has been shown that in those organic chemicals in which flat molecules are stacked like tiles, conditions are created in which electrons can flow unhindered. It is reasonable to believe that superconductivity at 20k is now a feasible goal though the dream of resistance-less conduction at room temperature still appears a remote dream. (UK)

  5. Organic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Jacobsen, Claus S.; Rindorf, Grethe;

    1975-01-01

    2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid.......2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid....

  6. Organization Design

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Harris; Artur Raviv

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain organization structure based on optimal coordination of interactions among activities. The main idea is that each manager is capable of detecting and coordinating interactions only within his limited area of expertise. Only the CEO can coordinate company wide interactions. The optimal design of the organization trades off the costs and benefits of various configurations of managers. Our results consist of classifying the characteristics of activities and manager...

  7. Virtual Organizations: Beyond Network Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel CRETU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most used buzz-words in (e-business literature of the last decade is virtual organization. The term "virtual" can be identified in all sorts of combinations regarding the business world. From virtual products to virtual processes or virtual teams, everything that is “touched” by the computer’s processing power instantly becomes virtual. Moreover, most of the literature treats virtual and network organizations as being synonyms. This paper aims to draw a much more distinctive line between the two concepts. Providing a more coherent description of what virtual organization might be is also one of our intentions.

  8. Organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Rikard; Edvinsson, Lars; Malmsjö, Malin

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelium dysfunction is believed to play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of organ culture as a model for endothelium dysfunction. METHODS: The isometric tension was recorded in isolated segments of the...... rat mesenteric artery branch, before and after organ culture for 20 h. Vasodilatation was expressed as % of preconstriction with U46619. The acetylcholine (ACh) induced nitric oxide (NO) mediated dilatation was studied in the presence of 10 microM indomethacin, 50 nM charybdotoxin and 1 microM apamin....... Endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF) was studied in the presence of 0.1 mM L-NOARG and indomethacin. Prostaglandins were studied in the presence of L-NOARG, charybdotoxin and apamin. RESULTS: The ACh-induced NO and prostaglandin-mediated dilatations decreased significantly during organ culture...

  9. Organic Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Würtz, Rolf P

    2008-01-01

    Organic Computing is a research field emerging around the conviction that problems of organization in complex systems in computer science, telecommunications, neurobiology, molecular biology, ethology, and possibly even sociology can be tackled scientifically in a unified way. From the computer science point of view, the apparent ease in which living systems solve computationally difficult problems makes it inevitable to adopt strategies observed in nature for creating information processing machinery. In this book, the major ideas behind Organic Computing are delineated, together with a sparse sample of computational projects undertaken in this new field. Biological metaphors include evolution, neural networks, gene-regulatory networks, networks of brain modules, hormone system, insect swarms, and ant colonies. Applications are as diverse as system design, optimization, artificial growth, task allocation, clustering, routing, face recognition, and sign language understanding.

  10. Safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a rapid definition of a nuclear basis installation, the national organization of nuclear safety in France is presented, as also the main organizations concerned and their functions. This report shows how the licensing procedure leading to the construction and exploitation of such installations is applied in the case of nuclear laboratories of research and development: examinations of nuclear safety problems are carried out at different levels: - centralized to define the frame out of which the installation has not to operate, - decentralized to follow in a more detailed manner its evolution

  11. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics of...

  12. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONS: 21st Century Approaches er en vigtig publikation inden for organisationsdesign. Fokus ligger på nye udviklinger inden for organisationsdesign og bogen hjælper med at skabe mere reflekterende forskining og stærkere empiriske analyser inden for dette vigtige felt inden for...

  13. Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Al-Shamery, Katharina;

    Single crystalline nanowires from fluorescing organic molecules like para-phenylenes or thiophenes are supposed to become key elements in future integrated optoelectronic devices [1]. For a sophisticated design of devices based on nanowires the basic principles of the nanowire formation have to be...

  14. Entangling Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2016-01-01

    The chapter accounts for the process of becoming of a changed practice within the area of disability care in the Municipality of Aalborg in Denmark. Across a period of a few months in the fall of 2015 a group of employees across the organization and an action researcher from Aalborg University (the...... author) met and formed a research- practice group and across this period a revised model for cooperation emerged that – upon realization – would reconfigure the intra-play of all relevant areas of the organization involved in disability care. The model included the grasping of disability as dis/ability...... and thereby the model opened the possibility for reworking the binary of ability/disability to the benefit of restorying the citizen’s ability in the practices of changing the disability care....

  15. Entangled Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    The paper accounts for the process of becoming of a changed practice within the area of disability care in the Municipality of Aalborg in Denmark. Across a period of a few months in the fall of 2015 a group of employees across the organization and an action researcher from Aalborg University (the...... author) met and formed a research group and across this period a revised model for cooperation emerged that – upon realization – would reconfigure the intra-play of all relevant areas of the organization involved in disability care. The model included the grasping of disability as dis/ability and thereby...... of dis/ability care were developed over the course of the project and as a result a renewed material-discursive practice emerged as the recommended ‘modus operandi’ of dis/ability care. A recommendation entailing a ‘village-based-community of practice’ which would extend the organizational borders...

  16. Organizing Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Smita; Greif, Avner; Bates, Robert

    2002-01-01

    In stateless societies, coercion is privately provided; violence is employed to engage in, and to defend against, predation. At best, violence results in mere redistribution; being destructive, it more often results in a loss of social welfare. When organized, however, violence can be socially productive; it can be employed to defend property rights, thereby strengthening the incentives to engage in productive activity. To explore how violence can be rendered a source of welfare, the authors ...

  17. LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS: PREREQUISITE FOR SUCCESSFUL TOURISM ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Kraleva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, each and every organization, including the tourism organizations should be learning organizations. The globalization and the competition affect the process of working of tourism organizations, where only the organizations which have knowledge, and are learning organizations can succeed. In a time of constant change, tourism organizations can have a competitive advantage only if they can do something or offer something different than their competitors. Many organizations in order to enable the learning process, should firstly undertake changes in the organization design, the organizational culture and the leadership style. The paper discusses the relevance of implementing the process of learning organizations as a concept for successful tourism organizations.

  18. LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS: PREREQUISITE FOR SUCCESSFUL TOURISM ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Natasa Kraleva

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, each and every organization, including the tourism organizations should be learning organizations. The globalization and the competition affect the process of working of tourism organizations, where only the organizations which have knowledge, and are learning organizations can succeed. In a time of constant change, tourism organizations can have a competitive advantage only if they can do something or offer something different than their competitors. Many organizations in order to ...

  19. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  20. OBJECT-ORIENTED IN ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT: ORGANIC ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    AmrBadr-El-Din

    2014-01-01

    In a time when virtual organizations are fast becoming a phenomenon, this paper aims to explore how IT-based approaches—and in specific the object-oriented (organic) approach—can be used to structure and facilitate the management of such virtual organizations. As with traditional organizations, a virtual organization needs a structure that is fast, reliable, adaptable and deterministic. In addition, such organizations need a time and cost-efficient structure to a...

  1. History of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard J; Cornell, Danielle L; Cochran, Larry

    2012-03-01

    The historical development of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations is reviewed. The concept of transplantation, taking parts from one animal or person and putting them into another animal or person, is ancient. The development of organ transplantation brought on the need for a source of organs. Although many early kidney transplants used kidneys from living donors, these donors could not satisfy the ever-growing need for organs, and extrarenal organs were recovered only from deceased donors. This need for organs to satisfy the great demand led to specialized organizations to identify deceased donors, manage them until recovery occurred, and to notify transplant centers that organs were available for their patients. The functions of these organ procurement organizations expanded to include other required functions such as education, accounting, and compliance with state and federal requirements. Because of the shortage of organs relative to the demand, lack of a unified organ allocation system, the perception that organs are a national resource and should be governed by national regulations, and to improve results of organ procurement organizations and transplant centers, the federal government has regulated virtually all phases of organ procurement and transplantation. PMID:22489438

  2. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  3. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Busseniers, Evo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  4. Algeria: A Study of the Educational System of Algeria and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, David W.

    Written as a guide to be used in the admission and placement of Algerian students in U.S. institutions of higher education, this study discusses the educational system of Algeria. The organization of Algerian education is summarized. Information is provided on preschool and primary education, middle school education, secondary education,…

  5. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Treatment Options for Pelvic Organ Prolapse? What is Pelvic Organ Prolapse? Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when the tissue ...

  6. Organic plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Martin S.

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. To a major extent, organic farming depends currently on plant and animal varieties that have been bred for non-organic farming and that are often not suited to organic production. This position is inconsistent with a holistic approach to organic agriculture. Organically-bred plant varieties are needed to develop both the potential of organic agriculture and its integrity. A first attempt at developing a concept for organic ...

  7. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lunt, Richard R.

    2016-04-05

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  8. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of isotopes in soil organic matter studies is reviewed. Such studies include measuring the input of organic carbon into soils, the decomposition of isotope-labelled materials such as organic compounds and microbial and plant material in soils, the characterization of soil organic matter and the availability of nutrients released from organic residues. (U.K.)

  9. Organic waste treatment with organically modified clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of organically modified clays in hazardous waste management applications offers a significant new and untapped potential. These clays may be used in the stabilization of organic wastes and organically contaminated soils, for waste water treatment, for oil spill control, for liner systems beneath fuel oil storage tanks, and as a component within liner systems of hazardous waste storage treatment and disposal facilities. Organically modified clays (organophilic clays) may be employed in each of these systems to adsorb organic waste constituents, enhancing the performance of the applications

  10. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: ... Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids ...

  11. Ashes for organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kousa, T.; Heinonen, M; Suoniitty, T.; Peltonen, K

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays only eight percent of the cultivated field area is used for organic farming. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has published the guidelines for the program of organic farming to diversify the supply and the consumption of organic food. The aim is to increase organically arable land to 20% by the year 2020.The demand of organic fertilizer products is strongly increasing. Interest in forestry by-products (ash, bark, zero fiber, etc.) for use in organic production has recently be...

  12. Organic Viticulture in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga; Häseli, Andreas; Levite, Dominique; Tamm, Lucius

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Organic agriculture is a thriving sector in Europe, and in some countries 10 % of the agricultural area is organic. Not so, however, for organic viticulture: the percentage of organic viticulture land compared to all vineyards is lower than for organic agriculture. This is due to several constraints in the sector of production techniques, in marketing, legislation and state support. Material and Methods So far no official data on the current status of organic viticultur...

  13. Organic brain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBS; Organic mental disorder (OMS); Chronic organic brain syndrome ... Listed below are disorders associated with OBS. Brain injury caused by ... the brain ( subarachnoid hemorrhage ) Blood clot inside the ...

  14. Progress in organic spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in organic spintronics is given an informative overview, covering spin injection, detection, and transport in organic spin valve devices, and the magnetic field effect in organic semiconductors (OSCs). In particular, we focus on our own recent work in spin injection and the organic magnetic field effect (OMFE). (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  15. Deceased Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israni, A K; Zaun, D; Bolch, C; Rosendale, J D; Snyder, J J; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    SRTR uses data collected by OPTN to calculate metrics such as donation/conversion rate, organ yield, and rate of organs recovered for transplant but not transplanted. In 2014, 9252 eligible deaths were reported by organ procurement organizations, a slight increase from 8944 in 2012, and the donation/conversation rate was 73.4 eligible donors per 100 eligible deaths, a slight increase from 71.3 in 2013. Some metrics show variation across organ procurement organizations, suggesting that sharing best practices could lead to gains in efficiency and organ retrieval. PMID:26755269

  16. The committed organic consumer

    OpenAIRE

    Geen, Natalie; Firth, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - UK committed organic consumers are reported to be about 23 per cent of consumers and account for 84 per cent of organic sales. This paper compares the committed organic consumer who is also a member of the UK’s national charity for organic growing (HDRA), to committed organic consumers in the wider UK population. Broad parallels were found between these two groups of consumers although there were differences in purchasing drivers as environmental issues were relatively more impor...

  17. On Structure and Organization: An Organizing Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, Nils A.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the nature of structure and organization, and the process of making new Things. Hyperstructures are introduced as binding and organizing principles, and we show how they can transfer from one situation to another. A guiding example is the hyperstructure of higher order Brunnian rings and similarly structured many-body systems.

  18. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  19. Entrepreneurship and Organizations' Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧

    2013-01-01

    In modern society, the competition has become increasingly fierce. Organizations pay close attention to their manage-ment in order to gain the priority. Under this context, entrepreneurship has been attached great importance to. Entrepreneurship has played an indispensable role in organizations. Compare to those short-lived companies, powerful organizations, such as Google, IBM and P&G has gain great progress in the last decades. Therefore, it is essential to study how the powerful organiza-tion could always be innovative. This paper aims to study the role that entrepreneurship plays in the organizations and take Google as an example. It provides some previous lessons that Chinese organizations could draw from.

  20. Four cases of protracted whole body irradiation (Algerian accident 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 25 Ci iridium-192 source accidentally lost was introduced in a room where among others four young female patients (14 - 20 years old) one of them pregnant were irradiated during 4/5 weeks, 6/8 hours daily, cumulating skin doses in the range of 2500r and mean medullary doses in the range of 1250r. They developed a very protracted infections and haemorragic syndrome during which they were treated successfully by haematologic compensatory therapy with enormous quantities of packed isolated blood cells (R.B.C., W.B.C., platelets) and massive antibiotic, antimycotic and hydro-electrolytic therapy. The dosimetric (physical and biological) problems are discussed and the clinical and biological data are given in detail

  1. : What models of Competitive Intelligence for Algerian Firms?

    OpenAIRE

    Baaziz, Abdelkader; Quoniam, Luc; Reymond, David

    2014-01-01

    International audience Avec une décennie d'existence timide en Algérie, l'intelligence économique est une discipline peu connue des académiciens et trop négligées des praticiens. D'abord, il y a un véritable problème de formation en IE. En effet, le peu de formations existantes en Algérie sont inspirées des modèles anglo-saxons ou européens (en particulier le modèle français), et sont donc en inadéquation totale avec les besoins réels de l'entreprise algérienne. Les personnes acquièrent de...

  2. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS ON ALGERIAN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Zeyneb GUELLIL; Fatima Zahra ALIOUI; Soufyane BADRAOUI

    2015-01-01

    The Global Economic Crisis and 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s , The financial crisis, brewing for a while, really started to show its effects in the middle of 2007 and into 2008. It is a situation where macro indicator like economic growth rate fall in most countries across the world. “Although economists largely failed to predict this global economic seismic shock, they have since made up for their ov...

  3. Carbonation of adjuvant concretes based on local Algerian resources

    OpenAIRE

    Dakhmouche Chabil, Fatima-Zohra,

    2009-01-01

    The carbonation is a pathology which affects cement-based materials such as concretes and mortars.The carbonated skin of material becomes brittle and losses the protection of inner steels againstcorrosion. The corrosion products generate a degradation of the concrete which may lead to thecollapse of the structure.Six types of adjuvant concretes and two cement pastes have been designed by a rheological study inorder to study the effect of accelerated and natural carbonation on the sustainabili...

  4. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; Adjlane, Noureddine; Saini, Deepti; Manchiganti, Rushiraj; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; AlShagoor, Banan; Batainh, Ahmed Mahmud; Mugasimangalam, Raja

    2015-06-01

    Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation. PMID:26484171

  5. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Jamal Haddad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation.

  6. Radon concentrations in Algerian oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 222Rn in produced water, crude oil, natural gas (NG) and natural gas liquids (NGL) in on-shore Algeria were measured using scintillation cell techniques (Lucas cells) and electret ion chamber (EIC). The first method, active, is based on the use of a Lucas-type scintillation chamber in conjunction with a portable monitor (model Pylon AB-5); the second method, passive, using an EIC with a 4 l glass analysis bottle. The activities of 222Rn were in the range of 0.98-18.50 Bq/l for produced water, 0.02-0.3 Bq/g for crude oil, 40-1000 Bq/m3 for NG and 300-2500 Bq/m3 for NGL, respectively. These values are compared with concentrations reported for other countries

  7. Soil contamination by petroleum products. Southern Algerian case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbas, Amina; Boutoutaou, Djamel; Segaï, Sofiane; Segni, Ladjel

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of soil by petroleum products is a current problem in several countries in the world. In Algeria, this negative phenomenon is highly remarked in Saharan region. Numerous studies at the University of Ouargla that we will review in this paper, have tried to find an effective solution to eliminate the hydrocarbons from the soil by the technique of "biodegradation" which is a natural process based on microorganisms such as Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Presence of aboriginal strain Bacillus megaterium in the soil samples with different ages of contamination has shown a strong degradation of pollutants. This strain chosen for its short time of generation which is performing as seen the best yields of elimination of hydrocarbons assessed at 98 % biostimule by biosurfactant, also 98% on a sample wich bioaugmente by urea, and 86 % of the sample which biostimule by nutrient solution. The rate of biodegradation of the contaminated soil by crude oil using the strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa is higher in the presence of biosurfactant 53 % that in his absence 35 %. Another elimination technique wich is washing the contaminated soil's sample by centrifugation in the presence of biosurfactant where The rate of hydrocarbons mobilized after washing soil by centrifugation is of 50 % and 76 % but without centrifugation it was of 46% to 79%. Those processes have great capacity in the remobilization of hydrocarbons and acceleration of their biodegradation; thus, they deserve to be further developed in order to prevent environmental degradation in the region of Ouargla.

  8. Toward a minor theatre : Myriam Ben's algerian antigone

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    La obra de Myriam Ben Leïla, poème scénique en deux actes et un prologue me ha parecido una reinterpretación de la Antígona de Sófocles. Considero que esta fusión entre el teatro argelino, la historia y la tragedia griega da prioridad a una variedad de “teatro menor” que se establece con el fin de debilitar las estructuras dramaturgas ya implantadas y las narrativas históricas prevalecientes sobre la Revolución Argelina (1954-1962). Al trabajar en la línea de una obra canónica, la dramaturga ...

  9. Chironomid (Diptera, Chironomidae species assemblages in northeastern Algerian hydrosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chaib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae, and determine their substrate preferences, from two hydrosystems located in northeastern Algeria: the Kebir-East and the Seybouse wadis. Sixty-five species were recorded in 49 sampling sites distributed along the main courses of the two hydrographic nets and their tributaries. The majority of taxa comprised cosmopolitan species widely distributed along these two hydrosystems. Cricotopus (Cricotopus bicinctus showed the highest abundance and frequency of occurrence (29.52% and was widespread in almost all the sampling sites. Species richness ranged from 4 to 23, Shannon diversity between 0.15 and 0.90, Evenness from 0.23 to 1. A cluster analysis was carried out to represent the different groups of sites sharing similar species composition. Agglomerative cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into four clusters according to the community data. An Indval analysis was then carried out to detect indicator species for each group of the sampling sites. Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris was indicator of the first group of the sampling sites. Orthocladius pedestris, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus and C. bicinctus were indicators of the second group, and Polypedilum cultellatum of the third group. The fourth group was not characterized by any species. Indval analysis allowed also to determine species preferences for substrate size: Corynoneura scutellata and Dicrotendipes nervosus emphasized a preference to fine gravel, and Glyptotendipes pallens to fine sand.

  10. The Visual Dimension in Organizing, Organization, and Organization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate E.; Höllerer, Markus A.; Jancsary, Dennis;

    2013-01-01

    With the unprecedented rise in the use of visuals, and its undeniable omnipresence in organizational contexts, as well as in the individual's everyday life, organization and management science has recently started to pay closer attention to the to date under-theorized “visual mode” of discourse and...... meaning construction. Building primarily on insights from the phenomenological tradition in organization theory and from social semiotics, this article sets out to consolidate previous scholarly efforts and to sketch a fertile future research agenda. After briefly exploring the workings of visuals, we...... introduce the methodological and theoretical “roots” of visual studies in a number of disciplines that have a long-standing tradition of incorporating the visual. We then continue by extensively reviewing work in the field of organization and management studies: More specifically, we present five distinct...

  11. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  12. Organization of Financial Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Шпак, Валентин Аркадійович

    2016-01-01

    Organization of financial accounting that is grounded on principles of financial reporting has been considered. The relation between accounting objects and accounts has been researched. Approaches towards solving problems of organization of financial accounting have been described.

  13. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  14. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  15. Organizing design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the kind of understanding of organizing that is implied by design theories for project managers' understanding and organizing of design work. Five theories and their organizing consequences for project managers organizing of design work are...... analyzed. The paper contributes to design research and organization studies by putting the organizing of design projects on the research agenda. It also contributes by demonstrating the importance of being aware of the ontological and epistemological assumptions and organizing consequences of different...... design theories. The selected theories of design thus represent different views on what design is, address different design areas and are based on different ontological and epistemological assumptions that influence their views on how design processes should be organized....

  16. Organic Solvent Tropical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an unmitigated organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines

  17. Organ Donation: The Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Plan Your Finances After Your Transplant Contact Your Donor Family Organ Donation: The Process Enrolling as a Donor : The ...

  18. Organics in radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen papers, each processed separately cover the types of organic materials in radioactive wastes, their effect on repository performance and destruction of organics, including incineration, peroxide and wet oxidation and acid and biological digestion. (U.K.)

  19. Organization theory. Analyzing health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cors, W K

    1997-02-01

    Organization theory (OT) is a tool that can be applied to analyze and understand health care organizations. Transaction cost theory is used to explain, in a unifying fashion, the myriad changes being undertaken by different groups of constituencies in health care. Agency theory is applied to aligning economic incentives needed to ensure Integrated Delivery System (IDS) success. By using tools such as OT, a clearer understanding of organizational changes is possible. PMID:10164970

  20. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  1. PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Ketut Yoga Mira Pratiwi; I Gede Mega Putra

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is defined as a decrease in abnormal or herniation of the pelvic organs out of place attached to its normal position or in the pelvic cavity. As for the anatomy of the pelvic organs consists of bones, muscles, and nerves. The presence of damage to the pelvic connective tissue and visceral attachment pelvic organs the cause occurs. The symptoms that appear in patients POP not specific to distinguish prolapse of some compartments but can reflect the degree of prolaps...

  2. Deconstructing the organic movement

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, David

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Organic agriculture has sought to establish its scientific validity and its origins. Conford (2001) claims that these can be traced to the 1920s, and that Anglican Christianity is pivotal to its history. However, organic agriculture takes many forms and the role of religion in society has changed. In the UK, a new incarnation of organic farming occurred in the late twentieth century as part of a wider response to environmen...

  3. Organic for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Rebsdorf, Simon Olling

    2011-01-01

    Organic research and innovation moves the organic food sector from a niche to a general reference model for sustainable agriculture. Europe faces major challenges to conserve biodiversity, secure soil, and promote animal welfare and there is an urgent need to ensure global food security. Organic food and farming paves the way to meet these challenges; but to succeed a further development of organic food and farming is key.

  4. Transparency in Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...... being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co...

  5. Behaviour in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Klímová, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    Diploma thesis "The behavior in the organization" at a practical level, integrates the knowledge of psychology, sociology and management. It explains bahavior of people in the organization, which seeks to use this knowledge for the benefit of the organizaton and its management. It focuses on individual differences among people in the organization, organizational culture, relationships between people in workplace, organizational structure, communication within the organization, motivation, dev...

  6. Organization/Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  7. Multiple organ procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Milivoje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Liver transplantation is the most demanding of all solid organ transplantations. It requires perfect organization and motivation of health care professionals, patients and their families. This article deals with the procedure for multiple organ procurement, reviews criteria for organ donation and describes the surgical technique for multiple organ procurement. Discussion. Adequate selection and evaluation of cadaveric donors and of organs for transplantation should include early identification of potential donors, and early diagnosis of brain death. The procurement of the highest number of viable organs for transplantation requires excellence in each of the phases. Early and aggressive physiologic support in the maintenance of potential donors can reduce organ donor loss due to irreversible asystole or multiorgan failure (it is almost always possible to maintain organ perfusion pressure and increase the number of organs without increasing post-transplant morbidity or mortality. The ideal donor is a young, previously healthy, brain dead, victim of an accident. Conclusion. The surgical procedure for multiple organ procurement from brain death donors must be performed without intraopertive organ damage. .

  8. Organic herbicide update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed research is the top research priority among organic producers. Very few chemical weed control options are approved for organic use (corn gluten meal, vinegar, clove oil, and most recently ammonium pelargonate ), but additional compounds are under investigation and pursuing organic approval. C...

  9. Organic chemistry in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  10. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...

  11. Theology and Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre; Höpfl, Heather;

    2012-01-01

    This Introduction argues for the importance of theology for the study of organization. It also draws the contours of a possible ‘theology of organization’. Theology of organization, as we use it here, does not refer to a study of organization that is rooted in faith, nor does it refer to a study ...

  12. Organ mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term, anatomical measurements, in the context of this Co-ordinated Research Programme refers to measurements of masses of internal organs, although the human body is composed of internal organs and tissues such as skeleton, muscle, skin and adipose. The mass of an organ containing a radionuclide (source organ), and the mass of a target organ which absorbs energy of the radiation, are essential parameters in the ICRP dosimetric model derived from the MIRD method. Twelve specific organs of interest were proposed at the Coordinated Research Programme Project Formulation Meeting (PFM) in 1988. A slightly different set of thirteen organs with potential significance for radiation protection were selected for study at the Research Co-ordination Meeting held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1991. The dimensions of the organs could also be useful information, but were considered unimportant for internal dose assessment. Due to the strong concern about the unified method for collecting organ mass data at the PFM, a guide-line was established stressing the need for organ data from subjects that were healthy and normal, at least until shortly before death, or from sudden death cases, following the Japanese experience. In this report, masses of nine to thirteen organs are presented from seven participating countries. Three participants have also reported the organ masses as fractions of the total body mass

  13. LEADERSHIP IN VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marian NÃSTASE; Alexandru ROJA

    2013-01-01

    Current economic circumstances, very dynamic and characterized by uncertainty, require organizations to identify new sources of competitive advantage to remain competitive. Collaboration between organizations in collaborative networks are forms and environments in which organizations can use their distinctive potential. Capitalization of organizational potential in isolated manner, will not generate competitive advantage.Also important, the globalization and relocation of business, and integr...

  14. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  15. Organ Harvesting and Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskette, Kimberly G.; Ritz, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Humans and animals need healthy organs to live. Due to medical conditions and accidents, some organs fail to function properly. For these reasons, the medical community has experimented and can now perform successful organ transplants, allowing patients to continue to live their lives. Many countries have medical programs where individuals can…

  16. Organic production in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Wibe, Atle

    2005-01-01

    Present status of the Norwegian organic sector: -Official target of 10% organic production in 2010. -Organic production receives public subsidies -Marketing and production of plant products successful and growing -Marketing of livestock products successful and growing -Large portion of ecological products are sold unmarked together with other products

  17. The Visual Dimension in Organizing, Organization and Organization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Meyer, Renate; Hollerer, Markus;

    2013-01-01

    With the unprecedented rise in the use of visuals, and its undeniable omnipresence in organizational contexts, as well as in the individual's everyday life, organization and management science has recently started to pay closer attention to the to date under-theorized "visual mode" of discourse...

  18. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste from fish production is conventionally measured as BOD5 (biological oxygen demand measured during 5 days) and COD (chemical oxygen demand (includes BOD5)). Organic waste is of particular concern for several reasons. The easily degradable part (BOD5) may have an immediate, negative...... was opposite for BOD5. A BOD5/COD ratio of 0.5 was derived, indicating that unsedimented organic waste is characterized by easily degradable organic matter. In comparison, a solid BOD5/COD ratio of 0.2 indicated that this waste fraction contains high amounts of hard-to-degrade organic matter. The...

  19. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of plant production and humus formation, the interaction of soil organic matter with the mineral part of soil for plant nutrition and some physical and chemical properties of soil were discussed, as were the significance of climatic and hydrological data in that context. Isotope techniques (14C and 15N) were utilized in various studies. Papers were presented on the turnover of plant residues, mineralization of organic compounds, nitrogen economy, biodegradation and biochemical transformations of soil organic matter, contributions to the formation of humic substances, soil organic matter and plant metabolism, and the interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter. The use of municipal sludge on agricultural land was also considered

  20. Challenges in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyar, Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty. PMID:23908807

  1. Challenges in Organ Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Beyar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty.

  2. Organic 'Plastic' Optoelectronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments on conjugated polymer based photovoltaic diodes and photoactive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs) are discussed. The photophysics of such devices is based on the photoinduced charge transfer from donor type semiconducting conjugated polymers onto acceptor type conjugated polymers or acceptor molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C60. Potentially interesting applications include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena as well as photoresponsive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs). Furthermore, organic polymeric/inorganic nanoparticle based 'hybrid' solar cells will be discussed. This talk gives an overview of materials' aspect, charge-transport, and device physics of organic diodes and field-effect transistors. Furthermore, due to the compatibility of carbon/hydrogen based organic semiconductors with organic biomolecules and living cells there can be a great opportunity to integrate such organic semiconductor devices (biOFETs) with the living organisms. In general the largely independent bio/lifesciences and information technology of today, can be thus bridged in an advanced cybernetic approach using organic semiconductor devices embedded in bio-lifesciences. This field of bio-organic electronic devices is proposed to be an important mission of organic semiconductor devices

  3. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  4. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    distribution between particulate and unsedimented (suspended and dissolved) organic waste. Quantifying aquaculture waste, including organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), into different waste fractions (particulate and unsedimented) is essential for optimising the design of different treatment setups...... was opposite for BOD5. A BOD5/COD ratio of 0.5 was derived, indicating that unsedimented organic waste is characterized by easily degradable organic matter. In comparison, a solid BOD5/COD ratio of 0.2 indicated that this waste fraction contains high amounts of hard-to-degrade organic matter. The......Organic waste from fish production is conventionally measured as BOD5 (biological oxygen demand measured during 5 days) and COD (chemical oxygen demand (includes BOD5)). Organic waste is of particular concern for several reasons. The easily degradable part (BOD5) may have an immediate, negative...

  5. Do Education Organizations Show Learning Organizations Charecterics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Yumusak,

    Full Text Available Learning, an important element in terms of affecting the change of individual, organizational and social structures, will occur more effectively when the institutions in social structure turn into learning organizations. Senge (1993 concept of learning organization, constantly changing, evolving and renewing itself described as a dynamic structure. This concept has an important place in all institutions is also a separate meaning for educational institutions. In this context, schools training the human resources, appropriate for the aim of being information society, as individuals have taken continuous learning as their principles, teachers providing educational and supporting services and their perceptions of learning organization are of the great importance. In Balıkesir, the study was conducted virtue of this importance has been serving the state and private institutions serving 848 elementary teachers, perceptions of the learning organization and organizational barriers that prevent it is to be determined through a comparative analysis. As a result of the survey, in the framework of the bases in literature, it has been found out that the state primary schools don’t have the features of learning organization, contrary to the private primary schools.

  6. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  7. Nonlinear organic plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Fainberg, B D

    2015-01-01

    Purely organic materials with negative and near-zero dielectric permittivity can be easily fabricated. Here we develop a theory of nonlinear non-steady-state organic plasmonics with strong laser pulses. The bistability response of the electron-vibrational model of organic materials in the condensed phase has been demonstrated. Non-steady-state organic plasmonics enable us to obtain near-zero dielectric permittivity during a short time. We have proposed to use non-steady-state organic plasmonics for the enhancement of intersite dipolar energy-transfer interaction in the quantum dot wire that influences on electron transport through nanojunctions. Such interactions can compensate Coulomb repulsions for particular conditions. We propose the exciton control of Coulomb blocking in the quantum dot wire based on the non-steady-state near-zero dielectric permittivity of the organic host medium.

  8. Organic photosensitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-01-22

    A photoactive device is provided. The device includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a photoactive region disposed between and electrically connected to the first and second electrodes. The photoactive region further includes an organic donor layer and an organic acceptor layer that form a donor-acceptor heterojunction. The mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region are different by a factor of at least 100, and more preferably a factor of at least 1000. At least one of the mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region is greater than 0.001 cm.sup.2/V-sec, and more preferably greater than 1 cm.sup.2/V-sec. The heterojunction may be of various types, including a planar heterojunction, a bulk heterojunction, a mixed heterojunction, and a hybrid planar-mixed heterojunction.

  9. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, Procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model is...... presented and results of a first case study discussed. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on Procurement organization, understanding the internal and internal contingency factors. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be furthermore leveraged in...... future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...

  10. Organic food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander;

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria...... product identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were...... food as well as on organic processing. The proposed definition connects organic processing to related systems such as minimal, sustainable and careful, gentle processing, and describes clear principles and related criteria. Based on food examples, such as milk with different heat treatments, the...

  11. Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Leixnering, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    and private sectors as well as the boundaries of single organizations. In addition, the complexity of the interlocking arrangements and relationships in this public organizational landscape has resulted in considerable governance problems with serious implications for coordination and policy coherence.......New public management-inspired reforms created numerous autonomous units with many different faces and labels. This variety of organizations and organizational forms precludes a straightforward definition of what constitutes a public sector organization and blurs the boundaries between the public...

  12. Organic Molecular Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Schwoerer, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.

  13. Attribute coordination in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyi Qian; Gerard Roland; Chenggang Xu

    2001-01-01

    We study coordination in organizations with a variety of organizational forms. Coordination in organization is modeled as the adjustment of attributes and capacities of tasks when facing external shocks. An M-form (U-form) organization groups complementary (substitutable) tasks together in one unit. In the presence of only attribute shocks, particularly when gains from specialization are small, communication is poor, or shocks are more likely, the expected payoff of the decentralized M-form i...

  14. Fostering values in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Today, values hold a prominent place both in business ethics and in organization theory. However, there persists considerable confusion about what these values are and what role they play in these theories and, therefore, how they can be developed both within the individual and within the organization. Therefore, this paper seeks to define a conception of values based on a theory of human action that can provide a basis for an organization theory, and to propose a series of ideas about how pe...

  15. Stress Management in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Capotescu

    2008-01-01

    Employee stress has increasingly become a concern for many organizations. Although it is not possible to eliminate stress entirely, people can learn to manage it. Many organizations have adopted occupational stress management programs to try and reduce the stress levels of their workforce. The high cost of work stress related problems highlights the need to spend more time evaluating work stress interventions and publishing the findings so that other organizations can gain insight into progra...

  16. Organizations and Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.; Linder, Stefan

    Austrian economics focuses on markets, but has much to say about organizations. In particular, Austrian insights on the structure of production, the heterogeneity and subjectivity of resources, the nature of uncertainty, the role of monetary calculation, and the function of the entrepreneur provide...... solid foundations for a distinctly Austrian theory of organizations. We review these insights, discuss recent literature on Austrian economics and the theory of the firm, and suggest new directions for developing and extending an Austrian approach to organizations....

  17. Organ Donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    CHINA’S first voluntary organ donation system is in the midst of its trial run. The program is being tested in 11 pilot regions around the country, having harvested organs from more than 100 donors in this inaugural year. Overseen by the Red Cross Society of China and the country’s Ministry of Health, the system follows cardiac death standards in organ donation

  18. The organization of thanatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doka, Kenneth J; Heflin-Wells, E Neil; Martin, Terry L; Redmond, Lula M; Schachter, Sherry R

    2011-01-01

    This article explores, using Wilensky's Model of Professionalization, the emergence of professional organizations within the thanatology. The authors review the history of four organizations--The Foundation of Thanatology, Ars Moriendi, The Forum for Death Education and Counseling (now the Association for Death Education and Counseling: A Thanatology Organization [ADEC]), and The International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement (IWG). The authors speculate on some of the reasons that the first two failed while IWG and ADEC remain viable-while noting challenges that these remaining thanatological organizations will experience as they seek to continue to stay relevant. PMID:21842661

  19. Organizing marginalized workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A K

    1999-01-01

    Figures from the U.S. Department of Labor show that low-wage or marginalized workers are more likely to be injured on the job and suffer more work-related medical conditions than better-paid workers. Despite an increasingly hostile organizing climate, market globalization, and corporate downsizing, significant progress has been made in organizing marginalized workers. A multifaceted, comprehensive organizing strategy, incorporating union-building strategies that include (but are not limited to) safety and health, must be used by unions to successfully organize marginalized workers and obtain the first contract. PMID:10378982

  20. Management of information organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Afzal, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    This book is a significant step towards developing a body of management knowledge pertinent to the context of Library Information Science (LIS) and provides a succinct but deep account of management and information organizations. Management of Information Organizations presents a broad view of the information organizations and the nature of management in these organizations, and how information professionals are affected by such management systems. The book equips the reader with the knowledge that will enable them to develop a strong intellectual foundation relating to management and its mani

  1. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis is...... placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded...

  2. Physics of Organic Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Brütting, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Filling the gap in the literature currently available, this book presents an overview of our knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 18 international research groups cover various aspects of this field, ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in such different devices as organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes. From the contents:. * Excitation Dynamics in O

  3. Titan's organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.

  4. The MDT Barrel Organ

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Have you ever looked for an interesting use for the spare detector parts once the construction phase was finished? Henk Tiecke, with the help of Oscar van Petten and Marco Kraan, all from NIKHEF, came up with a great idea for leftover MDT tubes. They simply built a pipe organ! See the MDT Barrel Organ in action, as recorded during a party thrown on the occasion of the first shipment of MDT chambers from NIKHEF to CERN. Want to know more about the organ? Please contact Henk Tiecke. Henk Tiecke playing the MDT Barrel Organ.

  5. Organizations in Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book brings together leading organization scholars and business historians to examine the opportunities and challenges of incorporating historical research into the study of firms and markets. It examines the reasons for the growing interest in historically grounded research in management...... section, Sources and Methods, the contributors explicate historical methodologies within the context of other approaches to studying organizations and provide concrete suggestions for researchers in the field. The introduction places these issues within the broader context of developments in the fields of...... business history and organization studies, and orients readers to the ‘future of the past in management and organization studies.’...

  6. Organic Molecules in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita

    2015-08-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are primitive samples from the asteroid belt, containing 3-5wt% organic carbon. The exogenous delivery of organic matter by carbonaceous meteorites may have contributed to the organic inventory of the early Earth. The majority (>70%) of the meteoritic organic material consist of insoluble organic matter (IOM) [1]. The remaining meteoritic organic material (Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions after the meteorite parent body cooled to lower temperatures [13, 14].The analysis of the abundances and distribution of the organic molecules present in meteorites helps to determine the physical and chemical conditions of the early solar system, and the prebiotic organic compounds available on the early Earth.[1] Cody and Alexander (2005) GCA 69, 1085. [2] Cronin and Chang (1993) in: The Chemistry of Life’s Origin. pp. 209-258. [3] Martins and Sephton (2009) in: Amino acids, peptides and proteins in organic chemistry. pp. 1-42. [4] Martins (2011) Elements 7, 35. [5] Botta et al. (2007) MAPS 42, 81. [6] Martins et al. (2015) MAPS, in press. [7] Cooper and Cronin (1995) GCA 59, 1003. [8] Glavin et al. (2006) MAPS. 41, 889. [9] Glavin et al. (2011) MAPS 45, 1948. [10] Elsila et al. (2005) GCA 5, 1349. [11] Glavin and Dworkin (2009) PNAS 106, 5487. [12] Pizzarello et al. (2003) GCA 67, 1589. [13] Chan et al. (2012) MAPS. 47, 1502. [14] Burton et al. (2011) MAPS 46, 1703.

  7. Innovative Mechanism of Rural Organization Based on Self-Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing jin; Gao, Bing

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the basic situation for the formation of innovative rural organizations with the form of self-organization; revels the features of self-organization, including the four aspects of openness of rural organization, innovation of rural organization is far away from equilibrium, the non-linear response mechanism of rural organization innovation and the random rise and fall of rural organization innovation. The evolution mechanism of rural organization innovation is reveled accor...

  8. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Organ Procurement Organizations and Organ Transplant Programs Locator tool is designed to help users find information about the Organ Procurement and...

  9. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for an organ due to the shortage of donor organs. Because each candidate's situation is unique, waiting times ... distance between donor and recipient size of the donor organ in relation to the recipient type of organ ...

  10. SLUDGE ORGANICS BIOAVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern over the bioavailability of toxic organics that can occur in municipal sludges threatens routine land application of sludge. vailable data, however, show that concentrations of priority organics in normal sludges are low. ludges applied at agronomic rates yield chemical c...

  11. Are Learning Organizations Pragmatic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the future prospects of the popular concept known as the learning organization; to trace the influence of philosophical pragmatism on the learning organization and to consider its potential impact on the future; and to emphasize how pragmatic theories have shaped the development of Deming's total…

  12. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  13. Mintzberg on organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Sorin-George Toma

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Henry Mintzberg is considered as one of the most representative writers in management.Until now,he has written more than 140 monographs and articles, and 13 books,mostly in the management field. On the basis of his research findings, Mintzberg proposed a typology of organizations. Taking into account their structure, he discovered seven major types of organizations

  14. High reliability organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallis, R.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    High Reliability Organizations (HRO’s) are organizations that constantly face serious and complex (safety) risks yet succeed in realising an excellent safety performance. In such situations acceptable levels of safety cannot be achieved by traditional safety management only. HRO’s manage safety risk

  15. Sugarcane Pernicious Organisms Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ There are more than 2000 species of sugarcane pernicious organisms in the world, and over 400species axe in China. In order to make sure the sugarcane pernicious organisms in Hunan, we had a detailed investiga tion in several main sugarcane - producing regions during 1996- 1998.

  16. Organ Facts: Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in certain types of transplants. Discover data and statistics for each center. Visit the OPTN's Organ DataSource now > I am looking for >> About organ allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA Calculator - KDPI Calculator - LAS Calculator - MELD ...

  17. Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in certain types of transplants. Discover data and statistics for each center. Visit the OPTN's Organ DataSource now > I am looking for >> About organ allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA Calculator - KDPI Calculator - LAS Calculator - MELD ...

  18. Neurology and international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mateen, Farrah J.

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private–public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and c...

  19. The Expressive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...... postgraduate students of management, business strategy, accounting, marketing, and communication studies; MBA students; Managers and consultants....

  20. Organic Agriculture in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C. R.; Darnhofer, I.

    2004-01-01

    Organic farming has a long history in Austria, not least due to the fact that Rudolf Steiner, the founder of the bio-dynamic farming movement, was an Austrian. Currently approximately 10% of Austrian farms are certified organic, the highest percentage in the EU.

  1. Organic chemistry of astatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper surveys the investigations on the chemical behaviour of astatine in organic systems and deals with the preparation and identification of its organic compounds. A discussion is given on some of the physico-chemical properties of these compounds determined by extrapolation techniques as well as by direct measurement. The biomedical importance of 211At-labelled compounds is briefly referred to. (authors)

  2. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all......, the paper is an investigation into how various (mundane) organizing devices interact with, influence, and shape particular organizational practices which are assumed to perform the well-functioning welfare state....

  3. Stability of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.;

    2011-01-01

    The morphological stability of organic nanowires over time and under thermal load is of major importance for their use in any device. In this study the growth and stability of organic nanowires from a naphthyl end-capped thiophene grown by organic molecular beam deposition is investigated via...... atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aging experiments under ambient conditions already show substantial morphological changes. Nanoscopic organic clusters, which initially coexist with the nanowires, vanish within hours. Thermal annealing of nanowire samples leads to even more pronounced morphology changes......, such as a strong decrease in nanowire number density, a strong increase in nanowire height, and the formation of new types of crystallites. This happens even before sublimation of organic material starts. These experiments also shine new light on the formation process of the nanowires....

  4. Organ donations after death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Logar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.

  5. Cellular organization by self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Martin; Kruse, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    We use the oscillating Min proteins of Escherichia coli as a prototype system to illustrate the current state and potential of modeling protein dynamics in space and time. We demonstrate how a theoretical approach has led to striking new insights into the mechanisms of self-organization in bacterial cells and indicate how these ideas may be applicable to more complex structure formation in eukaryotic cells.

  6. Self-Organizing Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    It is man’s ongoing hope that a machine could somehow adapt to its environment by reorganizing itself. This is what the notion of self-organizing robots is based on. The theme of this book is to examine the feasibility of creating such robots within the limitations of current mechanical engineering. The topics comprise the following aspects of such a pursuit: the philosophy of design of self-organizing mechanical systems; self-organization in biological systems; the history of self-organizing mechanical systems; a case study of a self-assembling/self-repairing system as an autonomous distributed system; a self-organizing robot that can create its own shape and robotic motion; implementation and instrumentation of self-organizing robots; and the future of self-organizing robots. All topics are illustrated with many up-to-date examples, including those from the authors’ own work. The book does not require advanced knowledge of mathematics to be understood, and will be of great benefit to students in the rob...

  7. The discipline of organizing

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Organizing is such a common activity that we often do it without thinking much about it. In our daily lives we organize physical things--books on shelves, cutlery in kitchen drawers--and digital things--Web pages, MP3 files, scientific datasets. Millions of people create and browse Web sites, blog, tag, tweet, and upload and download content of all media types without thinking "I'm organizing now" or "I'm retrieving now." This book offers a framework for the theory and practice of organizing that integrates information organization (IO) and information retrieval (IR), bridging the disciplinary chasms between Library and Information Science and Computer Science, each of which views and teaches IO and IR as separate topics and in substantially different ways. It introduces the unifying concept of an Organizing System--an intentionally arranged collection of resources and the interactions they support--and then explains the key concepts and challenges in the design and deployment of Organizing Systems in many do...

  8. Organic Separation Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  9. Organic Compounds in Stardust

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Clemett. Simon J.; Sandford, Scott A.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Hoerz, Fredrich

    2011-01-01

    The successful return of the STARDUST spacecraft provides a unique opportunity to investigate the nature and distribution of organic matter in cometary dust particles collected from Comet 81P/Wild-2. Analysis of individual cometary impact tracks in silica aerogel using the technique of two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) demonstrates the presence of complex aromatic organic matter. While concerns remain as to the organic purity of the aerogel collection medium and the thermal effects associated with hypervelocity capture, the majority of the observed organic species appear indigenous to the impacting particles and are hence of cometary origin. While the aromatic fraction of the total organic matter present is believed to be small, it is notable in that it appears to be N-rich. Spectral analysis in combination with instrumental detection sensitivities suggest that N is incorporated predominantly in the form of aromatic nitriles (R-C N). While organic species in the STARDUST samples do share some similarities with those present in the matrices of carbonaceous chondrites, the closest match is found with stratospherically collected interplanetary dust particles. These findings are consistent with the notion that a fraction of interplanetary dust is of cometary origin. The presence of complex organic N-containing species in comets has astrobiological implications since comets are likely to have contributed to the prebiotic chemical inventory of both the Earth and Mars.

  10. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    putting the structural elements in focus is derived from the analysis of two case companies, which extends the existing literature and opens new avenues for future research. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on procurement organization, understanding the internal......Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...

  11. Autopoiesis in Virtual Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Malgorzata PAMKOWSKA

    2008-01-01

    Virtual organizations continuously gain popularity because of the benefits created by them. Generally, they are defined as temporal adhocracies, project oriented, knowledge-based network organizations. The goal of this paper is to present the hypothesis that knowledge system developed by virtual organization is an autopoietic system. The term “autopoiesis†was introduced by Maturana for self-productive systems. In this paper, Wikipedia is described as an example of an autopoietic sys...

  12. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 40 are included in Volume I. A number of papers deal with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and make a contribution to increasing agricultural production by proposing improved management practices. Other papers discuss turnover of plant residues, release of plant nutrients through biodegradation of organic compounds, and nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. Separate entries have been prepared for those 8 papers which discuss the use of tracer techniques in soil studies

  13. soil organic matter fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osat, Maryam; Heidari, Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    Carbon is essential for plant growth, due to its effects on other soil properties like aggregation. Knowledge of dynamics of organic matter in different locations in the soil matrix can provide valuable information which affects carbon sequestration and soil the other soil properties. Extraction of soil organic matter (SOM) fractions has been a long standing approach to elucidating the roles of soil organic matter in soil processes. Several kind fractionation methods are used and all provide information on soil organic matter function. Physical fractionation capture the effects on SOM dynamics of the spatial arrangement of primary and secondary organomineral particles in soil while chemical fractionation can not consider the spatial arrangement but their organic fractions are suitable for advanced chemical characterization. Three method of physical separation of soil have been used, sieving, sedimentation and densitometry. The distribution of organic matter within physical fractions of the soil can be assessed by sieving. Sieving separates soil particles based strictly on size. The study area is located on north central Iran, between 35° 41'- 36° 01' N and 50° 42'- 51° 14' E. Mean annual precipitation about 243.8 mm and mean annual air temperature is about 14.95 °C. The soil moisture and temperature regime vary between aridic-thermic in lower altitudes to xeric-mesic in upper altitudes. More than 36 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected according to land-use map units. After preliminary analyzing of samples 10 samples were selected for further analyses in five size fractions and three different time intervals in September, January and April 2008. Fractionation carried out by dry sieving in five classes, 1-2 mm, 0.5-1 mm, 270 μm-0.5mm, 53-270 μm and soil organic matter to humic acid and fulvic acid shows that there is a better correlation between humic acid contents and soil organic matter (R2 = 0.86) than fulvic acid and organic matter (R2=0.5). The

  14. Organizing Internet Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Many approaches have been taken by different groups to organize electronic resources on Internet. Some of them purport to index the electronic resources automatically. Search engines are typical in this category. Another category is the traditional library cataloging approach. For example, modified MARC formats are used to catalog the Internet resources. Besides these two, there are also some other ways to organize Internet resources, such as classification number schemes, subject heading systems, and other manual subject guides to provide a central access point for value-added topical guides. This paper introduces different approaches to organize Internet resources and focuses mainly on librarians' efforts.[Article content in Chinese

  15. Microwaves in organic chemistry and organic chemical

    OpenAIRE

    Mijin Dušan Ž.; Petrović Slobodan D.

    2005-01-01

    The usual way of applying heat to a chemical reaction is the use of a Bunsen burner, an oil or some other type of bath, or an electric heater. In inorganic chemistry, microwave technology has been used since the late 1970s while it has been implemented in organic chemistry since the mid-1980s. Microwave heating has been used in the food industry for almost fifty years. The shorter reaction times and expanded reaction range that is offered by microwave technology are suited to the increased de...

  16. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial ...

  17. PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Yoga Mira Pratiwi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is defined as a decrease in abnormal or herniation of the pelvic organs out of place attached to its normal position or in the pelvic cavity. As for the anatomy of the pelvic organs consists of bones, muscles, and nerves. The presence of damage to the pelvic connective tissue and visceral attachment pelvic organs the cause occurs. The symptoms that appear in patients POP not specific to distinguish prolapse of some compartments but can reflect the degree of prolapse as a whole. Physical examination focused on pelvic examination, beginning with inspection on the vulva and vagina to identify the presence of erosion, ulceration, or other lesions. As for the existing therapy options include observation, non-operative management, and operative management.

  18. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  19. Organic Chemistry in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.

  20. Soil Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is presented of some of the organic compounds and reactions that occur in soil. Included are nitrogenous compounds, compounds of phosphorus and sulfur, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, and aliphatic acids. (BB)

  1. Organization Authority File

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Organization Authority Files data set contains a highly detailed presentation of the evolution of names and administrative histories of Federal and non-Federal...

  2. Teaching organization: Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amalia Lorda

    2013-12-01

    In this way, what we try to do is build and strengthen students’ conscious, well-supported thought by means of which they can be enabled to make decisions and organize the teaching and learning task.

  3. Vertical organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  4. Professionalism and nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, G

    1984-01-01

    Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior. PMID:6699386

  5. Organic retailing development in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Vaclavik, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Overall development The organic retailing sector in Europe profited from the positive organic food market developments in 2007. The organic retail sector in Europe represents app. 5 – 25% of the total organic market country by country. In most countries, the organic retail sector grew proportionally to the general organic market. Organic retail sector has gained more significance in some Southern and Eastern European and Scandinavian countries. New enterprises or branc...

  6. Applicability of Complex Organization Theory to Small Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Norman A.; Heffernan, William D.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews research literature and describes a study concerning the applicability of complex organization theory to small organizations. Finds that organizational-structural properties can be measured in small organizations; complex organization theory can be used to better understand small organizations; and certain measurement techniques used in…

  7. Artificial organisms that sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Populations of artificial organisms live in an environment in which light is cyclically present (day) or absent (night). Since being active during night is non-adaptive (activity consumes energy which is not compensated by the food found at night) the organisms evolve a sleep/wake behavioral pattern of being active during daytime and sleeping during nighttime. When the population moves to a different environment that contains "caves", they have to get out of a cave although the dark ...

  8. Incentives in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Gibbons

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the author summarizes four new strands in agency theory that help him think about incentives in real organizations. As a point of departure, The author begins with a quick sketch of the classic agency model. He then discusses static models of objective performance measurement that sharpen Kerr's argument; repeated-game models of subjective performance assessments; incentives for skill development rather than simply for effort; and incentive contracts between versus within organ...

  9. Organizing Internet Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    1996-01-01

    Many approaches have been taken by different groups to organize electronic resources on Internet. Some of them purport to index the electronic resources automatically. Search engines are typical in this category. Another category is the traditional library cataloging approach. For example, modified MARC formats are used to catalog the Internet resources. Besides these two, there are also some other ways to organize Internet resources, such as classification number schemes, subject heading sys...

  10. Tunnelling in organic superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Bolech, C. J.; Giamarchi, T.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of deciding on the symmetry of the superconducting phase in the organic superconductors (Bechgaard salts), using tunnelling experiments. We first briefly review the properties of organic superconductors, and the possibility to have unconventional (triplet) superconductivity in these systems. We then present a simple scheme for computing the full current-voltage characteristics for tunnelling experiments within the framework of the non-equilibrium Keldysh Green funct...

  11. Genetically Modified Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Claro Llaguno

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO) in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO) defined as "any living...

  12. Conflict Management in Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Zeljko Turkalj; Ivana Fosic; Davor Dujak

    2008-01-01

    Every organization encounters conflicts on a daily basis. The conflicts cannot be avoided, but it is possible to manage them in a way that we recognize them on time. It is necessary to continuously track the organizational signals which point to their existence. If we do not react duly, this can lead to the situation that the conflict itself manages the organization. One of the more important determinants of productivity, efficiency and performance, and finally job contentment is also the con...

  13. Paying organ donors.

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, J.

    1990-01-01

    Following an earlier paper in the journal in which Evans argued that it was commercial exploitation, not mere payment, that was morally objectionable about certain sorts of organ donation, this paper looks at the moral issues when commercial exploitation is eliminated from systems of paid organ donation. It argues that there are no conclusive moral arguments against such schemes for non-exploitative paid kidney donation.

  14. Interstellar organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1972-01-01

    Most of the interstellar organic molecules have been found in the large radio source Sagittarius B2 toward the galactic center, and in such regions as W51 and the IR source in the Orion nebula. Questions of the reliability of molecular identifications are discussed together with aspects of organic synthesis in condensing clouds, degradational origin, synthesis on grains, UV natural selection, interstellar biology, and contributions to planetary biology.

  15. Inverted organic photosensitive device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Tong, Xiaoran; Lee, Jun Yeob; Cho, Yong Joo

    2015-09-08

    There is disclosed a method for preparing the surface of a metal substrate. The present disclosure also relates to an organic photovoltaic device including a metal substrate made by such method. Also disclosed herein is an inverted photosensitive device including a stainless steel foil reflective electrode, an organic donor-acceptor heterojunction over the reflective electrode, and a transparent electrode over the donor-acceptor heterojunction.

  16. Spatial Organization of Epigenomes

    OpenAIRE

    Dubé, Jonathan Christopher; Wang, Xue Qing David; Dostie, Josée

    2016-01-01

    The role of genome architecture in transcription regulation has become the focus of an increasing number of studies over the past decade. Chromatin organization can have a significant impact on gene expression by promoting or restricting the physical proximity between regulatory DNA elements. Given that any change in chromatin state has the potential to alter DNA folding and the proximity between control elements, the spatial organization of chromatin is inherently linked to its molecular com...

  17. The Responsive Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Fredens, Kjeld

    they form a dynamic system that enables individuals to respond effectively to changing conditions. We project this dynamic perspective onto human interaction in organizations where observations and experiential insights gained by employees and operating managers are linked to forward-looking planning...... considerations that take place around the top-management echelons. This identifies the responsive organization that is able to observe and react to frequent and often abrupt environmental changes and thereby adapt organizational activities to the changing reality....

  18. LEADING THE LEARNING ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sapna Rijal

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified leadership as being one of the most important factors that influence the development of learning organization. They suggest that creating a collective vision of the future, empowering and developing employees so that they are better able to handle environmental challenges, modeling learning behavior and creating a learning environment, are crucial skills for leaders of learning organization. These roles are suitable to a transformational leader. Despite the potenti...

  19. High reliability organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gallis, R.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    High Reliability Organizations (HRO’s) are organizations that constantly face serious and complex (safety) risks yet succeed in realising an excellent safety performance. In such situations acceptable levels of safety cannot be achieved by traditional safety management only. HRO’s manage safety risks in a specific way, supported by an associated organizational culture. A key concept hereby is resilience. The concept of HRO’s can be used to improve safety and reliability of other industries. T...

  20. DIAGNOSIS OF CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    ALBU MĂDĂLINA

    2015-01-01

    Cultural institution management is to direct the organization to a specific cultural profile purpose, namely production values esthetic sense, artistic, moral, spiritual, distribution, promotion of these values, protection and circulation of cultural heritage. In this regard, an analysis in the diagnosis cultural organizations aims to determine the main strengths and weaknesses, assess the potential and making recommendations focused on the root causes of failures and positive asp...

  1. Emotions Management within Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Maria ANDRIEŞ

    2009-01-01

    Emotions management in organizations is meant to habilitate the employees in administrating the emotional resources aiming at the correct adaptation to the organizational environment and the necessities in the work activity. The study of emotions in organizations has the purpose to know and optimize the employees’ emotional condition. The efficient leaders are interested in administrating the emotions, being aware of and capable to revaluate the factors which positively activate the employees...

  2. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Leadership in Entrepreneurial Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gorzelany - Dziadkowiec, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Leadership, to be effective must be adapted to the circumstances and groups of people with whom managers have to deal, and which have lead. The article indicates the important role of leadership in organizations and then equally from management. Organizations that wish to be enterprising require a completely different style of leadership than the one to which accustomed over the period of their durations. Entrepreneurship can and even should be stimulated through effective leadership. Leaders...

  4. Organic livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert

    2001-01-01

    The development towards a sustainable agriculture has been a main objective of organic agriculture from the beginning (IFOAM, 1978), and a declared objective of the newly applied EC-Regulation (1804/1999) on organic livestock production which provides a clear framework for livestock production. The leading idea is based on the voluntary self-restriction in the use of specific means of production with the objectives to produce food of high quality in an animal appropriate and environmentally f...

  5. Geothermal Drilling Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, A.R.

    1999-07-07

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), founded in 1982 as a joint Department of Energy (DOE)-Industry organization, develops and funds near-term technology development projects for reducing geothermal drilling costs. Sandia National Laboratories administers DOE funds to assist industry critical cost-shared projects and provides development support for each project. GDO assistance to industry is vital in developing products and procedures to lower drilling costs, in part, because the geothermal industry is small and represents a limited market.

  6. Organic or mineral fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Heeb, Anuschka

    2005-01-01

    To meet Swedish environmental goals organic farming will play an important role in the development of a sustainable and high quality food production system. However, several conflicts exist, such as the achievement of high yields without the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides and the minimization of nutrient losses. In this thesis the effect of organic fertilizers compared to mineral fertilizers on plant product quality was investigated. Tomato yield and quality aspects such as taste a...

  7. Main issues on Sonatrach's gas agenda in the coming years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the organization and objectives of the Algerian company Sonatrach. The natural gas strategy of Sonatrach is: (1) Renew and develop natural gas reserves, (2) Secure the long-term supply of Algeria, (3) Implement and develop international sales through a long-term marketing policy. In 1997 Algerian gas accounted for 22% of the European gas imports and 13% of its consumption. There is some discussion on potential suppliers for the European gas market and on the important hydrocarbon reserves

  8. GOVERNOR ORGANIZATIONS ACTIVITY LICENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslennikova L. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the licensing of governor organizations activity in connection with amendments to the Housing Code of the Russian Federation by adoption of a Federal law of 21.07.2014 N 255-FZ «On amendments to the Housing Code of the Russian Federation, some legislative acts of the Russian Federation and on declare force Certain Provisions of Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation void » and the Government Resolution adoption of the of 28.10.2014г. N 1110 «On entrepreneur activity in apartment buildings’ government licensing». The urgency of the issue of the apartment buildings licensing activity is associated with the modernization of housing and communal services and legal regulation in this area. Introduction of the governor organizations activity licensing without securing in law the concept of "governor organizations" is a significant flaw of the legislator. As a result, the author gives the concept of governor organizations based on the analysis of scientific papers and current legislation. In addition, the article analyzes the introduction of licensing control, assesses the established order of the three registers on the governor organizations activity. The presented paper examines the experience of foreign countries associated with the activities on the apartment building common property management as well, and the state control over such activity. The authors examine violations of housing legislation that may cause the governor organizations and their officials’ administrative responsibility

  9. DIAGNOSIS OF ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan SHAKIBA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acid occur as physiologic intermediates in variety of intracellular metabolic pathways, such as catabolism of aminoacid, mitochondrial β oxidation of fatty acids, tricarboxilic acid cycle, and cholestrol and fatty acid biosynthesis. The classical organic aciduria represent the pursuit of abnormalities of aminoacid degradation beyond deamination Their diagnostic hallmark is an accumulation of characteristic organic acids.The clinical features result from toxicity of the accumulating methabolites.Treatment involved 1. protein restriction 2. supplementation of aminoacids with unimpaired metabolism as well as trace elements and 3. specific measures for detoxification if indicated. Diagnostic tests consist of CBC, FBS, Bun, Cr, uric organic acid, TG, Cholestrol Ca, P, ALP, VBG, Na, K, Cl, U/A(PH, SG, Ketone, Ammonia, lactate, pyrovate, Ketone body CPK, Aldolase, SGOT, SGPT, BIL, PT, PTT, Plasma aminoacid HPLC, Homocysteine, Urine aminoacid and carbohydrate chromatography, Acyl carnitine profile, urine organic acids and for next steps tissue specimen and enzyme activity and gene study.clinical chemical indices of organid aciduria is Metabolic acidosis, Increased anion gap, Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, Ketosis and Ketonuria, Lactic acidosis, Hyperammonemia, Hyperuricemia, Hypertriglyceridemia, increase of transaminase Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and Anemia. Acylcarnitine profile and urine organic acids are two for important tests for differentiation of types oforganic academia.

  10. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin

  11. Innovative organic farming in india

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arun K.

    2012-01-01

    In this article general overview of research progress in the field of organic agriculture in India was given. This include revalidation of traditional organic practices, invent/discover and commercial production technology for organic inputs and research on organic systems. Some of the future directions of organic research in Indian was also discussed.

  12. Building an Organic Market Database - OrganicDataNetwork Training

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga; Schaack, Diana

    2014-01-01

    About this training > The OrganicDataNetwork manual shows how a a database and the necessary tools for data processing of organic market data can be built. > The target group are collectors of organic market data. > The manual is a product of the OrganicDataNetwork project, which aims to improve European organic market data. > Further details are available in the manual in the OrganicDataNetwork website at www.organicdatanetwork.net.

  13. [Women's organizations in India].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V

    1985-01-01

    Community development projects in India during the 1950s and 60s viewed women as beneficiaries, but in fact few women benefitted measurably. The realization among field motivators of the necessity of improving the status of women prompted formation of women's organizations based on the participation of women in development. Non-government organizations and militant organizations have had greater success than government sponsored organizations in creation of employment for women. Some employment-generating organizations directed by high caste women or by men merely continue the oppression of poor women, providing abysmal pay for long hours, but a women's cooperative serving textile workers in Bombay has been successful because of the large number of unaccompanied males migrating to the city who desire reasonably priced home-cooked food. Other organizations have attempted to mobilize women to allow them to benefit from development. Struggles of women in the electronics, pharmaceutical, textile, mining, clothing, and other small scale industries have been supported by women's organizatinns. Rural women's organizations have forced village authorities to provide drinkig water and have demanded creation of employment for unemployed rural workers. The "Self-Employed Women's Association" supports negotiations of such women in their respective professions, and others struggling for women's rights have also undertaken development projects in health, education, and employment with a view to increasing women's independence. Some organizations provide child care services and others assist women in obtaining credit. Numerous cooperatives for food and housework have been formed but their ultimate effect on the distribution of power between castes and classes remains uncertain. Government sponsored cooperatives and women's organizations have benefitted mainly the intermediaries and have tended to use women as a source of cheap labor. A strategic plan for the emancipation of women

  14. APPROACH TO ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza ZAMANI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias, also known as organic acidurias, are a group of disorders characterized by increased excretion of organic acids in urine. They result primarily from deficiencies of specific enzymes in the breakdown pathways of amino acids or from enzyme deficiencies in beta oxidation of fatty acids or carbohydrate metabolism. Organic acids also are found in the urine of some patients with mitochondrial disease.Most organic acidemias become clinically apparent during the newborn period or early infancy. After an initial period of well-being, affected children develop a life-threatening episode of metabolic acidosis characterized by an increased anion gap. This presenting episode may be mistaken for sepsis, and if unrecognized, is associated with significant mortality.Children with an organic acidemia are susceptible to metabolic decompensation during episodes of increased catabolism, such as intercurrent illness, trauma, or surgery. Parents and clinicians must be well informed about the initial signs of decompensation and trained in applying an emergency regimen . Surgeons and anesthesiologists should be aware of potential complications and their prevention during anesthesia and surgery.Diagnosis has been facilitated through the use of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and tandem mass spectrometry .Prenatal diagnosis is available for most disorders by detection of diagnostic compounds in amniotic fluid; by analysis of enzyme activities in amniocytes or chorionic villi; by molecular analysis; or by a combination of the three . Diagnosis also may be made through newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry .Laboratory findings are an essential part of the diagnostic approach to organic acidemias. In most organic acidemias, metabolism of glucose, ketone bodies, and ammonia is deranged primarily or secondarily, in addition to derangement of the acid-base balance. Hypoglycemia, lactic and/or ketoacidosis, and hyperammonemia of varying

  15. Sustainable systems as organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mae-Wan; Ulanowicz, Robert

    2005-10-01

    Schrödinger [Schrödinger, E., 1944. What is Life? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge] marvelled at how the organism is able to use metabolic energy to maintain and even increase its organisation, which could not be understood in terms of classical statistical thermodynamics. Ho [Ho, M.W., 1993. The Rainbow and the Worm, The Physics of Organisms, World Scientific, Singapore; Ho, M.W., 1998a. The Rainbow and the Worm, The Physics of Organisms, 2nd (enlarged) ed., reprinted 1999, 2001, 2003 (available online from ISIS website www.i-sis.org.uk)] outlined a novel "thermodynamics of organised complexity" based on a nested dynamical structure that enables the organism to maintain its organisation and simultaneously achieve non-equilibrium and equilibrium energy transfer at maximum efficiency. This thermodynamic model of the organism is reminiscent of the dynamical structure of steady state ecosystems identified by Ulanowicz [Ulanowicz, R.E., 1983. Identifying the structure of cycling in ecosystems. Math. Biosci. 65, 210-237; Ulanowicz, R.E., 2003. Some steps towards a central theory of ecosystem dynamics. Comput. Biol. Chem. 27, 523-530]. The healthy organism excels in maintaining its organisation and keeping away from thermodynamic equilibrium--death by another name--and in reproducing and providing for future generations. In those respects, it is the ideal sustainable system. We propose therefore to explore the common features between organisms and ecosystems, to see how far we can analyse sustainable systems in agriculture, ecology and economics as organisms, and to extract indicators of the system's health or sustainability. We find that looking at sustainable systems as organisms provides fresh insights on sustainability, and offers diagnostic criteria for sustainability that reflect the system's health. In the case of ecosystems, those diagnostic criteria of health translate into properties such as biodiversity and productivity, the richness of cycles, the

  16. Organ transplantation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Wayne; Nour, Bakr

    2010-09-01

    Concern has increasingly been expressed about the growing number of reports of medical personnel participating in the transplantation of human organs or tissues taken from the bodies of executed prisoners, handicapped patients, or poor persons who have agreed to part with their organs for commercial purposes. Such behavior has been universally considered as ethically and morally reprehensible, yet in some parts of the world the practice continues to flourish. The concept of justice demands that every person have an equal right to life, and to protect this right, society has an obligation to ensure that every person has equal access to medical care. Regrettably, the Egyptian system does not legally recognize brain death and continues to allow the buying and selling of organs. For more than 30 years in Egypt, the ability to pay has determined who receives an organ and economic need has determined who will be the donor. As transplant professionals, it is important that we advocate on behalf of all patients, potential recipients, and donors and for those who are left out and not likely to receive a donor organ in an economically based system. Current issues associated with this debate are reviewed and recommendations about how to address them in Egypt are discussed. PMID:20929113

  17. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Organ Type and Waiting Time Most candidates, except those with living donors, wait ... organ needed How does organ type affect waiting times? Heart Allocation Physicians assign a status code to ...

  18. Help Your Child Get Organized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above and show your child the kids' article Organize, Focus, Get It Done . Read it together and ... Helping Your Gradeschooler With Homework Getting Homework Help Organize, Focus, Get It Done Organize, Focus, Get It ...

  19. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... comment. View all news articles Organ Procurement & Transplantation Network U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health ... Privacy Policy Questions? Contact Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network United Network for Organ Sharing Post Office Box ...

  20. Leadership in sports organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelladurai, P

    1980-12-01

    The paper describes a multidimensional model of leadership which specifies three states of leader behavior: leader behavior required by the situation, leader behavior preferred by the members, and the actual leader behavior. These three states of leader behavior are defined respectively by the situational characteristics such as the goals, size and structure of the organization and the nature of the work group and its norms; the characteristics of the members such as their personality and ability; and the leader's characteristics such as his personality and ability. The degree of congruence among the three states of leader behavior determines the performance of the group and the satisfaction of the members. Based on the model and on Blau and Scott's (1969) typology of organizations, the paper suggests specific leadership styles appropriate to the various types of sports organizations. Further, leadership styles appropriate to recreational sport and to different levels of athletic teams are also suggested. PMID:7449038

  1. Organic chemistry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.

    1979-01-01

    Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.

  2. Organic Chemistry of Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the molecular structures and C,N,H-isotopic compositions of organic matter in meteorites reveal a complex history beginning in the parent interstellar cloud which spawned the solar system. Incorporation of interstellar dust and gas in the protosolar nebula followed by further thermal and aqueous processing on primordial parent bodies of carbonaceous, meteorites have produced an inventory of diverse organic compounds including classes now utilized in biochemistry. This inventory represents one possible set of reactants for chemical models for the origin of living systems on the early Earth. Evidence bearing on the history of meteoritic organic matter from astronomical observations and laboratory investigations will be reviewed and future research directions discussed.

  3. International organizations as orchestrators

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Kenneth W

    2015-01-01

    International Organizations as Orchestrators reveals how IOs leverage their limited authority and resources to increase their effectiveness, power, and autonomy from states. By 'orchestrating' intermediaries - including NGOs - IOs can shape and steer global governance without engaging in hard, direct regulation. This volume is organized around a theoretical model that emphasizes voluntary collaboration and support. An outstanding group of scholars investigate the significance of orchestration across key issue areas, including trade, finance, environment and labor, and in leading organizations, including the GEF, G20, WTO, EU, Kimberley Process, UNEP and ILO. The empirical studies find that orchestration is pervasive. They broadly confirm the theoretical hypotheses while providing important new insights, especially that states often welcome IO orchestration as achieving governance without creating strong institutions. This volume changes our understanding of the relationships among IOs, nonstate actors and sta...

  4. Innovation in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir-Codrin Ionescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is an integrating part of the re-vitalization plan of EU economy and it is one of the seven initiatives comprised in the 2020 Europe Strategy. The European Union supports through active policies the creative-innovative processes, as illustrated by the Cohesion Policy Program for 2007-2013 and by the ”Horizon 2020” Program for Research and Innovation. The present paper presents, from an organizational perspective, relevant aspects related to the question of innovation and innovation management, while pointing out the most important internal and external factors that favour the introduction of innovation into the sphere of processes that are run by organizations, as well as into the sphere of products and services provided by organizations. At the same time, the paper briefly presents the essential attributes of organizations which obtain competitive sustainable advantages through innovation.

  5. The Effective Ambidextrous Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    the essence of organizational ambidexterity as the means to sustain performance over time when environmental conditions change. This paper incorporates strategic management and organization theoretical rationales in a model that combines elements of integration and experimentation in the strategy making...... process and thereby extends the evolving literature on the ambidextrous organization. The performance relationships of the ambidextrous integrative strategy making model are investigated on the basis of a cross-sectional sample of 185 business entities operating in different manufacturing industries....... Results of structural equation analyses indicate that superior performance in the ambidextrous organizations is associated with efficiencies derived from adherence to centralized strategic planning and effectiveness generated by decentralized innovative behavior through participation and autonomous...

  6. On how Organization Happens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel

    This paper aims at making a contribution to the study of how organization happens by focusing on the entrepreneurship-creativity relationship. I do this by developing a processual conceptualisation of a form of entrepreneurial creativity called entrepreneuring, defined as organisation-creation. S......, with such ‘changes in our perceptions and methodologies,’ (Ibid., p. 437) meaning we have now a capacity to step up to this challenge. This, I hope, will also be a contribution to how we can rethink organization processually by placing entreprenuring more at the centre.......This paper aims at making a contribution to the study of how organization happens by focusing on the entrepreneurship-creativity relationship. I do this by developing a processual conceptualisation of a form of entrepreneurial creativity called entrepreneuring, defined as organisation...

  7. Modularity and Economic Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Mahoney, Joseph T.

    This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance to the...... organization of economic activities, including greater adaptability and evolvability than systems that lack modular properties. We draw extensively on our original 1996 paper on modularity and subsequent research to suggest broad theoretical implications of modularity for (i) firms' product strategies and the...... markets. We also discuss an evolutionary perspective on modularity as an emergent phenomenon in firms and industries. We explain how modularity as a relatively new field of strategy and economic research may provide a new theoretical perspective on economic organizing that has significant potential for...

  8. Organizing for Asymmetric Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørn Flohr; Sørensen, Henrik B.

    meet each other. On the contrary, we assume that asymmetry is both important and normal; moreover, asymmetry should be considered to be more complex than economists indicate with their concept of asymmetric information. Thus, the aim of the paper is to explore how asymmetries related to partners......  The vision of new organizational forms consists of less-organized networks and alliances between organizations, in which collaborative capabilities are assumed to be crucial (Miles et al., 2005). The path to such new forms may go through fragile cooperative efforts. Despite the good will of many......' different motives and different situational factors appear in an interorganizational setting. We classify interfaces according to the symmetry/asymmetry in the respective parent organizations' resources, commitment, and control of representatives and indicate how  classification schemes can be used to...

  9. Organizations` responsibility to consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between organizations and consumers have a contradictory nature, because they are built on a base of imbalance between them, but can become, in a functioning market economy, partnerships, through which to resolve their interests, opposed as tendency, including conflict situations so that everyone ultimately gets what he wants, in the given historical conditions: organizations, the maximum possible profits and consumers, a higher degree of satisfaction of their needs. Market economies have as an existential fundament the competition, but the aspirations of a nation are founded on cooperation, on partnership. An economic system that divides people into winners and losers shouldn’t be promoted. For this reason, organizations must be more sensitive to the needs of society, as they are expressed through the values of the social human being (consumer compared to the values of the economic human being (producer, hence the need to increase their responsibilities to the consumer.

  10. The geothermal power organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  11. Trafficking in human organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevković Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking in human organs is a contemporary international problem that engages the attention of media more so than researchers and representatives of medical and legislative institutions. The purpose of this paper is to point out the main characteristics of this segment of organized crime, and to try to underline its seriousness and the necessity of more active prevention and suppression. This paper is divided into four thematic parts. After the introduction and terminological determination, the author gives a brief analysis of regional dimensions of trafficking in human organs. In continuation, a brief turn over of international medical and legal regulation, with concluding consideration in the final part of the paper is given.

  12. Organic aerogel microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kong, Fung-Ming; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  13. Organic modification of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The organic modification of carbon nanotubes is a novel research field being developed recently. In this article, the history and newest progress of organic modification of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from two aspects:organic covalent modification and organic noncovalent modification of carbon nanotubes. The preparation and properties of organic modified carbon nanotubes are discussed in detail. In addition, the prospective development of organic modification of carbon nanotubes is suggested.

  14. ANALYTICAL AUTHENTICATION OF ORGANIC FOODS

    OpenAIRE

    Simeone, F.C.; Ruth, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    A growing consumers’ awareness of human health’s risks, environmental fragility, and animal welfare has boosted organic production of foods. Due to their high production costs, however, organic products tend to retail at a higher prices than their non-organic counterparts. This premium price exposes organic products to fraud and counterfeiting, which, in addition to administrative controls, call for confirmatory assessments of the organic identity. Authentication of organic products is a comp...

  15. The US Organic Food Shopper

    OpenAIRE

    Zepeda, Professor L

    2008-01-01

    Survey data from a random sample of US food shoppers is analyzed to identify significant factors in organic food demand. Qualitative data is also collected to explore motivations, perceptions and knowledge of both organic and conventional food shoppers. Results indicate that shopping venue, food knowledge, and food beliefs are key to organic food demand. Qualitative investigations indicate some scepticism towards organic labels by both organic and conventional shoppers. Not all organic shoppe...

  16. Organic Agriculture and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Alfoeldi, Thomas; Fliessbach, Andreas; Geier, Uwe; Kilcher, Lukas; Niggli, Urs; Pfiffner, Lukas; Stolze, Matthias; Willer, Helga

    2002-01-01

    Conclusion of chapter 2: "Organic Farming and the Environment" 7 Conclusion The findings of this study show that organic farming provides a wide range of environmental services. The main results may be summarised as follows: 1. Organic matter content is usually higher in organically managed soils indicating a higher fertility and stability of organic soils, thus reducing the risk of erosion. 2. Organically farmed soils have significantly higher biological activity and a higher to...

  17. Anchoring visions in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the term 'anchoring' within systems development: Visions, developed through early systems design within an organization, need to be deeply rooted in the organization. A vision's rationale needs to be understood by those who decide if the vision should be implemented as well as...... anchoring is considered to be a main activity, is outlined. The task of anchoring visions is described, and techniques and activities are suggested with respect to those actors that have to act on the visions and the recommendations from a design proposal. The paper concludes that obtaining appropriate...

  18. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  19. Organic photovoltaic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Nelson

    2002-05-01

    The last two years have seen an unprecedented growth of interest in solar cells made from organic electronic materials. This is partly due to the rapid growth of the photovoltaic market1, which has stimulated research into longer term, more innovative photovoltaic technologies, and partly to the development of organic electronic materials for display applications. The rapid progress in optoelectronic molecular materials has introduced a range of potential new photovoltaic materials, as well as an improved understanding of the capabilities of such materials and confidence in their application2.

  20. EDF national emergency organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of French nuclear power led Electricite de France (EDF) to design standard products, manufactured in series but adaptable to different sites. Standardization is based on the decision on a single technology: pressurized water reactors (PWR). Thirty-four 900 MW and seventeen 1300 MW units are in operation on seventeen sites. The specific nature of French organization for normal operation and accident management results from equipment standardization and single licensee. This specificity is based on emergency plan standardization and highly structured national organization. Figs

  1. Dental Support Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufurrena, Quinn

    2015-01-01

    The Association of Dental Support Organizations is a recently formed association of 33 companies representing a range of management and support services for dental practices. These organizations do not engage in the practice of dentistry, although in some cases they operate as holding companies for practices that do, thus separating the legal responsibility of providing treatment from the management and flow of funds. This report summarizes some of the recent trends in oral health care and dentists' practice patterns that are prompting the increased prevalence of this model. The general functioning of the DSO model is described, including some common variations, and the core values of ADSO are featured. PMID:26455048

  2. Self-Organized Bistability

    CERN Document Server

    di Santo, Serena; Vezzani, Alessandro; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Self-organized criticality elucidates the conditions under which physical and biological systems tune themselves to the edge of a second-order phase transition, with scale invariance. Motivated by the empirical observation of bimodal distributions of activity in neuroscience and other fields, we propose and analyze a theory for the self-organization to the point of phase-coexistence in systems exhibiting a first-order phase transition. It explains the emergence of regular avalanches with attributes of scale-invariance which coexist with huge anomalous ones, with realizations in many fields.

  3. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  4. Collagen in organ development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    It is important to know whether microgravity will adversely affect developmental processes. Collagens are macromolecular structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which may be altered by perturbations in gravity. Interstitial collagens have been shown to be necessary for normal growth and morphogenesis in some embryonic organs, and in the mouse salivary gland, the biosynthetic pattern of these molecules changes during development. Determination of the effects of microgravity on epithelial organ development must be preceded by crucial ground-based studies. These will define control of normal synthesis, secretion, and deposition of ECM macromolecules and the relationship of these processes to morphogenesis.

  5. Microwaves in organic chemistry and organic chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of applying heat to a chemical reaction is the use of a Bunsen burner, an oil or some other type of bath, or an electric heater. In inorganic chemistry, microwave technology has been used since the late 1970s while it has been implemented in organic chemistry since the mid-1980s. Microwave heating has been used in the food industry for almost fifty years. The shorter reaction times and expanded reaction range that is offered by microwave technology are suited to the increased demands in industry. For example, there is a requirement in the pharmaceutical industry for a higher number of a novel chemical entities to be produced, which requires chemists to employ a number of resources to reduce time for the production of compounds. Also, microwaves are used in the food industry, as well as in the pyrolysis of waste materials, sample preparation, the solvent extraction of natural products and the hydrolysis of proteins and peptides.

  6. The impact of quality department on organizing quality in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Brcar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: The existence of organizations in competitive markets depends on their ability to stay competitive. Quality departments play a key role in organizing and ensuring quality. Purpose: The survey tries to determine the correlation between the existence of quality departments and organization of quality in organizations; our hypothesis is that the correlation is very strong. Method: A survey was performed in 484 large and medium-sized organizations in Slovenia to examine the situation in this area. Pearson's χ2-test was used for data processing and results presented in a contingency table. Results: Organizations with quality departments more frequently also have certificate ISO 9001 in comparison with organizations without quality departments. Also these organizations more frequently have supplier-relations teams, monitoring system of suppliers' progress and excellence centers. In short, the quality in these organizations is organized on a higher level than in organizations without quality departments. Organization: The role of quality department is important for organizations. The findings of the research are important for decision making in organizations. Society: Each organization contributes to efficiency and effectiveness of a nation. The organizational level of the nation can be measured by number of certificates per capita. Originality: The research is unique because of the research model and method applied. Limitations/Future Research: The research is limited to large and medium-sized organizations in Slovenia.

  7. Organ Donation and Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to recover from some infections and illnesses. Healthy lifestyle options are good choices for organ recipients as they are for everyone. Your transplant center can help you develop a plan for healthy eating and appropriate physical activity. Return to top ...

  8. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  9. Career Issues in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on career issues in organizations. "Learning During Downsizing: Stories from the Survivors" (Sharon J. Confessore) describes a study to demonstrate that survivors of corporate downsizings undertake learning activities and use many resources to accomplish the learning tasks. "Organizational Career…

  10. Organizing for Global Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    Research on Purchasing Organization is dominated by studies on centralization versus decentralization. While global sourcing relates to the integrated activities of purchasing and other functions in line with the company’s strategic objectives and while it has been put forward that hybrid...

  11. Self-organized criticality

    OpenAIRE

    Creutz, Michael

    1996-01-01

    I review the concept of self-organized criticality, wherein dissipative systems naturally drive themselves to a critical state with important phenomena occurring over a wide range of length and time scales. Several exact results are demonstrated for the Abelian sandpile.

  12. Self-organized criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that certain extended dissipative dynamical systems naturally evolve into a critical state, with no characteristic time or length scales. The temporal ''fingerprint'' of the self-organized critical state is the presence of flicker noise or 1/f noise; its spatial signature is the emergence of scale-invariant (fractal) structure

  13. Organizing homeless people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    of the organization. It focuses on the importance of ideological and institutional conditions and changes, and it stresses the importance of alliances between progressive actors in the field and in the political-administrative system, in addition to the presence of dedicated activists among people who are or have...

  14. Genetically Modified Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claro Llaguno

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO defined as "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology". This includes seeds, live fish, and other organisms intentionally obtained for release to the environment. It would seem that the common understanding about GMOs as referring to farm-to-table products is perforce expanded to embrace genetically modified farm animals and aquatic resources. Being a trade agreement, the Montreal accord primarily deals with the safety issues related to the transboundary movement of LMOs around the globe. The OECD conference on the other hand, called for an international body "to address all sides of the GM debate" in response to the public outcry, particularly in Western Europe, regarding the risks the new products pose to human health and the environment. Some points of contention, which remain unresolved, include issues such as whether countries should be allowed to develop their own GM food based on their needs, and whether a global moratorium on GMOs and mandatory labeling should be enforced worldwide.

  15. Independent safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has conducted a study on the need and feasibility of an independent organization to investigate significant safety events for the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, USNRC. The study consists of three parts: the need for an independent organization to investigate significant safety events, alternative organizations to conduct investigations, and legislative requirements. The determination of need was investigated by reviewing current NRC investigation practices, comparing aviation and nuclear industry practices, and interviewing a spectrum of representatives from the nuclear industry, the regulatory agency, and the public sector. The advantages and disadvantages of alternative independent organizations were studied, namely, an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the Executive Director for Operations (EDO) of NRC; an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the NRC Commissioners; a multi-member NTSB-type Nuclear Safety Board independent of the NRC. The costs associated with operating a Nuclear Safety Board were also included in the study. The legislative requirements, both new authority and changes to the existing NRC legislative authority, were studied. 134 references

  16. Online Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowicz, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the many facets of an entirely online organic chemistry course. Online homework with structure-drawing capabilities was found to be more effective than written homework. Online lecture was found to be just as effective as in-person lecture, and students prefer an online lecture format with shorter Webcasts. Online…

  17. Organization Development and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on organization development and change. "The Effectiveness of Total Quality Management: A Response to the Critics" (Douglas H. Smith, Ralph G. Lewis) identifies four effectiveness principles: customer satisfaction, continuous improvement, speaking with facts, and respect for people. "Fast Cycle…

  18. Changing the Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelskjær, Malou

    2014-01-01

    building for grades 4-6. The analysis is theoretically informed by ‘new materialist thinking’. The analysis show how the project, while producing differentiated learning spaces and ideas about the learning student, configures and reconfigures the organization known as ‘a school’ in ways that highlight...

  19. Organizing for Space Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Daniel A.

    1989-01-01

    Given the increasing costs for planning, building, and maintaining higher educational facilities, organizing for space management is critical. Ten current, national trends related to space management in higher education are discussed. Each trend is related to a situation at the University of Virginia. (Author/MLW)

  20. Pan American Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Google Tag Pan American Health Organization | Organización Panamericana de la Salud Skip to content English Español Menu Home Health Topics Programs Media Center Publications Data Countries and Centers About PAHO question  Trachoma is the ...

  1. Organic strawberry production manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern commercial organic strawberry production is a technical undertaking that encompasses many factors and poses many challenges. Growers must be aware of the compatibility of specific strawberry varieties with local climate, soil, plant pathogens, insect pests, and harvest schedules. Growers must...

  2. Vertical organic transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. (topical review)

  3. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel

  4. Lifetime of organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael; Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren A.

    2015-01-01

    tests. Comparison of the indoor and outdoor lifetimes was performed by means of the o-diagram, which constitutes the initial steps towards establishing a method for predicting the lifetime of an organic photovoltaic device under real operational conditions based on a selection of accelerated indoor...

  5. TP Organics - maheuuringute tehnoloogiaplatvorm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    TP Organics on 2008. a loodud Euroopa mahepõllumajanduse ja mahetoidu ning vähese sisendiga põllumajanduse tehnoloogiaplatvorm. Platvormi eesmärk on selgitada välja teadustöö ja uuenduste vajadused ning edastada see info poliitikutele

  6. The Culturally Competent Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter-Gooden, Kumea

    2013-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, organizations need to actively work to foster diversity. This is important because it is the just response to an uneven playing field, because the rapidly changing demographics in the United States demand that institutions be responsive if they are to survive, and because heterogeneous groups are more effective than…

  7. The effective ambidextrous organization

    OpenAIRE

    Juul Andersen, Torben; Bernhard Nielsen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    There is general consensus that coordination and integration are needed to achieve efficient outcomes while distributed decision power and autonomous actions are essential to develop innovative responses. These dual requirements for operational optimization and ongoing business innovation capture the essence of organizational ambidexterity as the means to sustain performance over time when environmental conditions change. This paper incorporates strategic management and organization theoretic...

  8. Learning in Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos, Ramona; Veres Stancovici, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims at identifying the presence of the dimensions of learning capabilities and the characteristics of a learning organization within two companies in the field of services, as well as identifying the relationships between their learning capability and the organizational culture. Design/methodology/approach: This has been a…

  9. Astroparticle physics gets organized!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Astroparticle physics is a rapidly growing field of research at the intersection of astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. But unlike particle physics it has no permanent organizations like CERN to plan for the long-term future. But this is starting to change, and CERN may be able to help.

  10. Building a Healthy Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencioni, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    For the last 15 years, the author's firm has been helping organizations become healthier and maximize their human potential by using the model outlined in his latest book, "The Advantage," which is the culmination of his previous books and models. Schools and school districts have embraced the model and enjoyed the competitive advantage…

  11. Exploring network organization in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    . Furthermore, in practice, we rarely see radical organizational change towards a network organization that adopts an internal market. The co-existence of market, hierarchy and network triggered research interest. A multiple case study of three transnational corporations’ global R&D organization shows......Constructing a network organization for global R&D is presented as a common sense practice in existing literature. However, there are still queries about the network organization, such as the persistence of hierarchies which make a network organization merely a “bureaucracy-lite” organization...... that there are different logical considerations when designing a network organization to facilitate innovation. I identify three types of network organizations: market-led, directed and culture-led network organizations. Different types of network organizations show that organizations are dual and even ternary systems...

  12. Organ procurement organizations Internet enrollment for organ donation: Abandoning informed consent

    OpenAIRE

    Verheijde Joseph L; Rady Mohamed Y; Woien Sandra; McGregor Joan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Requirements for organ donation after cardiac or imminent death have been introduced to address the transplantable organs shortage in the United States. Organ procurement organizations (OPOs) increasingly use the Internet for organ donation consent. Methods An analysis of OPO Web sites available to the public for enrollment and consent for organ donation. The Web sites and consent forms were examined for the minimal information recommended by the United States Department o...

  13. Transforming your manufacturing organization into a learning organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, K M

    1999-05-01

    Many experts believe the only sustainable advantage an organization will have in the future is its ability to learn faster than its competitors. This competitive advantage can be achieved by transforming the organization into a learning organization. This article describes the basic elements of a learning organization and how to transform an organization to focus on learning. The article also describes methods for evaluating the training and learning that occurs within the organization to ensure that training dollars are wisely spent. Finally, the article describes what individuals can do to focus on their own learning and personal development within an organization. PMID:10387780

  14. STRESS IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elena, GHEORDUNESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the changes that are currently taking place in our country, it is clear that these changes, which occur in almost all companies, lead to new stress factors for both employees and the organization. Occupational stress is a major problem for employees and managers, but also for the whole society. The issue of stress in organizations has given birth to many debates and studies. It is a common theme that is addressed by managers, employees and consultants from different perspectives. According to a study by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, in the European Union, work-related stress is the second work-related health issue after dorsal disorders. It affects 28% of EU employees. The European Parliament is fully involved in addressing issues related to the psychological support of the staff. Preventing work-related stress is one of the objectives set out in the Communique of the European Commission for Employment and Social Affairs regarding their new health and safety at work strategy. Manifestations of stress in organizations are easily observable, being manifested by behaviors such as: difficulties in adapting to the changes required to work or the dramatic drop in labor productivity. Also a double action is met: both the person who passes through the stressful situation and at the organization level on which it is reflected the existence of a stressful environment. This paper aims to address the implications of workplace stress, symptoms of stress in the workplace and strategies to eliminate and prevent stress at work This paper represents an exploratory research based on qualitative methods, being consulted various sources of information: the literature, case studies, media articles, reports of relevant organizations, etc.

  15. Dropping organic certification - effects on organic farming in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand

    2008-01-01

    From 2002 to 06, the annual dropout rate of certified organic farmers averaged 7.3%. A project was started in 2007 to explore farmer’s reasons for opting out of certified organic production. Important factors seem to be public regulations including standards for organic farming, agronomy, economy, and farm exit. While many organic farmers with relatively small holdings have opted out, farmers with more land and larger herds tend to convert to organic agriculture. The trend towards larger-scal...

  16. Presentation: Dropping organic certification - effects on organic farming in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Koesling, Matthias; Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand

    2008-01-01

    From 2002 to 06, the annual dropout rate of certified organic farmers averaged 7.3%. A project was started in 2007 to explore farmer’s reasons for opting out of certified organic production. Important factors seem to be public regulations including standards for organic farming, agronomy, economy, and farm exit. While many organic farmers with relatively small holdings have opted out, farmers with more land and larger herds tend to convert to organic agriculture. The trend towards larger-scal...

  17. Narratives and Memory in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlinson, Michael; Casey, Andrea; Hansen, Per H.;

    2014-01-01

    Organizations remember through narratives and storytelling. The articles in this Special Issue explore the interface between organization studies, memory studies, and historiography. They focus on the practices for organizational remembering. Taken together, the articles explore the similarities...... and differences between ethnographic and historical methods for studying memory in organizations, which represents a contribution to the historic turn in organization studies....

  18. Meetings in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    Meetings in organizations have evolved from the infrequent, slightly authoritarian meeting of the 1950?s to today?s ubiquitous and often longwinded, every-body-has-a-right-to-speak meeting. But two important, recent trends in work and business pose new challenges. Today, organizational work is se...... changes in business and work life, the meeting has changed little. It has been poorly integrated into the organizational value chain and is rarely experienced as very important to either customers or employees.......Meetings in organizations have evolved from the infrequent, slightly authoritarian meeting of the 1950?s to today?s ubiquitous and often longwinded, every-body-has-a-right-to-speak meeting. But two important, recent trends in work and business pose new challenges. Today, organizational work is seen...

  19. Smallest organism; highest threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Amit; Chikhale, Rupesh; Wadibhasme, Pankaj; Menghani, Sunil; Khedekar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of virus in beginning of 20th century, infections caused by these organisms have captured attention of researchers. The evolution of viruses is still a controversy, even same for their categorization in either living or non-living. It is clear that besides many controversies virus remains challenging to treat as well as to control in some extent. Though vaccines are available as prophylactic tool and antiviral drugs for treatment, still virus exist in host cells if they successfully invade biological machinery. Now it remains as challenge to treat these smallest organisms with high degree of efficacy and safety. To answer the demand of the present world there is urgent need of more potent and novel drugs for treatment and vaccines to prevent infection. Answer to this problem will definitely reduce casualties occurring worldwide. This review presents few of the pandemics, their causative agents, current status of treatment and future prospective. PMID:23922535

  20. Polymerization of organized monomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoiljković Dragoslav M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current explanations of olefin and vinyl monomer polymerization propose that monomer molecules are successively added one by one to the growing polymer chain. This may be true if the monomer molecules exist as individual species in a polymerizing system, e.g. in dilute solutions of monomer. There are cases, however, in which monomer molecules are organized: bulk liquid monomer, solid monomer, a monomer monolayer adsorbed on a support, etc. Various supra-molecular species and particles of monomer exist in such cases. In the 1960-ties, Semenov, Kargin and Kabanov proposed a theory of organized monomer polymerization. In the last 25 years, our research group has further developed and applied that theory to various polymerizing systems: the radical polymerization of compressed ethene gas, the radical polymerization of liquid methyl methacrylate, olefin polymerization by transition metals and by Al-based catalysts. An outline of the main achievements are presented in this article.

  1. Project Management Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Bobera

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In our work we will try to show, according to recent and by scientific publicity accepted attitudes, three basic organizational forms for project management, with their description, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, as well as to try to identify the cases in which some of them could be applied. In this sense we will analyze the functional organizational type, where the project is a part of functional enterprise organization, clear project organization and combined or matrix system. According to the fact that each one of the models mentioned above has its own advantages and disadvantages, in this work we will try to pre-sent the procedure for choosing which model will be the most appropriate for implementation in particu-lar cases.

  2. Control in Complex Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennstam, Jens; Kärreman, Dan

    The extant research on organizational control builds on the assumption of vertical control – managers are thought to develop orders, rules and norms to control the operating core. Yet it is claimed that work becomes increasingly “knowledge intensive” and that organizations rely heavily for their...... productivity on the knowledge and creativity of their work force. In this type of “knowledge work,” the strong focus on vertical control is insufficient as it fails to account for the important operative and horizontal interactions upon which many contemporary organizations depend. Drawing on practice theory...... and an ethnographic study of engineering work, this paper theorizes control as a form of work that does not only belong to formal management, but is dispersed among various work activities, including horizontal ones. The article introduces the idea of control work as a key practice in contemporary...

  3. Organic radiopharmaceuticals: recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic radiopharmaceuticals are considered in light of accelerator and nuclide production requirements, special problems relating to the carrier-free state, including terminology, of the special technology required to prepare and manipulate these compounds and new trends in compound design and synthesis. The emphasis is on medical cyclotrons and the positron-emitting radionuclides, carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15, and fluorine-18. New routes to synthetic precursors and organic compounds of high specific activity labeled with carbon-11, fluorine-18, and iodine-123 including monosaccharides, aromatic amines, neuroleptics, fatty acids, steroids, and other classes of compounds are discussed. Some compounds are considered in terms of the development and evaluation of structure-activity relationships and including some newer concepts such as metabolic trapping. 67 references

  4. Making organization research matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    research or any of the social sciences. Second, we must address problems that matter to groups in the local, national, and global communities in which we live, and we must do it in ways that matter; we must focus on issues of context, values, and power, as advocated by great social scientists from......If we want to empower and re-enchant organization research, we need to do three things. First, we must drop all pretence, however indirect, at emulating the success of the natural sciences in producing cumulative and predictive theory, for their approach simply does not work in organization...... Aristotle and Machiavelli to Max Weber and Pierre Bourdieu. Finally, we must effectively and dialogically communicate the results of our research to our fellow citizens and carefully listen to their feedback. If we do this – focus on specific values and interests in the context of particular power relations...

  5. Biopolymer organization upon confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biopolymers in vivo are typically subject to spatial restraints, either as a result of molecular crowding in the cellular medium or of direct spatial confinement. DNA in living organisms provides a prototypical example of a confined biopolymer. Confinement prompts a number of biophysics questions. For instance, how can the high level of packing be compatible with the necessity to access and process the genomic material? What mechanisms can be adopted in vivo to avoid the excessive geometrical and topological entanglement of dense phases of biopolymers? These and other fundamental questions have been addressed in recent years by both experimental and theoretical means. A review of the results, particularly of those obtained by numerical studies, is presented here. The review is mostly devoted to DNA packaging inside bacteriophages, which is the best studied example both experimentally and theoretically. Recent selected biophysical studies of the bacterial genome organization and of chromosome segregation in eukaryotes are also covered. (topical review)

  6. Learning Organization [reviewed article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonoaie, N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “The essence of LOs is effective organizational learning, but relevant academic disciplines, such as economics, anthropology, and social psychology, all entail different assumptions about what this might actually mean. Assorted analytical approaches such as population ecology and sociotechnical systems theory offer distinctly different vocabularies for describing what the LO might be or what it might do.” [Snell, 2007] The learning organization (LO is an idealized vision of an organization where the structures, routines, and working practices are open to continuous adaptation and improvement, where the individuals and teams engage in continuous learning, where the norms and values are supportive of continuous learning, and where strategic decision making is informed by and responsive to relevant data analysis and feedback.

  7. Organizations and national culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the most important contributions in studying cultural influences on organizations. The interest of social scientists in this topic began in the 1960s, based on the belief that it was necessary to overcome the dominant parochialism of US researchers in organizational theory and practice. Increasing internationalization of business activities, especially in the 1970s, imposed the need for large-scale studies and for finding practical solutions to the completely new problems encountered by multicultural organizations whose number was constantly rising. In spite of numerous and serious difficulties in every cross-cultural organizational study, several decades of development in this field have produced important theoretical and empirical contributions, enabling further advances in this scientific and practical discipline.

  8. DEMAND OVERVIEW FOR ORGANIC PRODUCE

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jon C.; Peterson, H. Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The market for organic food has been growing 20% per year for the past nine years. Fruits and vegetables are a large part of the organic market, accounting for more than $670 million in retail sales annually. This presents an opportunity for entry of new agricultural producers, and the expansion of existing organic growers. Similarly to other businesses, organic producers will succeed by providing customer value. The best opportunity for organic growers to achieve this is to focus on increasi...

  9. INFORMATION NEEDS OF ORGANIC FARMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Karen; Hurley, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Information is a key input into all conventional and organic farming systems. Organic production systems are low-input and intensive, requiring a thorough and detailed knowledge of the farming system and of organic production methods. This paper compares the processes involved in information flow into organic and conventional farming systems and argues that the adoption-diffusion model of technology transfer is even less appropriate for organic producers than conventional. Models of a partici...

  10. Progress in abdominal organ transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kosieradzki, Maciej; Lisik, Wojciech; Rowiński, Wojciech; Małkowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Summary The excellent results of vascularized organ transplantation have resulted in an increasing number of end-stage organ failure patients seeking such treatment. The results of organ transplantation depend on a number of factors – the quality of the donor (and an organ), living vs. deceased donation, magnitude of ischemic injury (and its prevention), and recipient-dependent factors. Ischemia/reperfusion injury in organ transplantation is a multifactorial process, which may lead to delayed...

  11. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  12. ORGANIZATION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mrkša, Jožica

    2012-01-01

    In the thesis titled Organization of Public Administration I concentrated in the review of national and foreign literature. My decision for this topic is based on the personal interest and relevance of the topic in this particular period of time. The purpose of my work was to present the public administration in general, with focus in public administration of Slovenia. At first, the theoretical background of public administration is presented, with following topics addressed: public administr...

  13. Diversity in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio S. Mello; Ruckes, Martin

    2001-01-01

    This Paper develops a theory of diversity in work groups within organizations. Diversity is determined by the group members' dfferences in backgrounds. Diverse teams possess more information than homogeneous ones. If beliefs and preferences are expressed openly, diverse teams can reach better decisions. However, due to their members' heterogeneous backgrounds diverse teams are more prone to conflict. The Paper shows that the relative performance of heterogeneous and homogeneous groups depends...

  14. Cognition in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkinson, G P; Healey, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews major developments from 2000 to early 2007 in the psychological analysis of cognition in organizations. Our review, the first in this series to survey cognitive theory and research spanning the entire field of industrial and organizational psychology, considers theoretical, empirical, and methodological advances across 10 substantive domains; of application. Two major traditions, the human factors and organizational traditions, have dominated cognitively oriented research...

  15. Essays on Industrial Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkinson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays in the area of Industrial Organization. The first essay established the theoretical motivations for, and implications of, exclusive contracts, with an application to smartphones. Why would Apple choose to distribute its smartphone through only one carrier, and why would AT&T bid the most for exclusivity? I develop a model which shows that if upstream handset manufacturers face a relatively low price elasticity for their good compared to downstream wir...

  16. Leadership in Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Šanc, Ondřej

    2010-01-01

    The bachelor thesis, in theoretical perspective, deals with management a managers, leadership in the organization, teamwork, human resources and management styles. These topics are in the bachelor thesis characterized according to the view of selected authors. The practical part use knowledge gained from the theoretical part. In analytical part of the bachelor thesis there is evaluated the cash team by Komerční Banka a. s. in the city of Pilsen. There are characterized the functions and respo...

  17. Organic traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Prothmann, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Modern cities cannot be imagined without traffic lights controlling the road network. To handle the network's changing demands efficiently, the signal plan specification needs to be shifted from the design time to the run-time of a signal system. The generic observer/controller architecture proposed for Organic Computing facilitates this shift. A two-levelled learning mechanism optimises signal plans on-line while a distributed coordination mechanism establishes green waves in the road network.

  18. Prebiotic Organic Microstructures

    OpenAIRE

    Bassez, Marie-Paule; Takano, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Kensei

    2012-01-01

    Micro- and sub-micrometer spheres, tubules and fiber-filament soft structures have been synthesized in our experiments conducted with 3 MeV proton irradiations of a mixture of simple inorganic constituents, CO, N2 and H2O. We analysed the irradiation products, with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These laboratory organic structures produced a wide variety of proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous amino acids after HCl hydrolysis. The enantiomer analysis for ...

  19. Organic coolant summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the development of the use of organic liquids, specifically the terphenyls, as heat transfer mediums in nuclear reactors. All phases of the development program are covered, including the choice of coolant, decomposition, coolant reprocessing, physical properties, fouling, heat transfer, and corrosion. Few experimental results are given, but rather the emphasis is on summarizing the state of the art as it exists within AECL at the end of 1973. (Author)

  20. REDD and international organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Climate change mitigation can be achieved, according to many, by means of Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in the Tropics (REDD). Within the climate change policy debate we thus find discussions on how to reduce GHG emissions by designing appropriate REDD programmes and projects. In this paper I try to capture this debate by looking at the role of five major international organizations, which were chosen to represent the different aspects related to REDD. In order ...

  1. The canine vomeronasal organ.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, D. R.; Wiekamp, M D

    1984-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ was studied in mature dogs with the optical, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopes. The canine vomeronasal complex is structurally well developed. Large blood vessels are present deep to both the lateral, 'non-receptor' and medial, 'receptor' epithelia. In addition to the unmyelinated vomeronasal nerves in the lamina propria deep to the 'receptor' epithelium, numerous nerves containing both myelinated and unmyelinated fibres are present deep to the 'no...

  2. Mutual Organizations, Mutual Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Archambault, Edith

    2009-01-01

    This article is an entry to be published in an International Encyclopedia of Civil Society in 2009. Mutual organizations exist everywhere in developed and developing countreies as well. After a definition founded on social economy principles, the paper gives the historical background of mutual insurance companies, mutual benefit societies and building societies. Then we draw a panorama of the European mutual societies with international perspectives on the USA and some developing countries. S...

  3. Organic beekeeping in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Salvador V.; Vandame, Rémy

    2011-01-01

    Mexico is often described as a cornucopia, a land with high diversity in ecosystems, crops, fauna and flora. These are superb preconditions for organic honey production. Already the pre-hispanic Maya cultures produced honey from the native stingless bee (Meliponini) before the Spanish introduced European honey bee (Apis mellifera L). The main beekeeping product in Mexico is honey. Mexico ranks sixth in the world in honey production (57,000 t) and third as an exporter (25,000 t).

  4. Organic Beekeeping in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Salvador; Gänz, Peter; Vandame, Rémy

    2010-01-01

    Mexico is often described as a cornucopia, a land with high diversity in ecosystems, crops, fauna and flora. These are superb preconditions for organic honey production. Already the pre-hispanic Maya cultures produced honey from the native stingless bee (Meliponini) before the Spanish introduced European honey bee (Apis mellifera L). The main beekeeping product in Mexico is honey. Mexico ranks sixth in the world in honey production (57,000 t) and third as an exporter (25,000 t). Two condit...

  5. World Presidents Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Members of the World Presidents' Organization enjoy exhibits at StenniSphere, the visitor center and museum at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center during a Jan. 26 visit to the site. WPO members from several states spent the day touring Stennis facilities and learning about the work of the nation's premier rocket engine testing site. Exhibits enjoyed included a mockup of the International Space Station and the interactive Science on a Sphere globe.

  6. TREATMENT OF ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Alaei, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Immidiate ManagementInfants and children with acute metabolic crisis require immediate treatment to prevent further acute deterioration and long-term sequelae.Early and appropriate treatment before confirmation of the diagnosis is life-saving.Eliminate intake of the precursors of possibly toxic metabolites.This applies most often to suspected inborn errors of amino acid or organic acid metabolism. In both cases, dietary or parenteral intake of protein and amino acids should be eliminated imme...

  7. ERP inside Large Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Daniel AVRAM

    2010-01-01

    Many large companies in Romania are still functioning without an ERP system. Instead they are using traditional application systems built around the strong boundaries of specific functions: finance, selling, HR, production. An ERP will offer lots of advantages among which the integration of functionalities and support for top management decisions. Although the total cost of ownership is not small and there are some risks when implementing an ERP inside large and very large organizations, havi...

  8. The ambidextrous organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Charles A; Tushman, Michael L

    2004-04-01

    Corporate executives must constantly look backward, attending to the products and processes of the past, while also gazing forward, preparing for the innovations that will define the future. This mental balancing act is one of the toughest of all managerial challenges--it requires executives to explore new opportunities even as they work diligently to exploit existing capabilities--and it's no surprise that few companies do it well. But as every businessperson knows, there are companies that do. What's their secret? These organizations separate their new, exploratory units from their traditional, exploitative ones, allowing them to have different processes, structures, and cultures; at the same time, they maintain tight links across units at the senior executive level. Such "ambidextrous organizations," as the authors call them, allow executives to pioneer radical or disruptive innovations while also pursuing incremental gains. Of utmost importance to the ambidextrous organization are ambidextrous managers--executives who have the ability to understand and be sensitive to the needs of very different kinds of businesses. They possess the attributes of rigorous cost cutters and free-thinking entrepreneurs while also maintaining the objectivity required to make difficult trade-offs. Almost every company needs to renew itself through the creation of breakthrough products and processes, but it shouldn't do so at the expense of its traditional business. Building an ambidextrous organization is by no means easy, but the structure itself, combining organizational separation with senior team integration, is not difficult to understand. Given the executive will to make it happen, any company can become ambidextrous. PMID:15077368

  9. Organization of radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A supply of safe and efficacious radiopharmaceuticals of a uniform quality is a prime condition for a well functioning nuclear medicine service. Radiopharmacy is the scientific field concerned with the development, production, dispensing, quality control, etc., of radiopharmaceuticals. The main elements of the organization of a radiopharmacy service are discussed in terms of the parameters involved in the selection of radiopharmaceuticals and the elements of good radiopharmacy practice. (author)

  10. Developments in organic displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Borchardt

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in materials and manufacturing technology are making organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs the leading technology for a new generation of thinner, lighter, higher-resolution displays for computers, televisions, and small hand-held devices. In addition, OLEDs could enable the development of new display applications including flexible plastic display devices, displays embedded into clothes or wall hangings, and even head-mounted displays.

  11. Work motivation in organization

    OpenAIRE

    Lenártová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation deals with work motivation in the studied organization. The main objective of this thesis is to examine the level of existing incentive program at ZZN Pelhřimov a.s., including a proposal for its improvement. Questionnaire survey technique was used to determine the level of motivation in the company. The theoretical background of motivation and basic concepts associated with it are based on professional literature in the first part of this work. Individual theories of mot...

  12. Organizations, coalitions, and movements

    OpenAIRE

    Diani, Mario; Bison, Ivano

    2004-01-01

    This article uses empirical evidence on networks of voluntary organizations mobilizing on ethnic minority, environmental, and social exclusion issues in two British cities, to differentiate between social movement processes and other, cognate collective action dynamics. Social movement processes are identified as the building and reproducing of dense informal networks between a multiplicity of actors, sharing a collective identity, and engaged in social and/or political conflict. They are con...

  13. Innovative Mechanism of Rural Organization Based on Self-Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the basic situation of the formation of innovative rural organizations with the form of self-organization;reveals the features of self-organization,including the four aspects of openness of rural organization,innovation of rural organization far away from equilibrium,the non-linear response mechanism of rural organization innovation and the random rise and fall of rural organization innovation.The evolution mechanism of rural organization innovation is revealed according to the growth stage,the ideal stage,the decline and the fall stage.The paper probes into the basic restriction mechanism of the self-organization evaluation of rural organization from three aspects,including target recognition,path dependence and knowledge sharing.The basic measures on cultivating the innovative mechanism of rural organization are put forward.Firstly,constructing the dissipative structure of rural organization innovation;secondly,cultivating the dynamic study capability of rural organization innovation system;thirdly,selecting the step-by-step evolution strategy of rural organization innovation system.

  14. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  15. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  16. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed

  17. Enzymatic organization of the subcommissural organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhl, W

    1975-01-01

    In the subcommissural organ (SCO) of the guinea pig, rat, golden hamster, and mouse the activity and distribution of enzymes related to the energy-supplying metabolism and of some marker enzymes of different cell organelles have been investigated by means of mostly modified histochemical methods. The results were compared with findings in the ciliated ependyma of the ventricular wall and with those in the ependyma of the choroid plexus of the third ventricle. In the ependymal part of the SCO only a moderate activity of hexokinase is observed in its specialized columnar cells whereas a high activity is present both in the ciliated ependyma and the choroid plexus. - The staining pattern of glucose-6-phosphatase is similar to that of hexokinase but this enzyme is found is the SCO only. - Likewise hexokinase, glycogen granules and enzymes related to glycogen metabolism (phosphoglucomutase, uridine-diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, glycogen synthetase and phosphorylase) are regularly found most numerous and active in the nuclear and supra-nuclear area of the ependymal part. These enzymes are less active in both the other ependymal regions. - Uridine-diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase could not be demonstrated in the SCO. The NADP-linked enzymes of the pentose phosphate shunt, glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, show a moderate activity which decreases also from the nuclear towards the apical area of the ependymal cells of the SCO. Enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, such as glucosephosphate isomerase, fructose-6-phosphate kinase, fructose-I,6-diphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and lactate dehydrogenase, are highly active in the SCO and are located mainly in the supranuclear area, too. Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase could not be demonstrated thus indicating that in the SCO the pathway is most probably only glycolytic but not gluconeogenetic. Compared to the ependyma of the ventricular wall and of the choroid plexus, in the SCO the M type

  18. Decellularization for whole organ bioengineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organ transplantation in an orthotopic location is the current treatment for end-stage organ failure. However, the need for transplantable organs far exceeds the number of available donor organs. As a result, new options, such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, have been explored to achieve functional organ replacement. Although there have been many advances in the laboratory leading to the reconstruction of tissue and organ structures in vitro, these efforts have fallen short of producing organs that contain intact vascular networks capable of nutrient and gas exchange and are suitable for transplantation. Recently, advances in whole organ decellularization techniques have enabled the fabrication of scaffolds for engineering new organs. These scaffolds, consisting of naturally-derived extracellular matrix (ECM), provide biological signals and maintain tissue microarchitecture, including intact vascular systems that could integrate into the recipient's circulatory system. The decellularization techniques have led to the development of scaffolds for multiple organs, including the heart, liver, lung and kidney. While the experimental studies involving the use of decellularized organ scaffolds are encouraging, the translation of whole organ engineering into the clinic is still distant. This paper reviews recently described techniques used to decellularize whole organs such as the heart, lung, liver and kidney and describes possible methods for using these matrices for whole organ engineering. (paper)

  19. Nanoscale interface for organic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Lee, Takhee

    2010-01-01

    The scope of this book will be focused on the interface issues and problems in organic materials as electronic device applications. The organic material electronics is a rapidly progressing field for potential applications in flexible field effect transistors, plastic solar cells, organic luminescent devices, etc. However, the performance of these organic devices is still not sufficient. To enhance the understanding and practical applications of organic devices, we need to understand the fundamental organic device physics which is somewhat different from the conventional inorganic device physi

  20. Organic markets / consumers in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkoviene, Vida; Abraityte, Gerda

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Organic farming in Lithuania develops from the early 90 but up to the year 2000 the increase of number of organic farms and area under organic production was insignificant. In 2005 there were 1811 organic operators certified. The area of certified land was 69 430 ha, which is 2,7% of then total area of agricultural land in Lithuania. Action plan for de-velopment of Organic Agriculture in Lithuania fore-casts increase in number of organic farms and antici-pate that by 2006 the area u...

  1. Impact of Organic Contamination on Some Aquatic Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser, El-Nahhal; Shawkat, El-Najjar; Samir, Afifi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contamination of water systems with organic compounds of agricultural uses pose threats to aquatic organisms. Carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diuron were considered as model aquatic pollutants in this study. The main objective of this study was to characterize the toxicity of organic contamination to two different aquatic organisms. Materials and Methods: Low concentrations (0.0–60 µmol/L) of carbaryl, diuron and very low concentration (0.0–0.14 µmol/L) of chlorpyrifos and their mixtu...

  2. ORGANIC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.

  3. Poster: Dropping organic certification - effects on organic farming in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined organic farmers’ characteristics, motives, attitudes and barriers related to the conversion from conventional to organic farming. Recent studies have also discussed the perceived problems and reasons stated by organic farmers for opting out of certified production. In Norway, farmers’ reasons for opting out of certified organic farming have so far just been explored on a regional level or limited to one production; most such analyses have not been published inte...

  4. ORGANIC VERSUS CONVENTIONAL: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ORGANIC FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Over the last years, organic food consumption has become one of the most popular trends amongst general public. The perception would be that organic food is much healthier for the consumer and that the farming practices used for producing the food are more environmentally friendly. There are however both advantages and disadvantages when it comes to production of organic food, the choice of many farmers being not to produce organic food.

  5. The role of US organic certifiers in organic hotspot formation

    OpenAIRE

    Marasteanu, Ioana (Julia) I.; Jaenicke, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    Because consumer demand for organic food products has seen a recent surge in momentum, the question of what factors encourage development of (domestic) organic supply has become increasingly important. Consumer interest in organic products has increased in the past decades, with growth rates upwards of 20 percent per year before the 2008 recession, and above 10 percent in the most recent years. This growth, however, has led to the concern that the demand for organic ingredients is out-pacing ...

  6. ERP inside Large Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Daniel AVRAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many large companies in Romania are still functioning without an ERP system. Instead they are using traditional application systems built around the strong boundaries of specific functions: finance, selling, HR, production. An ERP will offer lots of advantages among which the integration of functionalities and support for top management decisions. Although the total cost of ownership is not small and there are some risks when implementing an ERP inside large and very large organizations, having such a system is mandatory. Choosing the right product and vendor and using a correct risk management strategy, will ensure a successful implementation.

  7. JUDICIAL ORGANIZATION THEORY'S MATTER

    OpenAIRE

    Logvinov D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The article presents the author's solution to the problem of legal regulation sphere in public and legal relations on the organization of the judiciary, critical analysis of the widely discussed in legal science the concept of «judicial law», ability and nature of «judicial law», capability and nature of «judicial law» as a regulatory system and an independent scientific direction. In addition, the article raised the question of ensuring internal content of such sphere of research th...

  8. Gender stereotypes in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on stereotypes of women as managers. The literature review summarizes the most common areas of gender stereotypes. In the empirical part we conducted research on a sample of 111 respondents (students. Research data was obtained by administration of translated and adapted questionnaire Women as Managers Scale (L. Peters et al.. Psychometric analysis of the questionnaire was conducted and its factor structure verified. The goal of this study was to create and pilot Czech adaptation of the questionnaire as an instrument for diagnostics of gender stereotypes in different types of organizations

  9. Autotranscendence and Creative Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of social and cultural ‘autotran- scendence’ – self-production, creativity – in the debates on self-organization. The point of departure is Cornelius Castoriadis’s idea of ‘self-creation’. First, a schismabetween mechanical and ontological modeling is indicated and...... of the question of cultural articulation in Castoriadis, the article argues that the problem of autotranscendence presents a further problem of self-creation discernible in Castoriadis’s notions of phusis/nomos, living being/human, and constraint/ magma. The article closes with a consideration of...

  10. Strategies for organizing outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on four sociological studies carried out in France and in the United States between 1991 and 1994, this paper aims at presenting different organizational strategies for scheduled outages in nuclear power plants. Some short examples suggest that organizational settings are not equivalent in terms of actors' practices: some organizational designs tend to minimize actors autonomy while others are favouring it. Distinctions can also be made between formal and informal autonomy or between clear delegations of decision making power and implicit ones. The author argues that these differences have major implications for actors' participation inside the organization

  11. Self-organizing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.; Johansson, Johan;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a general overview of Self-Organizing Networks (SON), and the rationale and state-of-the-art of wireless SON are first presented. The technical and business requirements are then briefly treated, and the research challenges within the field of SON are highlighted. Thereafter......, the relation between SON and Cognitive Networks (CN) is covered. At last, the application of Algorithmic Information Theory (AIT) as a possible theoretical tool to support SON in addressing the growing complexity of networks is discussed....

  12. Organic Centre Wales Factsheet 5: Register of accredited organic advisors

    OpenAIRE

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    This factsheet provides a register of consultants accredited by the Organic Centre Wales along with contact details and an indication of their specialist knowledge. All advisors deliver organic advice under Farming Connect. Information on becoming a registered organic advisor is also provided.

  13. Building Organic Institutions in Nepal: Transformational Organic Leadership Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sundar Kumar; Sharma, Ravina

    2014-01-01

    It is really challenging to transform the conventional trends of farming and consumption trends in Nepal. On the other hand, there is an opportunity to make use of the traditional ecological knowledge of the indigenous farmers for augmenting newly emerged organic farming practices. In this scenario, transformational organic leadership is needed to build organic institutions in Nepal.

  14. Emotions Management within Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Maria ANDRIEŞ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions management in organizations is meant to habilitate the employees inadministrating the emotional resources aiming at the correct adaptation to theorganizational environment and the necessities in the work activity. The studyof emotions in organizations has the purpose to know and optimize theemployees’ emotional condition. The efficient leaders are interested inadministrating the emotions, being aware of and capable to revaluate thefactors which positively activate the employees emotional life. Emotionsmanagement is accomplished at two more important levels: personal level orsubjective (represented by the person’s self-control capacity, the emotionalintelligence, the ability to administrate the positive and negative emotions andan interpersonal or social level, centered upon settling the emotional changesbetween employees and leaders, between employees and clients. From theirsettling into the practice point of view, the increase in the work performanceand the benefits brought to the organizational environment, the concepts bywhich emotions management is accomplished/operate (positive emotions andnegative emotions, emotional intelligence, emotional self-control, emotionallabour etc., this issue presents greater interest both for theorists and for thereal doers/practitioners.

  15. Cyberspace and Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einav Yogev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of cyberspace as a primary warfare arena between enemies or hostile nations has always been fertile ground for fantasy and lurid scenes on the silver screen. However, cyberspace is rapidly becoming a genuine central arena for future wars and hostile actions undertaken by various types of adversaries. These may include terrorist organizations, although until now they have relied primarily on physical violence to promote their own goals and those of their sponsors. In light of such threats, many nations in the West have in recent years established special authorities to use innovative technological means to prepare for war-like actions against strategic infrastructure targets. This essay focuses on an analysis of the factors that are likely to make terrorist organizations use cyber tools to perpetrate attacks on critical infrastructures of sovereign institutions and symbols, commercial and industrial infrastructures and systems, and public civilian targets. In addition, it examines the question of whether the threat is actual and imminent, or whether it is a far-fetched possibility that surfaces from time to time in the general discourse on the subject.

  16. Cascade Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schlenker, Cody W.

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Soils and organic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organic component of soils is basically made up of substances of an individual nature (fats, waxes, resins, proteins, tannic substances, and many others), and humic substances (Kononova, 1966). These are complex polymers formed from breakdown products of the chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues. They are dark coloured, acidic, predominantly aromatic compounds ranging in molecular weight from less than one thousand to tens of thousands (Schnitzer, 1977). They can be partitioned into three main fractions:(i) Humic acid, which is soluble in dilute alkaline solution, but can be precipitated by acidification of the alkaline extract.(ii) Fulvic acid, which is soluble in alkaline solution, but is also soluble on acidification.(iii) Humin that cannot be extracted from the soil or sediment by dilute acid or alkaline solutions. It has mostly been assumed that the humic and fulvic acid components of the soil are part of the mobile, or 'active' component, and the humin component is part of the 'passive' component. Other types of organic sediments are likely to contain chemical breakdown products of plant material, plant fragments and material brought in from outside sources. The outside material can be contemporaneous with sediment deposition, can be older material, or younger material incorporated into the sediment long after deposition. Recognition of 'foreign' material is essential for dating, but is not an easy task. Examples of separation techniques for humic and non humic components are evaluated for their efficiency

  18. Pelvic Organ Prolapse--Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About "It" Talking About PFD 3 Resources + More Pelvic Organ Prolapse POP Symptoms & Types Can I Prevent POP? POP ... Get Involved About the Campaign Supporters Contact Information Pelvic Organ Prolapse POP Symptoms & Types Can I Prevent POP? Kegel ...

  19. Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Peng (ed.) [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-03-01

    This book contains the following nine chapters: lanthanide metal-organic frameworks: syntheses, properties, and potential applications (Stephen Fordham, Xuan Wang, Mathieu Bosch, Hong-Cai Zhou); 2. chiral lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Weisheng Liu, Xiaoliang Tang); 3. Porous lanthanide metal-organic frameworks for gas storage and separation (Bin Li, Banglin Chen); 4. Luminescent lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Xue-Zhi Song, Shu-Yan Song, Hong-Jie Zhang); 5. Metal-organic frameworks based on lanthanide clusters (Lian Chen, Feilong Jiang, Kang Zhou, Mingyan Wu, Maochun Hong); 6. metal-organic frameworks with d-f cyanide bridges: structural diversity, bonding regime, and magnetism (Marilena Ferbinteanu, Fanica Cimpoesu, Stefania Tanase); 7. transition-lanthanide heterometal-organic frameworks: synthesis, structures, and properties (Wei Shi, Ke Liu, Peng Cheng); 8: MOFs of uranium and the actinides (Juan Su, Jiesheng Chen); 9. Nanostructured and/or nanoscale lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Zhonghao Zhang, Zhiping Zheng).

  20. Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following nine chapters: lanthanide metal-organic frameworks: syntheses, properties, and potential applications (Stephen Fordham, Xuan Wang, Mathieu Bosch, Hong-Cai Zhou); 2. chiral lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Weisheng Liu, Xiaoliang Tang); 3. Porous lanthanide metal-organic frameworks for gas storage and separation (Bin Li, Banglin Chen); 4. Luminescent lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Xue-Zhi Song, Shu-Yan Song, Hong-Jie Zhang); 5. Metal-organic frameworks based on lanthanide clusters (Lian Chen, Feilong Jiang, Kang Zhou, Mingyan Wu, Maochun Hong); 6. metal-organic frameworks with d-f cyanide bridges: structural diversity, bonding regime, and magnetism (Marilena Ferbinteanu, Fanica Cimpoesu, Stefania Tanase); 7. transition-lanthanide heterometal-organic frameworks: synthesis, structures, and properties (Wei Shi, Ke Liu, Peng Cheng); 8: MOFs of uranium and the actinides (Juan Su, Jiesheng Chen); 9. Nanostructured and/or nanoscale lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Zhonghao Zhang, Zhiping Zheng).