WorldWideScience

Sample records for algeria

  1. Algeria; Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-04-01

    Algeria disposes of important fossil energy reserves: 4250 Gm{sup 3} for natural gas and 1300 Mt for oil. Algeria has developed a large capacity of refining on 4 sites: 502700 barrels a day. In 2001 the production reached 67 Mt for crude oil and 32 Mt for oil by-products. The same year the exports reached 36 Mt for liquid hydrocarbons and 21 Mt for oil by-products. In 2001 the production of natural gas reached 79 Gm{sup 3} of which about 78 % were exported (58 Gm{sup 3}). The main clients are Italy (46 %), Spain (18 %), France (18 %), Tunisia (7 %), Belgium (4 %) and Portugal (4 %). Algeria has a low level of energy consumption: 0,8 Tep (equivalent ton of oil) per inhabitant and 670 kWh/inhabitant for electricity. (A.C.)

  2. Algeria: Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

    2011-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper discusses the need to meet Algeria’s fiscal challenges. Although Algeria enjoys substantial fiscal savings, fiscal policy is currently on an unsustainable path. Under current projections, Algeria will deplete its financial savings in the long term, leaving future generations worse off. To restore fiscal sustainability and ensure intergenerational equity, Algeria will need to undertake significant and sustained fiscal consolidation in the coming years. Successful f...

  3. English Teaching Profile: Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A survey of the status and use of the English language in Algeria is presented. The following topics are outlined: (1) the role of English as a third language, (2) its place within the educational system at all levels and in each graduate institution, (3) the status of British expatriates teaching English in Algeria and of Algerian teachers of…

  4. Algeria: Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper explores the monetary policy transmission channels in Algeria and analyzes available options to strengthen monetary policy effectiveness. High liquidity has been the hallmark of the Algerian monetary policy framework for most of the 2000s. The paper assesses the impact of monetary policy changes on its final targets—growth and inflation, and outlines policy options to strengthen the efficacy of monetary policy. It takes stock of Algeria’s current fiscal framewor...

  5. Growth Prospects in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper for Algeria analyzes the growth prospects of the Algerian economy. Drawing on the findings of the empirical growth literature, the paper combines growth accounting and cross-country growth regressions to examine the role of macroeconomic and institutional factors in driving economic growth. It reviews the past growth performance in Algeria and explores the reasons underpinning the recent pickup in nonhydrocarbon GDP growth. The paper also analyzes labor market devel...

  6. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Malek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  7. Financial Sector Assessment : Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, Algeria has courageously attempted to modernize its financial system, despite social strife, and unique challenges posed by the large hydrocarbon sector. However, lending by state-owned banks, mostly to public entities, still dominates financial intermediation, financial markets remain in their infancy, and, implementation of regulatory reforms is lagging. And, becaus...

  8. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

    2014-01-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  9. Country Education Profiles: Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    One of a series of profiles prepared by the Cooperative Educational Abstracting Service, this brief outline provides basic background information on educational principles, system of administration, structure and organization, curricula, and teacher training in Algeria. Statistics provided by the Unesco Office of Statistics show enrollment at all…

  10. Teaching Abroad: Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriopoulos, Michel

    1981-01-01

    Describes a program in Algeria which included the construction of a training facility to ease the shortage of semiskilled workers, particularly construction site electricians and instrument installers. Priorities were to define training needs, implement the program, and produce graduates as soon as possible. (JOW)

  11. Algeria-Mali Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Bensassi, Sami; Brockmeyer, Anne; Pellerin, Matthieu; Raballand, Gael

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates the volume of informal trade between Algeria and Mali and analyzes its determinants and mechanisms, using a multi-pronged methodology. First, the authors discuss how subsidy policies and the legal framework create incentives for informal trade across the Sahara. Second, the authors provide evidence of the importance of informal trade, drawing on satellite images and su...

  12. Dendroagricultural Signal in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchan, R.; Kherchouche, D.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Oudjehih, B.; Touchane, H.; Slimani, S.; Meko, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Dalila Kherchouche2, Kevin J. Anchukaitis3, Bachir Oudjehih2, Hayat Touchan4, Said Slimani5, and David M. Meko1Drought is one of the main natural factors in declining tree-ring growth and the production of agricultural crops in Algeria. Here we will address the variability of growing conditions for wheat in Algeria with climatic data and a tree-ring reconstruction of January-June precipitation from ten Pinus halepensis tree-ring chronologies. A regression-based reconstruction equation explains up to 74% of the variance of precipitation in the 1970-2011 calibration period and cross validates well. Classification of dry years by the 30% percentile of observed precipitation (131 mm) yields a maximum length of drought of five years (1877-1881) and increasing frequency of dry years in the late 20th and early 21stcenturies. A correlation-based sensitivity analysis shows a similar pattern of dependence of tree-growth and wheat production on monthly and seasonal precipitation, but contrasting patterns of dependence on temperature. The patterns are interpreted by reference to phenology, growth phases, and - for wheat agricultural practices. We apply these interpretations to understand possible impacts of climate variability on the agricultural productivity of past civilizations in the Mediterranean. 2Institute of Veterinary and Agronomy Sciences, The University Hadj-Lakhdar, Batna 05000, Algeria, d.kherchouche@yahoo.fr and oudjehihbachir@yahoo.fr3University of Arizona, ENR2 Building, 1064 E Lowell Street, PO Box 210137, Tucson, AZ 85721-0137, kanchukaitis@email.arizona.edu4Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo-Syria, dr.htouchan@gmail.com5Faculty of Biological Sciences and Agronomy, The University Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi Ouzou 15000, Algeria, slimanisaid@yahoo.fr1Laboratory of Tree Ring Research, The University of Arizona, 1215 E. Lowell St. Bldg. 45B, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA, dmeko@ltrr.arizona.edu

  13. Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Izri, Arezki; Temmam, Sarah; Moureau, Grégory; Hamrioui, Boussad; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) is present in Algeria, we tested sandflies for phlebovirus RNA. A sequence closely related to that of SFSV was detected in a Phlebotomus ariasi sandfly. Of 60 human serum samples, 3 contained immunoglobulin G against SFSV. These data suggest SFSV is present in Algeria.

  14. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud; Raoult, Didier

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria.

  15. 'Business as usual' in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliant on earnings from its oil and gas exports to import food for its growing 25 million population and cope with a $25 billion (bn) foreign debt, Algeria's new 'self-created' government is desperately trying to maintain the country's order. The situation facing Algeria's foreign business partners, notably France and Italy, is discussed. (author)

  16. Algeria embraces globalisation and liberalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2008-07-15

    Algeria's culture of state monopoly and single party rule has been set aside as the country appears to have resolutely chosen globalisation and liberalisation of its markets. The 2-page article is followed by an interview with the Algerian Minister of Energy and President of OPEC for 2008, explaining the energy policy of Algeria.

  17. 1980 El Asnam, Algeria Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 7.3 magnitude earthquake killed 5,000 people and caused severe damage. Location: Northern Algeria. Damage: $3,000 million. About 9,000 were injured. Extensive...

  18. China's economic presence in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Pairault, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the sudden acceleration of Sino-Algerian economic relations and the resulting changes in the relationship between Algeria and the world. China's presence in Algeria combines many interrelated features, which are not only distinctive, but contain their own logic and temporality: these encompass political, diplomatic, cultural, migratory, human and economic relations. This paper will mainly focus on the last category of relations; it will draw on statistical data, as recorde...

  19. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C.; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  20. Algeria: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix deals with the issue of low growth in Algeria. A growth-accounting exercise indicates that negative total factor productivity growth explains Algeria’s low growth rates. This paper highlights the sources of this low growth that mainly consist of incomplete structural reforms and the weaknesses of Algeria’s institutions. It describes policy recommendations, focusing on the institutional reforms required to improve the business environment...

  1. Implementation of nuclear seawater desalination in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the programme of nuclear desalination of seawater in Algeria. It starts by giving actual data about the needs of Algeria of fresh water up to the year 2025 and presents the strategies, which are adopted to satisfy these needs by various techniques including nuclear desalination of seawater. Finally the application of nuclear seawater desalination is presented in more details. (author)

  2. What Future for Berber Languages in Algeria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houcine, Samira

    2011-01-01

    After Algeria wrenched its independence from France in 1962, the government newly formed decided to achieve Arabization. Standard Arabic became thus the official language of Algeria and the complete Arabization of all public institutions was voted in January 1991. Actually, the Algerian linguistic situation is one of multilingualism where Algerian…

  3. A survey of photovoltaic activities in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the activities in pholovoltaics (PV) in Algeria, for the last fifteen years. The main activities which are reported are related to PV power systems programs, research education and market penetration. Concluding remarks recommend the transition from demonstrating small projects to large scale ones in order to promote and develop PV technology in Algeria. (author)

  4. Reemerging Threat of Epidemic Typhus in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokrani, K.; Fournier, P E; Dalichaouche, M.; Tebbal, S.; Aouati, A.; Raoult, D

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of epidemic typhus in a patient from the Batna region of Algeria, who presented with generalized febrile exanthema. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by serological cross-adsorption followed by Western blotting. Our report emphasizes the threat of epidemic typhus in the highlands of Algeria.

  5. Algeria: Revolution, Army and Political Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraoui, Zidane

    2012-01-01

    Despite the numerous similarities among the Arab countries that explain the rapid popular movements since the end of 2010, the case of Algeria presents particular features. It shares the same inequalities and social challenges as the rest of the countries in the region. However, the revolutionary process in Algeria between 1954 and 1962 and the…

  6. Rights of the Child in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Algeria. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes legislative and institutional efforts made by Algeria since…

  7. Algeria: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Algeria is positioned to achieve important, new natural gas markets. Over half of its hydrocarbon income is from exports of gas and derived products, liquified petroleum gas (LPG) and condensates, which are not subject to Opec quotas. Officials are moving away from inflexible past policies and are becoming vastly more realistic now that foreign investment laws have been liberalized and there is a need to attract foreign investors. Sonatrach must address three key issues to consolidate recent progress. Sales to existing customers in Europe, like Italy, must be expanded; new customers and markets need to found: and U.S. liquified natural gas (LNG) markets must be revived

  8. Groundwater radon measurements in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon contents of groundwater sources have led to a great interest in hydrological, hydrogeological and geological engineering. The most interesting applications are: The determination of the fluctuations of the piezometric levels in groundwater to evaluate hydrogeological resources, the study of recent hydrothermal manifestations, the study of oil- and gas-bearing regions, the estimation of uranium deposits and the study of the relationship between the radon concentration and the degree of stress of the earth's crust at different stages of seismic activity. Waters from springs and deep wells in the plateau of Tassili (southeast Algeria) were sampled, measured and radon quantified. Radon measurements were performed using two different methods. The first method, active, based on the use of a Lucas-type scintillation chamber in conjunction with a portable monitor (model Pylon AB-5); the second method, passive, using an electret ion chamber with a 4 l glass analysis bottle. The aim of this work is to develop a method for sampling, detecting, evaluating and measuring the 222Rn in groundwater using the scintillation cell method. A comparison of the two methods was carried out and both were found to be useful under environmental conditions in Algeria

  9. Just what is happening in Algeria?

    OpenAIRE

    Ghettas, Lakhdar

    2010-01-01

    The assassination of the Algerian chief of national police Colonel Ali Tounsi coincides with the standoff between the Turkish Government and the military establishment. In Algeria, a conflict of similar colouring has been underway for several months.

  10. 2003 Boumerdes and Algiers, Algeria Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A destructive earthquake of magnitude Mw = 6.8 hit the region of Boumerdes and Algiers (Algeria) on May 21, 2003. This is among the strongest seismic events of the...

  11. Review of wind energy use in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most scientists now agree that human-induced global climate change poses a serious threat to both society and the Earth's ecosystems. Renewable energy holds the key to future prosperity and a healthy global environment and is considered as a promising way to solve the problem of environmental pollution such as major environmental accidents, water pollution, maritime pollution, land use and sitting impact, radiation and radioactivity, solid waste disposal, hazardous air pollutants, ambient air quality (CO, CO2, SOx, NOx effluent gas emissions), acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming (GHG). Solar, wind and hydrogen power can be considered as potential renewable energy sources in Algeria. The share of renewable energy sources in Algeria primary energy supply is relatively low compared with European countries, though the trends of development are positive. One of the main strategic priorities of New Energy Algeria (NEAL) which is Algeria's renewable energy agency (government, Sonelgaz and Sonatrach), is striving to achieve a share of renewable energy sources in primary energy supply of 10-12% by 2010. IEA projects that the fastest growing sources of energy will be supplied by renewables. Much of this capacity will be installed in developing nations where solar and wind electric power is already competitive. Clearly, the nation that can capture a leadership position has potential for substantial economic returns. The article presents a review of the present wind energy situation and assessed potential of wind energy sources in Algeria in particular the southwest region of Algeria (Adrar, Timimoun and Tindouf). (author)

  12. Towards sustainable water management in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2012-12-01

    Algeria aspires to protect its water resources and to provide a sustainable answer to water supply and management issues by carrying out a national water plan. This program is in line with all projects the Algerian Government is implementing to improve its water sector performance. The water strategy focuses on desalination for the coastal cities, medium-sized dams to irrigate the inland mountains and high plateau, and ambitious water transfer projects interconnecting Algeria\\'s 65 dams to bring water to water scarce parts of the country. Waste water treatment and water reclamation technologies are also highly sought after. The main objective of the country\\'s water policy consists on providing sufficient potable water for the population supply. This objective is undertaken by increasing the water resources and availability. © 2012 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  13. Library-Information Education in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumarafi, B. B.; Haythornthwaite, J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the development of educational programs for library technicians, librarians, and information professionals in Algeria and describes the current educational structure. Topics discussed include the need for improvements in curriculum development, teaching staff development, library facilities, and the use of information technologies. (CLB)

  14. Vocational Training and Rural Development in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaza, S.; Gara, A.

    1973-01-01

    Better organization of the agricultural sector, expansion of production capabilities, increased employment, satisfaction of the country's needs, and improved productivity are the guidelines considered in the planning and development of the agricultural vocational training system in Algeria. Charts illustrate and clarify the organization of this…

  15. Documentation and Development. Experience in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuigoua, J. Founou

    1972-01-01

    A description of the activities of the Documentation, Library and Archives Department of the Algiers Chamber of Commerce and Industry, which is run by a small staff on a modest budget, provides documentation services for the staff of the Chamber of Commerce and also assists other centers in Algeria. (Author)

  16. Algeria; The Real Exchange Rate, Export Diversification, and Trade Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Piritta Sorsa

    1999-01-01

    Given the tendency of the oil sector to appreciate the equilibrium real exchange rate (RER) in Algeria, trade liberalization with its depreciating impact on the RER is important for diversification of exports. This paper shows that reduction in trade protection would depreciate the RER in Algeria, which in turn would improve competitiveness of, and incentives to invest in, non-oil exports. The paper then discusses existing levels of protection in Algeria and directions for reform.

  17. Unemployment and Labor Market Issues in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Furceri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze unemployment and labor market developments in Algeria and assess the factors that may hamper employment creation. The results of the paper suggest that the relative low output-employment elasticities and rigid labor market are the main factors behind the still high level of unemployment, particularly among the youth. Simulation analyses, based on the results on the relation between labor market institutions and unemployment, show that improvement in labor m...

  18. Algeria's Role in the Sahelian Security Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Aida Ammour

    2013-01-01

    While Mali is confronting a deep political crisis with a still serious risk of territorial split and Libya is descending into increasing instability, Algeria appears reluctant to assume the responsibilities of a hegemonic power. Algeria’s refusal to consider any joint strategy with its neighbors and other international actors towards the Malian crisis shows it has once again succumbed to the fear of encirclement that characterized its policies in the 1970s. Behind this refusal, there lies a d...

  19. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Chentli; Said Azzoug; Mohammed El Amine Amani; Aldjia Elgradechi

    2013-01-01

    Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a holy month in Algeria where diabetes mellitus (DM) is more frequent in urban areas with a frequency which varies from 8 to 16%. DM complications are broadly as frequent as in developed countries, except for neuropathy which seems more frequent. Despite contraindications which are regularly explained to our patients and despite the flexible side of Islam toward chronic diseases, most Algerian people with DM insist on fasting. Not fasting is consi...

  20. Modern, sustainable, protected greenhouse cultivation in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Os, van, H.; Speetjens, S.L.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Bruins, M.A.; Sapounas, A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the project was to analyse the structure and technology level of protected cultivation in Algeria, which were followed by recommendations for improvements (technical, cultivation and economic aspects) of existing and newly built greenhouses. Further, in discussion with Dutch and Algerian parties, the goal was to come to a final design which can be built with local partners. The Wageningen UR “adaptive greenhouse approach” was used at which results of the simulation models for the ...

  1. Wildfires in Algeria: problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meddour-Sahar O

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the scenario of the Mediterranean area, where about 54 000 fires and 0.4 million hectares of forest are burned and annually registered (2006-2010, the rank for Algeria is non-negligible with 4.11 million hectares of forest. The annual number of fires and the size of area burned depict a critical situation, which became rather dramatic in 2012. Climate change projections and the estimated changes to wildfire risk for the future decades (2030-2060 indicate that the entire Maghreb region, including Algeria, will be among the most affected areas of the Mediterranean. Longer fire seasons will be experienced and extended by an additional month with each passing year. Despite Algeria’s recent investments in technical means for controlling forest fires, the current suppression-oriented model seems unable to cope with such a phenomenon. Furthermore, the model is unfit in view of the approaching scenario, when fire-exclusion policies need to be complemented with fuel-reduction techniques and fire prevention management. This study aims to establish an understanding of the context and public policy issues related to wildfire management in Algeria. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires to foresters with the objective of identifying obstacles and constraints hindering the efficacy of pro-active measures. Analysis of the data gathered indicates that Algerian foresters are well aware of the importance of prevention, contrasting with current governmental policies that are predominantly oriented towards improving the technical extinction apparatus. A SWOT analysis suggests possible strategic options for improving the efficiency of wildfire control by building on strengths, eliminating weaknesses, exploiting opportunities, and mitigating threats. The results of this study may be adapted to other countries with similar problems as those of Algeria.

  2. Swallows' children : emigration and development in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, S

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper on relationships between migration policy and development policy in Algeria, focusing on emigration to France during the period 1962 to 1977 - covers historical emigration under colonialism and since independence, noting the influence of nationalism and political ideology, outlines working conditions and living conditions of Algerian migrant workers in France, and discusses return migration and remittance factors. Graphs, references and statistical tables.

  3. The Role of Islamic Fundamentalism in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zola Sonkosi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Algeria and the Islamist challenge For six years, Algeria has been experiencing a true nightmare of terror. Human rights organisations estimate that since 1992, 120 000 people were killed by armed Islamic groups or state security, among them many civilians. During Ramadan 1998, there were shocking news of cruelly executed and mutilated women, men and children in Koraa, 80 kilometres south-west of the capital Algiers. The alleged culprits were assumed to belong to the Groupe lslamique Armée (GIA. The critical Algerian press increasingly becomes a victim of fanaticism and state censorship4. In order to understand these events better, it is necessary to take a look at the history of this country. In 1962, Algeria celebrated its independence from 132 years of colonial occupation by France. This great event was preceded by a long and bitter war, which was led by the Front De Libération Nationale (FLN, and its ally, the Armée de Libération Nationale (ALN. In 1954, Algerians began to fight the French army that was considered unbeatable. Its defeat was achieved in 1962, but the country was never exposed to democracy and pluralism because the FLN-leadership preferred to practice one-party-rule after the Soviet model. Critics, especially from the ranks of former freedom fighters, among them Mohamed Boudiaf and Hocine Ait Ahmeds, were arrested or forced to go into exile.

  4. The energy sector abroad. Part 16. Algeria. The growing export of natural gas from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algeria's age-long dependence on agriculture changed rather abruptly in 1956. The discovery of huge oil and gas fields made it possible that nowadays the oil and gas industries account for 95% of Algerian exports and 60% of the Algerian government's budget. In 1970 Algeria nationalized all oil and gas concessions. By the middle of the 1980's, however, this isolationism proved no longer tenable and a political democratization process was started, also enabling foreign investments. The latter has been successful, but the democratization of the political system has ended in bloodshed

  5. Wildfires in Algeria: problems and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Meddour-Sahar O

    2015-01-01

    In the scenario of the Mediterranean area, where about 54 000 fires and 0.4 million hectares of forest are burned and annually registered (2006-2010), the rank for Algeria is non-negligible with 4.11 million hectares of forest. The annual number of fires and the size of area burned depict a critical situation, which became rather dramatic in 2012. Climate change projections and the estimated changes to wildfire risk for the future decades (2030-2060) indicate that the entire Maghreb region, i...

  6. Algeria, an oil state in danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having outlined that Algeria possesses one of the most promising geologies regarding oil, gas and shale gas proved and possible reserves, but that conditions imposed to the private sector are such that investments have been decreasing, thus leaving Sonatrach, the national public company, almost alone do develop this oil and gas patrimony, and after having recalled that the world oil sector is facing a major crisis since the collapse of oil prices in 2014, the author proposes an analysis of this situation of lack of interest of private companies in Algeria, and a discussion of the consequences for Sonatrach. He comments results published by this company in terms of drilling activities, notices the very low percentage of private drilling activities, outlines that Sonatrach is facing a very difficult situation (many contractors to be paid, collapse of revenues, and increased consumption) which may impede its ambitious exploration project for the years to come. The author also comments results of the bidding processes which have been disappointing for the last ten years. He outlines that financial scandals and arbitrations contributed to the loss of confidence of foreign oil companies. He comments how projects have been developed during these last ten years, and discusses the strategy envisaged for the exploitation of shale gases

  7. Ouarkziz Impact Structure, Algeria: Preliminary Petrographic and Geochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoui, R.; Belhai, D.

    2015-07-01

    Ouarkziz impact crater in Algeria is set in Namurian lower limestone and marls with gypsum. We present here preliminary petrographic and geochemical studies of the rocks and breccias forming the rings ans the central area of the structure.

  8. A new CH carbonaceous chondrite from Acfer, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Moggi-Cecchi, V.; SALVADORI A; Pratesi, G; Franchi, Ian; Greenwood, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A single stone weighing 1456 g was found in November 2002 in the Acfer area, Algeria. Oxygen isotope, chondrules-matrix ratio as well as other petrographic features point to a classification as CH carbonaceous chondrite.

  9. Algeria: Staff Report for the 2002 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    The strong hydrocarbon export performance has allowed Algeria to strengthen its external position and record a budget surplus. Executive Directors commend the government for the broad improvement in macroeconomic indicators. The government has eased the fiscal stance, and this strategy has succeeded in boosting short-term growth. The surge in credit to the economy is a concern. Algeria should reinvigorate its structural and institutional reform efforts to put the economy on a sustainable path...

  10. Prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabassi, F; Amelot, G; Laugier, C; Zientara, S; Nasri, A M; Hans, A

    2014-12-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria, 268 sera from non-vaccinated horses were collected from the western and eastern regions. Serological analysis of the sera, which were collected from 2009 to 2011, was performed using the virus neutralisation test, as described by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Overall, 20 sera (7.46%) were seropositive, 152 (56.71%) were negative and 96 sera (35.82%) were cytotoxic. Equine arteritis virus (EAV) seroprevalence was significantly higher in the western region (Tiaret) than in the eastern region (Barika and El-Eulma). Interestingly, more than 20% of the tested horses over 16 years old were seropositive for EAV. However, EAV prevalence did not depend on either horse breed or horse gender. This study is the first to describe the circulation of EAV in the Algerian horse population. PMID:25812220

  11. The uncertain future of hydrocarbons in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As it has been historically the first oil and gas producer in Africa with Gabon and Nigeria (it is now the third oil producer after Nigeria and Angola, and still the first gas producer), Algeria has faced a strong decrease of investments in this sector for the past ten years, for legal, security and political reasons. This resulted in a decrease of production whereas local consumption has been strongly increasing. The author examines whether measures voted in 2012 will be able to bring back the confidence of foreign investors which is needed to develop the huge oil, gas and shale gas potentials of this country. The author recalls this high resource level, and comments the role and behaviour of Sonatrach, the national company, and the consequences of the oil and gas revenues decrease. He outlines the importance of the issue of security (notably terrorism by AQMI), and comments expectations associated with the new law on hydrocarbons

  12. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Amani, Mohammed El Amine; Elgradechi, Aldjia

    2013-01-01

    Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a holy month in Algeria where diabetes mellitus (DM) is more frequent in urban areas with a frequency which varies from 8 to 16%. DM complications are broadly as frequent as in developed countries, except for neuropathy which seems more frequent. Despite contraindications which are regularly explained to our patients and despite the flexible side of Islam toward chronic diseases, most Algerian people with DM insist on fasting. Not fasting is considered a sin and shameful. There are also other reasons put forward by diabetic persons, such as very strong religious faith, habit of fasting together with the whole family since an early age, solidarity with the family, friends, and neighbors, and finally and probably because of the desire to appear “normal” and share a festive and a spiritual atmosphere of Ramadan. As in other Muslim countries, severe hypoglycemia the main motive of hospitalizations during the holy month, ketoacidosis, dehydration, orthostatic hypotension and thrombosis are some of the complications which Algerian people with DM are exposed to when fasting. PMID:24251192

  13. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a holy month in Algeria where diabetes mellitus (DM is more frequent in urban areas with a frequency which varies from 8 to 16%. DM complications are broadly as frequent as in developed countries, except for neuropathy which seems more frequent. Despite contraindications which are regularly explained to our patients and despite the flexible side of Islam toward chronic diseases, most Algerian people with DM insist on fasting. Not fasting is considered a sin and shameful. There are also other reasons put forward by diabetic persons, such as very strong religious faith, habit of fasting together with the whole family since an early age, solidarity with the family, friends, and neighbors, and finally and probably because of the desire to appear "normal" and share a festive and a spiritual atmosphere of Ramadan. As in other Muslim countries, severe hypoglycemia the main motive of hospitalizations during the holy month, ketoacidosis, dehydration, orthostatic hypotension and thrombosis are some of the complications which Algerian people with DM are exposed to when fasting.

  14. Economic development, mobility and traffic accidents in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougueroua, M; Carnis, L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this contribution is to estimate the impact of road economic conditions and mobility on traffic accidents for the case of Algeria. Using the cointegration approach and vector error correction model (VECM), we will examine simultaneously short term and long-term impacts between the number of traffic accidents, fuel consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capital, over the period 1970-2013. The main results of the estimation show that the number of traffic accidents in Algeria is positively influenced by the GDP per capita in the short and long term. It implies that a higher economic development worsens the road safety situation. However, the new traffic rules adopted in 2009 have an impact on the forecast trend of traffic accidents, meaning efficient public policy could improve the situation. This result calls for a strong political commitment with effective countermeasures for avoiding the further deterioration of road safety record in Algeria. PMID:27070081

  15. What Do Mobiles Speak in Algeria? Evidence from SMS Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostari, Hind Amel

    2009-01-01

    When Algeria opened its markets to foreign investment starting from the early 2000s, a technological boom occurred, including the expansion of mobile phone use. New technologies have had a considerable impact on the Algerian diglossic situation, in recent decades, and have contributed in the democratisation of the local dialects, which are being…

  16. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with: (1) educational philosophy, administration, statistics, and…

  17. Algeria : National Environmental Action Plan for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This staff sector assessment note accompanies the recently completed national environmental action plan for sustainable development (NEAP-SD), which, as an output of the Industrial Pollution Control Project in Algeria, focused on charting a new course for environmental management in the country, based on an objective assessment of past policy, and institutional failures, on a new consensus...

  18. Quality assessment of marketed eggs in Eastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kara Ali, Monira; Ait Kaki, Asma; Milet, Asma; Moula, Nassim

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare eggs quality between industrial and local chickens in four departments of Eastern Algeria (Bejaia, Jijel, Mila and Setif). A total of 4748 eggs were bought from three marketing channels as following: shops (1184), public markets (2757) and supermarkets (807). The percentage of stained eggs was significantly different (P

  19. Hydrocarbon products in Algeria- Actual situation and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programs on hydrocarbon products in Algeria are based on recoverable resources with today technologies and on long term priorities of national needs. To develop its activities Sonatrach (algerian company) gives a great part to foreign participation and especially with Canada

  20. Pre-School Education in Morocco and Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzoubaa, Khadija; Benghabrit-Remaoun, Nouria

    2004-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the current state of early childhood care in the Maghreb, in particular in Morocco and Algeria, where the pre-schooling rate for 5-year-olds is on the increase. Extending pre-school infrastructures and the need to create unified curricula have been among the most urgent questions to be tackled over the last decade in…

  1. Promotion of renewable energies in Algeria: Strategies and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years, political support for renewable energies has been growing continuously both at the national and international level and most scientists now agree that the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are perfectly placed to play a leading role in the lucrative future solar and wind power industries. The interest for the development of renewable energies was perceived very early in Algeria with the creation of the solar energy institute as soon as 1962. Algeria plays a very important role in world energy markets, both as a significant hydrocarbons producer and exporter, as well as a key participant in the renewable energy market. Due to its geographical location, Algeria holds one of the highest solar reservoirs in the world. This paper deals with a review of the present renewable energy (RE) situation and assessed present and future potential of RE sources in Algeria. It also discusses the trends and expectation in solar and wind systems applications and the aspects of future implementation of renewable energies making emphasis on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region status. The problem related to the use of RES and polices to enhance the use of these sources are also analysed in this paper. In addition the available capacity building, the technical know-how for each RE sources technology and localising manufacturing of RE equipments have been defined. (author)

  2. Application of the loss estimation tool QLARM in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, P.; Trendafiloski, G.; Yelles, K.; Semmane, F.; Wyss, M.

    2009-04-01

    During the last six years, WAPMERR has used Quakeloss for real-time loss estimation for more than 440 earthquakes worldwide. Loss reports, posted with an average delay of 30 minutes, include a map showing the average degree of damage in settlements near the epicenter, the total number of fatalities, the total number of injured, and a detailed list of casualties and damage rates in these settlements. After the M6.7 Boumerdes earthquake in 2003, we reported 1690-3660 fatalities. The official death toll was around 2270. Since the El Asnam earthquake, seismic events in Algeria have killed about 6,000 people, injured more than 20,000 and left more than 300,000 homeless. On average, one earthquake with the potential to kill people (M>5.4) happens every three years in Algeria. In the frame of a collaborative project between WAPMERR and CRAAG, we propose to calibrate our new loss estimation tool QLARM (qlarm.ethz.ch) and estimate human losses for future likely earthquakes in Algeria. The parameters needed for this calculation are the following. (1) Ground motion relation and soil amplification factors (2) distribution of building stock and population into vulnerability classes of the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) as given in the PAGER database and (3) population by settlement. Considering the resolution of the available data, we construct 1) point city models for cases where only summary data for the city are available and, 2) discrete city models when data regarding city districts are available. Damage and losses are calculated using: (a) vulnerability models pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes previously validated with the existing ones in Algeria (Tipaza and Chlef) (b) building collapse models pertinent to Algeria as given in the World Housing Encyclopedia and, (c) casualty matrices pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes assembled from HAZUS casualty rates. As a first trial, we simulated the 2003 Boumerdes earthquake to check the validity of the proposed

  3. Revised solar maps of Algeria based on sunshine duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The global solar irradiation maps for Algeria are drawn. • We performed an independence test using year 1992–2002 data. • The highest intensity of the solar radiation is located around the area of Djanet. • The less intense area is located around the area of Ksar Chellala. - Abstract: Solar irradiation data is generally required in modelling a system’s thermal performance, and evaluation of long-term effects of climatological changes. In Algeria, measurements of solar irradiation have been carried out for a few locations because the measuring instruments are expensive to purchase and install. The only alternative to obtain solar irradiation data is to estimate it by use of an appropriate solar irradiation model. The present study attempted to draw global solar irradiation maps for Algeria, witch are generated for all types of sky. The incident solar radiation on a horizontal surface, on a surface tilted at the latitude angle and for a vertical plane facing east, south, west, south-east, south-west was determined using numerical models. To obtain a solar radiation map of a certain zone it is necessary to know the solar radiation of a huge number of sites spread wide across the zone. The comparison between the measured and the computed values is satisfactory; the relative error is less than 7%. The results allow to view information about 48 provinces of Algeria, and are presented in the form of an annual solar radiation map. The solar maps developed in this paper provide information about the levels of total solar radiation which can be used as a database for future investments in the solar sector in Algeria

  4. Why Has Unemployment in Algeria Been Higher than in MENA and Transition Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Kpodar, Kangni

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of labor market performance in Algeria. When the model is estimated with panel data on a sample of MENA and transition countries for 1995- 2005, the results suggest that lower growth in labor productivity in Algeria is associated with higher unemployment than the sample average, though recent positive terms of trade shocks have helped Algeria reduce the differential. Labor market rigidities and labor taxation do not seem to explain why unemployment is high...

  5. Developmental States: How Algeria makes the best of China to promote its development

    OpenAIRE

    Pairault, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Socialist Algeria had friendly relations with Maoist China; it is paradoxically during the 1990s and the 2000s, while Algeria abandoned the official reference to socialism, that the two countries began experiencing an unprecedented expansion of their economic, commercial and human relations in such a way one could feed fantasies about the Chinese presence and expectations in Algeria. This contribution will examine the sudden acceleration of the Sino-Algerian economic relations to show how Alg...

  6. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  7. Market Analysis for Gas Engine Technology in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Michaut, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this diploma thesis is to investigate the potential of combined heat and power plants based on gas engine technology in Algeria. This market analysis has been performed in order to identify the key markets for the newly created French subsidiary of Clarke Energy Group to expand its business in North Africa. After analyzing the structure of the Algerian energy sector and the potential of each gas engine application, three key sectors were identified. For each sector, a technic...

  8. Energy and nuclear power planning study for Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, conducted jointly by a team of engineers and economists from the Sonelgaz company and the IAEA, had three objectives: (1) To perform a preliminary economic study aimed at initiating thinking on the role that nuclear power could play in Algeria's long-term energy structure and to suggest reasonable hypotheses on what share of the energy market nuclear power might supply. (2) To train a team of Algerian engineers and economists in long-term economic planning techniques. Once the team has gained a basic knowledge through this preliminary study, it will be in a position to continue the process, to perform other, more detailed independent analyses and to review the entire process should economic conditions change. (3) To introduce in Algeria the computer techniques and facilities needed to carry out such energy investment planning studies for electricity production. The main aim throughout the studies was to train a team of Algerian engineers in energy planning rather than to come to definitive conclusions on the problem of introducing nuclear power in Algeria. Two successive analyses were performed. The first consisted in evaluating the final energy requirements which will result in the medium and long term (by 2015) from the implementation of the economic development policies in the Five Year Plan (up to 1984) and in the proposals for the next decade (up to 1990) being studied by the Algerian Ministry of Planning. The second part is concerned only with the results regarding future electricity requirements, which are used as input data in studying the optimization of Algeria's future electricity generating system. Various methods of generation are analysed and included in an econometric model in order to make a sequential determination of the most economic composition of power generating capacity

  9. A contribution in the actualization of wind map of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellali, Farouk [Unit of Applied Research in Renewable Energy, B.P. 88 Gaarat Taam, Z I, 47000 Ghardaia (Algeria); Electrical Engineering Departments, Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, EL Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Khellaf, Adballah [Center of Development of Renewable Energies, Algiers (Algeria); Belouchrani, Adel [Electrical Engineering Departments, Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, EL Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Recioui, Abdelmadjid [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Boumerdes (Algeria)

    2011-02-15

    In the following work, we propose an assessment of wind potential in Algeria. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, to draw the attention to the important wind potential in the region of Hassi-R'mel anti v{approx}6m/s. In the previous maps, the wind potential in this region has been underestimated due the fact that it is located between two less windy regions. Second, the actualization of the wind map of Algeria using very recent data stretching from February 2004 to December 2009. This paper is structured in three main parts. First, a stochastic and the cyclic study of the wind behaviors in the site of Hassi-R'mel are proposed. The stochastic study is carried out by fitting the wind speed data to Weibull distribution while the cyclic study is carried out via the use of time-frequency analysis. We have used the time-frequency analyses instead of the traditional Fourier analysis due its ability to follow the spectrum variation with respect to time. As results, it has been found that spectrum wind process enfold many limited interval oscillations. In the second part, we propose to contribute to the actualisation of the wind map in Algeria. In this part, we have considered also the topographical aspect of Algeria. Such consideration is very helpful for understanding the wind potential reparation over the country. Finally, a techno-economical study of a stand along hybrid system (wind/diesel) in the site of Hassi-R'mel is considered. Via this study, it has been found that been found that the site of Hassi-R'mel is very adequate for wind energy conversion systems. (author)

  10. Examples of geomorphologic and geological hazards in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Machane, D.; Bouhadad, Y.; Cheikhlounis, G.; Chatelain, Jean-Luc; Oubaiche, E.H.; Abbes, K.; Guillier, Bertrand; Bensalem, R.

    2008-01-01

    We present three geomorphologic and geological phenomena that have occurred in Algeria in recent years: (i) the Bab El Oued mudflow on 11 November 2001, which claimed several hundred lives, (ii) a soil collapse induced by sand liquefaction triggered by the Boumerdes earthquake (M-w = 6.8) on 21 May 2003, and (iii) landslides that are threatening Constantine city, for which a hazard map is presented using a qualitative approach. We briefly describe and analyze these natural disasters, and in t...

  11. Pulviometric regime evolution in the North of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western Algeria has been experiencing drought since the middle of 1970's,which is characterized by severity and remarkable persistent of rainfalldeficit. The effects of this drought are also felt in the extreme east. Theaim of this study is to identify the variations of climate in order topredict and analyze their impact on water resources in future work. Theselected study area includes 15 basins of the North of Algeria. Rainfall datafrom 86 precipitation stations with low percentages of missing data were usedin this study. All of these station's data have been utilized at least overthe period 1930-1999/2000, on which the study focused. To explore rainfallvariability, long series of rainfall on annual, seasonal and monthly scaleswere subjected to statistical tests for detecting breaks in those series.Statistical methods used are U Buishand, the non-parametric test of Pettit,the procedure of Bayesian Lee and Heghinian and the procedure of segmentationof Pierre Hubert. The univariate analysis showed a change in the rainfallpattern in the western region since 1975. However, in the east of Algeria, nobreak was detected by the application of these methods. (author)

  12. Algeria 2002. Concluded; Algerie 2002. Suite et fin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-10-01

    While reinforcing its existing network of oil and gas pipelines, Algeria is launching three more projects of new international gas pipelines and wishes to become one of the main power suppliers of the European Union. The second part of this dossier about Algeria comprises several articles. The first article is the second part of the interview of C. Khelil, Minister of energy and mines and president of Sonatrach company, about the organisational changes and the international development of Sonatrach. The second article treats of the increase of Algeria's hydrocarbons transportation capacity proportionally to its ambitions of oil and gas production in the coming years. The third article presents the activities of Sonatrach (exploration-production, discoveries, partnerships, pipeline transport, liquefaction, refining and petrochemistry, exports, trading and shipping). The next articles present the activities of Sonatrach's daughter companies: Enac (pipelines construction), Naftec (refineries), Egzia (management of industrial infrastructures and networks), Enip (management, exploitation and development of petrochemical industries), Somik (LNG equipments and infrastructures), Egzik (management of the industrial security and safety of petrochemical infrastructures), Naftal (fuel commercialization and service stations), SNTM-Hyproc (LNG transport), JGC Corp (engineering), IAP (training) etc.. (J.S.)

  13. A Medium-Term Macroeconomic Strategy for Algeria : Sustaining Faster Growth with Economic and Social Stability, Volume 2. Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This study is part of a series of analytical works on Algeria prepared by the Bank, with the aim of laying out the framework, and facilitating the dialogue for elaborating the Bank's Country Assistance Strategy for Algeria. Companion studies include: "A Private Sector Development Strategy Note: A Diagnostic on Foreign Direct Investment in Algeria" (FIAS). This report is divided into three ...

  14. A Medium-Term Macroeconomic Strategy for Algeria : Sustaining Faster Growth with Economic and Social Stability, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This study is part of a series of analytical works on Algeria prepared by the Bank, with the aim of laying out the framework, and facilitating the dialogue for elaborating the Bank's Country Assistance Strategy for Algeria. Companion studies include: "A Private Sector Development Strategy Note: A Diagnostic on Foreign Direct Investment in Algeria" (FIAS). This report is divided into three ...

  15. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Algeria and I hereby waive this restriction....

  16. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Algeria and I hereby waive this restriction....

  17. 75 FR 14479 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Algeria, and I hereby waive...

  18. Teaching Morality and Religion in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria: Gender and the Civilising Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Historians have long presented France's "civilizing mission" within its colonies in secular terms ignoring women's presence as both actors and subjects. This is particularly true in Algeria where the colonial government's explicitly prohibited proselytism. This article emphasizes women's roles pursuing both secular and religious goals in Algeria.…

  19. Cancer estimation of incidence and survival in Algeria 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Cherif M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the major public health problems in Algeria. In the last 25 years, a significant increase in the incidence of the major types of cancers has been observed in both sexes. Moreover, the 5-year survival rate is low for the severe tumors due to a difficulty in access to cancer care and an incomplete health care framework. Cancer Registry of Setif, Algeria, has been recording cancer incidence, mortality, and survival since 1986 in collaboration with International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC of Lyon. Cancer Registry of Setif is being a source of information for cancer planning and corresponding surveillance in the National Cancer Plan 2015-2019, starting in January 2015. Data is recorded by means of CanReg 5 software. This software is developed and provided by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC of Lyon. It is designed specifically for cancer registration, and standardized to capture, control, and process the data. Estimation of cancer incidence in Algeria and survival rates are very important for surveillance, control, and planning of care. In men the incidence of lung, colorectal, bladder, prostate, and laryngeal cancers has significantly and steadily increased in the last decade. In women, the incidence of breast, colorectal, thyroid, and lung cancers has also increased significantly in the same period. Five-year survival rates for cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast, cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and childhood leukemia are relatively low compared with other countries. The aim of our study was to estimate incidence and survival by means of Setif cancer registry data.

  20. Health effects of chemical pollution: case-study in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of some biological parameters of workers in a factory producing chemical fertilizers ASMIDAL (Algeria), and of residents a nearby city (El Bouni) who are exposed to the smell of chemical pollution, shows modifications of these parameters in terms of contamination due to nitric derivatives. The rat ingestion of infra-lethal dose of ammonium nitrate produced by ASMIDAL provokes modifications which are similar to those found in the subjects studied in this work. These modifications are of main concern to the levels of hemoglobin, methemoglobin, erythrocytes, seric and urinary nitrates. In addition, modifications in the activity of the spleen and of the liver have been observed in the rat. (author)

  1. Incidence and severity of scorpion stings in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Y Laïd; Boutekdjiret, L.; R Oudjehane; Laraba-Djebari, F.; Hellal, H.; M Guerinik; Griene, L.; Alamir, B.; Merad, R.; Chippaux JP

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Maghreb region. In Algeria, epidemiological data were collected over the past twenty years by the Algerian health authorities. This study is an analysis of morbidity and mortality data collected from 2001 to 2010. Annual incidence and mortality due to scorpion envenoming were 152 +/- 3.6 stings and 0.236 +/- 0.041 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI), respectively. The risk of being stung by a scorpion was dramatically higher in southern areas ...

  2. The Optimal Level of International Reserves: The case of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Rahabi, Anys

    2010-01-01

    Algeria has seen a surge in its international reserves over the past few years. However, most of this growth is originated by the important increase in oil prices Algeria’s economy is widely dependent vis-à-vis hydrocarbon’s prices due to a low development and diversification of its economic activities. This economy is thus very exposed to external shocks and should prevent against bankruptcy and ensure sufficient equity to import goods and services during these adverse periods. In our study,...

  3. Neotectonic deformation model of the Northern Algeria from Paleomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derder, M. E. M.; Henry, B.; Maouche, S.; Amenna, M.; Bayou, B.; Djellit, H.; Ymel, H.; Gharbi, S.; Abtout, A.; Ayache, M.

    2012-04-01

    The seismic activity of the Western Mediterranean area is partly concentrated in northern Africa, particularly in northern Algeria, as it is shown by the strongest recent earthquakes of "Zemmouri" 21 May 2003 Mw=6.9 and the "El Asnam" 10 October 1980 Ms= 7.3. This seismicity is due to the tectonic activity related to the convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates since at least the Oligocene. The deformation is mostly compressional with associated folds, strike-slip faults and thrusts, and a direction of shortening between N-S and NNW-SSE. This convergence involves a tectonic transpression which is expressed by active deformation along the plate boundary. In northern Algeria, the seismicity is concentrated in a coastal E-W thin band zone (the Tell Atlas). Active structures define there NE-SW trending folds and NE-SW sinistral transpressive faults, which affect the intermountain and coastal Neogene to Quaternary sedimentary basins (e.g. " Cheliff "basin, " Mitidja "basin, …). These reverse faults are associated with NW-SE to E-W strike-slips deep faults. The active tectonics could be explained by a simple blocks rotation kinematics model. In order to test the validity of this kinematic model, three different paleomagnetic studies have been conducted. The first one concerned the "Cheliff" basin where sedimentary Neogene formations were extensively sampled (66 sites). The second study was carried out on Miocene andesite and dacite rocks cropping out along the northern coastal zone of the "Cheliff" basin ("Beni Haoua" area, 19 sites). The third study has been carried out on the Miocene magmatic rocks (rhyolites and basalts) cropping out north-eastern part of the "Mitidja" basin ("Cap Djinet" - "Boumerdes" area, 23 sites). The obtained results show existence of paleomagnetic clockwise rotations in all the studied areas and then validates the kinematics block rotation model. Accordingly, the deformation related to the convergence between the Africa and Eurasia

  4. [Targeting abattoirs to control cystic echinococcosis in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchikh ElFegoun, M C; Kohil, K; L'Ollivier, C; Lleu, M; Babelhadj, B; Piarroux, M; Gharbi, M; Piarroux, R

    2016-08-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important anthropozoonotic parasitic common in Algeria. The predominant life cycle of E. granulosus is a synanthropic cycle with domestic dogs as definitive hosts and livestock animals as intermediate hosts. Slaughter activity represents a potential source for dogs to access infected offal. The aim of the present study was to determine if the contact between dogs and potentially infected offal was possible in licensed abattoirs. Eighty-one private and public abattoirs located in eastern Algeria were assessed with respect to their level of protection against the intrusion of dogs.We have demonstrated that in 42 % of these abattoirs, dogs could easily come in contact with potentially parasitized offal. The most common incorrect practices were the dumping of offal freely into the environment, the feeding of dogs with offal, and the leaving of unattended offal in an unsealed chamber. Overall, some hazardous practices remained common customs of workers, and enough abattoirs remain non-compliant that the cattledog domestic cycle of CE is unlikely to be broken. Hence, some recommended measures to interrupt parasite transmission include the following: recognition of the importance of abattoirs in the maintenance of canine echinococcosis, the controlled and proper disposal of offal, the abolishment of the custom of feeding dogs with infected offal and improvements in the level of health education of abattoir staff. PMID:27251548

  5. Spain and the Promotion of Governance in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bustos García de Castro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the reasons why Spain which possesses a consolidated democratic regime continues to promote democracy and even good governance in certain countries in such an uncertain, ambiguous manner. Recent events, such as the impact of international terrorism, have meant that there is an even more urgent need for providing democratic assistance to the neighbouring countries of the Maghreb region. In spite of its initial limitations and slants,the very concept of governance would represent a non-intrusive promotion of democracy. Nevertheless, Spain’s actors in the field of foreign policy and cooperation with development (as the case of Algeria illustrates perfectly have been clearly reluctant to commit themselves to this course of action. Spain’s patent energy dependence on Algeria (a fact that is often put forward as the main explanatory reason is called into question, with an argument based not only on the evidence of Spanish action in other countries in regions (such as Tunisia and Latin America, but also in an analysis of the discourses and instruments of Spanish foreign policy. As an alternative explanation, it is suggested that practices that have long been used in Spain’s “Arab” foreign policy, the pending reform of the external service, the Europeisation of external action and the “second-player syndrome” (i.e. second to France, provide a better explanation ofSpain’s ambiguousness and of its slow abandonment of policies that favour the status quo.

  6. Ionizing radiations, underground world and nuclear tests in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, Allel

    2010-05-01

    Today, the exposure to ionizing radiations, is still a real great physical hazard in the world at various levels until the nuclear tests which led to a rich and lawful debate, and needs the installation of preventive rules through technical and medical aspects during the use of the radioactive sources, (theradioprotection). Concerning the occupational health, the pathology of the ionizing radiations is repaired under occupational disease. Our interest is to highlight this physical hazard, which represents an important chapter of the occupational pathology in its effects and prevention of the workers exposed in Algeria. The second aim of the paper is to highlight the historical aspect of the risk of ionizing radiations and consequences causes by the French nuclear tests in In Eker (underground galleries of the mountain of Hoggar in the south of Algeria in 1961), whose effects present a great damage on the health of the Algerian captive, and "workers", indigenous population and environment until now. This event deserves its place as much as that of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945).

  7. Rainfall estimation based on NAW approach using MSG-SEVIRI images: An application in north Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokdad, Fatiha; Haddad, Boualem

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we will adapt the NAW (Nagri, Adler and Wetzel) precipitation, estimation approach to the north Algeria events using the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite images. The tests are carried out on seven areas of northern Algeria: Sidi Bel Abbes, Oran Port, Algiers Port, Dar El Beida, Bedjaia, Jijel-Achouat and Annaba, in winter 2006. The NAW approach is applied by thresholding to temperature from 253 K. The validation is performed by comparaison the estimated rainfall to in ...

  8. Forecast future production of municipal waste on the basis of a panel data model in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Djemaci, Brahim

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the factors that influenced the production of municipal waste in Algeria. It carries an estimate of future quantities of waste on the basis of data from 48 departments from 1997 to 2008. We use econometric projection of the waste to determine the factors that influence the production of waste. The analysis shows that the production of municipal waste in Algeria is related to several factors: population density, the retail trade. The projection of future municipal waste amo...

  9. Predominance of CRF06_cpx and Transmitted HIV Resistance in Algeria: Update 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaziz, Akila; Papuchon, Jennifer; Khaled, Safia; Ouerdane, Dalila; Fleury, Hervé; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Since 2008, no data on HIV diversity or the transmission rate of HIV resistance mutations in naive patients have been presented for Algeria, a country of MENA region. Between 2013 and 2014, we studied 152 samples including 89 naive patients. The current study describes the change in HIV diversity in Algeria with the predominance of CRF06_cpx and the huge increase of transmitted HIV resistance, which now reaches 15%. PMID:26529365

  10. Algeria: 2009 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; and Public Information Notice

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews the Article IV Consultation with Algeria on economic developments and policies. Algeria has enjoyed several years of strong economic performance driven by public spending, but continues to face important challenges. Nonhydrocarbon (NH) growth and job creation are largely sustained by public spending, highlighting the pressing need to accelerate structural reforms to diversify the economy, letting a competitive and outward-oriented private sector emerge. Executive Directors...

  11. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L. IN BOUMERDES MOUNTAINOUS REGION (ALGERIA)

    OpenAIRE

    L. Bendifallah; A. E. Benmahfoud; Y. Hameni; S. Mameche

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia lentiscus L. (Pistaciaceae) is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. For this study, the leaves were collected from the mountainous region of Boumerdes, in northern Algeria. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Pistacia lentiscus as a medicinal herb. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against three pathogenic bacterial strains and...

  12. Courting the former colony:Algeria's special position in French Third World policy, 1963

    OpenAIRE

    Zia-Ebrahimi, Reza

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between France and Algeria in the immediate aftermath of Algerian independence. In 1963, Algeria repeatedly breached the Evian Accords, and continuously threatened France’s national interests. Yet, French policymakers accommodated Algeria’s reassertion and even rewarded it with a generous coopeération package. I will argue thatthis remarkable discrepancy was due to Gaullist France’s belief that association with its former colony would benefit its image a...

  13. Preparation Before Signature of Upgrade of Algeria Heavy Water Research Reactor Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Song; ZAN; Huai-qi; XU; Qi-guo; JIA; Yu-wen

    2012-01-01

    <正>Algeria heavy water research reactor (Birine) is a multiple-purpose research reactor, which was constructed with the help of China more than 20 years ago. By request of Algeria, China will upgrade the research reactor; so as to improve the status of current reactor such as equipment ageing, shortage of spare parts, several systems do not meet requirements of current standards and criteria etc.

  14. Descriptive Study of an Outbreak of Avian Urolithiasis in a Large Commercial Egg Complex in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hicham SID; Amine FETTAH; Abdelaziz LOUNAS

    2011-01-01

    Avian urolithiasis is one of the major causes of mortality in poultry. However, in Algeria this condition has never been described. An outbreak of avian urolithiasis was observed on a large commercial egg complex in the department of Chlef (West of Algeria). The clinical features of this condition are to be described. Mortality associated to urolithiasis started at the onset of egg production, estimated to 0.7 % per week. Urolithiasis induced an egg drop estimated to 12%. Dead and live layers...

  15. Analysis of drought areas in northern Algeria using Markov chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mourad Lazri; Soltane Ameur; Michel Brucker; Maurad Lahdir; Mounir Sehad

    2015-02-01

    The present work studies the trends in drought in northern Algeria. This region was marked by a severe, wide-ranging and persistent drought due to its extraordinary rainfall deficit. In this study, drought classes are identified using SPI (standardized precipitation index) values. A Markovian approach is adopted to discern the probabilistic behaviour of the time ser ies of the drought. Thus, a transition probability matrix is constructed from drought distribution maps. The trends in changes in drought types and the distribution area are analyzed. The results show that the probability of class severe/extreme drought increases considerably rising from the probability of 0.2650 in 2005 to a stable probability of 0.5756 in 2041.

  16. Adapting to climate change: water distribution in BBA City, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeroual, A.; Meddi, M.; Assani, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    For over 20 years, the eastern Algeria region has had significant rainfall deficits that resulted in severe droughts, which seriously affected the availability of water for drinking. Owing to considerations of affordability, drinking water is systematically underpriced because water is essential for life. Such a low price results in water being used inefficiently. This research presents the impact that a high leakage level in the water distribution network has on the water service price in BBA (Bordj Bou Arréridj) city and expected future water resources management scenarios in BBA watersheds by taking into account to the river flow simulated by GR2M using the outputs of climate models with emissions scenarios A1 and A1B. The analysis of the results shows a large economy can be made with regard to water losses, reaching up to 47% saving of the produced water volume; also, BBA city is expected to experience water stress before 2030.

  17. Urban Community, poverty and corruption: the case of Annaba, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadji KAHOUA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The population in the most Mediterranean countries, particularly in Algeria, is concentrated to the urban communities, cities with more or less importance, urban and coastal regions. This trend of rapid growth of the urban communities leads to multiple consequences both economically and socially on the use of resources and their distribution. The urban is the area where cross the resources, the population and the production activities and yours management. To analyze the corruption as a phenomenon triple (economic, social and institutional through an urban community (as Annaba’s case in this research it may well prove very fruitful in terms of lessons on this central phenomenon and its impacts in the North African countries.

  18. [Spread of Leishmania major to the north of Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrissa, A; Cherif, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Bouiba, L; Boubidi, S C; Benikhlef, R; Arrar, L; Hamrioui, B; Harrat, Z

    2012-02-01

    Since a long time, Leishmania major and L. infantum foci in Algeria were geographically separated by the mountains of the Tell Atlas which represent a natural barrier. Recently, a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has emerged in the village of El M'hir, located on the north side of the chain of the Tell Atlas, in the basin of the Soummam. During the period 2004-2010, 152 CL cases have been registered and 12 isolates were obtained from patients who declared never having been outside the village the last years. The identification of the parasites showed that all strains belonged to L major MON-25. Investigations on the reservoir hosts showed the presence of the sand rat (Psammomys obesus), for the first time, in this locality. Five strains isolated from this rodent belonged to L. major MON-25. The sand rat, which is usually observed around the chotts in the Saharan and steppe areas, acts as the main reservoir of L. major in Algeria. Its presence in the new focus of El M'hir is reported for the first time. Entomological surveys carried out in 2009 showed the predominance of two sandfly species: Phlebotomus papatasi and P. perniciosus. The first one is known as a vector of L major in the Algerian Sahara. This study highlights the spread of L. major from the arid zones towards the semi arid areas, particularly in the Soummam valley. Climate changes and desertification observed in the steppe area northern Sahara could play a role in the extension of the disease. PMID:22170408

  19. Algeria: A Study of the Educational System of Algeria and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, David W.

    Written as a guide to be used in the admission and placement of Algerian students in U.S. institutions of higher education, this study discusses the educational system of Algeria. The organization of Algerian education is summarized. Information is provided on preschool and primary education, middle school education, secondary education,…

  20. An Exploration of Foreign Language Teachers' Beliefs about Curriculum Innovation in Algeria: A Socio-Political Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellalem, Fouzi

    2008-01-01

    Recent political and economic developments in Algeria have brought about reforms of the educational system. A new curriculum was introduced as part of these reforms. This study explores the beliefs of French and English school teachers about curriculum innovation in Algeria. The study is positioned in the qualitative research tradition and looks…

  1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE PRODUCTION OF SOLAR HYDROGEN IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bendaikha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. In this study hydrogen is produced using a hydrogen generator with a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM electrolyser. An experimental study is done in the Center of Development of the Renewable Energy, Algiers, Algeria.The experimental device contains essentially a photovoltaic module, a PEM electrolyser, a gasometer and the devices of measures of characteristics of the PEM electrolyser as well as two pyranometers for the horizontal and diffuse global radiance registration. This system in pilots scale is permitted on the one hand, to measured and analyzed the characteristics: of the PEM electrolyser for two different pressures of working (Patm and P=3 bar, on the other hand, to study the volume of hydrogen produces in the time with different sources of electrical power (generator, photovoltaic module, fluorescent lamp, the efficiency for every case is calculated and compared. We present in this paper the variation of the solar hydrogen flow rate produced according to the global radiance and according to the time for a typical day’s of August.

  2. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria: First report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennoune, Omar; Adili, Nezar; Amri, Khaled; Bennecib, Lakhdar; Ayachi, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission. PMID:25568684

  3. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius in Algeria: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bennoune

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission.

  4. Trace element content of medicinal plants from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol, Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Mg, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn have been determined by short, and long irradiation times with a thermal and epithermal flux of 1.4 x 1012 n x cm-2 x s-1 and 1.4 x 1011 n x cm-2 x s-1, respectively. These analyses were performed in conjunction with Compton suppression. In almost herbs studied the Co, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sb , Sc, Se and V are found to be present at trace levels, Br, Mn, and Zn at the minor level, and Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg and Na are generally at the major level. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing NISTbotanical references materials. (author)

  5. Incidence and severity of scorpion stings in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Laïd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Maghreb region. In Algeria, epidemiological data were collected over the past twenty years by the Algerian health authorities. This study is an analysis of morbidity and mortality data collected from 2001 to 2010. Annual incidence and mortality due to scorpion envenoming were 152 ± 3.6 stings and 0.236 ± 0.041 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI, respectively. The risk of being stung by a scorpion was dramatically higher in southern areas and central highlands due to environmental conditions. Incidence of envenoming was especially higher in the adult population, and among young males. In contrast, mortality was significantly higher among children under 15 years, particularly ages 1-4. Upper limbs were more often affected than lower limbs. Most stings occurred at night, indoors and during the summer. Data collected since 2001 showed a reduction of mortality by nearly 50%, suggesting that the medical care defined by the national anti-scorpion project is bearing fruit.

  6. The 2003 Boumerdes, Algeria earthquake: Regional moment tensor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunmiller, Jochen; Bernardi, Fabrizio

    2005-03-01

    We used regional broadband seismograms to determine seismic moment tensors for the destructive May 21, 2003 Boumerdes (Algeria) Mw = 7.0 earthquake and its larger aftershocks. Fully automatic inversions using near-real time data provided solutions for seven Mw >= 4.7 events within 90 minutes after event occurrence. After adding off-line data, we manually obtained 30 solutions (Mw >= 3.8) from May 2003 to January 2004. All have shallow source depths (6-21 km). The median P-axis orientation (338°) of 24 thrust and four strike-slip events is consistent with Africa-Eurasia plate motion (330°). The main shock hypocenter at 8-10 km depth at the coastline and its shallow southward dip (25° +/- 5°) puts the fault surface trace 15-20 km offshore, consistent with documented seafloor deformation at the base of the continental slope. A main shock rupture length of about 50 km is deduced from first day aftershocks and location of strike-slip events. The strike-slip events probably define the western rupture end and indicate a left-step of main convergence. Fault strike variability of thrust events suggests fault orientation changes and possibly fault segmentation.

  7. Sandstorms as indicators of Land degradation in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirche, azziz; Oukil, youcef; Boughani, madjid; Nedjraoui, dalila; Salamani, mostefa

    2013-04-01

    : Land degradation, is an important environmental issue in arid lands, especially in Algeria's high plateaus. The Algerian steppes, the most widespread rangelands in the North African countries, occupy a pivotal position between the north, hilly and humid (called the tell), with a limited area (approximately 5%) and the south, the Sahara, which represents the largest area of the country (approximately 86%) and the largest desert of the planet .The main vegetation units constituted by Stipa tenacissima a key species , constituted 2/3 of the landscape in 1978 and occupies in 2012 only 1/10. The vegetation cover reached 40% in the seventies and is generally less than 10% nowadays. The increase of both population and livestock leads to a high pressure on this fragile ecosystems aggravated by the huge drought in the eighties (1980-1988). It results a tremendous soil degradation and sand encroachment. This study emphasizes on the correlation between the desertification steps and the occurrence of sandstorms. It appears that a high correlation is observed and reflect perfectly the land degradation . The recent decrease of sand storms, after a decennium, shows a re-greening, that must be distinguished of an absence of desertification. It appears that sandstorms , could be an interesting indicator, to monitor land degradation.

  8. Large branchiopods (Branchiopoda: Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata from the salt lakes of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudjéma SAMRAOUI

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of large branchiopods (Crustacea, Branchiopoda of the major salt lakes of Algeria, particularly those of the eastern Hauts Plateaux. The aim of the survey was to complement a previous survey that focused on the freshwater habitats of Numidia, northeast Algeria. The study revealed 8 species, with one taxon new to Algeria and North Africa (Chirocephalus salinus. Data on the status, phenology and habitats of collected and previously known species are presented for 19 taxa. The distribution of many species has been greatly extended and the co-occurrence of Artemia tunisiana and Branchinella spinosa has been recorded. The studied salt lakes, owing to a large production of fairy shrimps, support a great number of wintering and breeding waterbirds, but are subject to increasing human pressure.

  9. DETECTION OF PAENIBACILLUS LARVAE SPORES IN HONEY SAMPLES FROM BEEKEEPERS OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjlane Noureddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The American foulbrood in one of the most serious diseases that may affect brood of larvae and pupae stages, which cause economic losses and biological hazards in a large beekeeping sector in several countries across the world in general and Algeria in particular. The causative agent of this disease is a bacterium called Paenibacillus larvae that target bees Apis mellifera the latter are often present in honey.The aim of this project is studying the spread of this disease in the northern region of Algeria through the analysis of honey obtained from these areas. Microbiological, microscopic and biochemical methods were used in this study. The results obtained have shown that the prevalence rate varies from region to region, several factors may explain this variation in the prevalence of the disease. The average infection rate for all regions is 32%. To prevent the spread of this disease in Algeria must be taken is mandatory and means of prevention into account.

  10. Algeria as Postcolony? Rethinking the Colonial Legacy of Post-Structuralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriam Haleh Davis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is little doubt that Algeria was of enormous importance to the theoretical output that is often recognized as French, here I would like to ask: what is at stake in re-inscribing these French intellectuals as postcolonial? In what ways did the particularities of Algerian history impact French philosophy? Indeed, if the term postcolonial is meant to describe those who were influenced by events in Algeria, then an entire generation of French thinkers might be considered postcolonial to varying degrees. Surely Derrida’s oeuvre was influenced by his experiences in Algeria, but does this make him postcolonial in the same way as Jean-Paul Sartre or Pierre Bourideu, who have also become important figures in postcolonial theory? 

  11. MAXIMUM RUNOFF OF THE FLOOD ON WADIS OF NORTHERN PART OF ALGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ladjel; E.D. Gopchenko; V.A. Ovcharuk

    2014-01-01

    Wadis of Algeria are characterized by a very irregular hydrological regime. The question of estimating the maximum flow of wadis is relevant. We propose in this paper a method based on an interpretation of the transformation of surface runoff in streamflow. The technique of account the maximal runoff of flood for the rivers of  northern part of Algeria based on the theory of channel isochrones is offered.The realization of this method is performed on the basis of hydrometeorological data stan...

  12. Descriptive Study of an Outbreak of Avian Urolithiasis in a Large Commercial Egg Complex in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham SID

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian urolithiasis is one of the major causes of mortality in poultry. However, in Algeria this condition has never been described. An outbreak of avian urolithiasis was observed on a large commercial egg complex in the department of Chlef (West of Algeria. The clinical features of this condition are to be described. Mortality associated to urolithiasis started at the onset of egg production, estimated to 0.7 % per week. Urolithiasis induced an egg drop estimated to 12%. Dead and live layers were both necropsied and examined for kidney lesions. Most of the birds examined presented enlarged ureters, renal atrophy and visceral gout deposition.

  13. Kamikazes: youth serving youth in a dangerous climate. Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gataa, R

    1995-01-01

    The Algerian Family Planning Association (FPA) launched its youth project in July 1993 in Oran. The first project of its kind in the Arab world, members call themselves Kamikazes in recognition of the hostile climate they face. The project's goal was to deal with social, cultural, and health problems. They also designed the project's logo, a cartoon booklet on the dangers of AIDS, and a T-shirt for members to wear. They based their activities in the local government-run information center. Between 15 and 25 years old, from a wide variety of social backgrounds, the young people drew up a list of common problems: drugs, alcohol, smoking, relationships with the opposite sex, abortion, contraception, sex education, AIDS, homosexuality, unemployment, the lack of clubs for young people, delinquency, lack of communication between parents and children, the repression of women, the lack of popular entertainment for young people, and the shortage of books. This project now is to be extended to Algiers and other cities. Over an 8-month period, the committee received instruction in contraception and combatting drug addition, participated in a workshop on empowerment and self esteem, and were trained in role-playing techniques. In their first 18 months of existence, the Kamikazes in Oran have succeeded in involving over 1000 of their peers. They have had particular success in reaching teenagers in secondary schools. One of the most valuable aspects of the project has been the sessions held with gynecologists and psychologists on sexual development, relationships between the sexes, and the avoidance of unwanted pregnancies, abortion, and sexually transmitted diseases. The success of the Oran Kamikaze project bodes well for the extension of the project to other parts of Algeria and indeed to some other countries of the Arab world. PMID:12319368

  14. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Oued Mya basin, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamrane, O.; Messaoudi, M.; Messelles, H. (Sonatrach Division Exploration, Algiers (Algeria))

    1993-09-01

    The Oued Mya hydrocarbon system is located in the Sahara basin. It is one of the best producing basins in Algeria, along with the Ghadames and Illizi basins. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and is about 5000 m thick. This intracratonic basin is limited to the north by the Toughourt saddle, and to the west and east it is flanked by regional arches, Allal-Tilghemt and Amguid-Hassi Messaoud, which culminate in the super giant Hassi Messaoud and Hassi R'mel hydrocarbon accumulations, respectively, producing oil from the Cambrian sands and gas from the Trissic sands. The primary source rock in this basin is lower Silurian shale, with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic carbon of 6% (14% in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also source rocks, but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Trissic sequence, which is mainly fluvial deposits with complex alluvial channels, and the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs in the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential east of the basin through a southwest-northwest orientation. The Late Trissic-Early Jurassic evaporites that overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya basin, are considered to be a super-seal evaporite package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column. This super seal does not present oil dismigration possibilities. We can infer that a large amount of the oil generated by the Silurian source rock from the beginning of Cretaceous until now still is not discovered and significantly greater volumes could be trapped within structure closures and mixed or stratigraphic traps related to the fluvial Triassic sandstones, marine Devonian sands, and Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  15. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria

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    Farida Chentli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? Materials and Methods: To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients′ opinions. Results and Conclusion : At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women′s lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous

  16. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 2, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for an annotated bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia cover topics such as the philosophy and theory of education, educational organization, adult education, teacher…

  17. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 8, Number 1, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated bibliography contains 100 English-language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational topics of interest to North Africans. The majority of the items cited were published in 1974. Citations are categorized by country: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Within these major categories are subtopics…

  18. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 4, Number 1, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1969 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  19. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 2, Numbers 1, 2, 3, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Three volumes comprise a 375-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English, French, Italian, and Arabic that provides information on various aspects of education in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and foreign language titles are…

  20. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4 No. 3, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    This report, part of a series of educational bibliographies from the Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) and Libya, consists of excerpts from periodicals published in those countries. Each entry is marked to indicate the particular country. The articles are organized under 13 major subjects that include: the structure of educational…

  1. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  2. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 4, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French dating from 1953 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational and higher education;…

  3. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 1, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 130-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English and French provides information on various aspects of education (many of them language-related) in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and French titles are translated into English.…

  4. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 4, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Ninety-one English language annotations are presented of newspaper articles and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Most of the entries were published during the period October-December 1976. Organized by country, the references cover topics of philosophy and theory of education, teacher training,…

  5. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 1, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for a bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia are preceded by a section on the Maghreb which deals with the special problems of illiteracy, multilingualism, and rapid…

  6. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Numbers 2, 3, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A two volume, 200-item bibliography with English abstracts of books and articles in English and French dating from 1957 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and higher education; and…

  7. Selected Bibliography of Materials; Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 1, Number 2, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A bibliography with abstracts of 106 items from books and articles covers materials on education in the Maghreb countries of Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, and Morocco. Special emphasis is given to the two problems besetting the area's educational system: illiteracy and multilingualism. The entries cover philosophy and theory of education,…

  8. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 1 No. 3 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated compilation of 108 educational publications in Arabic, French, and English includes texts and data on elementary and secondary school curricula in the Maghreb countries (Tunisia, Morroco, Algeria, and Libya). Categories in this bibliography include--(1) Philosophy and Theory of Education, (2) Administration of the Educational…

  9. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 3, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents 91 English language annotations of newspaper articles, journals, and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Although the title also includes Maghreb, this issue does not contain any annotations for that country. All articles were published during the period July-September 1975.…

  10. Difficulty in transforming the savings into investment in Algeria or the regulation in question

    OpenAIRE

    Bellal, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic History of Algeria reveals a blocking of the transformation of the savings into investment. Beyond the conventional diagnosis that involves the failure of the banking system, this blocking is the macroeconomic expression of a deep crisis of the mode of regulation of the economy as a whole. This is the idea that we propose, in what follows, to support.

  11. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte;

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....

  12. (InEdible Algeria: Transmitting Pied-Noir Nostalgia Through Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Hubbell

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For those exiled from Algeria during and after the Algerian War for Independence (1954-1962, sustaining memories of the homeland has been a consuming pastime. Food has especially played a large part in reconnecting Algeria’s former French citizens, the Pieds-Noirs, to their past. Annual gatherings feature typical dishes such as couscous, merguez, méchoui, mouna, which like the Proustian madeleine, transport the Pieds-Noirs to a preceding time of wholeness and comfort, allowing them to experience, if only fleetingly, a sense of immortality. While food has a reparative quality for the community’s memory, it is also the site of rejection and pain for some. Marie Cardinal writes about food as a site of unity with the indigenous Algerian community and rejection from her colonial French family. Similarly, in the collective autobiography Quatre soeurs: Hier, en Algérie, aujourd’hui en France, Frédérique Boblin, Eve Calo, Nelly Collet and Fabienne Rozotte explain their shared eating disorders as tied to their expulsion from Algeria. This essay demonstrates that the Pieds-Noirs can eat to remember Algeria, but the Algeria they knew can also prove to be inedible.

  13. Algeria's Army, Algeria's Agony

    OpenAIRE

    Addi, Lahouari

    1998-01-01

    L'Etat en Algérie n'est pas dirigé par des élites représentatives de la population. Les responsables aux principaux postes de responsabilité sont désignés par l'armée qui craint que l'Etat n'échappe à son contrôle.

  14. Identifying Important Plants Areas (Key Biodiversity Areas for Plants in northern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yahi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken in 2010 to identify Important Plant Areas (Key Biodiversity Areas for Plants in the south and east Mediterranean region, in order to prioritise the best sites for plant conservation action. It follows a first work of identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs initiated for Algeria and relates exclusively to the flora of northern Algeria. These IPAs were delineated in northern Algeria for those sites harbouring a number of “IPA selection species” (threatened species and locally endemic or restricted range. Recent taxonomic revisions estimate the number of national endemics for the north of Algeria (excluding the Sahara to be over 300 taxa. In the present study, data were extracted from the global list of 22 IPAs identified for the north of Algeria. The species considered are i threatened species as defined by the 1997 IUCN global red list of plants, ii locally endemic species, iii nationally threatened species. Trigger species, identified by combining the criteria of endemism and rarity, are mainly Algerian national endemics but also include some Algerian-Moroccan and Algerian-Tunisian endemics. One hundred and fifty two (152 trigger species were identified and these species, which have high ecological value, can be used to characterize the particular floristic interest of a site and can therefore be a useful tool for conservation purposes. Important gaps in knowledge have been highlighted, in particular those relating to taxonomy and the lack of up-to-date field data. It is therefore essential to undertake in situ research in order to better understand the distribution and status of these species. A flexible approach to identifying and recognising priority sites for plants using surrogate criteria, supplemented by expert opinion, alongside existing globally standardised criteria, is therefore essential if the most important sites for plant diversity are to receive the conservation attention they deserve.

  15. Chemical constituents in the essential oil of the endemic plantCotula cinerea (Del.) from the southwest of Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Djellouli; Houcine Benmehdi; Siham Mammeri; Abdellah Moussaoui; Laid Ziane; Noureddine Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To extract and identify the main constituents of the essential oil ofCotula cinerea (Del.) (Asteraceae family) from southwest of Algeria. Methods: The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, from the aerial parts of the endemic plantCotula cinerea which was collected in the region of Sahara fromsouthwest of Algeria, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 33 compounds were identified representing 98.66% of the oil. The main compounds were (E)-citral (24.01%), limonene epoxide cis- (18.26%), thymol methyl ether (15.04%), carvacrol (15.03%), trans-carveol (13.79%), carvone (3.06%) and trans-piperitol (2.54%). Conclusions: The main constituents in essential oil of the aerial part of the plant from southwest of Algeria were different from that collected from southeast of Algeria or in Morocco.

  16. Co-opting identity: the manipulation of Berberism, the frustration of democratisation, and the generation of violence in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Hugh

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to explore one of the political premises of the current violence in Algeria, namely the character of the identity politics which has developed in the Berberophone Kabylia region of the country, which was the theater of the most sustained riots in Algeria's history. A secondary, theoretical, purpose is to demonstrate and establish the analytical value of the concepts of forms of politics and political mutation.

  17. Detection of Bartonella tamiae, Coxiella burnetii and rickettsiae in arthropods and tissues from wild and domestic animals in northeastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Leulmi, Hamza; Aouadi, Atef; Bitam, Idir; Bessas, Amina; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, the scope and importance of emergent vector-borne diseases has increased dramatically. In Algeria, only limited information is currently available concerning the presence and prevalence of these zoonotic diseases. For this reason, we conducted a survey of hematophagous ectoparasites of domestic mammals and/or spleens of wild animals in El Tarf and Souk Ahras, Algeria. Methods Using real-time PCR, standard PCR and sequencing, the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickett...

  18. Nematodes parasitizing Trachurus trachurus (L.) and Boops boops (L.) from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichalal, Keltoum; Ramdane, Zouhir; Ider, Djamila; Kacher, Mohammed; Iguerouada, Mokrane; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Courcot, Luci; Amara, Rachid

    2015-11-01

    A total of 455 Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) and 953 Trachurus trachurus Linnaeus, 1758 from the east coast of Algeria were examined for their parasitic Nematoda. Two hundred ninety-five specimens of larval stages L3 and L4 were collected from the peritoneal cavity of these two examined fishes. Photonic and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) studies were performed on these larvae specimens in order to characterize their morphology. Two different species of Nematoda (Anisikidae) were identified: Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802). These two parasitic species were reported for the first time on T. trachurus and B. boops from the eastern coast of Algeria. These parasites were attached on different organs in the abdominal cavity (particularly on ovaries and testes). The infestation rate changed according to the month and the host size. The parasitism did not show a significant negative impact on the condition of the examined fishes. PMID:26220559

  19. Meningoencephalitis due to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri in ruminants in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterki, Mohamed Seghir; Ayachi, Ammar; Bennoune, Omar; Régoudis, Estelle; Pélandakis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection in most cases, caused by the amoeba flagellate Naegleria fowleri. This report describes the first cases of PAM in Algeria, in a cow and a ewe from Batna, north-eastern Algeria. The death of both ruminants occurred a week after the first clinical manifestations. The cerebrospinal fluid, after staining with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, showed the presence of amoebae cells. Histological sections revealed numerous amoebae in all parts of the brain. The presence of N. fowleri was confirmed using a species-specific real-time PCR in histological tissue sections. The two PAM cases were reported during the hot season, and the source of infection is very likely the water where the cattle came to drink. Particular attention should be focused on this type of infection in aquatic environments when the temperature is high and preventive measures must be taken to avoid the proliferation of N. fowleri. PMID:26979770

  20. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L. IN BOUMERDES MOUNTAINOUS REGION (ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bendifallah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia lentiscus L. (Pistaciaceae is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. For this study, the leaves were collected from the mountainous region of Boumerdes, in northern Algeria. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Pistacia lentiscus as a medicinal herb. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against three pathogenic bacterial strains and one pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in leucoanthocyanins, in glucosids, alcaloids, flavonoïds and in saponosids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against some species.

  1. Performances and failure of field-aged PV modules operating in Saharan region of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, M.; Benyoucef, B.; Othmani, M.; Mehdaoui, A.

    2016-07-01

    This article deals with behaviour of PV modules, of different technologies and manufacturers, exposed for long periods in Saharan region of Algeria. These modules are exposed in Adrar in the south-western part of Algeria. The study uses experimental I-V curves of PV modules for determining their performances. The datasheet information of modules will be useful in determination of degradation rates of the modules. Three types of modules have been tested: Photowatt (PWX 500), UDTS-50 and Isofoton (I-75 and I-100 serials). Results showed that Isofoton I-100 modules present the highest degradation rate while the lowest degradation rate was reached with I-75 serial. However, these rates tallies with other studies. The visual inspection of the modules has revealed various kinds of failures and defects responsible of performances drop (EVA browning, delamination, burn marks,…).

  2. Decision support for sustainable urban drainage system management: a case study of Jijel, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzerra, Abbas; Cherrared, Marzouk; Chocat, Bernard; Cherqui, Frédéric; Zekiouk, Tarik

    2012-06-30

    This paper aims to develop a methodology to support the sustainable management of Urban Drainage Systems (UDSs) in Algeria. This research is motivated by the various difficulties that the National Sanitation Office (ONA) has in managing this complex infrastructure. The method mainly consists of two approaches: the top-down approach and the bottom-up approach. The former facilitates the identification of factors related to a sustainable UDS, the development priorities and the criteria available to managers. The latter assesses UDS performance using the weighted sum method to aggregate indicators or criteria weighted using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The method is demonstrated through its application to the UDS in the city of Jijel, Algeria. PMID:22387329

  3. Incidence of Avian Mycoplasmosis in the region of Batna, Eastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian mycoplasmosis is infectious and contagious disease which affects chicken and turkey as well as many other species with many economics losses. The absence of data on avian mycoplasmosis in Algeria and the importance of the poultry breeding in Batna encouraged us to undertake the prevalence of the most pathogenic mycoplasmas in broiler and layer chickens in this area, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG. 143 Mycoplasmas were isolate from 237 samples, at a rate of 60.33%. MG was isolate at a rate of 21.67% (2.09% in layer hens and 19.58% in broiler chickens. The serological screening using of breedings showed a sensitivity of 83.10%. This study shows that mycoplasmosis and in particular MG infection, represent a serious problem in chickens in Algeria in the absence of hygiene conditions and vaccination especially. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 101-105

  4. Impact of urban and industrial effluents on the coastal marine environment in Oran, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, A; Chellali, M R; Hamou, A; Debbah, S

    2015-09-15

    In Algeria most of the urban waste water is dumped without treatment into the Sea. It is tremendously important to assess the consequences of organic matter rich sewage on marine ecosystem. In this study we investigated the effects of industrial and urban sewage on the dissolved oxygen (O2), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demands (BOD5), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), Metal element (Hg, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd), petroleum hydrocarbons (HC), oil and grease (OG) in Bay of Oran, Algeria. A ten-year follow-up research showed that the concentrations of oil and grease released into the bionetwork are of higher ecological impact and this needs to be given the desired consideration. Information on bathing water quality revealed that the most beaches in Oran are under the national environmental standard limit. PMID:26164780

  5. Study physico-chemical of the sand of the western ERG (Western South Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, M.; Tafraoui, A. [Faculty of sciences and technology, University of Bechar (Algeria)], email: allammessaouda@yahoo.fr

    2011-07-01

    Silica is gaining increasing importance as it is the base for the production of pure silicon, for which several applications are under development in the electronic and solar energy sectors. The aim of this study is to characterize the sand taken from the Western Erg of Algeria to determine the percentage of silicon it contains. Characterization was done through physical analysis to determine the granulometry of the sand. A chemical analysis was next performed, using diffraction of X-rays and a scanning electron microscope to determine the chemical composition of the sand. Results showed that the sand is mainly made of quartz in the form of rounded and subbarrondis grains and that silicon is prevalent, accounting for 98% of the composition. This study demonstrated that sand from the Western Erg of Algeria is rich in silicon and could be used for silicon production.

  6. Clinical cytohistopathological study of benign thyroid disease in Sidi Bel Abbes region, Western Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Achwak F Bendouida; Nouria Harir; Mustapha Diaf; Lahcen Belhandouze; Feriel Sellam; Soraya Moulessehoul; Aicha Rih

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Benign thyroid disease is the most common disorder of the endocrine system. Our study aimed to analyze the clinical and cytohistological diagnosis of benign thyroid disease in western Algeria (Sidi Bel Abbes region) as well as define the characteristics of this pathology. Patients and methods This was an epidemiological retrospective descriptive study of patients with benign thyroid disease, performed at the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Dr Hassa...

  7. Recent changes in climate, hydrology and sediment load in the Wadi Abd, Algeria (1970–2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Achite, M.; Ouillon, S

    2015-01-01

    Here we investigate the changes of temperature, precipitation, river runoff and sediment transport in the Wadi Abd in NW Algeria over a time series of 40 hydrological years (1970–2010). Temperature increased and precipitation decreased with the reduction in rainfall being relatively higher during the rainy season. A shift towards an earlier onset of first rains during summer was also found with cascading effects on hydrology (hydrological regimes, vegetation etc) and thus on erosion ...

  8. Recent changes in climate, hydrology and sediment load in the Wadi Abd, Algeria (1970–2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Achite, Mohammed; Ouillon, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Here we investigate the changes of temperature, precipitation, river runoff and sediment transport in the Wadi Abd in northwest Algeria over a time series of 40 hydrological years (1970–2010). Temperature increased and precipitation decreased with the reduction in rainfall being relatively higher during the rainy season. A shift towards an earlier onset of first rains during summer was also found with cascading effects on hydrology (hydrological regimes, vegetation, et...

  9. Difficulty in transforming the savings into investment in Algeria or the regulation in question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir BELLAL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent economic History of Algeria reveals a blocking of the transformation of the savings into investment. Beyond the conventional diagnosis that involves the failure of the banking system, this blocking is the macroeconomic expression of a deep crisis of the mode of regulation of the economy as a whole. This is the idea that we propose, in what follows, to support.

  10. Traditional use of medicinal plants in a city at steppic character (M’sila, Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Madani Sarri; Fatima Zahra Mouyet; Meriem Benziane; Amina Cheriet

    2014-01-01

    Context: M’sila city occupies a privileged position in the central part of northern Algeria. The climate of this area is continental, subject in part to the Saharan influences of which vegetation is steppic. Aims: Highlight traditional usage of plants despite environmental characteristics. Methods: An ethnobotanical survey in the city of M’sila was conducted during the period 2011-2012 in collaboration with traditional practitioners, herbalists and healers. A total of 85 adults were abl...

  11. Perspectives of sea water desalination in Algeria. The Oran desalination project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of the water resources, requirements and supplies in Algeria, with emphasis placed on Oran and its surrounding area. Large quantities of water are required in many regions of the country, mainly for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes. The growth in population and in industrial and agricultural development has created an ever increasing need for potable water, which cannot be covered by Algeria's natural water resources. In the past, the specific cost of product water, the capital investment cost and the competitiveness of interregional water transfers have been the main barriers to implementing any large scale desalination programme to counteract the approaching water crisis in Algeria. To face the water deficit situation, Algeria has decided to carry out feasibility studies within the framework of a planned sea water desalination programme based on a desalination potential estimated to be as high as 600,000 m3/d for the northern coast by the year 2005. A description is given of the Oran area from the point of view of its geographical location, meteorology, rainfall, sea water quality, water demand, availability or lack of resources, and the daily water requirements. This information is given in terms of current data and forecasts up to the year 2020 for the entire Oran area. The capacity of the desalination plant was calculated to be the difference (which cannot be satisfied by dams, drilling, water transfers, water springs and other natural resources) between the available resources and the demand in the year 1997. Of the nine coastal locations in the Oran area identified as being possible candidate sites for the desalination plant, Bethioua (Port-aux-Poules) was selected as the reference site, and a complete feasibility study was carried out. Some of the output data related to this feasibility study are presented, including the criteria that led to the selection of MSF technology as the suitable desalination process. (author)

  12. Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Houria Chettibi; Noureddine Bouzerna; Boutefnouchet Nafissa

    2005-01-01

    The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, s...

  13. Farming transitions under socioeconomic and climatic constraints in the southern part of Sétif, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Amar Rouabhi; Abdelhamid Mekhlouf; Sihem Mokhneche; Nawel Elkolli

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on a sample of 224 farms in the southern region of Sétif-Algeria, aimed to identify the different typologies and the agricultural changes caused by the climatic constrains experienced in recent decades. Indeed, the combined effect of climatic and anthropogenic factors on agricultural practices transitions is too tangled. A series of multivariate and classification statistical tests have been implemented to demonstrate the main trends and adaptation tactics of farme...

  14. Comparative analysis of the Gran Dolina-TD6 (Spain) and Tighennif (Algeria) hominin mandibles

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez de Castro, J.-M.; Martinón-Torres, M.; Gómez-Robles, A.; Prado, L.; Sarmiento, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative study of the Tighennif (Algeria) and Gran Dolina-TD6 (Spain) hominin mandibles, which represent two geographically near and contemporaneous populations separated by the Mediterranean sea, in order to test the hypothesis that these populations belong to the same evolutionary lineage, as it has been suggested by some authors. The Tighennif mandibles show a clear primitive structural pattern, derived in some features with regard to the oldest Homo specimens from H. habil...

  15. Impact of Mercury Mine Activities on Water Resources at Azzaba-North-East of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fadila Alligui; Abdelhak Boutaleb

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Mercury mineralization occurred in Azzaba (north-eastern Algeria) as a part of mercurial Numidian belt, consists of numerous of Hg deposits (Koudiat Sma, Mrasma, Guenicha, Fendek, Ismail and Ras Elma). These deposits are hosted in a variety of lithologies including sandstone, limestone, breccias and conglomerate. The ores occur as cinnabar deposits in Ypresian-Lutetian formations. Although the quantity and type of information relating to mining oper...

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats of Batna area (Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Nabil Alloui,; Jaroslaw Kaba; Nadir Alloui

    2011-01-01

    An epidemiologic investigation of caseous lymphadenitis of the small ruminants (23 herds) was carried out in the Batna area (Algeria). The disease prevalence at the sheep and the goat was 8.9 and 1.6% respectively. This disease was more frequent in the adults. Clinically, the disease did not affect the animal’s general state. The internal disease form was not observed in 38 carcasses. The risk factors in the appearance of the disease were: bad hygiene, the precar...

  17. The ammonoids from the Argiles de Teguentour of Oued Temertasset (early Late Tournaisian; Mouydir, Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, D; Bockwinkel, J.; V. Ebbighausen

    2010-01-01

    The ammonoids from the Teguentour Shales (Tournaisian, Early Carboniferous) of Oued Temertasset (Mouydir, Algeria) are described monographically. The following new ammonoid taxa are introduced: Imitoceras dimidium n. sp., Imitoceras strictum n. sp., Triimitoceras tantulum n. sp., Acrocanites disparilis n. sp., Jdaidites cultellus n. sp., Pericyclus tortuosus n. sp., Pericyclus circulus n. sp., Pericyclus trochus n. sp., Pericyclus intercisus n. sp., Nodopericyclus n. gen., Nodopericyclus circ...

  18. Recovery process of the mineral sphalerite of Chaabet El Hamra’s deposit (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeghlal M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study rests on the treatment’s process optimization by flotation of the Chaabet El Hamra’s zinc ore (Algeria, for the optimization parameters relating to the production. The choice of parameter to optimize for flotation, and the arrangements and the scheme’s initial flotation, while considering the studies already undertaken, all this has enabled us to better focus our work, while minimizing the consumption of reagents in different tests, This has resulted in successful outcomes.

  19. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Radhwane Saidi; Djamel Khelef; Rachid Kaidi

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed ​​Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showe...

  20. Total Petroleum Systems of the Illizi Province, Algeria and Libya—Tanezzuft-Illizi

    OpenAIRE

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within a total petroleum system of the Illizi Province (2056) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Illizi Province is in eastern Algeria and a small portion of western Libya. The province and its total petroleum system coincide with the Illizi Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within the Illizi Province, only one “composite” total petroleum system is identified. This ...

  1. Farmers' behaviours and trends in agricultural water demand: The case of the irrigated Mitidja plain (Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Imache, A.; Le Goulven, P.; Bouarfa, S.; Chabaca, M.; Daniell, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is based on decisions related to farm irrigation practices on the Mitidja Plain in Algeria. In order to determine irrigation water demand evolution, attempts are made to identify the important parameters on which farm irrigation decision-making is based. The resulting global water demand trends taking farmers' behaviours into account are then characterised. The Mitidja plain covers 1400 km² and provides Algiers with much agricultural produce. The irrigated ...

  2. Recovery process of the mineral sphalerite of Chaabet El Hamra’s deposit (Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Djeghlal M.; Begar A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study rests on the treatment’s process optimization by flotation of the Chaabet El Hamra’s zinc ore (Algeria), for the optimization parameters relating to the production. The choice of parameter to optimize for flotation, and the arrangements and the scheme’s initial flotation, while considering the studies already undertaken, all this has enabled us to better focus our work, while minimizing the consumption of reagents in different tests, This has resulted in successful outcomes....

  3. IAEA Preliminary Assessment of the Former French Nuclear Test Sites in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999, the International Atomic Energy Agency received a request from the Government of Algeria to perform an assessment of the radiological conditions of the former sites used by the French Government in the early 1960s for the testing of nuclear weapons. This paper describes the history and the nature of the test site and the tests that were performed, the methodology of the IAEA assessment and the results and conclusions drawn from the mission of international experts. (author)

  4. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Properties of Thymus numidicus (Poiret) Essential Oil from Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Saidj, Faiza; Rezzoug, Sid-Ahmed; Bentahar, Fatiha; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils of thyme (Thymus numidicus (Poiret)) from Algeria were isolated by steam distillation, analysed by gas chromatography coupled with the mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and investigated for their insecticidal activities against Rhizopertha dominica. Contact toxicity of global oil recovered after one hour of extraction and its fraction F1 recovered after 2.5 minutes of extraction were tested using the filter paper method. Analysis of the essential oil made it possible to identify 14 com...

  5. Analysis of forest fires causes and their motivations in northern Algeria: the Delphi method

    OpenAIRE

    Meddour-Sahar O; Meddour R; Leone V; Lovreglio R; Derridj A

    2013-01-01

    Forest fires in Algeria are mostly human-caused and result from local social behavior, whether voluntary (arson) or involuntary (negligence). Understanding the reasons why fires start is, therefore, a crucial factor in preventing or reducing their incidence, developing significant prevention efforts and designing specific fire prevention campaigns. The Delphi method is a promising tool for improving knowledge about how fire starts and why, and above all helps reduce the number of fires starte...

  6. Geotechnical risks map "Case of the ZHUN EAST, Saïda city - ALGERIA"

    OpenAIRE

    Houmadi, Youcef; AISSA MAMOUNE, Sidi Mohamed; Belakhdar, Khalil

    2009-01-01

    The urban expansion and the increase in population led the urbanization to use the spaces "called at risks". The integration and the treatment of ground’s movements constitute an important characteristic of the equilibrium established by nature. In the Saïda town (Algeria), many projects built on grounds with problems showed signs of degradations such as cracks in structures. These degradations led to the total destruction of the building. The principal causes of these disaster...

  7. Incidence of Avian Mycoplasmosis in the region of Batna, Eastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Heleili; N.; Mamache; B. and Chelihi; A.

    2011-01-01

    Avian mycoplasmosis is infectious and contagious disease which affects chicken and turkey as well as many other species with many economics losses. The absence of data on avian mycoplasmosis in Algeria and the importance of the poultry breeding in Batna encouraged us to undertake the prevalence of the most pathogenic mycoplasmas in broiler and layer chickens in this area, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). 143 Mycoplasmas were isolate from 237 samples, at a rate of 60.33%. MG was isolate at a rat...

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Eight Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L.) Varieties Grown in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    BACHIR BEY Mostapha; LOUAILECHE Hayette; MOUHOUBI Zina

    2014-01-01

    The harmful effects of the free radicals on human organism could be inhibited by antioxidants of fruits and vegetables such as tomato. In the present work, the antioxidant contents as well as the antioxidant activity of eight tomato varieties grown in Algeria are evaluated. Ascorbic acid and carotenoid contents are assessed using spectrophotometric methods.The phenolic compounds extracted using solvents with different polarities (methanol, 50% methanol, ethanol, and 50% ethanol) have been det...

  9. Preliminary Survey of the Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Fungi in the Forest Soils of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Zamoum; Sabiha Berchiche; Karima Sai; Oreste Triggiani; Eustachio Tarasco

    2011-01-01

    The natural distribution and diversity of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) and fungi (EPF) in various biotopes in Algeria was studied, particularly in forests and plantations of cedar, oak, pine, eucalyptus and palm. The objective of this study was to identify EPN and/or EPF species which could be used to control forest insect pests. Soil sampling was carried out at 223 sites from April 2007 to March 2008. To trap EPN's juvenile larvae of Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae and EPF, the me...

  10. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF AIRBORNE BACTERIA IN THE MUNICIPAL SLAUGHTERHOUSE OF CONSTANTINE - ALGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Agabou; Mouhamed-Cherif Abdeldjalil; Abderahmane Bensegueni; Soumia Semouma

    2013-01-01

    The spatial distribution of airborne bacterial contamination (with Total aerobic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, Coliforms, Staphylococci and Streptococci) was studied within the municipal abattoir of Constantine (North-East of Algeria). Open plate air samples were collected at twenty sampling locations weekly during two months. At the same chosen locations, temperature and humidity of the air were measured. The spatial distribution of bacterial contamination was studied using a Geographic ...

  11. Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Companion Animals in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Massilia; Touati, Abdelaziz; Mairi, Assia; Brasme, Lucien; Gharout-Sait, Alima; Guillard, Thomas; De Champs, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli in companion animals in Algeria. Two hundred fecal samples were obtained from healthy and diseased dogs and cats in one veterinary office and private owners in Bejaia city, Algeria, during November 2014 to March 2015. Isolates were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of carbapenemase, acquired plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes. Five carbapenemase-producing E. coli isolates were detected including four OXA-48-producing isolates and one isolate producing NDM-5. Coexpression of ESBL and pAmpC genes was observed in these isolates. Phylogenetic grouping revealed that these isolates belonged to A and D phylogroups. The results of this study show that carbapenemase-producing E. coli spread to the companion animals in Algeria. PMID:26741510

  12. Rentierism, energy and economic growth: The case of Algeria and Egypt (1965–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Algerian economy is an example of a high level of rentierism, while the Egyptian economy shows a low/moderate level of rentierism. The ARDL bounds test approach was used upon annual time series data from 1965 to 2010. The results suggest cointegration for both countries. Bi-causality between energy consumption and growth in the long run was found. For Algeria there is a reversed (negative) energy–growth nexus, adding a new relationship to the traditional four causal hypotheses on the energy–growth nexus. For Egypt, we found positive elasticity both of oil price and energy, which is in line with the mainstream. - Highlights: • We examine the energy–growth nexus within rentierism phenomenon, by applying an ARDL bounds tests approach. • The ARDL reveals to be a suitable tool within the context of analysis of semi-rentier (Egypt) and rentier (Algeria) economies. • The results for Egypt are closer to a conventional economy, supporting the feedback hypothesis. • The results for Algeria are quite different, given that the energy–growth relationship is negative. • The degree of rentierism can influence the nature of the energy–growth nexus

  13. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouzrout Rachid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89% showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis.

  14. Technico-economic assessment of hybrid diesel-photovoltaic power plant in the south of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, A. Y.; Hamidat, A.

    2016-07-01

    In Algeria, Electrical energy demand has knew a significant growth in recent years. The important increase in demand is due to the development of industrial and commercial sectors, and the comfort of residents customers by using multiple equipment of household such as the TV, ventilator, especially air-conditioners in the south of Algeria. To address the problem of imbalance between supply and demand, it is compulsory to add other units of productions of electricity. These units can be use conventional sources or renewable energy sources. This study focuses on the feasibility of hybridizing diesel power plants supplying the isolated villages in southern Algeria by the introduction of PV systems. The town of Djanet was taken as a case study. The comparison between the different technical and economic parameters allows determining the contribution of the hybridization of conventional resources of production. However, the cost-effectiveness based on the net present cost (NPC) is estimated at 176, 054.208 for the hybrid system and 194, 965.280 for all Diesel system. In terms of the cost per kWh produced by the two systems, the kWh produced by the hybrid system is less expensive than the kWh produced by any conventional diesel system is 0.551 / kWh against 0.610 / kWh. The results also show that the hybrid system provides coverage of the expected load in the future.

  15. Calibration and validation of earthquake catastrophe models. Case study: Impact Forecasting Earthquake Model for Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Gaspa Rebull, O.; Ewing, C.; Podlaha, A.; Magee, B.

    2012-04-01

    Calibration and validation are crucial steps in the production of the catastrophe models for the insurance industry in order to assure the model's reliability and to quantify its uncertainty. Calibration is needed in all components of model development including hazard and vulnerability. Validation is required to ensure that the losses calculated by the model match those observed in past events and which could happen in future. Impact Forecasting, the catastrophe modelling development centre of excellence within Aon Benfield, has recently launched its earthquake model for Algeria as a part of the earthquake model for the Maghreb region. The earthquake model went through a detailed calibration process including: (1) the seismic intensity attenuation model by use of macroseismic observations and maps from past earthquakes in Algeria; (2) calculation of the country-specific vulnerability modifiers by use of past damage observations in the country. The use of Benouar, 1994 ground motion prediction relationship was proven as the most appropriate for our model. Calculation of the regional vulnerability modifiers for the country led to 10% to 40% larger vulnerability indexes for different building types compared to average European indexes. The country specific damage models also included aggregate damage models for residential, commercial and industrial properties considering the description of the buildings stock given by World Housing Encyclopaedia and the local rebuilding cost factors equal to 10% for damage grade 1, 20% for damage grade 2, 35% for damage grade 3, 75% for damage grade 4 and 100% for damage grade 5. The damage grades comply with the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-1998). The model was validated by use of "as-if" historical scenario simulations of three past earthquake events in Algeria M6.8 2003 Boumerdes, M7.3 1980 El-Asnam and M7.3 1856 Djidjelli earthquake. The calculated return periods of the losses for client market portfolio align with the

  16. Electricity consumption and economic growth in Algeria: A multivariate causality analysis in the presence of structural change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article addresses the issue of electricity consumption, petroleum price and economic growth in Algeria. The primary objective is to investigate and analyze the causal relationship between electricity consumption (EC), Brent oil price (BOP) and economic growth (GDP) for Algeria over the period of 1971–2010. To examine short-run, long-run and joint causality relationships we used a multivariate cointegration approach based on the recent advances in time series econometrics (e.g., Zivot–Andrews test; Gregory–Hansen cointegration test; Vector Error Correction Models (VECM)). The empirical results show that there is evidence of short-run and a strong long-run bi-directional causal relationship between EC and real GDP in Algeria. Findings indicate also the absence of causal relationship between BOP and EC. Our empirical findings support the idea that there a link between electricity consumption and economic growth and disproves the neo-classical assumption referred to as the “neutrality hypothesis”. - Highlights: ► We examine the causal relationships between EC, GDP and BOP of Algeria. ► We used a multivariate approach based on ZA, Gregory–Hansen and Granger tests. ► There is a short-run bi-directional relationship between EC and GDP of Algeria. ► Results also substantiate a strong long-run bi-directional causality between EC and GDP. ► Findings disprove the assumption referred to as the neutrality hypothesis

  17. Study of the relationship between runoff, rainfall and evaporation watershed in the southern zone of the Mediterranean (case of Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water resources in Algeria are not distributed evenly inspace and time that engenders enormous difficulties for their mobilization. Water shortage is becoming a major problem. A number of regions already suffers from water deficiency and the others will soon follow. To solve this problem, the construction of new dams becomes indispensable. Through the hydrological studies and the exploitation of future dams, the evaluation of wateryield in sites of these structures is indispensable. At present, the calculation of the interannual runoff in absence of data for the not gauged watercourse is determined from empirical formulae established especially for the climatic and geographical conditions of Algeria. Unfortunately, all these formulas do not provide accurate results.Watersheds which were used in the study represent almost the entire surface of Northern Algeria whose number is 106 basins.The objective of the present study is to establish working tools, allowing the planners and the managers to determine the value of the interannual runoff of watershed for the climatic conditions of Algeria without going through the empirical formulae often used in the absence of measurable dataand leading to absurd errors.The calculation parameters for interannual runoff from the proposed model are standard meteorological data (air temperature, humidity and pluviometry), always available and periodically broadcastedby meteorological services and hydrology of Algeria. Runoff values calculated by the model are close to the values of measured runoff.The difference between them didnot exceed 15 to 20%. (author)

  18. Re-Humanizing the development process: On participation, local organizations and social learning as building blocks of an alternative development view in Algeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malki, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study concerns agricultural development planning and policy-making in the context of post-independent Algeria, which went unquestioned for more than three decades. Algeria won its independence in 1962 after 132 years of French colonization. A post-independence State was formed, taking over the

  19. The first true deserticolous species of Buthus Leach, 1815 from Algeria (Scorpiones: Buthidae); Ecological and biogeographic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadine, Salah Eddine; Bissati, Samia; Lourenço, Wilson R

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, the genus Buthus Leach, 1815 (family Buthidae) has been the subject of an important number of studies. These concerned particularly the species belonging to the 'Buthus occitanus' complex. A number of populations previously considered as subspecies or varieties of B. occitanus Leach were raised to the rank of species, but also many new species have been described. Most of the species considered in these studies come from North Africa, in particular from Morocco, Mauritania, Chad, Sudan and Egypt, but only two new species were recorded from Algeria. At present, one more new species of Buthus is described from the Algerian Saharan Desert, raising the number of confirmed Buthus in Algeria to five. Since most Buthus species from North Africa, and in particular those from Algeria, inhabit more mesic environments than the Saharan Central compartment, the new species appears as the first true deserticolous species found in this country. PMID:26632450

  20. Cervical carcinoma in Algiers, Algeria: human papillomavirus and lifestyle risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Doudja; Muñoz, Nubia; Herrero, Rolando; Arslan, Annie; Bouhadef, Anissa; Oublil, Malika; Djedeat, Belhout; Fontanière, Bernard; Snijders, Peter; Meijer, Chris; Franceschi, Silvia

    2005-01-20

    We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Algiers, Algeria. A total of 198 cervical carcinoma (CC) cases (including 15 adeno- and adenosquamous carcinomas) and 202 age-matched control women were included. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical cells was evaluated using a PCR assay. Odds ratios and corresponding confidence intervals were computed by means of unconditional multiple logistic regression models. HPV infection was detected in 97.7% of CC cases and 12.4% of control women (OR = 635). Nineteen different HPV types were found. HPV 16 was the most common type in both CC cases and control women, followed by HPV 18 and 45. Twelve types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 66 and 73) were found as single infections in CC cases. Multiple HPV infections did not show a higher odds ratio for CC than single infections. In addition to HPV infection, husband's extramarital sexual relationships with other women (OR = 4.8) or prostitutes (OR = 3.2), residing in a rural environment for most of one's life (OR = 4.9) and indicators of poor sanitation or poor hygiene were the strongest risk factors for CC. Oral contraceptive use was unrelated to CC risk, while multiparity emerged as a significant risk factor after adjustment for sexual habits. Intrauterine device users showed a lower CC risk than nonusers. The role of major risk factors, except inside toilet, was confirmed in the analysis restricted to HPV-positive women. The distribution of HPV types in CC cases and control women in Algeria is more similar to the one found in Europe than the one in sub-Saharan Africa, where HPV 16 is less prevalent. A vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 may be effective in more than 3/4 of CCs in Algeria. PMID:15455386

  1. Cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions dosage of Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica leaves in western Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, El Zerey-Belaskri; Benhassaini, H; Naimi, W; Rahoui, S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to valorise a deciduous tree called Pistacia atlantica. Cell wall polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses) were isolated and dosed from mature and young pistachio leaves. The samples were collected from six different locations in the Sidi Bel Abbes region (western Algeria). The wall residue yield varied from 39.06% to 69.5%.The cellulose and the hemicellulose's cell wall yield varied from 21.25% to 40.6% and from 0.11% to 13.6%, respectively [corrected]. In the mature leaves, the cellulosic fraction is more important than the hemicellulosic fraction. The highest yield is noted in the young leaves. PMID:23323625

  2. Diagenesis, provenance and reservoir quality of Triassic TAGI sandstones from Ourhoud field, Berkine (Ghadames) Basin, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Nieto, Carlos; Kälin, Otto; Arribas Mocoroa, José; Tortosa, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Triassic TAGI (Trias Argilo-Gréseux Inférieur) fluvial sandstones are the main oil reservoirs in the Berkine Basin, Algeria. Nonetheless, their provenance and diagenesis, and their impact on reservoir quality, are virtually unknown. Samples from the Ourhoud field, representing the Lower, Middle and Upper TAGI subunits, were studied using a combination of petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. The Lower TAGI sandstones have an average framework composition of Q98.3F0.6R1.1...

  3. After the Fall of Qaddafi: Political, Economic, and Security Consequences for Libya, Mali, Niger, and Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo René Larémont

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On 20 October 2011, Muammar Qaddafi, the leader of Libya, was killed by members of a local militia in his hometown of Sirte. Qaddafi’s death and his regime’s end fractured a security structure that had brought some stability to Libya, Mali, Niger, and to a much lesser extent southern Algeria. Because of his regime’s demise, a new swathe of instability that comprises fractured, compromised, or failed states has emerged in the Sahelian region, giving ample opportunities to militant entrepreneurial groups that have organized and are inhibiting the re-creation of more stable states and societies.

  4. Retrospective study on the dose assessment in Algeria over a period 1998-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Algeria, the assessment of individual doses of workers occupationally exposed to external radiations is made by the national individual monitoring service at the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers (N.R.C.A.) with photographic dosimeter. In this paper, we have undertaken a retrospective study on dose assessment of workers exposed to external radiations involved in medical and industrial activities according to the new occupational dose limits over a period of five consecutive years (1998 2002). This survey has permitted to observe the impact that would have new dose limits once adopted by our legislation. (author)

  5. Diagnosis, seismic analysis and reinforcement of an old building in El-Maleh, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    BOUMECHRA, Nadir; CASCIATI, Fabio; HAMDAOUI, Karim

    2010-01-01

    The Northern part of Algeria is considered to be the most active seismogenic area in the Western Mediterranean region. This area has a rich history of seismicity and had experienced many destructive earthquakes such as the Chlef (1954), El-Asnam (1980), Beni-Chograne (1994), Aïn-Temouchent (1999) and recently Boumerdes (2003) earthquakes. The earthquake of Aïn-Temouchent on December 22, 1999, was of magnitude 5.7, killed at least 28 people and made thousands of families homeless. Consequent d...

  6. Evidence for bloc rotation tectonics in the seismic Cheliff basin (northern Algeria) from paleomagnetic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-M. Derder, Mohamed; Henry, Bernard; Amenna, Mohamed; Bayou, Boualem; Maouche, Said; Besse, Jean; Ayache, Mohamed; Abtout, Abdeslam

    2010-05-01

    The seismic activity in the Western Mediterranean area is mainly concentrated in northern Africa, particularly in northern Algeria, as it was shown by the 21 May 2003 Boumerdes and the 10 October 1980 El Asnam earthquakes (of moment magnitudes Mw =6.9, and Ms= 7.3 respectively), which were among the strongest recent ones recorded in the western Mediterranean area. This seismicity is due to the convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates since at least the Oligocene. This convergence involves a transpression tectonic with N-S to NNW-SSE direction of shortening, which is expressed by active deformations along the boundary of these two plates. In Algeria, the seismicity is focused in a coastal zone (the Tell Atlas) in the northern part of the country. Active structures define there NE-SW trending folds and NE-SW sinistral transpressive faults, which affect the intermountain and coastal basins of Neogene to Quaternary age (e.g. " Cheliff "basin, " Mitidja "basin). These reverse faults are coupled with NW-SE to E-W trending strike-slip deep faults. The active deformation in northern Algeria could thus be explained by a kinematic model of bloc rotation: the transpression tectonics with NNW-SSE direction of convergence defines NE-SW oriented blocs, which have been possibly subjected to clockwise rotation. The aim of this study is to look for such blocks rotation in the "Cheliff" basin (northern Algeria), by using the paleomagnetic tool. A paleomagnetic study has been thus conducted on the midlle Miocene, Tortonian, Messinian and Pliocene sedimentary rocks cropping out on the eastern part of this basin. The study is still in progress, but despite the very weak intensity of the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) measured on the samples, and the frequently observed magnetization instability during the thermal demagnetization, the preliminary results show that clockwise rotations have affected different sites of the studied area. The magnitude of these rotations varies

  7. Damage Detection from SAR Imagery: Application to the 2003 Algeria and 2007 Peru Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Trianni; Paolo Gamba

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on the improvement and further validation of a recently proposed approach for the joint use of radar satellite imagery of an area affected by a major disaster and ancillary data. The study was carried out at different sites on imagery of two different earthquakes occurred one in the Mediterranean coast of Algeria on May 21st, 2003, which severely affected the city of Boumerdes, and one in the Pacific Coast of Peru on August, 15th, 2007. The combination of different radar...

  8. Quercus faginea in the Mounts of Tlemcen (North-west Algeria): State of Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Berrichi; Ayyoub Bouazzaoui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present a summary of the dendrometric characteristics, the microscopic image and the physic-mechanical properties of wood and principally leaves morphology for to show the existence of zeen oak (Quercus faginea) population in the far North West of Algeria with specific characters. The morphology of 400 mature leaves taken from 10 trees at the 4 exposures shows that the length of the leaf blade is about 8.568 cm, the width is 4.955 cm, its perimeter about 14.280 cm and its su...

  9. Chemotypes of essential oil of unripe galls of Pistacia atlantica Desf. from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifi, Ibrahim; Gourine, Nadhir; Gaydou, Emile M; Yousfi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of unripe galls (from male and female plants) of a total number of 52 samples of Pistacia atlantica collected from different regions in Algeria were analysed by GC/MS and GC. The yields of the extraction of the EO by hydrodistillation vary from low to high values (0.08-1.89% v/w). The results of both methods of principal component analysis and hierarchical ascendant classification revealed the presence of two different chemotypes: α-pinene chemotype and α-pinene/sabinene/terpinen-4-ol chemotype. PMID:25707439

  10. (In)Edible Algeria: Transmitting Pied-Noir Nostalgia Through Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbell, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    For those exiled from Algeria during and after the Algerian War for Independence (1954-1962), sustaining memories of the homeland has been a consuming pastime. Food has especially played a large part in reconnecting Algeria’s former French citizens, the Pieds-Noirs, to their past. Annual gatherings feature typical dishes such as couscous, merguez, méchoui, mouna, which like the Proustian madeleine, transport the Pieds-Noirs to a preceding time of wholeness and comfort, allowing them to experi...

  11. Trace element content of ginger and sage medicinal plants from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis has been used to multielemental determination in the Zingiber Officinalis and Salvia Officinalis, plants used in traditional medicine therapy in Algeria and in most countries. The concentrations of five elements Co, Cr, Sc, Sb and Rb have been determined by long irradiation time with 2.13E12 n.cm-2s-1 thermal flux at NUR Algerian Reactor, all these elements are present at trace level the implication in Human health is discussed. The quality control of the measurements has been evaluated by analysing of HAY (V-10) IAEA - Standard reference material

  12. PROMOTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN ALGERIA FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND BETTER FUTURE FOR NEXT GENERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainouche, A.; Ainouche, H.

    2007-07-01

    Beyond its hydrocarbon resources, Algeria has a high potential of renewable energy which it has the ambition to develop with foreign partners. The development of renewable energies corresponds to the option of a sustainable development. Independently of the units of solar energy intended to feed the remote centers, projects of renewable energies connected to the national grid are in course of development. Our strategy consists in carrying out a synergy between the Solar one and the natural gas thanks to gas/solar hybrid projects by profiting from the Algerian natural gas endowment and to the permanent sunshining of the South of the country. A first gas/solar hybrid project, of large capacity, is under development. Its realization will bring a significant solar energy contribution to the national energy balance and will constitute a first experiment, on a large scale, in the production of renewable electricity connected to the grid of national distribution. This communication focuses on the strategy and efforts made by Algeria to promote renewable energies within the framework of the sustainable development with as objective bringing the share of the electricity produced by renewable energies to 5 % of the total electricity produced from by 2010. (auth)

  13. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya; Violence de la rente petroliere. Algerie, Irak, Libye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L. [CERI-Sciences Po, 75006 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  14. [A social program for the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in M'Sila, Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Kamel; Boudrissa, Abdelkarim; Cherif, Mokhtar Hamdi; Harrat, Zoubir

    2012-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major is a serious public health problem in Algeria. On average, 10,000 new cases are reported every year among the 15 million people at risk of infection. With an annual incidence of 561.8 per 100,000 inhabitants, M'Sila has seen the worst outbreak of the disease in Algeria since the historic outbreak in Biskra. The main reservoir of the disease is Psammomys obesus, a gerbil that feeds exclusively on Chenopodiaceae, a salt-tolerant plant under which it makes its burrow. Removing these plants around houses within a radius of 300 meters is one of the most effective control measures. As part of a social program of public works, a pilot project aimed at controlling the disease was undertaken in 2003 in the five worst affected cities in M'Sila. 396 unemployed young people were recruited to remove the plants before the transmission season. Over 3,600 hectares were treated. The number of cases decreased from 1,391 in 2003 to 965 in 2004 (31% reduction). These measures need to be implemented in all endemic areas of the country to better assess their effectiveness in preventing the disease. PMID:23473045

  15. Strategic issues of a value-added information system for higher education in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radia Bernaoui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a structured memory device of the Algerian training and research, institutional fragmentation and the lack of visibility of the scientific production make difficult to promoting enhancement of national scientific pool and centers of competence. This dispersion of these resources, is totally at odds with the needs of the Algerian economy which that must be built in a sustainable way, based on the diversification of its wealth, integrating knowledge and research as a development capital. In the agricultural sector, which is our study, Algeria must mobilize its research and training system to the service of its food sovereignty. In this perspective, an agro-biological network of many establishments of research and teaching think about a platform for management, sharing and enhancement of skills and research programs. This is answers the need of teachers, researchers and policy makers, who express by a national survey, their needs of enhancement of their production, in logic to make synergies with the economic sector. This is what we will discuss in our statement on the strategic issues of value-added information system of higher education service and development of economic in Algeria.

  16. Forest Fires and Post - Fire Regeneration in Algeria Analysis with Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegrar, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    The Algerian forests are characterized by a particularly flammable material and fuel. The wind, the relief and the slope facilitates the propagation of fire. The use of remote sensing data multi-­dates, combined with other types of data of various kinds on the environment and forest burned, opens up interesting perspectives for the management of post-­fire regeneration. In this study the use of multi-­temporal remote sensing image Alsat-­1 and Landsat combined with other types of data concerning both background and burned down forest appears to be promising in evaluating and spatial and temporal effects of post fire regeneration. A spatial analysis taking into consideration the characteristics of the burned down site in the North West of Algeria, allowed to better account new factors to explain the regeneration and its temporal and spatial variation. We intended to show the potential use of remote sensing data from satellite ALSAT-­1, of spatial resolution of 32 m. . This approach allows showing the contribution of the data of Algerian satellite ALSAT in the detection and the well attended some forest fires in Algeria.

  17. Human papillomavirus infection in a population-based sample of women in Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Doudja; Clifford, Gary M; Pallardy, Sophie; Ayyach, Ghassan; Chékiri, Asma; Boudrich, Arab; Snijders, Peter J F; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Meijer, Chris J L M; Bouhadef, Anissa; Zitouni, Zahia; Habib, Djamila; Ikezaren, Nadia; Franceschi, Silvia

    2011-05-01

    No data exist on the population prevalence of, nor risk factors for, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the predominantly Muslim countries of Northern Africa. Cervical specimens were obtained from 759 married women aged 15-65 years from the general population of Algiers, Algeria. Liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA detection, using a GP5+/6+-based polymerase chain reaction assay that detects 44 HPV types, were performed according to the standardized protocol of the International Agency for Research on Cancer HPV Prevalence Surveys. HPV prevalence in the general population was 6.3% (4.0% of high-risk types), with no significant variation by age. The prevalence of cervical abnormalities was 3.6%. HPV positivity was significantly higher among divorced women, women in polygamous marriages and those reporting husband's extramarital sexual relationships. HPV16/18 accounted for only 15% of HPV-positive women in the general population, compared with 77% of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in the same city. In conclusion, we report that HPV infection among married women in Algeria is much lower than in sub-Saharan Africa and also lower than in the majority of high-resource countries. PMID:20607828

  18. Plan for Prevention of Natural Hazards in Urban Areas. Case of the City of Constantine (Algeria

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    Ykhlef Boubakeur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards are caused by different phenomena: landslides, earthquakes, floods etc. All the manifestations of forces of nature are called phenomena. We are speaking then of natural risks when these problems are threatening, with varying degrees, human activities, causing significant damage to human life, property and the environment. The need to consider natural hazards in land use planning tasks has become a major concern. During these past years, Algeria has been hit by frequent natural disasters, with the most recent ones endangering the lives of people and causing priceless damage, faced with such a situation the company of adequate measures, capable of exercising effective prevention, is essential. In addition to the seismic risk, for which prevention still needs to be improved, Algeria must also face gravity processes such as landslides. By their suddenness, they can put people in danger and destroy entire buildings involving the evacuation of entire neighbourhoods where the financial impact is significant on the state budget and local government. The main interest of this paper is the feasibility of a plan for prevention of natural disasters related to landslides based on geological maps, topography, hydrogeological and on existing buildings and vulnerability, and eventually lead to a Zoning risk that would be considered for inclusion in the Master Plan of Urban Planning and Land Use Plan and provide support for decisions taken by local authorities for the selection of sites.

  19. The oldest African bat from the early Eocene of El Kohol (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, Anthony; Marivaux, Laurent; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Adaci, Mohammed; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Bensalah, Mustapha

    2011-05-01

    The Afro-Arabian Paleogene fossil record of Chiroptera is very poor. In North Africa and Arabia, this record is limited, thus far, to a few localities mainly in Tunisia (Chambi, late early Eocene), Egypt (Fayum, late Eocene to early Oligocene), and Sultanate of Oman (Taqah, early Oligocene). It consists primarily of isolated teeth or mandible fragments. Interestingly, these African fossil bats document two modern groups (Vespertilionoidea and Rhinolophoidea) from the early Eocene, while the bat fossil record of the same epoch of North America, Eurasia, and Australia principally includes members of the "Eochiroptera." This paraphyletic group contains all primitive microbats excluding modern families. In Algeria, the region of Brezina, southeast of the Atlas Mountains, is famous for the early Eocene El Kohol Formation, which has yielded one of the earliest mammalian faunas of the African landmass. Recent fieldwork in the same area has led to the discovery of a new vertebrate locality, including isolated teeth of Chiroptera. These fossils represent the oldest occurrence of Chiroptera in Africa, thus extending back the record of the group to the middle early Eocene (Ypresian) on that continent. The material consists of an upper molar and two fragments of lower molars. The dental character association matches that of "Eochiroptera." As such, although very fragmentary, the material testifies to the first occurrence of "Eochiroptera" in Algeria, and by extension in Africa. This discovery demonstrates that this basal group of Chiroptera had a worldwide distribution during the early Paleogene.

  20. Selenium content in wheat and estimation of the selenium daily intake in different regions of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we have measured the selenium content in wheat produced locally in eight different regions of Algeria from east to west, and we have established the annual consumption of selenium for five socio-professional categories. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is used. The selenium levels in wheat samples varied from 21 (Tiaret) to 153 μg/kg (Khroub), with a mean value about 52 μg/kg. The mean of selenium daily consumption from ingestion of wheat per person in the eight regions varied from 32 to 52 μg/day which is close to the minimal FAO recommendation. - Highlights: ► Cereals and cereal products represent a staple food in Algeria. ► The objective of this study is to determine the Se intake in wheat produced locally. ► The concentration of Se in the wheat reflects the level of the Se in regional soils. ► The mean of Se daily consumption is close to the minimal WHO/FAO recommendation.

  1. Eastern region represents a worrying cluster of active hepatitis C in Algeria in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalem, Aïcha; Selmani, Karima; Hihi, Narjes; Bencherifa, Nesrine; Mostefaoui, Fatma; Kerioui, Cherif; Pineau, Pascal; Debzi, Nabil; Berkane, Saadi

    2016-08-01

    Algeria is the largest country of Africa, peopled with populations living a range of traditional/rural and modern/urban lifestyles. The variations of prevalence of chronic active hepatitis care poorly known on the Algerian territory. We conducted a retrospective survey on all patients (n = 998) referred to our institution in 2012 and confirmed by us for an active hepatitis C. Half of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates were genotyped. Forty Algerian regions out of the 48 were represented in our study. Three geographical clusters (Aïn-Temouchent/SidiBelAbbes, Algiers, and a large Eastern region) with an excess of active hepatitis C were observed. Patients coming from the Eastern cluster (Batna, Khenchela, Oum el Bouaghi, and Tebessa) were strongly over-represented (49% of cases, OR = 14.5, P hepatitis C epidemics are currently affecting Algerian population. The most worrying situation is observed in rural regions located east of Algeria. J. Med. Virol. 88:1394-1403, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856380

  2. Seismic anisotropy of northeastern Algeria from shear-wave splitting analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Zohir; Yelles-Chaouche, Abdelkrim; Bokelmann, Götz

    2015-11-01

    There are few studies of internal deformation under northern Africa; here we present such a study. We analyze teleseismic shear-wave splitting for northeast Algeria, to improve our knowledge of lithospheric and asthenospheric deformation mechanisms in this region. We study waveform data generated by tens of teleseismic events recorded at five recently installed broadband (BB) stations in Algeria. These stations cover an area 2° across, extending from the Tellian geological units in the North to the Saharan Atlas units in the South. Analysis of SKS-wave splitting results insignificant spatial variations in fast polarization orientation, over a scale length of at most 100 km. The seismic anisotropy shows three clear spatial patterns. A general ENE-WSW orientation is observed under the stations in the north. This polarization orientation follows the direction of the Tell Atlas mountain chain, which is perpendicular to the convergence direction between Africa and Eurasia. Delay times vary significantly across the region, between 0.6 and 2.0 s. At several stations there is an indication of a WNW-ESE polarization orientation, which is apparently related to a later geodynamic evolutionary phase in this region. A third pattern of seismic anisotropy emerges in the South, with an orientation of roughly N-S. We discuss these observations in light of geodynamic models and present-day geodetic motion.

  3. General models for estimation of the monthly mean daily diffuse solar radiation (Case study: Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Establishing 10 empirical models based on sunshine hours and global radiation data. • Estimating the correlation coefficients of the models by curve estimation technique. • Validation of all obtained models by seven statistical parameters. • Introduce the best model of each category for the six Algerian sites. • Two generalized models for estimating the diffuse radiation in Algeria are proposed. - Abstract: In this study, 10 empirical models are developed correlating monthly mean daily diffuse solar radiation with monthly mean sunshine records and global solar radiation data. The aims of this study are: (i) analyzing the correlation between the diffuse fraction and the sunshine fraction/clearness index measured data using these 10 empirical equations at six Algerian stations: Algiers, Constantine, Ghardaia, Bechar, Adrar, and Tamanrasset, and to present new constants for each selected location. (ii) The performance of the proposed models with the new correlation constants are validated and checked their accuracy by comparing it with measured values at the six stations using seven statistical error tests, in order to choose the best models for estimating the monthly mean daily diffuse solar radiation, and (iii) develop generalized models for estimating the diffuse solar radiation data in other Algerian locations in the absence of the measured diffuse radiation data. This study finds that the quadratic and cubic equation which based on global solar radiation data performed the best accuracy. Moreover, these two regression models can be used for the proposed generalized models for predicting the monthly mean diffuse solar radiation over Algeria

  4. High-Level Primary Clarithromycin Resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Algiers, Algeria: A Prospective Multicenter Molecular Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djennane-Hadibi, Fazia; Bachtarzi, Mohamed; Layaida, Karim; Ali Arous, Nassima; Nakmouche, Mhamed; Saadi, Berkane; Tazir, Mohamed; Ramdani-Bouguessa, Nadjia; Burucoa, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of local antibiotic resistance is crucial to adaptation for the choice of the optimal first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. Clarithromycin is a key component of the standard triple therapy largely used worldwide and, more particularly, in Algeria. Clarithromycin resistance is the main risk factor for treatment failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time in Algeria, the prevalence of the primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin. We conducted a prospective study (2008-2014) that included 195 Algerian patients referred for gastroduodenal endoscopy to two University Hospitals, one General Hospital, and several private gastroenterologists in Algiers (Algeria). One gastric biopsy was collected for the molecular detection of H. pylori and the mutations in 23S rRNA genes that confer resistance to clarithromycin with a quadruplex real-time PCR using Scorpion primers. The Scorpion PCR detected H. pylori DNA in 91 biopsies (47%). A mutation conferring resistance to clarithromycin was detected in 32 of the 91 positive patients (35%) and in 29 of the 88 positive patients never previously treated for an H. pylori infection (33%). The prevalence of primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin was 33% in the Algerian population being studied. The high level of primary clarithromycin resistance in the H. pylori strains infecting the Algerian population that we report leads us to recommend the abandonment of the standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy as a first-line treatment in Algeria. PMID:26554340

  5. Situation Report--Algeria, Bangladesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Bangledesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  6. Situation Report--Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia, and U.A.R. (Egypt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in seven foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Ecuador, New Zealand, Peru, Rhodesia, St. Lucia and U. A. R. (Egypt). Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation.…

  7. A strategy within the context of the Arab Spring to strenghten Portuguese energy security regarding import of hydrocarbon from Algeria

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    Emanuel H. dos S. Silva Sebastião

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy plays a crucial role in the survival of the current civilizational model and the dispute regarding its control present a constant challenge to State security. Portugal is highly dependent on other countries in terms of energy supply. Moreover, Algeria was the sixth biggest Oil exporting country in 2011 and is the second biggest exporter of Natural Gas to Portugal. Considering this and the effects of the Arab Spring in northern Africa, the situation requires assessment so as to determine strategies to reduce the risk for Portugal. This paper is divided into 4 parts: introduction and 3 chapters. After making evident the relevance of the discussed theme, we present the concepts of security and energy safety and analyze the current situation in Portugal and in Algeria. In the final chapter, we propose a strategy for Portugal to contribute to the stabilization of Algeria and face the situation of Algerian supply of Oil and Natural Gas being reduced/interrupted; we suggest three Strategic Actions to strengthen the energy safety in Portugal regarding importation of hydrocarbons from Algeria within the context of the Arab Spring. So that Portugal can maintain energy safety regarding Algerian hydrocarbon supply, a critical approach should be used to influence Algeria towards progress, greater democracy and stability and a neo-realistic approach based on a more diverse hydrocarbon supply source, enhancement of renewable endogenous resources, maintenance and development of strategic reserves and planning alternatives of energy supply. Thus, three Strategic Actions (LAE are identified: LAE 1 - Support the Algerian development and improve the Portuguese trade balance; LAE 2 - Invest in endogenous resources for energy production; LAE 3 – Widen the options for importing Natural Gas. The best option for the Portuguese situation is an integrated approach by means of adopting policies that allow for the three LAES simultaneously.

  8. La langue etrangere: reflexion sur le statut de la langue francaise en Algerie (Foreign Language: Reflections on the Status of the French Language in Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsly, Dalila

    1984-01-01

    The unstable linguistic situation in Algeria resulting from official "normalization" in a country in which French has strong colonial roots is discussed, as well as its effects on the status of French instruction. (MSE)

  9. Assessment of the types of catheter infectivity caused by Candida species and their biofilm formation. First study in an intensive care unit in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    seddiki, Sidi Mohammed lahbib

    2013-01-01

    Sidi Mohammed Lahbib Seddiki,1 Zahia Boucherit-Otmani,1 Kebir Boucherit,1 Souad Badsi-Amir,2 Mourad Taleb,3 Dennis Kunkel41Laboratory: Antifungal Antibiotic, Physico-Chemical Synthesis and Biological Activity, University of Tlemcen, Algeria; 2Department of Anesthesiology, 3Department of Epidemiology, University Hospital of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria; 4Dennis Kunkel Microscopy Inc, Kailua, HI, USAAbstract: Nosocomial candidiasis remains a potential risk in intensive care units (ICUs), wherein Can...

  10. Stress transfer among en echelon and opposing thrusts and tear faults: Triggering caused by the 2003 Mw = 6.9 Zemmouri, Algeria, earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jian; Stein, Ross; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Toda, Shinji; Ayadi, Abdelhakim; Dorbath, Catherine; Belabbes, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Stress transfer among en echelon and opposing thrusts and tear faults: Triggering caused by the 2003 M w = 6.9 Zemmouri, Algeria, earthquake [1] The essential features of stress interaction among earthquakes on en echelon thrusts and tear faults were investigated, first through idealized examples and then by study of thrust faulting in Algeria. We calculated coseismic stress changes caused by the 2003 M w = 6.9 Zemmouri earthquake, finding that a large majority of the Zemmouri afterslip sites...

  11. Bloc tectonic rotations recorded in the Neogene and Quaternary magmatic rocks from Northwestern Algeria: preliminary paleomagnetic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Messaoud Derder, Mohamed; Robion, Philippe; Maouche, Said; Bayou, Boualem; Amenna, Mohamed; Henry, Bernard; Missenard, Yves; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Bestandji, Rafik; Ayache, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The seismic activity of the Western Mediterranean area is partly concentrated in northern Africa, particularly in northern Algeria, as it was shown by the strong earthquakes of Zemmouri 21 May 2003 Mw=6.9 and the El Asnam 10 October 1980 Ms= 7.3. This seismicity is due to the convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates since the Oligocene. This convergence involves a tectonic transpression with N-S to NNW-SSE shortening direction, which is expressed by active deformation along the plate boundary. Along the Tellian Atlas (Northern Algeria), active structures define NE-SW trending folds and NE-SW sinistral transpressive faults affecting the intermountain and coastal Neogene to Quaternary sedimentary basins (e.g. Cheliff and Mitidja Plioquaternary intramontaneous basins, …). The NE-SW reverse active faults are coupled with NW-SE to E-W trending strike-slip deep faults. The active deformation in northern Algeria can be explained by a kinematics model of blocks rotation: the transpressive tectonics with NNW-SSE direction of convergence defines NE-SW oriented blocks, which have been subjected to clockwise rotation. In north Algeria, paleomagnetic studies were carried out in the central area, on Neogene sedimentary and magmatic formations (Derder et al, 2009, 2011; 2013). They pointed out tectonic rotation of large blocks, in agreement with the kinematic model. Narrow zones represent important shear zone with strong rotation of smaller blocks (Derder et al., 2013). A new paleomagnetic study was conducted on the recent magmatic rocks outcropping in the Northwestern Algeria, in order to validate this model on a regional scale. The study is still in progress and the preliminary results show presence of systematic clockwise blocks rotation. These results confirm that the Africa-Europe convergence is partly accommodated in northern Africa by blocks rotations. They highlight that rotations are not homogeneous in north Algeria and thus the importance of future works in this

  12. [Epidemiology of bacillary dysentery in Algeria. II. The seasonality of dysentery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkarin, V V; Ouchfoun, A; Minaev, V I; Naceur, D

    1983-04-01

    Morbidity rises during the period of summer and autumn are characteristic of bacterial dysentery in Algeria. During the last 18 years no essential changes in the seasonal character of bacterial dysentery were observed in the country taken as a whole. However, in different climatic and geographical zones of the country the seasonal character of dysentery greatly varies from one zone to another and essentially differs from the seasonal character of dysentery morbidity, typical of the country as a whole for many years. The most pronounced manifestations of seasonal rises are observed in the Sahara zone. The seasonal character of dysentery is formed mainly by morbidity among patients belonging to 3 age groups. The seasonal rises of dysentery can be probably explained by the complex of social and climatic factors, as well as by the biological features of the causative agents of this disease. PMID:6868889

  13. [Leishmania infantum MON-1 isolated from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Grande Kabylie (Algeria)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessad, A; Mouloua, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Benikhlef, R; Mezai, G; Harrat, Z

    2012-02-01

    In the north of Algeria, Leishmania infantum is responsible for two clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, for which dogs are the only proven reservoir host. In this study, the authors report, for the first time, the isolation of L. infantum from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) trapped in the Illoulen ou Malou region (Grande Kabylie). Two isolates were thus obtained from bone marrow and spleen and were identified by starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis as L. infantum MON-1, the widespread zymodeme in the north of the country. Leishmania parasites have also been detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the biopsy of the spleen. The golden jackal, a prevalent wild canid in Northern Africa, could play a predominant role in the sylvatic foci of leishmaniasis and in the dissemination of the parasite in this region. PMID:21874583

  14. Draft genome sequence of Thermoactinomyces sp. strain AS95 isolated from a Sebkha in Thamelaht, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidt, Oliver K I; Gomri, Mohamed A; Pierneef, Rian; Van Goethem, Marc W; Kharroub, Karima; Cowan, Don A; Makhalanyane, Thulani P

    2016-01-01

    The members of the genus Thermoactinomyces are known for their protein degradative capacities. Thermoactinomyces sp. strain AS95 is a Gram-positive filamentous bacterium, isolated from moderately saline water in the Thamelaht region of Algeria. This isolate is a thermophilic aerobic bacterium with the capacity to produce extracellular proteolytic enzymes. This strain exhibits up to 99 % similarity with members of the genus Thermoactinomyces, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Here we report on the phenotypic features of Thermoactinomyces sp. strain AS95 together with the draft genome sequence and its annotation. The genome of this strain is 2,558,690 bp in length (one chromosome, but no plasmid) with an average G + C content of 47.95 %, and contains 2550 protein-coding and 60 RNA genes together with 64 ORFs annotated as proteases. PMID:27617058

  15. Assessment of the petrochemical industry pollution on the Skikda bay, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maachia, Leila; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Nafissa, Boutefnouchet; Bouzerna, Noureddine; Chettibi, Houria

    2005-12-01

    The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO[2], Ca(+2) and Mg(+2), chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites. PMID:16819102

  16. Assessment of the Petrochemical Industry Pollution on the Skikda Bay, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houria Chettibi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Skikda bay is located in the northern part of Algeria. The area is in contact with a petrochemical industrial complex, which raw materials and final products contaminate the surrounding areas via atmospheric pollution as well as effluents, which are dumped into seawaters. To establish the effects of these pollutants and waste disposal on the vicinity of the bay, several samples were taken at different distances along the bay and the outfall pipes of the industrial complex. Subsequently, several chemical analyses were made to analyze the concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO2, Ca+2 and Mg+2, chlorides and phosphates and the alkalinity present into the samples. Several concentrations of the above constituents are reported as a function of the different sites.

  17. EMERGENCY PLANNING IN NORTHERN ALGERIA BASED ON REMOTE SENSING DATA IN RESPECT TO TSUNAMI HAZARD PREPAREDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data from the coastal areas of Algeria were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to produce morphometric maps - such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data - contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with LANDSAT ETM and seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of areas with potential tsunami risk. The evaluations of LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly show areas that must have been flooded in earlier times. In some cases morphological traces of flood waves as curvilinear scarps open to the seaside or traces of abrasion are clearly visible.

  18. Fluoride contents in groundwaters and the main consumed foods (dates and tea) in Southern Algeria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaïtfa, Amar

    2008-07-01

    In the Algeria South, the dental fluorosis is a “silent” epidemic spreading within the populations. The present study was aimed to determine the fluoride content in water, dates and tea that are widely consumed. The results reveal that 35% of water wells had excessive fluoride levels (>1.5 mg/L). The eastern areas where dental decay is the most widespread pathology present the highest contents. Dates, tea and water are considerable sources of fluoride, with a daily contribution of 10, 20 and up to 70%, respectively. For these three sources, the daily intake of fluoride ingested by an adult exceeds the proposed safe threshold of 0.05-0.07 mg/kg day.

  19. Design and Simulation of Dairy Farm Photovoltaic System for a Rural Area in Tlemcen, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi Aicha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy in agriculture is a research knows that considerable development in the last decade. In this paper we scrutinized optimal sizing of solar array and battery in a stand-alone photovoltaic (SPV system to provide the required electricity for a dairy cow farm located in Terny Beni hdiel in Tlemcen, Algeria. Solar radiation data measured in an hourly time-series format are used based on 22 years. Average between 1983 and 2005. The PVSYST software tool was used for simulation of the system. The study is addressed to loads in the small dairy farm with energy consumption levels of around 121 kWh per day. The stand-alone PV system consists of a Solar panel, DC-DC Converter, Maximum Power Point Tracker, DC/AC Inverter, and Battery.

  20. Chemical Composition of the Volatile Components of Tropaeolum majus L. (Garden Nasturtium from North Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. BENYELLES

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from Tropaeolum majus L. aerial parts, a plant native to North Western Algeria, was obtained by hydrodistillation. The oil volatile components were identified by a combination of gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID, GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques, and NMR spectroscopy. Nine components representing 92.0 % of the essential oil total (GC/FID chromatogram were identified. The most abundant compounds were benzyl isothiocyanate (82.5 %, benzene acetonitrile (3.9 % and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate (2.9 %. Higher content in nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds accounting to 86.4 % of the volatile fraction composition of T. majus were quantified.

  1. Infrared and Microwave Image Fusion for Rainfall Detection over Northern Algeria

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    Fethi Ouallouche

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rain areas delineation proposed in this paper is based on the image fusion from geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG satellite, with the low-earth orbiting passive Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite. The fusion technique described in this work used an artificial neural network (ANN. It's has been developed to detect instantaneous rainfall by using information from the IR images of MSG satellite and from TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI. The study is carried out over north of Algeria. Seven spectral parameters are used as input data of ANN to identify raining or non - raining pixels. Corresponding data of raining /non-raining pixels are taken from a PR (precipitation radar issued from TRMM. Results from the developed scheme are compared with the results of SI method (Scattering Index taken as reference method. The results show that the developed model performs very well and overcomes the deficiencies of use a single satellite.

  2. Impact of the Invasion of Modern Irrigation Systems in the Oasis of Lahmar, South Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherif Rezzoug

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the oasis dwellers of the Algerian Sahara exploit the groundwater through the use of traditional techniques such as foggaras (traditional technique of irrigation in the Algerian southwest, and wells of chadouf (pendulum wells. In the oasis of Lahmar, in Southwest Algeria, the farmers use foggaras (known by the name of foggaras ain - foggaras of source to irrigate their fields. Nowadays though, due to the indiscriminate use of modern systems (boreholes and pumps to procure water for irrigation and urban consumption, over-exploitation and drying off of water sources have been one the rise while traditional techniques are becoming day by day out of service and, what is more, palm groves have almost completely disappeared.

  3. Temperature variations in a housing of the semi-arid region of Djelfa (Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettoumi, F.Y.; Adane, A.E.H. [Universite de Sciences et Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculte de Genie Electrique, Alger (Algeria); Messen, N. [C.N.R.B.-BP, Wilaya de Djelfa (Algeria); Sauvageot, H. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. d' Aerologie

    2002-03-01

    Temperature variations are analysed for two areas of Algeria, lying in a semi-arid region and near the West Coast, respectively, the Djelfa and Oran areas. This analysis mainly consists in computing the temperature deviations with respect to the reference levels of 18{sup o}C and 25{sup o}C. Their time variations are then studied. When summing the temperature deviations per month, the amount of energy, expressed in degree hour for each month of the year, necessary to heat and cool the houses during cold weather and hot periods, respectively, is obtained. An economic study of construction material efficiency is associated with the computation of the temperature deviations and applied to housing in semi-arid regions. It is shown that cheap traditional materials having greater thermal inertia can advantageously be used for housing constructions in these regions.(author)

  4. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Radhwane; Khelef, Djamel; Kaidi, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%), Staphylococcus aureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%), Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%), S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%), and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%). PMID:23718559

  5. Uptake of radioactivity by marine surface sediments collected in Ghazaouet, west coast of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of surface marine sediments of different grain sizes collected in Ghazaouet, a small bay on the western coast of Algeria, have been examined to measure concentrations of natural and artificial gamma-emitting radionuclides. The aim of this study is to determine the level of radioactivity and its repartition in the sedimentary area. The samples analyzed by direct counting gamma spectrometry, showed relatively high activities for natural radioactivity and revealed measurable quantities of 137Cs, ranging from 0.66-8.47 Bq kg-1 dry weight. In addition, some of the samples of different nature were sieved in different grain-sizes, to study the uptake of radioactivity. It is found that the sediments of less than 100 μm grain-size have the highest level of uptake of radioactivity

  6. Depositional systems and stratigraphy of Paleozoic and Lower Mesozoic rocks in outcrop, Tassili region, southwest Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertig, S.P.; Tye, R.S.; Coffield, D.Q.; Howes, J.V.C. (ARCO International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)); Ferhati, S. (Sonatrach, Algiers (Algeria))

    1991-08-01

    Paleozoic to Lower Mesozoic strata of the southeastern Algerian Tassili are traditionally subdivided by regionally extensive unconformities such as the Pan African, Taconic, Caledonian, and Hercynian. Using outcrop data from southeastern Algeria, this classic approach is modified by reinterpreting the genesis of these unconformities and rock sequences. Five prominent sequences, defined within the Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic section, usually consist of a succession of lowstand, transgressive, and highstand system tracts separated by sequence boundaries or transgressive surfaces. The Pan-African, Taconic, Caledonian, and Hercynian unconformities are sequence boundaries. Important sequence boundaries also occur within the Ordovician and Silurian sections. These sequences correlate with subsurface data in the Illizi basin and provide a framework for renewed exploration in the subsurface of the Algerian Sahara, where more than 30 billion bbl of recoverable oil and oil equivalent have been generated and trapped.

  7. Damage Detection from SAR Imagery: Application to the 2003 Algeria and 2007 Peru Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Trianni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the improvement and further validation of a recently proposed approach for the joint use of radar satellite imagery of an area affected by a major disaster and ancillary data. The study was carried out at different sites on imagery of two different earthquakes occurred one in the Mediterranean coast of Algeria on May 21st, 2003, which severely affected the city of Boumerdes, and one in the Pacific Coast of Peru on August, 15th, 2007. The combination of different radar-extracted features results in very fuzzy classification of the damage patterns, far less detailed than what available using optical imagery. However, focused results using the above-mentioned ancillary data provide enough detail and precision to be comparable with them. In particular, quantized damage level at the block level is achieved at enough detail using ALOS/PALSAR data and thus validates the original idea.

  8. Sedimentology of the Sbaa oil reservoir in the Timimoun basin (S. Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehadi, Z. (Institute des Hydrocarbures et de la Chimique, Boumerdes (Algeria))

    1990-05-01

    In 1980 oil was discovered in the Timimoun portion of the Sbaa depression in Southern Algeria. Until that time this basin had produced only dry gas. Since the 1980 oil discovery, several wells have been drilled. Data acquired from these wells were analyzed and are presented in this study. The oil reservoir is located within a sandstone interval of the Sbaa formation which has an average thickness of 75 m. The Sbaa lies between the Tournaisian (Lower Carboniferous) silts and the Strunian (uppermost Devonian) shales and sandstones. The sedimentological study reveals that the Sbaa formation contains bimodal facies consisting of coarse siltstones and fine sandstones. The sequence has been attributed to a deltaic environment developed in the central part of the Ahnet basin. The sources of the associated fluvial system are from the surrounding In-Semmen, Tinessourine, and Arak-Foum-Belrem paleohighs. Thermoluminescence indicates the provenance for the Sbaa sands was the crystalline basement Cambrian and Ordovician sections.

  9. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS MELLIFERA BEE POLLEN FROM NORTHWEST ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rebiai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of bee pollen produced in the North western region of Algeria. The content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity using the molybdate ion reduction method were determined. The mean contents of phenolic compounds and total flavonoids were 30.46 ± 8.22 mg of GAE.g–1 pollen and 8.92 ± 5.5 mg of RE.g–1 pollen, respectively. High antioxidant activities were found for the molybdate ion reduction method, with values that ranged from 71.95 to 101.5 μg of GAE.g–1 pollen. The bee pollen of Boufarik showed high antioxidant activity probably due to the high content of phenolic compounds present in pollen.

  10. Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Some Samples of Honey Produced by Beekeepers In Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjlane Noureddine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological quality of 11 samples of locally produced honey harvested from bee colonies across different regions of Algeria. Honeys analyzed are characterized by their different floral origins. Want germs are total aerobic mesophilic flora, total coliforms, anaerobic bacteria Sulfito-Drive (clostridium, yeasts and moulds. Water content, pH, the concentration of hydroxymethylfurfural and sucrose content were also measured. For the physicochemical properties, most of the samples meet the requirements of Codex Alimentarius. Microbiological results showed that there is heterogeneity in the load of microorganisms sampled. Honeys have a low microbial profile. Total coliforms and clostridium were not detected in any sample. For counting the total aerobic mesophilic flora (TAMF, two local and imported samples have a concentration greater than the standard TAMF. Yeasts and moulds were also present but at low levels, and figures in all but three samples were below the norm.

  11. A Quality Assurance Programme in Dosimetry for Algeria: From Simple To Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The audit of radiotherapy beams was initiated in Algeria in 1992 with a post graduate thesis undertaken at the Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory of Algiers. The idea was to use a Farmer chamber shaped PMMA holder capable of holding six TLD-100 chips in a clinical beam. The dosimeters were calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water by comparison with a calibrated ionization chamber using a 1 mm PMMA waterproofing sleeve. The TLD system was used, along with an ionization chamber, to check the beam calibration of eight cobalt-60 treatment units nationwide. The audits have been very helpful since they are regarded as an independent check for the beam calibration and other parameters by the medical physicists. In many cases, when discrepancies were detected, immediate actions were taken, including an on-site visit with recalibration of beams with an independently calibrated ionization chamber

  12. Food irradiation of agricultural products in algeria. present situation and future developments (a short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benkeblia N.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, commodities such as fruits (dates and oranges and vegetables (potatoes, onions and garlic have strategic role in the local and national markets. Long term storage is by combination of cold chain and traditional methods but losses are high. Ionising radiation proved to be effective at greatly reducing losses and the method is increasingly practised. The banning of methyl bromide (or ethyl dibromide and other desinfectants for the use in dates, and maleic hydrazide (MH, carbamate isopropyl N-phenyl (CIP and CIP-chlore-(CIPC for sprout inhibition in potatoes, onions and garlic suggest a high potential of the ionising radiation as a replacement treatment that could also complement temperature controlled storage.

  13. Large Scale Helium Liquefaction and Considerations for Site Services for a Plant Located in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, P.; Clausen, J. J.

    2008-03-01

    The large-scale liquefaction of helium extracted from natural gas is depicted. Based on a block diagram the process chain, starting with the pipeline downstream of the natural-gas plant to the final storage of liquid helium, is explained. Information will be provided about the recent experiences during installation and start-up of a bulk helium liquefaction plant located in Skikda, Algeria, including part-load operation based on a reduced feed gas supply. The local working and ambient conditions are described, including challenging logistic problems like shipping and receiving of parts, qualified and semi-qualified subcontractors, basic provisions and tools on site, and precautions to sea water and ambient conditions. Finally, the differences in commissioning (technically and evaluation of time and work packages) to European locations and standards will be discussed.

  14. Determining the Heavy Metal Pollution in Mascara (Algeria by Using Casuarina equisetifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhdari Aissa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Casuarina equisetifolia needles were evaluated as the possible biomonitors of heavy metal air pollution in Mascara (Algeria. The needles were sampled from seven locations with different degrees of metal pollution (near roads and from a control site. The concentrations of lead, zinc, copper and nickel were measured by using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The maximal values of these four metals were found in the samples collected near the roads and the minimal values were found in the control site. Furthermore, sites with high traffic density and frequency of cars stoppage showed high heavy metal concentrations. However, the comparison of concentrations of all metals showed that the zinc one had the highest concentration of all. The cluster analysis divided the selected sampling sites in three distinct clusters. With regard to the results of this study, Casuarina equisetifolia can be successfully applied in biomonitoring of air pollution.

  15. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhwane Saidi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed ​​Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showed that there was a wide range of bacteria that cause these infections. Staphylococcus aureus (40% was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by Streptococcus spp. (12.5%, Enterobacteriaceae (2.5%, Pseudomonas spp. (2.5%, Staphylococcusaureus + Streptococcus spp. (12.5%, Streptococcus spp.+ Escherichia coli (7.5%, S. aureus + Mycoplasma spp.(7.5%, and S. aureus +Streptococcus spp.+ E. coli (5%.

  16. Exposure to indoor radon and natural gamma radiation in some workplaces at Algiers, Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon activity concentrations have been measured in 34 workplaces throughout Algiers nuclear research centre, in Algeria, during some periods between March 2007 and June 2013 using Electret ion chambers, nuclear tracks detectors and an AlphaGuard system. The indoor radon levels range from 2 to 628 Bq m-3 with an average indoor concentration equals to 92 Bq m-3, whereas the estimated outdoor radon concentrations range from 2 to 14 Bq m-3 with an average value of 6 Bq m-3. This study also focused on parameters affecting radon concentration levels such as floor number, ventilation and atmospheric parameters. Furthermore, the mean gamma rates have been measured in the different investigated locations and have been found to be varying between 33 and 3300 nSv h-1. The annual effective dose for workers calculated using the appropriate equilibrium and occupancy factors is lower than the value recommended by international Commission on Radiological Protection in its Publication 103. (authors)

  17. Dissolved uranium, radium and radon evolution in the Continental Intercalaire aquifer, Algeria and Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural, dissolved 238U-series radionuclides (U, 226Ra, 222Rn) and activity ratios (A.R.s: 234U/238U; 228Ra/226Ra) in Continental Intercalaire (CI) groundwaters and limited samples from the overlying Complexe Terminal (CT) aquifers of Algeria and Tunisia are discussed alongside core measurements for U/Th (and K) in the contexts of radiological water quality, geochemical controls in the aquifer, and water residence times. A redox barrier is characterised downgradient in the Algerian CI for which a trend of increasing 234U/238U A.R.s with decreasing U-contents due to recoil-dominated 234U solution under reducing conditions allows residence time modelling ∼500 ka for the highest enhanced A.R. = 3.17. Geochemical modelling therefore identifies waters towards the centre of the Grand Erg Oriental basin as palaeowaters in line with reported 14C and 36Cl ages. A similar 234U/238U trend is evidenced in a few of the Tunisian CI waters. The paleoage status of these waters is affirmed by both noble gas recharge temperatures and simple modelling of dissolved, radiogenic 4He-contents both for sampled Algerian and Tunisian CI and CT waters. For the regions studied these waters therefore should be regarded as “fossil” waters and treated effectively as a non-renewable resource. - Highlights: • U, Ra (+isotopes) and Rn results discussed for Continental Intercalaire and Complexe Terminal waters in Algeria and Tunisia. • U/Th data for core material from Continental Intercalaire and Complexe Terminal (Tunisia) presented. • U-234 recoil-dominated waters identified for geochemical residence time modelling. • Palaeowaters status affirmed by He-4 ages and noble gas recharge temperatures

  18. Prospects of Wind-Diesel Generator-Battery Hybrid Power System: A Feasibility Study in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyses the feasibility of a wind-diesel generator-battery hybrid system. The wind energy resource data are collected from the weather station at the Renewable Energy Development Center of Bouzareah in Algeria. The recorded values vary from 5.5 m/s to 7 m/s at 25 m. The hybrid system analysis has shown that for a household consuming 1,270 kWh/yr, the cost of energy is 1.205 USD/kWh and produces 2,493 kWh/yr in which 93% of electricity comes from wind energy. From this study, it is clear that the optimized hybrid system is more cost effective compared to the diesel generator system alone where the NPC and COE are equal, respectively, to 19,561 USD and 1.205 USD/kWh and 47,932 USD and 2.952 USD/kWh. The sensitivity analysis predicts that the grid extension distance varies from 1.25 to 1.85 km depending on wind speed and fuel price which indicate a positive result to implement a stand-alone hybrid power system as an alternative to grid extension. In addition to the feasibility of this system, it can reduce the emission of the CO2, SO2, and NOx, respectively, from 4758 to 147, from 9.45 to 0.294, and from 105 to 3.23 kg/yr. Investments in autonomous renewable energy systems should be considered particularly in remote areas. They can be financed in the framework of the National Energy Action Plan of Algeria.

  19. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum at Batna Commercial poultry farms in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouzha Heleili

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG in broiler and layer chickens in the area of Batna, eastern Algeria. This investigation was conducted during the period from 2008 to 2011. Materials and Methods: A total of 505 sera samples were collected and tested by serum plate agglutination (SPA test using Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae antigens (Soleil Diagnostic to detect the presence of antibodies against MS and MG. Results: The overall prevalence of MS and MG infection in the 27 flocks visited in this investigation were recorded as 66.33% and 69.90% respectively. Seroprevalence of MG infection was found significantly (p<0.05 higher during winter season (61.48% than in summer (47.74% while MS infection is more dominant in summer (91.25% against 46.69%. Again this was recorded in different age groups, with significantly higher occurrence in young compared to adult with 85.14% in layer hens and 90.73% in broiler chickens. On the other hand, the seroprevalence of MG and MS infection was found little (p>0.05 higher in large flocks (76.97% in comparison to small flocks (63.63%. The highest prevalence (76.59% of mycoplasmal infection in layer hens was found in Lohman strain. Conclusion: It has been found that MG and MS infections are still important disease problems in poultry farms in Algeria. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000: 709-712

  20. Antifungal activity of four honeys of different types from Algeria against pathogenic yeast:Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Moussa; Djebli Noureddine; Aissat Saad; Meslem Abdelmelek; Benhalima Abdelkader

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifungal activity of four honeys of different types from Algeria against pathogenic yeast i.e. Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Rhodotorula sp. Methods:Four Algeria honeys of different botanical origin were analyzed to test antifungal effect against C. albicans, and Rhodotorula sp. Different concentrations (undiluted, 10%, 30%, 50%and 70%w/v) of honey were studied in vitro for their antifugal activity using C. albicans and Rhodotorula sp. as fungal strains. Results:The range of the diameter of zone of inhibition of various concentrations of tested honeys was (7-23 mm) for Rhodotorula sp., while C. albicans showed clearly resistance towards all concentrations used. The MICs of tested honey concentrations against C. albicans and Rhodotorula sp. were (70.09-93.48)%and (4.90-99.70)%v/v, respectively. Conclusions:This study demonstrates that, in vitro, these natural products have clearly an antifungal activity against Rhodotorula sp. and C. albicans.

  1. Hydrodynamic investigation and numerical simulation of intermittent and ephemeral flows in semi-arid regions: Wadi Mekerra, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Korichi, Khaled; Hazzab, Abdelkrim

    2012-01-01

    Semi-arid regions are characterized by important infrequent rainfall. They often occur in early autumn and give rise to devastating floods. Flooding problems at Wadi Mekerra, located in the Sidi Bel Abbes town (Northwest Algeria), was traditionally the main concern of researchers and government officials. In this work, the magnitude of raging flood wave in the studied catchment and the principal causes are discussed. After this, we present the main hydromorphometric features and the results o...

  2. Climate change and water availability in north-west Algeria: investigation by stable water isotopes and dendrochronology

    OpenAIRE

    Lambs, Luc; Labiod, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970s, rainfall has declined along the North African coast, while the demographic pressure has increased. Supplementing the rainfall data and water level of the Béni Bahdel dam, water isotopic signature and tree ring analyses were used to better understand the effects of climate change (lower rainfall, higher summer temperature) and the water circulation in the Tafna River basin in north-west Algeria. Changes are recommended in water storage and afforestation policies and irrigation...

  3. Selective breeding of Arabian and Thoroughbred racehorses in Algeria: perceptions, objectives and practices of owners-breeders

    OpenAIRE

    Safia Tennah; Frédéric Farnir; Nacerredine Kafidi; Ibrahim Njikam Nsangou; Pascal Leroy; Nicolas Antoine-Moussiaux

    2014-01-01

    This survey, conducted with 461 racehorse owners-breeders in Algeria between 2009 and 2011, investigates their perceptions, objectives and practices regarding selective breeding. Racehorse breeding is a full-time professional activity for a third of interviewees. The holdings are small-sized with 77% owning one or two mares. The regular practice of mating is here used to categorize breeders according to their degree of professionalization (38.4% professional vs. 61.6% occasional breeders). Ex...

  4. Financial reforms in the MENA region, a comparative approach: The case of Tunisia, Algeria, morocco and Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Alouani Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    The financial reform is one of the most important reforms prescribed by the Washington Consensus. With its internal and external components, it occurs in the final stages of the process of economic liberalization. In this work, and after listing, briefly, the causes of financial liberalization, we are going to study in a second section financial development and bank performance in four countries of the MENA region: Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Egypt. In this context, we will explore some cri...

  5. The Potential Of Geomatics In The Realization Of A Map Of Desertification Sensitivity Southern Massif Belezma - Batna - (Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Benmessaoud; Chergui, F.; R. Sahnouni; Chafai, C.

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is the gradual and sustained reduction in the quantity and quality of the biological productivity of arid and semi-arid land. The study area is located in the North Eastern part of Algeria, it has a rich heritage in its biodiversity, however weather conditions and adverse human reality, induce a degradation of the physical environment in the form of a regression of vegetation cover. To assess desertification in our study area map of desertification sensitivity ...

  6. The ammonoids from the Argiles de Timimoun of Timimoun (Early and Middle Viséan; Gourara, Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Bockwinkel, J.; Korn, D; V. Ebbighausen

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-seven ammonoid species are described from the Argiles de Timimoun of Timimoun (Gourara, Algeria). The following taxa are newly described: Rhnetites n. gen., Rhnetites rhnetensis n. sp., Rhnetites ouladallalensis n. sp., Parahammatocyclus mutaris n. sp., Bollandoceras nitens n. sp., Bollandoceras subangulare n. sp., Bollandoceras politum n. sp., Bollandoceras aridum n. sp., Bollandoceras zuhara n. sp., Bollandoceras mirrih n. sp., Benimehlalites n. gen., Benimehlalites benimehlalensis n...

  7. Spain's ambivalent good governance and rule of law promotion (explaining the paradox in) the case of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bustos, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain why although Spain has now a consolidated democratic regime it is still weakly and ambiguously promoting democracy or even good-governance abroad. Recent events such as international terrorism has made even more urgent to concentrate on democratic assistance in Maghreb neighbouring countries. The concept of governance despite its shortcomings might offer an opportunity for non-intrusive democratic promotion. However, as the case of Algeria shows in the last 3 ye...

  8. The valorization of local aggregates in the manufacturing of high-performance concrete (case study of Southwest of Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of an experimental program to achieve an optimization of formulations of high performance concretes (HPC) based on local aggregates, a study was conducted to identify the physicochemical and mechanical properties of the aggregates locally available at the city of Bechar (southwest Algeria). A comparative estimate study between the conventional concrete and its HPC equivalent was also initiated. Finally, potential applications are commented using two practical case. (author)

  9. Emergence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST512 isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of a child in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bakour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report class A carbapenemase (KPC-3-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis in a 6-month-old child in Algeria. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the sequence type obtained corresponded to ST512, an allelic single-locus variant of the pandemic ST258 widely distributed in KPC producers from Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first report of KPC-3-producing K. pneumoniae ST512 in a North African country.

  10. Extraction, Identification and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Flavonoids From Fruit Extracts of Arbutus unedo L from Tiaret Area (Western Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Khadidja Bouzid; Fouzia Toumi Benali; Rabah Chadli; Mohamed Bouzouina; Aman Bouzid; Amal Benchohra; Mustapha Mahmoud Dif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the total phenolic, flavonoid content and to investigate the antioxidant capacities of the fruit extracts of Arbutus unedo L. that grows in Tiaret area (Western Algeria). First we have extracted the fruit by some non-polar solvent (chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol). Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were evaluated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and a colorimetric method, respectively. Extracts content was determ...

  11. Residential satisifaction in the new urban housing projects in Algeria: a case study of Ain-Allah, Algiers

    OpenAIRE

    Oussadou, Aomar

    1988-01-01

    During the last few decades most developing countries have experienced a rapid growth in population which has resulted in rapid urbanisation in the form of new towns and an expansion of existing towns, coupled with an increasing dependance upon developed countries for the implementation of the new housing programmes. In Algeria, since Independance the problems of the high population growth and the rural-urban migration have led to a rapid growth of cities and towns. Since 1975 the Algerian...

  12. Emergence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST512 isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of a child in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    S. Bakour; Sahli, F.; Touati, A.; J.-M. Rolain

    2014-01-01

    We report class A carbapenemase (KPC)-3-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis in a 6-month-old child in Algeria. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the sequence type obtained corresponded to ST512, an allelic single-locus variant of the pandemic ST258 widely distributed in KPC producers from Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first report of KPC-3-producing K. pneumoniae ST512 in a North African country.

  13. Reproduction, population dynamics and production of (Nereididae: Polychaeta) on the rocky coast of El Kala National Park, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Daas, Tarek; Younsi, Mourad; Daas-Maamcha, Ouided; Gillet, Patrick; Scaps, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The polychaete Nereis falsa Quatrefages, 1866 is present in the area of El Kala National Park on the East coast of Algeria. Field investigations were carried out from January to December 2007 to characterize the populations? reproductive cycle, secondary production and dynamics. Reproduction followed the atokous type, and spawning occured from mid-June to the end of August/early September when sea temperature was highest (20?23?C). The diameter of mature oocytes was approx...

  14. A strategy within the context of the Arab Spring to strenghten Portuguese energy security regarding import of hydrocarbon from Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuel H. dos S. Silva Sebastião

    2014-01-01

    Energy plays a crucial role in the survival of the current civilizational model and the dispute regarding its control present a constant challenge to State security. Portugal is highly dependent on other countries in terms of energy supply. Moreover, Algeria was the sixth biggest Oil exporting country in 2011 and is the second biggest exporter of Natural Gas to Portugal. Considering this and the effects of the Arab Spring in northern Africa, the situation requires assessment so as to determin...

  15. Physico-chemical characterization of surface waters of the west coast of Algeria: Bay of Mostaganem and Cheliff estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Kies; Ahmed Kerkouf

    2014-01-01

    A follow-up in 2013 of the indicators of pollution (temperature, hydrogen potential, salinity, dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, orthophosphates, ortho silicates, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids) in surface water was performed, in order to estimate the physicochemical quality of the west coast of Algeria. The results obtained revealed the existence of a water contamination by domestic and industrial waste water conveyed to the north by the Chel...

  16. Algeria. United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. United Nations Fund for Population Activities UNFPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Algeria's population grew from 8.7 million in 1950 to 16 million by 1975. The Algerian government's policy response to increasing growth is to encourage birth spacing, improve health and education, reduce mortality, encourage spatial restructuring, restrict emigration to France, and encourage Algerians in Europe to return home. Development planning began after Independence (1967); the current Development Plan (1985-1989) emphasizes agriculture and the development of the economic and social infrastructure. Population growth has been over 3% since 1970, but is expected to drop to 2.5% around the year 2000. The government's response focuses on providing contraceptive information, encouraging birth spacing, raising the marriage age of women from 14 to 16, and limiting the family allowance. Algerian mortality rates, especially for infants (109/1000), are unacceptable to the government, but Southern Algeria's harsh environment, rapid population growth, breast feeding decline, and other obstacles impede health improvement and mortality decline. The government considers Algeria's 8.7 (rural) and 8.2 (urban) fertility rates too high and has taken action to 1) develop birth spacing services, 2) educate the public (especially rural) on fertility control, and 3) conduct research on population determinants to aid in policy formulation. Abortion and sterilization for contraceptive purposes are illegal. Few foreigners now live in Algeria, and once high emigration to France (900,000 by 1973) has significantly declined; Algerians in Europe are encouraged to return home. The government's response to high internal migration includes 1) rural development; 2) development of secondary urban agglomerations, roads, railways, and air routes; 3) extension of university and health services networks; and 4) development of small and medium sized industries. PMID:12314290

  17. The Tsunami Triggered by the El Asnam (Algeria) Earthquake of 1980: a New Hypothesis of Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, J.; Hebert, H.; Briole, P.

    2009-12-01

    On the 10th of October 1980, a Mw=7.1 earthquake destroyed the town of El Asnam (actual Ech Cheliff, Northern Algeria) causing several thousands of casualties and leading to considerable economic losses for Algeria. This is the biggest instrumentally recorded earthquake in Africa. A lot of measurement campaigns have been immediately set up in order to constrain the fault rupture mechanisms principally using the numerous aftershocks. Then these studies furnish important information concerning principally the focal mechanisms in this area, the length and width of the rupture zone, the depth and the coseismic slip. But although the epicenter has been located about 45 km from the sea, and 15 km east of El Asnam, in the same area of the 1954 Orléansville earthquake (Mw=6.6), it is known to have triggered a small tsunami which was able to reach the south-eastern Spanish Coast in several locations where it has been recorded on tide gages. Thus six maregrams are available from Alicante to Algeciras Several previous studies present this tsunami as the result of a submarine mass failure as the 1954 event which led to the rupture of submarine phone cables. In this work we propose a rupture scenario based on previous studies results as geodetic measurements of vertical movements, aftershocks localization, focal mechanisms determination and identification of geological features among other things. We show that the seismic initial deformation itself, using Okada’s formulae, is able to disturb the sea surface near the Algerian Coast by several centimeters, even at this distance from the epicenter, and propagate a tsunami wave toward the Spanish Coast. The results are compared with historical records in terms of arrival times, polarity and wave amplitudes and discussed, especially concerning the integration of such inland earthquake in the catalog of the future Western Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System. This study was partially funded by the European project TRANSFER which

  18. Rainfall detection over northern Algeria by combining MSG and TRMM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouallouche, Fethi; Ameur, Soltane

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a new method to delineate rain areas in northern Algeria is presented. The proposed approach is based on the blending of the geostationary meteosat second generation (MSG), infrared channel with the low-earth orbiting passive tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM). To model the system designed, we use an artificial neural network (ANN). We seek to define a relationships between three parameters calculated from TRMM microwave imager (TMI) associated with four parameters from infrared sensors of MSG satellite and two classes (rain, no-rain) from precipitation radar (PR) TRMM data. The seven spectral parameters issued from MSG and TMI are used as input data. Rain/no-rain classes from PR are used as the output data of this ANN. Two steps are necessary: training and validation. Results in the developed scheme are compared with the results of a reference method which is the scattering index (SI) method. The result shows that the developed model works very well and overcomes the shortcomings of the SI method.

  19. Research and Enhancement of Used Tyres, Such as Material Innovative in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabdelouahab, F.; Trouzine, H.

    Currently engineers seeking to improve the characteristics of soils used for the construction of earthworks, with innovations developed from ideas, products or processes of original construction, the land army is an early example particularly successful but there are many other processes as well as other Pneusol processes more or less known to sometimes use bulky industrial wastes, while fitting well into the existing environment. In this paper, we discuss a particular research work within the framework of environmental protection and sustainable development, led to the realization of the recovery and reuse of used tires in the construction of works civil engineering. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of studies in Algiers on ENSTP "Pneusol reducing the thrust" on a scale model on the study of a retaining wall reinforced by a simulation tablecloths tires, and the results of particular research enterprise at the University Djillali Liabes of Sidi Bel Abbes, on an experimental campaign on the Pneusol under expansive soil foundations. Topics will also present the projects carried out in Algeria, as the pilot of stability of a slope to Pneusol in Bousmail (2005), then another item of protection against landslides in Bejaia (2006), from the project of Africa in Mostaganem (2007), concerning the stability of an embankment on the RN11 road, and the conduct of a small dike protection technology Pneusol in Blida (2008), and in 2010 the stability of a landslide in Miliana.

  20. The dependence of Hyalomma aegyptium on its tortoise host Testudo graeca in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiar, G; Tiar-Saadi, M; Benyacoub, S; Rouag, R; Široký, P

    2016-09-01

    Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) has recently been confirmed as a carrier of numerous pathogenic, including zoonotic, agents. Four environmentally distinct regions of Algeria, located between the humid coastal zone and the arid Saharan Atlas range, were selected in order to compare differences in tick abundance among localities, and the correlations between tick abundance and host population characteristics and other environmental conditions. Sampling was carried out during May and early June in 2010-2012. A total of 1832 H. aegyptium were removed from 201 tortoises. Adult ticks accounted for 52% of the collection. In the pre-adult stages, larvae were dominant. Data on prevalence, intensity (mean ± standard deviation, range) and abundance of tick infestation were calculated for each locality. Locally, prevalences reached 100%. The sex ratio was biased in favour of males (4.2). Intensities of infestation differed significantly among the localities studied for all developmental stages of the tick. The intensity of infestation by adult ticks was positively correlated to the size of the tortoise and with tortoise population density in the habitat. However, findings for immature tick stages were independent of both variables. No significant correlations between infestation intensities and the climatic parameters tested were found. Immature ticks were observed to prefer the front parts of their tortoise hosts, whereas the majority of adults were attached to the rear parts. PMID:27218892

  1. Recent changes in climate, hydrology and sediment load in the Wadi Abd, Algeria (1970-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achite, Mohammed; Ouillon, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    Here we investigate the changes of temperature, precipitation, river runoff and sediment transport in the Wadi Abd in northwest Algeria over a time series of 40 hydrological years (1970-2010). Temperature increased and precipitation decreased with the reduction in rainfall being relatively higher during the rainy season. A shift towards an earlier onset of first rains during summer was also found with cascading effects on hydrology (hydrological regimes, vegetation, etc.) and thus on erosion and sediment yield. During the 1980s, the flow regime shifted from perennial to intermittent with an amplification of the variations of discharge and a modification of the sediment regime with higher and more irregular suspended particulate flux. Sediment flux was shown to almost double every decade from the 1970s to the 2000s. The sediment regime shifted from two equivalent seasons of sediment yield (spring and fall) to a single major season regime. In the 2000s, autumn produced over 4 times more sediment than spring. The enhanced scatter of the C-Q pairs denotes an increase of hysteresis phenomena in the Wadi Abd that is probably related to the change in the hydrologic regime. At the end of the period, due to irregularity of the discharge, the ability of a rating curve to derive suspended sediment concentration from river discharge was poor.

  2. Study of nutritional and reproductive constraints of Friesian dairy cattle in the Mitidja area of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to improve reproduction and milk production of Friesian dairy cows used under the environmental conditions of the Mitidja Plain (Central region of Algeria) by analyzing the quality of feeding and studying the resumption of ovarian activity of cows after calving. The first phase of the study started during 1995/96, by surveying a sample of 47 livestock farms in the Mitidja area in order to identify available feed resources and husbandry practices and to record data on reproduction parameters, individual body weights, body condition score and milk production. Ovarian activity was monitored by radioimmunoassay of progesterone in blood and milk samples collected twice a week, after 15 days post-partum. The second phase was conducted in 1996 and 1997 in two dairy farms. Data were collected on the same parameters of reproduction and production. During the second year, the results of dairy herds were better than those in the first year. That was probably due to monitoring provided by the research project. (author)

  3. Incidence of Vector-borne Disease and Climate Change: A Study in Semi-arid Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, T.; Bounoua, L.

    2012-12-01

    Leishmaniases are among the most important emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases, second only to malaria in terms of the number of affected people. Leishmaniases are endemic in 88 countries worldwide and threaten about 350 million people (WHO, 2007). Since the first reported case of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Saida, Algeria in 1991, 1,275 cases have been recorded (Makhlouf & Houti, 2010) with the vast majority of study-area cases (99%) reported between the years of 2000 and 2009. An investigation of potential climatic indicators for the apparent shift in disease prevalence was conducted by comparing anomalies in the climate data specific to the local pathogen cycle. It was determined that long term climate trends have resulted in conditions that promote the prevalence of ZCL. Increased precipitation have resulted in greater vegetation and promoted host and vector population growth through a trophic cascade. Increased minimum temperatures have lengthened the annual duration of sandfly activity. Short term variations in maximum temperatures, however show a correlation with disease suppression in the subsequent years. These findings indicate a potential to forecast the risk of ZCL infection through models of the trophic cascade and sandfly population growth.

  4. Farming transitions under socioeconomic and climatic constraints in the southern part of Sétif, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Rouabhi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on a sample of 224 farms in the southern region of Sétif-Algeria, aimed to identify the different typologies and the agricultural changes caused by the climatic constrains experienced in recent decades. Indeed, the combined effect of climatic and anthropogenic factors on agricultural practices transitions is too tangled. A series of multivariate and classification statistical tests have been implemented to demonstrate the main trends and adaptation tactics of farmers in such conditions. The farming characterization analysis showed that the medium scale farming was more economically efficient than small and large scale farming. Moreover, the study showed the effect of climate change on some farming transitions, where farming practices transited to bovine and poultry farming as well as for market gardening cultivation. Indeed, these changes were occurred at the expense of rainfed agriculture (cereals and ovine breeding. These transitions have impacted the economic performance of farms in some municipalities. However, greenhouse crops and tobacco cultivation were observed as being a Local Production Systems (LPS that could be a good alternative to mitigate the natural and socioeconomic constraints. The emergence of Local Production Systems in agricultural system may facilitate farmer adaptation that will provide a tool for agricultural development policies, through financial and technical assistance. Key words: Climate change, Farming, Local Production Systems, Sétif

  5. REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF Camelus dromedarius IN THE EL-OUED REGION, ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MAYOUF

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey and group discussions were conducted to characterize the reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems in El Oued region, southern east of Algeria. A total of 60 breeders were included in the study. The results about the level of education among camel herders in El Oued region revealed that the majority of older herders were illiterate 80% while 15% had primary school education. The camel management dominating in the study areas is traditional nomadic. Mature female camels were dominant (64.68% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:60.7. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 4.66±0.07 years and 22.9±0.25 months, respectively. The mean lactation length was 11.4±0.08 months. Mean age at first mating of male and female was 4.82±0.12 years and 3.43±0.16, respectively. Reproductive performances of camels in the study area is low which could be attributed to the late age of puberty, long gestation period, poor management system, environmental factors and pathological reasons. Therefore, improvement of management systems and the use of controlled breeding techniques contribute to improve of camel.

  6. A quality assurance programme in dosimetry for Algeria: from simple to complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The audit of radiotherapy beams was initiated in Algeria in 1992 with a post graduate thesis undertaken at the Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory of Algiers. The idea was to use a Farmer chamber shaped PMMA holder capable of holding six TLD-100 chips in a clinical beam. The dosimeters were calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water by comparison with a calibrated ionization chamber using a 1 mm PMMA waterproofing sleeve. The TLD system was used, along with an ionization chamber, to check the beam calibration of eight cobalt-60 treatment units nationwide. In 1995, a quality assurance programme was established and was based on the use of LiF TLD-100 powder, calibrated at the Algerian SSDL. This programme was initiated in the framework of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (E2.40.07), by setting up an External Audit Group (EAG) which is composed of the Measuring Group (MG) within the SSDL, responsible for the technical aspect of the TL dosimetry, and the Medical Physics Group (MPG), responsible for the interactions with the participating radiotherapy centres and supported by two hospital physicists and one oncologist. This programme was implemented to establish the IAEA methodology for the use of TLDs. The reproducibility of the TLD signals have been studied in Algeria using three different dispensers: a home made dispenser, a commercially available dispenser and an IAEA made dispenser. Homemade cupels made of aluminum, stainless steel and copper were also studied. For calibration purposes, the TLD capsules were irradiated using a PMMA phantom fixed on a rigid frame that can be inserted on the 60Co calibration unit in a reproducible manner. Up to five capsules could be irradiated using a PMMA rod. The powder was evaluated using a Harshaw 4000 readout system. In 2001, the Algerian EAG participated in a second CRP (CRP E2.40.12) addressing the development of TLD-based audits for radiotherapy dosimetry in non-reference conditions. In this programme, a modified

  7. Endophytic fungi isolated from Pinus halepensis needles in M'sila (Algeria) region and their bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjal, S; Harzallah, D; Dahamna, S; Bouamra, D; Bouharati, S; Khennouf, S

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytes grow asymptomatically within the tissues of all vascular plants and some are known to provide their host plants with tolerance to different types of environmental stress. Endophytic fungi were detected, isolated and collected from healthy needles of Alep pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) from the canton of El-Haourane in M'sila, Algeria. For the author's knowledge, these fungi are reported from this conifer for the first time in this region. A survey has been conducted using randomly sampled needles of symptomless trees for two categories of needles (old and young). From 600 surface-sterilized needles collected from 15 trees (300 needles for each age), 29 fungal isolates were obtained and identified on the basis of the morphological characterization using microscopic observations. The fungal isolates were grouped in Deuteromycetes and Zygomycetes. Species of Moniliales were the most common fungi assaciated with P. halepensis. It appears from the results also that the colonization frequency (CF%) was dependant on the age of the needles; older needles were more densely colonized than the younger needles with a 68.5%. The results of this study indicate that P. halepensis serves as a host to numerous endophytic fungi. These fungi could have significance as a source of novel metabolites. And therefore the mycoendophytes genera of Penicillium, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Trichosporon, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Trichoderma. Expressed an antagonistic and antibiotic effect against pathogenic microorganisms to humans and plants. PMID:25151842

  8. [Indoor and outdoor nebulization of DDT in the campaign against cutaneous zoonotic leishmaniasis in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzerroug, E H; Benhabylles, N; Izri, M A; Belahcene, E K

    1992-03-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis is expanding in certain regions of Algeria. Since 1981, when the disease was confined to the foci of Biskra and Abadla, it spread to the neighbouring departments (wilayas) and especially to the wilaya of M'sila. The authors report the results of a large campaign against the disease, using DDT house spraying, in this wilaya. The annual incidence, which was 426 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in January 1983, dropped to 17.9 in January 1984. In addition, the efficacy of DDT in the reduction of the sandfly population was tested in two localities. One was sprayed with DDT and the other was not. In the sprayed locality the sandfly population decreased markedly as compared to the control locality. From these observations the authors believe that DDT plays a major role in the interruption of transmission, a hypothesis which needs to be confirmed by case-control studies. They further recommend that an interdisciplinary approach should be developed for the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:1567269

  9. 3D Monitoring under the Keciova Mosque (Casbah-Algier, Algeria) with Ground Penetrating Radar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf; Deniz, Kiymet; Akin Akyol, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Keciova (Ketchaoua) Mosque, in Casbah-Algiers, the capital of Algeria, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Keciova Mosque was originally built in 1612 by the Ottoman Empire. A RAMAC CU II GPR system and a 250 MHz shielded antenna have been employed inside of the Mosque including the Cathedral and inside of the burial chambers under the Cathedral Site on parallel profiles spaced approximately 0.30 m apart to measure data. After applying standard two-dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) imaging techniques, transparent 3D imaging techniques have been used to photograph the foundational infrastructures, buried remains and safety problems of the Mosque. The results showed that we obtained 3D GPR visualization until 12.0 m in depth. Firstly we imaged the base floor including corridors. Then we monitored buried remains under the first ground level between 5.0-7.0 m in depths. Finally we indicated 3D GPR photographs a spectacular protected buried old mosque structures under the second ground level between 9.0-12.0 m in depths. This project has been supported by Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA). This study is a contribution to the EU funded COST action TU1208, "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground penetrating Radar".

  10. Supervised artificial neural network-based method for conversion of solar radiation data (case study: Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidi, Maamar; Hanini, Salah; Rezrazi, Ahmed; Yaiche, Mohamed Redha; El Hadj, Abdallah Abdallah; Chellali, Farouk

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model is used as an alternative approach to predict solar radiation on tilted surfaces (SRT) using a number of variables involved in physical process. These variables are namely the latitude of the site, mean temperature and relative humidity, Linke turbidity factor and Angstrom coefficient, extraterrestrial solar radiation, solar radiation data measured on horizontal surfaces (SRH), and solar zenith angle. Experimental solar radiation data from 13 stations spread all over Algeria around the year (2004) were used for training/validation and testing the artificial neural networks (ANNs), and one station was used to make the interpolation of the designed ANN. The ANN model was trained, validated, and tested using 60, 20, and 20 % of all data, respectively. The configuration 8-35-1 (8 inputs, 35 hidden, and 1 output neurons) presented an excellent agreement between the prediction and the experimental data during the test stage with determination coefficient of 0.99 and root meat squared error of 5.75 Wh/m2, considering a three-layer feedforward backpropagation neural network with Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm, a hyperbolic tangent sigmoid and linear transfer function at the hidden and the output layer, respectively. This novel model could be used by researchers or scientists to design high-efficiency solar devices that are usually tilted at an optimum angle to increase the solar incident on the surface.

  11. Impact of Mercury Mine Activities on Water Resources at Azzaba-North-East of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila Alligui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mercury mineralization occurred in Azzaba (north-eastern Algeria as a part of mercurial Numidian belt, consists of numerous of Hg deposits (Koudiat Sma, Mrasma, Guenicha, Fendek, Ismail and Ras Elma. These deposits are hosted in a variety of lithologies including sandstone, limestone, breccias and conglomerate. The ores occur as cinnabar deposits in Ypresian-Lutetian formations. Although the quantity and type of information relating to mining operations within Azzaba remains insufficient and sparse an assessment of the impacts that mining and processing activities, have had or are likely to have, on water resources is required to describe the evidence of the origin and the extent Approach: 17 ground water samples were collected at different locations within the Hg mineralized area and analyzed to assess the source, degree and extent of the contamination. Results: The primary effect of mining is degradation of tens of kilometers of disturbed streams, thousands hectares of disturbed land including valuable ecosystems. chemical analysis showed that ground waters were also adversely affected by pollutants loading, the alluvial aquifer (composed primarily of silty sand and gravel that serves as the primary source of drinking water for Menzel Ben Dishe, Es-sebt and Zaouia communities surrounding Ismail mercury complex shows high concentrations of Hg and other heavy metals. Conclusion: These high values were associated and controlled by mixed origin with similar contribution from anthropogenic and geoginic sources.

  12. Meso-Cenozoic evolution of the Tuareg Shield (Algeria, Sahara): insights from new thermochronological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Sylvain; Missenard, Yves; Gautheron, Cécile; Barbarand, Jocelyn; Zeyen, Hermann; Pinna, Rosella; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Bonin, Bernard; Ouabadi, Aziouz; El-Messaoud Derder, Mohammed; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Kettouche, Djouher

    2013-04-01

    In North Africa, Meso-Cenozoic large scale topographic swells, such as Hoggar, Tibesti or Darfur domes, are superimposed to a Paleozoic arch and basin morphology which characterizes this region. Although these topographic highs are associated to Cenozoic intraplate volcanism, their development remains poorly constrained, both from temporal and spatial points of view. This study is focused on the Tuareg Shield bulge, a topographic high where Precambrian rocks, exposed over 500000 km², can reach 2400 m above sea level (Atakor district, Hoggar, South Algeria). While presumed Cretaceous sedimentary remnants, resting unconformably over the basement, suggest a possible stage of weak topography during the Mesozoic, current high topography is emphasized by time-temperature history were performed. As previously deduced from apatite (U-Th)/He analyzes, these modelings show that samples underwent a heating to at least 80°C before their Late Eocene exhumation. Moreover, they also indicate that samples underwent another cooling stage during Lower Cretaceous, prior to Upper Cretaceous/Paleogene heating. We interpret these results as an evidence of a large-scale subsidence stage after the Cretaceous and until the Eocene, which allowed the deposition of a 1.5 to 3 km thick sedimentary cover and a heating at ~80°C of the currently outcropping basement. During the Eocene, the establishment of a thermal anomaly beneath the Tuareg Shield lithosphere resulted in erosion of the major part of this cover and, since 35 Ma, the development of intraplate volcanism.

  13. Use of the land snail Helix aspersa for monitoring heavy metal soil contamination in Northeast Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larba, R; Soltani, N

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of anthropogenic activities on soil quality using the land snail Helix aspersa as a bioindicator. Soil samples and snails were collected from several sites in Northeast Algeria during the summer and winter of 2010. All of the sites were chosen due to their proximity to industrial factories-a potential source of soil pollution via heavy metal contamination. The concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, and Fe) in soil samples was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Activity levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), indicators of oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, respectively, were measured in snails collected from each site. GST and AChE activity were found to vary between sites and by season. The highest levels of GST activity were registered during the summer at sites closest to potential sources of pollution. AChE activity levels also peaked during the summer with the highest values recorded at the site in El Hadjar. These increased levels of bioindicative stress response correlated with increasing metal concentration in soil samples collected at each site. PMID:24687691

  14. Antibacterial activity of various honey types of Algeria against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Moussa; Djebli Noureddine; Hammoudi Si Mohamed; Meslem Abdelmelek; Aissat Saad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the in vitro antibacterial activity of honey from different geographical location on Gram negative organismes. Methods:Different concentrations (Undiluted honey, 10%, 30%, 50%and 70%wt/vol) of honey were studied in vitro using Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes), briefly, two-fold dilutions of honey solutions were tested to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against each type of microorganism, followed by more assays within a narrower dilution range to obtain more precise MIC values. MICs were determined by both visual inspection and spectrophotometric assay at 620 nm. These honey samples were compared with standard antibiotics like ampicillin, penicillin G, amoxicillin, gentamycin, tobramycin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol was determined by the disc diffusion method. Results: The diameter of zone of the inhibition (ZDI) of honey has various concentrations tested for the isolates ranged 0-46 mm for S. aureus, 0-44 mm for S. pyogenes. While the MIC (%) ranged 12%-95%, 25%-73%respectively. Conclusions: Algeria honey, in-vitro, possess antibacterial activity.

  15. Chlorine-36 and noble gases in deep groundwaters from the northeastern Sahara (Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The groundwaters occurring in the Northeastern Sahara (Algeria-Tunisia and Libya) constitute huge water reservoirs whose major component is very old (Paleowaters). Water managers are there facing problems related to resource management in terms of estimating budget parameters (recharge, evaporation, leakage, mixing), degradation of the water quality, but also the renewable rate (residence time). The Continental Intercalaire from Sahara is one of the largest confined aquifers in the world. The aquifer material is made of complex layers of sandstone alternating with clayish levels. The depth of the aquifer ranges between 400 and 1800 metres giving rise to temperature up to 70 deg. C and total dissolved salts of 1.5 to 5 g.l-1, in mainly Ci-Na-SO4. Sampled groundwaters show a quite wide range of 36Cl contents. The space distribution of 36Cl contents fits fairly well with what is known about the piezometric contours of the aquifer: a decrease is observed from recharge to discharge zones. If this decrease is radioactive decay, it can be interpreted in terms of groundwaters transit time. Maximum time intervals of about 3 halflives may be computed using 36Cl specific activities. In order to evaluate the epigene production, Measurements were performed on chloride extracted by leaching from a soil profile. The results are the same order of magnitude as for groundwater chloride sampled near recharge areas and could reflect the true value of initial 36Cl input

  16. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf, Ali, E-mail: almakhsme@gmail.com; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  17. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of Carthamus caeruleus L extracts grow wild in Algeria flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Baghiani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Four sub-fractions of Carthamus caeruleus L (which belongs to the family Asteraceae root extracts,i.e., methanol (CE, chloroform (CHE, ethyl acetate (EAE and aqueous (AE extracts were screenedfor their total phenolics, flavonoids and possible antioxidant activities, using DPPH free radicalscavengingand β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. The results indicated that total polyphenols werehighest in EAE followed by CHE. However, the free radical scavenging activity of CHE was higherthan the other extracts with an IC50 value of 53.26 μg/mL. Determination of quercetin, gallic acid andrutin showed antioxidant activity as positive controls in parallel experiments. Moreover, oxidation oflinoleic acid was effectively inhibited by AE, EAE and CE which were too close to each other. Also,the CHE was more effective compared to the synthetic antioxidant BHT. It could be concluded thatCarthamus caeruleus L growing wild in the Mediterranean regions and especially in Algeria has apotent antioxidant activity and could be evaluated as a starting point for further investigations.

  18. Serological and molecular evidence of Q fever among small ruminant flocks in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, H; Sidi-Boumedine, K; Merdja, S; Dufour, P; Dahmani, A; Thiéry, R; Rousset, E; Bouyoucef, A

    2016-08-01

    Q fever, a commonly reported zoonosis worldwide, is caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterium. The infection is often asymptomatic in ruminants, but it can lead to reproductive disorders with bacterial shedding into the environment. Between 2011 and 2013, a study was undertaken in small ruminant flocks in different regions of Algeria. A total of 35 flocks were visited and 227 sera and 267 genital swabs were collected from females after abortions or the lambing period to investigate Q fever infection. Indirect ELISA was used to detect specific antibodies against C. burnetii and real-time PCR for detecting bacterial DNA. Our survey indicated that 58% (95% CI=40-76%) of flocks had at least one positive animal (17 seropositive flocks) and individual seroprevalence was estimated at 14.1% (95% CI=11.8-16.4%) (32 seropositive animals). Bacterial excretion was observed in 21 flocks (60%), and 57 females showed evidence of C. burnetii shedding (21.3%). These results suggest that C. burnetii distribution is high at the flock level and that seropositive and infected (shedder) animals can be found all over the country. Further studies are needed in other regions and on different animal species to better understand the distribution and incidence of Q fever, as well as human exposure, and to develop an adequate prophylaxis program. PMID:27477503

  19. Paleomagnetism of the Liassic member of the Zarzaitine Formation (stable Saharan craton, Illizi basin, Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derder, M. E. M.; Bayoum, B.; Amenna, M.; Merabet, N. [Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et Geophysique, Alger (Algeria); Henry, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Geomagnetisme et Paleomagnetisme, Saint Maur (France)

    2001-12-01

    A paleomagnetic study was carried out in the carbonates and marls of the Liassic member of the Zarzaitine Formation of the Illizi basin (SE Algeria) deposited in a continental environment. Two magnetization components were identified. The first, defined at relatively low blocking temperature, was isolated in five sites, and yields the following paleomagnetic pole (80.8{sup 0} N, 20.1{sup 0}E, K=811 and A{sub 9}5=2.2{sup 0}). This magnetization is considered an overprint acquired during Cenozoic times. The second component was defined by both normal and reversed polarity. The normal polarity was identified in fourteen sites using both linear regression and great circles. The reversed one was inferred in four sites from the remagnetization circle and demagnetization path analysis. This component is mainly (it could be in part the primary magnetization) a late diagenesis magnetic overprint. It yields a new Liassic pole (71.8{sup 0}S, 54.9{sup 0}E, K=91 and A{sub 9}5=3.9{sup 0}) for Africa.

  20. Observations on Phallocryptus Spinosa (Branchiopoda, Anostraca Populations from the high Plateaus of Northeastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Amarouayache

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phallocryptus spinosa (Thamnocephalidae is a small primitive crustacean which lives in temporary saline pools of the Palaearctic region called Chott, Sebkha, Garâa or Daya in North Africa. Data on its biology and life history are very scarce despite its ecological importance in wetlands. Four populations living in the Northeastern High Plateaus of Algeria, Garâas Guellif, El-Tarf, Ank Djemel and Sebkha Ez-Zemoul, have been studied in point of view of their morphmetry (13 parameters and their reproduction. The population of Sebkha Ez-Zemoul, living in higher salinities and in sympatry with Artemia salina was different from the 3 other populations that are close together. Its adults are the largest (21.77 ± 2.34 mm and 23.65 ± 2.36 mm for males and females respectively and produce more cysts 771.47±8.45 cysts/brood of 293.11±10.41 µm diameter. Associated carcinological fauna and some behavioral traits are also approached.

  1. Aerogravity and remote sensing observations of an iron deposit in Gara Djebilet, southwestern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersi, Mohand; Saibi, Hakim; Chabou, Moulley Charaf

    2016-04-01

    The Gara Djebilet iron ore region is one of the most important regions in Africa. Located in the southwestern part of Algeria at the border with Mauritania, the Gara Djebilet region is characterized by steep terrain, which makes this area not easily accessible. Due to these conditions, remote sensing techniques and geophysics are the best ways to map this iron ore. The Gara Djebilet formations are characterized by high iron content that is especially rich in hematite, chamosite and goethite. The high iron content causes an absorption band at 0.88 μm, which is referred to as band 5 in the Operational Land Imager (OLI) Landsat 8 images. In this study, we integrated geological data, aerogravity data, and remote sensing data for the purpose of mapping the distribution of the Gara Djebilet iron deposit. Several remote sensing treatments were applied to the Landsat 8 OLI image, such as color composites, band ratioing, principal component analysis and a mathematical index, which helped locate the surface distribution of the iron ore. The results from gravity gradient interpretation techniques, 2-D forward modeling and 3-D inversion of aerogravity data provided information about the 2-D and 3-D distribution of the iron deposit. The combination of remote sensing and gravity results help us evaluate the ore potential of Gara Djebilet. The estimated tonnage of the iron ore at Gara Djebilet is approximately 2.37 billion tonnes with 57% Fe.

  2. The determination of some crystallographic parameters of quartz, in the sand dunes of Ouargla, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddiaf, Samiha; Chihi, Smail; Leghrieb, Youcef

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the crystallographic phase, degree of crystallinity, crystal system, space group and unit cell parameters of quartz in the Ouargla region (Algeria) sand dunes have been determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mid-infrared absorption spectrum showed the characteristic doublet for α-quartz at 796 and 779 cm-1. The observed principle diffractions at the d-spacings of 3.7937, 3.3539 and 1.8204 Å confirm the presence of α-quartz in Ouargla sand. The calculated absorption ratio (degree of crystallinity) of A796 /A779 ≅ 1.756 indicated that our quartz exhibits a highly crystalline nature. The crystallographic parameters of quartz in Ouargla sand have been determined through analysis of X-ray diffraction data, carried out using the simulation code DICVOL06. These parameters were found as: hexagonal crystal system, space group P3221 (154), unit cell parameters: a = b = 4.9294 Å, c = 5.4093 Å and V = 113.832 Å3.

  3. Simulation of seismic events induced by CO2 injection at In Salah, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, James P.; Stork, Anna L.; Bissell, Rob C.; Bond, Clare E.; Werner, Maximilian J.

    2015-09-01

    Carbon capture and storage technology has the potential to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, the geomechanical response of the reservoir and sealing caprocks must be modelled and monitored to ensure that injected CO2 is safely stored. To ensure confidence in model results, there is a clear need to develop ways of comparing model predictions with observations from the field. In this paper we develop an approach to simulate microseismic activity induced by injection, which allows us to compare geomechanical model predictions with observed microseismic activity. We apply this method to the In Salah CCS project, Algeria. A geomechanical reconstruction is used to simulate the locations, orientations and sizes of pre-existing fractures in the In Salah reservoir. The initial stress conditions, in combination with a history matched reservoir flow model, are used to determine when and where these fractures exceed Mohr-Coulomb limits, triggering failure. The sizes and orientations of fractures, and the stress conditions thereon, are used to determine the resulting micro-earthquake focal mechanisms and magnitudes. We compare our simulated event population with observations made at In Salah, finding good agreement between model and observations in terms of event locations, rates of seismicity, and event magnitudes.

  4. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 103 MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO2 eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10−6 t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10−6 t SO2 eq respectively

  5. Diagnosis, seismic analysis and reinforcement of an old building in El-Maleh, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumechra, Nadir; Casciati, Fabio; Hamdaoui, Karim

    2010-12-01

    The Northern part of Algeria is considered to be the most active seismogenic area in the Western Mediterranean region. This area has a rich history of seismicity and had experienced many destructive earthquakes such as the Chlef (1954), El-Asnam (1980), Beni-Chograne (1994), Aïn-Temouchent (1999) and recently Boumerdes (2003) earthquakes. The earthquake of Aïn-Temouchent on December 22, 1999, was of magnitude 5.7, killed at least 28 people and made thousands of families homeless. Consequent damage was seen in all the structures located in a radius of 30 km. In the city of El-Maleh, located 12 km northeast of Aïn-Temouchent, the "The National Bank Branch" of El-Maleh suffered moderate damage, but enough to justify questions about its safety. The project of rehabilitating this building required a broad analysis of its static and dynamic, past and present behaviors. The study reported in this paper was a necessary preliminary step toward the development of an optimal retrofit solution.

  6. The Rhourde El Baguel field in Algeria: modeling of natural fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremolieres, P.; Jacquin, C.; Cuiec, L. (Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)); Allouani, R. (Sonatrach, Boumerdes (DZ)); Fortune, J.P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France)); Girou, A. (Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France))

    The Rhourde el Baguel field in Algeria is made up of a thick series of Cambro-Ordovician sandstone. This highly fractured formation is structured as an horst bounded by two major faults trending NNE-SSW. The western fault has been traversed by well Rb 18, from which the 45 deg tilted sandstone core samples have been the subject of a special analysis. Different methods were used to evaluate the fracturing. The first consisted in linking the thickness of the beds with the intensity of fracturing (Aguilera method). It was found that the thicker a bed was, the more it was fractured, which runs counter to the commonly accepted theory. This finding might be linked to the lithology (the thinner the beds are, the larger the argillaceous matrix content is, and the thicker the argillaceous interbeddings are). Another methodology, based on an analysis of fracturing and the use of probabilistic models linked to the Poisson process, was implemented for well Rb 18, for which dipmeter measurements were available. This study illustrates a methodology for analyzing fracturing by using core samples, with these core samples having first been oriented. 17 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Shallow afterslip following the 2003 May 21, Mw = 6.9 Boumerdes earthquake, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahsas, A.; Lammali, K.; Yelles, K.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Briole, P.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated post-seismic deformation following the 2003 May 21, Mw = 6.9 Boumerdes, Algeria, earthquake using surface displacements from six continuous Global Positioning System sites that operated in the epicentral area for 2.5 yr following the event. We find up to 4 cm of cumulative horizontal displacement during that time period, with a time-dependence well fit by a logarithmic decay. Post-seismic deformation appears to continue at all sites after the 2.5-yr observation period, with rates on the order of 1 cmyr-1 or less. The data is consistent with shallow afterslip (0-5 km) and shows no evidence for afterslip downdip of the coseismic rupture. The data is poorly explained by viscoelastic relaxation in the lower crust or upper mantle, or by poroelastic rebound. The concentration of afterslip adjacent to and updip of the coseismic rupture, at least in the western half of the fault, suggests that afterslip is driven by coseismic stresses. The correlation between the depth of afterslip and that of the sedimentary wedge along the Algerian margin, while coseismic slip occurs in deeper basement rocks, suggests (1) that post-seismic deformation may also involve folding and (2) that spatial variations in frictional properties along the fault correlate with the type of rocks involved.

  8. Quercus faginea in the Mounts of Tlemcen (North-west Algeria: State of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Berrichi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a summary of the dendrometric characteristics, the microscopic image and the physic-mechanical properties of wood and principally leaves morphology for to show the existence of zeen oak (Quercus faginea population in the far North West of Algeria with specific characters. The morphology of 400 mature leaves taken from 10 trees at the 4 exposures shows that the length of the leaf blade is about 8.568 cm, the width is 4.955 cm, its perimeter about 14.280 cm and its surface area 15.14 cm2. The mature leaf is composed of 20 lobes; the length of the six largest lobes is about 3.098 cm and the angles of their ribs 51.352°. The morphological characters studied have relatively high variability between the four aspects. Leaves at southern aspect have the lowest vegetative values. In contrast, at eastern aspect trees have large leaves with vegetative characters developed.

  9. EXPLOITING ICT AND E-LEARNING IN TEACHER’S PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ALGERIA:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutkhil GUEMIDE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The real potential of ICT is the way it changes learners to become autonomous in their learning process. E-learning also plays a crucial role in today's life and in modern education. Its importance lies in the fact that people are finding that e-learning can make a remarkable change in teaching/ or learning: to how quickly they master a skill; how easy it is to study; and how much they enjoy learning. Besides, it can contribute to to policy-making in education: to raising standards; improving quality; removing barriers to learning and participation in learning, preparing for employment; upskilling in the workplace; and ultimately, ensuring that every learner achieves their full potential. E-learning can also be best exploited in teacher education and training. Since teacher development is critical, this paper explains why e-learning is a crucial factor in teacher development and outlines how both ICTs and E-learning can help English secondary school teachers’ professional development in Algeria through the creation of an effective e-learning web- site.

  10. Study of the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes in inbred populations in Western Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study, conducted in western Algeria on a sample of 1561 individuals, 830 with type 2 diabetes and 731 witnesses, has established a profile of high-risk individuals of type 2 diabetes. The characters studied related significantly to diabetes for the 2 sexes, consanguinity (OR =2.3, 95% CI = 2.36 - 4.34,p< 0.01), the heredity factor (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.41 - 2.88,p< 0.01), the geographic gradient (p< 0.01), the slice age which is between 40 and 54 years (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.48-4.25,p< 0.01)and in 54 years and over (OR = 6.57, 95% CI = 3.92-11.0,p< 0.01), the overweight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.04-2.36, p = 0.031) and obesity (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.15-2.98, p = 0.011) marital status (OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.60-8.45,p < 0.01) and type of housing (individual or collective house, OR = 0.36, 95%, CI = 0.20-0.63, p< 0.01). (author)

  11. Antibacterial susceptibility profiles of subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated in Batna and Setif Governorates (East of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamache Bakir

    Full Text Available Sub-clinical mastitis is a main pathology of dairy husbandry because it is not clinically recognized by the owners and the veterinarians. For this reason, its economic loss is usually underestimated in milk production. This study has been undertaken in order to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of sub-clinicalmastitis in Batna and Setif governorates (East of Algeria. For this purpose, a detailed bacteriological study of all bacterial strains isolated from sub-clinical mastitis followed by a study of their antibacterial susceptibility profiles has been undertaken. 89 bacterial strains distributed as follows were studied: 27 strains of staphylococci among which 23 were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS that are generally incriminated in sub-clinical mastitis. 39 strains of streptococci among which 10 were Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis strains. 23 strains of enterobacteria represented mainly by Escherichia coli (E.coli. All these bacterial strains were isolated from cow milk of 3 different farms. The antibacterial susceptibility profiles have revealed a susceptibility of the isolated strains to a large number of antibiotics mainly to the Neomycin, the Cephalexin and the Spiramycin. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 537-541

  12. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF AIRBORNE BACTERIA IN THE MUNICIPAL SLAUGHTERHOUSE OF CONSTANTINE - ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Agabou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of airborne bacterial contamination (with Total aerobic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, Coliforms, Staphylococci and Streptococci was studied within the municipal abattoir of Constantine (North-East of Algeria. Open plate air samples were collected at twenty sampling locations weekly during two months. At the same chosen locations, temperature and humidity of the air were measured. The spatial distribution of bacterial contamination was studied using a Geographic Information System. The viscera processing section recorded the highest bacterial concentration and poor correlations had been recorded between bacterial counts and the environmental conditions within the abattoir. The high air bacterial loads recorded all over the slaughterhouse were consequence of the execution of all processing operations within the same section (for both bovine and ovine carcasses associated to the absence of structural barriers, spatial separation between processing operations and uncontrolled airflow. This study highlights the poor hygienic level of the municipal slaughterhouse of Constantine. The implementation of serious measures is needed to reduce the risk of contamination and proliferation of pathogens in meat during slaughtering processes.

  13. Economic growth and energy consumption in Algeria: a causality analysis; Croissance economique et consommation energetique en Algerie: une analyse en termes de causalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherfi, S. [Faculte des Sciences Economiques, Sciences de Gestion et des Sciences Commerciales, Dept. des Sciences Commerciales, Universite d' Oran (Algeria)

    2011-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to review the causal link in the Granger sense, between energy consumption and economic growth in Algeria, to determine its implications for economic policy. The analysis was done based on Granger static and causality tests using statistical data on per capita primary energy consumption and gross domestic product per inhabitant in Algeria, over the 1965-2008 period. The results of the survey show that there is, in Algeria, a strong link between energy consumption per inhabitant and GDP per inhabitant. The results also suggest the lack of a long term impetus (no co-integration) between energy consumption and economic growth. In addition, there is a one-way causal link between GDP and energy consumption, i.e. the prior GDP data provides a better forecast of energy consumption level, but not the contrary. In other words, GDP explains consumption, not the contrary. (author)

  14. Evidence for an underground runoff and soil permeability at the Ouled Fayet (Algiers, Algeria) buried waste pilot project: needs for a specific landfill implantation code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djadia, Leila; Abtout, Abdslam; Boudella, Amar

    2014-05-01

    Results from geophysical investigations (electrical resistivity, electromagnetic mapping and seismic refraction) on an empty excavated rack of the Ouled Fayet (Algiers, Algeria) pilot landfill evidenced a more permeable soil than found by a feasibility study and the presence of an underground runoff underneath the rack. The problem was to evaluate the degree of confidence of the feasibility study, based on 76 10-m drilling cores only, 6 of them performed on the studied rack. To the contrary of what is claimed in the feasibility study a threat of lixiviate pollution is real. It is more than urgent to elaborate a code for landfill implantation in Algeria, which should include mandatory geophysical prospecting and deeper drilling cores. Keywords: Landfill, Geophysical prospecting, Underground runoff, Permeability, Algeria.

  15. Algeria: ambitious energetic aims are on the way to be reached; Algerie: d'ambitieux objectifs energetiques en bonne voie d'etre atteints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-08-01

    In phase of transition between a planed economy and a market economy, Algeria wants to succeed and advances rapidly in the energy sector towards a more and more important position on the international scene. The trust minister, Chakib Khelil, has came to explain it to French people at the beginning of the summer, an 'important' event according to him because it is the first time for years that an algerian minister of energy came in France. The opportunity to welcome 'the excellent economic and political relations between the two countries' and to recall the main energetic plans in progress in Algeria. (O.M.)

  16. The international documents of Petrole and Techniques. Algeria 2002; Les dossiers internationaux de petrole et techniques. Algerie 2002 premiere partie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-08-01

    In the first part of the document Chakib Khelil presents the current reforms and the upstream sector groups take stock on 15 years of market deregulation. The hydrocarbons sector, motor of the Algerian economy, opens more and more leading the country to the modernity. The upstream market deregulation allowed to restore the petroleum and gas reserves level and to modernize the concerned societies. Facing the new petroleum deposits in Algeria, opportunities are given to french and foreign societies which will accept risks and strategical partnership. (A.L.B.)

  17. Seismic tomography of the area of the 2010 Beni-Ilmane earthquake sequence, north-central Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abacha, Issam; Koulakov, Ivan; Semmane, Fethi; Yelles-Chaouche, Abd Karim

    2014-01-01

    The region of Beni-Ilmane (District of M’sila, north-central Algeria) was the site of an earthquake sequence that started on 14 May 2010. This sequence, which lasted several months, was triggered by conjugate E–W reverse and N–S dextral faulting. To image the crustal structure of these active faults, we used a set of 1406 well located aftershocks events and applied the local tomography software (LOTOS) algorithm, which includes absolute source location, optimization of the initial 1D velocity...

  18. Simulation of a semiarid stream flow using the 1D model (Rubarbe) : case of Ksob Wadi in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hasbaia, M.; Adoui, H.; Paquier, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to show the ability of 1D model to simulate the wadi flow during the flood. The wadi is a semiarid stream characterized by the non uniform geometry and an intermittent flow. These complexities can be modelled by a robust 1D model such as Rubarbe. In this article we study the 1994 flood of Ksob wadi that caused a large inundation of M’sila town in the center of Algeria. The simulated reach located downstream the Ksob dam, crosses M’sila over a length of 6800 m w...

  19. Paleomagnetism of the Liassic member of the Zarzaïtine Formation (stable Saharan craton, Illizi basin, Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bayou; Merabet, N.; Henry, B; M. E. M. Derder; M. Amenna

    2001-01-01

    A paleomagnetic study was carried out in the carbonates and marls of the Liassic member of the Zarzaïtine Formation of the Illizi basin (SE Algeria) deposited in a continental environment. Two magnetization components were identified. The first, defined at relatively low blocking temperature, was isolated in five sites, and yields the following paleomagnetic pole (80.8°N, 20.1°E, K = 811 and A 95 = 2.2°). This magnetization is considered an overprint acquired during Cenozoic times. The second...

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Biomass Power Plant in Morocco and a Photovoltaic Installation in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of cost-benefit analysis general methodology, describing its principles and basic characteristics. This methodology was applied to two case studies analyzed in the project INTERSUDMED, one biomass power plant fed by energy crops in El Hajeb (Morocco) and the other a photovoltaic installation in Djanet (Algeria). Both cases have been selected among the ones analyzed in the INTERSUDMED Project because of their interesting social implications and possible alternatives, that make them most suitable for cost-benefit analysis application. Finally, this report addresses the conclusions of both studies and summarizes the most relevant obtained results. (Author) 13 refs

  1. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Biomass Power Plant in Morocco and a Photovoltaic Installation in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez Leal, J.; Varela, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents an overview of cost-benefit analysis general methodology, describing its principles and basic characteristics. This methodology was applied to two case studies analyzed in the project INTERSUDMED, one biomass power plant fed by energy crops in El Hajeb (Morocco) and the other a photovoltaic installation in Djanet (Algeria). Both cases have been selected among the ones analyzed in the INTERSUDMED Project because of their interesting social implications and possible alternatives, that make them most suitable for cost-benefit analysis application. Finally, this report addresses the conclusions of both studies and summarizes the most relevant obtained results. (Author) 13 refs.

  2. Weathering of Ordinary Chondrites from Algeria and Australia as a Climatic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, P. A.; Berry, F. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-09-01

    Introduction: Recently it has been recognized that ordinary chondrite meteorites resident in desert regions may preserve information about the climate at the time of their arrival on Earth in the degree to which they are weathered [1], providing that a stable surface has existed at the accumulation site. We present here a comparison of ^57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy data for additional meteorites for which terrestrial ages exist, recovered from Reg el Acfer, Algeria and the Nullarbor Region, Australia. Results and Discussion: The data presented in Fig. 1 compare abundance of ferric iron oxide/oxyhydroxide species against terrestrial age [2, 3] for ordinary chondrites from Australia (a) and Algeria (b). Even with an increased dataset for Australian meteorites (compared to that already presented [1]) the initial hypothesis remains intact i.e. meteorite weathering over time is sensitive to changes in climate. Peaks in oxidation at around 2,000, 7,000 and 23,000 years correspond to periods of speleothem formation [4] and high lake level status [5]. Similarly, a period of low oxidation between 12,000-20,000 years is mirrored in low lake level status [5] and aridity in the Nullarbor [6]. The mechanism by which meteorites may record palaeoclimatic information is given in [1]. A correlation that strengthens our case is that where data from both H and L(LL) chondrites are available (i.e. around 7,000-8,000 years) the two plots are similar, indicating a broadscale environmental effect. In contrast, the distribution for meteorites from the Acfer region appears to be more random, with no correlation between H and L(LL) data. The difference may be related to the stability of the respective accumulation surfaces. The surface of the Nullarbor appears to have been stable over the last 30,000 years [7]. The Algerian and Libyan Sahara, however, has experienced several episodes of active fluvial processes over the last 10,000 years [8] which may have profoundly effected the meteorites

  3. The economic issue of tourism: Algerian and socio-economic conditions of sustainable development in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Boumendjel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract in English: The development is the dominant characteristic of the evolution of the world economy since the end of the last war. Evidently it requires an important effort of investment in order to increase the potential of production and a programming or scheduling to orient the choices and the actions.It rests on the economical growth but this growth needs all activity branches to be lasting. The question is to know if it is possible to arrive to the stage of a supportable growth from a sector among others, the tourism. Before, we need to appreciate the economic importance of this sector and to know the mechanisms by which the main social and economic variables influence its multiple activities.  A real analysis of the determinants of the touristy offer and demand as well as the analysis of the touristy products and markets would have permitted us to appreciate its role better in its possible quality of second wealth after the hydrocarbons. The lack of acceptable data is the major reason of its impossibility. In all cases, we are going to tempt to appreciate its importance through the three essential questions of economists: why, how and what.  To tempt to answer there is making a first step toward the research of the solutions that would facilitate the process of lasting development of the tourism in Algeria.  Key words: advantage, competitiveness, challenges, issues, training, investment, obstacle Outline of the articlePart 1: Why invest in the tourism sector?Section 1: Benefits and current Challenges socioeconomicSection 2: The Dutch disease in AlgeriaSection 3: The "grapes" of modern tourismPart 2: How to get involved in the tourism sector?Section 1: Between the theoretical and the practicalSection 2: The necessary lifting of barriersSection 3: The essential conditions of the tourist take-off Part 3: What products make available?Section 1: Economy of market in tourismSection 2: Economics of transportation and housingSection 3

  4. The economic issue of tourism: Algerian and socio-economic conditions of sustainable development in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Boumendjel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract in English:The development is the dominant characteristic of the evolution of the world economy since the end of the last war. Evidently it requires an important effort of investment in order to increase the potential of production and a programming or scheduling to orient the choices and the actions.It rests on the economical growth but this growth needs all activity branches to be lasting. The question is to know if it is possible to arrive to the stage of a supportable growth from a sector among others, the tourism. Before, we need to appreciate the economic importance of this sector and to know the mechanisms by which the main social and economic variables influence its multiple activities. A real analysis of the determinants of the touristy offer and demand as well as the analysis of the touristy products and markets would have permitted us to appreciate its role better in its possible quality of second wealth after the hydrocarbons. The lack of acceptable data is the major reason of its impossibility. In all cases, we are going to tempt to appreciate its importance through the three essential questions of economists: why, how and what. To tempt to answer there is making a first step toward the research of the solutions that would facilitate the process of lasting development of the tourism in Algeria. Key words: advantage, competitiveness, challenges, issues, training, investment, obstacleOutline of the articlePart 1: Why invest in the tourism sector?Section 1: Benefits and current Challenges socioeconomicSection 2: The Dutch disease in AlgeriaSection 3: The "grapes" of modern tourismPart 2: How to get involved in the tourism sector?Section 1: Between the theoretical and the practicalSection 2: The necessary lifting of barriersSection 3: The essential conditions of the tourist take-offPart 3: What products make available?Section 1: Economy of market in tourismSection 2: Economics of transportation and housingSection 3: Internal

  5. The potential of rabbit meat marketing in Tizi-Ouzou area, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadi S.A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, the raising of the rabbit for meat develops more and more these last years. Several segments of this young sector have been studied as the feeding and reproduction. However, the segment of marketing has not been approached yet. This paper provides an overview of the rabbit meat marketing system in the Tizi-Ouzou area. To meet this objective the descriptive survey method was employed, using a structured questionnaire to provide data on commercialization of rabbit meat. Butcheries (n=192, poulterers (n=49, restaurants (n=184 and hotels (n=11 were concerned. Rabbit meat is sold in 8.48% (n=37 of stores visited and do not sold in 91.51% (n=399 ones. It’s marketed more cooked (restaurants and hotels than fresh (butcheries and poulterers. 75.44% of respondents who do not sell rabbit meat justifies it by the lack of demand and 10.78% (n=43 because of its unavailability. Rabbits are bought from producers generally as whole carcasses (86.49% of about 1.4 kg. In the butcheries and poulterers, rabbit meat is sold to consumers at an average price of 470 DA (1U$=95 DA. 44.56 kg of rabbit meat are sold per week. The marketing of this meat is fragmented, inefficient so its distribution chain is disorganized. Despite those problems, there are also opportunities for expansion of this market. Given the current low levels of consumption of rabbit meat, there is a potential for total consumption of this meat to increase substantially as production and availability increases. More attention must be given to the market outlets and promotions of rabbit meat in Tizi-Ouzou area.

  6. Patient dose assessment in various Interventional radiology and cardiology procedures in Algeria (IAEA regional project results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Purpose: To evaluate patient doses in Interventional Radiology (IR) and Cardiology (IC) procedures in Algeria, within the framework of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regional project on radiation protection of patients and medical exposure control (RAF 9033). Materials and Methods: Three public hospitals (CHU Bab el Oued, CHU Parnet and CHU Mustapha) and one specialised Cardiology Service (Clinique Maouche) were chosen for the study. For Maximum Skin Dose (MSD) evaluation, gafchromic films XR type R were used, placed on patient's back before the procedure. The Dose Area Product (DAP) and MSD were measured in 57 IR and IC procedures, either diagnostic or therapeutic. Results: The results revealed large variations in MSD (0.06-3.3 Gy) and DAP (5.5-332 mGycm2). Mean MSD was 0.227 Gy in cerebral angiography, 0.202 Gy in coronary angiography, 1.162 Gy in Percutaneus Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) and 0.128 in abdominal angiography. The correlation of DAP and MSD was significant (r = 0.7). The correlation was DAP and fluoroscopy time was also significant (r = 0.8). Conclusion: The highest MSD values were found in PTCA which is a therapeutic procedure. Two PTCAs out of the 57 procedures measured in total had MSD over the threshold of 2 Gy for deterministic effects (MSD1 = 3.0 Gy and MSD2 3.3 Gy). The large variations in MSD reveal the need to continuously monitor patient doses in IR and IC procedures with special emphasis in PTCA procedure. (author)

  7. AGGRESSIVENESS AND MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF SMALL SPORE Alternaria SPECIES ISOLATED FROM ALGERIA

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    Nabahat Bessadat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural epidemics of blight disease are strongly influenced by environmental conditions, even though several diseases appears every year in north western of Algeria which can cause complete loss of the crop when the infection is severe. The fungi which are frequently associated with leaf blight, stem blight and apical fruit rot of Solanaceae family are Alternaria arborescens, A. alternata and A. tenuissima. These fungi were identified on morphological characteristics. For that, eighty one small spore strains belonging to the A. alternata section were assessed for disease symptoms, percent disease incidence (PDI and area under the diseases progress curve (AUDPC on three different tomato cultivars. Among the tested fungal isolates, it revealed that PDI of the isolates were changed according to the cultivar and the highest blight disease incidence was found in A. tenuissima strain 164 (96% in Saint Pierre, 59% in Cherry tomato and 69% in Rio Grande, it was followed be A. alternata strain 156 (90% in Saint Pierre, 82% in cherry tomato and 46% in Rio Grande and A. arborescens strain 65 (49% in Saint Pierre, 85% in cherry tomato and 63,15% in Rio Grande. According to the aggressiveness component of the isolates, the classical behavior of the cultivars was confirmed, and Saint Pierre and Rio Grande cultivars were found susceptible with a slightly higher mean of AUDPC (413.72 and 390.48 respectively but Cherry tomato cultivar was found to be resistant with the lowest AUDPC mean 227.18 ± 166.10. Based upon results of present study, it was concluded that a complex of small spore Alternaria species and isolates found on Solanaceae lesions are not equally pathogenic but majority of A. tenuissima isolates are not the part of this complex.

  8. BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND PUBLIC PERCEPTION ABOUT DRINKING WATER OF BOREHOLES IN ARIB (AIN DEFLA, ALGERIA

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    F. C. Hamaidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water from boreholes in Arib (Ain Defla, south-west of Algeria was investigated to ascertain its quality status and suitability for drinking and domestic uses. Fifty six water samples were collected from four boreholes. The analyses of the Coliform counts obtained from various boreholes samples ranged between 0 and 200 CFU/ 100 ml with regard to total Coliforms and between 0 and 8 CFU/ 100 ml with regard to fecal Coliforms. Three of the boreholes samples showed contamination by Streptococcus sp. Pathogens like Salmonella were not identified but some low levels of sulfite-reducing bacteria was found. The interviews were done to assess perceptions on water taste problems, odour, colour, and turbidity and health problems. The respondents were taken from people in the community using random sampling technique. Sixty people were sampled at each area surrounding the boreholes. It was found out that 43.3% of the respondents rated their drinking water safe for consumption as well as absence of illness after drinking as indicators for judging the quality of the water. The others respondents (56.7% reported having at least some concerns with safety of their water.  More  than 20% of the households reported at least one household member having suffered some water related illness in the past two years. Respondents were asked to judge the quality of the water, based on four sensory characteristics of drinking water. Many respondents rated the smell (33.3%, taste (20%, colour (23.3% and turbidity (23.3%. These results showed that all the samples did not satisfy the WHO requirements for bacteriological characteristics in human consumption.

  9. Ecological Analysis of Deserti Fication Processes in Semi Arid Land in Algeria Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegrar, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Desertification, a phenomenon of loss of productivity of the land is both a matter of Environment and Development (Cornet, 2002). It is linked to the anthropogenic action and to climate variability but also to changes in biodiversity, in particular the Maghreb (Hobbs et al., 1995). The desertification of the steppe areas of North Africa (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) is considered of special concern by the specialists in these regions. Desertification, Climate Change and the erosion of biodiversity are the central issues for the development of arid, semi-­arid. In this region, the combination of two factors, climatic and anthropogenic, has fostered a deterioration of the vegetation cover, soil erosion and the scarcity of water resources. The climate of this region is characterized by periods of recurring droughts since the 1970s. The anthropogenic pressure is the result of a combination of factors among which the strong demographic growth, the intensification and extension of production systems agro-­pastoral or still further the concentration of a growing livestock on smaller spaces. In this study, the criteria for classification and identification of physical parameters for spatial ecological analysis of vegetation in the steppe region to determine the degradation and vulnerability vegetation formations and how to conduct to phenomenon of desertification. So we use some satellite data in different dates (LANDSAT) in order to determine the ecological of steppe formation and changes in land cover, sand moving and forest deterioration. The application of classification and some arithmetic combination with NDVI and MSAVI2 through specific processes was used to characterize the main steppe formations. An ecological analysis of plant communities and impact of sand move describe the nature of the desertification phenomenon and allow us to determine the impact of factors of climate and entropic activity in the Algerian steppe.

  10. Estimating suspended sediment yield, sedimentation controls and impacts in the Mellah Catchment of Northern Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an assessment of the suspended sediment yield in the Mellah Catchment of northern Algeria. We use discharge-sediment load relationships to explore the variability of water discharge and sediment load, and to investigate the impact of geomorphic factors disturbance on erosion and sedimentation. Suspended sediment load was analyzed in the Mellah Catchment (550 squre kms ) which was controlled by a gauging station to measure discharge and sediment transport. The relations between daily mean sediment concentration and daily mean water discharge were analyzed to develop sediment rating curves. For storms with no water samples, a sediment rating curve was developed. The technique involves stratification of data into discharge-based classes, the mean of which are used to fit a rating curve according to single flow data and season to provide various rating relationships. The mean annual sediment yield during the 24 years of the study period was 562 T km -2 in the Mellah Catchment. This drainage basin had high rainfall and runoff, the erosion was high. The high sediment yield in the Mellah basin could be explained by a high percentage of sparse grassland and cultivation developed on shallow marly silty-clayey soils with steep slopes often exceeding 12%. Almost all suspended sediment loads are transported during storm events that mainly occur in the winter and spring heavy and medium downpours. The scarceness of these events leads to a very large interseasonal variability of the wadi sediment fluxes. The negative impacts of this enhanced sediment mobility are directly felt in the western part of the basin which shows many mass movements, bank and gully erosion because cultivated areas are often bared during autumnal brief flash floods and furrowed downslope during the winter season. (author)

  11. Mineralogical and chemical characterization of DD3 kaolin from the east of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senoussi, H.; Osmani, H.; Courtois, C.; Bourahli, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    The mineralogical and chemical characteristics, based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, of a kaolin known as DD3, from eastern Algeria were examined in the present study. The results showed that kaolin DD3 has an alumina content of 39%. The SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratio of 2.14 is close to that of a pure halloysite. The hematite concentration is relatively large and the flux oxides ratios remain as acceptable impurities. Microscopic observations showed a predominant tubular halloysite phase, flattened hexagonal platelets corresponding to the presence of kaolinite and its polymorphs (nacrite, dickite), and hydrated alumina. The SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratio and tubular DD3 suggest possible uses in technical ceramics and nano technology applications. Analysis by XRD revealed the presence of many phases. Thermal treatment at 450 degree centigrade and chemical treatment with HCl confirmed the presence of halloysite. The inclusion in the clay of organic molecules (dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), DMF, and diluted glycerol) showed that the DMSO led to expansion of the inter-planar distance. The intercalation by DMSO molecules resulted in a shift of the basal peak from 10 to 11.02 A and partial displacement of the peak from 3.35 to 3.65 A. These two peaks are characteristic of halloysite. The presence of residual nacrite was also confirmed by the shift of the peak observed at 3.35 A. A full analysis of the XRD patterns using the Match software, based on these results, showed that the DD3 clay consists of >60% halloysite. (Author)

  12. Techno–Economic Feasibility Study of Nuclear Desalination: Algeria Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is anticipated that by 2025, 33% of the world population, or more than 1.8 billion people, will live in countries or regions without adequate supplies of water unless new desalination plants become operational. In many areas, the rate of water usage already exceeds the rate of replenishment. Nuclear reactors have already been used for desalination on relatively small-scale projects. In total, more than 150 reactor-years of operating experience with nuclear desalination has been accumulated worldwide. Eight nuclear reactors coupled to desalination projects are currently in operation in Japan. India commissioned the ND demonstration project in the year 2008 and the plant has been in continuous operation supplying demineralised (DM) quality water to the nuclear power plant and potable quality to the reservoir. Pakistan has launched a similar project in 2010. However, the great majority of the more than 7500 desalination plants in operation worldwide today use fossil fuels with the attendant emission of carbon dioxide and other GHG. Increasing the use of fossil fuels for energy-intensive processes such as large-scale desalination plants is not a sustainable long-term option in view of the associated environmental impacts. Thus, the main energy sources for future desalination are nuclear power reactors and renewable energy sources such as solar, hydro, or wind, but only nuclear reactors are capable of delivering the copious quantities of energy required for large-scale desalination projects. Algeria is participating in an IAEA’s CRP in the subject related to “New technologies for seawater desalination using nuclear energy’’ with a project entitled “Optimization of coupling nuclear reactors and desalination systems for an Algerian site Skikda”. This project is a contribution to the IAEA CRP to enrich the economic data corresponding to the choice of technical and economical options for coupling nuclear reactors and desalination systems for specific sites in

  13. Identification of vancomycin-susceptible major clones of clinical Enterococcus from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourafa, Nadjette; Abat, Cédric; Loucif, Lotfi; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Bentorki, Ahmed Aimen; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    The main objectives of this study were to characterize clinical strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated from Algerian inpatients and outpatients, to investigate their susceptibility to antibiotics and to analyse their phylogenetic relatedness. A total of 85 non-duplicate Enterococcus spp. isolates collected between 2010 and 2013 from various clinical samples, including urine, vaginal swab, pus, blood and semen, from Algerian inpatients (n=62) and outpatients (n=23) were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Clonal relatedness was analysed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Enterococcus faecalis was the most predominant species (75.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecium (21.2%), Enterococcus gallinarum (2.4%) and Enterococcus casseliflavus (1.2%). High-level resistance to aminoglycosides was significantly more prevalent in hospitalized patients than in outpatients. None of the E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were resistant to vancomycin. High genetic diversity was observed among the E. faecalis isolates, with the identification of a new clonal complex (CC256), as well as the detection of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium lineages ST17, ST18 and ST78 associated with hospital isolates. This is the first report of E. faecalis ST6 and E. faecium ST17 and ST18 in Algeria. Although acquired vancomycin resistance was not observed among the enterococcal strains, there is a continued need to monitor the level of antibiotic resistance among enterococci as well as the evolution of the E. faecalis/E. faecium ratio. PMID:27530845

  14. Business cycle and economic-wide energy intensity: The implications for energy conservation policy in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the prevalence of voluntary and involuntary energy conservation policies, developing countries in Africa continue to struggle to achieve energy efficiency targets. Consequently, energy intensity levels have risen threatening the security of the energy system. This raises the important question: is there an economic state that induces agents to be energy conscious? In this study, we study the case of Algeria's energy intensity from 1971 to 2010. First, the paper argues that there is a certain economic state that economic agents find investing in energy conservation a viable option. Any state different from that would mean not investing in energy conservation. Second, the paper argues that the economy can do better even with an infinitesimal reduction in fuel subsidy, and that the gains in revenue from the policy can compensate for the negative socio-economic and equity impacts associated with such a policy. Third, the paper argues that, so long as, industrial expansion in the country move parallel with investment in technological innovation, long-term sustainable growth and energy conservation targets are jointly feasible. Fourth, the paper shows that income elasticity evolves with the business cycle, and the absorptive capability of the host country affects how FDI (foreign direct inflows) impact energy intensity. - Highlights: • Low income states inhibit fuel substitution and investment in energy conservation. • Income elasticity evolves as we pass through boom and recessionary periods. • The goals of sustainable growth and energy conservation are not mutually exclusive. • Absorptive capability affects the impact of FDI on energy intensity

  15. The Beni Haoua, Algeria, Mw 4.9 earthquake: source parameters, engineering, and seismotectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Khadidja; Dorbath, Louis; Dorbath, Catherine; Djeddi, Mohamed; Ousadou, Farida; Maouche, Said; Benkaci, Nassima; Slimani, Abdennasser; Larbes, Said; Bouziane, Djillali

    2016-04-01

    A moderate Mw 4.9 earthquake struck the Beni Haoua (Algeria) coastal area on April 25, 2012. The mainshock was largely recorded by the accelerograph network of the Centre National de Recherche Appliquée en Génie Parasismique (CGS). The same day the earthquake occurred, eight mobile short period stations were deployed through the epicentral area. In this study, we use accelerogram and seismogram data recorded by these two networks. We combined the focal mechanism built from the first motion of P waves and from waveform inversion, and the distribution of aftershocks to well constrain the source parameters. The mainshock is located with a shallow focal depth, ˜9 km, and the focal mechanism shows a nearly pure left lateral strike slip motion, with total seismic moment of 2.8 × 1016 N.m (Mw = 4.9). The aftershocks mainly cluster on a narrow NS strip, starting at the coast up to 3-4 km inland. This cluster, almost vertical, is concentrated between 6 and 10 km depth. The second part of this work concerns the damage distribution and estimated intensity in the epicentral area. The damage distribution is discussed in connection with the observed maximum strong motion. The acceleration response spectrum with 5 % damping of the mainshock and aftershocks give the maximum amplitude in high frequency which directly affects the performance of the high-frequency structures. Finally, we tie this earthquake with the seismotectonic of the region, leading to conclude that it occurred on a N-S transform zone between two major compressional fault zones oriented NE-SW.

  16. The Beni-Ilmane (Algeria) seismic sequence of May 2010: Seismic sources and stress tensor calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldjoudi, H.; Delouis, B.; Djellit, H.; Yelles-Chaouche, A.; Gharbi, S.; Abacha, I.

    2016-02-01

    A moderate earthquake with a moment magnitude of Mw 5.5 struck the Sub-Bibanique region of eastern Algeria on 14 May 2010, killing three people, injuring hundreds of others, and causing moderate damages in the epicentral area, mainly in the villages of Beni-Ilmane and Samma. The focal mechanism of the seismic source for the first shock, obtained by near-field waveform modelling, exhibits left-lateral strike-slip faulting with the first nodal plane oriented at N345°, and right-lateral strike-slip faulting with the second nodal plane oriented at N254°. A second earthquake that struck the region on 16 May 2010, with a moment magnitude of Mw 5.1, was located 9 km SW of the first earthquake. The focal mechanism obtained by waveform modelling showed reverse faulting with nodal planes oriented NE-SW (N25° and N250°). A third earthquake that struck the region on 23 May 2010, with a moment magnitude of Mw 5.2, was located 7 km S of the first shock. The obtained focal mechanism showed a left-lateral strike-slip plane oriented at N12° and a right-lateral strike-slip plane oriented at N257°. Field investigations combined with geological and seismotectonic analyses indicate that the three earthquake shocks were generated by activity on three distinct faults. The second and third shocks were generated on faults oriented WSW-ENE and NNE-SSW, respectively. The regional stress tensor calculated in the region gives an orientation of N340° for the maximum compressive stress direction (σ1) which is close to the horizontal, with a stress shape factor indicating either a compressional or a strike-slip regime.

  17. Establishment of a quality audit programme for radiation therapy dosimetry in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quality audit programme for external radiotherapy was set up at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Algeria. The programme was initiated in the framework of an IAEA coordinated research project. The first step of the programme was to set-up a recognized External Audit Group (EAG), comprising a radiation physicist from the SSDL, medical physicist and a radiation oncologist form the hospitals. The IAEA methodology using TLD 100 LiF powder was established. Capsules containing an amount of about 160 mg of LiF powder used as dosemeters, were calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water by comparison with an ionization chamber whose calibration factor is traceable to the BIPM. The calibration curve was validated with irradiations performed by the IAEA, the radiotherapy centres of Leuven (Belgium) and IGR (France) and the primary standard dosimetry laboratory of NRC (Canada). The programme covered first Co-60 beams and was extended to include high-energy photon beams, at a later stage. For high energy photon beams, it was necessary to study the energy dependence of the LiF dosimeters, using the linear accelerators in the hospitals. Furthermore, a fading effect of the TLD 100 powder was studied. It was found that after 3 months, a TL signal decreases by 3%. An intercomparison with the reference centres cited above, and with two laboratories involved in similar programmes, was made for absorbed doses between 140 cGy to 280 cGy. The maximum deviation obtained was 2%, which is within the acceptance level of ±3.5%. In the present paper, the methodology followed by the EAG is presented and the results of the beam calibration checks performed from 1997 to 1999 are analysed

  18. The Boumerdes (Algeria) earthquake of May 21, 2003 (Mw = 6.8): Ground deformation and intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhadad, Y.; Nour, A.; Slimani, A.; Laouami, N.; Belhai, D.

    A destructive earthquake of magnitude Mw = 6.8 hit the region of Boumerdes and Algiers (Algeria) on May 21, 2003. This is among the strongest seismic events of the mediterranean region and the most important event in the capital Algiers since 1716. It caused a widespread damage in the epicentral region, claimed 2271 human lives, injured 10000, about 20000 housing units affected and left about 160000 homeless. The main shock was felt about 250 km far from the epicenter and triggered sea waves of 1-3 m in amplitude in Balearic islands (Spain). Based on field observations and press report an intensity IX (MSK scale) is attributed to the epicentral area. The main shock was followed by many aftershocks among them several are of magnitude greater than 5.0, which added panic to inhabitants. The main shock triggered ground deformation, particularly liquefaction whose features are in different forms and sizes and caused damage and collapse of roads. The focal mechanism determined by worldwide institutions yield a pure reverse faulting with a compressional axis striking NE-SW. The epicenter is located offshore about 7 km from the Boumerdes-Dellys coast. Field observations show 0.7 m of coseismic uplift of shoreline between Boudouaou and Dellys. This uplift is about a half of the extracted coseismic slip from the seismic moment. On the other hand there is no clear surface break onshore, confirming hence, that the causative active fault is offshore. However, the rupture may propagate onshore to the SE near the Boudouaou region where ground cracks showing reverse faulting are observed a long a corridor of about 1 km wide. These fissures may correspond to a diffuse coseismic deformation.

  19. Modeling ground surface uplift during CO2 sequestration: the case of In Salah, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Rutqvist, Jonny; Finsterle, Stefan; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2016-04-01

    Observable ground deformation, common in storage projects, carries useful information on processes occurring at the injection depth. The Krechba gas field at In Salah (Algeria) is one of the best known sites for studying ground surface deformation during geological storage. Being the first industrial-scale on-shore CO2 demonstration project, the site is well known for satellite-based ground-deformation monitoring data of remarkable quality. In this work, we carry out coupled fluid flow and geomechanical simulations to understand the uplift at three different CO2 injection wells (KB-501, KB-502, KB-503). Previous numerical studies focused on the KB-502 injection well, where a double-lobe uplift pattern has been observed in the ground-deformation data. The observed uplift patterns at KB-501 and KB-503 are different, but also indicate the influence of deep fracture zone mechanical responses. The current study improves the previous modeling approach by introducing an injection reservoir and a fracture zone, both responding to a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. In addition, we model a stress-dependent permeability and bulk modulus, according to a dual continuum model. Mechanical and hydraulic properties were determined through inverse modeling by matching the simulated spatial and temporal evolution of uplift to the corresponding InSAR observations as well as by matching simulated and measured pressures. The numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with observed spatial and temporal variation of ground surface uplift, as well as with measured pressures. The estimated values for the parameterized mechanical and hydraulic properties are in good agreement with previous numerical results, although with uncertainty.

  20. Radiological conditions at the former French nuclear test sites in Algeria: Preliminary assessment and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are various locations around the world that have been affected by radioactive residues. Some of these residues are the result of past peaceful activities, while others result from military activities, including residues from the testing of nuclear weapons. Stimulated by concern about the state of the environment, movement away from military nuclear activities and improved opportunities for international cooperation, attention in many countries has turned to assessing and, where necessary, remediating areas affected by radioactive residues. Some of these residues are located in countries where there is a lack of the infrastructure or expertise necessary for evaluating the significance of the radiation risks posed by the residues and for making decisions on remediation. In such cases, governments have felt it necessary to obtain outside assistance. In other cases, it has been considered socially and politically necessary to have independent expert opinions on the radiological situation at the sites. As a result, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been requested by the governments of a number of Member States to provide assistance in relation to its statutory obligation 'to establish - standards of safety for protection of health - and to provide for the application of these standards - at the request of a State'. On 22 September 1995, a resolution of the General Conference of the IAEA called on all States 'to fulfil their responsibilities to ensure that sites where nuclear tests have been conducted are monitored scrupulously and to take appropriate steps to avoid adverse impacts on health, safety and the environment as a consequence of such nuclear testing'. Representatives of the Algerian Government requested the IAEA to carry out a study of the radiological situation at the former French nuclear test sites in Algeria. The findings of this assessment are summarized in this report

  1. Traditional use of medicinal plants in a city at steppic character (M’sila, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madani Sarri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: M’sila city occupies a privileged position in the central part of northern Algeria. The climate of this area is continental, subject in part to the Saharan influences of which vegetation is steppic. Aims: Highlight traditional usage of plants despite environmental characteristics. Methods: An ethnobotanical survey in the city of M’sila was conducted during the period 2011-2012 in collaboration with traditional practitioners, herbalists and healers. A total of 85 adults were able to determine the species and answer questions about the traditional use of plants in artisanal processing, nutritional and medicinal domains. Results: Medicinal plants recorded in the city of M’sila were 36 divided into 16 families and 31 genera. Lamiaceae family predominates (27.8%, followed by Asteraceae (13.9%. Leaves are the most frequently used (27.4%, the aerial parts (18.5% and thus the seeds (16.3%. It appears that the population is highly dependent on these plants that allow them to treat different pathologies (digestive, stomach, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting with a percentage (18.6%, carminative (5.7% and antidiabetic (12.2%. In general, the remedies are administered orally. Indeed, therapeutic use forms are: the tisane or decoction (44.7%, infusion (27.1% and powder (12.2%. Conclusions: The ethnobotanical survey conducted among traditional healers, herbalists and healers in the M’sila city has created an inventory of 36 species and a database that collected all the information on local and traditional therapeutic applications as well as all the diseases treated.

  2. Microbial quality, physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows milk in East Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoui, T.; Benhamada, N.; Leghouchi, E.

    2010-07-01

    This is the first report describing microbiological, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows milk in East of Algeria. Five butter samples were prepared in the laboratory according to the traditional method used by people in the Jijel areas (Eastern Algeria). Our results show the presence of lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria as well as yeasts, while staphylococci or lipolytic bacteria were not detected. Important differences were found in chemical values among butter samples. The pH values ranged from pH4.64 and pH5.53. Moisture and impurities exceeded 17.5% and 9.19% respectively. The values for acid index, peroxide index, saponification index and iodine index ranged from: 23.56-31.35mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g respectively. Finally, the fatty acid composition showed that palmitic acid and oleic acid were the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. (Author) 20 refs.

  3. Stress change and fault interaction from a two century-long earthquake sequence in the central Tell Atlas (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariche, Jugurtha; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Ayadi, Abdelhakim; Cakir, Ziyadin; Boughacha, Mohamed-Salah

    2015-04-01

    The Tell Atlas of northern Algeria has been the site of several destructive seismic events in the past century. The active zone located along the plate boundary experienced recently the Mw 7.3 El Asnam earthquake in 1980 and the Mw 6.8 Zemmouri earthquake in 2003. We explore here the physical pattern for a stress transfer along the Tell thrust-and-fold belt taking into account the northeast trending earthquake migration from 1891 to 2003 with Mw ≥ 6. Static stress change calculations using Coulomb software (3.4 version) are obtained using specified coseismic ruptures of major earthquakes and the block tectonics with en-echelon geometry along the Tell Atlas. The stress transfer progression and increase of 0.1 to 0.8 bar are obtained on fault planes at 7-km-depth with a friction coefficient µ' 0.4 showing stress loading lobes on targeted coseismic fault zone and location of stress shadow across other thrust-and-fold regions. The Coulomb modelling suggest a distinction in earthquake triggering between zones with moderate-sized and large earthquake ruptures. Recent geodetic (InSAR and levelling) studies and aftershocks that document postseismic deformation of major earthquakes are integrated into the static stress change calculations. A seismic strain rate and Coulomb modelling provide some constraints into the seismic hazard assessment of north-central Algeria.

  4. Molecular evidence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats and their ectoparasites in Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessas, Amina; Leulmi, Hamza; Bitam, Idir; Zaidi, Sara; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In Algeria, only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of emergent canine and feline vector-borne diseases. The aim of the present work was to detect by qPCR vector-associated bacteria in stray dogs and cats and their ectoparasites from Algiers. 18/117 (15.38%) dogs and 2/107 (1.87%) cats were positive for at least one vector-borne agent. Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella henselae were identified in 1/117 (0.85%) dog individually. Ehrlichia canis DNA was detected in 17/117 (14.52%) dogs. 1/107 (0.93%) cat was positive to C. burnetii and another 1/107 (0.93%) to B. henselae. DNA of Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia conorii and E. canis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Cat fleas were infected with Rickettsia felis, B. henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was identified in Xenopsylla cheopis collected from dogs. The findings of this study indicate that dogs and cats from Algeria are exposed to multiple tick and flea-borne pathogens. PMID:27012917

  5. HOUSING AS AN EXPRESSION OF SELF-IDENTITY IN CONTEMPORARY ALGERIA: THE WORK OF EL-MINIAWY BROTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Bellal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to shed light on post-traditional environment in Algeria in a post global civilisation era. Some chosen projects implemented in some parts of the country are dealt with in relation to the expression of self identity through housing architecture. The focus of the work is on methods, achievements and implications of the projects. As from the seventies of the last century Algeria witnessed dramatic changes in its physical environment. The cities became the focus of international construction activities and many internationally renowned architects competed for large scale projects (Oscar Niemeyer, Ricardo Boffil, Kenzo Tang, etc. The projects chosen in this paper all deal with housing and include a housing scheme in Maadher near Msila, the second example in El Oued, the third is a housing project in Ouled Djellal. All of these projects by El Miniawy brothers disciples of the late Hassan Fathy, address critical aspects of the built environment. Yet one can consider these projects as representative of architectural thinking and activity in the country. This working paper reveals general aspects to gain comprehensive understanding, rather than statistical knowledge of Algerian built environment.

  6. Seismotectonic model of the MITIDJA basin using gravity data and aftershock sequence of the BOUMERDES (may 21, 2003; ALGERIA) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyed, Merzouk; Idres, Mouloud; Salah Boughacha, Mohame; Bourmatte, Amar; Samai, Saddek

    2010-05-01

    The present study relates to the interpretation of gravity and seismological data in the Boumerdes area (Eastern part of the Mitidja Basin, Algeria), in relation to the earthquake of May 21, 2003 (Mw=6.8). The residual anomaly and the horizontal gradient maps made it possible to obtain the basement shape and gravity discontinuities. The seismological data processing of the aftershock sequence recorded by 16 tri-component seismological stations allowed the location of 1987 events during the period of May 23 to June 30, 2003. A seismotectonic model obtained from the aftershocks distribution and gravity data is proposed. This model consists of three active faults; one lying offshore and two other onshore faults highlighted in this study. The offshore fault striking NE-SW is consistent with the USGS focal mechanism of the main event; the onshore faults strike NW-SE. This configuration emphasizes the failure mode complexity during the main shock. The geometry and location of the onshore faults are obtained from the spatial distribution of seismicity and focal solutions, supported by the results of gravity, but also by the coastal uplift and the Algiers canyon close to one of these faults. The topography of the basement obtained by 3D gravity inversion shows that all the aftershocks located onshore occurred in the basement. The 3D model of the basement also shows that the area between the two onshore faults was raised by their movement. Keywords: Aftershock sequence, Algeria, Basement, Boumerdes earthquake, Gravity

  7. Coseismic deformation of the May 21st, 2003, Mw = 6.8 Boumerdes earthquake, Algeria, from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelles, K.; Lammali, K.; Mahsas, A.; Calais, E.; Briole, P.

    2004-07-01

    On May 21st, 2003, a Mw = 6.8 earthquake struck the central part of northern Algeria causing extensive damage in the Boumerdes area, 40 km east of Algiers. It is among the largest events to occur in the western Mediterranean over the past 25 years. We present GPS measurements of horizontal coseismic displacements that provide new constraints on the rupture geometry. Modeling the data with a uniform dislocation on a rectangular fault in an elastic half-space, we find that the rupture occurred on a reverse fault dipping 42°S, with its upper edge 6 km offshore and lower edge 4 km inland. The amplitude distribution of the coseismic displacements indicates that the rupture did not reach the surface, at least in its western part, and ended to the west around 3.4°E. Offshore faults like that of the Boumerdes earthquake could account for part of the Africa-Eurasia relative plate motion in the western Mediterranean and represent a significant seismic threat for Algeria.

  8. Quelques Facteurs Sociaux Agissant sur la Formation Permanente et l'Education Informelle en Algerie (Social Factors Acting upon Lifelong Learning and Informal Education in Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddab, Mustapha

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes conditions that have led to an increase in private and collective educational initiatives in Algeria, highlighting political and socioeconomic changes since 1988. Indicates that after a long period of a public education monopoly, social factors have led to the development of alternative educational opportunities that are more responsive…

  9. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children with invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal diseases in Algeria from 2005 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ramdani-Bouguessa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs has dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases. PCVs are not currently being used in Algeria. We conducted a prospective study from 2005 to 2012 in Algeria to determine antimicrobial drug resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children with pneumococcal disease. Among 270 isolated strains from children, 97 (36% were invasive disease; of these, 48% were not susceptible to penicillin and 53% not susceptible to erythromycin. A high rate of antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was observed in strains isolated from children with meningitis. The serotype distribution from pneumococci isolated from children with invasive infections was (by order of prevalence: 14, 1, 19F, 19A, 6B, 5, 3, 6A and 23F. Multidrug resistance was observed in serotypes 14, 19F, 19A and 6B. The vaccine coverage of serotypes isolated from children aged <5 years was 55.3% for PCV7, 71.1% for PCV10 and 86.8% for PCV13. Our results highlight the burden of pneumococcal disease in Algeria and the increasing S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The current pneumococcal vaccines cover a high percentage of the circulating strains. Therefore, vaccination would reduce the incidence of pneumococcal disease in Algeria.

  10. Language Learning versus Vocational Training: French, Arab and British Voices Speak about Indigenous Girls' Education in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the first school for indigenous girls in Algeria that opened in Algiers in 1845. The founder, Eugenie Luce, taught girls the rudiments--French language and grammar, reading, arithmetic, and Arabic, while the afternoon hours were devoted to sewing. This early focus on teaching French in order to achieve the "fusion of the…

  11. Evolution of antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children with invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal diseases in Algeria from 2005 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani-Bouguessa, N; Ziane, H; Bekhoucha, S; Guechi, Z; Azzam, A; Touati, D; Naim, M; Azrou, S; Hamidi, M; Mertani, A; Laraba, A; Annane, T; Kermani, S; Tazir, M

    2015-07-01

    Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal diseases. PCVs are not currently being used in Algeria. We conducted a prospective study from 2005 to 2012 in Algeria to determine antimicrobial drug resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae from children with pneumococcal disease. Among 270 isolated strains from children, 97 (36%) were invasive disease; of these, 48% were not susceptible to penicillin and 53% not susceptible to erythromycin. A high rate of antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was observed in strains isolated from children with meningitis. The serotype distribution from pneumococci isolated from children with invasive infections was (by order of prevalence): 14, 1, 19F, 19A, 6B, 5, 3, 6A and 23F. Multidrug resistance was observed in serotypes 14, 19F, 19A and 6B. The vaccine coverage of serotypes isolated from children aged <5 years was 55.3% for PCV7, 71.1% for PCV10 and 86.8% for PCV13. Our results highlight the burden of pneumococcal disease in Algeria and the increasing S. pneumoniae antibiotic resistance. The current pneumococcal vaccines cover a high percentage of the circulating strains. Therefore, vaccination would reduce the incidence of pneumococcal disease in Algeria. PMID:26106481

  12. Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

  13. Program encourages use of renewable energies in Algeria-20 co-operative projects by sonelgaz in one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewable energy projects are tools for the management of reserves and sustainable development of desert communities. These are generally areas wher a diesel or gas-powered generator present a problem of fuel transportation and may potentially harm the environment. Tremendous opportunities exist in Algeria for growth in the use of renewable energy technologies in particular photovoltaic solar power. According to some estimates, more than five million Algerians do not have access to grid electricity, while many rural communities are in need of drinking water and water for livestock or irrigation. Given Algerian's abundant solar resource, these rural needs represent a potential market for renewable energy technologies. Nowadays a growing number of people in the south of Algeria are using renewable energy to irrigate their land, light their houses, pump well water and then improve their lives, thanks to the 'Ministere de l'Energie et des Mines' and the Sonelgaz (Societe Nationale de l'Electricite et du Gaz) R and D office. From 1999 up 2002. Sonelgaz Renewable Energy Program, and the above mentioned ministry have collaborated and sponsored several photovoltaic projects in 20 villages of the desert of Algeria concerning this renewable energy program aiming at increasing the use of renewable energy technologies, thus providing green power to isolated villages. Sonelgaz's role in the project is to initiate renewable energy pilot projects that could be easily replicated by area residents and provide training with technical assistance. Based on its feasibility, potential projecs are initially identified and selected by the Sonelgaz R and D office which develops system requirements, provides technical review, evaluates and monitors the projects following their installation. Since 1999, Sonelgaz has received 988 millions of DA (Algerian Dinars) to operate the program. Most activities focus on house lighting and implementing water pumping systems. For most of these

  14. [Evolution of neonatal mortality at the Blida University Teaching Hospital (Algeria) between 1999 and 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzaoucha, A; El Kebboub, A; Aliche, A

    2010-02-01

    Within the framework of the active information system set up by the department of epidemiology on hospital mortality at the Blida (Algeria) University Teaching Hospital (CHU), a study was carried out to assess the importance and evolution of neonatal mortality recorded at the CHU in the last eight years (1999-2006) as well as the causes of neonatal death. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) was used to encode the nature of the causal disease. Using the software EpiInfo™ in its sixth version performed data entry, monitoring and analysis. On the whole, 2,167 neonatal deaths were recorded at the CHU during the study period, representing a proportional mortality of 25.4%. Early neonatal mortality (0-6 days) accounted for 83.4% of all neonatal mortality. Nearly two thirds of early neonatal deaths occurred in the first three days of life. The monthly evolution of the number of early neonatal deaths revealed a significant rising trend during the study period (P < 0.05) without identification of seasonal effect. The sex ratio was practically the same for early and late neonatal mortality, respectively 1.4 and 1.5. Prematurity accounted for 42.1% of the deaths in early neonatal deaths, followed by respiratory distress syndrome and infection, respectively 17.0 and 14.4%. Infections, with a relative frequency of 36.2%, represented the most common cause for the late neonatal mortality. The rate of early neonatal mortality during the study period, when this one took for denominator the number of newborns admitted in neonatology to express the mortality of service, was 15.6%. Throughout the study period, the rate of early neonatal mortality, without counting the deaths among transferred newborms, could be estimated at 19.2 per 1,000 live births, while the overall neonatal mortality rate could be estimated at 22.3 per 1,000 live births. No significant temporal tendency was pointed out. The CHU of Blida is not characterized by a lower risk of neonatal mortality

  15. Patterns of seasonal variation in lagoonal macrozoobenthic assemblages (Mellah lagoon, Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Paolo; Draredja, Brahim; Melouah, Khalil; Como, Serena

    2015-08-01

    In coastal lagoons, many studies indicated that macrozoobenthic assemblages undergo marked temporal fluctuations as related to the strong environmental variability of these systems. However, most of these studies have not assessed the seasonal patterns of these fluctuations and none of them has investigated the consistency of this variation in different areas within the same lagoon system. In this study, we assessed patterns of variation at multiple temporal (date, season and year) scales in two different areas in the coastal lagoon of Mellah (northeast Algeria). These areas (hereafter Shore and Center) are representative of two different environments typically found in coastal lagoons. The Shore (water depth of about 1.5-2 m) is characterized by relatively higher hydrodynamics, sand to silty-sand sediments and the presence of vegetation (Ruppia maritima), the Center (water depth of about 3-3.5 m) is characterized by mud to sandy-mud, organic-enriched sediments due to fine particle accumulation. Results showed two distinct patterns of seasonal variation in Shore and Center assemblages for two consecutive years. In Shore, species richness (S), total abundance (N) and the abundance of several dominant taxa were highest in summer and/or autumn. This pattern can be related to the local environmental conditions maintaining relatively well oxidized conditions, while increasing food availability, and favoring the recruitment of species and individuals in summer/autumn. On the contrary in Center, S was lowest in summer and autumn, and N and the abundance of fewer dominant taxa were lowest in summer. In Center, the bivalve Loripes lucinalis showed a 10-fold increase from summer to autumn in both years, likely related to the lagoon's hydrodynamics favoring larval transport and settlement in the central sector of the lagoon. Overall, the seasonal variation found in Center followed a regression/recovery pattern typical of opportunistic assemblages occurring in confined

  16. Thermal performance prediction and sensitivity analysis for future deployment of molten salt cavity receiver solar power plants in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Performance of power plant with molten salt cavity receiver is assessed. • A method has been used to optimize the plant solar multiple, capacity factor and LEC. • Comparison of the simulated results to those of PS20 has shown good agreement. • Higher fossil fuel fraction reduces the LEC and increases the capacity factor. • Highland and Sahara regions are suitable for CRS plants deployment. - Abstract: Of all Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies available today, the molten salt solar power plant appears to be the most important option for providing a major share of the clean and renewable electricity needed in the future. In the present paper, a technical and economic analysis for the implementation of a probable molten salt cavity receiver thermal power plant in Algeria has been carried out. In order to do so, we have investigated the effect of solar field size, storage capacity factor, solar radiation intensity, hybridization and power plant capacity on the thermal efficiency and electricity cost of the selected plant. The system advisor model has been used to perform the technical performance and the economic assessment for different locations (coastal, highland and Sahara regions) in Algeria. Taking into account various factors, a method has been applied to optimize the solar multiple and the capacity factor of the plant, to get a trade-off between the incremental investment costs of the heliostat field and the thermal energy storage. The analysis has shown that the use of higher fossil fuel fraction significantly reduces the levelized electricity cost (LEC) and sensibly increases the capacity factor (CF). The present study indicates that hybrid molten salt solar tower power technology is very promising. The CF and the LEC have been found to be respectively of the order of 71% and 0.35 $/kWe. For solar-only power plants, these parameters are respectively about 27% and 0.63 $/kWe. Therefore, hybrid central receiver systems are

  17. STR-based genetic structure of the Berber population of Bejaia (Northern Algeria) and its relationships to various ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nadir; Sahnoune, Mohamed; Chikhi, Lounes; Atmani, Djebbar

    2015-12-10

    Patterns of genetic variation in human populations have been described for decades. However, North Africa has received little attention and Algeria, in particular, is poorly studied, Here we genotyped a Berber-speaking population from Algeria using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA from the commercially available AmpF/STR Identifiler kit. Altogether 150 unrelated North Algerian individuals were sampled across 10 administrative regions or towns from the Bejaia Wilaya (administrative district). We found that all of the STR loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations, after Bonferroni correction and that the Berber-speaking population of Bejaia presented a high level of observed heterozygosity for the 15 STR system (>0.7). Genetic parameters of forensic interest such as combined power of discrimination (PD) and combined probability of exclusion (PE) showed values higher than 0.999, suggesting that this set of STRs can be used for forensic studies. Our results were also compared to those published for 42 other human populations analyzed with the same set. We found that the Bejaia sample clustered with several North African populations but that some geographically close populations, including the Berber-speaking Mozabite from Algeria were closer to Near-Eastern populations. While we were able to detect some genetic structure among samples, we found that it was not correlated to language (Berber-speaking versus Arab-speaking) or to geography (east versus west). In other words, no significant genetic differences were found between the Berber-speaking and the Arab-speaking populations of North Africa. The genetic closeness of European, North African and Near-Eastern populations suggest that North Africa should be integrated in models aiming at reconstructing the demographic history of Europe. Similarly, the genetic proximity with sub-Saharan Africa is

  18. [First report of a human case of trichinellosis due to Trichinella britovi after jackal (Canis aureus) meat consumption in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezri, M; Ruer, J; De Bruyne, A; Cohen-Valensi, R; Pozio, E; Dupouy-Camet, J

    2006-05-01

    We report a single case of trichinellosis contracted in Algeria (Batna region), in a practising Moslim. Shortly after returning to France in November 2004, the patient developed the typical clinical and biological signs of the disease. Although the patient claimed having only eaten mutton, an unusual host for Trichinella, a meticulous investigation revealed that he also had eaten a grilled leg of jackal (Canis aureus). One of the four Trichinella larvae detected in a muscular biopsy enabled us to identify the parasite as Trichinella britovi by a multiplex PCR analysis. This is the first identification of the etiological agent of sylvatic trichinellosis occurring in North Africa and the first case of symptomatic trichinellosis due to jackal meat consumption in Africa. PMID:16821437

  19. A Programme for the Eradication of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly from Algeria, the Libyan and Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco and Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) is the only fruit fly of economic importance affecting a large number of fruits and vegetables in the Maghreb (Algeria, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco and Tunisia). The medfly causes losses of fresh fruit and vegetables in this region of about US $90 million each year. Therefore, eradication of this pest at this time would be very beneficial. Technologies are available to eradicate the medfly which will have no significant negative environmental impacts, and they can be used to accomplish eradication at reasonable cost. This report outlines the procedures available to eradicate the medfly from the Magherb with primary reliance on the use of sterile flies. A large fruit fly rearing facility, of modular design, must be constructed in the Mediterranean Basin and outside the Maghreb to produce and sterilize flies.

  20. Reservoir monitoring and characterization using satellite geodetic data: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar observations from the Krechba field, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    Deformation in the material overlying an active reservoir is used to monitor pressure change at depth. A sequence of pressure field estimates, eleven in all, allow us to construct a measure of diffusive travel time throughout the reservoir. The dense distribution of travel time values means that we can construct an exactly linear inverse problem for reservoir flow properties. Application to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data gathered over a CO{sub 2} injection in Algeria reveals pressure propagation along two northwest trending corridors. An inversion of the travel times indicates the existence of two northwest-trending high permeability zones. The high permeability features trend in the same direction as the regional fault and fracture zones. Model parameter resolution estimates indicate that the features are well resolved.

  1. KRIGING METHOD OF STUDY OF THE GROUNDWATER QUALITY USED FOR IRRIGATION - CASE OF WADI DJENDJEN PLAIN (NORTH-EAST ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boufekane

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater of wadi Djendjen plain (Jijel, North-East Algeria have always been used as drinking water supply in the cities and the irrigation of agricultural lands.¶ This confers this aquifer, which has already been the subject of numerous hydrogeological studies, a particular interest in terms of qualitative and quantitative monitoring. Its exploitation is today encountering excessive salinity problems, evidenced by measurements of the electrical conductivity of the water and the alkalinisation of soils.¶ This degradation of the environment results, among others, from ion exchange which involves cations (sodium, calcium and magnesium, water / clay interaction as reflected by the sodium absorption ratio (SAR.¶Analyses on samples of groundwater destined for irrigation and the application of a geostatistical approach have enabled to map the most affected zones by this phenomenon.¶

  2. Energy savings in old dwellings in Algeria; Economie d'energie dans l'habitat ancien en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hassar, S.M.K. [Cite Nouvelle El Mokrani (CNERIB), Centre National d' Etudes et de Recherches Integrees du Batiment, Souidania, Alger (Algeria); Amirat, M. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Alger (Algeria)

    2004-06-01

    Currently in Algeria, works are carried out to estimate the energy savings magnitude in the old dwellings. Therefore, the annual energy consumption of inhabited houses have been measured. A first study has concerned a multi-family residence, located near Algiers city. The survey showed that the energy consumption was similar of the one of an European residence. The measurements have shown that the heating of the residence, the cooking activities and the hot water production for domestic use represent more than 80% of the total energy balance. The part of the heating representing the half of the total energy consumption, modifications of the building envelope have been considered. Numerical simulations permitted to evaluate the influence of these modifications. The calculations showed that the energy consumption of the studied dwelling is reduced of about 25% if the envelope modifications are achieved. (author)

  3. The economic impact of subsidy phase out in oil exporting developing countries: a case study of Algeria, Iran and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of a subsidy phase out policy on the energy sector and oil revenues in three countries: Algeria, Iran and Nigeria. By using a standard econometric approach, we find that the effects of different deregulation policies are substantial. We also analyse the impact of a policy based on autonomous energy-efficiency improvement. Finally, a combination of both policies is elaborated and quantified. Our results show that a policy geared at more rational use of energy would permit these countries to save enough oil to meet future increases in demand while maintaining stable production capacity. Furthermore, such an energy policy could result in additional oil revenues which would enhance their economic development. (author)

  4. Management of a water distribution network by coupling GIS and hydraulic modeling: a case study of Chetouane in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbaki, Chérifa; Benchaib, Mohamed Mouâd; Benziada, Salim; Mahmoudi, Hacène; Goosen, Mattheus

    2016-04-01

    For more effective management of water distribution network in an arid region, Mapinfo GIS (8.0) software was coupled with a hydraulic model (EPANET 2.0) and applied to a case study region, Chetouane, situated in the north-west of Algeria. The area is characterized not only by water scarcity but also by poor water management practices. The results showed that a combination of GIS and modeling permits network operators to better analyze malfunctions with a resulting more rapid response as well as facilitating in an improved understanding of the work performed on the network. The grouping of GIS and modeling as an operating tool allows managers to diagnosis a network, to study solutions of problems and to predict future situations. The later can assist them in making informed decisions to ensure an acceptable performance level for optimal network operation.

  5. Prevalence of rotavirus (GARV) and coronavirus (BCoV) associated with neonatal diarrhea in calves in western Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selles Sidi Mohammed Ammar; Kouidri Mokhtaria; Belhamiti Belkacem Tahar; Ait Amrane Amar; Benia Ahmed Redha; Bellik Yuva; Hammoudi Si Mohamed; Niar Abdellatif; Boukra Laid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of bovine group A rotavirus (GARV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) in diarrheic feces from calves and the sensitive’s parameters such as age group and sex.Methods:Feces samples from 82 diarrheic dairy calves from farms around Tiaret (Western Algeria) were collected. These samples were tested by ELISA assay.Results:The present study demonstrates that the both BCoV and GARV are involved in the (12.2% alone and 2.43% associated with bovine coronavirus) and 20.73% (18.3% alone and 2.43%associated with GARV), respectively.Conclusions:The results showed that the prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus infection are 14.63%neonatal calves’ diarrhea, where the frequency of BCoV is clearly higher than that of GARV.

  6. Active thrust faulting offshore Boumerdes, Algeria, and its relations to the 2003 Mw 6.9 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déverchère, J.; Yelles, K.; Domzig, A.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Bouillin, J.-P.; Gaullier, V.; Bracène, R.; Calais, E.; Savoye, B.; Kherroubi, A.; Le Roy, P.; Pauc, H.; Dan, G.

    2005-02-01

    We investigate the active seismogenic fault system in the area of the 2003 Mw 6.9 Boumerdes earthquake, Algeria, from a high-resolution swath bathymetry and seismic survey. A series of 5 main fault-propagation folds ~20-35 km long leave prominent cumulative escarpments on the steep slope and in the deep basin. Fault activity creates Plio-Quaternary growth strata within uplifted areas such as a rollover basin on the slope and piggyback basins in the deep ocean. Most thrusts turn to fault-propagation folds at the sub-surface and depict ramp-flat trajectories. We find that the two main slip patches of the 2003 Mw 6.9 Boumerdes earthquake are spatially correlated to two segmented cumulative scarps recognized on the slope and at the foot of the margin. The overall geometry indicates the predominance of back thrusts implying underthrusting of the Neogene oceanic crust.

  7. Pollen spectrum and physicochemical attributes of sulla (Hedysarum coronarium honeys of Médéa region (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Zerrouk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The qualities of Sulla honey samples of Médéa region (Algeria were evaluated by determing the pollen spectrum and physicochemical attributes. It is generally accepted that a minimum content of 45% of Hedysarum coronarium (Sulla pollen is necessary to classify an Sulla honey as unifloral. The samples were analysed for parameters including moisture, electrical conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural, pH, acidity (free, lactone and total, sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose and total sugar, fructose+glucose, fructose/glucose, glucose/moisture, proteins and colour. Qualitative pollen analysis showed the presence of 76 types from 35 families, with Fabaceae, Cistaceae, Asteraceae, and Myrtaceae being the most frequent. The overall pollen content can be considered as medium. All the samples presented low values of hydroxymethylfurfural and lactone acidity. The degree of colour varied from white to amber. Moisture, proteins content, fructose, glucose, sucrose and electrical conductivity were according to international standards.

  8. Rickettsiae in arthropods collected from the North African Hedgehog (Atelerix algirus) and the desert hedgehog (Paraechinus aethiopicus) in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldi, Mourad; Socolovschi, Cristina; Benyettou, Meryam; Barech, Ghania; Biche, Mohamed; Kernif, Tahar; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Hedgehogs have become a popular pet despite their potential role in zoonotic disease transmission. We conducted an entomological study in a mountainous region of northeast Algeria in which we collected 387 fleas (Archeopsylla erinacei) and 342 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis erinacei) from Paraechinus aethiopicus and Atelerix algirus hedgehogs. Of the hedgehogs sampled, 77.7% and 91% were infested with fleas and ticks, respectively. Significantly more ticks and fleas were collected from A. algirus than from P. aethiopicus. Rickettsia felis was detected in 95.5% of fleas and R. massiliae was detected in 6.25% of Rh. sanguineus ticks by molecular tools. A new Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group was detected in 11.25% of Rh. sanguineus and in 77% of H. erinacei ticks. Overall, we show that hedgehogs can act as hosts for ectoparasites infected with several rickettsial agents. These data justify a more detailed investigation of animal reservoirs for Rickettsiae. PMID:22222114

  9. Renewable energy in Algeria. What alternatives to fossil fuels? Solar, nuclear, or both at the same time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For decades, Algeria has been known as a producer of hydrocarbons, both liquids and gaseous. The country's energy requirements are 99% satisfied by hydrocarbons (oil and gas). In the long term, reproducing the current pattern of energy consumption could become a problem for the supply-demand balance. Moreover, electricity generation, now sourced entirely from hydrocarbons, is slated to reach 75 to a 80 TWh in 2020 and between 130 to 150 TWh in 2030. From this standpoint and to be assured of having adequate energy supplies, the massive integration of alternative energies into the energy mix constitutes a major challenge for the preservation of fossil fuels, for diversifying electricity production methods and for contributing to sustainable development. (author)

  10. Application of multivariate statistical techniques for characterization of groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer of Nador, Tipaza (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouderbala Abdelkader

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the characterization of the groundwater salinity on the Nador coastal aquifer (Algeria. The groundwater quality has undergone serious deterioration due to overexploitation. Groundwater samplings were carried out in high and low waters in 2013, in order to study the evolution of groundwater hydrochemistry from the recharge to the coastal area. Different kinds of statistical analysis were made in order to identify the main hydrogeochemical processes occurring in the aquifer and to discriminate between different groups of groundwater. These statistical methods provide a better understanding of the aquifer hydrochemistry, and put in evidence a hydrochemical classification of wells, showing that the area with higher salinity is located close to the coast, in the first two kilometers, where the salinity gradually increases as one approaches the seaside and suggests the groundwater salinization by seawater intrusion.

  11. Application of multivariate statistical techniques for characterization of groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer of Nador, Tipaza (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderbala, Abdelkader; Remini, Boualem; Saaed Hamoudi, Abdelamir; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The study focuses on the characterization of the groundwater salinity on the Nador coastal aquifer (Algeria). The groundwater quality has undergone serious deterioration due to overexploitation. Groundwater samplings were carried out in high and low waters in 2013, in order to study the evolution of groundwater hydrochemistry from the recharge to the coastal area. Different kinds of statistical analysis were made in order to identify the main hydrogeochemical processes occurring in the aquifer and to discriminate between different groups of groundwater. These statistical methods provide a better understanding of the aquifer hydrochemistry, and put in evidence a hydrochemical classification of wells, showing that the area with higher salinity is located close to the coast, in the first two kilometers, where the salinity gradually increases as one approaches the seaside and suggests the groundwater salinization by seawater intrusion.

  12. Economic and technical study of a hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel) for rural electrification in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb-Koussa, D.; Belhamel, M. [Centre of Development of Renewable energies, Route de l' observatoire, BP.62 Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique E. N. P, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2009-07-15

    This paper deals with design of hybrid energy system consisting of wind and photovoltaic with battery storage. A diesel generator is added to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic. The paper reports results of the technical-economic optimization study of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage in Algeria. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the appropriate dimension of stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind/diesel with battery storage that guarantee the energy autonomy of typical remote consumer with lowest cost of energy. A secondary aim is to study the impact of renewable energy potential quality on the system size. The optimum dimensions of the system are defined for six sites in Algeria. In this context, a complete sizing model is developed in Matlab/Simulink V.6.5, able to predict the optimum system configuration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best option for all the sites considered in this study. Thus, it provides higher system performance than photovoltaic or wind alone. It s shown that the principal advantage of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage are used all together, the reliability of the system is enhanced. The economic analysis has resulted in the calculation of kWh cost of energy for different types of resources and optimized cost of hybrid energy system. It s revealed too that the energy cost depends largely on the renewable energy potential quality. So, our objective for the optimization parameters is not the production cost but the offered service. (author)

  13. Relationships between atmospheric circulation indices and rainfall in Northern Algeria and comparison of observed and RCM-generated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, S.; Meddi, M.; Mahé, G.; Assani, A.

    2015-09-01

    This work aims, as a first step, to analyze rainfall variability in Northern Algeria, in particular extreme events, during the period from 1940 to 2010. Analysis of annual rainfall shows that stations in the northwest record a significant decrease in rainfall since the 1970s. Frequencies of rainy days for each percentile (5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th, and 99th) and each rainfall interval class (1-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-50, and ≥50 mm) do not show a significant change in the evolution of daily rainfall. The Tenes station is the only one to show a significant decrease in the frequency of rainy days up to the 75th percentile and for the 10-20-mm interval class. There is no significant change in the temporal evolution of extreme events in the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles. The relationships between rainfall variability and general atmospheric circulation indices for interannual and extreme event variability are moderately influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Mediterranean Oscillation. Significant correlations are observed between the Southern Oscillation Index and annual rainfall in the northwestern part of the study area, which is likely linked with the decrease in rainfall in this region. Seasonal rainfall in Northern Algeria is affected by the Mediterranean Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation in the west. The ENSEMBLES regional climate models (RCMs) are assessed using the bias method to test their ability to reproduce rainfall variability at different time scales. The Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM), Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI), Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETHZ), and Forschungszentrum Geesthacht (GKSS) models yield the least biased results.

  14. An adaptive artificial neural network model for sizing stand-alone photovoltaic systems: Application for isolated sites in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we investigate, by using an adaptive Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in order to find a suitable model for sizing Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (SAPV) systems, based on a minimum of input data. This model combines Radial Basis Function (RBF) network and Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter in order to accelerate the convergence of the network. For the sizing of a photovoltaic (PV) system, we need to determine the optimal sizing coefficients (KPV, KB. These coefficients allow us to determine the number of solar panels and storage batteries necessary to satisfy a given consumption, especially in isolated sites where the global solar radiation data is not always available and which are considered the most important parameters for sizing a PV system. Obtained results by classical models (analytical, numerical, analytical- numerical, B-spline function) and new models like feed-forward (MLP), radial basis function (RBF), MLP-IIR and RBF-IIR have been compared with experimental sizing coefficients in order to illustrate the accuracy of the results of the new developed model. This model has been trained by using 200 known optimal sizing coefficients corresponding to 200 locations in Algeria. In this way, the adaptive model was trained to accept and even handle a number of unusual cases, the unknown validation sizing coefficients set produced very set accurate estimation and a correlation coefficient of 98% was obtained between the calculated and that estimated by the RBF-IIR model. This result indicates that the proposed method can be successfully used for the estimation of optimal sizing coefficients of SAPV systems for any locations in Algeria, but the methodology can be generalized using different locations over the world. (author)

  15. Diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains nodulating Lupinus micranthus on both sides of the Western Mediterranean: Algeria and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourebaba, Yasmina; Durán, David; Boulila, Farida; Ahnia, Hadjira; Boulila, Abdelghani; Temprano, Francisco; Palacios, José M; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Rey, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Lupinus micranthus is a lupine distributed in the Mediterranean basin whose nitrogen fixing symbiosis has not been described in detail. In this study, 101 slow-growing nodule isolates were obtained from L. micranthus thriving in soils on both sides of the Western Mediterranean. The diversity of the isolates, 60 from Algeria and 41 from Spain, was addressed by multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, atpD, glnII and recA) and one symbiotic gene (nodC). Using genomic fingerprints from BOX elements, 37 different profiles were obtained (22 from Algeria and 15 from Spain). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and concatenated atpD, glnII and recA sequences of a representative isolate of each BOX profile displayed a homogeneous distribution of profiles in six different phylogenetic clusters. All isolates were taxonomically ascribed to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Three clusters comprising 24, 6, and 4 isolates, respectively, accounted for most of the profiles. The largest cluster was close to the Bradyrhizobium canariense lineage, while the other two were related to B. cytisi/B. rifense. The three remaining clusters included only one isolate each, and were close to B. canariense, B. japonicum and B. elkanii species, respectively. In contrast, phylogenetic clustering of BOX profiles based on nodC sequences yielded only two phylogenetic groups. One of them included all the profiles except one, and belonged to symbiovar genistearum. The remaining profile, constituted by a strain related to B. elkanii, was not related to any well-defined symbiotic lineage, and may constitute both a new symbiovar and a new genospecies. PMID:27236566

  16. Mossbauer Spectra of Weathered H5 Ordinary Chondrites from Reg EL Acfer, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, F.; Oates, G.; Bland, P.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1992-07-01

    Approximately 380 meteorite specimens have been retrieved from the Acfer region of the Sahara desert, Algeria. To date, 26 of these have been classified H5 (Bischoff et al., 1990, 1991, 1992). Being the most common meteorite type and having a tightly constrained mineralogy (Mason, 1965), H5 chondrites are ideal candidates for investigating terrestrial weathering products in meteorites. Arid climate, uniform topography, and lack of a concentration/movement mechanism makes it likely that meteorites throughout Reg el Acfer were weathered by a common mechanism. Jull et al. (1991) showed a correlation in meteorites from Roosevelt County between terrestrial ^14C ages and a qualitative weathering scale. An aim of the present study is to provide a quantitative measure of weathering for the Acfer region that might allow an estimate of terrestrial age, as well as information on pairing. Meteorite Specimens: Approximately 1 g of sample was used, prepared by grinding under acetone to prevent oxidation during crushing, until a homogenized powder was produced. Mossbauer spectra were recorded at 298 degrees K with a microprocessor controlled Mossbauer spectrometer using a ^57Co/Rh source. Drive velocity was calibrated with the same source and a metallic iron foil. Results: The H5 chondrite Acfer 146 (Bischoff, forthcoming Meteoritical Bulletin) was found on 19/11/90 at coordinates 27 degrees 38'N, 4 degrees 05'E. This meteorite gave a spectrum dominated by quadrupole split absorption characteristics of Fe^2+ in a forsteritic olivine structure. A sample of the outer crust showed the additional presence of Fe^3+. XRD was insensitive to the unequivocal identification of the phases present in the two samples and given that the Mossbauer parameters of the hydrolyzed Fe^3+ species and ferric oxyhydroxides are very similar it is not possible at this stage to identify the oxidized phase. Clearly, however, the results demonstrate the sensitivity of Mossbauer spectroscopy to the products

  17. Suspended sediment transport in a semiarid watershed, Wadi Abd, Algeria (1973 1995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achite, Mohamed; Ouillon, Sylvain

    2007-09-01

    SummaryA quantification of the fine sediment budget of a wadi (dryland river) in NW Algeria is presented for a period of 22 hydrological years (1973-1995). The climate is Mediterranean over the Wadi Abd basin (2480 km 2), the mean annual precipitation is 250 mm and the mean annual discharge is 1.0 m 3 s -1 at the gauging station. Regression relationships between water discharge Q and suspended sediment concentration C are calculated from 1432 paired measurements in the Wadi Abd, leading to power-law equations of the type C = a Qb. The variability of coefficients a and b, calculated for 138 floods and flood stages, is analyzed. The median value of b is 0.757, indicating that C is almost proportional to Q3/4. Given that the ( a, b) pairs are correctly aligned ( r2 = 0.578), the coefficients a and b are not independent. Regression relationships between daily Q and daily suspended sediment concentration and discharge Qs are calculated from 702 input data. The performances of these regression relationships are shown to be equivalent, leading to over-estimations of 20-25% of the suspended sediment flux. The non-biased C- Q sediment rating curve is used to extrapolate a time series of C measurements, and thus to analyze the long-term patterns in suspended sediment transport. Average sediment wash-down (136 t km -2 yr -1) is similar to the mean global value. The ratio of sediment wash-down to the river water discharge is 10.7 × 10 6 t km 3, 20 times greater than the average ratio in the Earth's eastern hemisphere, and illustrates the highly erosive power of wadis. Variability is shown to be significant at the seasonal scale (CV = 89%) and higher at the interannual scale (CV = 139%). The fine sediment flux mainly occurs in autumn (48.4%) and spring (32.7%). Although precipitation decreased, it was more irregular from one year to another over the period 1985-1995 than during the period 1973-1985, and the Wadi Abd, which was a perennial river, became intermittent in the late

  18. The Certified Written Press As An Element of The Information Society: Case of Algeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Khaled Rouaski

    2013-09-01

    the OJD serves the editors to build their advertising tariffs and to announcers, also to their media agencies, to accept their evolutions. Hence, the obligation to have normalized indicators, similar from a title to another and timely. In France, nearly 5 billion Euros are invested in the press each year. For Algeria, the written press market knew a remarkable development during the last years, more than 141 daily newspapers, but four newspapers (El Khabar ,El Watan , Echourouk El Yaoumi , Ennahar El Djadid certified by the association for the control of the media, the OJD. This gave birth to the private messaging in the landscape of the Algerian press. The aim of our work is to assess the results of the Algerian written press experience certified in the field of delivery

  19. Chlorine-36 and noble gases in deep groundwaters from the Northeastern Sahara (Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The groundwaters occurring in the Northeastern Sahara (Algeria-Tunisia and Libya) constitute huge water reservoirs whose major component is very old (Paleowaters). Water managers are there facing problems related to resource management in terms of estimating budget parameters (recharge, evaporation, leakage, mixing), degradation of the water quality, but also the renewable rate (residence time). The Continental Intercalaire from Sahara is one of the largest confined aquifers in the world. The aquifer material is made of complex layers of sandstone alternating with clayish levels. The depth of the aquifer ranges between 400 and 1800 metres giving rise to temperature up to 70 deg. C and total dissolved salts of 1.5 to 5 g.l-1, in mainly Ci-Na-SO4. Sampled groundwaters show a quite wide range of 36Cl contents, ranging from 8 to 99 10-15 at.at-1, expressed as 36Cl/Cl atomic ratio. The space distribution of 36Cl contents fits fairly well with what is known about the piezometric contours of the aquifer: a decrease is observed from recharge to discharge zones. If this decrease is radioactive decay, it can be interpreted in terms of groundwaters transit time. Maximum time intervals of about 3 half-lives (900 Ka) may be computed using 36Cl specific activities (at.l-1). In order to evaluate the epigene production, Measurements were performed on chloride extracted by leaching from a soil profile. The results are the same order of magnitude (10-15 at.at-1) as for groundwater chloride sampled near recharge areas and could reflect the true value of initial 36Cl input. However, the values measured on the groundwaters sampled near recharge areas (100 Km) are equivalent (order of magnitude: 108 at.l-1) when compared to the calculated values for precipitations in the region. The equivalence between the measured activity in this zone and the expected initial activity could thus be explained by two phenomena: dissolution of Cl- within the aquifer, and/or radioactive decay

  20. The impact of black market exchange rate on the demand for money Case of Algeria during 1980-2010 : Econometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BENDOB

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between the exchange rate and the parallel circulation of money (M1 in Algeria during the period 1980-2010. For this purpose, we use the proposed especially by Pesaran et al ARDL model. (2001. the results confirm the convergence of long-term determinants of the demand for money (income, consumption price index, interest rate deposits, the parallel exchange rate. In addition, the CUSUM test and CUSUMSQ clearly show the stability of the long-term relationship during the estimation period between the parallel exchange rate and demand for the currency in Algeria. Instead, the relationship becomes unstable once we use the official exchange rate.

  1. The world economy of petroleum products and the strategy of a petroleum company from exporting country: Cases of SONATRACH (Algeria), KPC (Kuwait), PEMEX (Mexico), PDVSA (Venezuela). First volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis contains 2 volumes. In this first volume, the author describes in a first part the world economy of petroleum and natural gas products: Historical aspects and relationships between the different actors; General structure of the world economy of petroleum and gas products and actual trends. In a second part, the relationships between petroleum products, national economic development and problem of technology conservation are studied. The cases of Algeria, Kuwait, Mexico and Venezuela are given. 258 refs., 103 tabs

  2. Effect of the insulation by the mud on the convection in building in the Sahara of Algeria - case of Bechar City

    OpenAIRE

    Benachour Elhadj; Draoui Belkacem; Imine Baachir; Hasnat Mohammed; Rahmani Lakhdar

    2016-01-01

    The thermal behavior of the buildings is a current problem which arouses the interest of many researchers. Indeed, the control of the loads of air conditioning or heating requires a thorough knowledge. Since the thermal quality of the buildings in the Maghreb is there generally very insufficient in particular in the Sahara of Algeria, the insulation proved that it is a very important parameter to minimize the thermal diffusion process inside on all when the insulator is a local material as th...

  3. Cartography of flood hazard by overflowing rivers using hydraulic modeling and geographic information system: Oued El Harrach case (North of Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    S. W. Astite; A. Medjerab; N.-E. Belabid; N. El Mahmouhi; M. El Wartiti; S. Kemmou

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the management of flood risk through the use of cartography of flood hazards by overflowing rivers. This cartography is developed using modern simulation tools namely the hydraulic model (HECRAS) as well as the Geographic Information System (ArcGis). The study concerns Oued El Harrach (North of Algeria) surrounding area which has been subject to several floods causing significant human and material damage. This loss is a consequence of the use flood zones as ha...

  4. Work of soil and risks of agricultural erosion: Case of the itinerary technical cereal on tray of Mostaganem-Northwest Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Larid; Abdelkader Boualem; Rachid Khatem; Abdellah Bakhti; Amina Hamadi

    2014-01-01

    With a semi-arid Mediterranean climate and viticulture vocation, the tray of Mostaganem (North-West of Algeria) has become a region of great crops. Subject to increase mechanization and inappropriate tillage practices, farm lands are exposed to erosion that seriously weighs the physical and socio-economic contexts. An itinerary technique (cereal) is chosen to study along the slope, surface and deep structural changes of soil, humidity and the fine particles (<2 μm). Thus, consideration of ...

  5. Effect of IL-1β and IL-1RN polymorphisms in carcinogenesis of the gastric mucosa in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Drici, Amine El-Mokhtar; Moulessehoul, Soraya; Tifrit, Abdelkarim; Diaf, Mustapha; Kara Turki, Douidi; Bachir, Meriem; Tou, Abdenacer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infection with Helicobacter pylori is considered a potential risk of developing gastric cancer in association with contributing host genetic factor. IL-1β and IL-1RN polymorphisms appear to maintain and promote Helicobacter pylori infection and to stimulate neoplastic growth of the gastric mucosa.Objective and methods: In order to elucidate the effect of these polymorphisms in combination with gastric cancer in a population from northwestern Algeria, a case-control study was carri...

  6. National Report of Algeria on the implementation of the Code of Conduct on Safety and security of radioactive sources and its supplementary Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria has expressed his commitment to support the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in November 2004. He also supports the implementation of the supplementary guidance on the import and export of radioactive sources. A primary legislation on radiation safety is in place and the “Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique” (COMENA) is the regulatory authority for the control of the radiation sources in Algeria. This legislative framework provides for an authorization system for the detention and use of radiation sources. A robust system of control of import and export of radioactive sources is in place, based on a close co-operation between the COMENA and the Customs. The COMENA maintains a national register of radiation sources using the RAIS 3.0 provided by the IAEA. The “Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger ”(CRNA) is the national provider of technical services in radiation safety in Algeria. Capabilities for recovery and storage of spent or orphan radioactive sources are also available. (author)

  7. Microbial quality, physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows’ milk in East Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoui, Tayeb

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report describing microbiological, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows’ milk in East of Algeria. Five butter samples were prepared in the laboratory according to the traditional method used by people in the Jijel areas (Eastern Algeria. Our results show the presence of lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria as well as yeasts, while staphylococci or lipolytic bacteria were not detected. Important differences were found in chemical values among butter samples. The pH values ranged from pH4.64 and pH5.53. Moisture and impurities exceeded 17.5% and 9.19% respectively. The values for acid index, peroxide index, saponification index and iodine index ranged from: 23.56-31.35mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g respectively. Finally, the fatty acid composition showed that palmitic acid and oleic acid were the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    Esta es la primera vez que se describen las propiedades microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas y la composición en ácidos grasos de una mantequilla tradicional producida con leche de vaca del Este de Argelia. Cinco muestras de mantequilla fueron preparadas en el laboratorio siguiendo el método tradicional usado por la población del área de Jiels (Este de Argelia. Nuestros resultados muestran la presencia de ácido láctico, bacterias psicrotróficas y levaduras, mientras que stafilococos y bacterias lipolíticas no fueron detectadas. Importantes diferencias fueron encontradas en los valores químicos de las diferentes muestras de mantequilla. Los valores de pH variaron entre 4.64 y 5.53. La humedad e impurezas excedió el 17.5% y 9.19%, respectivamente. Los valores de índice de acidez, índice de peróxidos, índice de saponificación e índice de yodo variaron entre: 23.56-31.35 mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g, respectivamente. Finalmente

  8. [Impact of Ligula intestinalis (L.1758) (Cestode), on the growth of Barbus setivimensis (Cyprinidae) in a lake system in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadou-Sanoun, Ghania; Arab, Abdeslem; Lek-Ang, Sithan; Lek, Sovan

    2012-04-01

    The Algerian freshwater fish fauna is mainly represented by the Cyprinidae family, in particular, the genus Barbus. This is represented only by natural populations of the subgenus Barbus. The systematic, based mainly on the methods of biometrics, is quite different from one author to another. However, two nominal species are usually cited: Barbus callensis (Valenciennes, 1842), which is limited to the region of El Kala (eastern Algeria) and Barbus setivimensis (Valenciennes, 1842) in other parts of the North. During the ecological study of this fauna, many individuals were found infested with the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (Linné, 1758), which led us to study the effect of this parasite on B. setivimensis using the ecological parasites' index (prevalence, abundance and parasite intensity) and to focus on the impact of the parasite on the growth of fish. Tapeworm L. intestinalis presents a wide geographical distribution and a complex lifecycle to multiple hosts: the cycle starts in the body of birds. The life expectancy in the major host is a maximum of 5 days, but in this time, they will lay a multitude of eggs. These eggs are passed into water via the faeces of the bird. Once in the aquatic medium, they hatch and are eaten by a wide range of copepod zooplankton (first intermediate host). The cycle continues when fish (second intermediate host) ingests the copepod. The worm then burrows through the gut wall and continues to develop in the fish's body cavity. The cycle is then complete when the bird (final host) eats the tapeworm-hosting fish. We studied the effects of diet, the hosting period, the habitat on the prevalence, abundance and intensity of the parasitic larvae plerocercoid L. intestinalis and the parasiting effect on the Cyprinids fishs of the genus Barbus in the Keddara dam (Boumerdes, Algeria) during one year. Although L. intestinalis was recorded in several host fish, the available data on the parameters of parasitism are limited and no studies are

  9. Analysis on the Kabyle Issue in Algeria%阿尔及利亚卡比尔人问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧

    2012-01-01

    The Kabyle Issue in Algeria is a series of political,social and cultural issues deriving from the linguistic and cultural rights of the Kabyles as a minority ethnic group.This question is caused by historical and realistic factors.The distinction between Arabs and Berbers made by French Anthropologists during the colonial age is supposed to be the foreshadowing of this question.Since independence,the adjustment of economic structure and the development of domestic market in Kabylia have promoted the social and cultural integration of the region.Meanwhile,the government's Arbization policies directly led to the rise of kabyle cultural and political movements.The kabyle question performs differently in different periods,whereas the transnationalization and regionalization are two new dimensions of this unresolved question which is considered to be a challenge to the unity and stability of Algeria to some extent.%阿尔及利亚的卡比尔人问题,是围绕卡比尔人作为少数族群的语言与文化权利而产生的一系列政治、社会和文化问题。这一问题的产生既有历史原因,也有现实因素。法国殖民者对阿拉伯人和柏柏尔人的区分为卡比尔人问题的产生埋下伏笔。阿尔及利亚独立后,卡比利亚地区经济结构的调整和内部市场的发展促成该地区成为一个社会、经济和文化的共同体。在此背景下,政府的阿拉伯化政策引发了卡比尔人的文化、政治运动。卡比尔人问题在不同的历史时期有不同的表现形式,近年来出现了跨国化、地方化的趋势。卡比尔人问题长期悬而未决一定程度上不利于阿尔及利亚的统一和稳定。

  10. Selective breeding of Arabian and Thoroughbred racehorses in Algeria: perceptions, objectives and practices of owners-breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia Tennah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This survey, conducted with 461 racehorse owners-breeders in Algeria between 2009 and 2011, investigates their perceptions, objectives and practices regarding selective breeding. Racehorse breeding is a full-time professional activity for a third of interviewees. The holdings are small-sized with 77% owning one or two mares. The regular practice of mating is here used to categorize breeders according to their degree of professionalization (38.4% professional vs. 61.6% occasional breeders. Experience in the sector was also used to classify breeders, considering as "junior" the breeders under 10 years experience (38.8% and as "senior" those above 10 years (61.2%. More than professionalization, experience shows a significant impact on practices and objectives. Thus, experience influences breed choice (junior breeders tend to specialize while senior own both Arabian and Thoroughbreds, age at first foaling (sooner among senior breeders, information sources considered for selecting stallions (senior use more diversified sources, the importance granted to the price of mating (greater for junior breeders, the importance granted to the ranking compared to earnings (the ranking being more important to junior breeders, and the priority given to breeding (junior breeders give higher priority to a buy-race-resell activity. Finally, racehorse breeding is poorly professionalized, the only financial goal being cost coverage. Despite inappropriate practices, an interest for selection is noticed.

  11. The Potential Of Geomatics In The Realization Of A Map Of Desertification Sensitivity Southern Massif Belezma - Batna - (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmessaoud, H.; Chergui, F.; Sahnouni, R.; Chafai, C.

    2015-04-01

    Desertification is the gradual and sustained reduction in the quantity and quality of the biological productivity of arid and semi-arid land. The study area is located in the North Eastern part of Algeria, it has a rich heritage in its biodiversity, however weather conditions and adverse human reality, induce a degradation of the physical environment in the form of a regression of vegetation cover. To assess desertification in our study area map of desertification sensitivity is a tool for decision support. For the realization of this Map we used the ArcGis software applied a methodology which is inspired by the concept MEDALUS (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use, 1999) by crossing four thematic layers that may have an impact on the process of desertification. The results of Cartography and statistical analysis permit the classification of our region in terms of sensitivity to desertification in four very important classes. (Not affected, Insensitive, Sensitive and highly sensitive). More than 69.92% of the surface area were classified sensitive to very sensitive, For against 30.07% is classified in unallocated insensitive. Planning restoration work and the fight against desertification are expected to limit the risk of desertification in the study area perspectives.

  12. STUDIES OF CHANGES OF SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS AMONG WORKERS OF CEMENT OF EL MA EL ABIOD TEBESSA ALGERIA

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    M. Aouimeur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, the industrial development engenders the appearance of the sanitary and environmental problems resulting from the pollution due to these certain industries such as the industry cimentière. With the aim of estimating the sanitary state of the workers of the cement works; a study was made for 30 workers of the cement works. This study is based on the determination of the values of 07 parameters hématologiques (red blood cells, haemoglobin, hématocrite, average spherical volume, The corpuscular concentration averages in haemoglobin, The corpuscular content averages in haemoglobin and the number of white blood cells and two parameters considered as markers premature of the inflammation (sedimentation speed and protein-C-reactive. These results are compared with two other populations, one of the inhabitants of the region and other one of the inhabitants far from the cement works avec 60 km. The statistical analyses are based on the comparison of the variances and the analysis in main constituent (ACP. The comparison of the variance of the various variable of the individuals show a resemblance between the workers and the inhabitants close to the cement works but significant differences appeared between both populations and those of the cement works for some parameters. The global analysis of these results with the ACP showed a general coherence. The observation of the groups allowed removing some peculiarities.This distribution shows the relation between the functional state and the variation of the parameters.

  13. Physico-chemical characterization of surface waters of the west coast of Algeria: Bay of Mostaganem and Cheliff estuary

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    Fatima Kies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A follow-up in 2013 of the indicators of pollution (temperature, hydrogen potential, salinity, dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, orthophosphates, ortho silicates, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids in surface water was performed, in order to estimate the physicochemical quality of the west coast of Algeria. The results obtained revealed the existence of a water contamination by domestic and industrial waste water conveyed to the north by the Cheliff River for discharge into the Bay of Mostaganem, marked by significant space-time variations. In January (24 mg / l, the values of nitrates recorded west of the mouth of Cheliff exceed norms. Ammonium records strong concentrations in January (1.2 mg NH4+/ l and in February (0.8 mg /l. Nitrites such lagging of high contents in January (NO2- 0.99 mg / l and February (NO2- 0.59 mg /l, respectively. The ortho phosphates post a maximum concentration in January (6.6mg PO43-/ l. In addition, the organic matter rate measured in surface water is maximum during periods of flooding especially in January (7.51 mg / l and lowest in the exceptionally dry season in August (2.19 mg / l.

  14. Morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of unusual morphospecies of Microcystis novacekii forming bloom in the Cheffia Dam (Algeria

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    Noureddine BOUAÏCHA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The toxicological potential and morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA sequence and the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS were investigated in unusual morphospecies of Microcystis (MCYS-CH01 isolated from the Cheffia Dam in Algeria. The presence of microcystin synthetase genes (mcyA, -B, and -C in isolated colonies of this morphospecies, and the fact that serine/threonine phosphatase (PP2A was inhibited by its crude extract indicated that this morphospecies was microcystin-producer. The morphological features of this unusual morphospecies were very different from any of those described in the literature of all known species of Microcystis. The phylogenic tree based on 16S rDNA sequences shows that this morphospecies is indistinguishable from the reference strain Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 and from many other known Microcystis species and, therefore, this tree did not necessarily correlate to the distinctions between morphospecies. However, phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region could be an effective way to assign this unusual morphospecies MCYS-CH01 to the Asian species Microcystis novacekii. Comparison of the ITS sequence of this morphospecies with sequences available in the GenBank database showed that some highly conserved genotypes are found throughout the world.

  15. Epidemiology and virulence of VIM-4 metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients in eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meradji, Samah; Barguigua, Abouddihaj; Bentakouk, Mohamed Cherif; Nayme, Kaotar; Zerouali, Khalid; Mazouz, Dekhil; Chettibi, Houria; Timinouni, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) in burn patients from eastern Algeria, CRPA virulence factors and the molecular epidemiology of CRPA. The overall prevalence of CRPA was 48.38%. Seven (46.66%) isolates were metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) producers and contained the MBL genes blaVIM-4 (n=6) and blaVIM-2 (n=1). Risk factors for CRPA infection were urinary catheter use and intubation (p=0.008). A high percentage of virulence factors (86.6% of these isolates were able to produce protease; 73.3% of isolates has DNase; and 66.6% were haemolysin positive) was observed in CRPA isolates. Among the seven MBL-producing isolates, four had the same clonal profile. The class 1 integrons, which contained the aadA7 gene cassette, were detected in six isolates. The 16SrRNA methylase gene, rmtB, was detected in one strain. All CRPA isolates were biofilm formers. A study on the kinetics of biofilm production revealed that biofilm production increased when the concentration of imipenem or ciprofloxacin and the incubation time increased. This is the first study to report the presence of VIM-4-producing P. aeruginosa from North Africa and also of the high prevalence of CRPA isolates. Based on our study of burn unit patients, the high percentage of P. aeruginosa with virulence factors and multi-drug resistance is alarming. PMID:27156788

  16. Financial reforms in the MENA region, a comparative approach: The case of Tunisia, Algeria, morocco and Egypt

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    Alouani Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The financial reform is one of the most important reforms prescribed by the Washington Consensus. With its internal and external components, it occurs in the final stages of the process of economic liberalization. In this work, and after listing, briefly, the causes of financial liberalization, we are going to study in a second section financial development and bank performance in four countries of the MENA region: Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Egypt. In this context, we will explore some criteria for determining if the banking sector is performing as the level of intermediation margins, the state of the banking service, and so on. The third section will be subject to an assessment of financial liberalization since the start of reforms to the present day, while focusing on the impact of liberalization on the investment, savings, capital entry, and so on. Our conclusion will be in the form of recommendations aimed at showing that overall reforms, significant progress have been made in recent years but much remains to be done.

  17. Paleomagnetism of the Liassic member of the Zarzaïtine Formation (stable Saharan craton, Illizi basin, Algeria

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    B. Bayou

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A paleomagnetic study was carried out in the carbonates and marls of the Liassic member of the Zarzaïtine Formation of the Illizi basin (SE Algeria deposited in a continental environment. Two magnetization components were identified. The first, defined at relatively low blocking temperature, was isolated in five sites, and yields the following paleomagnetic pole (80.8°N, 20.1°E, K = 811 and A 95 = 2.2°. This magnetization is considered an overprint acquired during Cenozoic times. The second component was defined by both normal and reversed polarity. The normal polarity was identified in fourteen sites using both linear regression and great circles. The reversed one was inferred in four sites from the remagnetization circle and demagnetization path analyses. This component is mainly (it could be in part the primary magnetization a late diagenesis magnetic overprint. It yields a new Liassic pole (71.8°S, 54.9°E, K = 91 and A 95 = 3.9° for Africa.

  18. COASTAL RISK IN THE ALGIERS REGION (ALGERIA: INSIGHTS FROM TSUNAMI VELOCITIES, SEISMIC GROUND MOTION AND REMOTE SENSING

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    L. A. Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Algiers region (Algeria is exposed to destructive earthquakes that sometimes trigger tsunamis. In this paper, we present an interdisciplinary approach that identifies the locations prone to related induced damage for a worst-case scenario off Algiers. Firstly, a tsunami modeling for a 7.6 earthquake in the Khair Al Din Bank is computed with the Geoclaw package. The simulation indicates that the maximum values for the surface heights are about 1.5 meters and 40 to 60 m/s for the flow velocities. Seismic shaking maps are computed as well using the OpenSHA application for the same earthquake scenario. The results show that the peak ground accelerations and peak ground velocities are the highest in the Algiers massif, which means that this area is the most exposed to a high level of infrastructural damage. Finally, the use of remote sensing and GIS applications helped to generate a susceptibility to flooding hazard map for the bay of Algiers. This approach showed that the central and the eastern part of the bay have the higher susceptibility degree to flooding.

  19. Simulation study of a capillary film solar still coupled with a conventional solar still in south Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Coupling in series a capillary film solar still and a conventional solar still. • Combined heat and mass transfer analyses in solar distillation systems. • Design parameters of the system are optimized by simulation program. - Abstract: This work presents a numerical simulation of capillary film solar still (distiller) coupled in series with another conventional solar still. Different transfer phenomena of heat and mass are considered to evaluate the daily distillate production. The study takes into account the quality of brackish water with moderate salinity in Adrar city (south of Algeria). The performance of the system is evaluated and compared with that of conventional solar still under the same meteorological conditions. A numerical simulation is carried out to appreciate the developed model and to optimize the relationship between both distillers collecting surfaces. The obtained results show that the system daily production is at 54–83% higher than that of the conventional one. In addition, some parameters influences are studied to define the optimal operating conditions for the present system. For the first solar still, the inclination angle and surfaces ratio have a significant effect on distillate production. Brine flow rate and wind speed have slight effect on still production

  20. Dynamics and effects of Ligula intestinalis (L.) infection in the native fish Barbus callensis Valenciennes, 1842 in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouis, Sonia Ould; Rouis, Abdelhalim Ould; Dumont, Henri J; Magellan, Kit; Arab, Abdeslem

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of the emergence, duration, and decline phases in epizootic cycles are well known for humans and some crops, but they are poorly understood for host-parasite systems in the wild. Parasites may be particularly insidious as they are often introduced unintentionally, simultaneously with their hosts, and later transferred to species in the new location. Here we investigate the epizootic dynamics of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis in the Hamiz reservoir, Algeria, and explore its effects on the cyprinid fish Barbus callensis. Regular sampling was conducted from October 2005 to February 2008 with intermittent surveys carried out until 2010. Five percent of the 566 specimens of B. callensis that were caught were infected, with the maximum number of parasites found in spring. There was no obvious difference in weight between uninfected fish and infected ones, and infection did not affect fish condition. However, infected fish were significantly longer than uninfected fish and had inhibited gonad development. The proportion of infected fish caught was significantly higher in year 1 and by the second winter, infection collapsed to zero. The Ligula infection thus appeared to have minimal ecological effects and be of a temporary nature, thus exhibiting an epizootic cycle. Taken together, our data indicates that this infection declined or even failed during our study period. Failure may be due to the specific genetic strain of Ligula, but invasive carp may also have been influential in both the introduction and subsequent decline of this parasite. PMID:27078654

  1. The ammonoids from the Argiles de Timimoun of Timimoun (Early and Middle Viséan; Gourara, Algeria

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    J. Bockwinkel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven ammonoid species are described from the Argiles de Timimoun of Timimoun (Gourara, Algeria. The following taxa are newly described: Rhnetites n. gen., Rhnetites rhnetensis n. sp., Rhnetites ouladallalensis n. sp., Parahammatocyclus mutaris n. sp., Bollandoceras nitens n. sp., Bollandoceras subangulare n. sp., Bollandoceras politum n. sp., Bollandoceras aridum n. sp., Bollandoceras zuhara n. sp., Bollandoceras mirrih n. sp., Benimehlalites n. gen., Benimehlalites benimehlalensis n. sp., Benimehlalites belkassemensis n. sp., Benimehlalites brinkmanni n. sp., Pachybollandoceras n. gen., Pachybollandoceras intraevolutum n. sp., Pachybollandoceras repens n. sp., Bollanditinae n. subfam., Gourarites n. gen., Gourarites hagaraswad n. sp., Gourarites hagarkarim n. sp., Gourarites mustari n. sp., Gourarites zuhal n. sp., Semibollandites n. gen., Semibollandites kamil n. sp., Semibollandites pauculus n. sp., Semibollandites qawiy n. sp., Timimounia n. gen., Timimounia timimounensis n. sp., Timimounia lunula n. sp., Daaitidae n. fam., Daaites n. gen., Daaites daaensis n. sp., Dimorphoceras lanceolobatum n. sp., Nomismoceras salim n. sp., and Nomismoceras waltoni n. sp. The species occur in three successive horizons and can be attributed to the Bollandites-Bollandoceras Genus Zone (Early and Middle Viséan. They represent the most diverse ammonoid fauna known from this time interval. doi:10.1002/mmng.200900013

  2. 3D structural cartography based on magnetic and gravity data inversion - Case of South-West Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hichem, Boubekri; Mohamed, Hamoudi; Abderrahmane, Bendaoud; Ivan, Priezzhev; Karim, Allek

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of 3D aeromagnetic and gravity data inversion across the West African Craton (WAC) in South West Algeria. Although the used data have different origins and resolutions, the performed manual and automatic interpretation for each dataset shows a good correlation with some earlier geological studies of the region, major structural aspects of the locality, as well as other new structural features. Many curved faults parallel to the suture zone indicate the presence of terranes or the metacratonization of the WAC and a related fault network of great importance with NE-SW and NW-SE directions. The mega shear zones from north to south, which are visible at the surface in the Hoggar, are also observed along the Saharan Platform. The fact that these faults are observed since the Cambro-Ordovician in all crust (including the Saharan Basins) indicates that this area, which is situated on the border of the WAC, remained active during the entire period of time.

  3. Groundwater recharge estimation in semi-arid zone: a study case from the region of Djelfa (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Rahmani, S. E.; Chibane, Brahim; Boucefiène, Abdelkader

    2016-03-01

    Deficiency of surface water resources in semi-arid area makes the groundwater the most preferred resource to assure population increased needs. In this research we are going to quantify the rate of groundwater recharge using new hybrid model tack in interest the annual rainfall and the average annual temperature and the geological characteristics of the area. This hybrid model was tested and calibrated using a chemical tracer method called Chloride mass balance method (CMB). This hybrid model is a combination between general hydrogeological model and a hydrological model. We have tested this model in an aquifer complex in the region of Djelfa (Algeria). Performance of this model was verified by five criteria [Nash, mean absolute error (MAE), Root mean square error (RMSE), the coefficient of determination and the arithmetic mean error (AME)]. These new approximations facilitate the groundwater management in semi-arid areas; this model is a perfection and amelioration of the model developed by Chibane et al. This model gives a very interesting result, with low uncertainty. A new recharge class diagram was established by our model to get rapidly and quickly the groundwater recharge value for any area in semi-arid region, using temperature and rainfall.

  4. Coastal Uplift and Thrust Faulting Associated With the Mw=6.8 Zemmouri (Algeria) Earthquake of 21 May, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghraoui, M.; Maouche, S.; Chemaa, B.; Cakir, Z.; Aoudia, K.; Harbi, A.; Alasset, P.; Ayadi, A.; Bouhadad, Y.; Benhamouda, F.

    2004-12-01

    A shoreline uplift marked by a continuous white band visible at rocky headlands occurred during the 21 May 2003 earthquake (Mw 6.8) in northern Algeria. We measured the amount of coastal uplift on a white band (emerged algae) and harbors quays between Boumerdes and Dellys. Most of measured points were collected using tape and differential GPS on rocky headlands with ƒa ,b 0.15 m error bar (tidal prism). Leveling lines running parallel and orthogonal to the coast also provide the precise amount of uplift in the epicentral area. The uplift distribution shows an average 0.55 m along the shoreline with a maximum 0.75 m east of Boumerdes and a minimum close to 0 near Cap Djinet. The active deformation related to a thrust fault is modeled along the ƒî 55 km coastline. The dislocation model predicts surface slip on a N 54øXE trending reverse fault, dipping 50øX SE in agreement with CMT solution and coastal uplift. The faulting characteristics imply a fault geometry with possible sea bottom ruptures between 5 to 10 km offshore.

  5. Rupture process of the Mw=6.9 Boumerdes (Algeria) earthquake of May 21, 2003 from seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallee, M.; Delouis, B.; Deschamps, A.; Deverchere, J.; Yelles, K.; Hello, Y.; Calais, E.

    2003-12-01

    The understanding of the destructive earthquake that struck northern Algeria on May 21, 2003 is complicated by the fact that it most likely ruptured the earth surface offshore. Notwithstanding, a number of observations, measurements, and recordings can be used to constrain the main aspects of the rupture process of the event. We use seismological data, specifically teleseismic body and surface waves, to determine how slip was distributed in space and time relative to the mainshock hypocenter. Our preliminary results indicate that the essential part of the reverse faulting rupture occurred at shallow depth (< 10 km) on a south dipping fault plane and was associated with a strong directivity effect toward the SW. We intend to improve the determination of the hypocenter itself by carrying out a relative location with respect to the aftershocks which were recorded by OBS deployed in the epicentral area a few days after the mainshock. Onland ground deformation, such as coastal uplift, as well as offshore imaging of the activated fault (MARADJA cruise) are also used to constrain further the spatial properties of the rupture, in particular its absolute location and geometry.

  6. Seasonal Variations Of Heavy Metals In Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L., 1758 Collected From Sikkak Dam Of Tlemcen (Algeria

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    Derrag Zineb,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in the concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni were determined from December 2010 to November 2011 in four different tissues (muscles, gills, gonads, and livers of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 from Sikkak dam at Ainyoucef (Wilaya of Tlemcen which is an important water source for irrigation and drinking in northwest part of Algeria. Heavy metals in fish samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS after dry digestion. One-way ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA were used to compare the data among seasons (level of 0,05. Mean concentrations were found to decrease in sequence of Cyprinuscarpio samples, in muscle and liver as Fe > Zn >Pb> Ni > Cu > Cd, in gills as Zn > Fe >Pb> Ni > Cu > Cd, and in gonads Fe > Zn > Ni >Pb> Cu > Cd. In samples Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded the tolerable values provided by FAO/WHO. The highest metals concentrations were found in liver followed by gills, by gonads, and by muscle. Heavy metal levels in tissues of carp were decreased in winter. The obtained results showed that the average values of Cd, Cu, Zn and Ni were at the highest levels in summer. The highest Pb levels were measured in the spring and Fe in autumn. It found that all tested metals in organs did not reveal any significant difference between different seasons (P > 0,05, (inter-season comparison.

  7. Prey selection by nesting House Martins Delichon urbica Linné, 1758 (Aves: Hirundinidae) in Algiers suburbs (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzouki, Youcef; Souttou, Karim; Sekour, Makhlouf; Daoudi-Hacini, Samia; Doumandji, Salaheddine

    2014-01-01

    The diet of the House Martin Delichon urbica was analyzed in a suburban area in Pins maritimes, northeast of Algiers (Algeria). The diet was determined by analyzing 120 faecal samples collected from a breeding colony between April and September 2007. Insects were the most numerous prey types (99.86%). Hymenopterans were the dominant preys (56.99%), followed by Coleopterans (20.14%), Homopterans (14.22%), Heteropterans (5.45%), and Dipterans (3.10%). Division of the prey items into families demonstrated that the highest relative frequency was large Hymenopterans in the family Formicidae (54.0%). The dominant species in the diet was Tetramorium biskrensis, which comprised 32.6% of the diet. It was followed by Camponotus barbaricus (6.9%) and Monomorium salomonis (5.6%). Comparison between diet and availability of preys using the Savage index showed that T. biskrensis, Crematogaster scutelaris, Pheidole pallidula, Diptera sp. unident. and Aphidae sp. unident. were positively selected by D. urbica. PMID:24439551

  8. First report of natural infection in hedgehogs with Leishmania major, a possible reservoir of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Pérez, Míriam; Khaldi, Mourad; Riera, Cristina; Mozo-León, Denis; Ribas, Alexis; Hide, Mallorie; Barech, Ghania; Benyettou, Meryam; Seghiri, Kamel; Doudou, Souad; Fisa, Roser

    2014-07-01

    We report here the first known cases of natural infection of hedgehogs with Leishmania major. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an important public health problem in the area of M'sila, a semi-arid province in Algeria's northern Sahara, where two species of hedgehog live, Atelerix algirus and Paraechinus aethiopicus. The aim of this research was to survey Leishmania infection in these hedgehogs and evaluate whether they were reservoir hosts of Leishmania in an endemic zoonotic focus of leishmaniasis. Serological and molecular methods were used to determine the presence of Leishmania in 24 hedgehogs caught directly by hand and identified at species level as 19 A. algirus and 5 P. aethiopicus. Specific anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 29.2% of individuals by Western blot and in 26.3% by ELISA. The real-time PCR performed in spleen, ear and blood samples detected Leishmania spp. DNA in 12.5% of the individuals, one A. algirus and two P. aethiopicus. Three skin and two spleen samples of these animals were found to be parasitized and were identified by molecular test as L. major. Considering our results, it is suggested that hedgehogs have a potential epidemiological role as reservoir hosts of L. major. PMID:24699087

  9. Analysis of the objectives of physical education in schools in Algeria and their perception by teachers and students

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    Tarek SAKER

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the education system, the teaching of physical education is considered as an activity rather than a formalized intellectual activity. As a result, the perce ption of the pedagogical relationship actors in this f ield it is not always favorable , especially in Western countries. No data are currently avail able on this subject in Algeria . The goal of our research is to fill this gap. We proposed to 142 physical ed ucation teachers and 464 students in secondary and middle schools in the Algiers region to complete questionnaires to collect their representations with respect to physical education. We based on closed questions (Likert scale with four levels. In additi on, an open question was included in the questionnaire for teachers. In this case a content analysis allowed us to classify the responses into a system of categories (% agree intra - analyst 93.3 %. Among the results, we will retain that: (1 the represent ation of the majority of teachers to comp ly with official guidelines; ( 2 physical education teachers mainly consider the status of physical education as "lower" than other school subjects; (3 physical education is well appreciated by all students subje ct in school, (4 representations of actors pedagogical relationship differ between the Algerian situation and that of European countries.

  10. Survey of bovine mycotic mastitis in different mammary gland statuses in two north-eastern regions of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Samir; Djebir, Somia; Hadef, Youcef; Benakhla, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of mycotic mastitis in different mammary gland statuses. The study was conducted on 304 dairy cows from ten farms in two north-eastern regions in Algeria; Guelma and Souk Ahras with 922 and 199 samples, respectively, forming thus a total number of 1,121 milk samples. A total of 321 milk samples were collected from clinical mastitis, 544 milk samples from subclinical mastitis and 256 milk samples from healthy mammary glands. Mycological analyses revealed that 10.17% of the treated samples were positive recording 114 species of fungi including 88 yeasts and 26 moulds. The most frequent species was Candida kefyr followed by C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. colliculosa, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. inconspicua, Trichosporon sp., Rhodotorula glutinis and Saccharomyces fragilis. Mould species have also been isolated from samples of both healthy milk and clinical mastitis milk. Aspergillus amstelodami (from glaucus group), A. fumigatus and Geotrichum candidum were identified, while the other species including Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. were not identified. PMID:25481847

  11. The Impact of Hydraulic Resources on Sustainable Development of the Timgad Basin North-East of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algeria has undertaken a great project consisting to realise an interconnection hydraulic Work in objective to be satisfy in resource water for population and agriculture. Timgad basin located in Aures is characterized by a particular morpho structural relief with dense streams which favorise streaming rain water. This basin includes globally detritital geological formations represented by argilious and sand of Miocene. Concerning agriculture development in this area and to supply neighbouring population with fresh water, Forum Toub site is choose to built a reserve collinear. Geological and geotechnical investigations give interesting results concerning place. However from hydrological study appear that an important solid volume, on twenty years, is largely over capacity water. Then the apparition of this new problem makes this project unrealisable and the site must be changed. It is interesting to build another Work with great capacity on another site taking in account the characteristic of the catchment area. The second proposal will could be assure a sustainable development with availability of water. The handling methods of transported sediments must be applied in upstream in order to increase the life time of water stopping

  12. Reproduction, population dynamics and production of Nereis falsa (Nereididae: Polychaeta) on the rocky coast of El Kala National Park, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daas, Tarek; Younsi, Mourad; Daas-Maamcha, Ouided; Gillet, Patrick; Scaps, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    The polychaete Nereis falsa Quatrefages, 1866 is present in the area of El Kala National Park on the East coast of Algeria. Field investigations were carried out from January to December 2007 to characterize the populations' reproductive cycle, secondary production and dynamics. Reproduction followed the atokous type, and spawning occured from mid-June to the end of August/early September when sea temperature was highest (20-23°C). The diameter of mature oocytes was approximately 180 μm. Mean lifespan was estimated to about one year. In 2007, the mean density was 11.27 ind. m-2 with a minimum of 7.83 ind. m-2 in April and a maximum of 14.5 ind. m-2 in February. The mean annual biomass was 1.36 g m-2 (fresh weight) with a minimum of 0.86 g m-2 in December and a maximum of 2.00 g m-2 in June. The population consisted of two cohorts distinguishable from size frequency distributions. One cohort corresponded to the recruitment of 2006 and the other appeared during the study period in September 2007. The annual production of N. falsa was 1.45 g m-2 year-1, and the production/biomass ratio was 1.07 year-1.

  13. Seismic tomography of the area of the 2010 Beni-Ilmane earthquake sequence, north-central Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abacha, Issam; Koulakov, Ivan; Semmane, Fethi; Yelles-Chaouche, Abd Karim

    2014-01-01

    The region of Beni-Ilmane (District of M'sila, north-central Algeria) was the site of an earthquake sequence that started on 14 May 2010. This sequence, which lasted several months, was triggered by conjugate E-W reverse and N-S dextral faulting. To image the crustal structure of these active faults, we used a set of 1406 well located aftershocks events and applied the local tomography software (LOTOS) algorithm, which includes absolute source location, optimization of the initial 1D velocity model, and iterative tomographic inversion for 3D seismic P- and S-wave velocities (and the Vp/Vs ratio), and source parameters. The patterns of P-wave low-velocity anomalies correspond to the alignments of faults determined from geological evidence, and the P-wave high-velocity anomalies may represent rigid blocks of the upper crust that are not deformed by regional stresses. The S-wave low-velocity anomalies coincide with the aftershock area, where relatively high values of Vp/Vs ratio (1.78) are observed compared with values in the surrounding areas (1.62-1.66). These high values may indicate high fluid contents in the aftershock area. These fluids could have been released from deeper levels by fault movements during earthquakes and migrated rapidly upwards. This hypothesis is supported by vertical sections across the study area show that the major Vp/Vs anomalies are located above the seismicity clusters. PMID:25485193

  14. Assessment of the types of catheter infectivity caused by Candida species and their biofilm formation. First study in an intensive care unit in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddiki SML

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sidi Mohammed Lahbib Seddiki,1 Zahia Boucherit-Otmani,1 Kebir Boucherit,1 Souad Badsi-Amir,2 Mourad Taleb,3 Dennis Kunkel41Laboratory: Antifungal Antibiotic, Physico-Chemical Synthesis and Biological Activity, University of Tlemcen, Algeria; 2Department of Anesthesiology, 3Department of Epidemiology, University Hospital of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria; 4Dennis Kunkel Microscopy Inc, Kailua, HI, USAAbstract: Nosocomial candidiasis remains a potential risk in intensive care units (ICUs, wherein Candida albicans is most responsible for its occurrence. Equally, non-C. albicans species, especially C. glabrata, are also involved. These infections are frequently associated with biofilms that contaminate medical devices, such as catheters. These biofilms constitute a significant clinical problem, and cause therapeutic failures, because they can escape the immune response and considerably decrease sensitivity to antifungal therapy. The diagnosis of catheter-related candidiasis is difficult; however, the differentiation between an infection of the catheter (or other medical implant and a simple contamination is essential to start an antifungal treatment. Among the methods used for this type of study is the Brun-Buisson method, but this method only examines the infectivity of catheters caused by bacteria. For this reason, we wanted to adapt this method to the yeast cells of Candida spp. To assess the various types of infectivity of catheters (contamination, colonization, or infection and their corresponding rates, as well as the responsible yeast species, we conducted our study, between February 2011 and January 2012, in the ICU at the University Hospital Center of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria; during this study, we took photographic images of the tongue of one patient and of that patient's implanted orobronchial catheter. In addition, catheters contaminated by C. albicans biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy.Keywords: ICU, contamination

  15. Molecular characterisation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and plasmid AmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from broilers in Béjaïa, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmahdi, Mohamed; Bakour, Sofiane; Al Bayssari, Charbel; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to characterise the molecular support of antibiotic resistance in expanded-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy broilers in Béjaïa, northeast Algeria. A total of 61 intestinal swabs from slaughtered broilers from four regions in Béjaïa locality, Algeria, were collected between February and April 2014, from which 20 ESC-resistant E. coli strains were isolated. Escherichia coli isolates were identified by classical biochemical and MALDI-TOF methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods. Screening for β-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME)-encoding genes and qnr determinants was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was determined using molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that the isolates showed high rates of resistance (>90%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ceftazidime, streptomycin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Low rates of resistance were observed for kanamycin (35%), amikacin (30%), cefoxitin (20%) and cefotaxime (15%). Molecular characterisation revealed that all of the isolates expressed the blaTEM-1 gene. Fourteen of them harboured the blaSHV-12 gene, two harboured the blaCTX-M-1 gene and four isolates harboured blaCMY-2. Screening for AME-encoding genes demonstrated that all isolates contained the aadA gene. In addition, qnrA was detected as the quinolone resistance determinant in 13 isolates. MLST revealed four known sequence types (STs), including ST744, ST38, ST1011 and ST2179, as well as one new sequence type (ST5086). Here we report the first study describing the clonal diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmid AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from healthy broilers in Algeria. PMID:27530851

  16. Association analysis of IL10, TNF-α and IL23R-IL12RB2 SNPs with Behçet's disease risk in Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouahiba eKhaib Dit Naib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have conducted the first study of the association of interleukin (IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and IL23R-IL12RB2 regionSNPswith Behçet's disease (BD in Western Algeria. Methods: A total of 51 BD patients and 96 unrelated controls from West region of Algeria were genotyped by direct sequencing for 11 SNPs including 2 SNPsfrom the IL10 promoter [c.-819T>C (rs1800871, c.-592A>C (rs1800872], 6 SNPs from the TNF-α promoter [c.-1211T>C (rs1799964, c.-1043C>A (rs1800630, c.-1037C>T (rs1799724, c.-556G>A (rs1800750, c.-488G>A (rs1800629 and c.-418G>A (rs361525], and 3 SNPs from the IL23R-IL12RB2 region [g.67747415A>C (rs12119179, g.67740092G>A (rs11209032 and g.67760140T>C (rs924080]. Results: The minor alleles c.-819T and c.-592A were significantly associated with BD (OR= 2.18; 95% CI 1.28-3.73, p = 0.003; whereas, there was weaker association between TNF-αpromoter SNPs or IL23R-IL12RB2 region and disease risk.Conclusion: Unlike the TNF-αand the IL23R-IL12RB2 region SNPs, the two IL10 SNPs were strongly associated with BD. The -819T, and -592A alleles and the -819TT, -819CT, and -592AA and -592CA genotypes seem to be highly involved in the risk of developing of BD in the population of Western Algeria.

  17. Usnea cornuta Körb. and Usnea glabrescens (Vainio) Vainio sens. Lat.: Species to be protected in the peninsula of Edough (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekroune Chaker, A

    2016-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, Edough Peninsula (Algerian Northeast) has a significant procession of rare plant species biogeographical interest. This communication is based on specimens collected by the author during the realization of a lichen herbarium when her attention was attracted by the striking presence of a fruticose lichen of Usnea genus, on a hawthorn at the entrance of a private neglected garden. One of the harvested species proved to be after identification, Usnea glabrescens (Vainio) Vainio sens. Lat. A second species was harvested meanwhile a few meters away, on a cork oak and identified as Usnea cornuta Körber species ever recorded in Algeria before. PMID:27262806

  18. Health effects of chemical pollution: case-study in Algeria; Effets de la pollution chimique sur la sante: exemple de l'usine SMIDAL (Algerie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzouki, L.; Medhioub, K. [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Sfax (Tunisia); Ben Soltane, S. [Insitut de Biologie, Annaba (Algeria); Zghal, N. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia); Azri, C. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Sfax (Tunisia)

    2000-09-01

    The analysis of some biological parameters of workers in a factory producing chemical fertilizers ASMIDAL (Algeria), and of residents a nearby city (El Bouni) who are exposed to the smell of chemical pollution, shows modifications of these parameters in terms of contamination due to nitric derivatives. The rat ingestion of infra-lethal dose of ammonium nitrate produced by ASMIDAL provokes modifications which are similar to those found in the subjects studied in this work. These modifications are of main concern to the levels of hemoglobin, methemoglobin, erythrocytes, seric and urinary nitrates. In addition, modifications in the activity of the spleen and of the liver have been observed in the rat. (author)

  19. Nasopharynx carcinomas. about 1342 cases treated at Oran, Algeria; Carcinomes du nasopharynx. A propos de 1342 cas traites a Oran, Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaldi, H.; Aid, M.; Lahmer, K.; Dali-Youcef, A.F. [Radiotherapie, Oran (Algeria)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose was to describe the epidemiology, clinical and therapy characteristics of the cavum cancer and the different post therapy results. The cavum cancer is frequent in west Algeria. It is the first cancer of superior aero digestive tracts, the fifth one fro man and the seventh for woman. It represents 8% of the whole of cancers treated at the radiotherapy service in Oran. It is chemosensitive and can be cured by radiotherapy but the frequency of locoregional recurrences and metastases remains high, despite all therapeutic methods used. (N.C.)

  20. Two-dimensional modeling of sediments deposits in dam reservoirs in Algeria; Modelisation bidimensionnelle du depot de sediments dans un barrage en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessenasse, M. [Universite SAAD Dahleb (Blida), Lab. de Recherche des Sciences de l' Eau LRS EAU ENP, Alger (Algeria); Kettab, A. [Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, LRS-EAU, Alger (Algeria); Paquier, A. [Cemagref de Lyon, Unite de Recherche Hydrologie-Hydraulique, 69 (France)

    2004-07-01

    The method to build a numerical model intended to predict the formation and the change of sediment deposits upstream from a dam is presented. From information about the inputs of water and sediments coming from the catchment supported by a QdF type hydrological analysis, a horizontal 2-D hydraulic model which couples shallow water equations and one equation for advection and diffusion of sediment concentration is used. Applying this model to Zardezas reservoir in Skikda (Algeria) region shows, on the one hand, the practical difficulties met on such case and, on the other hand, the potentialities of such a method for the management of Algerian reservoirs. (authors)

  1. The Genus Myrtus L. in Algeria: Composition and Biological Aspects of Essential Oils from M. communis and M. nivellei: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzabata, Amel; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia; Tomi, Félix

    2016-06-01

    The genus Myrtus L. (Myrtaceae family) comprises two species, Myrtus communis L. (known as common myrtle) growing wild all around the Mediterranean basin and Myrtus nivellei Batt. and Trab. (known as Saharan myrtle), found in central Sahara. Only one country, Algeria, hosts both species, M. communis in the North and M. nivellei in the South. The aim of this review was to collect, summarize, and compare the main results reported relative to the essential oils isolated from aerial parts of both species: botanical aspects, habitat, traditional use, chemical composition, new compounds, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effect, and insecticidal activity. Both essential oils have potential applications in human health. PMID:27159587

  2. Effect of Fire Reccurents on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Soils of Forest (Djaafra Chéraga) Saida (Algeria).

    OpenAIRE

    Borsali Amine Habib; Abdelouahab Saliha; Benyagoub Khayra

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we have tried to know changes in the physico-chemical properties of forest soil following the reccurents fires. For this we have analyzed 20 soil samples collected in the forest of Djaafra Chéraga (wilaya of Saïda, Algeria) along a chonosequence of 2, 3, 4, and 20 years after the last fire (4 modalities of time since the last fire replicated 5 times). The results showed that the recent fires decrease replenishment and uptake of moisture to the fields in effect, the water re...

  3. Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 2003 Mw = 6.8 Zemmouri earthquake (Algeria) from InSAR time series

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Esra; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Cakir, Ziyadin; Mimouni, Omar; Chebbah, Mouloud

    2012-01-01

    [1] We study the postseismic surface deformation of the Mw 6.8, 2003 Zemmouri earthquake (northern Algeria) using the Multi-Temporal Small Baseline InSAR technique. InSAR time series obtained from 31 Envisat ASAR images from 2003 to 2010 reveal sub-cm coastline ground movements between Cap Matifou and Dellys. Two regions display subsidence at a maximum rate of 2 mm/yr in Cap Djenet and 3.5 mm/yr in Boumerdes. These regions correlate well with areas of maximum coseismic uplifts, and their asso...

  4. The tsunami triggered by the 21 May 2003 Boumerdès-Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake: field investigations on the French Mediterranean coast and tsunami modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Sahal, A.; Roger, J.; S. Allgeyer; B. Lemaire; Hébert, H.; F. Schindelé; Lavigne, F.

    2009-01-01

    A field survey was organized on the French Mediterranean coasts to investigate the effects of the tsunami induced by the 21 May 2003 Boumerdès-Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake (Mw=6.9). The results show that eight harbours were affected by important sea level disturbances that caused material loss. Unfortunately, the low sampling rate of the French tide gage records (10 min) does not allow for a proper evaluation of the tsunami wave amplitudes since thes...

  5. Active thrust faulting offshore Boumerdes, Algeria, and its relations to the 2003 Mw 6.9 earthquake - art. no. L043111

    OpenAIRE

    Deverchere, Jacques; Yelles, K.; Domzig, Anne; Mercier de Lepinay, B.; Bouillin, J.p.; Gaullier, V.; Bracene, R.; Calais, E.; Savoye, Bruno; A. Kherroubi; Le Roy, P.; Pauc, H; Dan, Gabriela

    2005-01-01

    [1] We investigate the active seismogenic fault system in the area of the 2003 Mw 6.9 Boumerdes earthquake, Algeria, from a high-resolution swath bathymetry and seismic survey. A series of 5 main fault-propagation folds similar to20-35 km long leave prominent cumulative escarpments on the steep slope and in the deep basin. Fault activity creates Plio-Quaternary growth strata within uplifted areas such as a rollover basin on the slope and piggyback basins in the deep ocean. Most thrusts turn t...

  6. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Boualem Boumaaza; Mohamed Benkhelifa; Moulay Belkhoudja

    2015-01-01

    Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea’s life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150 ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations....

  7. The world economy of petroleum products and the strategy of a petroleum company from exporting country: Cases of SONATRACH (Algeria), KPC (Kuwait), PEMEX (Mexico), PDVSA (Venezuela). Second volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis contains 2 volumes. In this second volume, the author describes the industrial and technological developments and the strategy of petroleum companies in exporting countries. The main industrial strategies studied are national integration strategy in a planned economy (case of Algeria) or in a controlled-liberal economy (case of Mexico) and international integration strategies to the lower part of petroleum industry and external growth (cases of Kuwait and Venezuela). Technological strategies studied are development of a national engineering, information, research programs/ development and innovation. The last chapter takes stock of research and development programs for petroleum products (case of Mexico) . 258 refs., 103 tabs

  8. First Description of Two Sequence Type 2 Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Carrying OXA-23 Carbapenemase in Pagellus acarne Fished from the Mediterranean Sea near Bejaia, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, Soumia; Touati, Abdelaziz; Cadière, Axelle; Djahmi, Nassima; Pantel, Alix; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    To determine the occurrence of carbapenem-resistantAcinetobacter baumanniiin fish fished from the Mediterranean Sea near the Bejaia coast (Algeria), we studied 300 gills and gut samples that had been randomly and prospectively collected during 1 year. After screening on selective agar media, using PCR arrays and whole-genome sequencing, we identified for the first time two OXA-23-producingA. baumanniistrains belonging to the widespread sequence type 2 (ST2)/international clone II and harboring aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes [aac(6')-Ib andaac(3')-I genes]. PMID:26787693

  9. Diachronic analysis of salt-affected areas using remote sensing techniques: the case study of Biskra area, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrasinei, Gabriela M.; Melis, Maria T.; Buttau, Cristina; Bradd, John M.; Arras, Claudio; Ghiglieri, Giorgio

    2015-10-01

    In the Wadi Biskra arid and semi-arid area, sustainable development is limited by land degradation, such as secondary salinization of soils. As an important high quality date production region of Algeria, it needs continuous monitoring of desertification indicators, since the bio-physical setting defines it as highly exposed to climate-related risks. For this particular study, for which little ground truth data was possible to acquire, we set up an assessment of appropriate methods for the identification and change detection of salt-affected areas, involving image interpretation and processing techniques employing Landsat imagery. After a first phase consisting of a visual interpretation study of the land cover types, two automated classification approaches were proposed and applied for this specific study: decision tree classification and principal components analysis (PCA) of Knepper ratios. Five of the indices employed in the Decision Tree construction were set up within the current study, among which we propose a salinity index (SMI) for the extraction of highly saline areas. The results of the 1984 to 2014 diachronic analysis of salt - affected areas variation were supported by the interpreted land cover map for accuracy estimation. Connecting the outputs with auxiliary bio-physical and socio-economic data, comprehensive results are discussed, which were indispensable for the understanding of land degradation dynamics and vulnerability to desertification. One aspect that emerged was the fact that the expansion of agricultural land in the last three decades may have led and continue to contribute to a secondary salinization of soils. This study is part of the WADIS-MAR Demonstration Project, funded by the European Commission through the Sustainable Water Integrated Management (SWIM) Program (www.wadismar.eu).

  10. Assessment of wind energy to power solar brackish water greenhouse desalination units. A case study from Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Hacene [Laboratory of Water and Environment, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef, P.O. Box 151 (Algeria); Faculty of Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef (Algeria); Spahis, Nawel [Faculty of Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef (Algeria); Goosen, Mattheus F. [Alfaisal University, P.O. Box 50927, Riyadh 11533, KSA (Saudi Arabia); Sablani, Shyam [Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States); Abdul-wahab, Sabah A. [College of Engineering, P.O. Box 33, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod 123, Muscat (Oman); Ghaffour, Noreddine [Middle East Desalination Research Center, P.O. Box 21, P.C. 133, Muscat (Oman); Drouiche, Nadjib [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Algiers (Algeria)

    2009-10-15

    The Algerian desert dominates large parts of the country's vast territory, and Algeria is among the countries filling most of the world's largest desert. In fact the country is over 80% desert. Even though more than 80% of the population is located in the northern Mediterranean coastal zone, most of oil and gas fields are located in the country's vast southern desert called Sahara. Furthermore, the desert region is developed into a major tourist destination. This arid zone region is characterized by a lack of potable water. However, in addition to the abundant solar energy, the region is also endowed with important wind and brackish groundwater resources with different qualities. Therefore, a brackish water greenhouse desalination unit that is powered by wind energy is a good solution for desalting groundwater for irrigation purposes in this region. Brackish water can be used to cool the greenhouse, creating the proper climate to grow valuable crops. Moreover, at the same time the fresh water that is produced in this system may be sufficient for the irrigation of crops grown inside the unit. In this study, five typical regions in the Sahara were selected and investigated. These regions were selected since they were areas of traditional agriculture. The frequency distributions of wind speed data were collected from Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) statistics developed by NASA and evaluated for a 10-year period. The distributions were used to determine the average wind speed and the available wind power for the five locations. The results indicated that the available wind energy is a suitable resource for power production and can be used to provide the required electricity for the brackish groundwater greenhouse desalination units. (author)

  11. An application of Embedded Markov chain for soil sequences: Case study in North Western part of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfi Mustapha Kazi-Tani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Embedded Markov chain (EMC has long history in geological domains, particularly to define the most representative sequences from statigraphic logs. In other words, what is viewed as a meaningless and disordered stratigraphic layer stack can be reorganized in a meaningful sequence by using EMC. This method was transposed in this paper to obtain soil sequences from data retrieved from soil map made by authors, covering a part of the region of Traras (N.W. of Algeria and containing 13 major soil types. Each major soil type occupies at least one polygon in the map and allow to establish soil adjacencies, which have been tabulated in a matrix regardless to the direction. Three EMC methods have been tested, Walker, Harper and Türk using Strati-signal software and to erect soil relationship diagrams (SRD representing the most significant links between soils. Significant test is the main difference between the above mentioned three EMC methods. It has been shown that Harper method is quite insensitive to small number of transitions. Besides, all three methods agreed for one soil sequence made by four soils: lithics leptosols- cambisols chormics- cambisols calcarics- fluvisols representing theoretical catena the most representative to the study area. This soil sequence is relevant to the study region and even to the whole Mediterranean region, and is commanded by the topography and the Mediterranean bioclimate. Walker SRD is the most realistic but the most difficult to interpret because of the high number of soil links, Harper SRD gives interesting results. Although the results didn’t bring something new to the soil interpretation and soil pedogensis but EMC applied to a finer scale may highlights other hidden relationships between soils.

  12. Remote Sensing Application in the Diachronic Analysis of the Evolution Process of Natural Resource Degradation in the Eastern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenchouni, Haroun; Arar, Abdelkrim; Mekaoui, Sabri

    The objective of this study is to create maps of land cover from satellite images taken at different times to analyze and translate the different states of the dynamics of land use by vegetation in the Aures region Methodology is based on analysis by remote sensing tools of two satellite images: Landsat 1990 and Alsat 2001. To better characterize the evolution of the land and carry out a thematic analysis to visualize the global changes in time and space of the vegetation and its composition. Firstly, a colour composition was selected to identify samples and extract support points. Then a geometric correction is applied on the image to dereference it according to topographic map. In a second step, a supervised classification based on the method of maximum likelihood is used on the three-channel images. The occupancy map is drawn past the classification which we have highlighted eight (8) themes (Forests, Maquis, Crops, Rangeland, Steppe, River, sandy soils, and bare soils). After treatment and geographical statistics for two images, we found an increase in acreage of crops and rangeland at the expense of forests, bush, rivers and plains that have experienced a statistically significant. Integrating analysis of satellite imagery by the remote sensing tools is a powerful instrument for the evaluation, management and protection of our natural heritage. Remote sensing also allows us to see the different features of an environment and to monitor spatial and temporal process of desertification with the smallest detail. Keywords: Aures (East of Algeria), map of land cover, classification maximum likelihood, satellite imagery, remote sensing, evolution.

  13. Extraction, Identification and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Flavonoids From Fruit Extracts of Arbutus unedo L from Tiaret Area (Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadidja Bouzid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the total phenolic, flavonoid content and to investigate the antioxidant capacities of the fruit extracts of Arbutus unedo L. that grows in Tiaret area (Western Algeria. First we have extracted the fruit by some non-polar solvent (chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were evaluated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and a colorimetric method, respectively. Extracts content was determined by using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV method. The total phenolic contents of A.unedo L. varied between 12.75±0.06 to 34.17±1.36 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight of extract. The total flavonoid varied from 2.18±0.10 to 6.54±1.14 mg catechin equivalent/g. The antioxidant potential of all extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the IC50 of acetate ethyl was the best by 0,009 mg/ml may due to the phenolic compound, in the second was the chloroform extract by IC50=0,015mg/ml, in the third was butanol extract by IC50= 0,022 mg/ml and in the last was water extract by IC50= 0,048mg/ml. the antioxidant activity of all extracts was better than ascorbic acid. The extract obtained under optimum conditions was analyzed by HPLC and five flavonoid compounds were identified; they are catechin, apiginin, silybin, fisetine and naringin.

  14. Genetic and morphological consequences of Quaternary glaciations: A relic barbel lineage (Luciobarbus pallaryi, Cyprinidae) of Guir Basin (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimi, Amina; Tarai, Nacer; Benhassane, Abdelkrim; Henrard, Arnaud; Libois, Roland

    2016-02-01

    Climatic variations during the Quaternary period had a considerable impact on landscapes and habitat fragmentation (rivers) in North Africa. These historical events can have significant consequences on the genetic structure of the populations. Indeed, geographically separated and genetically isolated populations tend to differentiate themselves through time, eventually becoming distinct lineages, allowing new species to emerge in later generations. The aim of the present study is to use genetic and morphological techniques to evaluate the major role of the Saalian glaciation (Middle Quaternary) in the establishment of the geographic space and in the evolution of the intraspecific genetic diversity, by tracing the demographic history of barbels belonging to the Luciobarbus pallaryi (Cyprinidae) species in the Guir Basin (Algeria). In this context, two populations, from two distinct and isolated sites, were studied. Analysis of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial markers and of the "D-loop" control region has shown that the "upstream" and "downstream" Guir populations are genetically differentiated. The molecular analyses suggest that the upstream population was disconnected from this hydrographic system during the Saalian glaciation period of the Quaternary. Subsequently, it was isolated in the foggaras underground waters in the Great Western Erg, at approximately 320 000 years BP, creating, through a bottleneck effect, a new allopatric lineage referred to as "Adrar". Conversely, the high genetic diversity in the upstream Guir (Bechar) population suggests that the stock is globally in expansion. These barbels (n=52) were also examined with meristic, morphometric, osteological, and biological features. These data also reveal a complete discrimination between the two populations, with a remarkable and distinctive behavioural adaptation for the Adrar specimens: neoteny. PMID:26874458

  15. Seroprevalence and molecular characterization of Chlamydia abortus in frozen fetal and placental tissues of aborting ewes in northeastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hireche, Sana; Ababneh, Mustafa Mohammed Kheir; Bouaziz, Omar; Boussena, Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes is one of the most serious health problems in sheep flocks worldwide. It has a significant economic impact because abortion, decrease in milk production and weak lambs. Besides, the bacteria is zoonotic. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia abortus infection in 552 ewes in Constantine using a C. abortus-specific indirect ELISA kit. Chlamydial DNA was investigated in ten ovine fetuses and eight placentas using PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. The study concluded that 7.2 % of ewes were seropositive and 33.3 % of sheep flocks had at least one seropositive ewe. Adjacent farmworker visits (OR = 7.667, 95 % CI (OR) = 2.307; 27.203) was defined as a risk factor. Deliveries of weak lambs (OR = 2.920, 95 % CI (OR) = 1.022; 8.342) and septicemia in lambs (OR = 9.971, 95 % CI (OR) = 2.383; 41.713) were significantly associated with chlamydial infection. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed positive signals to C. abortus in six fetuses and four placentas. Sequencing of the omp2 gene revealed that the Algerian strain is 96 % similar with C. abortus FAS strain. C. abortus plays a major role in abortion in northeastern Algeria. Appropriate control measures must be implemented to reduce economic losses and to avoid human contamination. PMID:26526957

  16. Numerical study of a double-slope solar still coupled with capillary film condenser in south Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This is a numerical work on solar stills in the desert of Algeria using solar energy. • Solar stills can secure fresh water to low density remote desert agglomerations. • The yield was improved by coupling a solar still with a capillary film condenser. • The distilled water production increases with the reduction in flow feed saline water. • The yield varies conversely with the distance between the two condensing plates. - Abstract: The effect of joining a condensation cell to a single-basin double slope solar still was investigated numerically. Direct solar radiation heated the saline water then evaporated. A fraction of the resulting vapor is condensed on the inner glass cover plate and the rest on the outer metal plate. Solar radiation, ambient temperature and the temperatures at different system components were monitored. The performance of the system was evaluated and compared to that of a conventional solar still under the same meteorological conditions. The proposed prototype functioned perfectly and its daily yield reached 7.15 kg m−2 d−1. Results show that the productivity of the present system was about 60% higher than that of the conventional and capillary film types. The contributions of the glass cover, metal plate and condenser plate are 43%, 18% and 39% of the total distillate yield respectively. It was noticed that the productivity of the capillary film solar still was sensitive to the mass flow of the feeding water. It was also found that the absorptivity coefficient and the diffusion gap have significant effect on distillate production of the system

  17. Rupture parameters of the 21 May 2003, Mw 6.8, Zemmouri (Northern Algeria) earthquake deduced from InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbes, S.; Wicks, C.; Meghraoui, M.; Cakir, Z.

    2007-12-01

    We study the surface deformation associated with the 21 May, 2003 (Mw=6.8) Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake, the strongest seismic event felt in the region since 1716. Global and NEIC focal mechanism solutions of the mainshock indicate reverse faulting with a ~N60E trending rupture dipping ~ 45° SE. The earthquake epicenter relocated along the shoreline caused an average 0.50 m coastal uplift along ~50-km-long coastline. We mapped the coseismic surface displacement field caused by the earthquake using the ENVISAT ASAR (IS2) and RADARSAT standard beam (ST5) data. We were able to obtain coseismic interferograms from both the ascending and descending orbits of ENVISAT satellite. The RADARSAT data proved useful only in the descending mode. While the two RADARSAT interferograms cover the entire area of coastal uplift, ENVISAT data cover only the western half of the epicentral zone. Although the InSAR coherence in the epicenter area is poor, deformation fringes are observed along the coast in different patches. In the Boumerdes area, the maximum deformation is indicated by the high gradient of fringes visible in all interferograms in agreement with field measurements (tape, DGPS and leveling). To constrain the earthquake rupture parameters, we model the interferograms and uplift measurements using elastic dislocations on triangular fault patches in an elastic and homogeneous half space. We invert the coseismic slip using a curved surface constructed from triangular elements using Poly3Dinv program that uses a damped least square minimization. The fault rupture is 65-km-long and dips ~40° to the south with a smooth change in strike north of Boumerdes from N 60°-65° to N 95°-105°.

  18. Clonal relationship between human and avian ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in North-Eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabou, A; Lezzar, N; Ouchenane, Z; Khemissi, S; Satta, D; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P; Pantel, A

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine rates, patterns, and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, and to assess connections between chicken commensal, human commensal, and pathogenic ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates. All E. coli isolates collected from chickens, their farmers, and patients in the Constantine region (North-east Algeria) were analyzed for bla and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene contents, phylogroups, Rep-PCR profiles, and multilocus sequence types. A high prevalence of resistance to fluoroquinolones (51.4 % to ciprofloxacin) was recorded in avian isolates. Of these, 22.2 % carried the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene, whereas lower resistance levels to these antibiotics were recorded in chicken farmers' isolates. None of the commensal isolates harbored the qnr, qepA, or oqxAB genes. One human pathogenic isolate was ertapenem-resistant and harbored the bla OXA-48 gene, 84 showed an extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotype, with bla CTX-M-15 gene prevalent in 87.2 % of them. Seventy isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones, with aac(6')-Ib-cr present in 72.8 %, qnrB in 5.7 %, and qnrS in 10 %. Three Rep-PCR profiles were common to chicken commensal and human pathogenic isolates (phylogroups D and B1; ST21, ST48, and ST471 respectively); one was found in both chicken and chicken-farmer commensal strains (D; ST108), while another profile was identified in a chicken-farmer commensal strain and a human pathogenic one (B1; ST19). These findings suggest clonal and epidemiologic links between chicken and human ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates and the important role that poultry may play in the epidemiology of human E. coli infections in the Constantine region. PMID:26634353

  19. Searching for the seafloor signature of the 21 May 2003 Boumerdès earthquake offshore central Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, A.; Babonneau, N.; Ratzov, G.; Dan-Unterseh, G.; Yelles, K.; Bracène, R.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Boudiaf, A.; Déverchère, J.

    2012-07-01

    Shaking by moderate to large earthquakes in the Mediterranean Sea has proved in the past to potentially trigger catastrophic sediment collapse and flow. On 21 May 2003, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake located near Boumerdès (central Algerian coast) triggered large turbidity currents responsible for 29 submarine cable breaks at the foot of the continental slope over ~150 km from west to east. Seafloor bathymetry and backscatter imagery show the potential imprints of the 2003 event and of previous events. Large slope scarps resulting from active deformation may locally enhance sediment instabilities, although faults are not directly visible at the seafloor. Erosion is evident at the foot of the margin and along the paths of the numerous canyons and valleys. Cable breaks are located at the outlets of submarine valleys and in areas of turbiditic levee overspilling and demonstrate the multi-source and multi-path character of the 2003 turbiditic event. Rough estimates of turbidity flow velocity are not straightforward because of the multiple breaks along the same cable, but seem compatible with those measured in other submarine cable break studies elsewhere. While the signature of the turbidity currents is mostly erosional on the continental slope, turbidite beds alternating with hemipelagites accumulate in the distal reaches of sediment dispersal systems. In perspective, more chronological work on distal turbidite successions offshore Algeria offers promising perspectives for paleoseismology reconstructions based on turbidite dating, if synchronous turbidites along independent sedimentary dispersal systems are found to support triggering by major earthquakes. Preliminary results on sediment core PSM-KS23 off Boumerdès typically show a 800-yr interval between turbidites during the Holocene, in accordance with the estimated mean seismic cycle on land, even if at this stage it is not yet possible to prove the earthquake origin of all the turbidites.

  20. Searching for the seafloor signature of the 21 May 2003 Boumerdès earthquake offshore central Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cattaneo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Shaking by moderate to large earthquakes in the Mediterranean Sea has proved in the past to potentially trigger catastrophic sediment collapse and flow. On 21 May 2003, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake located near Boumerdès (central Algerian coast triggered large turbidity currents responsible for 29 submarine cable breaks at the foot of the continental slope over ~150 km from west to east. Seafloor bathymetry and backscatter imagery show the potential imprints of the 2003 event and of previous events. Large slope scarps resulting from active deformation may locally enhance sediment instabilities, although faults are not directly visible at the seafloor. Erosion is evident at the foot of the margin and along the paths of the numerous canyons and valleys. Cable breaks are located at the outlets of submarine valleys and in areas of turbiditic levee overspilling and demonstrate the multi-source and multi-path character of the 2003 turbiditic event. Rough estimates of turbidity flow velocity are not straightforward because of the multiple breaks along the same cable, but seem compatible with those measured in other submarine cable break studies elsewhere.

    While the signature of the turbidity currents is mostly erosional on the continental slope, turbidite beds alternating with hemipelagites accumulate in the distal reaches of sediment dispersal systems. In perspective, more chronological work on distal turbidite successions offshore Algeria offers promising perspectives for paleoseismology reconstructions based on turbidite dating, if synchronous turbidites along independent sedimentary dispersal systems are found to support triggering by major earthquakes. Preliminary results on sediment core PSM-KS23 off Boumerdès typically show a 800-yr interval between turbidites during the Holocene, in accordance with the estimated mean seismic cycle on land, even if at this stage it is not yet possible to prove the earthquake origin of all the turbidites.

  1. Optimization methods for gas liquefaction production in Algeria and for a firewater safety system for the Holy Area of Mina, in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chergui, B.

    1986-01-01

    The major part of this study deals specifically with problems encountered in liquefied-gas production in Algeria. However, its developed methodology could be applied to other industrial units of similar importance (petrochemical, pipeline, etc.). Capital costs as well as manpower, operations, and maintenance costs are very high in such production, especially in Algeria, a foreign-technology dependent country. Moreover, the technical complexity of an LNG plan constitutes a further incentive for the formulation of mathematical models as tools toward attaining management efficiency. These models can form the basis for Decision Support Systems for use as well in improving the operations of any major national industrial plant. The remainder of the dissertation consists of a conception and a study for an optimal firewater safety system for the Holy Area of Mina, in Saudi Arabia, where fire outbreaks cause significant losses in lives and property damages during the yearly pilgrimage. Part of the contribution of this study lies in the guidelines established for a Decision Support System, which will improve the user's effectiveness as a decision maker.

  2. Effect of the insulation by the mud on the convection in building in the Sahara of Algeria - case of Bechar City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benachour, Elhadj; Draoui, Belkacem; Imine, Baachir; Hasnat, Mohammed; Rahmani, Lakhdar

    2016-03-01

    The thermal behavior of the buildings is a current problem which arouses the interest of many researchers. Indeed, the control of the loads of air conditioning or heating requires a thorough knowledge. Since the thermal quality of the buildings in the Maghreb is there generally very insufficient in particular in the Sahara of Algeria, the insulation proved that it is a very important parameter to minimize the thermal diffusion process inside on all when the insulator is a local material as the Mud which is in our region with a significant amount and almost free quantity. This work presents a study of numerical simulation aiming at the role and the influence of the insulation by the mud Reduced like a local material to the town of Bechar located at the south west of Algeria, or one is interested in a comparative study for pursued these goals. In this context, an analogy was used for the functions which are discretized by the finite difference method and integrated in the Fluent code which is based on the finite volume method. The validation of this procedure was confirmed while comparing some results. The results are presented in the form of distributions of the isotherms, the streamlines, local and average Nusselt of which the goal to study the influence on comfort.

  3. Effect of the insulation by the mud on the convection in building in the Sahara of Algeria - case of Bechar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benachour Elhadj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of the buildings is a current problem which arouses the interest of many researchers. Indeed, the control of the loads of air conditioning or heating requires a thorough knowledge. Since the thermal quality of the buildings in the Maghreb is there generally very insufficient in particular in the Sahara of Algeria, the insulation proved that it is a very important parameter to minimize the thermal diffusion process inside on all when the insulator is a local material as the Mud which is in our region with a significant amount and almost free quantity. This work presents a study of numerical simulation aiming at the role and the influence of the insulation by the mud Reduced like a local material to the town of Bechar located at the south west of Algeria, or one is interested in a comparative study for pursued these goals. In this context, an analogy was used for the functions which are discretized by the finite difference method and integrated in the Fluent code which is based on the finite volume method. The validation of this procedure was confirmed while comparing some results. The results are presented in the form of distributions of the isotherms, the streamlines, local and average Nusselt of which the goal to study the influence on comfort.

  4. Photovoltaics in Algeria, today's experiences and perspectives of tomorrow; Le photovoltaique en Algerie, experiences d'aujourd'hui et perspectives de demain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahouane, Mehdi

    2010-09-15

    The communication describes Algeria's experience in the use of photovoltaics, principal renewable energy type used in the country, through the electrification of around 900 homes in 18 villages. This realization represents one of the largest projects accomplished by public powers in this domain with an installed power of 453KWc, which corresponds to 20% of the solar power currently exploited. Actions for the development of renewable energy in terms of realizations and regulations are listed, explaining the energy policy of Algeria which has fixed its contribution to the national energy balance at a level of 5% for 2017. [French] La communication decrit l'experience de l'Algerie dans l'utilisation du photovoltaique, principal type d'energie renouvelable utilisee dans le pays, a travers l'electrification d'environs 900 foyers repartis sur 18 villages. Cette realisation represente l'un des plus grands projets accomplis par les pouvoirs publics dans ce domaine avec une puissance installee de 453 KWc ce qui correspond a 20% de la puissance solaire presentement exploitee. Les actions destinees au developpement des energies renouvelables en matiere de realisations et reglementation sont citees explicitant la politique energetique de l'Algerie qui se fixe un taux de contribution au bilan energetique national de 5% pour 2017.

  5. Radiological analysis of materials sampled on the old nuclear test site of In Ekker (Algeria); Analyses radiologiques de materiaux preleves sur l'ancien site d'essais nucleaires d'In Ekker (Algerie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareyron, Bruno

    2010-02-11

    After having recalled the context of the French nuclear test campaign in Algeria between 1961 and 1966, this document reports and comments radiological measurements performed on the site of In Ekker, and also results of analysis performed in laboratory (contamination by cesium 137, americium 241, plutonium); recommendations are given

  6. Agreement of 23 February 1989 between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a research reactor from the Republic of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement of 23 February 1989 between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Algeria and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a 1 MW thermal training and research reactor from the Republic of Argentina

  7. The study of potable water treatment process in Algeria (boudouaou station) -by the application of life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed-Zine, Messaoud-Boureghda; Hamouche, Aksas; Krim, Louhab

    2013-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment will soon become a compulsory phase in future potable water production projects, in algeria, especially, when alternative treatment processes such sedimentation ,coagulation sand filtration and Desinfection are considered. An impact assessment tool is therefore developed for the environmental evaluation of potable water production. in our study The evaluation method used is the life cycle assessment (LCA) for the determination and evaluation of potential impact of a drink water station ,near algiers (SEAL-Boudouaoua).LCA requires both the identification and quantification of materials and energy used in all stages of the product's life, when the inventory information is acquired, it will then be interpreted into the form of potential impact " eco-indicators 99" towards study areas covered by LCA, using the simapro6 soft ware for water treatment process is necessary to discover the weaknesses in the water treatment process in order for it to be further improved ensuring quality life. The main source shown that for the studied water treatment process, the highest environmental burdens are coagulant preparation (30% for all impacts), mineral resource and ozone layer depletion the repartition of the impacts among the different processes varies in comparison with the other impacts. Mineral resources are mainly consumed during alumine sulfate solution preparation; Ozone layer depletion originates mostly from tetrachloromethane emissions during alumine sulfate production. It should also be noted that, despite the small doses needed, ozone and active Carbone treatment generate significant impacts with a contribution of 10% for most of the impacts.Moreover impacts of energy are used in producing pumps (20-25 GHC) for plant operation and the unitary processes (coagulation, sand filtration decantation) and the most important impacts are localized in the same equipment (40-75 GHC) and we can conclude that:- Pre-treatment, pumping and EDR (EDR: 0

  8. InSAR Measurements of Ground Deformation Related to the 2003, May 21 Mw = 6.8 Zemmouri, Algeria Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, C. W.; Meghraoui, M.; Lu, Z.; Lin, J.; Cakir, Z.; Stein, R.; Belabbes, S.; Maouche, S.

    2004-12-01

    The Mw=6.8 Zemmouri earthquake was the largest earthquake felt in the region around Algiers since 1716. The quake occurred on a thrust fault within a system of folds and thrusts in northern Africa resulting from convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. Modern seismicity in the Atlas Mountains of northern Africa indicates that this fold and thrust belt is active, although the partitioning of strain within the belt is poorly understood. Because of the high population density in northern Algeria and tragic loss of life resulting from the Zemmouri earthquake, it is important to use all seismological, geodetic, and stress analysis tools available to study this earthquake and analyze its implications for future seismic hazards. We have processed and are analyzing the InSAR data from the Canadian Space Agency RADARSAT-1 satellite. We gained access to the data through the Alaska Satellite Facility with support from NASA and the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance. The data reveal the two-patch nature of the rupture associated with the Zemmouri earthquake. This is in general agreement with field work by Meghraoui et al. (GRL, in press) that used shoreline uplift, GPS, and leveling measurements to show that the Zemmouri rupture occurred on two patches, one east and one west of the epicenter. Although InSAR coherence in the area around the epicenter is poor, as much as 0.45 m of InSAR measured uplift can be seen in the area of Boumerdes in the patch west of the epicenter. This is the same area where Meghraoui et al. measured shoreline uplift that was generally between 0.4 and 0.6 m, but as much as ~0.8 m. We are incorporating the disparate data sets and investigating how the addition of InSAR data might offer improvement over models derived from field data alone. We have also calculated patterns of stress transfer caused by the 2003 Zemmouri earthquake. Preliminary results reveal that the Zemmouri quake increased stresses on the thrust fault system in the

  9. High-quality draft genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. Bisph2, a glyphosate-degrading bacterium isolated from a sandy soil of Biskra, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benslama, Ouided; Boulahrouf, Abderrahmane

    2016-06-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain Bisph2 was isolated from a sandy soil from Biskra, Algeria and exhibits glyphosate-degrading activity. Multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp60, gyrB and dnaJ genes demonstrated that Bisph2 might be a member of a new species of the genus Enterobacter. Genomic sequencing of Bisph2 was used to better clarify the relationships among Enterobacter species. Annotation and analysis of the genome sequence showed that the 5.535.656 bp genome of Enterobacter sp. Bisph2 consists in one chromosome and no detectable plasmid, has a 53.19% GC content and 78% of genes were assigned a putative function. The genome contains four prophages of which 3 regions are intact and no CRISPER was detected. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JXAF00000000. PMID:27222800

  10. Serotypes and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates from Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Asymptomatic Carriage in a Pre-vaccination Period, in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziane, Hanifa; Manageiro, Vera; Ferreira, Eugénia; Moura, Inês B.; Bektache, Soumia; Tazir, Mohamed; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    In Algeria, few data is available concerning the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and respective antibiotic resistance for the current pre-vaccination period, which is a public health concern. We identified the most frequent Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup/types implicated in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD; n = 80) and carriage (n = 138) in Algerian children younger than 5 years old. Serogroup/types of 78 IPD isolates were identified by capsular typing using a sequential multiplex PCR. Overall, serotypes 14, 19F, 6B, 23F, 18C, 1, 5, 7F, 19A, and 3 (55% of PCV7 serotypes, 71.3% of PCV10, and 90% of PCV13) were identified. Additionally, 7.5% of the non-vaccine serotypes 6C, 9N/L, 20, 24F, 35B, and 35F, were observed. In the case of S. pneumoniae asymptomatic children carriers, the most common serogroup/types were 6B, 14, 19F, 23F, 4, 9V/A, 1, 19A, 6A, and 3 (42.7% of PCV7 serotypes, 44.2% of PCV10, and 58% of PCV13). For 6.1% of the cases co-colonization was detected. Serotypes 14, 1, 5, and 19A were more implicated in IPD (p vaccine serotypes, the rates of penicillin non-susceptible isolates were higher in no meningitis cases (80%) than in meningitis (66.7%), with serotypes 14, 19A, 19F, and 23F presenting the highest MIC levels (>2μg/ml). Resistance to cefotaxime was higher in isolates from meningitis (40.5%); however, resistance to erythromycin and co-trimoxazole (>40%) was more pronounced in no-meningeal forms. Overall, our results showed that PCV13 conjugate vaccine would cover up to 90% of the circulating isolates associated with IPD in Algeria, highlighting the importance of monitoring the frequency of S. pneumoniae serogroups/types during pre- and post-vaccination periods. PMID:27379023

  11. Breeding performance of blue tits (Cyanistes cæruleus ultramarinus) in relation to lead pollution and nest failure rates in rural, intermediate, and urban sites in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breeding parameters and the egg and nestling morphology of Cyanistes caeruleus populations from rural, intermediate, and urban sites in Algeria and the relationships of those variables with lead contamination were studied during three consecutive years. Breeding success was explained only by predation and vandalism rates. Predation was higher in the rural area, whereas vandalism was higher in the urban site. The other measured breeding parameters and egg characteristics were relatively insensitive to study site. The morphology of urban nestlings exhibited a trend toward smaller body size and mass compared to individuals from intermediate and rural sites. Although lead concentrations were higher in the tissues of urban birds than in intermediate and rural individuals, we did not detect a clear influence of this variable on nestling morphology. We conclude that urbanization influenced blue tit breeding parameters through predation and vandalism and nestling morphology through mechanisms other than lead pollution. -- Highlights: ► Life history traits in relation to lead contamination were studied in blue tits from rural, industrial and urban sites. ► The study took place in Annaba, the fourth most populated city of Algeria, during 3 consecutive years. ► Breeding success depended on predation and vandalism, which were high in the rural and urban sites, respectively. ► Urban nestlings exhibited a trend toward smaller body size and mass, which was not explained by lead contamination. ► Urbanization influences breeding success and nestling morphology in blue tits through other mechanisms than lead pollution. -- Urbanization modifies the nestling morphology and breeding success of populations of the Algerian blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus ultramarinus) through mechanisms other than lead pollution

  12. Distribution of the solvent-extractable organic compounds in fine (PM1) and coarse (PM1-10) particles in urban, industrial and forest atmospheres of Northern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladji, Riad; Yassaa, Noureddine; Balducci, Catia; Cecinato, Angelo; Meklati, Brahim Youcef

    2009-12-20

    The distribution of the solvent-extractable organic components in the fine (PM(1)) and coarse (PM(1-10)) fractions of airborne particulate was studied for the first time in Algeria. That was done during October 2006 concurrently in a big industrial district, a busy urban area, and a forest national park located in Algiers, Boumerdes, Blida, respectively, which are the three biggest provinces of Northern Algeria. Most of the organic matter identified in both particle size ranges consisted of n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, with minor contributions coming from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), oxygenated PAHs, and other polar compounds (e.g., caffeine and nicotine). The potential emission sources of airborne contaminants were reconciled by combining the values of n-alkane carbon preference index (CPI) and selected diagnostic ratios of PAHs, calculated in both size ranges. The mean cumulative concentrations of PAHs reached 3.032 ng m(-3) at the Boumerdes site, urban, 80% of which (i.e. 2.246 ng m(-3)) in the PM(1) fraction, 6.462 ng m(-3) at Rouiba-Réghaia, industrial district, (5.135 ng m(-3) or 80% in PM(1)), and 0.512 ng m(-3) at Chréa, forested mountains (0.370 ng m(-3) or 72% in PM(1)). Similar patterns were shown by all organic groups, which resulted overall enriched in the fine particles at the three sites. Carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies associated to PAHs were evaluated by multiplying the concentrations of "toxic" compounds times the corresponding potency factors normalized vs. benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and were found to be both acceptable. PMID:19837448

  13. Outbreak of Serratia marcescens Coproducing ArmA and CTX-M-15 Mediated High Levels of Resistance to Aminoglycoside and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batah, Rima; Loucif, Lotfi; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Allag, Hamoudi; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is one of the most important pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections worldwide. Here, we have investigated the molecular support of antibiotic resistance and genetic relationships in a series of 54 S. marcescens clinical isolates collected from Eastern Algeria between December 2011 and July 2013. The 54 isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion and E-test methods. Antibiotic resistance genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic transfer of antibiotic resistance was performed by conjugation using azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 as the recipient strain, and plasmid analysis was done by PCR-based replicon typing. The relatedness of our isolates was determined by phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of four protein-encoding genes (gyrB, rpoB, infB, and atpD) and then compared to MALDI-TOF MS clustering. Thirty-five out of 54 isolates yielded an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype and carried bla(CTX-M-15) (n=32), bla(TEM-1) (n=26), bla(TEM-71) (n=1), bla(SHV-1a) (n=1), and bla(PER-2) (n=12). Among these isolates, we identified a cluster of 15 isolates from a urology unit that coharbored ESBL and the 16S rRNA methyltransferase armA. Conjugation was successful for five selected strains, demonstrating the transferability of a conjugative plasmid of incompatibility group incL/M type. Phylogenetic analysis along with MALDI-TOF clustering likely suggested an outbreak of such isolates in the urology unit. In this study, we report for the first time the co-occurrence of armA methyltransferase with ESBL in S. marcescens clinical isolates in Eastern Algeria. PMID:25884511

  14. Extended spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli fecal isolates from healthy companion animals in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Massilia; Mairi, Assia; Touati, Abdelaziz; Hassissene, Lila; Brasme, Lucien; Guillard, Thomas; De Champs, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of fecal carriage of Escherichia coli strains producing Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) isolated from healthy pets (dogs and cats) in Algeria. Fecal samples from 171 healthy pets (102 dogs and 69 cats) in one veterinary practice and private owners were included. After isolates identification, antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion procedure. ESBL were detected by combination disk tests. PCR and sequencing were used to characterize genes encoding ESBLs and PMQR. Transfer of ESBL and PMQR genes was assessed by conjugation experiments. Phylogenetic groups of E. coli were determined by PCR. Of the 171 animals, 20 carried an ESBL producing E. coli giving a prevalence of ESBL fecal carriage of 11.7%. All isolates were susceptible to carbapenems, cefoxitin, piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin and fosfomycine. For the rest of the tested β-lactams, susceptibility rates ranged from 35% to 70% for cefepime and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid respectively. Concerning the non-beta-lactams antibiotics, the rates of susceptibility ranged between 5% to trimethoprim and 95% for chloramphenicol. The beta-lactamase genes identified in E. coli isolates were blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-1, blaSHV-12 and blaTEM-1. The PMQR determinants aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrS1 and qnrB5 genes were identified in 15 isolates. Transconjugants were obtained for two isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E. coli isolates belong to commensal phylogroups of A and B1. We reported here for the first time in Algeria ESBL and PMQR-producing E. coli in healthy cats and dogs. PMID:27132028

  15. Correlates of bullying victimization among school-going adolescents in Algeria: Results from the 2011 global school-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Rudatskira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Literature establishes negative public health impact of bullying. Bullies and bully-victims are more likely to engage in a cluster of other delinquent behaviors. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine correlates of bullying victimization among school-going adolescents in Algeria. Materials and Methods: The study analyzed data from the 2011 Global School-Based Health Survey conducted among in-school adolescents in Algeria. Logistic regression analyzes were used to estimate associations between bullying victimization and selected variables. Results: A total of 4532 students participated in the survey of which 48.1% were males. Bullying victimization was estimated at 51.1% (47.2% among males and 54.9% among females. Males were 28% less likely to be bullied compared to females. Overall, adolescents aged <13 years were 14% less likely to be bullied compared to those aged 16 years or older. Adolescents who reported hunger most of the time or always were 21% more likely to be bullied compared with those who were hungry less frequently. While students who smoked cigarettes were 24% more likely to report having been bullied, those who smoked marijuana were 21% less likely to report having been bullied compared to students who did not smoke. Adolescents who were involved in physical fighting were 67% more likely to be bullied compared to those who were not involved in fighting. While males who were involved in physical activity were 4% more likely to be bullied, females were 10% less likely to bullied compared with adolescents who were not involved in physical activity. Sedentary students were 10% more likely to experience bullying victimization compared to those who did not have a sedentary lifestyle. Conclusion: Bullying victimization is frequent among Algerian in-school adolescents. This calls for a concerted effort to prevent and control bullying behavior using interventions that are gender sensitive.

  16. Reproduction performances of a synthetic rabbit line and rabbits of of local populations in Algeria, in 2 breeding locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacira Zerrouki

    2014-12-01

    . This means that the synthetic line is well adapted to local climatic conditions. Thus, this comparison confirms the interest of this more prolific and more regular synthetic line to develop rabbit production in Algeria.

  17. Underground water quality and contamination risk. The case of the basin of Chéria (NE Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage has become a key problem for all countries and particularly for those in development. In fact, the increase of the populations and the development of urbanism, industries and cultivated land lead to a degradation of the quality of the groundwater and a very significant reduction of the reserves that constitute at times the only source of water for human consumption. After the analisis of the situation of the land, the present work comes in an important moment to establish the characteristics of the complex aquifer of the plateau of Chéria in Algeria and the risks of contamination of the groundwater. This study, which relies in the recent causes of contamination takes into account several factors. We can mention the contamination by blackwaters (waste, the impact of livestock and the climatic conditions. The exploitation of the groundwater from carbonated aquifers, is today the only source that responds to the needs of water for the industrial, human, and agricultural comsumption in the region. In recent years there has been an increase in agricultural and agricultural-related activity. The first results show the existence of a lowering of the piezometric level, as well as important concentrations in nitrates due to anthropic activity which are leading to a deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Chéria.La escasez de agua se ha convertido en un problema crucial para toda la Sociedad y en particular para los paises en vias de desarrollo. En efecto, el crecimiento de la población y el urbanístico, de la industria y de los cultivos pueden conducir a una degradación de la calidad de las aguas subterráneas y una significativa reducción de las reservas que, a menudo, constituyen la única fuente de agua de consumo humano. En este trabajo se evalúan las características del complejo acuífero de la cuenca de Chéria (Argelia basado en un inventario de las fuentes de contaminación teniendo en cuenta diversos factores

  18. Tectonic Inversion of the Algerian Continental Margin off Great Kabylia (North Algeria) - Insights from new MCS data (SPIRAL cruise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidi, Chafik; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Yelles-Chaouche, Karim; Ribodetti, Alessandra; Bracene, Rabah; Schenini, Laure; Djellit, Hamou; Sage, Françoise; Déverchère, Jacques; Medaouri, Mourad; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Abtout, Abdeslam; Charvis, Philippe; Bounif, Abdallah

    2014-05-01

    Sub-marine active faulting threatens the coastline of Algeria, as shown by the major Mw 6.9 May 21, 2003 earthquake that occurred in Great Kabylia close to Boumerdes. We present here the structures associated to the Plio-Quaternary (P-Q) tectonic inversion of the central part of the Algerian margin offshore Great Kabylia using new deep multichannel seismic (MCS) lines. Five MCS lines were acquired in the study area during the Algerian-French SPIRAL cruise (September 2009, R/V Atalante). Four lines were acquired using a 3040 cu. in. air-gun array and a 4.5 km 360 channel digital streamer and a 8350 cu. in. source favoring deep penetration was used for one coincident WAS profile and the fifth MCS line. All profiles are pre-stack time migrated and additional pre-stack depth migration was performed in key areas. The MCS lines crosscut the margin from the upper slope to the deep Algero-Provençal Basin either in a N-S direction sub-perpendicular to the structural trend of the margin, or in a NW-SE direction parallel to the actual convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates. Tectonic inversion is expressed on all profiles at the deep margin. The eastern line displays a flat-ramp compressive system in the deep sedimentary series, which emerges at the foot of the continental slope and marks the seaward limit of a P-Q basin perched at mid-slope. The south-dipping ramps are neo-formed structures, whereas the flats use inherited lithologic discontinuities (base of the Messinian evaporitic series, top of the acoustic basement). Westward in the Boumerdes area, the compressive deformation is expressed deeper in the acoustic basement where a southward dipping reflector is interpreted as a blind thrust on top of which all the sedimentary series (Miocene to P-Q) are bent in an antiform that uplifts the base of the Messinian series. A second antiform prolongates this uplift 20 km northward although no clear reverse structure is imaged underneath. These antiforms delimit two

  19. Algeria: Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the following statistical data are presented in detail: supply and use of resources at current prices, production, exports, consumption of petroleum products and gas products, land use patterns, crop yields, livestock, production of minerals, consumer price index, income of households, central government revenue, rehabilitation fund operations, housing supply, monetary survey, structure of interest rates, expansion of Bank’s network, breakdown of imports and exports, exports ...

  20. Écologie trophique du Chacal doré dans le Parc National du Djurdjura (Kabylie, Algérie) = Trophic ecology of the Golden Jackal in Djurdjura National Park (Kabylie, Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Amroun, M.; Oubellil, D.; Gaubert, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Since the rediscovery of the African Wolf, a certain level of uncertainty surrounds the ecological status of the golden Jackal in northern Africa. We characterized the trophic spectrum of the 'Golden Jackal' phenotype (distinct from the 'African Wolf' phenotype) and its possible seasonal variations in relation with availability of resources (waste included) in the Djurdjura National Park (DNP), northern Algeria. The analysis of 360 faeces collected over one year shows that 91 % of the items c...

  1. Agreement of 30 March 1996 between the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains two parts. Part I stipulates the agreement of Algeria to accept safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Part II specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I

  2. Stress triggering in en echelon thrust ruptures and related tear faults: The 2003 M=6.9 Zemmouri, Algeria, earthquake and fault interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Stein, R. S.; Meghraoui, M.; Toda, S.; Ayadi, A.; Dorbath, C.; Belabbes, S.

    2009-12-01

    The contractional tectonics of northern Algeria is characterized by a series of en echelon thrust faults of moderate lengths (Meghraoui et al., 2000). This tectonic deformation pattern is similar in geometry to other continental thrust fault systems, such as the Coalinga-Kettleman Hills faults in central California, but differs significantly from that of subduction zones, where thrust segments are often more geometrically continuous along the strike of subduction zones. In this study we first illustrate the essential features of stress interaction between earthquakes occurring on en echelon thrust faults and adjacent tear faults. Our model results reveal that earthquakes on en echelon thrust segments could significantly promote strike-slip motion on the intervening tear faults. Furthermore, if the source earthquake has mixed thrust and strike-slip components, the resultant stress increases on the tear faults are even greater. Thus, tear faults may play an important role in stress transfer between adjacent thrust segments. We next examine the stress transferred by the 2003 M=6.9 Zemmouri quake to nearby thrust and strike-slip faults in northern Algeria. Mahsas et al. (2008) illustrated that the observed afterslip in 2003-2005 appears to be concentrated at the upper parts of the 2003 Zemmouri rupture surface. Our calculations support the hypothesis that a significant portion (more than 75%) of the observed afterslip area might have experienced Coulomb stress increases during the Zemmouri main shock. Calculations further reveal that the majority (more than 90%) of the 30 best-relocated aftershocks as determined by Ayadi et al. (2008) also sustained Coulomb stress increases on at least one of their nodal planes. Finally, we calculated that the Zemmouri main shock brought the Coulomb stress 1 bar closer to failure on the adjacent Boumerdes reverse fault and 0.5 bars closer on the right-lateral Thenia faults that bound the Mitidja basin. Both of these faults experienced

  3. Assessment of the types of catheter infectivity caused by Candida species and their biofilm formation. First study in an intensive care unit in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiki, Sidi Mohammed Lahbib; Boucherit-Otmani, Zahia; Boucherit, Kebir; Badsi-Amir, Souad; Taleb, Mourad; Kunkel, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Nosocomial candidiasis remains a potential risk in intensive care units (ICUs), wherein Candida albicans is most responsible for its occurrence. Equally, non-C. albicans species, especially C. glabrata, are also involved. These infections are frequently associated with biofilms that contaminate medical devices, such as catheters. These biofilms constitute a significant clinical problem, and cause therapeutic failures, because they can escape the immune response and considerably decrease sensitivity to antifungal therapy. The diagnosis of catheter-related candidiasis is difficult; however, the differentiation between an infection of the catheter (or other medical implant) and a simple contamination is essential to start an antifungal treatment. Among the methods used for this type of study is the Brun-Buisson method, but this method only examines the infectivity of catheters caused by bacteria. For this reason, we wanted to adapt this method to the yeast cells of Candida spp. To assess the various types of infectivity of catheters (contamination, colonization, or infection) and their corresponding rates, as well as the responsible yeast species, we conducted our study, between February 2011 and January 2012, in the ICU at the University Hospital Center of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria; during this study, we took photographic images of the tongue of one patient and of that patient's implanted orobronchial catheter. In addition, catheters contaminated by C. albicans biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:23345986

  4. Fracture density estimation from core and conventional well logs data using artificial neural networks: The Cambro-Ordovician reservoir of Mesdar oil field, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazoun, Réda Samy

    2013-07-01

    Fracture density estimation is an indisputable challenge in fractured reservoir characterization. Traditional techniques of fracture characterization from core data are costly, time consuming, and difficult to use for any extrapolation to non-cored wells. The aim of this paper is to construct a model able to predict fracture density from conventional well logs calibrated to core data by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). This technique was tested in the Cambro-Ordovician clastic reservoir from Mesdar oil field (Saharan platform, Algeria). For this purpose, 170 cores (2120.14 m) from 17 unoriented wells have been studied in detail. Seven training algorithms and eight neuronal network architectures were tested. The best architecture is a four layered [6-16-3-1] network model with: a six-neuron input layer (Gamma ray, Sonic interval transit time, Caliper, Neutron porosity, Bulk density logs and core depth), two hidden layers; the first hidden layer has 16 neurons, the second one has three neurons. And a one-neuron output layer (fracture density). The results based on 8094 data points from 13 wells show the excellent prediction ability of the conjugate gradient descent (CGD) training algorithm (R-squared = 0.812).The cross plot of measured and predicted values of fracture density shows a very high coefficient of determination of 0.848. Our studies have demonstrated a good agreement between our neural network model prediction and core fracture measurements. The results are promising and can be easily extended in other similar neighboring naturally fractured reservoirs.

  5. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boualem Boumaaza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea’s life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150 ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations. However, at 300 ppm concentration, CaCl2 completely inhibited the growth of mycelium; they reach 34.78% for the isolate TR46 and 26.72% for isolate F27. The sodium and calcium salts stimulated conidia production in liquid culture. We noticed that the effect of calcium chloride on sporulation was average while sodium chloride. In the medium containing 50 ppm, calcium chloride and sodium chloride increased the germination capacity of most isolates compared with the control. Other calcium salts, at 100 or 300 ppm, decreased the germination percentage of the conidia. With the exception of sodium salts, the inhibitions of germination reduce at 150 or 300 compared with the control. Conidial germination was slightly inhibited by sodium chloride only when the concentration was over 300 ppm.

  6. Fluid pressure arrival time tomography: Estimation and assessment in the presence of inequality constraints, with an application to a producing gas field at Krechba, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucci, A.; Vasco, D.W.; Novali, F.

    2010-04-01

    Deformation in the overburden proves useful in deducing spatial and temporal changes in the volume of a producing reservoir. Based upon these changes we estimate diffusive travel times associated with the transient flow due to production, and then, as the solution of a linear inverse problem, the effective permeability of the reservoir. An advantage an approach based upon travel times, as opposed to one based upon the amplitude of surface deformation, is that it is much less sensitive to the exact geomechanical properties of the reservoir and overburden. Inequalities constrain the inversion, under the assumption that the fluid production only results in pore volume decreases within the reservoir. We apply the formulation to satellite-based estimates of deformation in the material overlying a thin gas production zone at the Krechba field in Algeria. The peak displacement after three years of gas production is approximately 0.5 cm, overlying the eastern margin of the anticlinal structure defining the gas field. Using data from 15 irregularly-spaced images of range change, we calculate the diffusive travel times associated with the startup of a gas production well. The inequality constraints are incorporated into the estimates of model parameter resolution and covariance, improving the resolution by roughly 30 to 40%.

  7. Impact of shadow on the performances of a domestic photovoltaic pumping system incorporating an MPPT control: A case study in Bejaia, North Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic pumping system. • Impact shadow on the performances of a domestic photovoltaic pumping system. • Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control. - Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy is the solution combining economy and efficiency for the supply of stand alone systems. This combination can only be achieved by taking into account the effects of shading which have dramatic consequences on the electrical power delivered. In this paper, we present an experimental study of the effect of shading PV array on a pumping system performance. The experimental bench is installed at the Industrial Technology and Information Laboratory (LTII) in Bejaia (Algeria). In order to test the performances of the proposed system we propose different array configurations which show different behaviors against partial shading conditions. Shadow impacts fundamentally the global PV pumping system production; its influence is difficult to model because it depends on many parameters such as the configuration of the PV array, the relative rate of shadow, and the shaded area of the module. In general, it is better to have a completely shaded string than several partially shaded ones. These are ones of the most important conclusions obtained in this work

  8. Variation in cyanobacterial hepatotoxin (microcystin) content of water samples and two species of fishes collected from a shallow lake in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Amina; Nasri, Hichem; Azzouz, Amina; Kadi, Yacine; Bouaïcha, Noureddine

    2014-04-01

    Microcystins (MCs) produced from cyanobacteria can accumulate in freshwater fish tissues. In this study, variations in these toxins content were examined monthly in water samples and two species of fish in Lake Oubeira, Algeria, from April 2010 to March 2011. During the study period, MCs were analyzed using protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) inhibition assay. In lake water, total (dissolved and intracellular toxins) MC concentrations by PP2A ranged from 0.028 to 13.4 μg equivalent MC-LR/l, with a peak in September 2010. MC-LR was the dominant variant (90 % of the total) in water samples, followed by MC-YR and MC-(H4)YR. The highest MC concentration in the omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was found in the order intestine > hepatopancreas > muscle; however, in the carnivorous European eel (Anguilla anguilla) the order was liver > intestine > muscle. Highest MC concentrations in the intestine tissue of the common carp were found between August and November 2010 where high MC concentrations were detected in water samples, whereas high levels of MCs in the liver of the European eel were found later between January and February 2011. During the entire period of study, the World Health Organization (WHO) lifetime limit for tolerable daily intake was exceeded only in common carp muscle. PMID:24445842

  9. Analysis of the energy efficiency of the transport system in Algeria; Analyse de l'efficacite energetique du systeme de transport en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdani, Sid Ahmed

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this communication is analyze the energy efficiency of the transport system in Algeria and to show the areas of possible rationalization in this sector. Our approach is to analyze the existing configuration of the sector and its impact on energy consumption, by developing a sectional model Bottom Up, where the transport park has been modified by the means used. We have shown that the potential to improve the transport system energy efficiency is important and have recommended some options aimed at the sector organisation and aimed at increasing the relative part of transport systems to make it more energy efficient. [French] L'objectif de cette communication est d'analyser l'efficacite energetique du systeme de transport algerien et de montrer les gisements de rationalisation possibles dans ce secteur. Notre approche consiste a analyser la configuration existante du secteur et son impact sur la consommation d'energie, en elaborant un modele sectoriel Bottom Up, ou le parc de transport a ete desagrege par moyen utilise. Nous avons montre que le potentiel d'amelioration de la performance energetique du systeme de transport est important et avons recommande quelques options ciblant l'organisation du secteur et visant a augmenter la part relative de moyens de transport plus efficace energetiquement.

  10. Role of LPG as an energy substitute in Algeria; Role des G.P.L. comme energie de substitution en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukadoum, Abdelhamid; Houghlaouene, Samir

    2010-09-15

    Algeria is a leader country in LPG industry. The availability of resources and the upstream production development efforts have oriented the large energy choices in terms of domestic market need satisfaction. LPG (propane and butane) plays a massive role in the change towards clean energy (case of LPG versus gas) and towards more practical energy (i.e. the case of bulk propane versus the packed butane, or versus natural gas). [French] L'Algerie est un pays leader dans l'industrie des GPL. La disponibilite des ressources et les efforts de developpement de la production en amont ont oriente les grands choix energetiques en matiere de satisfaction des besoins du marche domestique. En effet, les GPL (propane et butane) jouent un role majeur dans la substitution vers les sources d'energie propres (cas du GPL/C par rapport aux essences) et vers des energies plus commodes (par exemple le cas du propane vrac par rapport au butane conditionne, voire par rapport au gaz naturel).

  11. New combined models for estimating daily global solar radiation from measured air temperature in semi-arid climates: Application in Ghardaïa, Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • New combined models been introduced for estimating daily global solar radiation. • The BNN is the most accurate model compared with combined models. • Results indicate that the new calibrated models are able to estimate the global solar. - Abstract: In this paper, combined empirical models and a Bayesian neural network (BNN) model have been developed to estimate daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface in Ghardaïa, Algeria. An experimental database of daily GSR, maximum and minimum air temperatures of the year 2006 has been used to estimate the coefficients of the empirical models, as well as to train the BNN model. Six months of the year 2007 (summer period: May, June, July, and winter period: October, November, December) have been used to test the calibrated models, while six months of the year 2012 (from 1st February to 31th July) have been used to check generalisation capability of the developed models as well as the BNN model. Results indicate that the new calibrated models are able to estimate the global solar radiation with an excellent accuracy in this location. Calibrated models are also compared with the developed BNN model to show their effectiveness

  12. Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations in Ulva lactuca, Codium fragile, Jania rubens, and Dictyota dichotoma from Rabta Bay, Jijel (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laib, Essaid; Leghouchi, Essaid

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in algae samples collected from the Rabta Bay in the Mediterranean Sea, Algeria. The levels of heavy metals in the macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, Codium fragile (green algae), Jania rubens (red algae), and Dictyota dichotoma (brown algae) recorded high concentrations except for Cd. Moreover, Zn was the most predominant metal in the seaweeds. The obtained HM contents indicate that different species demonstrate various degree of metal accumulation and the obtained higher values in site 1 of the studied zone can be attributed to the discharge influence of two rivers (Mouttas and Larayeche Rivers), entering the Mediterranean Sea and local pollutant emissions. The abundance of heavy metal concentrations in the macroalgae samples was found in the order below: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Cd from the studied zone. The highest amounts of heavy metals in algae samples were Cd, Cu, and Pb in brown algae, and Cr and Zn in green and brown algae from the studied zone (Rabta Bay). PMID:21755430

  13. Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 2003 Mw = 6.8 Zemmouri earthquake (Algeria) from InSAR time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Esra; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Cakir, Ziyadin; Akoglu, Ahmet M.; Mimouni, Omar; Chebbah, Mouloud

    2012-05-01

    We study the postseismic surface deformation of the Mw 6.8, 2003 Zemmouri earthquake (northern Algeria) using the Multi-Temporal Small Baseline InSAR technique. InSAR time series obtained from 31 Envisat ASAR images from 2003 to 2010 reveal sub-cm coastline ground movements between Cap Matifou and Dellys. Two regions display subsidence at a maximum rate of 2 mm/yr in Cap Djenet and 3.5 mm/yr in Boumerdes. These regions correlate well with areas of maximum coseismic uplifts, and their association with two rupture segments. Inverse modeling suggest that subsidence in the areas of high coseismic uplift can be explained by afterslip on shallow sections (<5 km) of the fault above the areas of coseismic slip, in agreement with previous GPS observations. The earthquake impact on soft sediments and the ground water table southwest of the earthquake area, characterizes ground deformation of non-tectonic origin. The cumulative postseismic moment due to 7 years afterslip is equivalent to an Mw 6.3 earthquake. Therefore, the postseismic deformation and stress buildup has significant implications on the earthquake cycle models and recurrence intervals of large earthquakes in the Algiers area.

  14. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaaza, Boualem; Benkhelifa, Mohamed; Belkhoudja, Moulay

    2015-01-01

    Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea's life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150 ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations. However, at 300 ppm concentration, CaCl2 completely inhibited the growth of mycelium; they reach 34.78% for the isolate TR46 and 26.72% for isolate F27. The sodium and calcium salts stimulated conidia production in liquid culture. We noticed that the effect of calcium chloride on sporulation was average while sodium chloride. In the medium containing 50 ppm, calcium chloride and sodium chloride increased the germination capacity of most isolates compared with the control. Other calcium salts, at 100 or 300 ppm, decreased the germination percentage of the conidia. With the exception of sodium salts, the inhibitions of germination reduce at 150 or 300 compared with the control. Conidial germination was slightly inhibited by sodium chloride only when the concentration was over 300 ppm. PMID:25883657

  15. Work of soil and risks of agricultural erosion: Case of the itinerary technical cereal on tray of Mostaganem-Northwest Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Larid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With a semi-arid Mediterranean climate and viticulture vocation, the tray of Mostaganem (North-West of Algeria has become a region of great crops. Subject to increase mechanization and inappropriate tillage practices, farm lands are exposed to erosion that seriously weighs the physical and socio-economic contexts. An itinerary technique (cereal is chosen to study along the slope, surface and deep structural changes of soil, humidity and the fine particles (<2 μm. Thus, consideration of the surface shows a strong soil erodibility partly linked to the action of implements and a rain erosivity accentuated by lack of vegetation in the rainy season.Culural profiles observations show the small depth of tillage affecting mostly superior horizon. Average horizon, wet, rich in fine particles and barely reached by tools impedes any move to lower horizon which is very compact without variability. With this kind of technical itinerary, fine elements losses estimated to (3 t/ha/year result closely from the characteristics of the physical environment but also the conditions of its exploitation. In case of more important spatial-temporal unit’s extrapolation, the consequences will be even more harmful if improvement actions are not undertaken.

  16. Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 2003 Mw = 6.8 Zemmouri earthquake (Algeria) from InSAR time series

    KAUST Repository

    Cetin, Esra

    2012-05-28

    We study the postseismic surface deformation of the Mw 6.8, 2003 Zemmouri earthquake (northern Algeria) using the Multi-Temporal Small Baseline InSAR technique. InSAR time series obtained from 31 Envisat ASAR images from 2003 to 2010 reveal sub-cm coastline ground movements between Cap Matifou and Dellys. Two regions display subsidence at a maximum rate of 2 mm/yr in Cap Djenet and 3.5 mm/yr in Boumerdes. These regions correlate well with areas of maximum coseismic uplifts, and their association with two rupture segments. Inverse modeling suggest that subsidence in the areas of high coseismic uplift can be explained by afterslip on shallow sections (<5 km) of the fault above the areas of coseismic slip, in agreement with previous GPS observations. The earthquake impact on soft sediments and the ground water table southwest of the earthquake area, characterizes ground deformation of non-tectonic origin. The cumulative postseismic moment due to 7 years afterslip is equivalent to an Mw 6.3 earthquake. Therefore, the postseismic deformation and stress buildup has significant implications on the earthquake cycle models and recurrence intervals of large earthquakes in the Algiers area.

  17. Results of a hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical study of a semi-arid karst aquifer in Tezbent plateau, Tebessa region, northeast of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfar, Dalila; Fehdi, Chemseddine; Baali, Fethi; Salameh, Elias

    2015-10-01

    The Hammamet Plain, situated in the northwest of the Tezbent mountain range, northeast of Algeria, drains carbonate aquifers through some important karst springs. The physical and chemical characteristics of spring and well water samples were studied for 2 years to assess the origin of groundwater and determine the factors driving the geochemical composition. The ionic speciation and mineral dissolution/precipitation was calculated. Water wells, characterizing groundwater circulation at shallow depths, are moderate to high mineralized waters of Na-HCO3 type. In contrast to the shallow environment, the CO2-rich, deeper waters are of the Ca-HCO3-SO4 type and undergo significant changes in the baseline chemistry along flow lines with increasing residence time. The main factors controlling the groundwater composition and its seasonal variations are the geology, because of the presence of carbonate formations, the elevation and the rate of karst development. In both groups, the carbonate chemistry is diagnostic of the effect of karst development. The supersaturation with respect to calcite indicates CO2 degassing, occurring either inside the aquifer in open conduits, or at the outlet in reservoirs. The undersaturation with respect to calcite shows the existence of fast flow and short residence time conditions inside the aquifer. Interaction between groundwater and surrounding host rocks is believed to be the main process responsible for the observed chemical characteristics of groundwater in the study area.

  18. Setting in evidence of the new climatic tendency in Algeria by the analysis of the main variables of the climate : Survey of the chronological sets on more of 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeineddine, N.

    2009-09-01

    Setting in evidence of the new climatic tendency in Algeria by the analysis of the main variables of the climate : Survey of the chronological sets on more of 50 years. In the present conditions of the global climatic changes, North Africa and Maghreb, observe these last years of the distresses without precedent. This new tendency expresses itself by a rise of the temperatures confirmed in several countries. In the same way to this rise, one also notes an intensification of the climatic cycles (more and more humid humid periods, more and more dry dry periods). So, after the long droughts observed in the years four - twenty and ninety, the a lot more humid period bootjack is noted in the whole region. These phases are punctuated however sometimes of stern droughts, that been the case in 2000 to Morocco and in Algeria. The humid phases are as for them more and more frequent and are characterized henceforth by very intense rainy episodes. Repeatedly, serious floodings touched these countries. In 2002 in Algeria, it is the capital that has been touched, the districts of Bab - El Wadi was heavily damaged. In the valley of the Soummam, the town of Bejaïa was the theater of important phenomena of urban flooding in 2007. In the Algerian Sahara, heavy rains provoked the rise in the water level of the wadi M' Zab and the submersion of the city of Ghardaïa. All as Algeria, Tunisia has also been touched by these phenomena. The city of Tunis knew a tragic episode thus in 2007. To the west extreme of North Africa in 2002, Morocco has been hit by important floodings that made 35 deaths.. Progressively, the climatic conditions become unusual. The signs of the changes prove to be even more meaningful with the records of rain for the agricultural year 2008 / 2009 in the under region from the Maghreb (Morocco - Algeria). Qualified of exceptional and historic, rains have generously supplied the watertables, carrying the water security margin to close to two years in drinking water

  19. Synchronous mid-Holocene climate deteriorations in circum-Mediterranean and their links with ancient civilizations: first speloethem and archeological evidences from N-Algeria

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    Ruan, Jiaoyang; Kherbouche, Farid; Genty, Dominique; Cheng, Hai; Dewilde, Fabien; Blamart, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decades, ancient civilizations during the Holocene were heavily studied at many places around the Mediterranean region such as Libya and Italy, and changes in the past social activities were widely assumed to be linked to regional climate variability. However, in many cases the climatic records were apart from the archaeological sites and the archaeological chronologies were not well constrained, which makes these links uncertain. Here we present a 230Th-dated decadal resolution climate record for 6034-3185yr BP based on the δ18O and δ13C analyses of two overlapping stalagmites from Gueldaman GLD1 Cave (36°26'N, 4°34'E, 507 m asl), N-Algeria. Recent archaeological work in this cave brought first information about the Neolithisation process since ca 7000yr cal BP in the region where little was known before. Together with new charcoal 14C dates from the digging sections we test the link between past climate change and human activities in the cave. GLD1 stalagmite records reveal a dry event at ca 5700-5500yr BP and a drying trend toward extreme aridity, since ca 4700yr BP, peaking at ca 4200yr BP. These climatic deteriorations in N-Algeria, within dating errors, are synchronous with dry phases observed on speleothem records from central (Corchia Cave and Renella Cave, Italy) and eastern (Soreq Cave, Israel) Mediterranean. Specifically, climatic condition was harsher at ca 4200yr BP than at ca 5700-5500yr BP in central and W-Mediterranean; while it was harsher at ca 5700-5500yr BP in E-Mediterranean. The new 14C dates relatively well anchor the age of sediment layers with the richest anthropogenic deposits (i.e. charcoal, bone and Neolithic pottery) to ca 4900-4400yr cal BP, coinciding with the wettest period inferred from the stalagmite records. Shortly following this period, archaeological remains were becoming very rare in the sediments, which might be the consequence of establishing extremely arid phase at ca 4200yr BP. This suggests a possible

  20. High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of Upper Triassic succession (Carnian-Rhaetian) of the Zarzaitine outcrops (Algeria): A model of fluvio-lacustrine deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquin, Sylvie; Eschard, Rémi; Hamouche, Brahim

    2010-09-01

    The detailed facies analysis of the Zarzaitine outcrops (Illizi Basin in the In Amenas area of Algeria) allows the depositional environment of the Upper Triassic succession to be defined: braided rivers within an arid and humid alluvial plain, low sinuosity rivers within a humid alluvial plain, lake deposits and marginal sabkha. The description of the outcrops helps to define three types of genetic units from a proximal to a distal depositional environment: fluvial, fluvio-lacustrine and lacustrine. The spatial and temporal evolutions of the genetic unit were characterised by five specific stages from dry to wet climate conditions, inducing sediment supply and lake-level variations. During the first two stages (stage 1 and 2) under a dry climate, the lake level was low and sediments mostly by-passed and poorly preserved. During stages 3 and 4, an increase in humidity and rainfall induced a rise in the lake-level and the development of vegetation, as well as a decrease in the sediment supply, although the sediment preservation were then at its maximum. The last stage (stage 5) marked the beginning of a decrease in the humidity, the minimum of sediment supply and the maximum of the lake level. Therefore, the recognition and the description of genetic units within this fluvio-lacustrine environment help to demonstrate the interaction between climate, sediment supply and lake-level variation, at the scale of these units. Six stratigraphic cycles have been recognised in the vertically stacked genetic units and can be grouped in three megacycles (denoted as I-III). The first megacycle, attributed to Carnian to Norian, corresponds to the base of braided river systems with some ephemeral channels developed in an arid environment where some aeolian deposits were preserved. It evolved trough time to more humid conditions favouring the development of extensive floodplain, associated with hydromorphic soils, and perennial lake environments. During the Carnian times and Norian

  1. Evidence of a prolonged drought ca. 4200 yr BP correlated with prehistoric settlement abandonment from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave, N-Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, J.; Kherbouche, F.; Genty, D.; Blamart, D.; Cheng, H.; Dewilde, F.; Hachi, S.; Edwards, L. R.; Régnier, E.; Michelot, J.-L.

    2015-07-01

    Middle Holocene cultures have been widely studied round the E-Mediterranean basin in the last 30 years and past cultural activities have been commonly linked with regional climate changes. However, in many cases such linkage is equivocal, in part due to existing climatic evidence that has been derived from areas outside the distribution of ancient settlements, leading to uncertainty from complex spatial heterogeneity in both climate and demography. A few high-resolution well-dated paleoclimate records were recently established using speleothems in the Central and E-Mediterranean basin, however, the scarcity of such records in the western part of the Mediterranean prevents us from correlating past climate evolutions across the basin and deciphering climate-culture relation at fine time scales. Here we report the first decadal-resolved Mid-Holocene climate proxy records from the W-Mediterranean basin based on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses of two U/Th dated stalagmites from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave in N-Algeria. Comparison of our records with those from Italy and Israel reveals synchronous (multi) centennial dry phases centered at ca. 5600, ca. 5200 and ca. 4200 yr BP across the Mediterranean basin. New calibrated radiocarbon dating constrains reasonably well the age of rich anthropogenic deposits (e.g., faunal remains, pottery, charcoal) excavated inside the cave, which allows the comparison between in situ evidence of human occupation and of climate change. This approach shows that the timing of a prolonged drought at ca. 4400-3800 yr BP blankets the onset of cave abandonment shortly after ca. 4403 cal yr BP, supporting the hypothesis that a climate anomaly may have played a role in this cultural disruption.

  2. Evidence of a prolonged drought ca. 4200 yr BP correlated with prehistoric settlement abandonment from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave, N-Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Middle Holocene cultures have been widely studied round the E-Mediterranean basin in the last 30 years and past cultural activities have been commonly linked with regional climate changes. However, in many cases such linkage is equivocal, in part due to existing climatic evidence that has been derived from areas outside the distribution of ancient settlements, leading to uncertainty from complex spatial heterogeneity in both climate and demography. A few high-resolution well-dated paleoclimate records were recently established using speleothems in the Central and E-Mediterranean basin, however, the scarcity of such records in the western part of the Mediterranean prevents us from correlating past climate evolutions across the basin and deciphering climate–culture relation at fine time scales. Here we report the first decadal-resolved Mid-Holocene climate proxy records from the W-Mediterranean basin based on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses of two U/Th dated stalagmites from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave in N-Algeria. Comparison of our records with those from Italy and Israel reveals synchronous (multi centennial dry phases centered at ca. 5600, ca. 5200 and ca. 4200 yr BP across the Mediterranean basin. New calibrated radiocarbon dating constrains reasonably well the age of rich anthropogenic deposits (e.g., faunal remains, pottery, charcoal excavated inside the cave, which allows the comparison between in situ evidence of human occupation and of climate change. This approach shows that the timing of a prolonged drought at ca. 4400–3800 yr BP blankets the onset of cave abandonment shortly after ca. 4403 cal yr BP, supporting the hypothesis that a climate anomaly may have played a role in this cultural disruption.

  3. High-pressure whiteschists from the Ti-N-Eggoleh area (Central Hoggar, Algeria): A record of Pan-African oceanic subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjerid, Zouhir; Godard, Gaston; Ouzegane, Khadidja

    2015-06-01

    The Ti-N-Eggoleh area (Sérouènout Terrane, Central Hoggar, Algeria) comprises mainly a high-pressure Neoproterozoic metamorphic formation consisting of talc-kyanite-quartz whiteschists, chlorite schists, marbles, sulphide ores, partially serpentinized peridotites and partially amphibolitized eclogites, and reminiscent of an ophiolitic mélange that was metamorphosed and strongly deformed under eclogite-facies conditions. Major and trace elements indicate that the whiteschists underwent intense hydrothermal alteration, with Mg enrichment and leaching of alkalis and Ca, prior to high-pressure metamorphism. The main talc-kyanite-quartz paragenesis is stable within a large multivariant P-T field extending from high-P amphibolite to eclogite facies; the Tschermak substitution in talc marginally constrains peak pressure conditions to P > 11 kbar and 600 eclogites record a similar P-T evolution: after the eclogite-facies metamorphic peak, they underwent partial amphibolitization and a subsequent high-temperature overprint under granulite-facies conditions that led to partial dehydration. The Ti-N-Eggoleh series is interpreted as the product of the thermal alteration of oceanic rocks that were subducted prior to the continental collision that formed the West Gondwana orogenic belt during the Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogeny. The decompression associated with the early phase of exhumation was followed by an important increase in temperature towards granulite-facies conditions, possibly determined by the intrusion of abundant mafic rocks in this region due to delamination of the lithospheric mantle. The Ti-N-Eggoleh area and its high-pressure meta-ophiolitic series apparently belong to the Sérouènout Terrane, which stretches along the eastern margin of the Western Gondwana orogenic belt and consists mainly of oceanic metasediments; they are possibly markers of an ancient, yet unidentified, subduction and suture zone.

  4. Magnetic properties of the Bled El Hadba phosphate-bearing formation (Djebel Onk, Algeria): Consequences of the enrichment of the phosphate ore deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzi, Nacer; Aïfa, Tahar; Merabet, Djoudi; Pivan, Jean-Yves

    2008-02-01

    To improve the enrichment of the Thanetian marine phosphate ore deposit from the quarry of Bled El Hadba (Djebel Onk, Algeria) before its exploitation, we first conducted a joint study using different techniques for comparison. These studies reveal that magnetic minerals play a significant role within the matrix of the central productive unit which is squeezed between two other units. Magnetic separation procedures show that there are some positive correlations between magnetic susceptibility and grain size fraction (80-250 μm). These dolomite-rich fractions are more clearly separated. Different tools were used to characterize the magnetic minerals (X-ray, microprobe, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric and thermomagnetic analyses). They show correlations between magnetic phases and the presence of associated magnetic minerals within the matrix or included in the phosphate ore deposit. They enabled us to distinguish a series of magnetic minerals (magnetite, hematite, maghemite, goethite, ilmenite, pyrite, iron-titanium oxide and titanium oxide sulphate) and to determine that Fe and Ti are prevalent in the separated fractions, following the same variation as Mg. The phosphorous (phosphate) rate is higher in the non-magnetic material, especially in the layers that are rich in dolomitic carbonates (upper and lower units), which could be trapped within the dolomitic matrix, while Magnesium (dolomite) is more important in the magnetic fraction. The separation of phosphate elements and dolomite carbonates is effective and therefore the ore can be enriched through magnetic procedures. Comparison between products enriched by magnetic separation, flotation and calcination showed important differences, chemically, economically and technically speaking.

  5. Molecular epidemiology and distribution of serotypes, genotypes, and antibiotic resistance genes of Streptococcus agalactiae clinical isolates from Guelma, Algeria and Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergal, A; Loucif, L; Benouareth, D E; Bentorki, A A; Abat, C; Rolain, J-M

    2015-12-01

    This study describes, for the first time, the genetic and phenotypic diversity among 93 Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) isolates collected from Guelma, Algeria and Marseille, France. All strains were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The molecular support of antibiotic resistance and serotyping were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The phylogenetic lineage of each GBS isolate was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and grouped into clonal complexes (CCs) using eBURST. The isolates represented 37 sequence types (STs), 16 of which were novel, grouped into five CCs, and belonging to seven serotypes. Serotype V was the most prevalent serotype in our collection (44.1%). GBS isolates of each serotype were distributed among multiple CCs, including cps III/CC19, cps V/CC1, cps Ia/CC23, cps II/CC10, and cps III/CC17. All isolates presented susceptibility to penicillin, whereas resistance to erythromycin was detected in 40% and tetracycline in 82.2% of isolates. Of the 37 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 75.7% showed the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB)-resistant phenotype and 24.3% exhibited the macrolide (M)-resistant phenotype. Constitutive MLSB resistance (46%) mediated by the ermB gene was significantly associated with the Guelma isolates, whereas the M resistance phenotype (24.3%) mediated by the mefA/E gene dominated among the Marseille isolates and belonged to ST-23. Tetracycline resistance was predominantly due to tetM, which was detected alone (95.1%) or associated with tetO (3.7%). These results provide epidemiological data in these regions that establish a basis for monitoring increased resistance to erythromycin and also provide insight into correlations among clones, serotypes, and resistance genes. PMID:26415872

  6. Identification and preliminary characterization of non-polyene antibiotics secreted by new strain of actinomycete isolated from sebkha of Kenadsa, Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar; Messaoudi; Mourad; Bendahou; Ibrahim; Benamar; Djamal-Elddine; Abdelwouhid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes isolated from sabkha of Kenadsa and identification of the isolate interesting. Methods: Eighteen strains were isolated, using four culture media from sebkha of Kenadsa(Bechar, Southwestern Algeria). Screening of antimicrobial activity consisted of two steps: in primary screening, antibacterial activity was determined by using the agar plug method against test strains; in secondary screening, better isolate which showed a good activity in the first screening was selected to extract antimicrobial substances. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were evaluated by using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Partial characterization of antimicrobial products was performed on the basis of chemical revelations, UV-vis spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. The identification of isolate interesting was performed through morphological, chemical, biochemical and physiological characteristics. Results: All isolates showed antimicrobial activity against at least one microorganism test. One isolate, LAM143 cG 3, was selected for its broad spectrum and high antimicrobial activity. The isolate LAM143 c G3 was identified as Spirillospora sp. The comparison between the species of this genus(Spirillospora rubra and Spirillospora albida) and our isolate indicated the existence of several physiological and biochemical differences which led us to suppose that this was a new member of this genus. Primary characterization of antimicrobial substances produced by the isolate LAM143 c G3 indicated the presence of amines and phenols. The UV–vis spectrum suggested a non-polyenic nature of substances secreted by our isolate, while infrared confirmed the presence of amine groups.Conclusions: The result of the present study revealed that sebkha of Kenadsa was rich in rare actinomycetes, that secreted interesting antimicrobial substance.

  7. Ibâḍî Reformism in Twentieth-Century Algeria : The Tafsîr of Shaykh Ibrâhîm Bayyûḍ

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    Valerie Hoffman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shaykh Ibrâhîm b. ‘Umar Bayyûḍ of Wâdî Mzâb (1899-1981, leader of Ibâḍî reformism in Algeria after the death of Muḥammad b. Yûsuf Aṭfiyyash (1820-1914, delivered a public commentary on the Qur’an from 1935-1980, which was recorded beginning with Sûra 17:70. Shaykh Bayyûḍ claimed to follow the goals and methodology of Muḥammad ‘Abduh and Rashîd Riḍâ’s Tafsîr al-Manâr. This article analyzes Shaykh Bayyûḍ’s commentary in comparison to, on the one hand, Aṭfiyyash’s two Qur’an commentaries (Hamayân al-zâd ilâ dâr al-ma‘âd and Taysîr al-tafsîr, in order to determine its relationship to earlier modern Ibâḍî reformism, and, on the other hand, to Tafsîr al-Manâr, in order to determine its relationship to that strand of Sunni reformism. It finds that Bayyûḍ’s commentary, like Tafsîr al-Manâr, promotes Islamic unity and eschews theological dogmatism, while attacking customs deemed antithetical to Islamic teaching and making sometimes lengthy digressions on topics of contemporary social and political importance. Nonetheless, Bayyûḍ remains faithful to Ibâḍî doctrine on topics on which Ibâḍîs and Sunnis differ, and there is little evidence that he argued for Islam’s compatibility with liberal values ; on the contrary, at several points in his commentary he states that modern ideas and customs constitute a real threat to Islam.

  8. Stress transfer among en echelon and opposing thrusts and tear faults: Triggering caused by the 2003 Mw = 6.9 Zemmouri, Algeria, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Stein, R.S.; Meghraoui, M.; Toda, S.; Ayadi, A.; Dorbath, C.; Belabbes, S.

    2011-01-01

    The essential features of stress interaction among earthquakes on en echelon thrusts and tear faults were investigated, first through idealized examples and then by study of thrust faulting in Algeria. We calculated coseismic stress changes caused by the 2003 Mw = 6.9 Zemmouri earthquake, finding that a large majority of the Zemmouri afterslip sites were brought several bars closer to Coulomb failure by the coseismic stresses, while the majority of aftershock nodal planes were brought closer to failure by an average of ~2 bars. Further, we calculated that the shallow portions of the adjacent Thenia tear fault, which sustained ~0.25 m slip, were brought >2 bars closer to failure. We calculated that the Coulomb stress increased by 1.5 bars on the deeper portions of the adjacent Boumerdes thrust, which lies just 10–20 km from the city of Algiers; both the Boumerdes and Thenia faults were illuminated by aftershocks. Over the next 6 years, the entire south dipping thrust system extending 80 km to the southwest experienced an increased rate of seismicity. The stress also increased by 0.4 bar on the east Sahel thrust fault west of the Zemmouri rupture. Algiers suffered large damaging earthquakes in A.D. 1365 and 1716 and is today home to 3 million people. If these shocks occurred on the east Sahel fault and if it has a ~2 mm/yr tectonic loading rate, then enough loading has accumulated to produce a Mw = 6.6–6.9 shock today. Thus, these potentially lethal faults need better understanding of their slip rate and earthquake history.

  9. Stress transfer among en echelon and opposing thrusts and tear faults: Triggering caused by the 2003 Mw = 6.9 Zemmouri, Algeria, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Stein, Ross S.; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Toda, Shinji; Ayadi, Abdelhakim; Dorbath, Catherine; Belabbes, Samir

    2011-03-01

    The essential features of stress interaction among earthquakes on en echelon thrusts and tear faults were investigated, first through idealized examples and then by study of thrust faulting in Algeria. We calculated coseismic stress changes caused by the 2003 Mw = 6.9 Zemmouri earthquake, finding that a large majority of the Zemmouri afterslip sites were brought several bars closer to Coulomb failure by the coseismic stresses, while the majority of aftershock nodal planes were brought closer to failure by an average of ˜2 bars. Further, we calculated that the shallow portions of the adjacent Thenia tear fault, which sustained ˜0.25 m slip, were brought >2 bars closer to failure. We calculated that the Coulomb stress increased by 1.5 bars on the deeper portions of the adjacent Boumerdes thrust, which lies just 10-20 km from the city of Algiers; both the Boumerdes and Thenia faults were illuminated by aftershocks. Over the next 6 years, the entire south dipping thrust system extending 80 km to the southwest experienced an increased rate of seismicity. The stress also increased by 0.4 bar on the east Sahel thrust fault west of the Zemmouri rupture. Algiers suffered large damaging earthquakes in A.D. 1365 and 1716 and is today home to 3 million people. If these shocks occurred on the east Sahel fault and if it has a ˜2 mm/yr tectonic loading rate, then enough loading has accumulated to produce a Mw = 6.6-6.9 shock today. Thus, these potentially lethal faults need better understanding of their slip rate and earthquake history.

  10. Rupture parameters of the 2003 Zemmouri (Mw 6.8), Algeria, earthquake from joint inversion of interferometric synthetic aperture radar, coastal uplift, and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    BelabbèS, Samir; Wicks, Charles; ćAkir, Ziyadin; Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2009-03-01

    We study the surface deformation associated with the 21 May 2003 (Mw = 6.8) Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake, the strongest seismic event felt in the Algiers region since 1716. The thrust earthquake mechanism and related surface deformation revealed an average 0.50 m coastal uplift along ˜55-km-long coastline. We obtain coseismic interferograms using Envisat advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) (IS2) and RADARSAT standard beam (ST4) data from both the ascending and descending orbits of Envisat satellite, whereas the RADARSAT data proved useful only in the descending mode. While the two RADARSAT interferograms cover the earthquake area, Envisat data cover only the western half of the rupture zone. Although the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) coherence in the epicenter area is poor, deformation fringes are observed along the coast in different patches. In the Boumerdes area, the maximum coseismic deformation is indicated by the high gradient of fringes visible in all interferograms in agreement with field measurements (tape, differential GPS, leveling, and GPS). To constrain the earthquake rupture parameters, we model the interferograms and uplift measurements using elastic dislocations on triangular fault patches in an elastic and homogeneous half-space. We invert the coseismic slip using first, a planar surface and second, a curved fault, both constructed from triangular elements using Poly3Dinv program that uses a damped least square minimization. The best fit of InSAR, coastal uplift, and GPS data corresponds to a 65-km-long fault rupture dipping 40° to 50° SE, located at 8 to 13 km offshore with a change in strike west of Boumerdes from N60°-65° to N95°-105°. The inferred rupture geometry at depth correlates well with the seismological results and may have critical implications for the seismic hazard assessment of the Algiers region.

  11. The 2003 M=6.9 Zemmouri, Algeria, Earthquake Brought Thrust and Strike-Slip Faults Near Algiers Closer to Coulomb Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.; Meghraoui, M.; Dorbath, C.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate key features of thrust earthquake triggering, inhibition, and clustering associated with the stress transferred by the 2003 M=6.9 Zemmouri quake on an offshore hidden thrust fault in coastal Algeria. A crucial question is whether the seismic hazard increased on the Boumerdes and Thenia faults, which lie just west of the Zemmouri rupture and only 10-20 km from the city of Algiers. The capital city suffered large damaging quakes in A.D. 1365 and 1716, and is today home to 3 million people. Slip on blind thrust faults tend to increase the stress above the source fault and in much of the surrounding crust, whereas slip on surface-cutting thrust faults drops the stress in most of the adjacent crust. We examined the sensitivity of the imparted stress to different published source models of the 2003 Zemmouri event inferred from geodetic and seismic inversions, and focus here on the robust results. We calculate that the 2003 M=6.9 Zemmouri quake brought the Coulomb stress 1.0 bars closer to failure on the reverse Boumerdes and 0.5 bars closer on the right-lateral Thenia faults that bound the populated Mitidja basin, although the Thenia fault may not be tectonically active. The calculated pattern of the stress increase appears consistent with aftershock distribution determined from double difference earthquake tomography by Ayadi et al. (submitted); both of these faults were illuminated by aftershocks during the first three months of the sequence. The East Sahel and Larbaa faults, which lie further to the west, are calculated to have sustained a weak 0.1-bar stress increase and show no associated aftershocks. We also calculate a 1.0-bar stress increase on the NNW-SSE trending vertical right-lateral Kabyle fault located south of the Zemmouri fault, although there is no evidence of recent Quaternary tectonic movement, no geomorphology typical of active zones, and little seismicity along the Kabyle fault.

  12. Evidence of a prolonged drought ca. 4200 yr BP correlated with prehistoric settlement abandonment from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave, Northern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, J.; Kherbouche, F.; Genty, D.; Blamart, D.; Cheng, H.; Dewilde, F.; Hachi, S.; Edwards, R. L.; Régnier, E.; Michelot, J.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Middle Holocene cultures have been widely studied around the Eastern-Mediterranean basin in the last 30 years and past cultural activities have been commonly linked with regional climate changes. However, in many cases such linkage is equivocal, in part due to existing climatic evidence that has been derived from areas outside the distribution of ancient settlements, leading to uncertainty from complex spatial heterogeneity in both climate and demography. A few high-resolution well-dated paleoclimate records were recently established using speleothems in the Central and Eastern-Mediterranean basin, however, the scarcity of such records in the western part of the Mediterranean prevents us from correlating past climate evolutions across the basin and deciphering climate-culture relation at fine timescales. Here we report the first decadal-resolved Mid-Holocene climate proxy records from the Western-Mediterranean basin based on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses of two U/Th dated stalagmites from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave in Northern Algeria. Comparison of our records with those from Italy and Israel reveals synchronous (multi) centennial dry phases centered at ca. 5600, ca. 5200 and ca. 4200 yr BP across the Mediterranean basin. New calibrated radiocarbon dating constrains reasonably well the age of rich anthropogenic deposits (e.g., faunal remains, pottery, charcoal) excavated inside the cave, which allows the comparison between in situ evidence of human occupation and of climate change. This approach shows that the timing of a prolonged drought at ca. 4400-3800 yr BP blankets the onset of cave abandonment shortly after ca. 4403 cal yr BP, supporting the hypothesis that a climate anomaly may have played a role in this cultural disruption.

  13. Seismic source study of the 1989, October 29, Chenoua (Algeria earthquake from aftershocks, broad-band and strong ground motion records

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    L. Rivera

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The broad-band teleseismics records of the earthquake of October 29,1989 in Algeria (MW = 6.0 allow a detailed study of the rupture process of this earthquake. The focal mechanism obtained by P and SH modeling corresponds to reverse faulting with a small amount of left-lateral movement along a fault striking 246° and dipping 56°. The rupture is found to be complex with two sub-events separated in time but occurring on the same plane. The lowfrequency records of an accelerometer located some 25 km to the west of the main shock are also better fi tted when the rupture is composed of a double pulse. In the two cases, there is strong evidence for the rupture to propagate from south-west towards north-east.The relocalisation of the main shock by using a master-event technique and the data from Italian and Spanish stations led to the same conclusions. Soon after the main event, a temporary seimic network was installed in the epicentral area. The aftershock clouds defi ne a SW-NE fault dipping to the NW compatible with the results of the modelisations of the teleseismic body-waves and the accelerogram. The focal mechanisms correspond mainly to reverse faulting. The maximum principal direction of the stress tensor obtained from the inversion is about N-S and the minimum is vertical, typical of a compressive regime. The Chenoua earthquake took place on a fault which was not recognized as active. Repeated comparable seismic events on this fault and on the fault that borders the massif to the south explain this intriguing topographic feature.

  14. Prevalence of papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, and herpesviruses in triple-negative and inflammatory breast tumors from algeria compared with other types of breast cancer tumors.

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    Marilys Corbex

    Full Text Available The possible role of viruses in breast cancer etiology remains an unresolved question. We hypothesized that if some viruses are involved, it may be in a subgroup of breast cancers only. Epidemiological arguments drove our interest in breast cancer subgroups that are more frequent in Africa, namely inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and triple-negative breast cancer. We tested whether viral prevalence was significantly higher in these subgroups.One hundred fifty-five paraffin-embedded malignant breast tumors were randomly selected at the pathology laboratory of the University Hospital of Annaba (Algeria to include one third of IBC and two thirds of non-IBC. They were tested for the presence of DNA from 61 viral agents (46 human papillomaviruses, 10 polyomaviruses, and 5 herpesviruses using type-specific multiplex genotyping assays, which combine multiplex PCR and bead-based Luminex technology.Viral DNA was found in 22 (17.9% of 123 tumors. The most prevalent viruses were EBV1 and HPV16. IBC tumors carried significantly more viruses (any type than non-IBC tumors (30% vs. 13%, p<0.04. Similarly, triple-negative tumors displayed higher virus-positivity than non-triple-negative tumors (44% vs. 14%, p<0.009.Our results suggest an association between the presence of viral DNA and aggressive breast cancer phenotypes (IBC, triple-negative. While preliminary, they underline the importance of focusing on subgroups when studying viral etiology in breast cancer. Further studies on viruses in breast cancer should be conducted in much larger samples to confirm these initial findings.

  15. Rupture parameters of the 2003 Zemmouri (Mw 6.8), Algeria, earthquake from joint inversion of interferometric synthetic aperture radar, coastal uplift, and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabbes, S.; Wicks, C.; Cakir, Z.; Meghraoui, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study the surface deformation associated with the 21 May 2003 (M w = 6.8) Zemmouri (Algeria) earthquake, the strongest seismic event felt in the Algiers region since 1716. The thrust earthquake mechanism and related surface deformation revealed an average 0.50 m coastal uplift along ??55-km-long coastline. We obtain coseismic interferograms using Envisat advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) (IS2) and RADARSAT standard beam (ST4) data from both the ascending and descending orbits of Envisat satellite, whereas the RADARSAT data proved useful only in the descending mode. While the two RADARSAT interferograms cover the earthquake area, Envisat data cover only the western half of the rupture zone. Although the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) coherence in the epicenter area is poor, deformation fringes are observed along the coast in different patches. In the Boumerdes area, the maximum coseismic deformation is indicated by the high gradient of fringes visible in all interferograms in agreement with field measurements (tape, differential GPS, leveling, and GPS). To constrain the earthquake rupture parameters, we model the interferograms and uplift measurements using elastic dislocations on triangular fault patches in an elastic and homogeneous half-space. We invert the coseismic slip using first, a planar surface and second, a curved fault, both constructed from triangular elements using Poly3Dinv program that uses a damped least square minimization. The best fit of InSAR, coastal uplift, and GPS data corresponds to a 65-km-long fault rupture dipping 40?? to 50?? SE, located at 8 to 13 km offshore with a change in strike west of Boumerdes from N60??-65?? to N95??-105??. The inferred rupture geometry at depth correlates well with the seismological results and may have critical implications for the seismic hazard assessment of the Algiers region. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Comparison and analysis on two kinds of geophysical survey methods in Algeria project%阿尔及利亚两期施工物探测量方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵延峰

    2012-01-01

    In the first seismic exploration project in Algeria, China SY/T 9171- 2003"petroleum geophysical survey norms" is adopted for measuring construction. The 2nd project in Algeria adopted the Algerian national oil company Resona Tucker measurement technology standard. This paper made a detailed comparison between these two meth- ods, summed up the impact of two different technical standards for geophysical production, and then present some suggestions for our new implementation of the SY/T 9171--2003 "Petroleum Geophysical Survey norms".%阿尔及利亚一期地震采集项目采用的是我国SY/T 9171-2003《石油物探测量规范》进行测量施工,二期地震采集项目采用的是阿尔及利亚国家石油公司索纳塔克的测量技术标准进行测量施工。本文通过对这两期物探测量方法的对比、分析,总结出了两种不同技术标准对物探生产的影响,并对我国新实行的SY/T 9171-2011《陆上石油物探测量规范》提出了一些建议。

  17. 14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    14 February 2012 - Ambassadors from Algeria, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chad, Tunisia, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Office at Geneva in the LHC tunnel at Point 1, ATLAS visitor centre, and ATLAS underground experimental area, throughout accompanied by Advisers P. Fassnacht, E. Tsesmelis and R. Voss

  18. Agreement of 27 February 1992 between the Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a research reactor from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement of 27 February 1992 between the Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a 15 MW (thermal) research reactor from the People's Republic of China. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1992

  19. Algeria facing the challenges of Europe natural gas supply and the respect of the environment.; L'Algerie face aux defis de l'approvisionnement de l'Europe en gaz naturel et le respect de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Nadia Nait

    2010-09-15

    Taking into account the expectations, for the next decades, of a strong increase in the demand for gas in Europe, Algeria has committed to large structuring projects, adding to the two gas pipeline linking Algeria to Spain via Morocco and Algeria to Italy via Tunisia. Two more undertakings are added linking Algeria directly to two European partners. Sonatrach will play an important role in global environment protection, natural gas being less polluting than oil and coal and emitting less co2. Substitution of coal by natural gas will generate socio economical advantages and will preserve the environment. [French] Compte tenu des attentes, pour les decennies prochaines, d'une forte croissance de la demande de gaz en Europe, l'Algerie s'est engagee dans de grands projet structurants s'ajoutant aux deux gazoducs reliant l'Algerie a l'Espagne via le Maroc et l'Algerie a l'Italie via la Tunisie, viennent s'ajouter deux autres ouvrages reliant directement l'Algerie a deux partenaires europeens. Sonatrach Jouera un role important dans la protection de l'environnement a l'echelle mondiale, le gaz naturel est moins polluants que le petrole, le charbon et emet moins de co2. La substitution du charbon par le gaz naturel generera des avantages socio-economiques, preservation de l'environnement.

  20. Coastal uplift west of Algiers (Algeria): pre- and post-Messinian sequences of marine terraces and rasas and their associated drainage pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authemayou, Christine; Pedoja, Kevin; Heddar, Aicha; Molliex, Stéphane; Boudiaf, Azzedine; Ghaleb, Bassam; Van Vliet Lanoe, Brigitte; Delcaillau, Bernard; Djellit, Hamou; Yelles, Karim; Nexer, Maelle

    2016-01-01

    The North Africa passive margin is affected by the ongoing convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. This convergence is responsible for coastal uplift, folding, and reverse faulting on new and reactivated faults on the margin. The active deformation is diffuse and thus rather difficult to locate precisely. We aim to determine how a coastal landscape evolve in this geodynamic setting and gain insights into active tectonics. More particularly, we evidence and quantify coastal uplift pattern of the Chenoua, Sahel, and Algiers reliefs (Algeria), using sequences of marine terraces and rasas and computing several morphometric indices from the drainage pattern. Upper and Middle Pleistocene uplift rates are obtained by fossil shoreline mapping and preliminary U/Th dating of associated coastal deposits. Extrapolation of these rates combined to analyses of sea-level referential data and spatial relationships between marine terraces/rasas and other geological markers lead us to tentatively propose an age for the highest coastal indicators (purported the oldest). Values of morphometric indices showing correlations with uplift rate allow us to analyze uplift variation on area devoid of coastal sequence. Geological and geomorphological data suggest that coastal uplift probably occurred since the Middle Miocene. It resulted in the emergence of the Algiers massif, followed by the Sahel ridge massif. The Sahel ridge has asymmetrically grown by folding from west to east and was affected by temporal variation of uplift. Compared to previous study, the location of the Sahel fold axis has been shifted offshore, near the coast. The Chenoua fault vertical motion does not offset significantly the coastal sequence. Mean apparent uplift rates and corrected uplift rates since 120 ka are globally steady all along the coast with a mean value of 0.055 ± 0.015 mm/year (apparent) and of 0.005 ± 0.045 mm/year (corrected for eustasy). Mean apparent coastal uplift rates between 120 and

  1. Gemcitabine and treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in relapsed or refractory elderly patients: A prospective randomized trial in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aribi Mourad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Support for non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL with large cells that is refractory or relapsed after first-line chemotherapy poses a greater therapeutic problem with bone marrow transplant therapy or when old age is a contra-indication for high-dose chemotherapy, especially among developing countries such as Algeria. Aim: To show that the regimen, including gemcitabine, could be more effective in treating elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL in relapse / refractory, without complete remission, when compared with the ESHAP (etoposide, cisplatine, solumedrol, aracytine regimen. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six patients in the age group of 60-70 years were volunteers for a prospective randomized single-blind study, carried out for three years. Patients were divided into two groups by the drawing of lots. The first group (GA, n = 48, relapse; n = 27 [56.3%], refractory; n = 21 [43.7%] received treatment with ESHAP protocol and the second one (GB, n = 48, relapse; n = 28 [58%], refractory; n = 20 [42%] with GPD (gemcitabine, dexamethasone, cisplatine protocol. Results: The overall response rates and mean survival at three years were significantly higher among patients subjected to GPD treatment compared with those subjected to ESHAP treatment (63% vs. 55%, P = 0.01 and 20.5% [95% CI 16.5-24.5] vs. 11.8% [8.9-14.6], respectively. Additionally, three-year progression-free and event-free survival rates were 20.5% (16.3-24 and 19.7% (15.9-23.5, respectively, for the GPD regimen and 10.9% (8.2-13.7 and 11.1% (95% CI 8.5-13.7, respectively, for the ESHAP regimen. Moreover, the GPD regimen was associated with improving overall survival (RR=2.02, 95% CI 1.59-2.56; P = 0.000, event-free survival (2.03, 1.64-2.52; P < 0.001 and progression-free survival (1.86, 1.46-2.37; P < 0.001. Conclusion: In cases of contra-indication for high-dose chemotherapy for elderly patients with DLBCL, without complete remission, the Gemcitabine

  2. External Validation of the ASTER GDEM2, GMTED2010 and CGIAR-CSI- SRTM v4.1 Free Access Digital Elevation Models (DEMs in Tunisia and Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Athmania

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs including Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, and Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010 (GMTED2010 are freely available for nearly the entire earth’s surface. DEMs that are usually subject to errors need to be evaluated using reference elevation data of higher accuracy. This work was performed to assess the vertical accuracy of the ASTER GDEM version 2, (ASTER GDEM2, the Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research-Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI SRTM version 4.1 (SRTM v4.1 and the systematic subsample GMTED2010, at their original spatial resolution, using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS validation points. Two test sites, the Anaguid Saharan platform in southern Tunisia and the Tebessa basin in north eastern Algeria, were chosen for accuracy assessment of the above mentioned DEMs, based on geostatistical and statistical measurements. Within the geostatistical approach, empirical variograms of each DEM were compared with those of the GPS validation points. Statistical measures were computed from the elevation differences between the DEM pixel value and the corresponding GPS point. For each DEM, a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was determined for model validation. In addition, statistical tools such as frequency histograms and Q-Q plots were used to evaluate error distributions in each DEM. The results indicate that the vertical accuracy of SRTM model is much higher than ASTER GDEM2 and GMTED2010 for both sites. In Anaguid test site, the vertical accuracy of SRTM is estimated 3.6 m (in terms of RMSE 5.3 m and 4.5 m for the ASTERGDEM2 and GMTED2010 DEMs, respectively. In Tebessa test site, the overall vertical accuracy shows a RMSE of 9.8 m, 8.3 m and 9.6 m for ASTER GDEM 2, SRTM and GMTED2010 DEM, respectively. This work is the first study to report the

  3. Gas industry development in Algeria and his impact on the national economy; Le developpement de l'industrie du gaz en Algerie et son impact sur l'economie nationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otmane, N.; Hamada, D.; Choual, A. [Sonelgaz (Algeria)

    2000-07-01

    The development strategy implemented in Algeria gives to natural gas a fundamental role to play in the energetic national policy. The availability of resources allied to it's weak cost, has devolved to this energy an increasing role for the satisfaction of energetic needs for the whole sectors. Starting 1968, the deliveries to the public distribution networks represented 10 % of the global consumption and 15 industrial units were operating with natural gas. Moreover, a huge penetration of natural gas was registered in the electricity generation. The contribution of this energy in the national development will be characterized by three factors: the penetration rate for meeting the domestic needs; the diversity of industrial sectors using it and it's share as primary energy for the constitution of the GDP. (authors)

  4. Coastal And Marine Ecosystems-- Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN),Global Maritime Boundaries Database (GMBD),Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES),(World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC),

  5. Recueil des legislations linguistiques dans le monde. Tome V: l'Algerie, l'Autriche, la Chine, le Danemark, la Finlande, la Hongrie, l'ile de Malte, le Maroc, la Norvege, la Nouvelle-Zelande, les Pays-Bas, le Royaume-Uni, la Tunisie, la Turquie, l'ex-URSS (Record of World Language-Related Legislation. Volume V: Algeria, Austria, China, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Malta, Morocco, Norway, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Tunisia, Turkey, the former USSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jacques, Ed.; Maurais, Jacques, Ed.

    The volume is one of a series of six listing language-related legislation around the world. It contains the texts, in French, of laws of Algeria, Austria, China, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Malta, Morocco, Norway, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Tunisia, Turkey, and the former Soviet Union. The laws concern official languages,…

  6. Ahnet - Timimoun Basin (Algeria): by structural and geochemical approach; Bassin de l'Ahnet-Timimoun (Algerie): evaluation des potentialites en gaz par l'approche structurale et geochimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drid, M.; Moulan, H.; Mesbahi, K. [Sonatrach, Centre de Recherche et Developpement, Boumerdes (Algeria); Arezki, A.; Ghandriche, H. [Sonatrach, Div. Exploration, Alger (Algeria)

    2000-07-01

    The sector of study, as large as 120 000 Km{sup 2}, is located in the Algerian Central Sahara at 800 km. S-S/W of Algiers and 400 km SW of the huge gas field of Hassi R'mel (Reserves estimated at about 80 TCF). It englobes, in fact, two depressions: the Ahnet's at south, and the Timimoun's at the North. Aside of the Hassi R'mel field, the Ahnet-Timimoun Basin contains the most important reserves of gas discovered to date in Algeria. The main gas reservoirs are known to be exclusively sandstones and belong to the ordovician, the lower Devonian and the Tournaisian. The present study is a contribution to the assessment of gas reserves important ones probable, to be explored in the limits of the Ahnet-Timimoun basin. The aim is to study the gas generation and conservation conditions in the pre-named reservoirs. We conducted a paleo-structural reconstitution and a geochemical evaluation of source rock of the Silurian, the middle and upper Devonian, through the entire Basin. All this allowed us to apprehend the age of the formation of the different structures and also to estimate the timings of generation, expulsion and settlement of gas accumulation in reservoirs. At the end, a volumetric estimation is made. (authors)

  7. Issues and challenges of the development of petroleum products distribution sector in Algeria; Les enjeux et les defis du developpement du secteur de la distribution des produits petroliers en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akretche, Said

    2010-09-15

    The petroleum products distribution sector in Algeria is experiencing profound changes. The economic growth has brought an increase and a diversification of petroleum products consumption. Reforms on the opening of the sector to competition and regulations have allowed progress, especially in the promotion of clean products. Naftal invested in a transformation and modernization process to adapt to the new context and align itself with the worldwide best practices. This plan expects important investments for the promotion of clean products and the development of a ducting transport network to limit the environmental damage. [French] Le secteur de la distribution des produits petroliers en Algerie connait des mutations profondes. La croissance economique a induit une augmentation et une diversification de la consommation des produits petroliers. Les reformes portant ouverture du secteur a la concurrence et regulation ont permis des avancees notamment dans la promotion des produits propres. Naftal a engage un processus de transformation et modernisation pour s'adapter au nouveau contexte et s'aligner sur les meilleures pratiques mondiales. Ce plan prevoit d'importants investissements pour la promotion des produits propres et la realisation d'un reseau de transport par canalisation pour limiter les atteintes environnementales.

  8. Optimization of refinery operations when uncertainty exists: Algeria's case; Optimisation des operations du raffinage en presence d'incertitudes: Cas de l'Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyoucef, Abderrezak; Lantz, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this article is to analyze the development of Algeria refinery industry when uncertainty exists, from a dynamic linear programming model. Because of the different market conditions volatility, many parameters must be able to be considered as uncertain. In our study, we treat mainly uncertainties of petroleum products demand. The model gives production levels, the units market rate and the exterior exchange of products at horizons 2030. It allows to appreciate the impact of volatility on this industry's development. [French] L'objectif de cet article est d'analyser le developpement de l'industrie algerienne du raffinage en presence d'incertitudes, a partir d'un modele de programmation lineaire dynamique. En raison de la volatilite des differentes conditions du marche, de nombreux parametres doivent pouvoir etre consideres comme incertains. Dans notre etude, nous traitons en particulier des incertitudes sur la demande des produits petroliers. Le modele fournit les niveaux de production, le taux de marche des unites et les echanges exterieurs de produits a l'horizon 2030. Il permet ainsi d'apprecier l'impact de la volatilite sur le developpement de cette industrie.

  9. ACT NOW: Kindergarten children, eco citizens at its best - Pilot project in Algeria : Green Buds (Eco Bourgeons); AGIR MAINTENANT : Les enfants de la maternelle, eco citoyens par excellence -- Projet pilote en Algerie : Eco Bourgeons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahid, Fatima Djalila; Stambouli, Amine Boudghene; Youcef, Reda Dali

    2010-09-15

    Based on originality, reproducibility, impact, duration and consistence of action, the Green Buds pilot program (Eco Bourgeons) in Algeria under the wings of the 'El Baraim' association has for slogan: 'Consume adequately, live better' ('Consommons juste, vivons mieux'). The long term objective: Introduce the ED as a subject in the national education program. [French] Inculquer des eco gestes a 672 enfants de la maternelle dans le sens de la ME a travers un programme educatif riche et adequat, c'est eduquer nos futurs citoyens (industriels, dirigeants, etc.) au respect de nos ressources energetiques et de l'environnement. Se basant sur les criteres de l'originalite, la reproductibilite, l'impact, la duree et la ''consistance'' de l'action, le projet 'Eco Bourgeons' pilote en Algerie sous tutelle de l'association 'El Baraim' a pour slogan : 'Consommons juste, vivons mieux'. L'objectif a long terme: Introduire la ME comme matiere dans le Programme de l'Education Nationale.

  10. Smooth bumps in H/V curves over a broad area from single-station ambient noise recordings are meaningful and reveal the importance of Q in array processing: The Boumerdes (Algeria) case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillier, B.; Chatelain, J.-L.; Hellel, M.; Machane, D.; Mezouer, N.; Ben Salem, R.; Oubaiche, E. H.

    2005-12-01

    Single-station H/V curves from ambient noise recordings in Boumerdes (Algeria) show smooth bumps around 1 and 3 Hz. A complementary microtremor study, based on two 34 and 134-meter aperture arrays, evidences that these bumps are indeed real peaks produced by two strong VS contrasts at 37 and 118 meters depth, strongly smoothed by very high S-wave attenuation in the two sedimentary layers. These two H/V bumps, observed over a broad area, are meaningful and reveal the importance of Q in S-wave velocity modeling from microtremor array data processing. It also appears that Tertiary rocks should be, at least in some cases, taken into account, together with the Quaternary sediments, to explain single-station H/V frequency peaks, and therefore that considering only the first 30 m of soil for VS amplification evaluation, as usually recommended, sometimes leads to flaky results by artificially eliminating non-explained low-frequency peaks from the analysis.

  11. Support system based on GIS and weighted sum method for drawing up of land suitability map for agriculture. Application to durum wheat cultivation in the area of Mleta (Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendas, A.; Delali, A.

    2012-11-01

    Due to constant decrease in farmlands, it is important to identify the best lands for sustainable agriculture (productive and profitable agriculture that protects the environment and that is socially equitable). This requirement has resulted in the development of land suitability maps for agriculture by combining a range of factors. Spatial analysis approaches, based on the concepts of the weighted sum, combined with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) offer the opportunity to efficiently produce these land suitability maps. The functions of the weighted sum make it possible to assign numerical weights, to distinguish between positive and negative criteria and to rank alternatives. A spatial decision support system has been developed for establishing the land suitability map for agriculture. It incorporates a version of the weighted sum method SAW (Simple Additive Weighting), applicable to the vector data model, in ArcGIS within the GIS program package environment. This approach has been tested on the area of Mleta (Algeria) to assess the land suitability for durum wheat agriculture. The parameters and the classification system used in this work are inspired from the FAO. The coherence of results confirms the system effectiveness. (Author) 23 refs.

  12. Le sexe des indigènes. Adolphe Kocher et la médecine légale en Algérie The Sex-Lives of Indigenous People. Adolphe Kocher and Forensic Medicine in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Gouriou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En 1884, Adolphe Kocher, élève de Lacassagne, publie une thèse de médecine intitulée De la criminalité chez les Arabes au point de vue de la pratique médico-judiciaire en Algérie. Authentique traité médico-légal à destination des médecins amenés à exercer en Algérie, ce travail constitue l’une des premières études systématiques, de langue française, sur la criminalité au sein d’un peuple colonisé. Après un bref rappel du contexte de rencontre du savoir médical avec la question coloniale, puis du contexte de réception de la thèse elle-même, une lecture critique se propose dans un premier temps de discuter la manière avec laquelle cette étude de la criminalité envisage, non sans paradoxes, la question de la responsabilité pénale de « l’Arabe ». Dans un second temps, il s’agit de montrer comment celui-ci devient peu à peu une figure exemplaire du criminel, en prenant pour illustration principale la catégorie médico-légale des attentats aux mœurs. Jusqu’où soutenir l’étude d’une sexualité indigène en tant que perversion édifiante d’un standard occidental sans définitivement l’indexer à une série exclusive de variations pathologiques ?In 1884, Adolf Kocher, a student of Lacassagne, published a medical thesis entitled De la criminalité chez les Arabes au point de vue de la pratique médico-judiciaire en Algérie (On criminality among the Arabs from the perspective of medico-judicial practice in Algeria. An authentic medico-legal treatise intended for doctors posted in Algeria, this work constitutes one of the first systematic studies, in French, on criminality in a colonial context. A brief review of the context in which medical knowledge encounters the colonial question is followed by discussion of the context of the reception of the thesis.  A critical reading unfolds in two parts: first discussing the manner by which this study of criminality envisions – not without paradox

  13. MALDI-TOF MS as a Tool To Detect a Nosocomial Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase- and ArmA Methyltransferase-Producing Enterobacter cloacae Clinical Isolates in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khennouchi, Nour Chems el Houda; Loucif, Lotfi; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Allag, Hamoudi

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacter cloacae is among the most important pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections and outbreaks. In this study, 77 Enterobacter isolates were collected: 27 isolates from Algerian hospitals (in Constantine, Annaba, and Skikda) and 50 isolates from Marseille, France. All strains were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used to detect extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-encoding, fluoroquinolone resistance-encoding, and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes. Epidemiological typing was performed using MALDI-TOF MS with data mining approaches, along with multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Sixty-eight isolates (27 from Algeria, 41 from Marseille) were identified by MALDI-TOF MS as E. cloacae. Resistance to antibiotics in the Algerian isolates was significantly higher than that in the strains from Marseille, especially for beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. Eighteen of the 27 Algerian isolates and 11 of the 41 Marseille isolates possessed at least one ESBL-encoding gene: blaCTX-M and/or blaTEM. AME genes were detected in 20 of the 27 Algerian isolates and 8 of the 41 Marseille isolates [ant(2″)-Ia, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, aadA1, aadA2, and armA]. Conjugation experiments showed that armA was carried on a transferable plasmid. MALDI-TOF typing showed three separate clusters according to the geographical distribution and species level. An MLST-based phylogenetic tree showed a clade of 14 E. cloacae isolates from a urology unit clustering together in the MALDI-TOF dendrogram, suggesting the occurrence of an outbreak in this unit. In conclusion, the ability of MALDI-TOF to biotype strains was confirmed, and surveillance measures should be implemented, especially for Algerian patients hospitalized in France. PMID:26239991

  14. MALDI-TOF MS as a Tool To Detect a Nosocomial Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase- and ArmA Methyltransferase-Producing Enterobacter cloacae Clinical Isolates in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khennouchi, Nour Chems el Houda; Loucif, Lotfi; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Allag, Hamoudi; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    Enterobacter cloacae is among the most important pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections and outbreaks. In this study, 77 Enterobacter isolates were collected: 27 isolates from Algerian hospitals (in Constantine, Annaba, and Skikda) and 50 isolates from Marseille, France. All strains were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method. PCR was used to detect extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-encoding, fluoroquinolone resistance-encoding, and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes. Epidemiological typing was performed using MALDI-TOF MS with data mining approaches, along with multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Sixty-eight isolates (27 from Algeria, 41 from Marseille) were identified by MALDI-TOF MS as E. cloacae. Resistance to antibiotics in the Algerian isolates was significantly higher than that in the strains from Marseille, especially for beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. Eighteen of the 27 Algerian isolates and 11 of the 41 Marseille isolates possessed at least one ESBL-encoding gene: blaCTX-M and/or blaTEM. AME genes were detected in 20 of the 27 Algerian isolates and 8 of the 41 Marseille isolates [ant(2″)-Ia, aac(6')-Ib-cr, aadA1, aadA2, and armA]. Conjugation experiments showed that armA was carried on a transferable plasmid. MALDI-TOF typing showed three separate clusters according to the geographical distribution and species level. An MLST-based phylogenetic tree showed a clade of 14 E. cloacae isolates from a urology unit clustering together in the MALDI-TOF dendrogram, suggesting the occurrence of an outbreak in this unit. In conclusion, the ability of MALDI-TOF to biotype strains was confirmed, and surveillance measures should be implemented, especially for Algerian patients hospitalized in France. PMID:26239991

  15. Prograde and retrograde evolution of eclogite from Adrar Izzilatène (Egéré-Aleksod terrane, Hoggar, Algeria) determined from chemical zoning and pseudosections, with geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukkari, Sid Ali; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Godard, Gaston; Diener, Johann F. A.; Kienast, Jean-Robert; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Arab, Amar; Drareni, Amar

    2015-06-01

    Adrar Izzilatène in the Egéré-Aleksod terrane of the LATEA metacraton (Hoggar, Algeria) exposes one of the best preserved examples of eclogite facies metamorphism in Hoggar. Three distinct stages of metamorphic development are recognised, namely, the pre-peak stage (M1), characterised by garnet, amphibole, epidote, quartz and rutile, the peak eclogite facies stage (M2), consisting of omphacite, garnet, edenite, epidote, quartz and rutile, and the retrograde stage (M3), where initial decompression resulted in the appearance of plagioclase, the development of pargasite + plagioclase kelyphites and finally the formation of anhydrous plagioclase + diopside coronas. Porphyroblastic omphacite has a jadeite content of up to XJd = 0.36, which is the highest yet observed for eclogite facies rocks from the Tuareg Shield. Garnet growth zoning patterns are characterised by flat profiles in the cores (XAlm = 0.55-0.60; XPrp = 0.12-0.16; XGrs = 0.26-0.30) before showing a decrease in almandine to XAlm = 0.45, coupled to an increase in pyrope to XPrp = 0.29 and decrease in grossular to XGrs = 0.26 at the rims. Calculated P-T-MH2O pseudosections show that the prograde M1 assemblage equilibrated at 13-14 kbar and 580 °C, before pressure and temperature increased to 19 kbar and 650-700 °C at fluid-saturated conditions during peak metamorphism. Retrogression involved near-isothermal decompression to 8-9 kbar and 700-750 °C at fluid-undersaturated conditions. Prograde-to-peak metamorphism of the Izzilatène eclogite could have involved either oceanic or continental subduction, followed by exhumation as the area was obducted towards the LATEA metacraton during the Pan-African orogeny and the assembly of Western Gondwana.

  16. Ministerial Presentation: Algeria. Intervention of the Algerian Delegation [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of Mr Chakib Khelil, Minister of Energy and Mining, I would like to congratulate the Chinese authorities for their warm hospitality and excellent organization of the work of this important conference, in which he regrets being unable to participate owing to prior engagements. The Algerian delegation would also like to take this opportunity of expressing its appreciation to the co-organizers - the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency - for this highly useful discussion on the challenges of nuclear energy. As highlighted by the Chinese Vice Premier at the opening session and all the speakers, including the Director General of the IAEA and the Secretary-General of the OECD, nuclear energy is a credible and sustainable alternative not only to meet growing electricity needs up to 2030 and beyond, but also to preserve the environment and fossil fuels. Algeria's move towards renewable energy and nuclear energy is part of this global energy transition phase, which has led it to favour strongly sustainable energy development based on diversification of national energy supply, taking into account its uranium reserves and its renewable energy potential. This national energy mix policy involves renewable energy reaching 10% of national electricity output by 2020, in addition to nuclear power with the commissioning of a nuclear power plant expected in 2025. In this context, priority is given to training of human resources, R and D and local integration as regards equipment and services. This strategy has been fully integrated into the socio-economic development programmes adopted by the Algerian Government which focus on the following main areas: Development and conservation of hydrocarbon resources; Development of the use of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, which are less polluting energy sources that are widely available in Algeria, to reduce reliance on petroleum products; Promotion of renewable energy, particularly

  17. ’Itinéraires de la faim’ des migrants subsahariens expulsés d’Algérie au Mali Organizing survival among sub-Saharan migrants expelled from Algeria to Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lecadet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En Algérie, l’expulsion des migrants d’origine subsaharienne vers la frontière Nord du Mali est devenue depuis le début des années 2000 un processus régulier. Rationnement alimentaire drastique dans les prisons algériennes, angoisse vitale dans les ghettos organisés en micro-communautés nationales aux abords de la frontière, leitmotiv de l’aide d’urgence : la faim constitue une caractéristique majeure de l’expérience vécue par les expulsés. Elle est à la fois une violence intime, une donnée politique, un motif d’intervention humanitaire. On parlera ainsi d’itinéraires de la faim pour appréhender le processus de l’expulsion et les parcours erratiques de l’après-expulsion : ils sont ici envisagés à la fois du point de vue du dispositif étatique algérien qui en porte la responsabilité et des contre-dispositifs précaires mis en œuvre par les expulsés pour survivre. Les expulsés auto-organisés, les associations d’expulsés, l’intervention ponctuelle des ONG, tentent en effet de faire face aux expulsions par des formes de regroupement, d’accueil et de restauration atypiques dans un contexte d’abandon et de dénuement radical.Since the beginning of the century the expulsion of sub-Saharan migrants from Algeria to the Northern Malian border has become a regular event. Hunger is the main aspect of expelled migrant life, caused by poor rations in Algerian jails, daily fear in the ghettos organized into national micro-communities on the border and the limited supply of emergency aid. Hunger is simultaneously a primal suffering, a political issue and an argument for humanitarian aid. We describe the process of expulsion and the erratic journey of migrants after deportation as itineraries of hunger. These itineraries are considered from two points of view; the state processes involved in these collective deportations and the precarious strategies invented by expelled migrants to survive. A combination

  18. Le gisement de Rhourde el Baguel (Algérie : modélisation de la fracturation naturelle The Rhourde El Baguel Field in Algeria: Modeling of Natural Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremolieres P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le Gisement de Rhourde el Baguel produit de l'huile à partir d'un réservoir gréseux du Cambro-Ordovicien aux qualités matricielles médiocres. La fracturation naturelle joue un rôle important sur la productivité. L'intensité de la fracturation paraît liée davantage aux paramètres lithologiques qu'à des variations d'épaisseur des bancs. Les directions des fractures relevées sur les carottes orientées d'un sondage ne sont pas en accord avec la direction des grandes failles proposée jusqu'ici. Les fractures et les blocs délimités par celles-ci sont présentés sous trois formes : un bloc diagramme simplifié qui montre la complexité du réseau et la faible représentativité d'un sondage à l'échelle du gisement; des blocs matriciels en trois dimensions à partir de l'utilisation d'un logiciel préexistant; une hauteur moyenne de bloc matriciel calculée à partir de l'application d'un modèle probabiliste. The Rhourde el Baguel field in Algeria is made up of a thick series of Cambro-Ordovician sandstone. This highly fractured formation can be subdivided into four terms: R3, R2, Ra and Ri (Fig. 2. Its structure has been interpreted as a horst bounded by two major faults trending NNE-SSW. The western fault has been traversed by well Rb 18, from which the 45° tilted sandstone core samples have been the subject of a special analysis. Different methods were used to evaluate the fracturing. The first consisted in linking the thickness of the beds with the intensity of fracturing (Aguilera method. This method was applied to 700 meters of core samples coming from four wells. Generally, it was found that the thicker a bed was, the more it was fractured, which runs counter to the commonly accepted theory. This finding might be linked to the lithology (the thinner the beds are, the larger the argillaceous matrix content is, and the thicker the argillaceous interbeddings are. Another methodology, based on an analysis of fracturing and the

  19. Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2002-01-01

    This public expenditure review identifies various opportunities to improve efficiency and equity in the social sectors. In terms of efficiency, common issues across sectors include prioritizing public interventions on the basis of their costs and effectiveness, reducing the share of personnel expenditures through a more efficient deployment of human resources, and reviewing financial mecha...

  20. Early Tournaisian ammonoids from Timimoun (Gourara, Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ebbighausen; Bockwinkel, J.; Korn, D; Weyer, D.

    2004-01-01

    A small ammonoid fauna, of probable middle Early Tournaisian age, is described from the Gara el Kahla near Timimoun, Gourara, Algerian Sahara. The following taxa are described: Acutimitoceras algeriense n. sp., Acutimitoceras sinulobatum n. sp., Acutimitoceras sp. A, Hasselbachia gourara n. sp., Gattendorfia jacquelinae n. sp., Gattendorfia cf. crassa Schmidt. 1924, Kahlacanites n. gen., Kahlacanites meyendorfi n. sp., Kahlacanites mariae n. sp., and Kahlacanites timimounensis n. sp. E...