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Sample records for algeria iraq jordan

  1. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  2. Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Attention in this discussion of Iraq is directed to the following: geography; people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Iraq. In 1986, Iraq's population was estimated to be 16 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3%. The infant mortality rate is 25/1000; life expectancy is 56.1 years. Iraq is bordered by Kuwait, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Almost 75% of the population live in the flat, alluvial plain stretching southeast toward Baghdad and Basra to the Persian Gulf. The 2 largest ethnic groups are Arabas and Kurds; other distinct groups are Assyrians, Turkomans, Iranians, Lurs, and Armenians. Iraq, once known as Mesopotamia, was the site of flourishing ancient civilizations. Muslims conquered Iraq in the 7th century A.D. In the 8th century, the Abassid caliphate established its capital at Baghdad, and by 1638 Baghdad had become a frontier outpost of the Ottoman Empire. At the end of World War I, Iraq became a British-mandated territory. When it was declared independent in 1932, the Hashemite family ruled as a constitutional monarchy. In 1945, Iraq joined the UN and became a founding member of the Arab League. The Ba'ath Party rules Iraq through the 9-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). The RCC's president (chief of state and supreme commander of the armed forces) is elected by a 2/3 majority of the RCC. A Council of Ministers, appointed by the RCC, has administrative and some legislative responsibilities. A 250-member National Assembly was elected on June 20, 1980, in the 1st elections since the end of the monarchy, with another National Assembly election held in October 1984. The Ba'ath Party controls the government. The Iraqi regime does not tolerate opposition. The economy of Iraq is characterized by a heavy dependence on oil exports and an emphasis on development through central planning. Economic performance deteriorated in 1986 because of the sharp

  3. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya; Violence de la rente petroliere. Algerie, Irak, Libye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L. [CERI-Sciences Po, 75006 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  4. Situation Report--Algeria, Bangladesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Bangledesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  5. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  6. Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

  7. Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Iraq has been producing oil for many years, its turbulent history has prevented it from fully tapping the resources in place. Now in the forefront of the energy and geopolitical scene, Iraq appears to many observers to be a key element of the world oil market, now and in the future. (author)

  8. EMME (Iraq)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — EMME is a program specific M&E tool for the Iraq Mission that is managed by RTI and provides access to project statuses and success stories for USAID/Iraq Local...

  9. Iraq's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large oil reserves of Iraq make it an important player in the long-term political energy world. This article briefly reviews the oil industry''s development and current status in Iraq and discusses the planned oil and gas field development. Finally there is a political discussion regarding the future of Iraq in terms of religion, race and neighbouring countries. (UK)

  10. Constructing and deconstructing 'the Iraq refugee crisis'

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelard, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    This conference paper develops three points by: Questioning the timing of and rationale for the emergence of the post-2003 'Iraq refugee crisis' paradigm; Analysing the application of the humanitarian paradigm as a framework of interpretation and intervention to respond to the situation in Jordan when placed 1/ against the back drop of the continuum of migration from Iraq and 2/ against the political economy of assistance in the Jordanian context.

  11. Algeria; Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-04-01

    Algeria disposes of important fossil energy reserves: 4250 Gm{sup 3} for natural gas and 1300 Mt for oil. Algeria has developed a large capacity of refining on 4 sites: 502700 barrels a day. In 2001 the production reached 67 Mt for crude oil and 32 Mt for oil by-products. The same year the exports reached 36 Mt for liquid hydrocarbons and 21 Mt for oil by-products. In 2001 the production of natural gas reached 79 Gm{sup 3} of which about 78 % were exported (58 Gm{sup 3}). The main clients are Italy (46 %), Spain (18 %), France (18 %), Tunisia (7 %), Belgium (4 %) and Portugal (4 %). Algeria has a low level of energy consumption: 0,8 Tep (equivalent ton of oil) per inhabitant and 670 kWh/inhabitant for electricity. (A.C.)

  12. Michael Jordan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪仙美

    2000-01-01

    Many of us know Michael Jordan is a famous American basketball star. He is perhaps the greatest player in basketball history. Jordan is 1.98m tall. He plays guard(后卫)for the Chicago Bulls. He led his team to six NBA(National Basketball Association ) championships (冠军4).

  13. Smarandache Jordan Algebras - abstract

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha Kandasamy, W. B.; Christopher, S.; A. Victor Devadoss

    2004-01-01

    We prove a S-commutative Jordan Algebra is a S-weakly commutative Jordan algebra. We define a S-Jordan algebra to be S-simple Jordan algebras if the S-Jordan algebra has no S-Jordan ideals. We obtain several other interesting notions and results on S-Jordan algebras.

  14. Mission Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This video summarizes the activities of the IAEA inspection teams, assisted by the UN Special Commission on Iraq, to uncover, neutralize and prevent the restart of Iraq's military nuclear programme. It documents the destruction or rendering harmless of various sites and equipment used for nuclear weapon development, sometimes under very difficult conditions, and points out the necessity of establishing a comprehensive and sustainable monitoring system for the future

  15. Algeria: Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

    2011-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper discusses the need to meet Algeria’s fiscal challenges. Although Algeria enjoys substantial fiscal savings, fiscal policy is currently on an unsustainable path. Under current projections, Algeria will deplete its financial savings in the long term, leaving future generations worse off. To restore fiscal sustainability and ensure intergenerational equity, Algeria will need to undertake significant and sustained fiscal consolidation in the coming years. Successful f...

  16. The Impact of Syrian Refugees on the Labor Market in Neighboring Countries: Empirical Evidence from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Fakih, Ali; Ibrahim, May

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes time-sensitive data on a humanitarian crisis in the Middle East. It aims to assess the impact of the steep influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan on the country's labor market since the onset of the conflict in Syria (March 2011). As of August 2014, nearly 3 million registered Syrians have sought refuge in neighboring countries (Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Turkey), according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Jordan and Lebanon are hosting the majo...

  17. English Teaching Profile: Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A survey of the status and use of the English language in Algeria is presented. The following topics are outlined: (1) the role of English as a third language, (2) its place within the educational system at all levels and in each graduate institution, (3) the status of British expatriates teaching English in Algeria and of Algerian teachers of…

  18. Control of brucellosis in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease and considered a great problem of major economic importance in most countries, particularly in those where no eradication programme is applied. In developing countries, ovine brucellosis is still a more frequent source of human infection, and attempts at eradication or campaigns for its control have often met with considerable difficulties. The Iraqi government has long been concerned with the danger brucellosis represents to public health and economy. The Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at Baghdad has a long history of work on brucellosis since in 1977-1985 different biotypes of Brucella melitensis, in particular biotype III, were prevalent and isolated from aborted foetuses and from sheep and goat milk. In addition, two biotypes of Brucella abortus were isolated from aborted calves. As a result, goats, sheep and cattle have a very high risk of morbidity. Serious incidences of brucellosis have been observed in 12% of goats, 10% of sheep and 0.5% of cattle. Recently, Iraq has faced an increasing incidence of the disease, because of inadequate observation of the rules and regulations concerning its control. Accordingly, Iraq has initiated action in co-operation with Jordan, Lebanon and the Syrian Arab Republic in order to develop a regional project in the framework of the elimination, prevention and eradication programme established in 1995

  19. Algeria: Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper explores the monetary policy transmission channels in Algeria and analyzes available options to strengthen monetary policy effectiveness. High liquidity has been the hallmark of the Algerian monetary policy framework for most of the 2000s. The paper assesses the impact of monetary policy changes on its final targets—growth and inflation, and outlines policy options to strengthen the efficacy of monetary policy. It takes stock of Algeria’s current fiscal framewor...

  20. Growth Prospects in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper for Algeria analyzes the growth prospects of the Algerian economy. Drawing on the findings of the empirical growth literature, the paper combines growth accounting and cross-country growth regressions to examine the role of macroeconomic and institutional factors in driving economic growth. It reviews the past growth performance in Algeria and explores the reasons underpinning the recent pickup in nonhydrocarbon GDP growth. The paper also analyzes labor market devel...

  1. Meeting report:Iraq oil ministry needs assessment workshop.3-5 Septemner 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2006-11-01

    Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and Sandia National Laboratories met with mid-level representatives from Iraq's oil and gas companies and with former employees and senior managers of Iraq's Ministry of Oil September 3-5 in Amman, Jordan. The goals of the workshop were to assess the needs of the Iraqi Oil Ministry and industry, to provide information about capabilities at DOE and the national laboratories relevant to Iraq, and to develop ideas for potential projects.

  2. Iraqi refugees' assisted and spontaneous return from Syria and Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Iaria, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The thesis investigates the causes and nature of return in the context of the Iraqis displaced to Syria and Jordan after the 2003 US-led war in Iraq. It combines critical International Relations theories with transnational approaches in Migration Studies to investigate: (1) how regional and international geopolitics have shaped asylum and migration regimes in the Middle East; (2) how Iraqi forced migrants have interacted with such regimes in order to reach safety, sustainable livelihoods and ...

  3. Iraq's Tourism Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Dabidian, Hooman; Al-Ani, Mohammed Wafaa; Francke, Christopher Hassaan; Redwan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    While it will require further political stability and security, tourism in Iraq stands to be a major growth sector. The Iraqi tourism sector is currently underdeveloped and in a state of neglect, due to decades of war, closed regimes and recurrent instability and insecurity. However, as Iraq continues to develop and stabilizes, it can begin to meet its tremendous potential as a global tour...

  4. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Malek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  5. Financial Sector Assessment : Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, Algeria has courageously attempted to modernize its financial system, despite social strife, and unique challenges posed by the large hydrocarbon sector. However, lending by state-owned banks, mostly to public entities, still dominates financial intermediation, financial markets remain in their infancy, and, implementation of regulatory reforms is lagging. And, becaus...

  6. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

    2014-01-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  7. Country Education Profiles: Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    One of a series of profiles prepared by the Cooperative Educational Abstracting Service, this brief outline provides basic background information on educational principles, system of administration, structure and organization, curricula, and teacher training in Algeria. Statistics provided by the Unesco Office of Statistics show enrollment at all…

  8. Teaching Abroad: Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriopoulos, Michel

    1981-01-01

    Describes a program in Algeria which included the construction of a training facility to ease the shortage of semiskilled workers, particularly construction site electricians and instrument installers. Priorities were to define training needs, implement the program, and produce graduates as soon as possible. (JOW)

  9. Algeria-Mali Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Bensassi, Sami; Brockmeyer, Anne; Pellerin, Matthieu; Raballand, Gael

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates the volume of informal trade between Algeria and Mali and analyzes its determinants and mechanisms, using a multi-pronged methodology. First, the authors discuss how subsidy policies and the legal framework create incentives for informal trade across the Sahara. Second, the authors provide evidence of the importance of informal trade, drawing on satellite images and su...

  10. Special Education in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  11. Humanitarian situation in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne ten Veen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing violence is severely constraining the humanitarian space and making it next to impossible to deliver emergency relief to many vulnerable groups in the worst-affected areas of central Iraq.

  12. Dendroagricultural Signal in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchan, R.; Kherchouche, D.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Oudjehih, B.; Touchane, H.; Slimani, S.; Meko, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Dalila Kherchouche2, Kevin J. Anchukaitis3, Bachir Oudjehih2, Hayat Touchan4, Said Slimani5, and David M. Meko1Drought is one of the main natural factors in declining tree-ring growth and the production of agricultural crops in Algeria. Here we will address the variability of growing conditions for wheat in Algeria with climatic data and a tree-ring reconstruction of January-June precipitation from ten Pinus halepensis tree-ring chronologies. A regression-based reconstruction equation explains up to 74% of the variance of precipitation in the 1970-2011 calibration period and cross validates well. Classification of dry years by the 30% percentile of observed precipitation (131 mm) yields a maximum length of drought of five years (1877-1881) and increasing frequency of dry years in the late 20th and early 21stcenturies. A correlation-based sensitivity analysis shows a similar pattern of dependence of tree-growth and wheat production on monthly and seasonal precipitation, but contrasting patterns of dependence on temperature. The patterns are interpreted by reference to phenology, growth phases, and - for wheat agricultural practices. We apply these interpretations to understand possible impacts of climate variability on the agricultural productivity of past civilizations in the Mediterranean. 2Institute of Veterinary and Agronomy Sciences, The University Hadj-Lakhdar, Batna 05000, Algeria, d.kherchouche@yahoo.fr and oudjehihbachir@yahoo.fr3University of Arizona, ENR2 Building, 1064 E Lowell Street, PO Box 210137, Tucson, AZ 85721-0137, kanchukaitis@email.arizona.edu4Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo-Syria, dr.htouchan@gmail.com5Faculty of Biological Sciences and Agronomy, The University Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi Ouzou 15000, Algeria, slimanisaid@yahoo.fr1Laboratory of Tree Ring Research, The University of Arizona, 1215 E. Lowell St. Bldg. 45B, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA, dmeko@ltrr.arizona.edu

  13. On Jordan's measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Brechenmacher, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    The Jordan measure, the Jordan curve theorem, as well as the other generic references to Camille Jordan's (1838-1922) achievements highlight that the latter can hardly be reduced to the "great algebraist" whose masterpiece, the Trait\\'e des substitutions et des equations alg\\'ebriques, unfolded the group-theoretical content of \\'Evariste Galois's work. The present paper appeals to the database of the reviews of the Jahrbuch \\"uber die Fortschritte der Mathematik (1868-1942) for providing an overview of Jordan's works. On the one hand, we shall especially investigate the collective dimensions in which Jordan himself inscribed his works (1860-1922). On the other hand, we shall address the issue of the collectives in which Jordan's works have circulated (1860-1940). Moreover, the time-period during which Jordan has been publishing his works, i.e., 1860-1922, provides an opportunity to investigate some collective organizations of knowledge that pre-existed the development of object-oriented disciplines such as gr...

  14. Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Izri, Arezki; Temmam, Sarah; Moureau, Grégory; Hamrioui, Boussad; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) is present in Algeria, we tested sandflies for phlebovirus RNA. A sequence closely related to that of SFSV was detected in a Phlebotomus ariasi sandfly. Of 60 human serum samples, 3 contained immunoglobulin G against SFSV. These data suggest SFSV is present in Algeria.

  15. Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud; Raoult, Didier

    2006-01-01

    After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria.

  16. 'Business as usual' in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliant on earnings from its oil and gas exports to import food for its growing 25 million population and cope with a $25 billion (bn) foreign debt, Algeria's new 'self-created' government is desperately trying to maintain the country's order. The situation facing Algeria's foreign business partners, notably France and Italy, is discussed. (author)

  17. Algeria embraces globalisation and liberalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2008-07-15

    Algeria's culture of state monopoly and single party rule has been set aside as the country appears to have resolutely chosen globalisation and liberalisation of its markets. The 2-page article is followed by an interview with the Algerian Minister of Energy and President of OPEC for 2008, explaining the energy policy of Algeria.

  18. Jordan Triple Disystems

    CERN Document Server

    Bremner, Murray R; Sanchez-Ortega, Juana

    2011-01-01

    We take an algorithmic and computational approach to a basic problem in abstract algebra: determining the correct generalization to dialgebras of a given variety of nonassociative algebras. We give a simplified statement of the KP algorithm introduced by Kolesnikov and Pozhidaev for extending polynomial identities for algebras to corresponding identities for dialgebras. We apply the KP algorithm to the defining identities for Jordan triple systems to obtain a new variety of nonassociative triple systems, called Jordan triple disystems. We give a generalized statement of the BSO algorithm introduced by Bremner and Sanchez-Ortega for extending multilinear operations in an associative algebra to corresponding operations in an associative dialgebra. We apply the BSO algorithm to the Jordan triple product and use computer algebra to verify that the polynomial identities satisfied by the resulting operations coincide with the results of the KP algorithm; this provides a large class of examples of Jordan triple disy...

  19. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  20. Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolesnikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h and H = U(h # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.

  1. Defensive democratization in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Glenn E.

    1998-01-01

    Jordan's political-liberalization program, initiated in 1989, represents the longest sustained such opening in the Arab world today. During this time, Jordan has held three national parliamentary elections, enacted a number of liberalizing laws, removed many restrictions on the press, and minimized the role that the security services, or mukhdbarit, play in repressing opposition. Moreover, the liberalization program has survived a number of severe challenges, including the seco...

  2. Jordan: Surprisingly Stable

    OpenAIRE

    Ådnegard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, research has demonstrated that conflict spreads to the host country as a consequence of massive influx of refugees. Most studies gathered empirical evidence from African countries and focused on cases where conflict had already spread. In contrast to this literature, the main objective of this thesis is to examine the absence of conflict in Jordan after receiving Syrian refugees that amount to about 10 percent of Jordan s original population over the past three years, 2011-201...

  3. Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h) and H = U(h) # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h) by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.

  4. Geopolitical hotspots : Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of Iraq fell one month after the United States and its allies launched an invasion on the country in March, 2003. The problems that ensued included looting, sabotage and alienation of the occupying powers from the Iraqi people. The author states that despite these problems, progress has been made in Iraq in terms of an Iraqi governing council which will hand back power to Iraqis by the end of June 2004. The goal is to have an election of a constitutional assembly by the end of January 2005. Progress has also been made in terms of restoring pre-invasion oil production capacity, despite sabotage to pipelines and oilfields. The Iraqi Oil Ministry claimed to have raised oil production to 2.5 million barrels per day (mbpd) by mid-March 2004, and exports to the Turkish port of Ceyhan were restored. The future of Iraq's oil production remains uncertain. Although a transitional government could contract foreign companies to boost production from existing oilfields for the short-term, the author emphasized that a permanent government must be elected by the people of Iraq before any long-term contracts for new oilfield development can be negotiated. The government elected by the people of Iraq should determine the structure of its own oil industry and any future relationships with foreign oil companies. tabs., figs

  5. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn;

    2011-01-01

    Using data from an occupational medical health surveillance program, we studied the associations between mental stressors and social support and the two outcome measures postdeployment psychological distress and multiple physical symptoms among Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. The study was cross...... findings support the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely...

  6. Jordan's government wrestles with health care and its economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandela, P

    1999-12-01

    This paper presents the problems encountered by the government concerning health services provision during an economic crisis in Jordan. Despite an ample of new building houses, a great number of Jordanian families had difficulties in acquiring affordable housing since many are affected by high unemployment. The difficulty for Jordan is that economic development has been heavily influenced by factors outside the control of the government. The effect on the medical practitioner had been particularly severe. Private medical practitioners rarely receive more than two patients a day, thus few doctors have taken advantage of the high costs of private treatment in Jordanian hospitals and specialize in the export of patients to Iraq where costs are very low. The demand for private medicine is high because government hospitals are overcrowded, lack of modern treatment facilities, and are generally held in low esteem. As a result, Jordan's Ministry of Health had taken measures to guarantee competent services for the people through collaboration with the Jordan University Hospital. Also, the government is taking the necessary precautions on the upsurge of unemployment by regulating with the Labor Ministry, trade union leaders, and business representatives. PMID:10622311

  7. Iraq: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Iraq begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Arabic and Kurdish, especially in the context of recent political events and the agreement to make Kurdish a second official language in the Kurdish autonomous region, and to allow limited use of Kurdish in instruction and public communication. A…

  8. Iraq Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    Iraq has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component of efforts to improve education quality and learning outcomes because it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders’ decisionmaking needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and wea...

  9. Iraq - Financial Sector Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nasr, Sahar; Petersen, Arne; Vossen, Jan Van der; Hashad, Nabil; Britton, Richard; Kulaksiz, Sibel; Huitfeld, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The link between sound and well-developed financial systems and economic growth is fundamental. Efficient and prudent allocation of resources by the financial system is critical for increasing productivity, boosting economic development, enhancing equality of opportunity, and reducing poverty. The financial sector in Iraq remains underdeveloped and underperforming. The banking system is by...

  10. 1980 El Asnam, Algeria Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 7.3 magnitude earthquake killed 5,000 people and caused severe damage. Location: Northern Algeria. Damage: $3,000 million. About 9,000 were injured. Extensive...

  11. China's economic presence in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Pairault, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the sudden acceleration of Sino-Algerian economic relations and the resulting changes in the relationship between Algeria and the world. China's presence in Algeria combines many interrelated features, which are not only distinctive, but contain their own logic and temporality: these encompass political, diplomatic, cultural, migratory, human and economic relations. This paper will mainly focus on the last category of relations; it will draw on statistical data, as recorde...

  12. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  13. [Malaria in Iraq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamo, F J

    2001-01-01

    Malaria control campaign started in Iraq in 1957. This made the country largely free of the disease. Since 1991, following the recent war, Iraq has been affected by serious epidemic of P. vivax malaria that started in 3 autonomous governorates and soon involved other parts of the country. There were 49,840 malaria cases in the country in 1995. The national malaria programme personnel did their best to contain and control the epidemic. Active and passive case detection and treatment were introduced. Free of charge drugs are provided at all levels in the endemic area. Vector control includes environmental management, distribution of Gambusia fish, larviciding, indoor residual spraying with pyrithroids. A total of 4134 malaria cases were recorded in the country in 1999. PMID:11548316

  14. Regulatory Challenges in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing the importance of non-exploitation of Iraqi territories for any WMD activities, coping with the international non-proliferation regime and, recognizing, the need to establish and maintain a legal framework for the implementation Iraq's obligations to establish and maintain in accordance with the non-proliferation treaties and conventions and to control the dual use items relevant to the Chemical, Biological, Nuclear weapons and related delivery systems. (author)

  15. Toward a Healthier Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al Hilfi, Thamer Kadum Yousif

    2014-01-01

    Health care in Iraq is the sector most influenced by variables such as political, cultural, social, and economic environments. The current status of national security, the deterioration of infrastructure, difficulty in accessing clean water and sewage services in some areas, and the national levels of poverty, malnutrition, and social fragility are all factors that negatively affect the health of the Iraqi people [1]. There is a real need for a solid national health policy that is able to mat...

  16. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Saïd C.; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  17. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium). The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. SESAME in Jordan

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Gaetano; Attal, Maher; Makahleh, Firas; Shehab, Maher M; Varnasseri, Seadat

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the status of SESAME is presented. SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) is an Independent Intergovernmental Organization developed and officially established under the auspices of UNESCO. It involves at the present the following Member States: Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey and United Arab Emirates. Moreover the following States are Observer of SESAME Council: France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Russian Federation, Sweden, UK and United States of America. SESAME will become a major international research center in the Middle East, located in Allan, Jordan. The machine design is based on a 2.5 GeV 3rd generation Light Source with an emittance of 26 nm.rad and 11 straights for insertion devices. The conceptual design of the accelerator complex has been frozen and the engineering design is started. The Phase I scientific program for SESAME has also been finalized and it foresees...

  19. Energy security in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis explores if the energy strategy of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, as formulated and executed by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, will help the country achieve greater energy security. This work qualitatively analyzes the progress in each energy subsector—hydrocarbons, nuclear power, and renewables—on goals presented in the country’s strategy and provides further analysis to determine each subsector’s potentia...

  20. Jordan; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper investigates the macroeconomic impact of the Syria crisis on Jordan. It is indicated that the crisis: (1) had an overall negative impact on measured output growth—although anecdotal evidence suggests possibly a positive impact on output in the informal sector; (2) contributed to inflationary pressures, particularly on rents; and (3) strained labor markets, mostly in the informal sector as refugees compete with locals for jobs. Although the crisis has put a strain ...

  1. The IMF's Return to Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund has imposed its traditional policies in Iraq. Few have considered the consequences. But the author notes that business as usual will probably not work in Iraq, and may well be destructive. He also wonders why there is so little imagination at the IMF.

  2. Astronomy in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabti, A. W.

    2006-08-01

    The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching

  3. Jordan Isomorphisms on Nest Subalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of Jordan isomorphisms on nest subalgebras of factor von Neumann algebras. It is shown that every Jordan isomorphism ϕ between the two nest subalgebras algMβ and algMγ is either an isomorphism or an anti-isomorphism.

  4. Vertex operators and Jordan fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of Lie algebras in terms of Jordan algebras generators is discussed. The key to the construction is the triality relation already incorporated into matrix products. A generalisation to Kac-Moody algebras in terms of vertex operators is proposed and may provide a clue for the construction of new representations of Kac-Moody algebras in terms of Jordan fields. (author)

  5. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Jordan's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. Strengths and weaknesses are highlighted and policy recommendations are made where appropriate. Much progress was made in the regulatory environment in the 1990s, since the creation of the Jordan Securities Commission, the Amman Stock Exchange, and the Securities Depo...

  6. Algeria: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper and Statistical Appendix deals with the issue of low growth in Algeria. A growth-accounting exercise indicates that negative total factor productivity growth explains Algeria’s low growth rates. This paper highlights the sources of this low growth that mainly consist of incomplete structural reforms and the weaknesses of Algeria’s institutions. It describes policy recommendations, focusing on the institutional reforms required to improve the business environment...

  7. Iraq spent fuel removal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the preparation and operations associated with the removal of the 208 spent fuel assemblies from Iraq, with emphasis on the technical challenges that were overcome during this removal process. (author)

  8. Jordan triple systems by the grid approach

    CERN Document Server

    Neher, Erhard

    1987-01-01

    Grids are special families of tripotents in Jordan triple systems. This research monograph presents a theory of grids including their classification and coordinization of their cover. Among the applications given are - classification of simple Jordan triple systems covered by a grid, reproving and extending most of the known classification theorems for Jordan algebras and Jordan pairs - a Jordan-theoretic interpretation of the geometry of the 27 lines on a cubic surface - structure theories for Hilbert-triples and JBW*-triples, the Jordan analogues of Hilbert-triples and W*-algebras which describe certain symmetric Banach manifolds. The notes are essentially self-contained and independent of the structure theory of Jordan algebras and Jordan pairs. They can be read by anyone with a basic knowledge in algebraic geometry or functional analysis. The book is intended to serve both as a reference for researchers in Jordan theory and as an introductory textbook for newcomers to the subject.

  9. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced migra...

  10. Implementation of nuclear seawater desalination in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the programme of nuclear desalination of seawater in Algeria. It starts by giving actual data about the needs of Algeria of fresh water up to the year 2025 and presents the strategies, which are adopted to satisfy these needs by various techniques including nuclear desalination of seawater. Finally the application of nuclear seawater desalination is presented in more details. (author)

  11. What Future for Berber Languages in Algeria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houcine, Samira

    2011-01-01

    After Algeria wrenched its independence from France in 1962, the government newly formed decided to achieve Arabization. Standard Arabic became thus the official language of Algeria and the complete Arabization of all public institutions was voted in January 1991. Actually, the Algerian linguistic situation is one of multilingualism where Algerian…

  12. A survey of photovoltaic activities in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the activities in pholovoltaics (PV) in Algeria, for the last fifteen years. The main activities which are reported are related to PV power systems programs, research education and market penetration. Concluding remarks recommend the transition from demonstrating small projects to large scale ones in order to promote and develop PV technology in Algeria. (author)

  13. Reemerging Threat of Epidemic Typhus in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokrani, K.; Fournier, P E; Dalichaouche, M.; Tebbal, S.; Aouati, A.; Raoult, D

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of epidemic typhus in a patient from the Batna region of Algeria, who presented with generalized febrile exanthema. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by serological cross-adsorption followed by Western blotting. Our report emphasizes the threat of epidemic typhus in the highlands of Algeria.

  14. Algeria: Revolution, Army and Political Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraoui, Zidane

    2012-01-01

    Despite the numerous similarities among the Arab countries that explain the rapid popular movements since the end of 2010, the case of Algeria presents particular features. It shares the same inequalities and social challenges as the rest of the countries in the region. However, the revolutionary process in Algeria between 1954 and 1962 and the…

  15. Rights of the Child in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Algeria. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes legislative and institutional efforts made by Algeria since…

  16. Negotiating a deal in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal and diplomatic environment surrounding oil production negotiations in Iraq was discussed with reference to the essential terms generally negotiated for upstream contracts between oil companies and the Iraqi Ministry of Oil. Legal considerations were discussed for the following upstream contracts: production sharing contracts, a risk service contract, a modified buy-back contract, a technical service contract, and a joint venture company. It was noted that negotiations in Iraq require a great amount of diplomacy as projects are very high profile and attract significant international attention. Information sharing is critical in gaining valuable government support. The main problem for interested investors in Iraq is predicting when the UN sanctions will be lifted. Once lifted, the Ministry of Oil's Development Plan is to increase oil production through the co-operative assistance of foreign oil companies. While the sanctions remain in place, Iraq is allowed to sell oil on a renewable basis every 6 months under the oil-for-food programme, which permits Iraq to spend US$600 million every 6 months for spare parts to upgrade its oil industry. 9 figs

  17. Algeria: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Algeria is positioned to achieve important, new natural gas markets. Over half of its hydrocarbon income is from exports of gas and derived products, liquified petroleum gas (LPG) and condensates, which are not subject to Opec quotas. Officials are moving away from inflexible past policies and are becoming vastly more realistic now that foreign investment laws have been liberalized and there is a need to attract foreign investors. Sonatrach must address three key issues to consolidate recent progress. Sales to existing customers in Europe, like Italy, must be expanded; new customers and markets need to found: and U.S. liquified natural gas (LNG) markets must be revived

  18. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ''digital and analogue''. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in (μR/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author)

  19. Groundwater radon measurements in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon contents of groundwater sources have led to a great interest in hydrological, hydrogeological and geological engineering. The most interesting applications are: The determination of the fluctuations of the piezometric levels in groundwater to evaluate hydrogeological resources, the study of recent hydrothermal manifestations, the study of oil- and gas-bearing regions, the estimation of uranium deposits and the study of the relationship between the radon concentration and the degree of stress of the earth's crust at different stages of seismic activity. Waters from springs and deep wells in the plateau of Tassili (southeast Algeria) were sampled, measured and radon quantified. Radon measurements were performed using two different methods. The first method, active, based on the use of a Lucas-type scintillation chamber in conjunction with a portable monitor (model Pylon AB-5); the second method, passive, using an electret ion chamber with a 4 l glass analysis bottle. The aim of this work is to develop a method for sampling, detecting, evaluating and measuring the 222Rn in groundwater using the scintillation cell method. A comparison of the two methods was carried out and both were found to be useful under environmental conditions in Algeria

  20. Just what is happening in Algeria?

    OpenAIRE

    Ghettas, Lakhdar

    2010-01-01

    The assassination of the Algerian chief of national police Colonel Ali Tounsi coincides with the standoff between the Turkish Government and the military establishment. In Algeria, a conflict of similar colouring has been underway for several months.

  1. 2003 Boumerdes and Algiers, Algeria Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A destructive earthquake of magnitude Mw = 6.8 hit the region of Boumerdes and Algiers (Algeria) on May 21, 2003. This is among the strongest seismic events of the...

  2. 31 CFR 575.306 - Government of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Iraq. 575.306 Section....306 Government of Iraq. The term Government of Iraq includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iraq... of Iraq; (b) Any partnership, association, corporation, or other organization substantially owned...

  3. Review of wind energy use in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most scientists now agree that human-induced global climate change poses a serious threat to both society and the Earth's ecosystems. Renewable energy holds the key to future prosperity and a healthy global environment and is considered as a promising way to solve the problem of environmental pollution such as major environmental accidents, water pollution, maritime pollution, land use and sitting impact, radiation and radioactivity, solid waste disposal, hazardous air pollutants, ambient air quality (CO, CO2, SOx, NOx effluent gas emissions), acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming (GHG). Solar, wind and hydrogen power can be considered as potential renewable energy sources in Algeria. The share of renewable energy sources in Algeria primary energy supply is relatively low compared with European countries, though the trends of development are positive. One of the main strategic priorities of New Energy Algeria (NEAL) which is Algeria's renewable energy agency (government, Sonelgaz and Sonatrach), is striving to achieve a share of renewable energy sources in primary energy supply of 10-12% by 2010. IEA projects that the fastest growing sources of energy will be supplied by renewables. Much of this capacity will be installed in developing nations where solar and wind electric power is already competitive. Clearly, the nation that can capture a leadership position has potential for substantial economic returns. The article presents a review of the present wind energy situation and assessed potential of wind energy sources in Algeria in particular the southwest region of Algeria (Adrar, Timimoun and Tindouf). (author)

  4. 31 CFR 575.210 - Prohibited transfer of funds to the Government of Iraq or any person in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Iraq or any person in Iraq. 575.210 Section 575.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Iraq or any person in Iraq. Except as otherwise authorized, no U.S. person may commit or transfer, directly or indirectly, funds or other financial or economic resources to the Government of Iraq or...

  5. 31 CFR 575.207 - Prohibited transactions relating to travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq. 575.207 Section 575.207 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iraq or to activities within Iraq. Except as otherwise authorized, no U.S. person may engage in any transaction relating to travel by any U.S. citizen or permanent resident alien to Iraq, or to activities...

  6. Dirac, Jordan and quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of two principal physicists of quantum mechanics is specially chose: Paul Dirac and Pascual Jordan. They gave a signification and an importance very different to the notion of quantum field, and in particular to the quantized matter wave one. Through their formation and motivation differences, such as they are expressed in their writings, this deep difference is tentatively understood

  7. Can Iraq Overcome the Oil Curse?

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    In an important document2 released toward the end of 2005, the United States outlined its strategy for victory in Iraq. Victory is defined in states: (1) Short term, Iraq is making steady progress in fighting terrorists, meeting political milestones, building democratic institutions and indigenous security forces; (2) Medium term, Iraq is in the lead defeating terrorists and providing its own security, with a fully constitutional government in place and on its way to achievi...

  8. Economic policy and prospects in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, Keith; Block, DE; Foote, Christopher; Gray, Simon

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the Coalition Provisional Authority's attempts to stabilize and reform Iraq's economy along market lines. It argues that while security concerns remain serious, Iraq's economy has not been crippled by violence. However, sustained economic growth will depend on whether Iraq's future leaders pursue the pro-market approaches the Coalition has advocated. If the Iraqi economy is to reach its potential, it will need to go even farther than the Coalition did, implementing reform...

  9. Marketing of Banking Services in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Omran, Waleed

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The study is all about identifying the role of marketing in the Banking sector of Iraq. The Iraq financial sector is entirely equipped with banks and has an aggressive, competitive environment, in this case, making a place for newbies is kind a hard to survive. Therefore, this study evaluates the Iraq environment with the help of PEST (Political, Economical, Social and Technological) analysis and Porter‟s Five Forces to understand the market environment and demands. The study totall...

  10. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  11. Environmental Issues in Jordan, Solutions and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Nidal A.   Hadadin; Zeyad S.   Tarawneh

    2007-01-01

    Jordans natural resources are limited to support population in a sustainable manner. However, its environment is exposed to a number of threats. In order to best explain Jordan's environmental difficulties, it would be prudent to focus individually on each of these major concerns: water shortages, agriculture/land and air pollution. This study focuses on the environmental problems in Jordan and has addressed the process of reversing environmental decline. A true foundation of environmental pr...

  12. The changing epidemiology of diphtheria in Jordan*

    OpenAIRE

    Khuri-Bulos, N.; Hamzah, Y.; Sammerrai, S. M.; Shehabi, A.; Hamed, R.; Arnaout, M. A.; Turk, J.; Qubain, H.

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of diphtheria used to occur regularly in Jordan, the last such outbreak being in 1977-78. Since that time, a massive immunization programme targeted at pre-school-age children has been markedly successful. Hence, when an outbreak of diphtheria occurred in 1982-83, it was unexpected. Of the 35 patients who were treated at the Jordan University Hospital, two died and the remaining 33 recovered uneventfully. Contrary to our findings in previous diphtheria epidemics in Jordan, this outb...

  13. Approximately -Jordan Homomorphisms on Banach Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Let , and let be two rings. An additive map is called -Jordan homomorphism if for all . In this paper, we establish the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of -Jordan homomorphisms on Banach algebras. Also we show that (a to each approximate 3-Jordan homomorphism from a Banach algebra into a semisimple commutative Banach algebra there corresponds a unique 3-ring homomorphism near to , (b to each approximate -Jordan homomorphism between two commutative Banach algebras there corresponds a unique -ring homomorphism near to for all .

  14. IAEA planning to send team to Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency is planning to send a team to the Iraqi nuclear research centre at Tuwaitha soon, to verify the nuclear material under safeguards pursuant to Iraq's NPT safeguards agreement. The despatch of such a mission has been agreed to with the US government. The mission will be limited to verifying Iraq's safeguards obligations. (IAEA)

  15. IAEA inspections and Iraq's nuclear capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is reported that IAEA teams have been investigating Iraq's nuclear capabilities since May 1991 and following the Gulf War under terms of United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 directed at eliminating Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and means to produce and use them. A chronology of the events as well as the IAEA plan of further actions are described

  16. Towards sustainable water management in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2012-12-01

    Algeria aspires to protect its water resources and to provide a sustainable answer to water supply and management issues by carrying out a national water plan. This program is in line with all projects the Algerian Government is implementing to improve its water sector performance. The water strategy focuses on desalination for the coastal cities, medium-sized dams to irrigate the inland mountains and high plateau, and ambitious water transfer projects interconnecting Algeria\\'s 65 dams to bring water to water scarce parts of the country. Waste water treatment and water reclamation technologies are also highly sought after. The main objective of the country\\'s water policy consists on providing sufficient potable water for the population supply. This objective is undertaken by increasing the water resources and availability. © 2012 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimated use of explosives in the mining industries of Algeria, Iran, Iraq, and Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Russell, J.A.; Bleiwas, D.I. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This work was performed under Memorandum of Agreement B291534 Between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the United States Bureau of Mines. The Bureau of Mines authors are members of the Minerals Availability Field Office (MAFO) in Denver, CO, which uses an extensive network of information sources to develop and maintain the Minerals Availability database concerning mining and minerals properties worldwide. This study was initiated and directed by F. Heuze at LLNL. A previous study on the same subject had been commissioned by LLNL from the Mining Journal Research Services (MJRS) in London ,UK. Its results were integrated into this report. MJRS is shown as one of the numerous sources which were used for this work. All sources are listed in the report. This document is arranged in four sections, one for each country, in alphabetical order. Thie outline is the same for each country.

  18. The Gasoline Crisis in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap Chatterjee

    2006-01-01

    Pratap Chatterjee in his report to Corpwatch1 indicates the politics of the current fuel crisis is leading to unlikely bedfellows. The governments of Turkey and Saudi Arabia have shut down gasoline exports to Iraq and as a result Baghdad has begun to negotiate with its former arch-rival, Iran. Government officials in Baghdad and Washington claim that the gasoline shortage is ‘insurgent’ or ‘terrorist’ activity but the trucking companies and those living the crisis says it is more often due to...

  19. Oil and power: Iraq at the crossroads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enay, P.

    1995-11-01

    Oil and Power: Iraq at the Crossroads is the first analysis which specifically addresses the oil sector in Iraq. It provides a detailed account of the present Iraqi oil infrastructure and assesses the risks and opportunities facing those who seek to invest in its redevelopment. The report examines the implications for the world oil markets of Iraq`s ambitious plans to expand production capacity to 6m barrels per day -almost twice its pre-war peak. It explains in clear, authoritative terms the profound problems confronting Iraq`s oil sector and the prospects for rebuilding it. It analyses expertly and in detail the current regime`s chances of survival and examines the alternative contenders for power -and their likely attitudes towards co-operation with foreign oil interests. The report examines and explains: Iraq`s oil infrastructure, from fields under exploration to nominal administrative structure; the effect on oil prices of Iraq`s eventual re-entry into the oil market; the facilities in need of repair and where the shortage of spares and human expertise are; the unofficial decision-making structure in the oil sector; the short- and medium-term impact of economic disintegration on oil development policy; the effects of UN sanctions and the motives of those supporting or opposing sanctions; the likely impact of prevailing economic constraints on Iraqi oil and the historical role of commissions in Iraqi oil contracts; the political impact of General Hussein Kamal Hassan`s defection and the Kurdish and Shi`ite threats to Iraqi national unity. (author)

  20. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  1. U.S. Strategic Predicament in Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Wenlin

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Iraq war is the biggest experimental site of Bushism and the success or failure of the war there has a direct bearing on the spread of Bushism as a strategic model. Hence it is necessary to make a systematic assessment of America's situation in Iraq. The current situation shows that the United has got into an unprecedented strategic haziness. In the security field, U.S. forces have dispatched large number of troops to carry out suppression and won frequent victories,but they are suffering stronger resistances. In the realm of political reconstruction, the democratic process in Iraq is now under in accordance with the prescribed order, but religious contradictions are on the rise, and political structures become more fragile. Over economic reconstruction, the United States has kept increasing input and at the same time appealed to the international community for more assistance. Even though Iraq is faced with difficulties in the reconstruction. Therefore, there is a widening disagreement in America over "whether the U.S. is winning or losing the war in Iraq. "① Based on the major views of experts and scholars from both China and overseas,the author thinks that the following three criteria are important for judging whether the United States has succeeded or failed in pursuing its strategy in Iraq: the feasibility of strategic objectives, balance of objectives and means and adaptability of strategic means. Judged by the above-mentioned criteria, the United States is now landing in a strategic predicament in Iraq.

  2. Iraq's nuclear hide-and-seek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revelation that Iraq had spent as much as $8 billion on its calutron program implies that Iraq sought to develop a large and renewable weapons material stockpile. While the calutron revelations are alarming, a nuclear weapons program requires more than equipment to produce fissile materials. Iraq lacked the hands-on experience required to nudge its fledgling gas centrifuge program out of the laboratory and into the large-scale production phase. No information to date suggests that Iraq would have escaped serious difficulties as it moved from a calutron pilot stage to large-scale production of highly enriched uranium. The revelations have raised hard questions about the quality of reconnaissance information on Iraq's nuclear effort. But the heat fingerprints left by a large calutron production plant would become visible only after the facility was producing enriched uranium. Tracking down and eliminating Iraq's nuclear weapons capabilities under the terms of Resolution 687, and a continued embargo to halt imports of relevant technologies and equipment, will be the most effective way to prevent Iraq's nuclear program from resurfacing

  3. Library-Information Education in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumarafi, B. B.; Haythornthwaite, J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the development of educational programs for library technicians, librarians, and information professionals in Algeria and describes the current educational structure. Topics discussed include the need for improvements in curriculum development, teaching staff development, library facilities, and the use of information technologies. (CLB)

  4. Vocational Training and Rural Development in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaza, S.; Gara, A.

    1973-01-01

    Better organization of the agricultural sector, expansion of production capabilities, increased employment, satisfaction of the country's needs, and improved productivity are the guidelines considered in the planning and development of the agricultural vocational training system in Algeria. Charts illustrate and clarify the organization of this…

  5. Documentation and Development. Experience in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuigoua, J. Founou

    1972-01-01

    A description of the activities of the Documentation, Library and Archives Department of the Algiers Chamber of Commerce and Industry, which is run by a small staff on a modest budget, provides documentation services for the staff of the Chamber of Commerce and also assists other centers in Algeria. (Author)

  6. Iraq: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that no reliable information on Iraqi E and P operations and only a few reports on oil field facilities damage have been available since last August. Most of what is known originated from the Middle East Economic Survey (MEES), the authoritative newsletter covering the Middle East. According to MEES reports in major northern oil fields (Kirkuk, Bai Hasan and Jambur) is put at 800,000 bpd. The northern fields and the pipeline system through Turkey to the Mediterranean Sea that serves as an export outlet for the area apparently were not damaged much by coalition air strikes or subsequent fighting by the Kurds. Last May production was estimated at 250,000 bpd, presumably from northern fields. If and when U.N. sanctions are lifted, Iraq should be able to export promptly through the Turkish line

  7. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attached clarification by a spokesman of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs is being circulated for the information of Member States pursuant to a request made by the Resident Representative of Iraq

  8. Jordan blocks and Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions associated with a degeneracy of unbound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accidental degeneracy of unbound states gives rise to a double pole in the scattering matrix, a double zero in the Jost function, and a Jordan chain of length 2 of generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions of the radial Schroedinger equation. The generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions are basis elements of an expansion in bound- and resonant-state energy eigenfunctions plus a continuum of scattering wave functions of a complex wave number. In this biorthonormal basis, any operator f(Hr(l)) which is a regular function of the Hamiltonian is represented by a complex matrix that is diagonal except for a Jordan block of rank 2. The occurrence of a double pole in the Green's function, as well as the non exponential time evolution of the Gamow-Jordan generalized eigenfunctions are associated with the Jordan block in the complex energy representation

  9. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hasoon Saad; Bradley Marie; Sadik Sabah; Jenkins Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care cent...

  10. Turkey's global strategy: Turkey and Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Turunc, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Interaction between Turkey and Iraq is rapidly increasing, with economic and strategic interests driving political cooperation, yet there are still longer-term challenges remain to be solved, particularly in relation to energy and water security. Iraq is one of Turkey’s most important trading partners and is becoming an essential source of energy. It attaches great deal of importance to Iraq’s stability and territorial integrity and sees those matters as crucial to its own secu...

  11. Mosquito species geographical distribution in Iraq 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Haidar A. Hantosh, Hameeda M. Hassan, Bushra Ahma & Ali Al-fatlawy

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills threemillion persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species.In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomologicalsurvey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009.Methods: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi...

  12. Algeria; The Real Exchange Rate, Export Diversification, and Trade Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Piritta Sorsa

    1999-01-01

    Given the tendency of the oil sector to appreciate the equilibrium real exchange rate (RER) in Algeria, trade liberalization with its depreciating impact on the RER is important for diversification of exports. This paper shows that reduction in trade protection would depreciate the RER in Algeria, which in turn would improve competitiveness of, and incentives to invest in, non-oil exports. The paper then discusses existing levels of protection in Algeria and directions for reform.

  13. Oil and power: Iraq at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil and Power: Iraq at the Crossroads is the first analysis which specifically addresses the oil sector in Iraq. It provides a detailed account of the present Iraqi oil infrastructure and assesses the risks and opportunities facing those who seek to invest in its redevelopment. The report examines the implications for the world oil markets of Iraq's ambitious plans to expand production capacity to 6m barrels per day -almost twice its pre-war peak. It explains in clear, authoritative terms the profound problems confronting Iraq's oil sector and the prospects for rebuilding it. It analyses expertly and in detail the current regime's chances of survival and examines the alternative contenders for power -and their likely attitudes towards co-operation with foreign oil interests. The report examines and explains: Iraq's oil infrastructure, from fields under exploration to nominal administrative structure; the effect on oil prices of Iraq's eventual re-entry into the oil market; the facilities in need of repair and where the shortage of spares and human expertise are; the unofficial decision-making structure in the oil sector; the short- and medium-term impact of economic disintegration on oil development policy; the effects of UN sanctions and the motives of those supporting or opposing sanctions; the likely impact of prevailing economic constraints on Iraqi oil and the historical role of commissions in Iraqi oil contracts; the political impact of General Hussein Kamal Hassan's defection and the Kurdish and Shi'ite threats to Iraqi national unity. (author)

  14. Unemployment and Labor Market Issues in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Furceri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze unemployment and labor market developments in Algeria and assess the factors that may hamper employment creation. The results of the paper suggest that the relative low output-employment elasticities and rigid labor market are the main factors behind the still high level of unemployment, particularly among the youth. Simulation analyses, based on the results on the relation between labor market institutions and unemployment, show that improvement in labor m...

  15. Algeria's Role in the Sahelian Security Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Aida Ammour

    2013-01-01

    While Mali is confronting a deep political crisis with a still serious risk of territorial split and Libya is descending into increasing instability, Algeria appears reluctant to assume the responsibilities of a hegemonic power. Algeria’s refusal to consider any joint strategy with its neighbors and other international actors towards the Malian crisis shows it has once again succumbed to the fear of encirclement that characterized its policies in the 1970s. Behind this refusal, there lies a d...

  16. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Chentli; Said Azzoug; Mohammed El Amine Amani; Aldjia Elgradechi

    2013-01-01

    Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a holy month in Algeria where diabetes mellitus (DM) is more frequent in urban areas with a frequency which varies from 8 to 16%. DM complications are broadly as frequent as in developed countries, except for neuropathy which seems more frequent. Despite contraindications which are regularly explained to our patients and despite the flexible side of Islam toward chronic diseases, most Algerian people with DM insist on fasting. Not fasting is consi...

  17. Modern, sustainable, protected greenhouse cultivation in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Os, van, H.; Speetjens, S.L.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Bruins, M.A.; Sapounas, A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the project was to analyse the structure and technology level of protected cultivation in Algeria, which were followed by recommendations for improvements (technical, cultivation and economic aspects) of existing and newly built greenhouses. Further, in discussion with Dutch and Algerian parties, the goal was to come to a final design which can be built with local partners. The Wageningen UR “adaptive greenhouse approach” was used at which results of the simulation models for the ...

  18. Wildfires in Algeria: problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meddour-Sahar O

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the scenario of the Mediterranean area, where about 54 000 fires and 0.4 million hectares of forest are burned and annually registered (2006-2010, the rank for Algeria is non-negligible with 4.11 million hectares of forest. The annual number of fires and the size of area burned depict a critical situation, which became rather dramatic in 2012. Climate change projections and the estimated changes to wildfire risk for the future decades (2030-2060 indicate that the entire Maghreb region, including Algeria, will be among the most affected areas of the Mediterranean. Longer fire seasons will be experienced and extended by an additional month with each passing year. Despite Algeria’s recent investments in technical means for controlling forest fires, the current suppression-oriented model seems unable to cope with such a phenomenon. Furthermore, the model is unfit in view of the approaching scenario, when fire-exclusion policies need to be complemented with fuel-reduction techniques and fire prevention management. This study aims to establish an understanding of the context and public policy issues related to wildfire management in Algeria. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires to foresters with the objective of identifying obstacles and constraints hindering the efficacy of pro-active measures. Analysis of the data gathered indicates that Algerian foresters are well aware of the importance of prevention, contrasting with current governmental policies that are predominantly oriented towards improving the technical extinction apparatus. A SWOT analysis suggests possible strategic options for improving the efficiency of wildfire control by building on strengths, eliminating weaknesses, exploiting opportunities, and mitigating threats. The results of this study may be adapted to other countries with similar problems as those of Algeria.

  19. Swallows' children : emigration and development in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, S

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper on relationships between migration policy and development policy in Algeria, focusing on emigration to France during the period 1962 to 1977 - covers historical emigration under colonialism and since independence, noting the influence of nationalism and political ideology, outlines working conditions and living conditions of Algerian migrant workers in France, and discusses return migration and remittance factors. Graphs, references and statistical tables.

  20. Lanczos potential and Jordan theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hamiltonian formulation of Jordan's theory of gravity is presented by means of the Lanczos' potential. The consequences of using this potential in gravity and in its interactions with other fields are discussed. (Author)

  1. Environmental Issues in Jordan, Solutions and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal A.   Hadadin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Jordan’s natural resources are limited to support population in a sustainable manner. However, its environment is exposed to a number of threats. In order to best explain Jordan's environmental difficulties, it would be prudent to focus individually on each of these major concerns: water shortages, agriculture/land and air pollution. This study focuses on the environmental problems in Jordan and has addressed the process of reversing environmental decline. A true foundation of environmental protection requires awareness upon the part of the population and a number of governmental and non-governmental organizations are actively involved in educating the populace about environmental issues. This article presents specific recommendations addressing water resources, the areas of agriculture and air pollution. It emphasis throughout on the conservation of water, agriculturally productive land and the quality of air, of which, the contamination or loss of them would bring rapid and significant consequences to Jordan.

  2. The Role of Islamic Fundamentalism in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zola Sonkosi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Algeria and the Islamist challenge For six years, Algeria has been experiencing a true nightmare of terror. Human rights organisations estimate that since 1992, 120 000 people were killed by armed Islamic groups or state security, among them many civilians. During Ramadan 1998, there were shocking news of cruelly executed and mutilated women, men and children in Koraa, 80 kilometres south-west of the capital Algiers. The alleged culprits were assumed to belong to the Groupe lslamique Armée (GIA. The critical Algerian press increasingly becomes a victim of fanaticism and state censorship4. In order to understand these events better, it is necessary to take a look at the history of this country. In 1962, Algeria celebrated its independence from 132 years of colonial occupation by France. This great event was preceded by a long and bitter war, which was led by the Front De Libération Nationale (FLN, and its ally, the Armée de Libération Nationale (ALN. In 1954, Algerians began to fight the French army that was considered unbeatable. Its defeat was achieved in 1962, but the country was never exposed to democracy and pluralism because the FLN-leadership preferred to practice one-party-rule after the Soviet model. Critics, especially from the ranks of former freedom fighters, among them Mohamed Boudiaf and Hocine Ait Ahmeds, were arrested or forced to go into exile.

  3. The energy sector abroad. Part 16. Algeria. The growing export of natural gas from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algeria's age-long dependence on agriculture changed rather abruptly in 1956. The discovery of huge oil and gas fields made it possible that nowadays the oil and gas industries account for 95% of Algerian exports and 60% of the Algerian government's budget. In 1970 Algeria nationalized all oil and gas concessions. By the middle of the 1980's, however, this isolationism proved no longer tenable and a political democratization process was started, also enabling foreign investments. The latter has been successful, but the democratization of the political system has ended in bloodshed

  4. JORDAN TEAM VALID8故人重来

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖

    2005-01-01

    作为与 JORDAN TEAM BIG FUND同时上市的 JORDAN TEAM 款式,JOR-DAN TEAM VALID8的受关注度远远没有前者大。外形与 AIR JORDAN Ⅳ相象的 JORDAN TEAM BIG FUND 凭借ⅢP HOP 风格得到了许多人的喜爱,而JORDAN TEAM VALID8却始终显得不温不火。其实,外观简单的 JORDAN TEAM

  5. Jordan Country Gender Assessment : Economic Participation, Agency and Access to Justice in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Over the last three decades Jordan has made substantial investments in its human resources, spending more than 10 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on health and education. Like their male counterparts, women and girls have benefitted from these policies and their quality of life has improved. The Jordan Country Gender Assessment (CGA) has two primary objectives. The first is to asse...

  6. Sickle cell disease in the Kurdish population of northern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Allawi, Nasir A S; Jalal, Sana D; Nerwey, Farida F; Al-Sayan, Galawezh O O; Al-Zebari, Sahima S M; Alshingaly, Awny A; Markous, Raji D; Jubrael, Jaladet M S; Hamamy, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that sickle cell disease patients are clustered in two geographical areas in Iraq, one among the Arabs in the extreme south, another among the Kurdish population in the extreme north, where they constitute major health problems. However, no studies have focused on the genotypes responsible for sickle cell disease or the β-globin gene haplotypes associated with it. For the latter purpose, a total of 103 unrelated Kurdish sickle cell disease patients were evaluated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for the sickle cell mutation, followed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse hybridization for β- and α-thalassemia (β- and α-thal) mutations, whenever indicated. Results showed that the most common genotype was sickle cell anemia (68.0%) followed by Hb S/β(0)-thal and Hb S/β(+)-thal at frequencies of 24.2 and 7.8%, respectively. Eight β-thal mutations were associated with the latter two genotypes including: IVS-II-1 (G>A), IVS-I-110 (G>A), codon 8 (-AA), codon 44 (-C), codon 22 (-7 bp), IVS-I-1 (G>A), codon 30 (G>C) and IVS-I-6 (T>C). In Hb SS patients, the -α(3.7) deletion was documented in 10.0% and was the only α-thal mutation detected. Furthermore, 5' β-globin gene cluster haplotyping of 128 β(S) chromosomes revealed that the most common haplotype seen in 69.5% was the Benin haplotype, followed by the Arab-Indian haplotype in 12.5%. These latter findings closely resemble reports from neighboring Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Mediterranean countries, suggesting a possible common origin, but are in contrast to findings from the Eastern Arabian Peninsula and Iran. PMID:22686351

  7. National solid waste management plan for Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, James A

    2009-06-01

    After decades of turmoil and international sanctions much of the key civil infrastructure within Iraq has fallen into disrepair, leading to a considerable decline in the provision of basic and essential municipal services. This is particularly true of waste and resource management services that have seen years of underdevelopment and deterioration. This has resulted in a lack of provision of basic public services in the waste sector which have been replaced by a burgeoning unregulated informal market in waste collection, disposal and recycling. In response, a National Solid Waste Management Plan (NSWMP) for Iraq was developed in 2007, to plan for the strategic development of all aspects of waste management in the country over the coming 20 years. In particular, the NSWMP focuses on policy development and integrated planning regarding regulatory framework, economic aspects, institutional capacity, citizen and technical education, and technical and operational development. This paper summarizes the key objectives, challenges and subsequent recommendations contained in the NSWMP for Iraq. PMID:19470543

  8. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia. PMID:25055188

  9. Wildfires in Algeria: problems and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Meddour-Sahar O

    2015-01-01

    In the scenario of the Mediterranean area, where about 54 000 fires and 0.4 million hectares of forest are burned and annually registered (2006-2010), the rank for Algeria is non-negligible with 4.11 million hectares of forest. The annual number of fires and the size of area burned depict a critical situation, which became rather dramatic in 2012. Climate change projections and the estimated changes to wildfire risk for the future decades (2030-2060) indicate that the entire Maghreb region, i...

  10. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michuda Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA, and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a control system by marketing activity of football clubs of Iraq is defined. Positive and negative factors which define management efficiency marketing of football clubs are revealed.

  11. Hom-alternative algebras and Hom-Jordan algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Makhlouf, Abdenacer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Hom-alternative algebras and Hom-Jordan algebras. We discuss some of their properties and provide construction procedures using ordinary alternative algebras or Jordan algebras. Also, we show that a polarization of Hom-associative algebra leads to Hom-Jordan algebra.

  12. Gender and Justice in Jordan : Women, Demand, and Access

    OpenAIRE

    Prettitore, Paul Scott

    2013-01-01

    Two key dimensions on access to justice sector services in Jordan are poverty and gender. The gender dimension to accessing formal justice sector services, namely court and lawyer services is anchored in the reality that women and men in Jordan demonstrate different needs and priorities for services, and face different obstacles in accessing them. Jordan demonstrates different needs and pr...

  13. Algebras of Jordan brackets and Generalized Poisson algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Kaygorodov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We construct a basis of free unital generalized Poisson superalgebras and a basis of free unital superalgebras of Jordan brackets. Also, we prove the analogue of Farkas' Theorem for PI unital generalized Poisson algebras and PI unital algebras of Jordan brackets. Relations beetwen generic Poisson superalgebras and superalgebras of Jordan brackets will be studied.

  14. 31 CFR 575.329 - Areas of Iraq not controlled by the Government of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the “Green Line” and under the control of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) or the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) in the following provinces of Iraq: Dahuk (Dohuk), Arbil (Erbil), and...

  15. Timeline Iraq: Challenges and lessons learned from nuclear inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under a dramatic and far-reaching global spotlight, the International Atomic Energy Agency's experience in Iraq reached a turning point in March 2003. Its nuclear inspection team - together with teams of the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) and the rest of the UN organisations operating in Iraq - had to withdraw ahead of announced military operations. The diplomatic route to disarming Iraq had reached an impasse. Today, international inspection teams tracking weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programmes in Iraq work in the wings, ready to resume operations in Iraq at the UN Security Council's call. The mandate of international inspection stands, with the IAEA's Iraq Nuclear Verification Office (INVO) in Vienna in charge of the nuclear file. The IAEA's nuclear inspection and verification experience in Iraq stretches over a span of three decades, addressing activities from the mine to the weapon. Agency inspectors led the discovery and dismantlement of Iraq's secret nuclear weapons programme in the 1990s, and after the 1990s round of inspections had stopped, they had found no evidence, up to March 2003, that the programme had been revived since 1998. Since the first Iraq inspections under Security Council mandate in early 1991, the road of nuclear verification in Iraq has proved to be long and hard, and valuable lessons were learned that have benefited the international community and strengthened the IAEA inspectorate. This article highlights the IAEA's extensive experience in Iraq, the main challenges, and selected key lessons drawn from them

  16. White paper on nuclear energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a global persecutive, many countries are increasingly turning to nuclear power as a safe, reliable and economically proven energy generation technology. Jordan is one of 65 countries currently expressing interest in nuclear power. The development of a peaceful, civilian nuclear energy programme is based on an in-depth evaluation and understanding of Jordan's future energy needs. The government has decided that nuclear energy is the only way to meet the energy, water and economic challenges the country is facing. Unless Jordan adds substantial electricity production cap city, the Kingdom faces major difficulties in supporting the growth of its population, satisfying water needs and improving living standards. A pre-feasibility study has demonstrated that the most affordable future generation mix includes nuclear power, and there is range of additional benefits provided by nuclear power

  17. KURDISH BASIC COURSE, DIALECT OF SULAIMANIA, IRAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABDULLA, JAMAL JALAL; MCCARUS, ERNEST N.

    THIS BEGINNING COURSE, DESIGNED FOR THE STUDENT WITH SOME KNOWLEDGE OF LINGUISTICS, FOLLOWS THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH IN TEACHING THE PHONOLOGY, BASIC STRUCTURE, AND VOCABULARY OF THE EDUCATED KURDISH DIALECT OF SULAIMANIA, IRAQ. THE CULTURAL CONTENT OF THE MATERIAL PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH A GENERAL BACKGROUND OF SULAIMANIAN CULTURE. PART I,…

  18. 15 CFR 746.3 - Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for transactions with Iraq, as provided in 31 CFR part 575. This section establishes a validity period... on the U.S. Munitions List (USML) (22 CFR part 121, International Traffic in Arms Regulations) or the... International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR parts 120 through 130). (e) Transition for licenses issued...

  19. Oasis in Iraq: Universities Flourish in Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Zvika

    2007-01-01

    The campus of Salahadin University--peaceful, bustling, and collegial-- is a rare sight in Iraq, where sectarian violence has brought the higher education system to the verge of collapse. Home to the country's historically repressed four million to five million ethnic Kurds, it is an oasis of stability and tranquility while much of the rest of…

  20. Algeria, an oil state in danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having outlined that Algeria possesses one of the most promising geologies regarding oil, gas and shale gas proved and possible reserves, but that conditions imposed to the private sector are such that investments have been decreasing, thus leaving Sonatrach, the national public company, almost alone do develop this oil and gas patrimony, and after having recalled that the world oil sector is facing a major crisis since the collapse of oil prices in 2014, the author proposes an analysis of this situation of lack of interest of private companies in Algeria, and a discussion of the consequences for Sonatrach. He comments results published by this company in terms of drilling activities, notices the very low percentage of private drilling activities, outlines that Sonatrach is facing a very difficult situation (many contractors to be paid, collapse of revenues, and increased consumption) which may impede its ambitious exploration project for the years to come. The author also comments results of the bidding processes which have been disappointing for the last ten years. He outlines that financial scandals and arbitrations contributed to the loss of confidence of foreign oil companies. He comments how projects have been developed during these last ten years, and discusses the strategy envisaged for the exploitation of shale gases

  1. The Iraq war: official and unofficial history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Garcia Bonfin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the motivations and the soldiers who fought in the war in Iraq started in March 2003. The attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the foreign policy of the United States, the years of relative peace conquered at the end of the cold war is over, Americans now had a new enemy, political Islam. Soon after the attacks, the Bush Administration (2001-2009 tried to relate Islamic fighters belonging to Al-Qaeda with the regime of Saddam Hussein, in a clear attempt to justify an invasion on Iraq internally. Externally, the American Government, along with the Briton, claimed that the Iraqis had weapons of mass destruction, which inflicted the UN resolutions imposed on the Iraqi Government during the years 1990. However, neither the inspections and subsequently the invasion were able to find such weapons. What if you saw after the invasion was the huge profit obtained by private military and oil companies. In the research was analyzed as if formed the Middle East, the Empire of the United States on a global scale, the report of the Chief Inspector of UNMOVIC, the UN agency responsible for weapons inspections in Iraq, and the letters of soldiers who fought in Iraq. In historiography, as in what if notes is that there were three present interests in the war in Iraq, economic order first, with the possibility of profit of the private military companies and the opportunity to extract oil; second related to foreign policy, which had the interest in rearranging geopolitics of the region; and third of domestic politics, to which there was an increase in the popularity of the Bush administration, with the war on Terror.

  2. Ouarkziz Impact Structure, Algeria: Preliminary Petrographic and Geochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoui, R.; Belhai, D.

    2015-07-01

    Ouarkziz impact crater in Algeria is set in Namurian lower limestone and marls with gypsum. We present here preliminary petrographic and geochemical studies of the rocks and breccias forming the rings ans the central area of the structure.

  3. A new CH carbonaceous chondrite from Acfer, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Moggi-Cecchi, V.; SALVADORI A; Pratesi, G; Franchi, Ian; Greenwood, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A single stone weighing 1456 g was found in November 2002 in the Acfer area, Algeria. Oxygen isotope, chondrules-matrix ratio as well as other petrographic features point to a classification as CH carbonaceous chondrite.

  4. Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Jordan is committed to aligning its national corporate financial reporting requirements with the International Accounting Standards and International Standards on Auditing, and it has achieved significant improvements, including issuance of a new Accountancy Profession Law. Although this law is a significant step toward regulating the profession, the Report on the Observance of Standards a...

  5. Algeria: Staff Report for the 2002 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    The strong hydrocarbon export performance has allowed Algeria to strengthen its external position and record a budget surplus. Executive Directors commend the government for the broad improvement in macroeconomic indicators. The government has eased the fiscal stance, and this strategy has succeeded in boosting short-term growth. The surge in credit to the economy is a concern. Algeria should reinvigorate its structural and institutional reform efforts to put the economy on a sustainable path...

  6. The economic burden of hemodialysis in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Adel Al-Shdaifat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodialysis treatment is a costly procedure that requires specific resources. It has a considerable burden on patients, caregivers, and healthcare system. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden borne by the Ministry of Health (MOH in Jordan, with a focus on direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect cost. Materials and Methods:The study was conducted at MOH hospitals in Jordan, from August to November 2010. A total of 138 patients and 49 caregivers were involved in the study. An economic evaluation study was used to analyze the burden of hemodialysis treatment at MOH, Jordan. Direct medical costs were estimated through micro and macro costing from the provider′s perspective. Patients′ and caregivers′ costs were included to calculate direct non-medical costs. Human capital approach was employed to evaluate the productivity loss for indirect cost and premature death and potential year life loss was used to estimate the premature death cost. Results: The total burden of hemodialysis at MOH, Jordan was USD17.70 million per year. Cost per session was $72 and the annual cost per patient was $9976. Direct medical cost was $7.20 million (41% and direct non-medical cost was $2.02 million (11%. On the other hand, indirect cost (productivity loss was $8.48 million (48%. All 722 patients on hemodialysis at MOH hospitals consumed 2.7% of MOH budget. Conclusions: Costs of treating and managing patients on hemodialysis at MOH hospitals in Jordan are substantial. Therefore, efforts should be taken to slow down the progress of renal failure to save resources and a comparative study with other modalities, such as continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation, should be considered.

  7. Iraq: Usa and Great Britain hold up an agreement on limited sales of Iraq petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The negotiations United Nations/Iraq have been stopped because of objections coming from Usa and Great Britain. Three points were developed: The distribution of medicine and foods in three Kurdish countries, these countries are actually under the United nations control, Iraq wants to participate at the distribution but Usa and Great Britain think that it could be a way of pressure from Iraq on Kurdish countries and in this mind they refuse. The second point is about the sequestered banking account on which must be deposited the receipts of Iraqi petroleum sales which must be put under United Nation control in order to avoid, according to Washington and London, that Iraq uses it to get round the sanctions. The third point is that Usa and Great Britain consider that the resolution number 986 has only for object to relieve the pains of Iraqi people and its application must not be interpreted as a lightening of international sanctions against Iraq. The results of the suspension are a surge of petroleum prices on international market and a fall of Iraqi Dinar. (N.C.)

  8. Prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabassi, F; Amelot, G; Laugier, C; Zientara, S; Nasri, A M; Hans, A

    2014-12-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria, 268 sera from non-vaccinated horses were collected from the western and eastern regions. Serological analysis of the sera, which were collected from 2009 to 2011, was performed using the virus neutralisation test, as described by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Overall, 20 sera (7.46%) were seropositive, 152 (56.71%) were negative and 96 sera (35.82%) were cytotoxic. Equine arteritis virus (EAV) seroprevalence was significantly higher in the western region (Tiaret) than in the eastern region (Barika and El-Eulma). Interestingly, more than 20% of the tested horses over 16 years old were seropositive for EAV. However, EAV prevalence did not depend on either horse breed or horse gender. This study is the first to describe the circulation of EAV in the Algerian horse population. PMID:25812220

  9. The uncertain future of hydrocarbons in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As it has been historically the first oil and gas producer in Africa with Gabon and Nigeria (it is now the third oil producer after Nigeria and Angola, and still the first gas producer), Algeria has faced a strong decrease of investments in this sector for the past ten years, for legal, security and political reasons. This resulted in a decrease of production whereas local consumption has been strongly increasing. The author examines whether measures voted in 2012 will be able to bring back the confidence of foreign investors which is needed to develop the huge oil, gas and shale gas potentials of this country. The author recalls this high resource level, and comments the role and behaviour of Sonatrach, the national company, and the consequences of the oil and gas revenues decrease. He outlines the importance of the issue of security (notably terrorism by AQMI), and comments expectations associated with the new law on hydrocarbons

  10. Iraq: Learning Civilian Protection the Hard Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahr Muhammedally

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article—based on the author’s interviews with civilians and security forces in areas retaken from the Islamic State (also known as ISIS in Northern Iraq in 2015—examines challenges in civilian protection when pro-government forces take control of areas formerly under control of anti-government forces.1 It recommends to the Iraqi and Kurdish leadership specific harm mitigation training for their forces, a protection-based approach to shield civilians from harm from all sides, and provision of security to returnees, including protection both from crime and revenge attacks. Such preventative measures, if enacted before major military operations to retake populated areas under ISIS control begin, would better protect civilians, strengthen the government’s mission against ISIS and provide building blocks for a stable Iraq.

  11. Multinomial logit model of choices of Internet modes in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati, Almas; Firas H. Al-Hammadany

    2014-01-01

    Iraq is a country that has the potential to explode onto the Internet market due to the fact that much of Iraq is still largely without access to the Internet. Iraq’s market has much room for corporate and individual investments in Internet technology, mainly, Internet access. However, this requires a deep understanding of the user with regards to the Internet and the market characteristics involved. This study is concerned with the users’ choice of Internet mode connections in Iraq. There ar...

  12. Minority rights in post-war Iraq: an impending catastrophe?

    OpenAIRE

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Many commentators see Iraq as divided between Sunni, Shia and Kurds – and perhaps a few Turkmen. Nothing could be further from the truth. Iraq also has significant populations of Baha'is, Christians, Faili Kurds, Mandaeans, Palestinians, Shabak and Yezidis. Some of Iraq's minority groups have been present in the region for more than two millennia. But they now face the threat of eradication in or expulsion from their ancient homeland. Since 2006, the situation has deteriorated. To make matter...

  13. Consequences of Iraq war on petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the last Iraq conflict on the petroleum market can be analyzed under two different aspects: one is the will of the USA to re-establish a political stability in a country which represents an important oil reserve for their future supplies, the other is a US-Russia cooperation/rivalry in a region of prime importance for both countries which are in competition for the exploitation of the Caspian sea hydrocarbon resources. (J.S.)

  14. Mosquito species geographical distribution in Iraq 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar A. Hantosh, Hameeda M. Hassan, Bushra Ahma & Ali Al-fatlawy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills threemillion persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species.In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomologicalsurvey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009.Methods: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi provinces werecollected and speciated. Five to 10 villages were selected randomly in each province and in each village 10houses were selected randomly to collect mosquitoes and the density of mosquitoes per room was calculated.Kits for entomological investigation were used and the collected mosquitoes were sent to the vector bornedisease section laboratory for classification using the Naval Medical Research Unit 3 standard classificationkey.Results: A total of 29,156 mosquitoes were collected, representing two genera: Anopheles (n=13,268, or 46%of the total collected and Culex (n=15,888, or 54% of the total collected. Four Anopheles (An. pulcherrimus,An. stephensi, An. superpictus, and An. sacharovi and one Culex (Cx. pipiens species were identified. Anophelespulcherrimus was found in 11 provinces, An. stephensi in 7, An. superpictus in 2 and An. sacharovi in oneprovince, while Cx. pipiens was found in all the 12 provinces. Two peaks of mosquito density were found: thefirst from April–June and the other from September–October.Interpretation & conclusion: There are clear differences in Anopheles mosquito species geographical distributionand density among Iraqi provinces, while Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are distributed all over Iraq. All mosquitogenera show clear seasonal density variation. The study highlights that the manual mosquito classification isnot enough to identify all the species of mosquitoes in Iraq

  15. History and Policy: The Case of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Kuklick

    2008-01-01

    The decision by Americans to go to war against Iraq has appeared to be such a colossal mistake that it has called forth many condemnations by historically minded intellectuals. Most have condemned the hubris and historical insouciance of the administration of George Bush. Few historians think that the President resembles Abraham Lincoln, guiding his country through a necessarily difficult but morally majestic period. Rather, we are told, history directs us to other policy choices and will mer...

  16. History and Policy: The Case of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kuklick

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The decision by Americans to go to war against Iraq has appeared to be such a colossal mistake that it has called forth many condemnations by historically minded intellectuals. Most have condemned the hubris and historical insouciance of the administration of George Bush. Few historians think that the President resembles Abraham Lincoln, guiding his country through a necessarily difficult but morally majestic period. Rather, we are told, history directs us to other policy choices and will me...

  17. IAEA receives Iraq's nuclear-related declaration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Mohamed ElBaradei, announced that the IAEA received this evening, Sunday, 8 December 2002, at its Headquarters in Vienna, an approximately 2400 page declaration on Iraq's nuclear programme. The declaration consists of about 2100 pages in English and 300 pages in Arabic. The declaration was submitted by the Government of Iraq in response to paragraph 3 of Security Council resolution 1441 (8 November 2002), which requires Iraq to provide to UNMOVIC, the IAEA and to the Security Council, not later than 30 days of the date of that resolution, with 'currently accurate, full, and complete declaration of all aspects of its programmes to develop chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, ballistic missiles, and other delivery systems... as well as all other chemical, biological, and nuclear programmes, including any which it claims are for purposes not related to weapon production or material'. 'The IAEA will immediately begin to assess this important new document,' said Mr. ElBaradei, 'including the painstaking and systematic cross-checking of the information provided by Iraq against information which the IAEA already has, information that it expects to receive from other Member States, as contemplated in resolution 1441, and results of past and present Agency verification activities.' Complete assessment of the declaration will be time consuming, particularly in light of the need to translate the 300 pages of Arabic text into English. However, the IAEA expects to be able to provide a preliminary analysis of the document to the Security Council within the next ten days, with a fuller assessment to be provided when it reports to the Council at the end of January. (IAEA)

  18. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  19. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, Tuna [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gok, Rengin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abdulnaby, Wathiq [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shakir, Ammar M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mahdi, Hanan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Numan, Nazar M.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Shukri, Haydar [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chlaib, Hussein K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ameen, Taher H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abd, Najah A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments (PSHA) form the basis for most contemporary seismic provisions in building codes around the world. The current building code of Iraq was published in 1997. An update to this edition is in the process of being released. However, there are no national PSHA studies in Iraq for the new building code to refer to for seismic loading in terms of spectral accelerations. As an interim solution, the new draft building code was considering to refer to PSHA results produced in the late 1990s as part of the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP; Giardini et al., 1999). However these results are: a) more than 15 years outdated, b) PGA-based only, necessitating rough conversion factors to calculate spectral accelerations at 0.3s and 1.0s for seismic design, and c) at a probability level of 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, not the 2% that the building code requires. Hence there is a pressing need for a new, updated PSHA for Iraq.

  20. Development of nuclear engineering education in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The establishment of a Nuclear Engineering program is another step in Jordan's efforts to develop its nuclear infrastructure, and to introduce nuclear power as part of its energy mix. Nuclear energy offers a promising approach to meeting Jordan's energy needs - an approach that would reduce our dependence on oil imports, create jobs, raise the standard of living, and alleviate the burden on the national budget. Nuclear energy will also be required to provide electricity to fulfil growing electrical demands, water desalination, and hydrogen production. The Nuclear Engineering department at Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), is the first and only such department/program in Jordan. The university it self is a scientific university with more than 17000 undergraduate students and 1000 graduates, including more than 3000 international students from 41 different countries. Approximately 6,000 students are enrolled in the college of engineering. Our goal is to establish a world class department, which will enhance nuclear knowledge in Jordan, and will graduate qualified engineers that will help in the design, building and running of Jordan's first nuclear power plant. It is also our goal to serve as Jordan's leading nuclear research center. The department is planning to start accepting students in the next academic year (2007/2008), which starts in September 2007, it will accept students both in the freshman and sophomore levels (first and second year). Thus graduating its first class in 2011, this is the period that Jordan will be in the building phase of its first nuclear power plant. Consequently nuclear knowledge transfer from nuclear suppliers and contractors of developed nations to our graduates working with them will be more realistic. The objectives of the nuclear engineering program are to educate students in the fundamental subjects necessary for a career in nuclear engineering, and in the basics of nuclear technology, radiation

  1. Jane's intelligence backgrounder. A timely reassessment of Iraq's nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iraq has recently been attracting a lot of attention, some of it contradictory. With the launch of the book Saddam's Bombmaker by the Iraqi nuclear defector Dr Khadir Hamza, which details his efforts to build an atomic bomb, there have been a spate of press conferences and news reports regarding Iraq's potential for joining the nuclear club. Though specifics are obscure, the perception among some observers is that Saddam Hussein could be within months of exploding his first nuclear test device if Iraq were to get illegal fissile material from Russia or on the international black market. Without that Iraq would need to rebuild many of the factories destroyed during Operation Desert Storm

  2. Multinomial logit model of choices of Internet modes in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati, Almas; Firas H. Al-Hammadany

    2014-01-01

    Iraq is a country that has the potential to explode onto the Internet market due to the fact that much of Iraq is still largely without access to the Internet. Iraq¡¯s market has much room for corporate and individual investments in Internet technology, mainly, Internet access. However, this requires a deep understanding of the user with regards to the Internet and the market characteristics involved. This study is concerned with the users¡¯ choice of Internet mode connections in Iraq. There ...

  3. On strongly Jordan zero-product preserving maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Khoddami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a characterization of strongly Jordan zero-product preserving maps on normed algebras as a generalization of  Jordan zero-product preserving maps. In this direction, we give some illustrative examples to show that the notions of strongly zero-product preserving maps and strongly Jordan zero-product preserving maps are completely different. Also, we prove that the direct product and the composition of two strongly Jordan zero-product preserving maps are again  strongly Jordan zero-product preserving maps. But this fact is not the case for tensor product of them in general. Finally, we prove  that every $*-$preserving linear map from a normed $*-$algebra into a $C^*-$algebra that strongly preserves Jordan zero-products is necessarily continuous.

  4. Immediate Economic History of Iraq: Effects of the Recent Global Crisis on the Oil Sector of Northern Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Dinc

    2012-01-01

    I have analyzed effects of the economic crisis, which began in the usa, on Northern Iraq under three main titles: First, I studied the economic history of Iraq. Second, I analyzed the effects of it in Northern Iraq. Finally, I interviewed entrepreneurs about the effects of crisis on private sectors in this region. I have been in northern Iraq for three years. I have tried to reach original sources, have interviewed people in the government and examined the impact of the crisis on the people a...

  5. Trends and Challenges for Mobile Learning in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    A. Y. Al-Zoubi; Akram Alkouz; Mohammed Otair

    2008-01-01

    The present state of mobile learning in Jordan isinvestigated in order to provide a meaningful direction forthe future development of university eEducation in Jordan.The strengths of mobile learning are elaborated and itscurrent status including challenging issues from theperspective of cognitive learning is addressed. An onlinesurvey was conducted to investigate the expectations andperceptions of mobile learning amongst university studentsand professors in Jordan and a number of countries in...

  6. Radiation Dominated Universe for Jordan-Brans-Dicke Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Arik, M.; Susam, L. Amon

    2010-01-01

    Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology with a standard kinetic term for the scalar field and no mass term has the same radiation dominated solution as standard Einstein cosmology without the cosmological constant. Because of this, the primordial nucleosynthesis (Big - Bang nucleosynthesis) result obtained for standard cosmology remains the same for Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology. We show that Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology with a mass term for the scalar field as well as explaining dark energy for the pres...

  7. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  8. A Jordan Ombudsman Bureau with Enhanced Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Cuvillier, Emmanuel; Almaroof, Salam

    2015-01-01

    The Ombudsman Bureau in Jordan was established in 2008. It was created to provide an avenue for redress by citizens for complaints against public sector bodies - part of the Government s drive to improve the public sector. Such a body is important in providing checks and balances in a government dominated by a strong executive branch. It also provides an alternative process of dispute reso...

  9. Equivalence of the Einstein and Jordan frames

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, Marieke; Volponi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    No experiment can measure an absolute scale: every dimensionfull quantity has to be compared to some fixed unit scale in order to be measured, and thus only dimensionless quantities are really physical. The Einstein and Jordan frame are related by a conformal transformation of the metric, which amounts to rescaling all length scales. Since the absolute scale cannot be measured, both frames describe the same physics, and are equivalent. In this article we make this explicit by rewriting the ac...

  10. On Ideal GMRES for a Jordan Block

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Petr; Liesen, J.

    Ostrava : Institute of Geonics AS CR, 2005. s. 80-82. ISBN 80-86407-04-7. [SNA '05. Seminar on Numerical Analysis. 07.02.2005-11.02.2005, Ostrava] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB1030306; GA AV ČR 1ET400300415 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GMRES convergence * polynomial numerical hull * Jordan block Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Status of Jordan Research and Training Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jordan Atomic Energy Commission launched a construction project of Jordan's first nuclear reactor in 2010, following a contract with the consortium of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and Daewoo E and C. The Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR), a 5 MW multipurpose research reactor, will serve as the focal point for a national nuclear technology center. This article presents the status of the JRTR Project and future plan as well. With the Construction Permit issued by the Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the construction work of reactor building and service building is underway, while over 95% of design work has been finished

  12. Jordan blocks and Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions associated to a double pole of the S-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accidental degeneracy of resonances gives rise to a double pole in the scattering matrix, a double zero in the Jost function and a Jordan chain of length two of generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions of the radial Schrodinger equation. The generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions are basis elements of an expansion in bound and resonant energy eigenfunctions plus a continuum of scattering wave functions ol complex wave number. In this bi orthonormal basis, any operator f (Hr(l) which is a regular function of the Hamiltonian is represented by a complex matrix which is diagonal except for a Jordan block of rank two. The occurrence of a double pole in the Green's function, as well as the non-exponential time evolution of the Gamow-Jordan generalized eigenfunctions are associated to the Jordan block in the complex energy representation. (Author)

  13. Jordan blocks and Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions associated to a double pole of the S-matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, E.; Mondragon, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Jauregui, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 1626, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2002-11-01

    An accidental degeneracy of resonances gives rise to a double pole in the scattering matrix, a double zero in the Jost function and a Jordan chain of length two of generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions of the radial Schrodinger equation. The generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions are basis elements of an expansion in bound and resonant energy eigenfunctions plus a continuum of scattering wave functions ol complex wave number. In this bi orthonormal basis, any operator f (H{sub r}{sup (l)} which is a regular function of the Hamiltonian is represented by a complex matrix which is diagonal except for a Jordan block of rank two. The occurrence of a double pole in the Green's function, as well as the non-exponential time evolution of the Gamow-Jordan generalized eigenfunctions are associated to the Jordan block in the complex energy representation. (Author)

  14. Jordan blocks and Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions associated to a double pole of the S-matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, E; Mondragón, A

    2002-01-01

    An accidental degeneracy of resonances gives rise to a double pole in the scattering matrix, a double zero in the Jost function and a Jordan chain of length two of generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions of the radial Schroedinger equation. The generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions are basis elements of an expansion in bound and resonant energy eigenfunctions plus a continuum of scattering wave functions of complex wave number. In this biorthonormal basis, any operator which is a regular function of the Hamiltonian is represented by a complex matrix which is diagonal except for a Jordan block of rank two. The occurrence of a double pole in the Green's function, as well as the non-exponential time evolution of the Gamow-Jordan generalized eigenfunctions are associated to the Jordan block in the complex energy representation.

  15. Prevalence of Selected Chronic, Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors in Jordan: Results of the 2007 Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Nsour, Mohannad; Zindah, Meyasser; Belbeisi, Adel; Hadaddin, Raja; Brown, David W.; Walke, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of illness and death in Jordan. Since 2002, the Jordan Ministry of Health, in cooperation with the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, established the Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey to collect information on many of the behaviors and conditions related to NCDs. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of selected NCD risk factors and the relations...

  16. 75 FR 21597 - Business Development Trade Mission to Baghdad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Business Development Trade Mission to Baghdad, Iraq AGENCY: International... organizing a trade mission to Baghdad, Iraq. This mission is scheduled for October 2010* and has been created... market. This mission will be led by a Senior Commerce Department official*. Nearly two thirds of...

  17. Using a Virtual History Conference to Teach the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In teaching the causes of the Iraq War, the use of "virtual history" can be employed in a conference setting in which different individuals are assigned to different plausible counterfactuals they use to construct virtual histories. The Iraq War lends itself to the virtual history approach because of the availability of many plausible…

  18. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Amani, Mohammed El Amine; Elgradechi, Aldjia

    2013-01-01

    Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a holy month in Algeria where diabetes mellitus (DM) is more frequent in urban areas with a frequency which varies from 8 to 16%. DM complications are broadly as frequent as in developed countries, except for neuropathy which seems more frequent. Despite contraindications which are regularly explained to our patients and despite the flexible side of Islam toward chronic diseases, most Algerian people with DM insist on fasting. Not fasting is considered a sin and shameful. There are also other reasons put forward by diabetic persons, such as very strong religious faith, habit of fasting together with the whole family since an early age, solidarity with the family, friends, and neighbors, and finally and probably because of the desire to appear “normal” and share a festive and a spiritual atmosphere of Ramadan. As in other Muslim countries, severe hypoglycemia the main motive of hospitalizations during the holy month, ketoacidosis, dehydration, orthostatic hypotension and thrombosis are some of the complications which Algerian people with DM are exposed to when fasting. PMID:24251192

  19. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a holy month in Algeria where diabetes mellitus (DM is more frequent in urban areas with a frequency which varies from 8 to 16%. DM complications are broadly as frequent as in developed countries, except for neuropathy which seems more frequent. Despite contraindications which are regularly explained to our patients and despite the flexible side of Islam toward chronic diseases, most Algerian people with DM insist on fasting. Not fasting is considered a sin and shameful. There are also other reasons put forward by diabetic persons, such as very strong religious faith, habit of fasting together with the whole family since an early age, solidarity with the family, friends, and neighbors, and finally and probably because of the desire to appear "normal" and share a festive and a spiritual atmosphere of Ramadan. As in other Muslim countries, severe hypoglycemia the main motive of hospitalizations during the holy month, ketoacidosis, dehydration, orthostatic hypotension and thrombosis are some of the complications which Algerian people with DM are exposed to when fasting.

  20. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Dalaram S. Ismael; Alena Vollmannová; Mária Timoracká; Ľuboš Harangozo

    2014-01-01

    Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas) and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a tr...

  1. Uncovering the Costs of the Iraq War

    OpenAIRE

    Fred E. Foldvary

    2008-01-01

    Fred Foldvary reviews the recent book by Joseph Stiglitz and Linda Bilmes, The Three Trillion Dollar War: The True Cost of the Iraq Conflict. Foldvary commends the book for its assembly of both the budgeted and implicit costs of the war, and its analysis of the economic impact of the war. The review posits that the better knowledge and accounting of the war costs as provided by this work will aid in establishing a more coherent dialog on policy for dealing with this and future conflicts abroad.

  2. Economic development, mobility and traffic accidents in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougueroua, M; Carnis, L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this contribution is to estimate the impact of road economic conditions and mobility on traffic accidents for the case of Algeria. Using the cointegration approach and vector error correction model (VECM), we will examine simultaneously short term and long-term impacts between the number of traffic accidents, fuel consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capital, over the period 1970-2013. The main results of the estimation show that the number of traffic accidents in Algeria is positively influenced by the GDP per capita in the short and long term. It implies that a higher economic development worsens the road safety situation. However, the new traffic rules adopted in 2009 have an impact on the forecast trend of traffic accidents, meaning efficient public policy could improve the situation. This result calls for a strong political commitment with effective countermeasures for avoiding the further deterioration of road safety record in Algeria. PMID:27070081

  3. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the Stabilization of Iraq Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of May 19, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq On May 22, 2003... for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the...

  4. The Prevalence of Speech Disorders among University Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Amayreh, Mousa Mohammad; Saleh, Mohammad Yusef

    2014-01-01

    Problem: There are no available studies on the prevalence, and distribution of speech disorders among Arabic speaking undergraduate students in Jordan. Method: A convenience sample of 400 undergraduate students at the University of Jordan was screened for speech disorders. Two spontaneous speech samples and an oral reading of a passage were…

  5. Social Support and Stress among University Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…

  6. K-Bessel functions associated to 3-rank Jordan algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Hacen Dib

    2005-01-01

    Using the Bessel-Muirhead system, we can express the K-Bessel function defined on a Jordan algebra as a linear combination of the J-solutions. We determine explicitly the coefficients when the rank of this Jordan algebra is three after a reduction to the rank two. The main tools are some algebraic identities developed for this occasion.

  7. Poverty and Poverty Reduction Policies in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Lenner, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The extent, depth and profile of poverty have been the subject of much debate since poverty became an issue in Jordan in the late 1980s. Until then poverty among the general population was low (estimated at below 3%), and it was only within the realms of UNRWA and its Special Hardship Cases Program that it was discussed as an issue. However, since the economic crisis of the late 1980s and the IMF and WB-sponsored structural adjustment programs of the 1990s poverty has significantly risen and ...

  8. Early domesticated fig in the Jordan Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislev, Mordechai E; Hartmann, Anat; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2006-06-01

    It is generally accepted that the fig tree was domesticated in the Near East some 6500 years ago. Here we report the discovery of nine carbonized fig fruits and hundreds of drupelets stored in Gilgal I, an early Neolithic village, located in the Lower Jordan Valley, which dates to 11,400 to 11,200 years ago. We suggest that these edible fruits were gathered from parthenocarpic trees grown from intentionally planted branches. Hence, fig trees could have been the first domesticated plant of the Neolithic Revolution, which preceded cereal domestication by about a thousand years. PMID:16741119

  9. Income from oil could have made Iraq's economy flourish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He whole economy of Iraq is based on oil industry. 95 percent of Iraq's foreign currency income is traditionally related to oil export. Another typical feature of its economy is a high level of government interference and dependence on food import. Though Iraq has the second largest proven oil reserves in the world and a reasonably good transport and export infrastructure it is struggling with economical problems. It was the wars that have had a major impact on the country's economy during the last two decades. In late seventies and early eighties Iraq's economic perspectives seemed very positive. Iraq was winning 3.5 million barrels of oil a day and the export incomes exceeded 27 billion USD. Tedious wars with the neighbouring Iran in the eighties cost Iraq according to American CIA's estimates about 100 billion USD. Before the wars started Iraq's foreign currency reserves reached 35 billion USD but the high cost of the war and all damage done to the oil facilities caused that before it ended Iraq was forced to take credits and later even restructure the related repayments. By the end of the conflict Iraq's foreign indebtedness grew to exceed 40 billion USD. After the war ended conditions became more favourable for increasing volumes of oil export, building of new pipelines and reconstruction of damaged facilities. But only two years later Saddam Hussain's regime invaded Kuwait and this lead to a military intervention by a coalition lead by the USA and the United Nations inflicted economical sanctions against Iraq. As a result the economic activity in the country decreased dramatically. The limited recourses the country had were used to finance military forces. Living conditions of Iraq's citizens slightly improved in second half of the nineties after United Nations allowed the country to export a limited amount of oil in exchange for food, medicines and some spare parts needed for reconstruction of the infrastructure. In 1999 the United Nations adopted changes to

  10. What Do Mobiles Speak in Algeria? Evidence from SMS Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostari, Hind Amel

    2009-01-01

    When Algeria opened its markets to foreign investment starting from the early 2000s, a technological boom occurred, including the expansion of mobile phone use. New technologies have had a considerable impact on the Algerian diglossic situation, in recent decades, and have contributed in the democratisation of the local dialects, which are being…

  11. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with: (1) educational philosophy, administration, statistics, and…

  12. Algeria : National Environmental Action Plan for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This staff sector assessment note accompanies the recently completed national environmental action plan for sustainable development (NEAP-SD), which, as an output of the Industrial Pollution Control Project in Algeria, focused on charting a new course for environmental management in the country, based on an objective assessment of past policy, and institutional failures, on a new consensus...

  13. Quality assessment of marketed eggs in Eastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kara Ali, Monira; Ait Kaki, Asma; Milet, Asma; Moula, Nassim

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare eggs quality between industrial and local chickens in four departments of Eastern Algeria (Bejaia, Jijel, Mila and Setif). A total of 4748 eggs were bought from three marketing channels as following: shops (1184), public markets (2757) and supermarkets (807). The percentage of stained eggs was significantly different (P

  14. Hydrocarbon products in Algeria- Actual situation and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programs on hydrocarbon products in Algeria are based on recoverable resources with today technologies and on long term priorities of national needs. To develop its activities Sonatrach (algerian company) gives a great part to foreign participation and especially with Canada

  15. Pre-School Education in Morocco and Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzoubaa, Khadija; Benghabrit-Remaoun, Nouria

    2004-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the current state of early childhood care in the Maghreb, in particular in Morocco and Algeria, where the pre-schooling rate for 5-year-olds is on the increase. Extending pre-school infrastructures and the need to create unified curricula have been among the most urgent questions to be tackled over the last decade in…

  16. Promotion of renewable energies in Algeria: Strategies and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years, political support for renewable energies has been growing continuously both at the national and international level and most scientists now agree that the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are perfectly placed to play a leading role in the lucrative future solar and wind power industries. The interest for the development of renewable energies was perceived very early in Algeria with the creation of the solar energy institute as soon as 1962. Algeria plays a very important role in world energy markets, both as a significant hydrocarbons producer and exporter, as well as a key participant in the renewable energy market. Due to its geographical location, Algeria holds one of the highest solar reservoirs in the world. This paper deals with a review of the present renewable energy (RE) situation and assessed present and future potential of RE sources in Algeria. It also discusses the trends and expectation in solar and wind systems applications and the aspects of future implementation of renewable energies making emphasis on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region status. The problem related to the use of RES and polices to enhance the use of these sources are also analysed in this paper. In addition the available capacity building, the technical know-how for each RE sources technology and localising manufacturing of RE equipments have been defined. (author)

  17. Mortality in Iraq Associated with the 2003-2011 War and Occupation: Findings from a National Cluster Sample Survey by the University Collaborative Iraq Mortality Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rawaf, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Salman Rawaf discusses the implications of the most recent estimate of excess deaths associated with the Iraq war and subsequent occupation in the context of the current situation in Iraq. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

  18. Application of the loss estimation tool QLARM in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, P.; Trendafiloski, G.; Yelles, K.; Semmane, F.; Wyss, M.

    2009-04-01

    During the last six years, WAPMERR has used Quakeloss for real-time loss estimation for more than 440 earthquakes worldwide. Loss reports, posted with an average delay of 30 minutes, include a map showing the average degree of damage in settlements near the epicenter, the total number of fatalities, the total number of injured, and a detailed list of casualties and damage rates in these settlements. After the M6.7 Boumerdes earthquake in 2003, we reported 1690-3660 fatalities. The official death toll was around 2270. Since the El Asnam earthquake, seismic events in Algeria have killed about 6,000 people, injured more than 20,000 and left more than 300,000 homeless. On average, one earthquake with the potential to kill people (M>5.4) happens every three years in Algeria. In the frame of a collaborative project between WAPMERR and CRAAG, we propose to calibrate our new loss estimation tool QLARM (qlarm.ethz.ch) and estimate human losses for future likely earthquakes in Algeria. The parameters needed for this calculation are the following. (1) Ground motion relation and soil amplification factors (2) distribution of building stock and population into vulnerability classes of the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) as given in the PAGER database and (3) population by settlement. Considering the resolution of the available data, we construct 1) point city models for cases where only summary data for the city are available and, 2) discrete city models when data regarding city districts are available. Damage and losses are calculated using: (a) vulnerability models pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes previously validated with the existing ones in Algeria (Tipaza and Chlef) (b) building collapse models pertinent to Algeria as given in the World Housing Encyclopedia and, (c) casualty matrices pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes assembled from HAZUS casualty rates. As a first trial, we simulated the 2003 Boumerdes earthquake to check the validity of the proposed

  19. Energy analysis of Jordan's commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents some insight into energy consumption in the commercial and public service sector (CAPSS) in Jordan. In this sector, space- and water-heating is dependent particularly upon the combustion of fossil fuels. Which thereby contribute significantly to air pollution and the build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The results of a recent survey were used to evaluate the energy demand of the commercial and public service buildings. Diesel fuel, LPG and kerosene are mainly used for space heating, with diesel being the most popular fuel followed by LPG. Unvented combustion appliances, i.e. portable kerosene and LPG heaters, are still employed in this sector in order to provide space heating in unclassified hotels, some clinics and health centres as well as retail shops. These stoves, usually, produce high levels of combustion by-products that often exceed acceptable limits especially in a closed space. Consequently, the indoor air quality is degraded and may cause unnecessary exposure to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Electricity consumption is relatively high due to the excessive lighting and heavy use of air-conditioning and ventilation systems during the dry and hot summer. It is estimated that about 15% of the annual consumption in CAPSS can be reduced annually with little investment. Consequently the corresponding annual CO2 emissions reduction is approximately 1%, i.e. 160x103 tons, of the present total greenhouse gas emissions in Jordan

  20. Air pollution monitoring in Amman, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, a collaborative research program was established between the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan and Environment Canada, Pollution Measurement Division, Ottawa, Canada, with the objective of developing an air pollution monitoring network for Amman and preparing recommendations for national air quality standards and national emission standards for Jordan. Four monitoring sites were established in residential and commercial areas of Amman. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and total suspended particle matter (TSP) were measured at the Downtown station. At the other sites only TSP was measured. A short-term monitoring program carried out with a mobile monitoring unit showed relatively low levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide at the RSS, Naser and Marka sites as compared to the Downtown site. Continuous analyzers purchased from Environment SA, France, were used to measure sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; Sierra-Anderson high volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used to collect total suspended particulates samples. Gaseous pollutants were continuously measured at the Downtown site and TSP samplers were operated on a three day schedule at all sites. Sampling began in July 1986 and continues to the present

  1. The Spectrum of Glomerulopathy in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Riyad

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we reviewed the records and the histological findings of a total of 350 adequate native kidney biopsies at both the Jordan University Hospital (260 biopsies in the period 1986-1989 and the Jordan Hospital (90 biopsies in the period 1997-1999. There were 187 males (53.4% and 163 females (46.6%. Their ages ranged between 12-77 years. The nephrotic syndrome was the presenting feature in 194 (55.4% patients, acute renal failure in 55 (15.7%, hematuria and/or non-nephrotic proteinuria in 45 (12.9%, chronic renal failure in 32 (9.1% and hematuria alone 24 (6.9%. In the patients with the nephrotic syndrome, 140 (72.2% had primary nephrotic syndrome. In this group membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN was the most common pathology and was detected in 49 patients (35% followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS in 38 (27.1%. Amyloidosis and systemic lupus erythematosus were the commonest findings among the 54 patients with secondary nephrotic syndrome (40.7% and 38.8% respectively. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis was seen in 34.5% of those patients presenting with acute renal failure, while FSGS was seen in 25% of those with chronic renal failure. Finally IgA nephropathy was the major finding among both the 45 patients with hematuria-proteinuria and the 24 patients with isolated hematuria (26.2% and 66.6% respectively.

  2. Jordan cells of periodic loop models

    CERN Document Server

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi

    2013-01-01

    Jordan cells in transfer matrices of finite lattice models are a signature of the logarithmic character of the conformal field theories that appear in their thermodynamical limit. The transfer matrix of periodic loop models, $T_N$, is an element of the periodic Temperley-Lieb algebra $\\eptl(\\beta, \\alpha)$, where $N$ is the number of sites on a section of the cylinder, and $\\beta=-q-q^{-1} = 2 \\cos \\lambda$ and $\\alpha$ the weights of contractible and non-contractible loops. The thermodynamic limit of $T_N$ is believed to describe a conformal field theory of central charge $c=1-6\\lambda^2/(\\pi(\\lambda-\\pi))$. The abstract element $T_N$ acts naturally on (a sum of) spaces $\\tilde V_N^d$, similar to those upon which the standard modules of the (classical) Temperley-Lieb algebra act. These spaces known as {\\em sectors} are labeled by the numbers of defects $d$ and depend on a {\\em twist parameter} $v$ that keeps track of the winding of defects around the cylinder. Criteria are given for non-trivial Jordan cells ...

  3. Italian Jihadists in Syria and Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marone

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'This article explores the current extent of Italy’s Sunni jihadists in Syria and Iraq. The country presents interesting particularities, including a relatively small number of foreign fighters compared to other European countries (not more than 90 individuals, and' 'only a dozen with Italian passports''. However, the Italian case has not been extensively investigated. This article first examines the scale of the problem and then focuses on the cases of three Italian nationals who left for Syria: ''a convert who died in combat in the Aleppo area in 2013, a second-generation immigrant who joined the ranks of the Islamic State (IS'' and a 'muhajira' (“emigrant” who, ''as a woman, has not been allowed to take combat roles in the self-proclaimed “caliphate”''.'''

  4. Sand Dunes Fixation in Baiji District, Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out at Sand Dunes Stabilization Researches Station in Baiji district (230 ln north of Baghdad, Iraq) to evaluate the effects of local soil conditioners manufactured from oil derivatives and plant residuals on sand dunes fixation as the first step for sand dunes stabilization. The results indicate that the fuel oil has the first place in improving wind erosion parameters in the study area, such as increasing mean weight diameter, dry aggregates percentage, the needed time for complete disaggregation by dry sieving, and decreasing the disaggregation rates. Bitumen emulsion occupies the second place, while the plant residuals occupies the third place and has slight effects on the studied parameters. Effects of conditioners on natural vegetation cover are negative in oil derivatives treatments,while positive in plants residuals treatments.

  5. Revised solar maps of Algeria based on sunshine duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The global solar irradiation maps for Algeria are drawn. • We performed an independence test using year 1992–2002 data. • The highest intensity of the solar radiation is located around the area of Djanet. • The less intense area is located around the area of Ksar Chellala. - Abstract: Solar irradiation data is generally required in modelling a system’s thermal performance, and evaluation of long-term effects of climatological changes. In Algeria, measurements of solar irradiation have been carried out for a few locations because the measuring instruments are expensive to purchase and install. The only alternative to obtain solar irradiation data is to estimate it by use of an appropriate solar irradiation model. The present study attempted to draw global solar irradiation maps for Algeria, witch are generated for all types of sky. The incident solar radiation on a horizontal surface, on a surface tilted at the latitude angle and for a vertical plane facing east, south, west, south-east, south-west was determined using numerical models. To obtain a solar radiation map of a certain zone it is necessary to know the solar radiation of a huge number of sites spread wide across the zone. The comparison between the measured and the computed values is satisfactory; the relative error is less than 7%. The results allow to view information about 48 provinces of Algeria, and are presented in the form of an annual solar radiation map. The solar maps developed in this paper provide information about the levels of total solar radiation which can be used as a database for future investments in the solar sector in Algeria

  6. Nuclear disarmament and ongoing monitoring and verification in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the ceasefire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq's nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq's compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  7. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  8. Nuclear disarmament and ongoing monitoring and verification in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Following Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq's nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq's compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  9. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, G.; Baute, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  10. Transport of carbon-bearing dusts from Iraq to Japan during Iraq's War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaki, Kazue; Wakimoto, Rie; Minami, Yukiya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Miyata, Koshirou; Sato, Kazuhiro; Saji, Ichiro; Chaerun, S. Khodijah; Zhou, Guoping; Morishita, Tomoaki; Asada, Ryuji; Segawa, Hiromi; Imanishi, Hiroki; Kato, Rie; Otani, Yusuke; Watanabe, Tomoko

    Rainwater collected during the period of February-April, 2003 in Kanazawa University and Hakui, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, was investigated by ion chromatography of the dissolved ions, and Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive analyzer (SEM-EDX), electron microprobe analyzer (EPMA), transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses of the filtered samples. The pH, Eh, EC, dissolved oxygen (DO) and depleted U (DU) of the rainwater were also measured. The results show a rare case with low pH value of rain and high value of electrical conductivity (EC) in the rainwater during certain period. The NO 3-, SO 42- and NH 4+ concentrations on 26th March, show quite high values after oil field fires on 21st March 2003. The powdery dust and carbon-bearing nm sized particles contained in the rainwater have characteristics different from that of the Asian dust (Kosa). Since 21 March, 2003 the Iraq plunged into the war, the 9 oil field fires were reported on 25 March, 2003 in Rumaylah oil field near the borderline of Kuwait. The first precipitation was caught in Kanazawa on 24 March, 2003. The pH value of the rainwater indicated a strong acid rain (pH 3.6) with black powdery dusts. The acid rain on 27th March to 2nd April (pH 3.4-4.3; 5-17 mm) associated with WNW wind (2.7-4.1 m/s) has continued to the first 10 days of April in Kanazawa, during the 9 oil fields were burning in Iraq. The EC in rainwater collected from 24 March to 15 April, 2003, shows high concentrations of ions, suggesting high contents of water soluble-carbon particles and soot. In the meantime, it was the highest season of sandstorms at bare dried land in Iraq from the end of March to the beginning of April. Westerly wind blew around 5500 m high, and the sandstorm with 2000 m wide was transported by strong wind to Zagros 3000 m high mountains. The hot wind hit the Zagros Mountains and easily to join and rise to Westerly wind high by a rising air current. The

  11. n-Jordan homomorphisms on C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasalt Bodaghi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $n\\in \\mathbb{N}$‎. ‎An additive map $h‎: ‎\\mathcal A\\longrightarrow \\mathcal B$ between algebras $\\mathcal A$‎ ‎and $\\mathcal B$ is called $n$-Jordan homomorphism if‎ ‎$h(a^n=(h(a^n$ for all $a\\in \\mathcal A$‎. ‎We show that every‎ ‎$n$-Jordan homomorphism between commutative Banach algebras is a‎ ‎$n$-ring homomorphism when $n<8$‎. ‎For these cases‎, ‎every involutive‎ ‎$n$-Jordan homomorphism between commutative $C^*$-algebras is norm‎ ‎continuous‎.

  12. Evaluation of Uranium Concentration in Soil Samples of Central Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Ned Xoubi

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as uranium, thorium and their decay products (226Ra, 222Rn) are present in a number of geological settings in Jordan. Motivated by the existence of uranium anomalies ‎coupled with its lack of conventional ‎‎energy ‎‎resources, Jordan decided that the development of ‎this indigenes ‎resource (uranium) is the first step in introducing nuclear power as part of its energy mix. Uranium deposits in Central Jordan were perceived not only as a secured resource t...

  13. The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Huri Yaseen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear language policy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study all courses in Arabic, while speaking and using their own culture at home tend to be done in their first language. The minorities’ language usage in Iraq was ignored both inside the schools as well as in the curriculum construction. So this study focuses on the following issues: the first issue is, What is the strategy of language planning policy in Iraq? the study discusses the strategy and the planning educational system that Iraq applies now, the second issue is, What is the status of minority languages in Iraq? Iraq is a multicultural county and has many minorities communities with different languages, the third issue is, What are the challenges of language in Iraq? as long as there is different languages within one country the study also focuses on the challenges that been faced in the planning policy system, and the last issue is, Is there a homogenous relationship during the current policy? How? the study shows the homogenous relationship inside the current policy and the researches give many suggestions and recommendations regarding to the current policy and what is needed for improving the educational planning policy system.Keywords: Planning Policy, Bilingualism, Education, Culture, Harmony, Language Shift

  14. Iraq's Future: Will Oil Be a Blessing or Curse?

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, Robert

    2004-01-01

    A curse pretty much characterizes the role played Iraq's oil wealth over the last several decades. As with its past, Iraq's future will depend largely on developments in that sector and how, the new Iraqi government manages the revenues derived.from oil exports. Is there a strategy the Iraqi authorities can put in place that offers some hope in avoiding the spectrum of problems that have plagued almost all other developing country oil exporters?

  15. Integrating mental health into primary health care in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Sadik, Sabah; Abdulrahman, Saad; Bradley, Marie; Jenkins, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Iraq is undertaking a systematic programme to integrate mental health into primary care in order to increase population access to mental health care. This paper reports the evaluation of the delivery of a ten day interactive training programme to 20% of primary care centres across Iraq. The multistage evaluation included a pre- and post-test questionnaire to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice in health workers drawn from 143 health centres, a course evaluation ...

  16. Eastern Europe and the 2002-2003 Iraq crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Svarenieks, Edgars

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited In the 2002-2003 Iraq crisis, most Eastern European countries aimed first of all to maintain positive relations with their main strategic partner, the United States. This priority was closely connected with NATO, Eastern Europe's preferred collective defense organization. Eastern European governments were concerned that if they supported the position of France and Germany regarding the Iraq crisis, the greater U.S. frustration with pre...

  17. What visibility conceals. Re-embedding Refugee Migration from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelard, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    To be published in Dawn Chatty (ed.) (2009) Dispossession and Displacement: Forced-Migration in the Middle Eastand Africa (Proceedings of Conference), London: British Academy. This book chapter aims at reconnecting the mass refugee migration from Iraq that has followed the fall ofthe regime of Saddam Hussein in April-May 2003 with previous and concomitant social and spatialmigratory trends from Iraq through a combination of disciplinary approaches from the fields of thesociology of migrati...

  18. Sexual violence in Iraq: Challenges for transnational feminist politics

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ali, Nadje

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses sexual violence by ISIS against women in Iraq, particularly Yezidi women, against the historical background of broader sexual and gender-based violence. It intervenes in feminist debates about how to approach and analyse sexual and wider gender-based violence in Iraq specifically and the Middle East more generally. Recognizing the significance of positionality, the article argues against dichotomous positions and for the need to look at both macrostructural configuration...

  19. Agenda Setting of Iraq Image in Malaysian English Newspaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Kadum Kassed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass media news on certain country itself can affect their image on society. The image that will appear could be positive, negative or neutral depending on the content in it. This study employs content analysis of Agenda Setting of Iraq image in Malaysian English newspapers indicated that NSTP and the Star. In total, 535 articles and news stories were obtained from three periods before, during and after the occupation of Iraq. Findings showed that the Agenda Setting for NSTP focused on the issue of "The Malaysia’s policy towards Iraq", "The US policy and the occupation of Iraq" and "The impact of war on Malaysia". While, the Star focused on "Iraq’s needs and suffering". In summary, the newspapers seem to take great care in transmitting images of other countries particularly the Islamic country, which could affect Malaysia and its neighbors politically, economically and socially. Thus it can be concluded that the media’s ownership position plays vital role in shaping countries image in media coverage. The current study indicated that the positive and neutral image of Iraq in NSTP are considered important to the Malaysian government to advance its domestic and foreign policies to Malaysians, and also due to its political and economic interests with Iraq which is a Muslim country. Contrarily, the Star seemed to oppose government policies but this opposition is marginal and issue specific in nature depending upon the involvement of Malaysia interests and intensity of the government media differences on those issues.

  20. Why Has Unemployment in Algeria Been Higher than in MENA and Transition Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Kpodar, Kangni

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of labor market performance in Algeria. When the model is estimated with panel data on a sample of MENA and transition countries for 1995- 2005, the results suggest that lower growth in labor productivity in Algeria is associated with higher unemployment than the sample average, though recent positive terms of trade shocks have helped Algeria reduce the differential. Labor market rigidities and labor taxation do not seem to explain why unemployment is high...

  1. Developmental States: How Algeria makes the best of China to promote its development

    OpenAIRE

    Pairault, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Socialist Algeria had friendly relations with Maoist China; it is paradoxically during the 1990s and the 2000s, while Algeria abandoned the official reference to socialism, that the two countries began experiencing an unprecedented expansion of their economic, commercial and human relations in such a way one could feed fantasies about the Chinese presence and expectations in Algeria. This contribution will examine the sudden acceleration of the Sino-Algerian economic relations to show how Alg...

  2. 3-qubit entanglement: A Jordan algebraic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is by now well known that three qubits can be totally entangled in two physically distinct ways. Here we review work classifying the physically distinct forms of 3-qubit entanglement using the elegant framework of Jordan algebras, Freudenthal-Kantor triple systems and groups of type E7. In particular, it is shown that the four Freudenthal-Kantor ranks correspond precisely to the four 3-qubit entanglement classes: (1) Totally separable A-B-C, (2) Biseparable A-BC, B-CA, C-AB, (3) Totally entangled W, (4) Totally entangled GHZ. The rank 4 GHZ class is regarded as maximally entangled in the sense that it has non-vanishing quartic norm, the defining invariant of the Freudenthal-Kantor triple system. While this framework is specific to three qubits, we show here how the essential features may be naturally generalised to an arbitrary number of qubits.

  3. Pascual Jordan, Varying Gravity, and the Expanding Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-06-01

    In the 1950s, surprising links were proposed between cosmological theory and the geological and paleontological sciences. These links were mainly provided by Paul Dirac's hypothesis of 1937 that the gravitational constant G decreases with cosmic time. Pascual Jordan, famous for his pioneering contributions to quantum theory, took up Dirac's hypothesis; after the end of World War II, Jordan developed its geophysical consequences, concluding that the Earth is expanding. Much of Jordan's later scientific work focused on the expanding Earth and other aspects of the earth sciences relating to the varying- G hypothesis. This chapter in the history of science has received almost no attention from either scientists or historians. The article analyzes Jordan's cosmo-geological work in relation to the somewhat similar efforts of other "expansionists" in the period that led to the plate tectonic revolution in the earth sciences.

  4. NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  5. Survey of Micro- and Small Enterprises in Jordan (2015) [PUBLIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Jordan Local Enterprise Support Project (LENS) conducted a survey of MSEs in 2014-2015 to better understand Jordanian enterprises and to assess the major...

  6. k-Jordan可乘映射%k-Jordan multiplicative maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳娟

    2013-01-01

    Using some methods of operator theory,the triple k-Jordan map on self-adjoint operator algebras and the k-Jordan map on nest algebra are studied.It is shown that a triple k-Jordan bijective map on self -adjoint operator algebras is a unitary isomorphism.A k-Jordan bijective map on nest algebra is a linear isomorphism,or a linear anti-isomorphism.%运用算子论的方法研究了自伴算子代数上的3重k-Jordan映射和套代数上k-Jordan映射.得到了自伴算子代数上的3重k-Jordan双射为酉同构;套代数上k-Jordan双射为线性同构,或线性反同构.

  7. Jordan's experience in oil shale studies employing different technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan's long experience in dealing with oil shale as a source of energy is introduced and discussed. Since the 1960s, Jordan has been investigating economical and environmental methods for utilizing this indigenous natural resource, which, due to its high organic content, is considered a suitable source of energy either by direct burning to generate electricity or by retorting to produce oil and gas. More than three decades of comprehensive engineering and economical studies, and test experiments for both retorting and direct burning carried out in co-operation with several international oil shale companies provide a solid foundation for a future oil shale industry in the country. Oil shale utilization in Jordan should be pursued because it will result in significant savings in foreign exchange, improve Jordan's energy supply security and create new jobs. (author)

  8. Salinity Training for Agricultural Scientists from Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil and water salinity is one of the major problems affecting agricultural productivity and food security in Iraq. The main challenges are: (i) to develop appropriate irrigation technologies and scheduling to ensure year-round food production, (ii) to assess tolerance of different crops (varieties) to soil and irrigation water salinity and (iii) to reduce further salinization of soil and water. It is against this background that the Department of Science and Technology, Iraq, requested the SWMCN Subprogramme to provide intensive training for five professional and technical fellows on 'Managing soil and water in salt-affected soils for enhanced crop productivity using isotopic techniques' from 30 August to 8 October 2010 at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf. The programme consisted of: (i) lectures on soil and water salinity and how crop growth is affected (ii) practical glasshouse and field training on the monitoring of soil and water salinity and soil-plant-water interactions and finally (iii) data analysis and interpretation. During the first week, the trainees were provided with an introduction to the principles of water movement in the soil-plant system and the factors influencing soil and water salinity and how salinity affects plant growth. During the subsequent weeks they were trained under both glasshouse and field conditions on soil water and salinity measurements. Training activities included glasshouse and field experimental design, electrical conductivity measurements in soil and water, soil moisture measurements using a neutron probe and conventional tools such as capacitance probes and Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). The fellows also received training on the installation of suction cups for collecting soil water and the use of tensiometers for measuring water availability for crops. As part of the training programme, two glasshouse experiments were established to study: (i) the effect of different levels of salt concentration in the soil on the

  9. Jordan and left derivations on locally C*-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that left derivations as well as Jordan derivations on locally G*-algebras are always continuous. We also obtain some noncommutative extensions of the classical Singer-Wermer theorem for locally C*-algebras: (1) Every left derivation D on a locally (7*-algebra A is identically zero. (2) Every Jordan derivation D on a locally C*-algebra A which satisfies [D(x), x]D(x]=0 for all x in A, is identically zero. (author)

  10. Marketing of a destination: Jordan as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Alhroot, Abdel-Hafiz Hussein Jaddou

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the internal and external environmental factors that affect destination marketing in Jordan and the use of the destination marketing concept by tourism companies in Jordan. Furthermore, special emphasis is placed on investigating and identifying the existing relationship between the internal and external factors in destination marketing by pinpointing the factors being used by tourism companies and those factors that contribute to the attraction of touri...

  11. General Overview of Migration Into, From and Through Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    ATHAMNEH, Abdel Baset

    2012-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) Jordan is both a receiving and a sending country for migration. Since its independence, it has received several waves of forced migration as a result of regional instability. Moreover, Jordan is a major receiver of labour migrants, too, especially from Egypt and non-Arab Asian countries, the non Arab-Asian migrants being mainly women and typically employed in the service sector. As to emigration trends, J...

  12. ANTIQUITY IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION AT GADARA, JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; El-Khalili, Mohammad M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies have pointed out that the northern parts of Jordan are exposed to high levels of ground ozone. North Jordan is a wealthy reservoir of ancient heritage including six out of the ten Decapolis Cities. It is alleged that air pollution-via acid deposition - has led to the deterioration and erosion of buildings, structures, statues, and monuments. Therefore, this research is conducted to assess air quality at Gadara, the capital of the ancient Decapolis and to come up with mi...

  13. Consumer Attitudes toward Online Shopping: An Exploratory Study from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Nabot; Vanja Garaj; Wamadeva Balachandran

    2014-01-01

    In the era of the diffusion of e-commerce and its services offered to the consumers over the Internet, the Internet is commonly used by both consumers and businesses to buy and sell their goods and services worldwide. This study focuses on the factors influencing customers' decisions and attitudes toward adopting online shopping in Jordan. The study found that online shopping in Jordan is still not very common, due to challenges and barriers that affect the diffusion of online shopping: deliv...

  14. Superconformal M2-branes and generalized Jordan triple systems

    OpenAIRE

    NILSSON, B.; Palmkvist, J.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal theories with six supersymmetries and SU(4) R-symmetry describing stacks of M2-branes are here proposed to be related to generalized Jordan triple systems. Writing the four-index structure constants in an appropriate form, the Chern-Simons part of the action immediately suggests a connection to such triple systems. In contrast to the previously considered three-algebras, the additional structure of a generalized Jordan triple system is associated to a graded Lie al...

  15. Preliminary Study of the Gravimetric Local Geoid Model in Jordan:

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Bayari, O.; Dept. of Surveying and geomatics Engrg., Fac. of Engrg., Al-Balqa’ Applied University, Al-Salt 19117, Jordan; Al-Zoubi, A.; Dept. of Surveying and geomatics Engrg., Fac. of Engrg., Al-Balqa’ Applied University, Al-Salt 19117, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there is an increased interest in studying and defining the Local and Regional Geoid Model worldwide, due to its importance in geodetic and geophysics applications. The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is internationally growing, yet the lack of any Geoid Model for Jordan has limited the use of GPS for geodetic applications. Therefore, this work aims to present the preliminary results that we propose for The Gravimetric Jordanian Geoid Model (GeoJordan). The model is cr...

  16. Future Potential of ICT Implementation in University Education in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zoubi, Abdallah; Kahhaleh, Bassam; Hasan, Omar; Kharouf, Husam

    2007-01-01

    The emerging information and communication technology (ICT) has become a strategic alternative for universities all over the world to enhance learning and deliver both quantity and quality programs. The status of ICT infrastructure in Jordan is investigated through a number of core indicators to identify the underlying factors which emerge as serious obstacles to the progress of university eEducation. Findings show that Jordan has made a good progress in international ranking in both the netw...

  17. On Jordan Decomposition of Characters for SU(n,q)

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanes, Marc

    2011-01-01

    As shown by Bonnaf\\'e, a step in proving a Jordan decomposition of characters of finite special linear groups is the parametrization of unipotent characters of centralizers of semi-simple elements in projective linear groups. We show the same kind of result in the case of finite special unitary groups. The proof leads to a mild adaptation of Bonnaf\\'e's methods expounded in [B99]. The outcome is a Jordan decomposition of characters compatible with Lusztig's twisted induction.

  18. THE EMISSION POTENTIAL FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL IN JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aljaradin; Kenneth M. Persson

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to monitor the emission potential from solid waste landfilled in Jordan over a period of 292 days using an anaerobic lysimeter. A 30 kg waste sample reflecting the typical municipal solid waste (MSW) streams generated in Jordan was used to simulate the influence of climate on the emission potential of landfills located in semi-arid areas. The experimental results demonstrated that a significant amount of leachate and landfill gas was produced. The methane c...

  19. Biomass Energy Utilization in Northeast Badia of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Al-Smairan; Sura Al-Harahsheh; Hassan Al-Khazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Biogas systems can contribute to rural development, utilization of renewable energy, climate change mitigation, as well as environmental protection. Due to its multiple benefits, the Jordan Government must made great efforts to promote the development of biogas systems in rural areas, especially household biogas plants and medium scale biogas plants for intensive livestock and poultry farms. In order to better promote and improve biogas systems in rural Jordan, a comprehensive literature revi...

  20. Market Analysis for Gas Engine Technology in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Michaut, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this diploma thesis is to investigate the potential of combined heat and power plants based on gas engine technology in Algeria. This market analysis has been performed in order to identify the key markets for the newly created French subsidiary of Clarke Energy Group to expand its business in North Africa. After analyzing the structure of the Algerian energy sector and the potential of each gas engine application, three key sectors were identified. For each sector, a technic...

  1. Energy and nuclear power planning study for Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, conducted jointly by a team of engineers and economists from the Sonelgaz company and the IAEA, had three objectives: (1) To perform a preliminary economic study aimed at initiating thinking on the role that nuclear power could play in Algeria's long-term energy structure and to suggest reasonable hypotheses on what share of the energy market nuclear power might supply. (2) To train a team of Algerian engineers and economists in long-term economic planning techniques. Once the team has gained a basic knowledge through this preliminary study, it will be in a position to continue the process, to perform other, more detailed independent analyses and to review the entire process should economic conditions change. (3) To introduce in Algeria the computer techniques and facilities needed to carry out such energy investment planning studies for electricity production. The main aim throughout the studies was to train a team of Algerian engineers in energy planning rather than to come to definitive conclusions on the problem of introducing nuclear power in Algeria. Two successive analyses were performed. The first consisted in evaluating the final energy requirements which will result in the medium and long term (by 2015) from the implementation of the economic development policies in the Five Year Plan (up to 1984) and in the proposals for the next decade (up to 1990) being studied by the Algerian Ministry of Planning. The second part is concerned only with the results regarding future electricity requirements, which are used as input data in studying the optimization of Algeria's future electricity generating system. Various methods of generation are analysed and included in an econometric model in order to make a sequential determination of the most economic composition of power generating capacity

  2. A contribution in the actualization of wind map of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellali, Farouk [Unit of Applied Research in Renewable Energy, B.P. 88 Gaarat Taam, Z I, 47000 Ghardaia (Algeria); Electrical Engineering Departments, Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, EL Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Khellaf, Adballah [Center of Development of Renewable Energies, Algiers (Algeria); Belouchrani, Adel [Electrical Engineering Departments, Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, EL Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Recioui, Abdelmadjid [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Boumerdes (Algeria)

    2011-02-15

    In the following work, we propose an assessment of wind potential in Algeria. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, to draw the attention to the important wind potential in the region of Hassi-R'mel anti v{approx}6m/s. In the previous maps, the wind potential in this region has been underestimated due the fact that it is located between two less windy regions. Second, the actualization of the wind map of Algeria using very recent data stretching from February 2004 to December 2009. This paper is structured in three main parts. First, a stochastic and the cyclic study of the wind behaviors in the site of Hassi-R'mel are proposed. The stochastic study is carried out by fitting the wind speed data to Weibull distribution while the cyclic study is carried out via the use of time-frequency analysis. We have used the time-frequency analyses instead of the traditional Fourier analysis due its ability to follow the spectrum variation with respect to time. As results, it has been found that spectrum wind process enfold many limited interval oscillations. In the second part, we propose to contribute to the actualisation of the wind map in Algeria. In this part, we have considered also the topographical aspect of Algeria. Such consideration is very helpful for understanding the wind potential reparation over the country. Finally, a techno-economical study of a stand along hybrid system (wind/diesel) in the site of Hassi-R'mel is considered. Via this study, it has been found that been found that the site of Hassi-R'mel is very adequate for wind energy conversion systems. (author)

  3. Examples of geomorphologic and geological hazards in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Machane, D.; Bouhadad, Y.; Cheikhlounis, G.; Chatelain, Jean-Luc; Oubaiche, E.H.; Abbes, K.; Guillier, Bertrand; Bensalem, R.

    2008-01-01

    We present three geomorphologic and geological phenomena that have occurred in Algeria in recent years: (i) the Bab El Oued mudflow on 11 November 2001, which claimed several hundred lives, (ii) a soil collapse induced by sand liquefaction triggered by the Boumerdes earthquake (M-w = 6.8) on 21 May 2003, and (iii) landslides that are threatening Constantine city, for which a hazard map is presented using a qualitative approach. We briefly describe and analyze these natural disasters, and in t...

  4. Radiation Doses from Computed tomography in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation doses to Patient during CT scanner and the radiological risk are significant. Patient dose survey has been conducted to investigate the Iraq patient radiation doses received in CT scanners in order to established reference dose levels. These doses are Entrance Surface Dose (ESD),computed tomography dose index(CTDI)), and dose length product (DLP). Two CT scanner were investigated in this study were, Siemens Somatom Plus 4, located in at medical city of Baghdad, and Philips, Optimus located in privet hospital at Baghdad. ESD were measured by TLD and Dosimax ionization chamber for head, chest, and abdomen for both sex and different weights. The TLD results were higher than that measured with Dosimax due to scattered radiation .The scattering factor which is the ratio between dose measured by TLD and that measured by ionization chamber range between (1.14-1.34) compare to international measurement which is range between (1.1-1.5).The (ESD) measured by the two methods were agree well after the subtraction of scattering dose, and have compered with original research. Dose profile were measured using array of TLD chips shows that its full width at half maximum is(7.99 mm) approximately equal the slice thickness(8 mm). Our results compare with reference level at U.K, European Guidelines and

  5. Radioactivity in building materials in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in 45 samples of different building materials used in Iraq were measured using gamma-spectroscopy system based on high-purity germanium detector with an efficiency of 40 %. Radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index due to radon inhalation originating from building materials were measured to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to range from below detection limit (BDL) to 223.7±9, BDL to 93.0±3 and BDL to 343.1±12, respectively. Values of average radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, indoor and outdoor annual effective doses, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index ranged from 6.5 to 124.9, 16.2 to 89.5 (nGy h-1), 0.08 to 0.44 mSv, 0.02-0.11 mSv, 0.09 to 0.53, 0.13 to 0.69 and 0.03 to 0.62, respectively. These values indicate a low dose. Therefore, the building materials used in the current study are quite safe to be used as building materials. (author)

  6. Pulviometric regime evolution in the North of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western Algeria has been experiencing drought since the middle of 1970's,which is characterized by severity and remarkable persistent of rainfalldeficit. The effects of this drought are also felt in the extreme east. Theaim of this study is to identify the variations of climate in order topredict and analyze their impact on water resources in future work. Theselected study area includes 15 basins of the North of Algeria. Rainfall datafrom 86 precipitation stations with low percentages of missing data were usedin this study. All of these station's data have been utilized at least overthe period 1930-1999/2000, on which the study focused. To explore rainfallvariability, long series of rainfall on annual, seasonal and monthly scaleswere subjected to statistical tests for detecting breaks in those series.Statistical methods used are U Buishand, the non-parametric test of Pettit,the procedure of Bayesian Lee and Heghinian and the procedure of segmentationof Pierre Hubert. The univariate analysis showed a change in the rainfallpattern in the western region since 1975. However, in the east of Algeria, nobreak was detected by the application of these methods. (author)

  7. Algeria 2002. Concluded; Algerie 2002. Suite et fin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-10-01

    While reinforcing its existing network of oil and gas pipelines, Algeria is launching three more projects of new international gas pipelines and wishes to become one of the main power suppliers of the European Union. The second part of this dossier about Algeria comprises several articles. The first article is the second part of the interview of C. Khelil, Minister of energy and mines and president of Sonatrach company, about the organisational changes and the international development of Sonatrach. The second article treats of the increase of Algeria's hydrocarbons transportation capacity proportionally to its ambitions of oil and gas production in the coming years. The third article presents the activities of Sonatrach (exploration-production, discoveries, partnerships, pipeline transport, liquefaction, refining and petrochemistry, exports, trading and shipping). The next articles present the activities of Sonatrach's daughter companies: Enac (pipelines construction), Naftec (refineries), Egzia (management of industrial infrastructures and networks), Enip (management, exploitation and development of petrochemical industries), Somik (LNG equipments and infrastructures), Egzik (management of the industrial security and safety of petrochemical infrastructures), Naftal (fuel commercialization and service stations), SNTM-Hyproc (LNG transport), JGC Corp (engineering), IAP (training) etc.. (J.S.)

  8. Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Hamdan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulting sample was 4,843 persons with and overall response rate was better than 60%. Relative Risks for cancer were age-standardised and compared to rates in the Middle East Cancer Registry (MECC, Garbiah Egypt for 1999 and rates in Jordan 1996–2001. Between Jan 2005 and the survey end date there were 62 cases of cancer malignancy reported (RR = 4.22; CI: 2.8, 6.6; p < 0.00000001 including 16 cases of childhood cancer 0-14 (RR = 12.6; CI: 4.9, 32; p < 0.00000001. Highest risks were found in all-leukaemia in the age groups 0-34 (20 cases RR = 38.5; CI: 19.2, 77; p < 0.00000001, all lymphoma 0–34 (8 cases, RR = 9.24;CI: 4.12, 20.8; p < 0.00000001, female breast cancer 0–44 (12 cases RR = 9.7;CI: 3.6, 25.6; p < 0.00000001 and brain tumours all ages (4 cases, RR = 7.4;CI: 2.4, 23.1; P < 0.004. Infant mortality was based on the mean birth rate over the 4 year period 2006–2009 with 1/6th added for cases reported in January and February 2010. There were 34 deaths in the age group 0–1 in this period giving a rate of 80 deaths per 1,000 births. This may be compared with a rate of 19.8 in Egypt (RR = 4.2 p < 0.00001 17 in Jordan in 2008 and 9.7 in Kuwait in 2008. The mean birth sex-ratio in the recent 5-year cohort was anomalous. Normally the sex ratio in human populations is a constant with 1,050 boys born to 1,000 girls. This is disturbed if there is a genetic damage stress. The ratio of boys to 1,000 girls in the 0–4, 5–9, 10–14 and 15–19 age cohorts in

  9. Cancer, infant mortality and birth sex-ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Chris; Hamdan, Malak; Ariabi, Entesar

    2010-07-01

    There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium) in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulting sample was 4,843 persons with and overall response rate was better than 60%. Relative Risks for cancer were age-standardised and compared to rates in the Middle East Cancer Registry (MECC, Garbiah Egypt) for 1999 and rates in Jordan 1996-2001. Between Jan 2005 and the survey end date there were 62 cases of cancer malignancy reported (RR = 4.22; CI: 2.8, 6.6; p < 0.00000001) including 16 cases of childhood cancer 0-14 (RR = 12.6; CI: 4.9, 32; p < 0.00000001). Highest risks were found in all-leukaemia in the age groups 0-34 (20 cases RR = 38.5; CI: 19.2, 77; p < 0.00000001), all lymphoma 0-34 (8 cases, RR = 9.24;CI: 4.12, 20.8; p < 0.00000001), female breast cancer 0-44 (12 cases RR = 9.7;CI: 3.6, 25.6; p < 0.00000001) and brain tumours all ages (4 cases, RR = 7.4;CI: 2.4, 23.1; P < 0.004). Infant mortality was based on the mean birth rate over the 4 year period 2006-2009 with 1/6th added for cases reported in January and February 2010. There were 34 deaths in the age group 0-1 in this period giving a rate of 80 deaths per 1,000 births. This may be compared with a rate of 19.8 in Egypt (RR = 4.2 p < 0.00001) 17 in Jordan in 2008 and 9.7 in Kuwait in 2008. The mean birth sex-ratio in the recent 5-year cohort was anomalous. Normally the sex ratio in human populations is a constant with 1,050 boys born to 1,000 girls. This is disturbed if there is a genetic damage stress. The ratio of boys to 1,000 girls in the 0-4, 5-9, 10-14 and 15-19 age cohorts in the Fallujah sample were 860

  10. Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Chris; Hamdan, Malak; Ariabi, Entesar

    2010-01-01

    There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium) in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulting sample was 4,843 persons with and overall response rate was better than 60%. Relative Risks for cancer were age-standardised and compared to rates in the Middle East Cancer Registry (MECC, Garbiah Egypt) for 1999 and rates in Jordan 1996–2001. Between Jan 2005 and the survey end date there were 62 cases of cancer malignancy reported (RR = 4.22; CI: 2.8, 6.6; p < 0.00000001) including 16 cases of childhood cancer 0–14 (RR = 12.6; CI: 4.9, 32; p < 0.00000001). Highest risks were found in all-leukaemia in the age groups 0–34 (20 cases RR = 38.5; CI: 19.2, 77; p < 0.00000001), all lymphoma 0–34 (8 cases, RR = 9.24;CI: 4.12, 20.8; p < 0.00000001), female breast cancer 0–44 (12 cases RR = 9.7;CI: 3.6, 25.6; p < 0.00000001) and brain tumours all ages (4 cases, RR = 7.4;CI: 2.4, 23.1; P < 0.004). Infant mortality was based on the mean birth rate over the 4 year period 2006–2009 with 1/6th added for cases reported in January and February 2010. There were 34 deaths in the age group 0–1 in this period giving a rate of 80 deaths per 1,000 births. This may be compared with a rate of 19.8 in Egypt (RR = 4.2 p < 0.00001) 17 in Jordan in 2008 and 9.7 in Kuwait in 2008. The mean birth sex-ratio in the recent 5-year cohort was anomalous. Normally the sex ratio in human populations is a constant with 1,050 boys born to 1,000 girls. This is disturbed if there is a genetic damage stress. The ratio of boys to 1,000 girls in the 0–4, 5–9, 10–14 and 15–19 age cohorts in the

  11. Analysis of synoptic situation for dust storms in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Ibrahim, Morwa K. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Dust storms are considered major natural disasters that cause many damages to society and environment in Iraq and surrounded deserted regions. The aim of this research is to analyze and study the synoptic patterns leading to the formation of dust storms in Iraq. Analysis are based on satellite images, aerosols index and synoptic weather maps. Two severe dust storms occurred over Iraq on February 22, 2010, and on December 10, 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that dust storms form when a low-pressure system forms over Iran causing Shamal winds blow; they carry cool air from that region towards warmer regions like eastern Syria and Iraq. In some cases, this low-pressure system is followed by a high-pressure system brining more cold air to the region and pushing dust toward south. Dust storms are initiated from source regions near Iraq-Syria borders by the existence of negative vertical velocity, which causes dust particles to be lifted upwards, and the strong westerly wind drives dust to travel eastward.

  12. The prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV disorders in the Iraq Mental Health Survey (IMHS)

    OpenAIRE

    ALHASNAWI, SALIH; Sadik, Sabah; RASHEED, MOHAMMAD; BABAN, ALI; AL-ALAK, MAHDI M.; OTHMAN, ABDULRAHMAN YONIS; OTHMAN, YONIS; ISMET, NEZAR; SHAWANI, OSMAN; MURTHY, SRINIVASA; ALJADIRY, MONAF; Chatterji, Somnath; AL-GASSEER, NAEEMA; STREEL, EMMANUEL; NAIDOO, NIRMALA

    2009-01-01

    Data on the prevalence and correlates of anxiety, mood, behavioral, and substance disorders are presented from a 2007-8 national survey of the Iraq population, the Iraq Mental Health Survey (IMHS). The IMHS was carried out by the Iraq Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Iraq Ministry of Planning and the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. Interviews were administered to a probability sample of Iraqi household residents by trained lay interview...

  13. A Medium-Term Macroeconomic Strategy for Algeria : Sustaining Faster Growth with Economic and Social Stability, Volume 2. Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This study is part of a series of analytical works on Algeria prepared by the Bank, with the aim of laying out the framework, and facilitating the dialogue for elaborating the Bank's Country Assistance Strategy for Algeria. Companion studies include: "A Private Sector Development Strategy Note: A Diagnostic on Foreign Direct Investment in Algeria" (FIAS). This report is divided into three ...

  14. A Medium-Term Macroeconomic Strategy for Algeria : Sustaining Faster Growth with Economic and Social Stability, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This study is part of a series of analytical works on Algeria prepared by the Bank, with the aim of laying out the framework, and facilitating the dialogue for elaborating the Bank's Country Assistance Strategy for Algeria. Companion studies include: "A Private Sector Development Strategy Note: A Diagnostic on Foreign Direct Investment in Algeria" (FIAS). This report is divided into three ...

  15. The Influence of the of Iraq Kurdistan Banking System to Development of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Sheykkha Nissrat Sabir

    2013-01-01

    The author is examine the questions of development of the financial and credit System in Iraq and Iraq Kurdistan, the most substantial problems are distinguished in forming and development of the banking system of Iraq and Kurdistan, and also their influence on development of industry of tourism.

  16. 31 CFR 575.413 - Goods intended for export to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods intended for export to Iraq... Interpretations § 575.413 Goods intended for export to Iraq. The prohibitions contained in § 575.201 do not apply to goods manufactured, consigned, or destined for export to Iraq and not subject to § 575.517, if...

  17. 76 FR 29141 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ..., 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-12551 Filed 5-18-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Stabilization of Iraq On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest,...

  18. 31 CFR 575.403 - Termination and acquisition of an interest of the Government of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interest of the Government of Iraq. 575.403 Section 575.403 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Government of Iraq. (a) Whenever a transaction licensed or authorized by or pursuant to this part results in the transfer of property (including any property interest) from the Government of Iraq, such...

  19. 31 CFR 575.208 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions involving Iraq. 575.208 Section 575.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 575.208 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Iraq. Except as... transportation to or from Iraq; (b) The provision of transportation to or from the United States by any...

  20. 77 FR 72709 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Iraq AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... Sulaymaniyah International Airports in Northern Iraq by any United States (U.S.) air carrier or commercial... determined that a full flight prohibition is no longer necessary for these airports in Northern Iraq,...

  1. 31 CFR 575.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iraq. 575.205 Section 575.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Iraq. Except as otherwise authorized, no goods, technology (including... U.S. jurisdiction, exported or reexported from a third country to Iraq, to any entity owned...

  2. Mission not yet accomplished : how Iraq figures in Big Oil's dreams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuaig, L.

    2007-12-15

    This article discussed a new revenue-sharing law proposed by the government of the United States that would begin the process of dividing Iraq's vast undeveloped oil reserves among the ethnic fractions in Iraq. The law would create a legal framework for foreign investment in Iraq's oil sector, thus potentially reviving a dominant role for big multinational oil companies. At stake is who will end up as the chief beneficiaries of the oil in Iraq: the Iraqi citizens or the owners of the wealthiest oil corporations. An American-formed bipartisan Iraq Study Group (ISG) published a report stating that since oil accounts for 60 per cent of Iraq's gross domestic product (GDP), Iraq's sovereignty would have to include control over its oil. The ISG recommended that the government of the United States restate that it does not seek to control Iraq's oil. However, the ISG also recommended that the United States provide technical assistance to the Iraqi government to prepare a draft oil law that would facilitate investment in Iraq's oil sector by the international community and by international energy companies to help reorganize Iraq's national oil industry as a commercial enterprise. This article described the role of the International Tax and Investment Center (ITIC) in developing the proposed new law for Iraq. ITIC recommended that Iraq adopt production sharing agreements (PSAS) to attract foreign investors. 3 figs.

  3. Oil Regime Change in Iraq. Possible Strategic Implications for OPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential strategic impact of regime change in Iraq and Iran on OPEC in the long-run is explored. In the first part of the paper short overviews are given of the present international oil market; of US oil import issues and energy policy; of the strategic position of the US in the Persian Gulf and of geopolitical developments in the Persian Gulf at large. Also, attention is paid to the OPEC and the role of a 'new' Iraq. In the second part the game of 'boxed pigs' is used to explore the possible strategic impact of regime change in Iraq and possible regime change in Iran on OPEC. This exploration takes place within four possible futures for the Gulf

  4. Sources, Dangers and Treatments of Oily Soil Pollutants in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi M. Mutter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil pollution presents significant risks to living organism and human health because it can alter the ecosystem in rivers, seas, oceans, and pollutes air and soil. Oil, for example, can even reduce the efficiency of drinking water plants. Iraq suffers a lot from oil pollution as a result of wars that not only damage the oil infrastructures but also cause loss of thousand hectare of agriculture lands. In addition, oil pollution become primary factor that contribute to the electricity, fuel shortage and traffic jam problems. Oil pollution can be easily found in many parts of Iraq, even in main streets, houses and gardens due to the residents mismanagement and misuse of oily products. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to focus in detail about the sources and dangers of oil pollution on the environment and soil, as well as to provide some suggestions and measurements that can help in limiting the impact of oil pollution in Iraq.

  5. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Algeria and I hereby waive this restriction....

  6. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Algeria and I hereby waive this restriction....

  7. 75 FR 14479 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Algeria Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Algeria, and I hereby waive...

  8. Teaching Morality and Religion in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria: Gender and the Civilising Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Historians have long presented France's "civilizing mission" within its colonies in secular terms ignoring women's presence as both actors and subjects. This is particularly true in Algeria where the colonial government's explicitly prohibited proselytism. This article emphasizes women's roles pursuing both secular and religious goals in Algeria.…

  9. Stability of -Jordan Homomorphisms from a Normed Algebra to a Banach Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Hi Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish the hyperstability of -Jordan homomorphisms from a normed algebra to a Banach algebra, and also we show that an -Jordan homomorphism between two commutative Banach algebras is an -ring homomorphism.

  10. IAEA calls for urgent action on nuclear situation in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, called on the United States and other Coalition authorities to allow IAEA experts to return to Iraq to address a possible radiological emergency there. 'I am deeply concerned by the almost daily reports of looting and destruction at nuclear sites and about the potential radiological safety and security implications of nuclear and radiological materials that may no longer be under control.' Such reports have described among other things yellow cake emptied on the ground from containers then taken for domestic use, and radioactive sources being stolen and removed from their shielding. 'We have a moral responsibility to establish the facts without delay and take urgent remedial action,' said Dr. ElBaradei. As hostilities in Iraq were coming to an end, Dr. ElBaradei wrote on 10 April to the US government bringing its attention to the need to secure the nuclear material stored at Tuwaitha - Iraq's nuclear research centre - and under IAEA seal since 1991. The IAEA also provided the United States with information about the nuclear material, radioactive sources, and nuclear waste in Iraq. The IAEA received oral assurances that physical protection of the site was in place; but following reports of looting there and at other sites, Dr. ElBaradei wrote again on 29 April, emphasizing the responsibility of the Coalition forces to maintain appropriate protection over the materials in question. This includes natural and low-enriched uranium, radioactive sources such as Cobalt 60 and Caesium 137, and nuclear waste. Dr. ElBaradei regrets that the IAEA has to date not received a response. He again urged that the Agency be allowed to send a safety and security team to Iraq so that a potentially serious humanitarian situation can be addressed without further delay. The IAEA has experienced international teams of radiation safety, nuclear security and emergency response specialists

  11. Prehistoric cultural ecology in southern jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D O

    1994-07-15

    Research in the mountains of southern Jordan resulted in the discovery of 109 archaeological sites that are from the Lower Paleolithic to the Chalcolithic period [150 to 6 thousand years ago (ka)]. Beginning with the Middle Paleolithic (70 ka) two site types (long-term and ephemeral camps) are recognized. Long-term sites have larger areas, thicker deposits, higher artifact densities, and more abundant archaeological features than ephemeral sites. Their natural settings (elevation and exposure) and associated seasonal evidence (phytolith and cementum increment data) indicate that long-term sites were occupied during the winter, wet season and ephemeral sites during the warm, dry season. These differences in site use and seasonality likely reflect an adaptive strategy of transhumance that persisted to modern Bedouin times. At the end of the Pleistocene, the onset of warmer, drier conditions induced a shift of the long-term winter camps from relatively low (800 to 1000 meters above sea level) to high (1000 to 1250 meters above sea level) elevations and largely reversed the earlier transhumant pattern. PMID:17838033

  12. Consanguinity and genetic disorders: Profile from Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With 20-30% of all marriages occurring between first cousins, increasing attention in Jordan is now given to role of consanguinity in the occurrence of genetic diseases. The objective of this study is to define the specific categories of genetic disorders associated with consanguineous marriages. Etiological categories and consanguinity rates were studied among 623 families with genetic syndromes, congenital anomalies or mental retardation, or both, seen at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics for the period August 2002 to August 2006. Comparisons were made for first cousin marriage rates in the study group and that for the general population. First cousin marriages constituted 69%, 22% and 41.7% of marriages among families with autosomal recessive conditions (group 1), dominant, X-linked and chromosomal conditions (group 2) and sporadic undiagnosed conditions (group 3) respectively. The differences in the rates of the first cousin matings were highly significant when comparing known figures in the general population with group 1 and 3, but not significant with group 2. Two messages to the public and health care personnel regarding consanguinity can be derived from this study. The first message is that among genetic disorders, only autosomal recessive disorders are strongly associated with consanguinity. The second message is that approximately 30% of sporadic undiagnosed cases of mental retardation, congenital anomalies and dimorphism may have an autosomal recessive etiology with risks of recurrence in future pregnancies. (author)

  13. Stream Processing Environmental Applications in Jordan Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Ahmad Aldasouqi, Jalal Atoum

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Database system architectures have been gone through innovative changes, specially theunifications of algorithms and data via the integration of programming languages with thedatabase system. Such an innovative changes is needed in Stream-based applications since theyhave different requirements for the principal of stream data processing system. For example, themonitoring component requires query processing system to detect user-defined events in a timelymanner as in real time monitoring system. Furthermore, stream processing fits a large class ofnew applications for which conventional DBMSs fall short since many stream-oriented systemsare inherently geographically distributed and the distribution offers a scalable load managementand higher availability.This paper presents statistical information about metrological data such as the weather, soil andevapotranspiration as collected by the weather stations distributed in different locations in JordanValley. In addition, it shows the importance of Stream Processing in some real life applications,and shows how the database systems can help researcher in building prototypes that can beimplemented and used in a continuous monitoring system.

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis in Jordan: a cross sectional study of disease severity and associated comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Alawneh KM; Khassawneh BY; Ayesh MH; Smadi M

    2014-01-01

    Khaldoon M Alawneh,1 Basheer Y Khassawneh,1 Mahmoud H Ayesh,1 Mahmoud Smadi21Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 2Department of Math and Statistics, College of Science, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, JordanAbstract: Treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to target is advocated using disease activity measures. The impact of RA on the general health status of affected patient...

  15. Total and direct normal solar radiation for Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study divides Iraq into three zones according to the availability of the total and direct normal solar radiation. These radiations are derived from correlation based on measured data. These maps show that total solar radiation on horizontal surface in Iraq varies from 4KWH/M2/day in the north to 5.6 KWH/M2/day in the south while the direct normal solar radiation varies from 5 to 7 KWH/M2/day. The results show that about 25 percent more solar radiation is available to tracking concentrating collectors which use direct normal solar radiation. (4 figs., 6 refs.)

  16. Iraq; Staff Report for the 2005 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    Iraq’s 2005 Article IV Consultation reports that there has been a marked deterioration in Iraq’s human development indicators over the last twenty years. There is relatively little firm data on the balance of payments other than on oil exports, government imports of goods and services, and external reserves. There have been large current account deficits in 2004 and 2005, reflecting high levels of imports related to reconstruction and recovery. The Iraqi government has begun to engage wit...

  17. Can Iraq be deterred from using weapons of mass destruction?

    OpenAIRE

    Klemick, Michael T

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited It generally is assumed that the threat of a U.S. nuclear strike deterred the intentional use of chemical and biological weapons by Iraq during the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Evidence suggests that this assumption might be faulty, or at least incomplete. The purpose of this thesis is to test the common wisdom about nuclear deterrence and Iraq's non-use of chemical and biological weapons (CBW) during the Gulf War. This thesis examines the u...

  18. Occurrence of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balqees A. Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available California mastitis tests (CMT and white side test (WST were used to determine the occurrence rate of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok province of Iraq. The rate of subclinical mastitis was 40.5% and 37.5% by CMT and WST respectively. The Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent isolate with 72.38% followed by Klebsiella spp. (29.79% and Escherichia coli (27.65%. This is the first report on subclinical mastitis report in Duhok area of Iraq.

  19. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bar...

  20. Ballistic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Emily H.; Sabino, Jennifer M.; Nanos, George P.; Valerio, Ian L.

    2015-01-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:25685099

  1. Evaluation of Uranium Concentration in Soil Samples of Central Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Xoubi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring radionuclides such as uranium, thorium and their decay products (226Ra, 222Rn are present in a number of geological settings in Jordan. Motivated by the existence of uranium anomalies ‎coupled with its lack of conventional ‎‎energy ‎‎resources, Jordan decided that the development of ‎this indigenes ‎resource (uranium is the first step in introducing nuclear power as part of its energy mix. Uranium deposits in Central Jordan were perceived not only as a secured resource that will ‎fulfill Jordan’s energy needs, but also as an economic asset that will ‎finance Jordan’s nuclear program. The average uranium concentration of 236 soil samples using ICP-Mass (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was found to be 109 parts per million (ppm. Results analysis revealed a wide range of 1066 ppm for uranium concentration, and a median of 41 ppm uranium. The measurements frequency distribution indicates that 72% of samples measured had a uranium content of less than 100 ppm, a concentration that characterizes overburden and tailings quality, rather than minable reserves. This paper presents and evaluates the concentration of uranium in central Jordan, being the most promising area with the highest radioactive anomalies in Jordan.

  2. Exceptional supergravity theories, Jordan algebras and the magic square

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jordan formulation of quantum mechanics is equivalent to the ordinary Hilbert space formulation a la Dirac. The only exception being the Jordan algebra J/sub 3//sup 0/ of 3 x 3 hermitian octonionic matrices. The main motivation of Jordan in trying to generalize the algebraic framework of quantum mechanics was to be able to explain the new ''relativistic and nuclear phenomena'' that were observed at the time. In particular they had the β-decay phenomenon in mind. The unique possible generalization they found was considered to be ''too narrow for the generalization hoped for.'' Remarkably enough, fifty years after the work of JNW the exceptional Jordan algebra J/sub 3//sup 0/ has re-entered Physics in the framework of theories that attempt to unify all interactions. The authors refer to the exceptional supergravity theory. This theory or an extension thereof could provide us with a unique framework for a realistic unification of all interactions including gravity. If this is indeed the case then the early verdict of JNW on the exceptional Jordan algebra will have to be overturned and it will have its unique place in Physics as it has in Mathematics

  3. Strengthening Biosecurity in Iraq: Development of a National Biorisk Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jewari, Mahdi F H; Koblentz, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    Since 2004, the Republic of Iraq has undertaken a concerted effort to comply with all of its international obligations to prevent the proliferation and the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) weapons. A centerpiece of this effort is Iraq's development of a National Biorisk Management System. The Iraqi National Monitoring Authority (INMA), which is responsible for CBRN security and non-proliferation in Iraq, has played a key role in establishing this system. This article provides an overview of Iraq's international non-proliferation commitments, describes the legal and organizational steps it has taken to implement these commitments, and examines current initiatives to strengthen Iraq's biosecurity. PMID:26952002

  4. Deportations and counterinsurgency: a comparison of Malaya, Algeria and Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Miroiu, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    This article considers in a comparative historical and strategic perspective the large-scale deportations of restive populations during the Malayan Emergency, the Algerian War and the Romanian anti-communist rebellions. The failed American campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan witnessed a rebirth of military and academic interest in post-war counterinsurgencies (COIN), with an entire "COIN school" being put in charge of the two wars from 2006 to 2011. This particular school elevated the experienc...

  5. Primary Nocturnal Enuresis among school children in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We attempted in this study, to estimate the prevalence of primarynocturnal enuresis (PNE) in children of Jordan and to examine factorsassociated with PNE. We sent questionnaires to 950 parents of children aged6-8 years, randomly selected from three primary schools in Jordan. Thequestionnaire was designed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associatedwith PNE. The response rate was 71.6%. The overall prevalence of PNE was23.8%. This prevalence declined with age from 48.9% at 7 years and 8.4% at 8years. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of PNE in Jordan is higherthan the reported from other Asian or European countries, while theassociated factors are similar. (author)

  6. Trends and Challenges for Mobile Learning in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Al-Zoubi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present state of mobile learning in Jordan isinvestigated in order to provide a meaningful direction forthe future development of university eEducation in Jordan.The strengths of mobile learning are elaborated and itscurrent status including challenging issues from theperspective of cognitive learning is addressed. An onlinesurvey was conducted to investigate the expectations andperceptions of mobile learning amongst university studentsand professors in Jordan and a number of countries in theMiddle East. Various factors that may contribute to theestablishment of mobile learning in educational institutionswere investigated and expectations concerning the impact ofmobile technologies on teaching and learning were explored.The results reflect on the fundamental needs for effectiveimplementation of mobile learning from the view ofcognitive science, instead of technological evolution.

  7. Cancer estimation of incidence and survival in Algeria 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Cherif M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the major public health problems in Algeria. In the last 25 years, a significant increase in the incidence of the major types of cancers has been observed in both sexes. Moreover, the 5-year survival rate is low for the severe tumors due to a difficulty in access to cancer care and an incomplete health care framework. Cancer Registry of Setif, Algeria, has been recording cancer incidence, mortality, and survival since 1986 in collaboration with International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC of Lyon. Cancer Registry of Setif is being a source of information for cancer planning and corresponding surveillance in the National Cancer Plan 2015-2019, starting in January 2015. Data is recorded by means of CanReg 5 software. This software is developed and provided by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC of Lyon. It is designed specifically for cancer registration, and standardized to capture, control, and process the data. Estimation of cancer incidence in Algeria and survival rates are very important for surveillance, control, and planning of care. In men the incidence of lung, colorectal, bladder, prostate, and laryngeal cancers has significantly and steadily increased in the last decade. In women, the incidence of breast, colorectal, thyroid, and lung cancers has also increased significantly in the same period. Five-year survival rates for cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast, cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and childhood leukemia are relatively low compared with other countries. The aim of our study was to estimate incidence and survival by means of Setif cancer registry data.

  8. Management scenarios for the Jordan River salinity crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent geochemical and hydrological findings show that the water quality of the base flow of the Lower Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is dependent upon the ratio between surface water flow and groundwater discharge. Using water quality data, mass-balance calculations, and actual flow-rate measurements, possible management scenarios for the Lower Jordan River and their potential affects on its salinity are investigated. The predicted scenarios reveal that implementation of some elements of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty will have negative effects on the Jordan River water salinity. It is predicted that removal of sewage effluents dumped into the river (???13 MCM/a) will significantly reduce the river water's flow and increase the relative proportion of the saline groundwater flux into the river. Under this scenario, the Cl content of the river at its southern point (Abdalla Bridge) will rise to almost 7000 mg/L during the summer. In contrast, removal of all the saline water (16.5 MCM/a) that is artificially discharged into the Lower Jordan River will significantly reduce its Cl concentration, to levels of 650-2600 and 3000-3500 mg/L in the northern and southern areas of the Lower Jordan River, respectively. However, because the removal of either the sewage effluents or the saline water will decrease the river's discharge to a level that could potentially cause river desiccation during the summer months, other water sources must be allocated to preserve in-stream flow needs and hence the river's ecosystem. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Health effects of chemical pollution: case-study in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of some biological parameters of workers in a factory producing chemical fertilizers ASMIDAL (Algeria), and of residents a nearby city (El Bouni) who are exposed to the smell of chemical pollution, shows modifications of these parameters in terms of contamination due to nitric derivatives. The rat ingestion of infra-lethal dose of ammonium nitrate produced by ASMIDAL provokes modifications which are similar to those found in the subjects studied in this work. These modifications are of main concern to the levels of hemoglobin, methemoglobin, erythrocytes, seric and urinary nitrates. In addition, modifications in the activity of the spleen and of the liver have been observed in the rat. (author)

  10. Incidence and severity of scorpion stings in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Y Laïd; Boutekdjiret, L.; R Oudjehane; Laraba-Djebari, F.; Hellal, H.; M Guerinik; Griene, L.; Alamir, B.; Merad, R.; Chippaux JP

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Maghreb region. In Algeria, epidemiological data were collected over the past twenty years by the Algerian health authorities. This study is an analysis of morbidity and mortality data collected from 2001 to 2010. Annual incidence and mortality due to scorpion envenoming were 152 +/- 3.6 stings and 0.236 +/- 0.041 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI), respectively. The risk of being stung by a scorpion was dramatically higher in southern areas ...

  11. The Optimal Level of International Reserves: The case of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Rahabi, Anys

    2010-01-01

    Algeria has seen a surge in its international reserves over the past few years. However, most of this growth is originated by the important increase in oil prices Algeria’s economy is widely dependent vis-à-vis hydrocarbon’s prices due to a low development and diversification of its economic activities. This economy is thus very exposed to external shocks and should prevent against bankruptcy and ensure sufficient equity to import goods and services during these adverse periods. In our study,...

  12. Neotectonic deformation model of the Northern Algeria from Paleomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derder, M. E. M.; Henry, B.; Maouche, S.; Amenna, M.; Bayou, B.; Djellit, H.; Ymel, H.; Gharbi, S.; Abtout, A.; Ayache, M.

    2012-04-01

    The seismic activity of the Western Mediterranean area is partly concentrated in northern Africa, particularly in northern Algeria, as it is shown by the strongest recent earthquakes of "Zemmouri" 21 May 2003 Mw=6.9 and the "El Asnam" 10 October 1980 Ms= 7.3. This seismicity is due to the tectonic activity related to the convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates since at least the Oligocene. The deformation is mostly compressional with associated folds, strike-slip faults and thrusts, and a direction of shortening between N-S and NNW-SSE. This convergence involves a tectonic transpression which is expressed by active deformation along the plate boundary. In northern Algeria, the seismicity is concentrated in a coastal E-W thin band zone (the Tell Atlas). Active structures define there NE-SW trending folds and NE-SW sinistral transpressive faults, which affect the intermountain and coastal Neogene to Quaternary sedimentary basins (e.g. " Cheliff "basin, " Mitidja "basin, …). These reverse faults are associated with NW-SE to E-W strike-slips deep faults. The active tectonics could be explained by a simple blocks rotation kinematics model. In order to test the validity of this kinematic model, three different paleomagnetic studies have been conducted. The first one concerned the "Cheliff" basin where sedimentary Neogene formations were extensively sampled (66 sites). The second study was carried out on Miocene andesite and dacite rocks cropping out along the northern coastal zone of the "Cheliff" basin ("Beni Haoua" area, 19 sites). The third study has been carried out on the Miocene magmatic rocks (rhyolites and basalts) cropping out north-eastern part of the "Mitidja" basin ("Cap Djinet" - "Boumerdes" area, 23 sites). The obtained results show existence of paleomagnetic clockwise rotations in all the studied areas and then validates the kinematics block rotation model. Accordingly, the deformation related to the convergence between the Africa and Eurasia

  13. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay. PMID:24732060

  14. Noise Pollution in Irbid City — Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odat, Sana'A.

    2015-09-01

    Noise defined as any sound that annoys or disturbs humans or that causes or tends to cause an adverse psychological and physiological effect on humans. Irbid is one of the most populated cities in Jordan. It is environmentally noise polluted due to the rapid and widespread introduction of mechanical methods for production and for their transportation. L10, L50, L90 and LAeq noise levels were measured during the day time and night time to assess and evaluate the noise levels from mosques, schools, celebration halls, streets, building works, industrial areas and commercial areas. The results of the investigation showed that the measured noise levels from all the selected sources were high during the day time and the noise problem is not only limited to day time, but continues in night time in this city. These noise levels were higher than those set by Jordanian limits during day time and night time. A significant correlation between the measured statistical noise levels L10, L50 and L90 and equivalent continuous noise level LAeq were also detected. The mean value of industrial noise source was motors of large vehicles and engines. Whereas the presence of slow moving vehicles, low speed and honking of horns during traffic ingestion periods lead to an increase in noise levels in commercial areas. The noise from building machines and equipment (dredges, concrete mixers, concrete pumps and jackhammers) is quite different from that of traditional equipment. The construction machines have engines that produce a loud, fluctuating noise with varying frequencies that can propagate the sound for a long distance. The noise produced by these engines is particularly disturbing due to the wide variations in frequency and volume.

  15. A Jordan GNS Construction for the Holonomy-Flux *-algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Rios, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The holonomy-flux *-algebra was recently proposed as an algebra of basic kinematical observables for loop quantum gravity. We show the conventional GNS construction breaks down when the the holonomy-flux *-algebra is allowed to be a Jordan algebra of observables. To remedy this, we give a Jordan GNS construction for the holonomy-flux *-algebra that is based on trace. This is accomplished by assuming the holonomy-flux *-algebra is an algebra of observables that is also a Banach algebra, hence ...

  16. JORDAN 23/501DENIM PACK“牛”鞋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian

    2008-01-01

    2月17日,2008年全明星周末中的一天,这一天也是飞人乔丹的生日。席间,也是谣传“最后一位正神”Air Jordan XX3全明星版本的发售之日。当然这一天同是惊为天人的Jordan 23/501 Denim Pack正式确定尺码和公布发售日期的一天。

  17. Positive projections of symmetric matrices and Jordan algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Bent; Jensen, Søren Tolver

    2013-01-01

    An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model.......An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model....

  18. Radioactive waste management challenges and progress in Iraq - 59164

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of Iraq, through the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) is decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. The 18 former facilities at the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center near Baghdad include partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. These 18 former facilities contain large numbers of silos and drums of un-characterized radioactive waste and approximately 30 tanks that contain or did contain un-characterized liquid radioactive wastes. Other key sites outside of Al Tuwaitha include facilities at Jesira (uranium processing and waste storage facility), Rashdiya (centrifuge facility) and Tarmiya (enrichment plant). The newly created Radioactive Waste Treatment Management Directorate (RWTMD) within MoST is responsible for Iraq's centralized management of radioactive waste, including safe and secure disposal. In addition to being responsible for the un-characterized wastes at Al Tuwaitha, the RWTMD will be responsible for future decommissioning wastes, approximately 900 disused sealed radioactive sources, and unknown quantities of NORM wastes from oil production in Iraq. This paper presents the challenges and progress that the RWTMD has made in setting-up a radioactive waste management program. The progress includes the establishment of a staffing structure, staff, participation in international training, rehabilitation of portions of the former Radioactive Waste Treatment Station at Al-Tuwaitha and the acquisition of equipment. (authors)

  19. Eyeless in America: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article examines 50 films produced and released between the years 2001 and 2012 that are concerned with the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using Jacques Ellul's theories set out in his book "Propaganda," the article argues that while the films have failed at the box office, they were intended to function as integration propaganda. The…

  20. Extension Education for Dryland Cropping Systems in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Ghanem, Rita; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne; Koenig, Richard; Pannkuk, Chris; Pan, William; Parker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Iraq, formerly known as Mesopotamia, is the birthplace of agriculture. The recent war and instability have significantly impacted the country's agricultural production and knowledge support systems. To support revitalization of the Iraqi agricultural system, the USDA funded a consortium of five U.S. universities (Washington State University,…

  1. Consequences of the Iraq War for International and Constitutional Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that international law can be changed by state practice as it has been attempted by the attacking parties in the Iraq war, but also that their objective has failed because of unclear, changing, and mutually contradictory aims stated for the invasion. The incidents raise the need for ...

  2. Examining Media Coverage: A Classroom Study of Iraq War News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Christopher R.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the 2003 school year, Christopher Leahey's ninth grade global history students followed the media's coverage of the escalating crisis between the United States and Iraq. In early March of that year, as the media's coverage intensified, students brought a multitude of questions and concerns into the classroom. Rather than simply answer…

  3. Big questions cloud Iraq's future role in world oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Iraq raises questions for the world oil market beyond those frequently asked about when and under what circumstances it will resume exports. Two wars since 1981 have obscured encouraging results from a 20 year exploration program that were only beginning to come to light when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. Those results indicate the country might someday be able to produce much more than the 3.2 million b/d it was flowing before a United Nations embargo blocked exports. If exploratory potential is anywhere near what officials asserted in the late 1980s, and if Iraq eventually turns hospitable to international capital, the country could become a world class opportunity for oil companies as well as an exporter with productive capacity approaching that of Saudi Arabia. But political conditions can change quickly. Under a new, secular regime, Iraq might welcome non-Iraqi oil companies and capital as essential to economic recovery. It's a prospect that warrants a new industry look at what the country has revealed about its geology and exploration history

  4. Cyanophyta recorded in Erbil ,Kurdistan region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janan Jabbar Toma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred fourty four species of blue green algae have been listed and recorded in this investigation. The listed species belong to five main groups of cyanophyta, making up all together fourty six genus. It was found that blue green algae in Erbil represented (54% of Iraqi blue green algae, and (11% of all known algae in Iraq so far

  5. Academic development for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Kok (Dirk); D.M. Maghdid (Delshad); M.S. Mohammed (Maqsood); G.H.S. Sherwani (Govand)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Continuous education is mandatory for all urologists, and undertaking cooperative research is a very effective means for this. We describe the experience and possibilities for continuing education for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. We hope to provide a framework f

  6. Identifying water mass depletion in Northern Iraq observed by GRACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.; Olsthoorn, T.N.; Al-manmi, D.A.M.A.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Smidt, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Observations acquired by Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission indicate a mass loss of 31 ± 3 km3 or 130 ± 14 mm in Northern Iraq between 2007 and 2009. This data is used as an independent validation of a hydrologic model of the region including lake mass variations. We developed a

  7. The IAEA in Iraq: Past activities and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary paper was first published in August 2002 along with papers of similar scope describing other aspects of Iraq's WMD programmes. Despite its inclusion in a compendium introducing the concept of 'coercive inspections', the author made it clear to the publisher the Carnegie Foundation for International Peace (CEIP) - that he did not support that concept which he considered to have the potential to result in a serious hazard to inspectors in the field. Since that time the UN Security Council has adopted resolution 1441 - not dissimilar in scope and objective to that contained in the author's paper to the CEIP workshop on Iraq in July 1991 - and inspectors have already resumed their activities in Iraq. Resolution 1441 contains little new but is extremely helpful in bringing to prominence and elaborating the extensive rights of the inspection authorities already embodied in their respective plans for on goings monitoring and verification. What is new is the inspectorates' right to transport Iraqi nationals and their family members outside Iraq in order to conduct unencumbered interviews. This new right seems to have been viewed with circumspection within the inspectorates and rightly so. Its implementation is fraught with difficulty. For example, if the Iraqi regime is true to the media model then it must be assumed that valued family members of critical interviewees have already been at least identified by the regime if, that is, they are not already 'enjoying the hospitality of the State'. Again, would the apparent refusal of family members, young and old, to accompany the interviewee be deemed to be non-co-operation? Does 1441 really give the inspectorates the right of extradition or does it mean that those interviewees willing to leave, along with their families, and released without serious objections by the Iraqi regime, are likely to have little to contribute to current knowledge? Despite the above reservation, resolution 1441 provides a firm basis for

  8. [Targeting abattoirs to control cystic echinococcosis in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchikh ElFegoun, M C; Kohil, K; L'Ollivier, C; Lleu, M; Babelhadj, B; Piarroux, M; Gharbi, M; Piarroux, R

    2016-08-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important anthropozoonotic parasitic common in Algeria. The predominant life cycle of E. granulosus is a synanthropic cycle with domestic dogs as definitive hosts and livestock animals as intermediate hosts. Slaughter activity represents a potential source for dogs to access infected offal. The aim of the present study was to determine if the contact between dogs and potentially infected offal was possible in licensed abattoirs. Eighty-one private and public abattoirs located in eastern Algeria were assessed with respect to their level of protection against the intrusion of dogs.We have demonstrated that in 42 % of these abattoirs, dogs could easily come in contact with potentially parasitized offal. The most common incorrect practices were the dumping of offal freely into the environment, the feeding of dogs with offal, and the leaving of unattended offal in an unsealed chamber. Overall, some hazardous practices remained common customs of workers, and enough abattoirs remain non-compliant that the cattledog domestic cycle of CE is unlikely to be broken. Hence, some recommended measures to interrupt parasite transmission include the following: recognition of the importance of abattoirs in the maintenance of canine echinococcosis, the controlled and proper disposal of offal, the abolishment of the custom of feeding dogs with infected offal and improvements in the level of health education of abattoir staff. PMID:27251548

  9. Spain and the Promotion of Governance in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bustos García de Castro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the reasons why Spain which possesses a consolidated democratic regime continues to promote democracy and even good governance in certain countries in such an uncertain, ambiguous manner. Recent events, such as the impact of international terrorism, have meant that there is an even more urgent need for providing democratic assistance to the neighbouring countries of the Maghreb region. In spite of its initial limitations and slants,the very concept of governance would represent a non-intrusive promotion of democracy. Nevertheless, Spain’s actors in the field of foreign policy and cooperation with development (as the case of Algeria illustrates perfectly have been clearly reluctant to commit themselves to this course of action. Spain’s patent energy dependence on Algeria (a fact that is often put forward as the main explanatory reason is called into question, with an argument based not only on the evidence of Spanish action in other countries in regions (such as Tunisia and Latin America, but also in an analysis of the discourses and instruments of Spanish foreign policy. As an alternative explanation, it is suggested that practices that have long been used in Spain’s “Arab” foreign policy, the pending reform of the external service, the Europeisation of external action and the “second-player syndrome” (i.e. second to France, provide a better explanation ofSpain’s ambiguousness and of its slow abandonment of policies that favour the status quo.

  10. Ionizing radiations, underground world and nuclear tests in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, Allel

    2010-05-01

    Today, the exposure to ionizing radiations, is still a real great physical hazard in the world at various levels until the nuclear tests which led to a rich and lawful debate, and needs the installation of preventive rules through technical and medical aspects during the use of the radioactive sources, (theradioprotection). Concerning the occupational health, the pathology of the ionizing radiations is repaired under occupational disease. Our interest is to highlight this physical hazard, which represents an important chapter of the occupational pathology in its effects and prevention of the workers exposed in Algeria. The second aim of the paper is to highlight the historical aspect of the risk of ionizing radiations and consequences causes by the French nuclear tests in In Eker (underground galleries of the mountain of Hoggar in the south of Algeria in 1961), whose effects present a great damage on the health of the Algerian captive, and "workers", indigenous population and environment until now. This event deserves its place as much as that of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945).

  11. Determinants of Internet Banking Adoption in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneen A. Abu-Assi

    2014-11-01

    internet banking adoption, banks should combine the concepts of compatibility, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and security into the online banking services concept in the stage of market planning and ensure proper synergy between these variables in order to increase the level of internet banking adoption. Moreover, both marketers and banks can utilize the demographic variables in order to improve their marketing activities for online banking. Finally, since the Jordanian financial system is going through a period of extensive change, the development process should not be linked to one specific bank or another, but instead all banks under the Central Bank of Jordan should try to build long-term strategies that include an awareness component in order to raise internet banking adoption awareness amongst Jordanian banking clients.

  12. Disseminating and Using Student Assessment Information in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Obeidat, Osamha; Dawani, Zaina

    2014-01-01

    Student assessment has been increasingly recognized as playing a key role in monitoring and improving student learning and achievement levels. This case study discusses the important steps that Jordan has taken to strengthen its student assessment system and ensure that the information gathered from classroom assessments, examinations, and large-scale assessment activities supports student...

  13. Zeta functional equation on Jordan algebras of type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayoya, J. B.

    2005-02-01

    Using the Jordan algebras methods, specially the properties of Peirce decomposition and the Frobenius transformation, we compute the coefficients of the zeta functional equation, in the case of Jordan algebras of type II. As particular cases of our result, we can cite the case of studied by Gelbart [Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 108 (1971)] and Godement and Jacquet [Zeta functions of simple algebras, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 260, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972], and the case of studied by Muro [Adv. Stud. Pure Math. 15 (1989) 429]. Let us also mention, that recently, Bopp and Rubenthaler have obtained a more general result on the zeta functional equation by using methods based on the algebraic properties of regular graded algebras which are in one-to-one correspondence with simple Jordan algebras [Local Zeta Functions Attached to the Minimal Spherical Series for a Class of Symmetric Spaces, IRMA, Strasbourg, 2003]. The method used in this paper is a direct application of specific properties of Jordan algebras of type II.

  14. International Education: A Case Study from the University of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes international education at the University of Jordan (UJ). Specifically it investigates a random sample of international students comprising Americans, Europeans and Asians. A field survey approach with qualitative and quantitative dimensions was used. Questionnaires were used to solicit information from the students. In…

  15. Trace element analysis of archaeological artefacts from Pella, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history of the site at Pella, Jordan is presented, as a prelude to an analysis of the element composition of 82 pottery sherds. Statistical results from this data support the archaeological evidence for occupation during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age

  16. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Northern Jordan: Endoscopy based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori infection is considered the most common infection worldwide and is associated with many other disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this infection among patients undergoing endoscopy in Northern Jordan. Between November 1998 and September 2000, all patients referred from the Gastro-esophageal Clinic to the Endoscopy Unit at Princess Basma Teaching Hospital, Irbid, Northern Jordan were enrolled in this prospective study. For each patient clinical and epidemiological data was collected and endoscopy was performed. At least 3 antral biopsies were obtained from each patient, and these were examined histologically for the presence of gastritis and stained for Helicobacter pylori using modified Giemsa stain. A total of 197 consecutive patients (113 females) with a mean age of 40.2 years (range 15-91 years) were studied. Abdominal pain was the highest presenting symptom. Gastritis 91% and esophagitis 42% were the most frequent endoscopic findings. Gastritis was documented histologically in 183 (93%) of patients. Helicobacter pylori was found in 161 patients (82%), with all of these having histological gastritis. The 11 patients with gastric ulcer, compared to the 51 out of the 59 (86%) patients with duodenal ulcer, showed Helicobacter pylori in their biopsies. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients subjected to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Jordan is high. This study confirms that Helicobacter pylori is significantly associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer. Further studies are needed to determine the types of Helicobacter pylori strains present in Jordan. (author)

  17. THE EMISSION POTENTIAL FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL IN JORDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was conducted to monitor the emission potential from solid waste landfilled in Jordan over a period of 292 days using an anaerobic lysimeter. A 30 kg waste sample reflecting the typical municipal solid waste (MSW streams generated in Jordan was used to simulate the influence of climate on the emission potential of landfills located in semi-arid areas. The experimental results demonstrated that a significant amount of leachate and landfill gas was produced. The methane content was found to be more than 45% and the leachate produced reached 15.7 l after 200 days. However, after 260 days the gas and leachate production rate became negligible. A significant amount of heavy metal traces was found in the leachate due to mixed waste disposal. Changes in biogas and leachate quality parameters in the lysimeter revealed typical landfill behaviour trends, the only difference being that they developed much more quickly. In view of current landfill practices in Jordan and the effect of climate change, the results suggest that landfill design and operational modes need to be adjusted in order to achieve sustainability. For this reason, optimized design parameters and operational scenarios for sustainable landfill based on the country’s climatic conditions and financial as well as technical potential are recommended as a primary reference for future landfills in Jordan as well as in similar regions and climates.

  18. AN ALGORITHM FOR JORDAN CANONICAL FORM OF A QUATERNION MATRIX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜同松; 魏木生

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce a concept of companion vector, and studythe Jordan canonical forms of quaternion matrices by using the methods of complex representation and companion vector, not only give out a practical algorithm for Jordancanonical form J of a quaternion matrix A, but also provide a practical algorithm forcorresponding nonsingular matrix P with P- 1 AP = J.

  19. The Desert and the Sown Project in Northern Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerner, Susanne

    The desert and sown project, which started in 1999 and continued in 2008-2009, studied the region between the settled areas east of Irbid and Ramtha and the surrounding desert at Mafraq (northern Jordan). Large parts of the material comes from the Palaeolithic period, while some smaller tells dat...

  20. Biomass Energy Utilization in Northeast Badia of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al-Smairan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogas systems can contribute to rural development, utilization of renewable energy, climate change mitigation, as well as environmental protection. Due to its multiple benefits, the Jordan Government must made great efforts to promote the development of biogas systems in rural areas, especially household biogas plants and medium scale biogas plants for intensive livestock and poultry farms. In order to better promote and improve biogas systems in rural Jordan, a comprehensive literature review of the various sources was undertaken for this research. This study aimed at exploring weaknesses in the biogas value chain that hinder wider dissemination of the technology in Jordan. The methodology used is holistic, combing literature review with interviews with farmers and observations of processes across the value chain in Jordan Badia regions, where biogas technology has no any history in Badia. It was revealed that wider dissemination of biogas is hampered by weaknesses in the processes and linkages among the actors. Many potential users are not aware of the technology and therefore the market remains slim. All these, coupled with inadequate policy environment, lack of stakeholder development, missing linkage to finance and few technicians, render the market unattractive to entrepreneurs who would have invested in the dissemination of the technology. The government should conduct awareness campaigns through media, translate current policies into actions to development key stakeholders, set the required institutional framework and programmes to support biogas dissemination activities. It should also train more technicians and concentrate on research and development.

  1. Dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaaytah A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammar Almaaytah,1 Tareq L Mukattash,2 Julia Hajaj2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Objective: Current regulations in Jordan state that antibiotics cannot be sold without a medical prescription. This study aimed to assess the percentage of pharmacies that dispense antibiotics without a medical prescription in the Kingdom of Jordan and identify and highlight the extent and seriousness of such practices among Jordanian pharmacies. Methods: A prospective study was performed, and five different clinical scenarios were simulated at pharmacies investigated including sore throat, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection in childbearing-aged women. Three levels of demand were used to convince the pharmacists to sell an antibiotic. Results: A total of 202 total pharmacies in Jordan were visited in the present study. The majority of pharmacies (74.3% dispensed antibiotics without prescription with three different levels of demand. The percentage of pharmacies dispensing antibiotics without a prescription for the sore throat scenario was 97.6%, followed by urinary tract infection (83.3%, diarrhea (83%, and otitis media (68.4%. The lowest percentage of antibiotic dispensing was for the acute sinusitis simulation at 48.5%. Among the pharmacies that dispensed antibiotics, the pharmacists provided an explanation as the number of times per day the drug should be taken in 95.3% of the cases, explained the duration of treatment in 25.7%, and inquired about allergies prior to the sale of the antibiotic in only 17.3%. Only 52 pharmacies (25.7% refused to dispense any kind of antibiotics, the majority (61.5% of this refusal response came from acute sinusitis cases, while the minority (2.4% came from the sore throat cases. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that antibiotics continue to be dispensed

  2. IAEA concerned about security of nuclear material in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several recent media reports have raised concerns about the security of nuclear material stored near the Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Centre in Iraq. U.S. military forces recently entered the Tuwaitha site. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) asked the United States to ensure that the material located there is properly protected and that access to the site is restricted. The IAEA has subsequently received such assurances. 'I have written yesterday to the United States Government asking that it ensure the security and safety of all the nuclear material there, which has been under IAEA seal since 1991. I indicated that until our inspectors return to Iraq, the U.S. has responsibility for maintaining security at this important storage facility,' said Dr Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. Most of the nuclear and other radioactive material at Iraq's Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Centre is stored near the main complex in the three buildings which are known as 'Location C.' It contains nuclear material, covered by Iraq's Safeguards Agreement under the NPT, that the Agency was not required by the U.N. Security Council to remove after the Gulf war in 1991 because it could not be used directly for nuclear weapons purposes. A separate building at Location C is used to store radioisotope sources. Radiation levels are high and great care must be taken if entering the building. IAEA inspectors have been monitoring and inspecting the material at Location C periodically since 1991. The IAEA applied seals on the drums containing the nuclear materials and the building itself. 'As soon as circumstances permit, the IAEA should return to verify that there has been no diversion of this material,' said Dr. ElBaradei. During weapons inspections in Iraq from November 2002 until March 2003, IAEA inspectors visited the Tuwaitha research center many times. Inspectors have examined underground areas at Tuwaitha as part of the inspection process, including the

  3. Experiences on Jordan Research and Training Reactor Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) commenced the Jordan Research and Training Reactor Project (tentatively called JRTR Project hereinafter) in January 2009. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Daewoo Engineering and Construction Co. established the KAERI/Daewoo Consortium (KDC) and signed a contract on March 30, 2010 with Jordan to build the Middle Eastern country's first nuclear research reactor. Owing to an insufficient regulatory infrastructure in Jordan, the JNRC (Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission) determined to cooperate with Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) to support the regulation on the construction and operation of the JRTR. On Aug. 15, 2013, the JNRC issued a Construction Permit (CP) for the JRTR and at the end of this year, KDC will apply for an Operating License (OL). In this paper, the Jordanian regulatory framework and the experiences on the JRTR CP licensing will be discussed. The cooperation between the JNRC and KINS on the JRTR CP review process is a good model of international cooperation on nuclear regulations. Moreover, the experiences on the JRTR licensing will be a good lesson to those countries that plan to introduce a nuclear program, but do not have a sufficient regulatory infrastructure. Additionally, the understandings on the differences and resemblances between the US and European regulatory philosophies on nuclear safety are needed for countries that plan to introduce a nuclear program. These understandings are also needed for the nuclear facility suppliers. The licensing process, applicable regulatory standards and guidelines shall be clearly stated in written form under the contract conditions. If not, unpredictable variables from the difference between US and European regulatory standards may cause a delay in the project schedule. In the case of the JRTR project, clearly-stated licensing process, applicable regulatory standards and guidelines on the contract conditions minimized the delay

  4. Experiences on Jordan Research and Training Reactor Licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yong Se; Lee, Hyun do; Choi, Min Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) commenced the Jordan Research and Training Reactor Project (tentatively called JRTR Project hereinafter) in January 2009. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Daewoo Engineering and Construction Co. established the KAERI/Daewoo Consortium (KDC) and signed a contract on March 30, 2010 with Jordan to build the Middle Eastern country's first nuclear research reactor. Owing to an insufficient regulatory infrastructure in Jordan, the JNRC (Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission) determined to cooperate with Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) to support the regulation on the construction and operation of the JRTR. On Aug. 15, 2013, the JNRC issued a Construction Permit (CP) for the JRTR and at the end of this year, KDC will apply for an Operating License (OL). In this paper, the Jordanian regulatory framework and the experiences on the JRTR CP licensing will be discussed. The cooperation between the JNRC and KINS on the JRTR CP review process is a good model of international cooperation on nuclear regulations. Moreover, the experiences on the JRTR licensing will be a good lesson to those countries that plan to introduce a nuclear program, but do not have a sufficient regulatory infrastructure. Additionally, the understandings on the differences and resemblances between the US and European regulatory philosophies on nuclear safety are needed for countries that plan to introduce a nuclear program. These understandings are also needed for the nuclear facility suppliers. The licensing process, applicable regulatory standards and guidelines shall be clearly stated in written form under the contract conditions. If not, unpredictable variables from the difference between US and European regulatory standards may cause a delay in the project schedule. In the case of the JRTR project, clearly-stated licensing process, applicable regulatory standards and guidelines on the contract conditions minimized the delay

  5. The kitchen furniture market in the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelio Volpe; Mauro Spinelli

    2013-01-01

    The Report 'The kitchen furniture market in Middle East and North Africa (MENA)' analyses supply structure, distribution system (channels), market demand, import-export flows, competitive system, providing statistical data and trends of kitchen furniture production and consumption, as well as import and export data. 2015 forecasts on number of kitchen sold is given for each country considered (Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tu...

  6. Attenuation of earthquake generated P waves in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is the first attempt to investigate seismic wave attenuation in Iraq. it studies longitudinal waves recorded at Baghdad (BHD) and Musul (MSL) observatories from earthquakes originated in Turkey and in Iran. Thirty seven earthquakes were chosen for this investigation, twenty three of them were recorded at Baghdad observatory, and fourteen were recorded at Mousul observatory. The epicenters of some of these earthquakes are located within the Iraqi territory; the rest of the events have their epicenters on the Iraqi-Iran borders or on the Turkish and Iranian sides of the boeder. The path of the investigated earthquakes cover the central, north and eastern regions of Iraq; with magnitudes (mb) varying between (4.1-5.7). The amplitude-distance curve method was utilized in this investigation. The mean attenuation value obtained for the study area was 0.0035 km-1. (authors). 19 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs

  7. Sir Harry Sinderson Pasha and Iraq's first medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fattal, Sa'ad

    2013-08-01

    During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria. Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history. He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in 1946 he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least 500 local doctors. PMID:24585764

  8. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iraq consists of a lowland trough lying between asymmetrical and very different upland massifs to the east, north and west and continuing southeastwards to the Persian Gulf. The region is one of crustal weakness and subsidence with relatively young plastic sedimentary rocks engulfed in downwarped, ancient, rigid and highly resistant blocks. Exploration in the 1954-55 period found some minor radioactive anomalies and very low uranium contents in limestones and phosphates. The results of an aerial radiometric survey in 1973-74 are not known to IAEA. Iraq has no reported uranium resources but there are several favourable formations which warrant a detailed survey. In view of the size of the country and the small amount of systematic exploration carried out up to the present time, the Speculative Potential is considered to lie in the 1,000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium category. (author)

  9. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2012: Iraq Energy Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Iraq is already the world’s third largest oil exporter. It has the resources and intention to increase its oil production vastly. Contracts are already in place. Will Iraq’s ambitions be realised? And what would the implications be for Iraq’s economy and for world oil markets? The obstacles are formidable: political, logistical, legal, regulatory, financial, lack of security and sufficient skilled labour. One example: in 2011 grid electricity could meet only 55% of demand. The International Energy Agency has studied these issues with the support and close cooperation of the government of Iraq and many other leading officials, commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.

  10. Rainfall estimation based on NAW approach using MSG-SEVIRI images: An application in north Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokdad, Fatiha; Haddad, Boualem

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we will adapt the NAW (Nagri, Adler and Wetzel) precipitation, estimation approach to the north Algeria events using the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite images. The tests are carried out on seven areas of northern Algeria: Sidi Bel Abbes, Oran Port, Algiers Port, Dar El Beida, Bedjaia, Jijel-Achouat and Annaba, in winter 2006. The NAW approach is applied by thresholding to temperature from 253 K. The validation is performed by comparaison the estimated rainfall to in ...

  11. Forecast future production of municipal waste on the basis of a panel data model in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Djemaci, Brahim

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the factors that influenced the production of municipal waste in Algeria. It carries an estimate of future quantities of waste on the basis of data from 48 departments from 1997 to 2008. We use econometric projection of the waste to determine the factors that influence the production of waste. The analysis shows that the production of municipal waste in Algeria is related to several factors: population density, the retail trade. The projection of future municipal waste amo...

  12. Predominance of CRF06_cpx and Transmitted HIV Resistance in Algeria: Update 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaziz, Akila; Papuchon, Jennifer; Khaled, Safia; Ouerdane, Dalila; Fleury, Hervé; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Since 2008, no data on HIV diversity or the transmission rate of HIV resistance mutations in naive patients have been presented for Algeria, a country of MENA region. Between 2013 and 2014, we studied 152 samples including 89 naive patients. The current study describes the change in HIV diversity in Algeria with the predominance of CRF06_cpx and the huge increase of transmitted HIV resistance, which now reaches 15%. PMID:26529365

  13. Algeria: 2009 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; and Public Information Notice

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews the Article IV Consultation with Algeria on economic developments and policies. Algeria has enjoyed several years of strong economic performance driven by public spending, but continues to face important challenges. Nonhydrocarbon (NH) growth and job creation are largely sustained by public spending, highlighting the pressing need to accelerate structural reforms to diversify the economy, letting a competitive and outward-oriented private sector emerge. Executive Directors...

  14. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L. IN BOUMERDES MOUNTAINOUS REGION (ALGERIA)

    OpenAIRE

    L. Bendifallah; A. E. Benmahfoud; Y. Hameni; S. Mameche

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia lentiscus L. (Pistaciaceae) is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. For this study, the leaves were collected from the mountainous region of Boumerdes, in northern Algeria. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Pistacia lentiscus as a medicinal herb. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against three pathogenic bacterial strains and...

  15. Courting the former colony:Algeria's special position in French Third World policy, 1963

    OpenAIRE

    Zia-Ebrahimi, Reza

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between France and Algeria in the immediate aftermath of Algerian independence. In 1963, Algeria repeatedly breached the Evian Accords, and continuously threatened France’s national interests. Yet, French policymakers accommodated Algeria’s reassertion and even rewarded it with a generous coopeération package. I will argue thatthis remarkable discrepancy was due to Gaullist France’s belief that association with its former colony would benefit its image a...

  16. Preparation Before Signature of Upgrade of Algeria Heavy Water Research Reactor Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Song; ZAN; Huai-qi; XU; Qi-guo; JIA; Yu-wen

    2012-01-01

    <正>Algeria heavy water research reactor (Birine) is a multiple-purpose research reactor, which was constructed with the help of China more than 20 years ago. By request of Algeria, China will upgrade the research reactor; so as to improve the status of current reactor such as equipment ageing, shortage of spare parts, several systems do not meet requirements of current standards and criteria etc.

  17. Descriptive Study of an Outbreak of Avian Urolithiasis in a Large Commercial Egg Complex in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hicham SID; Amine FETTAH; Abdelaziz LOUNAS

    2011-01-01

    Avian urolithiasis is one of the major causes of mortality in poultry. However, in Algeria this condition has never been described. An outbreak of avian urolithiasis was observed on a large commercial egg complex in the department of Chlef (West of Algeria). The clinical features of this condition are to be described. Mortality associated to urolithiasis started at the onset of egg production, estimated to 0.7 % per week. Urolithiasis induced an egg drop estimated to 12%. Dead and live layers...

  18. Treated Sewage Water Use in Irrigated Agriculture. Theoretical design of farming systems in Seil Al Zarqa and the Middle Jordan Valley in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duqqah, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Most of Jordan is arid and water resources are limited. This situation becomes more acute the more Jordan develops. New techniques in agriculture, industry and the domestic sector place an increasing demand upon clean and safe water. Good-quality water is hardly available. Unco

  19. "Explosions and Examinations": Growing up Female in Post-Saddam Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Perri; Kelly, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In the aftermath of the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, Iraqi civilians have witnessed their country descend into profound and often deadly chaos. HNK and Aunt Najma are two young voices from post-Saddam, post-invasion Iraq who write www-based diaries (blogs) on life in post-invasion Iraq. Through their voices, and via the voices of many other…

  20. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and depositional history of the late Cretaceous to early Miocene sequence of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Starkie, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents a new calcareous nannofossil based zonation scheme for Iraq based upon the examination of 515 drill cutting, conventional core and bit samples from both southern and northern Iraq. This zonation consists of 13 zones and 7 subzones covering the Late Cretaceous to Early Miocene. To date no detailed nannofossil zonation scheme was available for Iraq and therefore the nannofossil zonation presented here breaks new ground. The new zonation scheme has also been successfully cor...

  1. Extent, Characterization and Causes of Soil Salinity in Central and Southern Iraq and Possible Reclamation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Asad Sarwar Qureshi; Adnan A. Al-Falahi

    2015-01-01

    Poor irrigation practices and lack of drainage facilities have contributed to rising groundwater tables leading to soil salinization in the irrigated areas of central and southern Iraq. Salinity problems has robbed the production potential of the 70% of the total irrigated area of Iraq with up to 30% gone completely out of production. This situation has threatened the sustainability of irrigated agriculture which produces more than 70% of the total cereal production in Iraq. Most ...

  2. Risky Driving Behaviours among Medical Students in Erbil, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Shabila, Nazar P; Kamaran H. Ismail; Saleh, Abubakir M; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil, Iraq, and to explore the relationship between risky driving behaviours and perceptions of risky driving. Methods: This self-administered questionnaire-based survey was conducted from January to May 2014 among a random sample of 400 medical students at Hawler Medical University in Erbil. The questionnaire was designed to assess the frequency of engagement in 21 risky driving behaviours,...

  3. Extreme precipitation events and related weather patterns over Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    raheem Al-nassar, Ali; Sangrà, Pablo; Alarcón, Marta

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the extreme precipitation events and the associated weather phenomena in the Middle East and particularly in Iraq. For this purpose we used Baghdad daily precipitation records from the Iraqi Meteorological and Seismology Organization combined with ECMWF (ERA-Interim) reanalysis data for the period from January 2002 to December 2013. Extreme events were found statistically at the 90% percentile of the recorded precipitation, and were highly correlated with hydrological flooding in some cities of Iraq. We identified fifteen extreme precipitation events. The analysis of the corresponding weather patterns (500 hPa and 250 hPa geopotential and velocity field distribution) indicated that 5 events were related with cut off low causing the highest precipitation (180 mm), 3 events related with rex block (158 mm), 3 events related with jet streak occurrence (130 mm) and 4 events related with troughs (107 mm). . Five of these events caused flash floods and in particular one of them related with a rex block was the most dramatic heavy rain event in Iraq in 30 years. We investigated for each case the convective instability and dynamical forcing together with humidity sources. For convective instability we explored the distribution of the K index and SWEAT index. For dynamical forcing we analyzed at several levels Q vector, divergence, potential and relative vorticity advection and omega vertical velocity. Source of humidity was investigated through humidity and convergence of specific humidity distribution. One triggering factor of all the events is the advection and convergence of humidity from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Therefore a necessary condition for extreme precipitation in Iraq is the advection and convergence of humidity from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Our preliminary analysis also indicates that extreme precipitation events are primary dynamical forced playing convective instability a secondary role.

  4. The American way of war: Afghanistan and Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa Parraguez Kobek; Mariana Gonzalez Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11 placed the United States in a position to exercise its political objectives of securing national interests through military means. The War on Terror waged in Afghanistan and Iraq shifted the development of U.S. foreign policy, allowing for American leadership to exercise its right to sovereignty and power. The doctrine required a victory in each of the scenarios, and the inability to secure these aims resulted in civil war and insurgency in both countries. Import...

  5. Engagement in mental health treatment among veterans returning from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Stecker, Tracy; Fortney, John; Hamilton, Francis; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Ajzen, Icek

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many veterans return from combat experiencing a variety of mental health concerns. Previous research has documented a stigma associated with seeking treatment that interferes with the decision to seek treatment. This study, conceptualized using the theory of planned behavior, assessed beliefs about mental health treatment in order to understand mental health treatment seeking behavior among a group of returning National Guard soldiers who served in the war in Iraq. Methods: Partic...

  6. The Economic Costs of the War in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Kosec, Katrina; Wallsten, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Government policies are routinely subjected to rigorous cost analyses. Yet one of today's most controversial and expensive policies ,the ongoing war in Iraq, has not been. The $212 billion allocated by the U.S. Treasury has been widely reported. But the real, direct economic costs include more than budgetary allocations. Other costs include lives lost, injuries, and lost civilian productivity of National Guard and Reserve troops mobilized for the conflict. The conflict, however, also has gene...

  7. The Economic Consequences of a War with Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Nordhaus, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Much has been written about the national-security aspects of a potential conflict in Iraq, but there are no studies of the cost. A review of several past wars indicates that nations historically have consistently underestimated the cost of military conflicts. This study reviews the potential costs of a conflict including the postwar expenses that might be required for occupation, humanitarian assistance, reconstruction, nation-building, along with the implications for oil markets and macroeco...

  8. The Economic Consequences of a War in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Nordhaus, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Much has been written about the national-security aspects of a potential conflict with Iraq, but there are no studies of the cost. A review of several past wars indicates that nations historically have consistently underestimated the cost of military conflicts. This study reviews the potential costs of a conflict including the postwar expenses that might be required for occupation, humanitarian assistance, reconstruction, nation-building along with the implications for oil markets and macroec...

  9. Adolescent male with anorexia nervosa: a case report from Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younis Maha S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the first reported case of an adolescent male with anorexia nervosa in Iraq. This disorder is believed to be rare in males across cultures and uncommon for both genders in Arab countries. The patient met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa. He was hospitalized and received medical and psychiatric treatment at local facilities as discussed below and responded well to treatment.

  10. Occurrence of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Balqees A. Ali

    2012-01-01

    California mastitis tests (CMT) and white side test (WST) were used to determine the occurrence rate of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok province of Iraq. The rate of subclinical mastitis was 40.5% and 37.5% by CMT and WST respectively. The Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent isolate with 72.38% followed by Klebsiella spp. (29.79%) and Escherichia coli (27.65%). This is the first report on subclinical mastitis repor...

  11. Attempting return: Iraqis' re-migration from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Iaria, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    The voluntary repatriation of refugees and internally displaced persons is interpreted as evidence of restored security and political stability, improved civil-state relations and public confidence in reconstruction efforts in war-torn countries. Iraqi refugees' decision to return is less driven by improvements in Iraq than by their desire to rebuild their lives back home and to overcome the difficult legal and socio-economic conditions in neighbouring countries. The article explores Iraqi re...

  12. Decentralized Local Governance In Fragile States: Learning From Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkerhoff, Derick W.; Johnson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role that local governance plays in creating an effective state and in building constructive state—society relations. Reconstruction efforts in fragile, post-conflict states have focused largely on central government, yet decentralized local authorities offer a number of positive features. Looking at the governance reconstruction experience in Iraq, the analysis explores the extent to which these positive features have characterized Iraqi sub-national government. The...

  13. Sources, Dangers and Treatments of Oily Soil Pollutants in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi M. Mutter; Aqeel R. Lamy

    2014-01-01

    Oil pollution presents significant risks to living organism and human health because it can alter the ecosystem in rivers, seas, oceans, and pollutes air and soil. Oil, for example, can even reduce the efficiency of drinking water plants. Iraq suffers a lot from oil pollution as a result of wars that not only damage the oil infrastructures but also cause loss of thousand hectare of agriculture lands. In addition, oil pollution become primary factor that contribute to the electricity, fuel sho...

  14. IAEA inspectors complete verification of nuclear material in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A team of IAEA inspectors has returned from Iraq to Vienna after completing the annual Physical Inventory Verification of declared nuclear material. The material - natural or low-enriched uranium - is consolidated at a storage facility near the Tuwaitha complex, south of Baghdad. The inspectors found no diversion of nuclear material. The two-day inspection was conducted with the logistical and security assistance of the Multinational Force, the Office of the UN Security Coordinator, and the UN Assistance Mission for Iraq. Every non-nuclear-weapon State party to the NPT that has declared holdings of nuclear material is required to undergo such inspections. The inspectors verify the correctness of the State's declaration, and that material has not been diverted to any undeclared activity. Such inspections have been performed in Iraq on a continuing basis. NPT safeguards inspections are limited in scope and coverage as compared to the verification activities carried out in 1991-98 and 2002-03 by the IAEA under Security Council resolution 687 and related resolutions. (IAEA)

  15. What Strategic Outlook Holds for America in Iraq?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zugui

    2006-01-01

    @@ Agreat controversy is stirring up the world opinion over the future direction of developments in Iraq, a matter affecting overall U.S. foreign policy and even the international power configuration as well. An accurate assessment, however, requires analyzing the relevance of the issue to U.S. vital interests, the results of its current policy over there and its ability to cope with further potential challenges. The author rules out U. S. giving up its cause in Iraq or the likelihood of any drastic modifications in its present policy. He also concedes its ability to achieve partial successful reconstruction in the war-torn country, albeit in a scaled-down version, far short of its original much-vaunted expectations. In sum, Washington will naturally make constant policy adjustments to meet challenges for realization of its dynamic phased goals and maintain its continued military presence there in a certain form so as to ensure its strategic interests in Iraq,the Greater Middle East and even the entire "arc of instability."

  16. Analysis of drought areas in northern Algeria using Markov chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mourad Lazri; Soltane Ameur; Michel Brucker; Maurad Lahdir; Mounir Sehad

    2015-02-01

    The present work studies the trends in drought in northern Algeria. This region was marked by a severe, wide-ranging and persistent drought due to its extraordinary rainfall deficit. In this study, drought classes are identified using SPI (standardized precipitation index) values. A Markovian approach is adopted to discern the probabilistic behaviour of the time ser ies of the drought. Thus, a transition probability matrix is constructed from drought distribution maps. The trends in changes in drought types and the distribution area are analyzed. The results show that the probability of class severe/extreme drought increases considerably rising from the probability of 0.2650 in 2005 to a stable probability of 0.5756 in 2041.

  17. Adapting to climate change: water distribution in BBA City, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeroual, A.; Meddi, M.; Assani, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    For over 20 years, the eastern Algeria region has had significant rainfall deficits that resulted in severe droughts, which seriously affected the availability of water for drinking. Owing to considerations of affordability, drinking water is systematically underpriced because water is essential for life. Such a low price results in water being used inefficiently. This research presents the impact that a high leakage level in the water distribution network has on the water service price in BBA (Bordj Bou Arréridj) city and expected future water resources management scenarios in BBA watersheds by taking into account to the river flow simulated by GR2M using the outputs of climate models with emissions scenarios A1 and A1B. The analysis of the results shows a large economy can be made with regard to water losses, reaching up to 47% saving of the produced water volume; also, BBA city is expected to experience water stress before 2030.

  18. Urban Community, poverty and corruption: the case of Annaba, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadji KAHOUA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The population in the most Mediterranean countries, particularly in Algeria, is concentrated to the urban communities, cities with more or less importance, urban and coastal regions. This trend of rapid growth of the urban communities leads to multiple consequences both economically and socially on the use of resources and their distribution. The urban is the area where cross the resources, the population and the production activities and yours management. To analyze the corruption as a phenomenon triple (economic, social and institutional through an urban community (as Annaba’s case in this research it may well prove very fruitful in terms of lessons on this central phenomenon and its impacts in the North African countries.

  19. [Spread of Leishmania major to the north of Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrissa, A; Cherif, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Bouiba, L; Boubidi, S C; Benikhlef, R; Arrar, L; Hamrioui, B; Harrat, Z

    2012-02-01

    Since a long time, Leishmania major and L. infantum foci in Algeria were geographically separated by the mountains of the Tell Atlas which represent a natural barrier. Recently, a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has emerged in the village of El M'hir, located on the north side of the chain of the Tell Atlas, in the basin of the Soummam. During the period 2004-2010, 152 CL cases have been registered and 12 isolates were obtained from patients who declared never having been outside the village the last years. The identification of the parasites showed that all strains belonged to L major MON-25. Investigations on the reservoir hosts showed the presence of the sand rat (Psammomys obesus), for the first time, in this locality. Five strains isolated from this rodent belonged to L. major MON-25. The sand rat, which is usually observed around the chotts in the Saharan and steppe areas, acts as the main reservoir of L. major in Algeria. Its presence in the new focus of El M'hir is reported for the first time. Entomological surveys carried out in 2009 showed the predominance of two sandfly species: Phlebotomus papatasi and P. perniciosus. The first one is known as a vector of L major in the Algerian Sahara. This study highlights the spread of L. major from the arid zones towards the semi arid areas, particularly in the Soummam valley. Climate changes and desertification observed in the steppe area northern Sahara could play a role in the extension of the disease. PMID:22170408

  20. Landscape development in the context of soil distribution in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Processes of landscape change can be assessed by studying the distribution of soil types and their connection to climate, the geology, and land use. In this context, even in areas where no virgin soils are available, paleosols pre-dating the introduction of agriculture can be utilized for estimating potential soil development without human impact. Soil distribution in Jordan follows closely the climate and topography: specific soil orders can be found within the dry and hot subtropical, subhumid-semiarid, semiarid-arid, and arid regions. The pattern of soil and paleosol distribution in Jordan points to an important role of the geology (bedrock and relief), and of climate in their formation, both locally such as in the vicinity of the ancient site of Abila, and regionally in the whole country. In contrast, the impact of land use appears relatively limited: overall erosion has been estimated not to exceed the expected geological rate, and Jordan is considered to be in the stable state of completed geologic erosion. This is further supported by strongly varying soil properties and archaeological material on agricultural fields, which suggests that overall erosion processes during historical periods were limited. The presence of a quite uniform 4 m thick loess cover around the site of Umm el-Jimal in north-east Jordan suggests that aeolian deposits are probably the by far dominating parent material of current soils in northern Jordan. In this context, an apparent division of some soil profiles into subsoil and topsoil could correspond to dominant in-situ soil formation out of bedrock weathering at the bottom, while the upper part of the profiles could correspond to aeolian dust as main parent material. A stone line or lithological discontinuity separating these two parts of the profile might refer to a major erosion event. If true, this could indicate that current soils in Jordan might represent a mixture of at least two phases of soil development with probably

  1. A surveillance summary of smoking and review of tobacco control in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The burden of smoking-related diseases in Jordan is increasingly evident. During 2006, chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs accounted for more than 50% of all deaths in Jordan. With this evidence in hand, we highlight the prevalence of smoking in Jordan among youth and adults and briefly review legislation that governs tobacco control in Jordan. The prevalence of smoking in Jordan remains unacceptably high with smoking and use of tobacco prevalences ranging from 15% to 30% among students aged 13-15 years and a current smoking prevalence near 50% among men. Opportunities exist to further reduce smoking among both youth and adults; however, combating tobacco use in Jordan will require partnerships and long-term commitments between both private and public institutions as well as within local communities.

  2. Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of Jordan homomorphisms on Banach algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirasawa Go

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that a Jordan homomorphism from a Banach algebra into a semisimple commutative Banach algebra is a ring homomorphism. Using a signum effectively, we can give a simple proof of the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of a Jordan homomorphism between Banach algebras. As a direct corollary, we show that to each approximate Jordan homomorphism from a Banach algebra into a semisimple commutative Banach algebra there corresponds a unique ring homomorphism near to .

  3. Exceptional Lie algebras, SU(3) and Jordan pairs: part 2. Zorn-type representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A representation of the exceptional Lie algebras reflecting a simple unifying view, based on realizations in terms of Zorn-type matrices, is presented. The role of the underlying Jordan pair and Jordan algebra content is crucial in the development of the structure. Each algebra contains three Jordan pairs sharing the same Lie algebra of automorphisms and the same external su(3) symmetry. The applications in physics are outlined. (paper)

  4. Back to Syria? : conflicting patterns of mobility among Syrian refugees in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    ACHILLI, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years, Jordan has adopted harsher polices towards refugees by periodically closing its borders and limiting access to employment opportunities as well as health and educational facilities. Against the backdrop of their deteriorating situation in Jordan, large numbers of Syrian refugees have expressed a desire to leave this host country. Many of them see migration as a way of escaping their hardships in Jordan. However, even when the leaving is not in doubt, the destination i...

  5. Groundwater depletion in the Jordan Highlands : can pricing policies regulate irrigation water use?

    OpenAIRE

    Venot, J.P.; Molle, François

    2008-01-01

    Jordan is one of the countries with the scarcest water resources in the world. The aquifers of the Lower Jordan River Basin, a region of prime importance for the country, are exploited well beyond their sustainable rate. In 1997, Jordan's officials designed a new water strategy, with emphasis on demand-management instruments. Water pricing policies, and notably the bylaw no. 85 of 2002, were deemed to assist in controlling agricultural groundwater abstraction with the ambitious task of taking...

  6. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  7. Provenance and Technology of Early Islamic Pottery from North Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarboush, Maher Mithqal Fayez

    Pottery remains the main tool in evaluating relative chronologies in archaeology. However, only in a few cases has production techniques and the technological characterizations of pottery been studied from specific sites that spans a longer chronological period. This thesis presents a detailed...... study of pottery samples selected from four sites located in the north part of Jordan. Three of the sites were once major cities of the Decapolis: Jarash (Gerasa), Umm Qais (Gadara), and Tabaqat Fahl (Pella). The fourth site is Tal al - Husn, a substantial rural village located between Umm Qais and...... Jarash. A wide range of early Islamic pottery types known in Jordan dating to the 7 th - 10 th centuries CE were select ed. The provenance studies offered in the thesis examine the chemical as well as mineralogical composition of pottery, with a focus on issues such as the sources of the raw materials...

  8. Determinants of direct foreign investment: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Zakaria Siam

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to show the effect of direct foreign investment flows on the economy of Jordan, this studycomes to examine the economic and financial risks on FDI on the macro level over the period (1997-2007. This study applies a version of the model developed by Chan and Gemayel (2004 by usingMultiple Linear Regression Model. The analysis revealed that there exists significant and positiverelationship between foreign direct investment flows into the economy of Jordan and economic andfinancial variables. The study claims for further FDI promotion through incentives to attract newinvestments. These factors are: providing targeted fiscal incentives, such as tax concessions, cash grants,and specific subsidies; improving domestic infrastructure; promoting local skills development to meetinvestor needs and expectations; establishing broad-reaching FDI promotion agencies and improvingthe regulatory environment and decreasing red tape.

  9. Pesticide residues in the soil of the Central Jordan Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples were taken from three zones in the Central Jordan Valley to evaluate the range of contamination with pesticides. Several pesticides belonging to different groups, particularly chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides such as the DDT family and cyclodienes, were detected. In zone I, most of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides occurred in open fields cultivated with tomatoes at a depth of 30-60 cm, at 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone II, and at 0-15 and 30-60 cm in zone III. When considering pesticide residues under plastic house conditions cultivated with tomatoes, most of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide residues were detected at a depth of 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone I, at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm in zone II, and at 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone III of the Central Jordan Valley. (author). 13 refs, 3 tabs

  10. Corporate Governance Quality and Earnings Management: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan. Using a panel data set of all industrial and service firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE during the period 2009-2013; this paper provides evidence that earnings management is affected negatively by corporate governance quality. In particular; the results show that earnings management is affected negatively by overall categories of governance index represented by board of director, board meeting, Audit and nomination and compensation committee. Furthermore, results suggest that corporate governance quality has increased over time. Thus, its ability to constrain earnings management has also increased. It is recommended to industrial and service companies to boost their compliance with corporate governance code to improve the integrity and reliability of financial reports. This paper fills a gap in the literature by providing evidence about the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan as an emerging economy.

  11. Why Do the Quantum Observables Form a Jordan Operator Algebra?

    CERN Document Server

    Niestegge, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan algebra structure of the bounded real quantum observables was recognized already in the early days of quantum mechanics. While there are plausible reasons for most parts of this structure, the existence of the distributive nonassociative multiplication operation is hard to justify from a physical or statistical point of view. Considering the non-Boolean extension of classical probabilities, presented in a recent paper, it is shown in this paper that such a multiplication operation can be derived from certain properties of the conditional probabilities and the observables, i.e., from postulates with a clear statistical interpretation. The well-known close relation between Jordan operator algebras and C*-algebras then provides the connection to the quantum-mechanical Hilbert space formalism, thus resulting in a novel axiomatic approach to general quantum mechanics that includes the types II and III von Neumann algebras.

  12. Generalized Derivations and Bilocal Jordan Derivations of Nest Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangui Yan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let H be a complex Hilbert space and B(H the collection of all linear bounded operators, A is the closed subspace lattice including 0 an H, then A is a nest, accordingly alg A={T∈B(H:TN⊆N,  ∀N∈A} is a nest algebra. It will be shown that of nest algebra, generalized derivations are generalized inner derivations, and bilocal Jordan derivations are inner derivations.

  13. Trade Liberalization and Income Distribution: A CGE Model for Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    FERABOLI Omar; Trimborn, Timo

    2009-01-01

    The Association Agreement between Jordan and the EU entered into force in 2002. It provides a gradual reduction of import duties on EU products over a period of twelve years. In this paper we investigate the economic implications of induced trade liberalization on aggregate economic performance as well as effects on welfare and income distribution of heterogenous households. This is done by introducing heterogenous households into a standard neoclassical dynamic computable general equilibrium...

  14. Soil erosion and land degradation in the Highlands of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2013-04-01

    The Highlands of Jordan has a Mediterranean type of climate characterized by hot dry summers and cold wet winters. Unsustainable land use practices, recurrent droughts and climate change are the main causes of land degradation in the Highlands area of Jordan. Unsustainable land use practices include improper plowing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, forest cutting, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. In addition, Jordan's rapid population growth (2.8% per year) is exerting considerable pressure upon its limited arable land through uncontrolled and random urbanization activities. Water erosion is the most widespread Land degradation type in the country. It greatly increases on slopes where the vegetation cover is (seasonally) reduced. It is further aggravated by a loss of soil structure and reduced infiltration rates. Wind erosion occurs most frequently in the arid and semi-arid portions of the southern Highlands, especially in areas with sandy or loamy soils. Rangeland degradation is the second most widespread land degradation type that is driven by overgrazing. The impact of overgrazing on the vegetation is evident from the excessive uprooting of the green matter (grass and bushes), leading to reduced seeding, reduced regeneration, and the consequent loss of plant cover which make the soil more susceptible to water and wind erosion. It is estimated that about 41 percent of Jordan's total land area is characterized as degraded of which 22 percent of the total land mass is classified as moderately degraded and agricultural productivity is greatly reduced. Observed aspects of land degradation include the recession of forest areas, high rate of erosion by water (formation of rills and gullies), expansion of urbanized area, reduction in soil organic matter and soil structure deterioration. Implementation of soil erosion control measures such as contour cultivation

  15. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahya [Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mustafa, Mairna [Department of Sustainable Tourism, Queen Rania' s Institute of Tourism and Heritage, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen [International Office, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mashal, Kholoud [Department of Land Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mohsen, Mousa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise

  16. Non-autonomous Svinolupov Jordan KdV Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gurses, Metin; Karasu, Atalay; Turhan, Refik

    2001-01-01

    Non-autonomous Svinolupov-Jordan systems are considered. The integrability criteria of such systems are associated with the existence of recursion operators. A new non-autonomous KdV system is obtained and its recursion operator is given for all $N$. The examples for N=2 and N=3 are studied in detail. Some possible transformations are also discussed which map some systems to autonomous cases.

  17. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of Jordan's Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior international nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded an 11-day International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Jordan. The mission team said in its preliminary findings that Jordan's nuclear regulator, the Energy and Minerals Regulatory Commission (EMRC), faces challenges because it is a relatively new body that handles a high workload while also working to recruit, train and keep competent staff. The team also noted that a recent merger provided the regulator with more of the resources it needs to perform its duty. The team made recommendations and suggestions to the regulatory body and the Government to help them strengthen the effectiveness of Jordan's regulatory framework and functions in line with IAEA Safety Standards. The main observations of the IRRS Review team comprised the following: The regulatory body, founded in 2007 and merged with other regulators in April 2014 to form EMRC, faces large challenges in terms of its regulatory workload, management system building and staff recruitment and training; The new EMRC structure and revision of the radiation and nuclear safety law represents an important opportunity to strengthen Jordan's radiation and nuclear safety infrastructure; The Government has shown commitment to radiation and nuclear safety through measures including becoming party to international conventions. It could further demonstrate its commitment by adopting a formal national policy and strategy for safety that defines the role of the Minister of Energy in relation to EMRC and protects the independence of regulatory decision-making

  18. Fraud Risk Factors and Audit Programme Modifications: Evidence from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Modar Abdullatif

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how audit firms in Jordan deal with the presence of fraud risk factors in audit clients. In doing so, the study seeks to explore which fraud risk factors are more important to Jordanianauditors, and how Jordanian auditors consider modifying their audit programmes when fraud risk factors are present in clients. The study uses a structured questionnaire that was administered to seniorlevel auditors in the largest Jordanian audit firms. The findings show that almost all of th...

  19. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise standards and specifications

  20. Jordan: social protection in a low employment state

    OpenAIRE

    Cousins, Mel

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the Jordanian social protection system. Part 1 outlines the demographic and social context, including data on the level of poverty and inequality in Jordan. Part 2 discusses the challenges and opportunities facing Jordanian policy makers while part 3 describes the social protection system (including the role of development partners). Part 4 outlines the key issues and challenges in social protection reform while part 5 concludes.

  1. Health service access and utilization among Syrian refugees in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Burnham, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Background The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system. Changing lifestyles and aging populations are shifting the global disease burden towards increased non-infectious diseases including chronic conditions, co-morbidities, and injuries which are more complicated and costly to manage. The strain placed on health systems threatens the ability to ensure the health needs of both refugees and host country populations are adequately addresse...

  2. Prestressed Concrete Pipe Failure Jordan Aqueduct, Reach 3

    OpenAIRE

    United States Bureau of Reclamation

    1994-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation conducted failure investigations to identify the cause(s) of a catastrophic rupture of prestressed concrete pipe under impressed current cathodic protection, which occurred on Reach 3 of the Jordan Aqueduct near Salt Lake City, Utah, on August 7, 1984. The multidisciplinary analyses included corrosion, design, petrographic, structural, and metallurgical investigations. From the onset of the failure, the issue was one of reconciling cathodic overprotection and defec...

  3. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Lafi, Hamzeh A.; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T.; Hussein M. Migdadi

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal ...

  4. Corporate Governance Quality and Earnings Management: Evidence from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan S. Abbadi; Qutaiba F. Hijazi; Ayat S. Al-Rahahleh

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan. Using a panel data set of all industrial and service firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) during the period 2009-2013; this paper provides evidence that earnings management is affected negatively by corporate governance quality. In particular; the results show that earnings management is affected negatively by overall categories of governance index represented by board of director, board...

  5. Performance consequences of management accounting system information usage in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Al-Mawali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to contribute to the body of knowledge in the area of management accounting systems (MAS within the context of Jordanian manufacturing companies. However, the current study empirically investigated the relationship between MAS information usage and companies' performance. Data were collected from manufacturing companies listed in Amman Stock Exchange. The results of this study provide ample confirmation on the role of the usage of MAS information in enhance the manufacturing companies performance in Jordan

  6. Islamic Finance for SMEs in Jordan 1978-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Mumani, Hamzeh Fayez

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Small and Medium Size enterprises (SMEs) are considered an essential yield for both social and economic development of countries around the world. The purpose of this study is to identify the role of Islamic banks and Islamic financial institutions in financing the development of SMEs in Jordan. The study revealed that the Islamic finance for SMEs is sufficient. It is also concluded that Islamic banks focus on increasing investors‟ profits, eliminates society‟s inequalities and ...

  7. (Never) Mind your p's and q's: Von Neumann versus Jordan on the Foundations of Quantum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Anthony; Janssen, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In two papers entitled "On a new foundation [Neue Begr\\"undung] of quantum mechanics," Pascual Jordan (1927b,g) presented his version of what came to be known as the Dirac-Jordan statistical transformation theory. As an alternative that avoids the mathematical difficulties facing the approach of Jordan and Paul A. M. Dirac (1927), John von Neumann (1927a) developed the modern Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we focus on Jordan and von Neumann. Central to the formal...

  8. Bell Correlated and EPR States in the Framework of Jordan Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamhalter, Jan; Sobotíková, Veronika

    2016-03-01

    We study Bell inequalities and EPR states in the context of Jordan algebras. We show that the set of states violating Bell inequalities across two operator commuting nonmodular Jordan Banach algebras is norm dense in the global state space. It generalizes hitherto known results in quantum field theory in several directions. We propose new Jordan quantity for incommensurable observables in a given state, introduce the concept of EPR state for Jordan structures, and study relationship between EPR states and Bell correlated states. Our analysis shows crucial role of spin factors and Pauli spin matrices for studying noncommutative properties of states and observables.

  9. Prospects for the exploitation of Jordan oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil shale is the major indigenous fossil-fuel in Jordan: its predicted reserves, of about 5·1010 tonnes, should be sufficient to satisfy Jordan's energy requirements for several centuries. Jordanian oil shale has, on an average, a gross calorific value of between 5 and 7 MJ/kg, an oil yield of ∼ 10 %, and a sulfur content of approximately 3 % by weight of the raw shale (i.e. 7 to 9 % of the organic matter content). Using the oil shale as the input fuel, a multipurpose production process (i.e. retorting, electricity generation, thermal water-desalination, chemicals production as well as mineral extraction) could achieve high utilisation-factors of both its chemical and energy potentials. In the long-term, oil shale is the only indigenous energy resource that could reduce Jordan's dependence on imported crude oil and hence ease the pressure on the national economy. The conversion of oil shale into a liquid or gaseous fuel and raw materials will be of decisive importance in attempts to secure the future of energy supplies. So national efforts devoted to the exploration for, and harnessing more economically, this energy resource, while limiting the associated adverse environmental impacts, should be accelerated. (author)

  10. Country report - Jordan: Brief description of feasibility study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jordanian nuclear power programme was officially launched in 2001, when the nuclear energy and radiation protection law established the Jordan Nuclear Energy Commission to both promote and regulate nuclear energy in the country. In July 2007, to clearly separate the responsibility for the promotion and regulation of nuclear power, two key agencies were established by law: the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) and the Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Key activities associated with implementing a nuclear power programme have been initiated: - Adoption of international nuclear treaties; - Establishment of Jordanian nuclear legislation; - Ongoing educational and training programmes for implementing the nuclear energy programme; - Productive cooperation with the IAEA and other international organizations; - Bilateral agreements with many countries for cooperation in the nuclear power area; - Development of uranium exploration and mining; - Implementation of a research reactor programme to be completed in 2015; - Site selection for the first NPP; - Selection of nuclear technology vendor and investor/operator for the first Jordanian NPP; - Execution of a plant construction contract, including an early works phase; - The start of commercial operation of Jordan’s first nuclear power station is scheduled for 2021/2022

  11. Cardiovascular Nursing in Jordan: A Need for an Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawkab Shishani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD in developing countries are in rise. CVD burden is devastating because of onset of illnesses at younger ages, and an increase in incidence of preventable complications. The excess in consumption of health services due to mortality and morbidity associated with CVD constitutes burden on the health care systems. Jordan like other developing countries is substantially affected by CVD. Therefore, this review aims to examine the role of nurses in promoting CVD assessment, prevention and management in Jordan. Prevention at primary level is cost effective and is lifesaver. Modifiable risk factors for CVD are well known. Health promotion programs and campaigns raise public awareness of ways to adopt healthy lifestyles. Identification of high risk groups and adopting health policies to ensure implementation of screening programs helps in initiating treatments at early stage to ensure high prognosis. Even with presence of the disease, there is much that can be done. Complication can be prevented by effective management of the disease. Prevention of CVDs is multifactorial and is the responsibility of all health care providers including nurses and physicians. Nursing curricula in Jordan lack the adequate training of nurses in chronic disease prevention, in particular CVD. There is an urgent need for development and training and certification programs that are customized to prepare nurses for subspecialties such as CVD nursing, to enable nurses to meet the needs of persons with CVD. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 523-528

  12. Assessment of Corporate Governance in Jordan: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the reality of corporate governance in Jordan. It identifies the framework of corporate governance, which has here been set into two dimensions – institutionalisations and regulations – and describes the five major principles of corporate governance. The study was carried out by interviews with key employees and the review of related laws and selected annual reports. The study found (1 basic shareholder rights were honoured in decision-making, except for large decisions such as major asset sales; (2 shareholders were not treated equitably in practice, although controllers sometimes took action and prohibited insider trading; (3 the role and rights of stakeholders in corporate governance were respected, and stakeholders had a number of legal protections, which were largely covered in Jordan's Company Law; (4 disclosure and transparency were observed to a large extent, although limited to quantity rather than quality, because Jordan has fully adopted IFRS and ISA and (5 boards largely fulfilled their responsibilities, as these are extensively defined by law and regulation.

  13. Molecular characterization of the circulating Bacillus anthracis in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqel, Amin Abdelfattah; Hailat, Ekhlas; Serrecchia, Luigina; Aqel, Suad; Campese, Emanuele; Vicari, Nadia; Fasanella, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    To understand the biomolecular charcteristics of Bacillus anthracis in Jordan, 20 blood smear slides from dead animals with suspected anthrax were analyzed using conventional and molecular approaches. All slides were positive for B. anthracis by conventional staining but no growth of the organism on selective media was detected. However, of the 20 samples, 16 were B. anthracis DNA-positive using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seven samples provided enough quantity and quality of DNA, and their multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)-15 loci analysis revealed two different genotypes. All genotypes were belonging to A.B..r. 008/009 which is very common in Asia and Europe. Single nucleotide repeat (SNR) analysis revealed that there were no sub genotypes. Molecular diagnosis of animal anthrax in Jordan is not used routinely; henceforth, official diagnosis of anthrax is based on the observation of the slides by optical microscope and this can often cause reading errors. Therefore, the prevalence of the disease in Jordan might be slightly lower than that reported by the official bodies. PMID:26156620

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Engagement in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbaas Albdour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Engagement. Specifically, it examines the impacts of five internal CSR practices namely, training and education,human rights, health and safety, work life balance and workplace diversity on the two dimensions of employees'engagement Job Engagement (JE and Organisational Engagement (OE.Design/methodology/approach: it utilizes a nonprobability sampling method in the forms of quota andconvenience sampling. The proposed model was tested on a sample of 336 frontline employees working in thebanking sector in Jordan.Findings: the testing of several hypothetical relationships between internal CSR and employee engagementrevealed that all the relationships were significant. Moreover, it shows that CSR practices are not highly adoptedwithin the banking sector in Jordan. Only one dimension of internal CSR, namely work life balance as being lessadopted compared with the other four dimensions of internal CSR. The impact of internal CSR practices on OEwas greater as compared with that of JE. This implies that internal CSR practices could predict employees’ OEstronger than their JE.Practical implications/originality/value: The study has made significant contributions to the body of knowledge atacademic and practical levels by extending knowledge regarding the impact of CSR particularly internal CSR onemployee attitude and behavior. Also through examining the impact of various dimensions of internal CSR on twodimensions of EE in a developing countries business environment, the banking sector in Jordan. Specifically, thisstudy answers the call by many researchers for more studies to address the relationship between CSR activities andorganizational performance in emerging economies.

  15. Jordan Reactor of Training and Research (JRTR) Licensing Process and Various Challenges of Nuclear Power Project in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Jordan ,Prior to 2001, nuclear activities were handled as a directorate in the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, in 2001, a new law of Nuclear Energy and Radiation Protection (29) was promulgated to substitute for the first law (14/1987), Under this 2001 law the Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) was established to undertake both promotion and regulation of nuclear applications in the country In July 2007, the 2001 law was modified and divided into two laws allowing the creation of two independent entities: Nuclear Energy Law (42/2007) established the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) and the Nuclear Safety, Security and Radiation Protection Law (43/2007) established the Radiation and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (JNRC) In Feb. 2008 the parliament adopted a further revision to law (42/2007 to upgrade JAEC to the level of a Commission with five commissioners reporting to the PM with the mandate to manage the nuclear program

  16. Algeria: A Study of the Educational System of Algeria and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, David W.

    Written as a guide to be used in the admission and placement of Algerian students in U.S. institutions of higher education, this study discusses the educational system of Algeria. The organization of Algerian education is summarized. Information is provided on preschool and primary education, middle school education, secondary education,…

  17. 31 CFR 575.416 - Travel transactions for journalistic activity in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel transactions for journalistic... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 575.416 Travel transactions for journalistic activity in Iraq. (a) Section 575.207 does not prohibit travel transactions in Iraq by persons regularly employed in...

  18. 75 FR 27399 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ..., 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-11884 Filed 5-14-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in...

  19. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Iraq. (a) A nongovernmental organization specifically licensed pursuant to 31 CFR part 575 or otherwise authorized pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 to conduct certain humanitarian activities in and around Iraq is... organization pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 and the terms of its license or registration. This section does...

  20. 77 FR 30181 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ..., 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-12487 Filed 5-18-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... of Iraq On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national...

  1. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that are subject to the requirements of 14 CFR parts 119, 121, or 135, each person who deviates from... the Territory and Airspace of Iraq Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 77 Aeronautics and... No. 77—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq 1....

  2. 31 CFR 575.414 - Imports of Iraqi goods and purchases of goods from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imports of Iraqi goods and purchases of goods from Iraq. 575.414 Section 575.414 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 575.414 Imports of Iraqi goods and purchases of goods from Iraq....

  3. 78 FR 30193 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... 17, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-12261 Filed 5-20-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... of Iraq On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national...

  4. 31 CFR 575.406 - Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq. 575.406 Section 575.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Interpretations § 575.406 Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq. (a) The prohibition in § 575.210 applies to...

  5. 31 CFR 575.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iraq. 575.204 Section 575.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 575.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iraq. Except as...

  6. 75 FR 26879 - Temporary Organization To Facilitate a Strategic Partnership With the Republic of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    .... [FR Doc. 2010-11557 Filed 5-11-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Partnership With the Republic of Iraq By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the..., United States Code, a temporary organization to be known as the Iraq Strategic Partnership Office...

  7. Protesting Their Apathy? An Analysis of British Press Coverage of Young Anti-Iraq War Protestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on a systematic content analysis of UK newspaper coverage of young anti-Iraq war protestors, I examine how young people's opinions were mediated before and during the war in Iraq. I explore the extent and nature of coverage, and ask whether newspapers encouraged young people to be active citizens in the public sphere. I argue that the UK…

  8. Quality Assurance Strategies of Higher Education in Iraq and Kurdistan: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaghed, Nabeel; Dezaye, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on two different strategies that have been implemented in Iraq to improve quality assurance in the higher education sector in Iraq. One strategy has been developed by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Baghdad. It involved conducting a pilot study at the University of Babylon. This pilot included…

  9. Treating Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with PTSD Who Are at High Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Varra, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders commit suicide at a higher rate than the general population (Kang & Bullman, 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in veterans (Bullman & Kang, 1994) and is the most common mental disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan…

  10. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  11. International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards after Iraq - some Austrailian perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iraq's nuclear weapons development program used facilities and nuclear material separate from its safeguarded activities. To detect such a strategy the IAEA's safeguards inspectors need access to locations and information beyond that foreseen in NPT safeguards agreements. But the IAEA is short of money. And detecting undeclared activities could be expensive. If the IAEA can establish a capability to detect undeclared activities, then it might be able to save on regular safeguards. But it's important not to put the cart before the horse - effective safeguards must come first, savings second

  12. IRAQ 2003 (PART 1)1: THE ROAD TO WAR

    OpenAIRE

    Leopold Scholtz

    2012-01-01

    Most wars in the post-Second World War era, Vietnam included, have been pretty controversial. This has especially been regarding the motivation for the wars. But also the conduct of the conflicts – the strategy, operations and tactics – have been thoroughly debated and second-guessed.Although it was fought only recently, the Iraq War has been no exception. The war produced a deep transatlantic split between erstwhile allies, such as the United States and the United Kingdom on the one hand, an...

  13. Causes and differentials of childhood mortality in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khawla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited information is available in Iraq regarding the causes of under-five mortality. The vital registration system is deficient in its coverage, particularly from rural areas where access to health services is limited and most deaths occur at home, i.e. outside the health system, and hence the cause of death goes unreported. Knowledge of patterns and trends in causes of under-five mortality is essential for decision-makers in assessing programmatic needs, prioritizing interventions, and monitoring progress. The aim of this study was to identify causes of under-five children deaths using a simplified verbal autopsy questionnaire. The objective was to define the leading symptoms and cause of death among Iraqi children from all regions of Iraq during 1994–1999. Methods To determine the cause structure of child deaths, a simplified verbal autopsy questionnaire was used in interviews conducted in the Iraqi Child & Maternal Mortality Survey (ICMMS 1999 national sample. All the mothers/caregivers of the deceased children were asked open-ended questions about the symptoms within the two weeks preceding death; they could mention more than one symptom. Results The leading cause of death among under-five children was found to be childhood illnesses in 81.2%, followed by sudden death in 8.9% and accidents in 3.3%. Among under-five children dying of illnesses, cough and difficulty in breathing were the main symptoms preceding death in 34.0%, followed by diarrhea in 24.4%. Among neonates the leading cause was cough/and or difficulty in breathing in 42.3%, followed by sudden death in 11.9%, congenital abnormalities in 10.3% and prematurity in 10.2%. Diarrhea was the leading cause of death among infants in 49.8%, followed by cough and/or difficulty in breathing in 26.6%. Among children 12–59 months diarrhea was the leading cause of death in 43.4%, followed by accidents, injuries, and poisoning in 19.3%, then cough/difficulty in

  14. Economic aspects of peacekeeping in Iraq: What went wrong?

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam Yousif

    2006-01-01

    Prospects for Iraq's economy are bleak: unemployment remains high and the post-war rebuilding effort has slowed to a trickle, weighed down by chronic instability. Rising oil prices increased GDP in 2004 and 2005. But an oil-induced rise in GDP will not necessarily bring about a general rise in incomes, as the oil sector employs only 1 percent of the labor force. To raise general living standards, oil income needs to be converted into increased employment and output in sectors with high social...

  15. Genocide of Kurd by dominating countries (Turkey, Syria, Iraq)

    OpenAIRE

    JAMSHİDİRAD, Jaafar; MORTAZA, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract.   Kurdistan is a geographical place in the middle east that is the home of Kurd  ecologically.Aryan Kurds distinguished themselves as a distinct ethnic group without the need of integration into the dominant identity of Turky,Iraq and Syria.Some of them asked for independence and establishing a country based on Kurdish identity.These demands led to suppress Kurds by those countries especially Arabic-Bsy under the leadership of Sadam.Genocide is the outcome of Kurd suppression in tho...

  16. An Exploration of Foreign Language Teachers' Beliefs about Curriculum Innovation in Algeria: A Socio-Political Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellalem, Fouzi

    2008-01-01

    Recent political and economic developments in Algeria have brought about reforms of the educational system. A new curriculum was introduced as part of these reforms. This study explores the beliefs of French and English school teachers about curriculum innovation in Algeria. The study is positioned in the qualitative research tradition and looks…

  17. 77 FR 5867 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Jordan Joint Statement on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...; (2) the U.S.-Jordan 2008-2011 Work Program on Environmental Cooperation; (3) Article 5 (Environment... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Jordan Joint Statement on Environmental Technical Cooperation ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2013 U.S.-Jordan...

  18. Application of Decomposed Theo ry of Planned Behavior on Internet Banking A doption in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Malek Al-Majali; Nik Kamariah Nik Mat

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates twelve factors that may influence internet banking adoption in Jordan. Using of DTPB (Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior) model in this study provide a comprehensive model to understand the antecedents of Internet Banking Adoption in Jordan. The results show that all hypotheses were supported except for two hypotheses related to compatibility and technology support

  19. Effects of Collateral Pledges in Reducing Credit Risks - Confronting Banks in Jordan, as Lending Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ahmad Z.  Siam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available he research aims at investigating the effects of Collaterals pledges in reducing credit Risks .To achieve research goals data were collected from all commercial banks operating in Jordan. Research concluded that banks in Jordan use collaterals effectively and in a wide range, and collaterals size have a direct impact on credit risk. Credit risk differs with collaterals.

  20. Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan : Carbon Capture and Storage Capacity Building Technical Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study was funded by the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) capacity building trust fund, and administered by the World Bank. The main objectives of the study were: to build or enhance Jordan s institutional capacity to make informed policy decisions on CCS technology and applications; to assess the potential application of CCS technology in Jordan; and to identify barriers-legal, regula...

  1. Teaching for Sustainable Development in Higher Education Institutions: University of Jordan as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hola, Imfadi R. M.; Tareef, Atif Bin

    2009-01-01

    In Jordan, a rapid movement of educational reform is taking place nowadays. Curricula development, teacher education, using information and communication technology (ICT), improving teaching and learning strategies and integrating different subjects are among the main objectives of this reform. One of the main challenges in Jordan in order to cope…

  2. K-Bessel functions associated to a 3-rank Jordan algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacen Dib

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the Bessel-Muirhead system, we can express the K-Bessel function defined on a Jordan algebra as a linear combination of the J-solutions. We determine explicitly the coefficients when the rank of this Jordan algebra is three after a reduction to the rank two. The main tools are some algebraic identities developed for this occasion.

  3. Assessment of Special Needs People Towards Environmental Awareness in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Ayed H. Ziadat; Anf H. Ziadat

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This research examines knowledge and attitudes towards environmental awareness among special needs individuals in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The population census of (136) special needs individuals with different types of disabilities; physical impairments, visual impairments and hearing impairments from different locations of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan participated in the survey and completed the questionnaire in 2010. The targeted popul...

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE PRODUCTION OF SOLAR HYDROGEN IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bendaikha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. In this study hydrogen is produced using a hydrogen generator with a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM electrolyser. An experimental study is done in the Center of Development of the Renewable Energy, Algiers, Algeria.The experimental device contains essentially a photovoltaic module, a PEM electrolyser, a gasometer and the devices of measures of characteristics of the PEM electrolyser as well as two pyranometers for the horizontal and diffuse global radiance registration. This system in pilots scale is permitted on the one hand, to measured and analyzed the characteristics: of the PEM electrolyser for two different pressures of working (Patm and P=3 bar, on the other hand, to study the volume of hydrogen produces in the time with different sources of electrical power (generator, photovoltaic module, fluorescent lamp, the efficiency for every case is calculated and compared. We present in this paper the variation of the solar hydrogen flow rate produced according to the global radiance and according to the time for a typical day’s of August.

  5. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria: First report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennoune, Omar; Adili, Nezar; Amri, Khaled; Bennecib, Lakhdar; Ayachi, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission. PMID:25568684

  6. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius in Algeria: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bennoune

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission.

  7. Trace element content of medicinal plants from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol, Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Mg, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn have been determined by short, and long irradiation times with a thermal and epithermal flux of 1.4 x 1012 n x cm-2 x s-1 and 1.4 x 1011 n x cm-2 x s-1, respectively. These analyses were performed in conjunction with Compton suppression. In almost herbs studied the Co, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sb , Sc, Se and V are found to be present at trace levels, Br, Mn, and Zn at the minor level, and Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg and Na are generally at the major level. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing NISTbotanical references materials. (author)

  8. Incidence and severity of scorpion stings in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Laïd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Maghreb region. In Algeria, epidemiological data were collected over the past twenty years by the Algerian health authorities. This study is an analysis of morbidity and mortality data collected from 2001 to 2010. Annual incidence and mortality due to scorpion envenoming were 152 ± 3.6 stings and 0.236 ± 0.041 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI, respectively. The risk of being stung by a scorpion was dramatically higher in southern areas and central highlands due to environmental conditions. Incidence of envenoming was especially higher in the adult population, and among young males. In contrast, mortality was significantly higher among children under 15 years, particularly ages 1-4. Upper limbs were more often affected than lower limbs. Most stings occurred at night, indoors and during the summer. Data collected since 2001 showed a reduction of mortality by nearly 50%, suggesting that the medical care defined by the national anti-scorpion project is bearing fruit.

  9. The 2003 Boumerdes, Algeria earthquake: Regional moment tensor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunmiller, Jochen; Bernardi, Fabrizio

    2005-03-01

    We used regional broadband seismograms to determine seismic moment tensors for the destructive May 21, 2003 Boumerdes (Algeria) Mw = 7.0 earthquake and its larger aftershocks. Fully automatic inversions using near-real time data provided solutions for seven Mw >= 4.7 events within 90 minutes after event occurrence. After adding off-line data, we manually obtained 30 solutions (Mw >= 3.8) from May 2003 to January 2004. All have shallow source depths (6-21 km). The median P-axis orientation (338°) of 24 thrust and four strike-slip events is consistent with Africa-Eurasia plate motion (330°). The main shock hypocenter at 8-10 km depth at the coastline and its shallow southward dip (25° +/- 5°) puts the fault surface trace 15-20 km offshore, consistent with documented seafloor deformation at the base of the continental slope. A main shock rupture length of about 50 km is deduced from first day aftershocks and location of strike-slip events. The strike-slip events probably define the western rupture end and indicate a left-step of main convergence. Fault strike variability of thrust events suggests fault orientation changes and possibly fault segmentation.

  10. Sandstorms as indicators of Land degradation in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirche, azziz; Oukil, youcef; Boughani, madjid; Nedjraoui, dalila; Salamani, mostefa

    2013-04-01

    : Land degradation, is an important environmental issue in arid lands, especially in Algeria's high plateaus. The Algerian steppes, the most widespread rangelands in the North African countries, occupy a pivotal position between the north, hilly and humid (called the tell), with a limited area (approximately 5%) and the south, the Sahara, which represents the largest area of the country (approximately 86%) and the largest desert of the planet .The main vegetation units constituted by Stipa tenacissima a key species , constituted 2/3 of the landscape in 1978 and occupies in 2012 only 1/10. The vegetation cover reached 40% in the seventies and is generally less than 10% nowadays. The increase of both population and livestock leads to a high pressure on this fragile ecosystems aggravated by the huge drought in the eighties (1980-1988). It results a tremendous soil degradation and sand encroachment. This study emphasizes on the correlation between the desertification steps and the occurrence of sandstorms. It appears that a high correlation is observed and reflect perfectly the land degradation . The recent decrease of sand storms, after a decennium, shows a re-greening, that must be distinguished of an absence of desertification. It appears that sandstorms , could be an interesting indicator, to monitor land degradation.

  11. Large branchiopods (Branchiopoda: Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata from the salt lakes of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudjéma SAMRAOUI

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of large branchiopods (Crustacea, Branchiopoda of the major salt lakes of Algeria, particularly those of the eastern Hauts Plateaux. The aim of the survey was to complement a previous survey that focused on the freshwater habitats of Numidia, northeast Algeria. The study revealed 8 species, with one taxon new to Algeria and North Africa (Chirocephalus salinus. Data on the status, phenology and habitats of collected and previously known species are presented for 19 taxa. The distribution of many species has been greatly extended and the co-occurrence of Artemia tunisiana and Branchinella spinosa has been recorded. The studied salt lakes, owing to a large production of fairy shrimps, support a great number of wintering and breeding waterbirds, but are subject to increasing human pressure.

  12. DETECTION OF PAENIBACILLUS LARVAE SPORES IN HONEY SAMPLES FROM BEEKEEPERS OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjlane Noureddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The American foulbrood in one of the most serious diseases that may affect brood of larvae and pupae stages, which cause economic losses and biological hazards in a large beekeeping sector in several countries across the world in general and Algeria in particular. The causative agent of this disease is a bacterium called Paenibacillus larvae that target bees Apis mellifera the latter are often present in honey.The aim of this project is studying the spread of this disease in the northern region of Algeria through the analysis of honey obtained from these areas. Microbiological, microscopic and biochemical methods were used in this study. The results obtained have shown that the prevalence rate varies from region to region, several factors may explain this variation in the prevalence of the disease. The average infection rate for all regions is 32%. To prevent the spread of this disease in Algeria must be taken is mandatory and means of prevention into account.

  13. Algeria as Postcolony? Rethinking the Colonial Legacy of Post-Structuralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriam Haleh Davis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is little doubt that Algeria was of enormous importance to the theoretical output that is often recognized as French, here I would like to ask: what is at stake in re-inscribing these French intellectuals as postcolonial? In what ways did the particularities of Algerian history impact French philosophy? Indeed, if the term postcolonial is meant to describe those who were influenced by events in Algeria, then an entire generation of French thinkers might be considered postcolonial to varying degrees. Surely Derrida’s oeuvre was influenced by his experiences in Algeria, but does this make him postcolonial in the same way as Jean-Paul Sartre or Pierre Bourideu, who have also become important figures in postcolonial theory? 

  14. Containing IRAQ: World oil market projections, 1993-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The likely impact of key uncertainties affecting the oil market were assessed and a reference price path was provided upon which industry and governments could base their investment decisions and policy prescriptions. The reference case was based on a timely resurgence in Iraqi oil exports, which would result in a three percent inflation of oil price over the remainder of this decade. An alternative scenario was based on two assumptions: (1) Iraq failed to negotiate a re-entry into the export market until 1996; and (2) the other OPEC members increased their production roughly in line with anticipated market growth. An alternative scenario examined a situation in which Iraqi production and exports were brought back on stream much earlier than anticipated. This was the worst case scenario for OPEC since prices would have fallen rapidly to below $ 10.00 per barrel in 1994. The study concluded that any shift in the timing of a return to uninhibited Iraq oil sales would have long lasting and significant effects. tabs., figs., refs

  15. Zinc deficiency among a healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the current zinc status among a sample selected from the healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq. We carried out a community-based study in Baghdad City, Iraq from November through June 2002. We selected a sample of 2090 healthy subjects (aged 1 month to 85 years). We used a pre-tested questionnaire, designed to obtain information on gender, birth dates, height, weight, residence, habitual food consumption patterns, and social status. We performed laboratory assessment of serum zinc level, dietary assessment of food frequency and usual zinc intake. We considered subjects with serum zinc concentration of /-7.7 to 12.3 umol/l mild to moderately zinc deficient. The prevalence of zinc deficiency among the studied sample was 2.7%. We found mild to moderate zinc deficiency among 55.7% of the study sample. Dietary zinc intake assessment showed that 74.8% of the studied sample consumed less than the recommended intake, and in 62.3%, the intakes were deficient and grossly deficient. Mean daily zinc ranged from 5.2 mg in children to 8.5 mg in adults. We observed a high prevalence of mild to moderate zinc deficiency, with inadequate dietary zinc intake among a considerable proportion of the studied sample. Zinc supplementation may be an effective public health intervention means to improve the zinc status of the population. (author)

  16. Studies on bilharziasis endemicity in the vicinity of Basra, Iraq*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, H. H.; de Araoz, J.; Klimt, C. R.; al Ani, K.; Azzawi, J.

    1961-01-01

    This paper reports on investigations into the distribution of snail genera and possible limiting environmental factors in the endemic and non-endemic areas of human bilharziasis in and near Basra, carried out in 1958 by the WHO Bilharziasis Control Project staff in Iraq. These investigations confirmed the existence of an abrupt line of demarcation between these areas immediately south of Basra. During June and October 1958, the known intermediate snail host, Bulinus truncatus, was not found in canals bordering on areas of either infected or non-infected human populations. From these findings and the evidence of previous investigations it is concluded that in southern Iraq, and particularly in Basra, B. truncatus has been demonstrated with difficulty, if at all. Nevertheless, transmission has continued to take place. Explanations of this apparent phenomenon are discussed and it is concluded that populations of B. truncatus may be completely absent for several years and that other snail genera may play a role in transmitting the disease. A study of environmental factors indicates that water velocities, salinity, turbidity, and pH in the endemic and non-endemic areas showed no significant differences, but that the continuous change in water flow may be a factor limiting B. truncatus colonization. It is also concluded that the salinity in the Shatt al Arab River originates from Lake Hammar and is not introduced from the Persian Gulf by tidal wave, as has been previously believed. PMID:14478047

  17. Identifying water mass depletion in Northern Iraq observed by GRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mulder

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations acquired by Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE mission indicate a mass loss of 31 ± 3 km3 or 130 ± 14 mm in Northern Iraq between 2007 and 2009. This data is used as an independent validation of a hydrologic model of the region including lake mass variations. We developed a rainfall–runoff model for five tributaries of the Tigris River, based on local geology and climate conditions. Model inputs are precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM observations, and potential evaporation from GLDAS model parameters. Our model includes a representation of the karstified aquifers that cause large natural groundwater variations in this region. Observed river discharges were used to calibrate our model. In order to get the total mass variations, we corrected for lake mass variations derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in combination with satellite altimetry and some in-situ data. Our rainfall–runoff model confirms that Northern Iraq suffered a drought between 2007 and 2009 and is consistent with the mass loss observed by GRACE over that period. Also, GRACE observed the annual cycle predicted by the rainfall–runoff model. The total mass depletion seen by GRACE between 2007 and 2009 is mainly explained by a lake mass depletion of 74 ± 4 mm and a natural groundwater depletion of 37 ± 6 mm. Our findings indicate that man-made groundwater extraction has a minor influence in this region while depletion of lake mass and geology play a key role.

  18. Assessing the Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Sa'eb; Shraidaeh, Fadi; Maddat, Amer

    2015-04-01

    Climate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing Jordan. In particular, the combined effects of climate change and water scarcity threaten to affect food and water resources that are critical for livelihoods in Jordan. This is especially true for those communities who live in the dryland area in the country and who rely wholly on rain-fed agriculture. The exact nature and extent of the impact of climate change on temperature and precipitation distribution pattern remain uncertain and it is the poor and vulnerable who will be the most susceptible to climate change adverse effects. A vulnerability assessment of rain fed agriculture to climate change and variability in semi-arid parts of Jordan was conducted in 2014. The purpose of this study is to assess the vulnerability and resilience of the most vulnerable groups where rainfed and irrigated agriculture is practiced. Also, the study focused on quantifying the impacts on agricultural productivity in response to climate change. This will help policymakers and researchers better understand and anticipate the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture and on vulnerable communities in Jordan. Also, it will provide them with tools to identify and implement appropriate adaptation strategies. The data used includes; Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 adopted by the IPCC for its fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Those pathways were used for climate modeling. A decision support system (DSSAT) for agricultural production was used to assess the impact of climate changes on agricultural production. This approach was used for the Identification of climate change risk and their impacts on Agriculture. Outputs from models are used to assess the vulnerability of farmers and crops to climate and socio-economic change by estimating their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to external factors as a means of identifying what causes the differences in their

  19. Treated Sewage Water Use in Irrigated Agriculture. Theoretical design of farming systems in Seil Al Zarqa and the Middle Jordan Valley in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Duqqah, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Most of Jordan is arid and water resources are limited. This situation becomes more acute the more Jordan develops. New techniques in agriculture, industry and the domestic sector place an increasing demand upon clean and safe water. Good-quality water is hardly available. Unconventional water sources, including treated sewagewater, must be considered as alternative sources. This book focuses on treated sewagewater as a nutrient and water resource for agriculture. We expect that treated sewag...

  20. An Econometric Model for Water Sector in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I.  Shahateet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study argued that there is an economic approach to reduce water problems faced by Jordan. The study took into consideration the increasing population size, the declining rainfall, a deepening shortage of supply and increasing demand for water, the production of agricultural and industrial sectors, price of unit exports, and lack of financial resources. Approach: The framework for a tool which takes into consideration the links between economic growth and the availability of water was developed in this study, in the form of a dynamic simulation econometric model. The model served as a quantitative tool to evaluate the water policy measures and forecast the effect of future policy variables on the water status in Jordan. Results: Agricultural, industrial and other types of production are affected by water uses which in turn are influenced by production and other socioeconomic variables, including population size, the extent of production market, and the size of linkage effects working through certain increases in water consumption. The results also showed the model can be used to solve key issues related to the formulation and implementation of water policy. They also identified lessons for water management policy within a broad socio-economic perspective. Conclusions: First, with regard to production sector, a major effect can be attributed to the supply of water. Second, gross domestic products of agricultural, industrial and other sectors were found to be highly significant factors in influencing the supply of water. Finally, priorities for making the most of Jordan's water resources should be given to options affecting water-supply strategy which relates the supply of water to the level of production.

  1. MAXIMUM RUNOFF OF THE FLOOD ON WADIS OF NORTHERN PART OF ALGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ladjel; E.D. Gopchenko; V.A. Ovcharuk

    2014-01-01

    Wadis of Algeria are characterized by a very irregular hydrological regime. The question of estimating the maximum flow of wadis is relevant. We propose in this paper a method based on an interpretation of the transformation of surface runoff in streamflow. The technique of account the maximal runoff of flood for the rivers of  northern part of Algeria based on the theory of channel isochrones is offered.The realization of this method is performed on the basis of hydrometeorological data stan...

  2. Descriptive Study of an Outbreak of Avian Urolithiasis in a Large Commercial Egg Complex in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham SID

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian urolithiasis is one of the major causes of mortality in poultry. However, in Algeria this condition has never been described. An outbreak of avian urolithiasis was observed on a large commercial egg complex in the department of Chlef (West of Algeria. The clinical features of this condition are to be described. Mortality associated to urolithiasis started at the onset of egg production, estimated to 0.7 % per week. Urolithiasis induced an egg drop estimated to 12%. Dead and live layers were both necropsied and examined for kidney lesions. Most of the birds examined presented enlarged ureters, renal atrophy and visceral gout deposition.

  3. The origin of Iraq's nuclear weapons program: Technical reality and Western hypocrisy

    CERN Document Server

    Erkman, S; Hurni, J P; Klement, S; Erkman, Suren; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre; Klement, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    This report is based on a series of papers written between 1980 and 2005 on the origin of Iraq's nuclear weapons program, which was known to one of the authors in the late 1970s already, as well as to a number of other physicists, who independently tried without success to inform their governments and the public. It is concluded that at no point did the Western governments effectively try to stop Iraq's nuclear weapons program, which suggests that its existence was useful as a foreign policy tool, as is confirmed by its use as a major justification to wage two wars on Iraq.

  4. Kamikazes: youth serving youth in a dangerous climate. Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gataa, R

    1995-01-01

    The Algerian Family Planning Association (FPA) launched its youth project in July 1993 in Oran. The first project of its kind in the Arab world, members call themselves Kamikazes in recognition of the hostile climate they face. The project's goal was to deal with social, cultural, and health problems. They also designed the project's logo, a cartoon booklet on the dangers of AIDS, and a T-shirt for members to wear. They based their activities in the local government-run information center. Between 15 and 25 years old, from a wide variety of social backgrounds, the young people drew up a list of common problems: drugs, alcohol, smoking, relationships with the opposite sex, abortion, contraception, sex education, AIDS, homosexuality, unemployment, the lack of clubs for young people, delinquency, lack of communication between parents and children, the repression of women, the lack of popular entertainment for young people, and the shortage of books. This project now is to be extended to Algiers and other cities. Over an 8-month period, the committee received instruction in contraception and combatting drug addition, participated in a workshop on empowerment and self esteem, and were trained in role-playing techniques. In their first 18 months of existence, the Kamikazes in Oran have succeeded in involving over 1000 of their peers. They have had particular success in reaching teenagers in secondary schools. One of the most valuable aspects of the project has been the sessions held with gynecologists and psychologists on sexual development, relationships between the sexes, and the avoidance of unwanted pregnancies, abortion, and sexually transmitted diseases. The success of the Oran Kamikaze project bodes well for the extension of the project to other parts of Algeria and indeed to some other countries of the Arab world. PMID:12319368

  5. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Oued Mya basin, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamrane, O.; Messaoudi, M.; Messelles, H. (Sonatrach Division Exploration, Algiers (Algeria))

    1993-09-01

    The Oued Mya hydrocarbon system is located in the Sahara basin. It is one of the best producing basins in Algeria, along with the Ghadames and Illizi basins. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and is about 5000 m thick. This intracratonic basin is limited to the north by the Toughourt saddle, and to the west and east it is flanked by regional arches, Allal-Tilghemt and Amguid-Hassi Messaoud, which culminate in the super giant Hassi Messaoud and Hassi R'mel hydrocarbon accumulations, respectively, producing oil from the Cambrian sands and gas from the Trissic sands. The primary source rock in this basin is lower Silurian shale, with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic carbon of 6% (14% in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also source rocks, but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Trissic sequence, which is mainly fluvial deposits with complex alluvial channels, and the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs in the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential east of the basin through a southwest-northwest orientation. The Late Trissic-Early Jurassic evaporites that overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya basin, are considered to be a super-seal evaporite package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column. This super seal does not present oil dismigration possibilities. We can infer that a large amount of the oil generated by the Silurian source rock from the beginning of Cretaceous until now still is not discovered and significantly greater volumes could be trapped within structure closures and mixed or stratigraphic traps related to the fluvial Triassic sandstones, marine Devonian sands, and Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  6. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? Materials and Methods: To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients′ opinions. Results and Conclusion : At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women′s lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous

  7. Assessing Actual Visit Behavior through Antecedents of Tourists Satisfaction among International Tourists in Jordan: A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Moh’d Al Muala

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jordan tourism industry is facing fluctuating tourist visit provoked by dissatisfaction, high visit risk, low hotel service, or negative Jordan image. This study aims to examine the relationships between the antecedents of tourist satisfaction and actual visit behavior in tourism of Jordan, and the mediating effect of tourist satisfaction (SAT in the relationship between Jordan image (JOM, service climate (SER and actual visit behavior (ACT. A total of 850 international tourists completed a survey that were conducted at southern sites in Jordan. Using structural equation modeling (SEM technique, confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was performed to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement, and the structural equation modeling techniques (Amos 6.0 were used to evaluate the casual model. Results of the study demonstrate the strong predictive power and explain of international tourists’ behavior in Jordan. The findings highlighted that the relationship between Jordan image and service climate are significant and positive on actual visit behavior.

  8. Tectonic geomorphology of the Safeen Anticline (Northern Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, N.; Grasemann, B.; Faber, R.; Lockhart, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Zagros Fold- and Thrust Belt extends over 1800 km from Kurdistan in N-Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Iran and is one of the world most promising regions for the future hydrocarbon exploration. The Zagros Mountains are the result of the collision of the Eurasian and the Arabian Plates starting in the Late Cretaceous. Recent GPS measurements in have shown that the shortening between these two plates is about 2.5 cm/a most of which is distributed within the Zagros collision orogen. Whereas the tectonic structure and the geomorphological response to active deformation is thoroughly studied in the SE part of the Zagros in Iran, there are almost no modern field based studies of the NW part of the Zagros in Iraq. Here we present the first structural field studies, the mechanical stratigraphy and geomorphological investigations of the Safeen anticline in the NE of the city of Erbil in the Kurdistan region, which is a province of Northern Iraq. The sub-cylindrical part of the anticline strikes for about 65 km NW-SE and has a dominant wavelength of about 6 km. Perpendicular to the strike of the anticline Cretaceous to Tertiary sediments are exposed consisting mainly of bedded to massif limestones and sandstones (competent lithologies), intercalated with marl and claystones (incompetent lithologies). Whereas deformation in the competent lithologies is accommodated by diffusive mass transfer processes and mainly fracturing, the incompetent lithologies record distributed plastic deformation. Along the investigated section, the limbs of the anticline dip with 55° towards NE (backlimb) and 60° towards SW (forelimb). Interestingly the drainage pattern of the forelimb differs significantly to the erosional signature along the backlimb. Both limbs are dominated by transverse river segments. The backlimb records straight almost perpendicular to the fold axis with a spacing of the segments of about 200 m. The forelimb, however, is dominated by a more irregular pattern with a

  9. Geospatial Techniques for Improved Water Management in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad T. Al-Bakri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research shows a case from Jordan where geospatial techniques were utilized for irrigation water auditing. The work was based on assessing records of groundwater abstraction in relation to irrigated areas and estimated crop water consumption in three water basins: Yarmouk, Amman-Zarqa and Azraq. Mapping of irrigated areas and crop water requirements was carried out using remote sensing data of Landsat 8 and daily weather records. The methodology was based on visual interpretation and the unsupervised classification for remote sensing data, supported by ground surveys. Net (NCWR and gross (GCWR crop water requirements were calculated by merging crop evapotranspiration (ETc, calculated from daily weather records, with maps of irrigated crops. Gross water requirements were compared with groundwater abstractions recorded at a farm level to assess the levels of abstraction in relation to groundwater safe yield. Results showed that irrigated area and GCWR were higher than officially recorded cropped area and abstracted groundwater. The over abstraction of groundwater was estimated to range from 144% to 360% of the safe yield in the three basins. Overlaying the maps of irrigation and groundwater wells enabled the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI to detect and uncover violations and illegal practices of irrigation, in the form of unlicensed wells, incorrect metering of pumped water and water conveyance for long distances. Results from the work were utilized at s high level of decision-making and changes to the water law were made, with remote sensing data being accredited for monitoring water resources in Jordan.

  10. Comparisons of Four Methods for Evapotranspiration Estimates in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Gorelick, S.; Yoon, J.

    2014-12-01

    We compared evapotranspiration (ET) estimates in Jordan calculated by four theoretically-different methods. The first method was the FAO Single Crop Coefficient method. Our calculation took into account 20 dominant crop species in Jordan, utilized the global Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data set, and generated spatially heterogeneous crop coefficients. The second approach was the Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) method. It was used with Landsat TM/ETM+ images to calculate instantaneous ET at the moment of satellite overpass, and the results of multiple images were combined to derive seasonal and annual ET estimates. The third method was based on the 1-km land surface ET product from MODIS, which was calculated using MODIS-observed land cover and photosynthetically active radiation. The fourth method was based on the SWAT model, which combines the Penman-Monteith equation and vegetation growth to estimate daily ET rates at the watershed scale. The results show substantial differences in both magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of ET estimates across different regions from the four methods. Such differences were particularly evident in the Highlands region, where irrigation plays a critical role in local water balance. Results also suggest that land cover data is a major source of uncertainty in estimating regional ET rates. Although it is difficult to conclude which method was more reliable due to the limited availability of validation data, the results suggest caution in developing and interpreting ET estimates in this arid environment.

  11. Design, Development and Installation of Jordan Subcritical Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Xoubi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following its announcement in 2007 to pursue a nuclear power program and in the absence of any nuclear facility essential for the education, training, and research, Jordan decided to build a subcritical reactor as its first nuclear facility. Jordan Subcritical Assembly (JSA is uranium fueled light water moderated and reflected subcritical reactor driven by a plutonium-beryllium source, and the core consists of 313 LEU fuel rods, loaded into a water-filled vessel in a square lattice of 19.11 mm pitch. The fuel rods are based on PWR fuel structural pattern type, made of uranium oxide (UO2 with 3.4 wt% 235U enrichment in zirconium alloy (Zr-4 cladding. Design, optimization, and verification were performed using MCNP5 nuclear code; the computed effective multiplication factor is 0.95923. The JSA is designed to fulfill the training needs of students and is equipped to perform all of the fundamental experiments required for a typical nuclear engineering university program. This paper presents the design, development, modeling, core analysis, and utilization of Jordan’s first nuclear facility and why this simplified low cost reactor presents an attractive choice to fulfill the preliminary experimental needs of nuclear engineering education in developing countries.

  12. Rainy Season Assessment of Azraq Basin in Eastern Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Shatnawi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the rainfall pattern in the Azraq basin in the Eastern part of Jordan. Azraq Basin is an extensive inland drainage system lying in the steppe and desert to the east of Jordan. The Azraq area is around 17,000 km2, which accounts for about 15% of the country’s total area, stretching from the lava peaks of Jebel Arab in southern Syria to Wadi Sirhan in northern Saudi Arabia. The Basin is considered part of the desert where the annual precipitation is estimated to be less than 150 mm/year and some areas receiving as little as 50 mm rainfall annually. Dry and hot climate during the summer and very cold winter with little rain falls in the form of thunderstorms and is similar to the continental climate of the desert climate where the big difference in temperature between day and night. The study aimed at assessing the rainy season’s conditions in the basin. The data for three rain gauges with monthly records of rainfall between (1960-2010 are used in the analysis. These stations are: Azraq, Um Alquttein and Deir Alkahf stations. The rainy seasons in the study area seem to get shorter and shifted in their start. The highest percentage of rain falls in the middle stage of the season (i.e., between December and February. This percentage is getting increased for Azraq and Deir Alkahf stations; however Um Alquttein shows a cyclic pattern of rainfall during the different seasons.

  13. First results from the Jordan COLTRIMS imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaneh, Feras; Ali, Rami; Qasem, Rajaie; Balasmeh, Naeem; Hamasha, Safeia; Dörner, Reinhard; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst

    2016-08-01

    A Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) apparatus has been constructed and operated cooperatively by the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory in the Physics Department at the Hashemite University, Jordan, and the Atomic and Molecular Physics Group at the 4.75 MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility at the University of Jordan. This COLTRIMS imaging system allows the investigation of the dynamics of various ion impact induced atomic and molecular interactions and fragmentations. The performance of the COLTRIMS system was tested by carrying out preliminary studies of two collision systems. In the first study, electron capture processes in the He2+-Ne collision system at 0.25 and 1.0 MeV impact energies were investigated. Significant simultaneous electron capture and target excitation has been observed for the 0.25 MeV as opposed to the 1.0 MeV impact energy. In the other study, projectile single electron loss and simultaneous single target ionization in the O+-He collision system was studied at three different projectile impact energies: 0.6, 1.45 and 2 MeV. Enhancement of the electron-electron contribution to projectile electron loss with increasing collision energy has been observed.

  14. The Determinants of Deprivation in Jordan: Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I. Shahateet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and explain the factors that affect deprivation in Jordan. To do so, this study constructs and tests a model that determines the factors, which affect deprivation. It employs an econometric analysis to examine the relationship between some main socioeconomic variables and the status of deprivation in Jordan. It looks at how changes in income, unemployment, education, health, housing conditions and access to services, as well as pollution, will affect the status of deprivation. The study uses the raw data of the national Household Income and Expenditure Survey HIES, which was conducted by the Jordanian Department of Statistics during 2002/2003 and covered 12,792 households. The study concludes that deprivation was caused by low income, unemployment, low educational attainment, bad type of housing, barriers to essential services, poor health and pollution. However, the effect of these factors varies. Simulation results of the model predicts that if income deprivation, unemployment and education deprivation are reduced by 1% the overall deprivation index will decrease by 0.7%, holding other variables without change. Realizing such reductions, however, will require policies to further increase wages and salaries, encourage investment in human capital and job creation.

  15. Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) Utilization Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) is a 5 MW light water open pool multipurpose reactor that serves as the focal point for Jordan National Nuclear Centre, and is designed to be utilized in three main areas: Education and training, nuclear research, and radioisotopes production and other commercial and industrial services. The reactor core is composed of 18 fuel assemblies, MTR plate type 19.75% enriched uranium silicide (U3Si2) in aluminium matrix, and is reflected on all sides by beryllium and graphite. The reactor power is upgradable to 10 MW with a maximum thermal flux of 1.45×1014 cm-2s-1, and is controlled by a Hafnium control absorber rod and B4C shutdown rod. The reactor is designed to include laboratories and classrooms that will support the establishment of a nuclear reactor school for educating and training students in disciplines like nuclear engineering, reactor physics, radiochemistry, nuclear technology, radiation protection, and other related scientific fields where classroom instruction and laboratory experiments will be related in a very practical and realistic manner to the actual operation of the reactor. JRTR is designed to support advanced nuclear research as well as commercial and industrial services, which can be preformed utilizing any of its 35 experimental facilities. (author)

  16. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  17. Four Polygamous Families with Congenital Birth Defects from Fallujah, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Manduca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003, congenital malformations have increased to account for 15% of all births in Fallujah, Iraq. Congenital heart defects have the highest incidence, followed by neural tube defects. Similar birth defects were reported in other populations exposed to war contaminants. While the causes of increased prevalence of birth defects are under investigation, we opted to release this communication to contribute to exploration of these issues. By using a questionnaire, containing residential history and activities that may have led to exposure to war contaminants, retrospective reproductive history of four polygamous Fallujah families were documented. Our findings point to sporadic, untargeted events, with different phenotypes in each family and increased recurrence. The prevalence of familial birth defects after 2003 highlights the relevance of epigenetic mechanisms and offers insights to focus research, with the aim of reducing further damage to people’s health.

  18. Study of the properties of soil in Kirkuk, IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Taqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The properties of soil in Kirkuk city (IRAQ are studied using gamma and neutron radiation. Ten locations are selected for the process of making field measurements on soils at 40–50 cm depth levels then the samples were collected to be studied in the laboratory also. In the field, we measured the density and moisture contents of soils. The laboratory measurement has been performed to obtain mass attenuation coefficients, using gamma spectrometer contains shielded NaI (Tl detector at the energies of 59.5, 356.5, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. The obtained results were presented and discussed. The study has practical importance to know the nature of the soil in the oil and agricultural city Kirkuk.

  19. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad (Iraq Ministry of Science and Technology)

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  20. Status of commercial development of food irradiation in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having achieved successful results in the application of atomic energy in the food irradiation programme in Iraq, a step forward was taken by the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) by joining the International Food Irradiation Project (IFIP) in 1975. In view of the important results in disinfestation and the radiation chemical data on dates, IFIP approved the inclusion of wholesomeness testing of irradiated dates in the work programme for 1976. In 1980 irradiated dates were granted unconditional clearance up to 1 kGy by JECFI. There is no formal legislation yet to regulate irradiated food, and the major food legislation in the country is related to food quality, safety and trade. In the light of the 1980 JECFI approval and the available information on the safety of irradiated food, the authorities at IAEC have formed a special committee to elaborate a set of model regulations for the control of and trade in irradiated food. (author)

  1. Paediatric trauma in northern Iraq: the Kurdish refugee crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, G; Pollok, A J

    1992-08-01

    In May 1991 a team of five doctors and two nurses from Edinburgh hospitals were flown to Northern Iraq to assist in the Kurdish refugee relief effort. The two surgical members of the team helped to re-establish surgical services in a small hospital in the Iraqi town of Zakho. During an 8-day stay in the hospital, frequently in extremely difficult circumstances, the surgical team undertook 19 major and 15 minor surgical procedures in 25 patients; 11 major and eight minor procedures were undertaken in 15 children under the age of 16 years. The largest group of children treated had suffered bomb-blast injuries from unexploded ordinance; injuries sustained were primarily to the hands, face and upper trunk. Road traffic accidents and burns were also common. Two children requiring postoperative intensive care were evacuated by military helicopter at night to hospital facilities in Turkey. PMID:1383513

  2. The American way of war: Afghanistan and Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Parraguez Kobek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist attacks of 9/11 placed the United States in a position to exercise its political objectives of securing national interests through military means. The War on Terror waged in Afghanistan and Iraq shifted the development of U.S. foreign policy, allowing for American leadership to exercise its right to sovereignty and power. The doctrine required a victory in each of the scenarios, and the inability to secure these aims resulted in civil war and insurgency in both countries. Important lessons can be learned from analyzing foreign policy implementations through the use of force, applying responsible sovereignty to pressing transnational security threats and strengthening the international architecture through a multidimensional response.

  3. Prioritisation process for decommissioning of the Iraq former nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of sites in Iraq which have been used for nuclear activities and which contain potentially significant amounts of radioactive waste. The principal nuclear site is Al-Tuwaitha, the former nuclear research centre. Many of these sites suffered substantial physical damage during the Gulf Wars and have been subjected to subsequent looting. All require decommissioning in order to ensure both radiological and non-radiological safety. However, it is not possible to undertake the decommissioning of all sites and facilities at the same time. Therefore, a prioritization methodology has been developed in order to aid the decision-making process. The methodology comprises three principal stages of assessment: i) a quantitative surrogate risk assessment ii) a range of sensitivity analyses and iii) the inclusion of qualitative modifying factors. A group of five Tuwaitha facilities presented the highest evaluated risk, followed by a middle ranking grouping of Tuwaitha facilities and some other sites, with a relatively large number of lower risk facilities and sites comprising a third group. This initial risk-based order of priority is changed when modifying factors are taken into account. It is necessary to take account of Iraq's isolation from the international nuclear community over the last two decades and the lack of experienced personnel. Therefore it is appropriate to initiate decommissioning operations on selected low risk facilities at Tuwaitha in order to build capacity/experience and prepare for work to be carried out in more complex and potentially high hazard facilities. In addition it is appropriate to initiate some prudent precautionary actions relating to some of the higher risk facilities. (author)

  4. Lumpy Skin Disease in Iraq: Study of the Disease Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salihi, K A; Hassan, I Q

    2015-10-01

    This study intends to report the first emergence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Iraq, in addition to describing its related clinical signs. In August 2013, 21 cases of four outbreaks developed clinical signs suggestive of LSD in the Nineveh (Mosul) and Baghdad Governorates, which were considered as the first infected foci of LSD in Iraq. The disease was diagnosed tentatively, on the basis of clinical signs and epidemiological features, and it was confirmed as positive by the polymerase chain reaction and histopathological features. In September 2013, eight new outbreaks of LSD also appeared in Baghdad and Nineveh. In 2014, the disease spread rapidly to the governorates of Kirkuk, Salah Al-Din, Al-Anbar, Diyala, Wasit, Babil, Karbala, Najaf, Al-Diwaniyah, Muthanna, Maysan, DhiQar and Basra. The total number of infected cows and calves reported was 7396 and 227, respectively. The apparent morbidity and mortality rates were 9.11% and 0.51%, respectively, while the apparent case-fatality rate was 5.56%. Skin nodules, anorexia, reduce in milk production and decrease in bodyweight were the common clinical signs. Moreover, myiasis and mastitis were seen as complications in some infected animals. Attempts were made to stop the distribution of the disease including quarantine and treatment, control over animal movement and arthropod control. Ring vaccination was used in a 10 km radius zone around the outbreak with live sheep pox vaccine. The highly contagious transboundary nature of the LSD, its endemic distribution in the Iraqi neighbouring countries, and the current armed conflict in the area were the possible factors for the disease being introduced into the country. LSD had spread through the Middle East and Gulf peninsula and could be a cause of danger to the rest of Asia and Europe. International precaution, cooperation and exchange of information could guarantee the prevention and further spread of the disease to the rest of Asia and Europe. PMID:26105081

  5. Prioritisation process for decommissioning of the Iraq former nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of sites in Iraq which have been used for nuclear activities and which contain potentially significant amounts of radioactive waste. The principal nuclear site is Al-Tuwaitha, the former nuclear research centre. Many of these sites suffered substantial physical damage during the Gulf Wars and have been subjected to subsequent looting. All require decommissioning in order to ensure both radiological and non-radiological safety. However, it is not possible to undertake the decommissioning of all sites and facilities at the same time. Therefore, a prioritization methodology has been developed in order to aid the decision-making process. The methodology comprises three principal stages of assessment: 1) a quantitative surrogate risk assessment, 2) a range of sensitivity analyses and 3) the inclusion of qualitative modifying factors. A group of five Tuwaitha facilities presented the highest evaluated risk, followed by a middle ranking grouping of Tuwaitha facilities and some other sites, with a relatively large number of lower risk facilities and sites comprising a third group. This initial risk-based order of priority is changed when modifying factors are taken into account. It is necessary to take account of Iraq's isolation from the international nuclear community over the last two decades and the lack of experienced personnel. Therefore it is appropriate to initiate decommissioning operations on selected low risk facilities at Tuwaitha in order to build capacity/experience and prepare for work to be carried out in more complex and potentially high hazard facilities. In addition it is appropriate to initiate some prudent precautionary actions relating to some of the higher risk facilities. (author)

  6. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil; Mohammad Mushgil Zenad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the presence of aerobic bacteria in live ticks infested sheep, in Diyala Governorate, Iraq. Methods: One hundred and thirty adult alive ticks were picked up from sheep which were reared in different farms in Diyala Governorate, Iraq, during the period from November 2012 to May 2013. Ticks were classified in the Natural History Museum in Baghdad. They were dissected aseptically for extraction of the salivary gland and mid-gut. The removed tissue from each organ was inoculated in buffer peptone water (1%) and incubated for 2 h at 37℃, to maintain weak and/or injured bacterial cells, then transmitted to nutrient broth incubated at 37℃ for 18 h. Culturing was done on three solid bacteriological media (nutrient, blood and McConkey agars), and then incubated at 37℃ for 24 h. Bacterial identification was performed by using multiple biochemical tests and API-20 strips. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System version 9.1, 2010. Chi-square test was used for comparison at significant level of P ≤0.05. Results: Two species of ticks were identified [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Hyalomma turanicum]. High bacterial isolation rate was observed (483 isolates). A significant high isolation rate was recorded from Rhipicephalus annulatus (63.14%). Six bacterial species were identified [Escherichia coli (28.36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.01%), Bacillus cereus (14.69%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.66%), Citrobacter freundii (13.04%), and Enterobacter species (12.21%)]. Also the high bacterial isolation rates were recorded in the temperate months (November, March and April); these coin-cided with high reproductive performance of ticks. Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.

  7. HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among women in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who are aware of the risk of infection and perceive themselves to be at risk of infection are more likely to take action to prevent HIV infection. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2000 Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey (MICS for Iraq was carried out to assess the extent of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among Iraqi women. Results The majority of the 22,997 respondents were age 15–24 years (44.3%, currently married (51.4%, and resided in urban areas (71.7%. About 1 in 4 (26.0% of the study participants had no formal education. Only 49.9% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Overall, 60.5% did not know that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Meanwhile, 98.5% of the respondents did not know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child through breast milk. Only 0.7% of the respondents reported that HIV cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites. The proportion of the respondents who had adequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS was 9.8%. Adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS was negatively associated with being married, poor, having low education, and residing in rural areas. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi is very limited and associated with marital status, education, wealth, and place of residence. This information may be of use in the design, targeting, monitoring and evaluation of programs aimed at improving HIV and AIDS related knowledge in Iraq.

  8. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10‑8 m3 kg‑1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  9. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 2, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for an annotated bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia cover topics such as the philosophy and theory of education, educational organization, adult education, teacher…

  10. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 8, Number 1, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated bibliography contains 100 English-language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational topics of interest to North Africans. The majority of the items cited were published in 1974. Citations are categorized by country: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Within these major categories are subtopics…

  11. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 4, Number 1, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1969 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  12. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 2, Numbers 1, 2, 3, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Three volumes comprise a 375-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English, French, Italian, and Arabic that provides information on various aspects of education in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and foreign language titles are…

  13. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4 No. 3, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    This report, part of a series of educational bibliographies from the Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) and Libya, consists of excerpts from periodicals published in those countries. Each entry is marked to indicate the particular country. The articles are organized under 13 major subjects that include: the structure of educational…

  14. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  15. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 4, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French dating from 1953 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational and higher education;…

  16. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 1, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 130-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English and French provides information on various aspects of education (many of them language-related) in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and French titles are translated into English.…

  17. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 4, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Ninety-one English language annotations are presented of newspaper articles and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Most of the entries were published during the period October-December 1976. Organized by country, the references cover topics of philosophy and theory of education, teacher training,…

  18. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 1, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for a bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia are preceded by a section on the Maghreb which deals with the special problems of illiteracy, multilingualism, and rapid…

  19. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Numbers 2, 3, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A two volume, 200-item bibliography with English abstracts of books and articles in English and French dating from 1957 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and higher education; and…

  20. Selected Bibliography of Materials; Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 1, Number 2, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A bibliography with abstracts of 106 items from books and articles covers materials on education in the Maghreb countries of Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, and Morocco. Special emphasis is given to the two problems besetting the area's educational system: illiteracy and multilingualism. The entries cover philosophy and theory of education,…

  1. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 1 No. 3 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated compilation of 108 educational publications in Arabic, French, and English includes texts and data on elementary and secondary school curricula in the Maghreb countries (Tunisia, Morroco, Algeria, and Libya). Categories in this bibliography include--(1) Philosophy and Theory of Education, (2) Administration of the Educational…

  2. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 3, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents 91 English language annotations of newspaper articles, journals, and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Although the title also includes Maghreb, this issue does not contain any annotations for that country. All articles were published during the period July-September 1975.…

  3. Difficulty in transforming the savings into investment in Algeria or the regulation in question

    OpenAIRE

    Bellal, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic History of Algeria reveals a blocking of the transformation of the savings into investment. Beyond the conventional diagnosis that involves the failure of the banking system, this blocking is the macroeconomic expression of a deep crisis of the mode of regulation of the economy as a whole. This is the idea that we propose, in what follows, to support.

  4. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte;

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....

  5. (InEdible Algeria: Transmitting Pied-Noir Nostalgia Through Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Hubbell

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For those exiled from Algeria during and after the Algerian War for Independence (1954-1962, sustaining memories of the homeland has been a consuming pastime. Food has especially played a large part in reconnecting Algeria’s former French citizens, the Pieds-Noirs, to their past. Annual gatherings feature typical dishes such as couscous, merguez, méchoui, mouna, which like the Proustian madeleine, transport the Pieds-Noirs to a preceding time of wholeness and comfort, allowing them to experience, if only fleetingly, a sense of immortality. While food has a reparative quality for the community’s memory, it is also the site of rejection and pain for some. Marie Cardinal writes about food as a site of unity with the indigenous Algerian community and rejection from her colonial French family. Similarly, in the collective autobiography Quatre soeurs: Hier, en Algérie, aujourd’hui en France, Frédérique Boblin, Eve Calo, Nelly Collet and Fabienne Rozotte explain their shared eating disorders as tied to their expulsion from Algeria. This essay demonstrates that the Pieds-Noirs can eat to remember Algeria, but the Algeria they knew can also prove to be inedible.

  6. Nuclear verification in Iraq: Are we closing the file? 1 June 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of an essay on IAEA's nuclear verification in Iraq written by the Director General of the IAEA, and published in the Editorial Pages of the Washington Post on 1 June 1998

  7. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Infectious Diseases Veterans who were deployed to Southwest Asia (including Iraq) or Afghanistan may experience symptoms of infectious diseases while on active duty, or they may later ...

  8. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan region, northern Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, Muhamed Fakhri; Friis, Henrik

    The Ordovician deltaic to shallow marine Khabour Formation in Northern Iraq consists mainly of sandstone with minor siltstone and interbedded shale. The sandstones are pervasively cemented by quartz that resulted in very little preserved primary porosity. Cathodoluminescence and petrographic stud...

  9. Algeria's Army, Algeria's Agony

    OpenAIRE

    Addi, Lahouari

    1998-01-01

    L'Etat en Algérie n'est pas dirigé par des élites représentatives de la population. Les responsables aux principaux postes de responsabilité sont désignés par l'armée qui craint que l'Etat n'échappe à son contrôle.

  10. Molecular characterization of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient variants in Baghdad city - Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Musawi, Bassam MS; Al-Allawi, Nasir; Abdul-Majeed, Ban A; Eissa, Adil A; Jubrael, Jaladet MS; Hamamy, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    Background Although G6PD deficiency is the most common genetically determined blood disorder among Iraqis, its molecular basis has only recently been studied among the Kurds in North Iraq, while studies focusing on Arabs in other parts of Iraq are still absent. Methods A total of 1810 apparently healthy adult male blood donors were randomly recruited from the national blood transfusion center in Baghdad. They were classified into G6PD deficient and non-deficient individuals based on the resul...

  11. Risk-based prioritization of pharmaceuticals in the natural environment in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Khazrajy, Omar S A; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the natural environment, raising concerns about their impact on non-target organisms or human health. One region where little is known about the exposure and effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment is Iraq. Due to the high number of pharmaceuticals used by the public health sector in Iraq (hospitals and care centres) and distributed over the counter, there is a need for a systematic approach for identifying substanc...

  12. Efforts of the British Empire to Build a State in Iraq After the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study searches for the policies carried out by the British Empire in Mesopotamia where the British invaded during the First World War. However, it will be convenient to know the political, social and economic background of Iraq or Mesopotamia as a general outline to understand the period clearly. Therefore, we have primarily tried to explain the overview of pre-invasion in Iraq. The traditional social structure of the Iraqi population and their relationship with the administration and each other have been questioned in the context of national identity. Then the developments in Iraq after the invasion have been discussed.The strategies which the Britain used to rule Iraq and the public’s reaction to this strategy have been investigated. In this context, the facts and the events such as the Mandate, 1920 Arab Revolt, the Cairo Conference of 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq have been focused. It has been endeavored to per-form an analysis to understand the present problems in Iraq by discussing the cause and effect relations of the facts and the events. The research has been prepared by benefiting from a rich bibliography based on the scientific works of the experts for Iraq and the Middle East. As a result, this research has revealed the difficulties in ruling Iraq both internally and externally due to its sui generis political, social and economic conditions and found out that the mistakes made in the nation building process have caused the instability occured at the present time in the country.

  13. Aghas, Sheiks, and Daesh in Iraq: Kurdish robust action in turmoil

    OpenAIRE

    Couch, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The conflicts in Iraq and Syria are protracted civil wars with multi-state and non-state actors vying for influence. Iraqi Kurdistan is arguably the most important partner for the United States in our current fight against Daesh, which has exploited the factional politics of Iraq. Special Operations Forces (SOF) will be maintaining persistent engagement in the region for the foreseeable future, and must understand the formal and inform...

  14. Molecular Characterization of G6PD Deficient Variants in Nineveh Province, Northwestern Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Kashmoola, Muna A.; Adil A Eissa; Al-Takay, Dahlia T.; Al-Allawi, Nasir A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency considered to be the commonest inherited enzymopathies disorders worldwide including Iraq. Studies have addressed its prevalence and molecular characterization in several parts of the country, but no data were available from Nineveh province, northwestern-Iraq regarding molecular basis of this inherited enzymopathy. To determine the molecular basis of G6PD deficient variants in Nineveh province. A total of 61 G6PD deficient male individuals ...

  15. Prevalence of hepatitis B seromarkers and hepatitis C antibodies in blood donors in Basra, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rubaye, Ali; Tariq, Ziad; Alrubaiy, Laith

    2016-01-01

    Background Transfusion-caused hepatitis remains a major problem in Iraq. Therefore, testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and antibodies to hepatitis C antigen (anti-HCV) is a very important preventative measure. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus seromarkers among blood donors as a foundation for safe blood transfusion in Iraq. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was con...

  16. Birth defects in Iraq and the plausibility of environmental exposure: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hadithi Tariq S; Al-Diwan Jawad K; Saleh Abubakir M; Shabila Nazar P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An increased prevalence of birth defects was allegedly reported in Iraq in the post 1991 Gulf War period, which was largely attributed to exposure to depleted uranium used in the war. This has encouraged further research on this particular topic. This paper reviews the published literature and provided evidence concerning birth defects in Iraq to elucidate possible environmental exposure. In addition to published research, this review used some direct observation of birth defects dat...

  17. Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Malak Hamdan; Entesar Ariabi; Chris Busby

    2010-01-01

    There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium) in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulti...

  18. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document includes three attachments: the letter of 3 May 1984 from the Director General of the IAEA to the Resident Representative of Iraq, the letter of 10 May 1984 to the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of Iraq and the summary record of discussion in the Board of Governors on 5 June 1984 at its 619th meeting concerning item 20 of the provisional agenda ''Military attack on Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant''

  19. Responding to Saddam: U.S. policy toward Iraq since the Gulf War

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Daniel E

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is an analysis of U.S. policy toward Iraq since the Gulf War. UN Security Council Resolution 687 was the formal cease-fire agreement ending the Gulf War, the resolution requiring the elimination of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and created the UN Special Commission (UNSCOM). Attempts to gain Iraqi compliance with Resolution 687 consumed U.S. Iraq policy for nine years. In 1999, UNSCOM was disestablished without fulfilling its mandate. The Security Council then adopted Resoluti...

  20. No Man's Land: Representations of Masculinities in Iran-Iraq War Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, Jennifer Frances

    2013-01-01

    This study offers an exploration of masculinity in both Iraqi and Iranian fiction which holds the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) as its major theme. Representations of masculinities in Iran-Iraq War fiction present a deep, and at times, confounding paradox. Whilst this corpus of war fiction at times deeply challenges hegemony and completely reformulates its own definitions of normative codes of manliness, at other times it strictly conforms to chauvinistic and often profoundly oppressive patterns...