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Sample records for algeria iraq jordan

  1. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  2. Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Attention in this discussion of Iraq is directed to the following: geography; people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Iraq. In 1986, Iraq's population was estimated to be 16 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3%. The infant mortality rate is 25/1000; life expectancy is 56.1 years. Iraq is bordered by Kuwait, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Almost 75% of the population live in the flat, alluvial plain stretching southeast toward Baghdad and Basra to the Persian Gulf. The 2 largest ethnic groups are Arabas and Kurds; other distinct groups are Assyrians, Turkomans, Iranians, Lurs, and Armenians. Iraq, once known as Mesopotamia, was the site of flourishing ancient civilizations. Muslims conquered Iraq in the 7th century A.D. In the 8th century, the Abassid caliphate established its capital at Baghdad, and by 1638 Baghdad had become a frontier outpost of the Ottoman Empire. At the end of World War I, Iraq became a British-mandated territory. When it was declared independent in 1932, the Hashemite family ruled as a constitutional monarchy. In 1945, Iraq joined the UN and became a founding member of the Arab League. The Ba'ath Party rules Iraq through the 9-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). The RCC's president (chief of state and supreme commander of the armed forces) is elected by a 2/3 majority of the RCC. A Council of Ministers, appointed by the RCC, has administrative and some legislative responsibilities. A 250-member National Assembly was elected on June 20, 1980, in the 1st elections since the end of the monarchy, with another National Assembly election held in October 1984. The Ba'ath Party controls the government. The Iraqi regime does not tolerate opposition. The economy of Iraq is characterized by a heavy dependence on oil exports and an emphasis on development through central planning. Economic performance deteriorated in 1986 because of the sharp

  3. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya; Violence de la rente petroliere. Algerie, Irak, Libye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L. [CERI-Sciences Po, 75006 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  4. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  5. Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

  6. Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Iraq has been producing oil for many years, its turbulent history has prevented it from fully tapping the resources in place. Now in the forefront of the energy and geopolitical scene, Iraq appears to many observers to be a key element of the world oil market, now and in the future. (author)

  7. Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Jordan is a country of 91,000 sq km, only 11% of which is arable. The 1980 population was 2.8 million, growing at 3.65% per year. Most of the people are of Arab stock, including between 1 and 1 1/4 million Palestinians. 95% of the people are Sunni Muslims. The national language is Arabic, and literacy is 71%. The infant mortality rate in 1984 was 50/1000, and life expectancy is 64 years. Suffrage is universal. The 1986 gross domestic product was $4.3 billion, per capita $1530; the growth rate was 2.6%. 80% of the people are employed in agriculture and 20% in industry. The major resources are phosphate and potash. The dinar is worth $0.35. Jordan's economy grew during the 1960s and 1970s, and it achieved the 10% growth rate called for in its 1st 5-year plan (1976-80). The 2nd 5-year plan saw a slow-down in the economy, and the 3rd 5-year plan aims at a growth rate of only 5.1% and the creation of 97,000 new jobs. A major weakness of the economy is its dependence on money from abroad -- $0.5 billion from other Arab countries, wages of expatriate Jordanians working in the Gulf states, and $1.7 billion in US aid between 1952 and 1987. 1986 exports amounted to $732 million, imports to $2.4 billion. Jordan was settled by Canaanites around 2000 BC and was ruled successively by Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Turks, and from 1919 to 1946 Britain. The independent Hashemite Kingdom, a constitutional monarchy, was founded in 1946. War with Israel ended with the establishment of the present official border in 1949, but Israel has occupied the West Bank of the Jordan since 1967, and the militant pro-Syrian Palestinian fedayeen maintained a guerrilla war within Jordan until 1973. In 1974 King Hussein recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization as the sole representative of the Palestinian people. However, by reconvening Parliament in 1984 with representatives from the West Bank, the King contradicted his recognition of the claims of the Palestine Liberation

  8. EMME (Iraq)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — EMME is a program specific M&E tool for the Iraq Mission that is managed by RTI and provides access to project statuses and success stories for USAID/Iraq Local...

  9. Iraq's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large oil reserves of Iraq make it an important player in the long-term political energy world. This article briefly reviews the oil industry''s development and current status in Iraq and discusses the planned oil and gas field development. Finally there is a political discussion regarding the future of Iraq in terms of religion, race and neighbouring countries. (UK)

  10. Constructing and deconstructing 'the Iraq refugee crisis'

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelard, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    This conference paper develops three points by: Questioning the timing of and rationale for the emergence of the post-2003 'Iraq refugee crisis' paradigm; Analysing the application of the humanitarian paradigm as a framework of interpretation and intervention to respond to the situation in Jordan when placed 1/ against the back drop of the continuum of migration from Iraq and 2/ against the political economy of assistance in the Jordanian context.

  11. Algeria; Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-04-01

    Algeria disposes of important fossil energy reserves: 4250 Gm{sup 3} for natural gas and 1300 Mt for oil. Algeria has developed a large capacity of refining on 4 sites: 502700 barrels a day. In 2001 the production reached 67 Mt for crude oil and 32 Mt for oil by-products. The same year the exports reached 36 Mt for liquid hydrocarbons and 21 Mt for oil by-products. In 2001 the production of natural gas reached 79 Gm{sup 3} of which about 78 % were exported (58 Gm{sup 3}). The main clients are Italy (46 %), Spain (18 %), France (18 %), Tunisia (7 %), Belgium (4 %) and Portugal (4 %). Algeria has a low level of energy consumption: 0,8 Tep (equivalent ton of oil) per inhabitant and 670 kWh/inhabitant for electricity. (A.C.)

  12. Michael Jordan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪仙美

    2000-01-01

    Many of us know Michael Jordan is a famous American basketball star. He is perhaps the greatest player in basketball history. Jordan is 1.98m tall. He plays guard(后卫)for the Chicago Bulls. He led his team to six NBA(National Basketball Association ) championships (冠军4).

  13. Mission Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This video summarizes the activities of the IAEA inspection teams, assisted by the UN Special Commission on Iraq, to uncover, neutralize and prevent the restart of Iraq's military nuclear programme. It documents the destruction or rendering harmless of various sites and equipment used for nuclear weapon development, sometimes under very difficult conditions, and points out the necessity of establishing a comprehensive and sustainable monitoring system for the future

  14. Leaving Iraq?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It has been three years since the war in Iraq began, but the situation in the country, especially the security, has not improved much. Meanwhile, the world is wondering when U.S. troops will leave, and the American public appears to be getting impatient with the seemingly endless casualty reports. Some groups have held

  15. Control of brucellosis in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease and considered a great problem of major economic importance in most countries, particularly in those where no eradication programme is applied. In developing countries, ovine brucellosis is still a more frequent source of human infection, and attempts at eradication or campaigns for its control have often met with considerable difficulties. The Iraqi government has long been concerned with the danger brucellosis represents to public health and economy. The Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at Baghdad has a long history of work on brucellosis since in 1977-1985 different biotypes of Brucella melitensis, in particular biotype III, were prevalent and isolated from aborted foetuses and from sheep and goat milk. In addition, two biotypes of Brucella abortus were isolated from aborted calves. As a result, goats, sheep and cattle have a very high risk of morbidity. Serious incidences of brucellosis have been observed in 12% of goats, 10% of sheep and 0.5% of cattle. Recently, Iraq has faced an increasing incidence of the disease, because of inadequate observation of the rules and regulations concerning its control. Accordingly, Iraq has initiated action in co-operation with Jordan, Lebanon and the Syrian Arab Republic in order to develop a regional project in the framework of the elimination, prevention and eradication programme established in 1995

  16. Iraqi refugees' assisted and spontaneous return from Syria and Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Iaria, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The thesis investigates the causes and nature of return in the context of the Iraqis displaced to Syria and Jordan after the 2003 US-led war in Iraq. It combines critical International Relations theories with transnational approaches in Migration Studies to investigate: (1) how regional and international geopolitics have shaped asylum and migration regimes in the Middle East; (2) how Iraqi forced migrants have interacted with such regimes in order to reach safety, sustainable livelihoods and ...

  17. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Malek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  18. Iraq's Tourism Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Dabidian, Hooman; Al-Ani, Mohammed Wafaa; Francke, Christopher Hassaan; Redwan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    While it will require further political stability and security, tourism in Iraq stands to be a major growth sector. The Iraqi tourism sector is currently underdeveloped and in a state of neglect, due to decades of war, closed regimes and recurrent instability and insecurity. However, as Iraq continues to develop and stabilizes, it can begin to meet its tremendous potential as a global tour...

  19. Dendroagricultural Signal in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchan, R.; Kherchouche, D.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Oudjehih, B.; Touchane, H.; Slimani, S.; Meko, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Dalila Kherchouche2, Kevin J. Anchukaitis3, Bachir Oudjehih2, Hayat Touchan4, Said Slimani5, and David M. Meko1Drought is one of the main natural factors in declining tree-ring growth and the production of agricultural crops in Algeria. Here we will address the variability of growing conditions for wheat in Algeria with climatic data and a tree-ring reconstruction of January-June precipitation from ten Pinus halepensis tree-ring chronologies. A regression-based reconstruction equation explains up to 74% of the variance of precipitation in the 1970-2011 calibration period and cross validates well. Classification of dry years by the 30% percentile of observed precipitation (131 mm) yields a maximum length of drought of five years (1877-1881) and increasing frequency of dry years in the late 20th and early 21stcenturies. A correlation-based sensitivity analysis shows a similar pattern of dependence of tree-growth and wheat production on monthly and seasonal precipitation, but contrasting patterns of dependence on temperature. The patterns are interpreted by reference to phenology, growth phases, and - for wheat agricultural practices. We apply these interpretations to understand possible impacts of climate variability on the agricultural productivity of past civilizations in the Mediterranean. 2Institute of Veterinary and Agronomy Sciences, The University Hadj-Lakhdar, Batna 05000, Algeria, d.kherchouche@yahoo.fr and oudjehihbachir@yahoo.fr3University of Arizona, ENR2 Building, 1064 E Lowell Street, PO Box 210137, Tucson, AZ 85721-0137, kanchukaitis@email.arizona.edu4Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo-Syria, dr.htouchan@gmail.com5Faculty of Biological Sciences and Agronomy, The University Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi Ouzou 15000, Algeria, slimanisaid@yahoo.fr1Laboratory of Tree Ring Research, The University of Arizona, 1215 E. Lowell St. Bldg. 45B, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA, dmeko@ltrr.arizona.edu

  20. Special Education in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  1. Algeria embraces globalisation and liberalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2008-07-15

    Algeria's culture of state monopoly and single party rule has been set aside as the country appears to have resolutely chosen globalisation and liberalisation of its markets. The 2-page article is followed by an interview with the Algerian Minister of Energy and President of OPEC for 2008, explaining the energy policy of Algeria.

  2. Humanitarian situation in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne ten Veen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing violence is severely constraining the humanitarian space and making it next to impossible to deliver emergency relief to many vulnerable groups in the worst-affected areas of central Iraq.

  3. On Jordan's measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Brechenmacher, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    The Jordan measure, the Jordan curve theorem, as well as the other generic references to Camille Jordan's (1838-1922) achievements highlight that the latter can hardly be reduced to the "great algebraist" whose masterpiece, the Trait\\'e des substitutions et des equations alg\\'ebriques, unfolded the group-theoretical content of \\'Evariste Galois's work. The present paper appeals to the database of the reviews of the Jahrbuch \\"uber die Fortschritte der Mathematik (1868-1942) for providing an overview of Jordan's works. On the one hand, we shall especially investigate the collective dimensions in which Jordan himself inscribed his works (1860-1922). On the other hand, we shall address the issue of the collectives in which Jordan's works have circulated (1860-1940). Moreover, the time-period during which Jordan has been publishing his works, i.e., 1860-1922, provides an opportunity to investigate some collective organizations of knowledge that pre-existed the development of object-oriented disciplines such as gr...

  4. Jordan Triple Disystems

    CERN Document Server

    Bremner, Murray R; Sanchez-Ortega, Juana

    2011-01-01

    We take an algorithmic and computational approach to a basic problem in abstract algebra: determining the correct generalization to dialgebras of a given variety of nonassociative algebras. We give a simplified statement of the KP algorithm introduced by Kolesnikov and Pozhidaev for extending polynomial identities for algebras to corresponding identities for dialgebras. We apply the KP algorithm to the defining identities for Jordan triple systems to obtain a new variety of nonassociative triple systems, called Jordan triple disystems. We give a generalized statement of the BSO algorithm introduced by Bremner and Sanchez-Ortega for extending multilinear operations in an associative algebra to corresponding operations in an associative dialgebra. We apply the BSO algorithm to the Jordan triple product and use computer algebra to verify that the polynomial identities satisfied by the resulting operations coincide with the results of the KP algorithm; this provides a large class of examples of Jordan triple disy...

  5. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  6. Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolesnikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h and H = U(h # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.

  7. 1980 El Asnam, Algeria Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 7.3 magnitude earthquake killed 5,000 people and caused severe damage. Location: Northern Algeria. Damage: $3,000 million. About 9,000 were injured. Extensive...

  8. Iraq: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Iraq begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Arabic and Kurdish, especially in the context of recent political events and the agreement to make Kurdish a second official language in the Kurdish autonomous region, and to allow limited use of Kurdish in instruction and public communication. A…

  9. Iraq Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    Iraq has focused on increasing student learning outcomes by improving the quality of education in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component of efforts to improve education quality and learning outcomes because it provides the necessary information to meet stakeholders’ decisionmaking needs. In order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and wea...

  10. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  11. [Malaria in Iraq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamo, F J

    2001-01-01

    Malaria control campaign started in Iraq in 1957. This made the country largely free of the disease. Since 1991, following the recent war, Iraq has been affected by serious epidemic of P. vivax malaria that started in 3 autonomous governorates and soon involved other parts of the country. There were 49,840 malaria cases in the country in 1995. The national malaria programme personnel did their best to contain and control the epidemic. Active and passive case detection and treatment were introduced. Free of charge drugs are provided at all levels in the endemic area. Vector control includes environmental management, distribution of Gambusia fish, larviciding, indoor residual spraying with pyrithroids. A total of 4134 malaria cases were recorded in the country in 1999. PMID:11548316

  12. Novikov-Jordan algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Dzhumadil'daev, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Algebras with identity $(a\\star b)\\star (c\\star d) -(a\\star d)\\star(c\\star b)$ $=(a,b,c)\\star d-(a,d,c)\\star b$ are studied. Novikov algebras under Jordan multiplication and Leibniz dual algebras satisfy this identity. If algebra with such identity has unit, then it is associative and commutative.

  13. Toward a Healthier Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al Hilfi, Thamer Kadum Yousif

    2014-01-01

    Health care in Iraq is the sector most influenced by variables such as political, cultural, social, and economic environments. The current status of national security, the deterioration of infrastructure, difficulty in accessing clean water and sewage services in some areas, and the national levels of poverty, malnutrition, and social fragility are all factors that negatively affect the health of the Iraqi people [1]. There is a real need for a solid national health policy that is able to mat...

  14. The IMF's Return to Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund has imposed its traditional policies in Iraq. Few have considered the consequences. But the author notes that business as usual will probably not work in Iraq, and may well be destructive. He also wonders why there is so little imagination at the IMF.

  15. SESAME in Jordan

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Gaetano; Attal, Maher; Makahleh, Firas; Shehab, Maher M; Varnasseri, Seadat

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the status of SESAME is presented. SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) is an Independent Intergovernmental Organization developed and officially established under the auspices of UNESCO. It involves at the present the following Member States: Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey and United Arab Emirates. Moreover the following States are Observer of SESAME Council: France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Russian Federation, Sweden, UK and United States of America. SESAME will become a major international research center in the Middle East, located in Allan, Jordan. The machine design is based on a 2.5 GeV 3rd generation Light Source with an emittance of 26 nm.rad and 11 straights for insertion devices. The conceptual design of the accelerator complex has been frozen and the engineering design is started. The Phase I scientific program for SESAME has also been finalized and it foresees...

  16. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium). The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Energy security in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis explores if the energy strategy of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, as formulated and executed by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, will help the country achieve greater energy security. This work qualitatively analyzes the progress in each energy subsector—hydrocarbons, nuclear power, and renewables—on goals presented in the country’s strategy and provides further analysis to determine each subsector’s potentia...

  18. Astronomy in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabti, A. W.

    2006-08-01

    The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching

  19. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn;

    2011-01-01

    Using data from an occupational medical health surveillance program, we studied the associations between mental stressors and social support and the two outcome measures postdeployment psychological distress and multiple physical symptoms among Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. The study was cross......-sectional and questionnaire-based with soldiers returning from the mission as the target group. Witnessing atrocities, fear of being physically harmed, feeling of insecurity, feeling of meaninglessness, and having been in touch with prisoners were associated with both outcome measures. In conclusion, our findings support...

  20. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability.

  1. Jordan Isomorphisms on Nest Subalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of Jordan isomorphisms on nest subalgebras of factor von Neumann algebras. It is shown that every Jordan isomorphism ϕ between the two nest subalgebras algMβ and algMγ is either an isomorphism or an anti-isomorphism.

  2. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Jordan's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. Strengths and weaknesses are highlighted and policy recommendations are made where appropriate. Much progress was made in the regulatory environment in the 1990s, since the creation of the Jordan Securities Commission, the Amman Stock Exchange, and the Securities Depo...

  3. Iraq spent fuel removal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the preparation and operations associated with the removal of the 208 spent fuel assemblies from Iraq, with emphasis on the technical challenges that were overcome during this removal process. (author)

  4. Implementation of nuclear seawater desalination in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the programme of nuclear desalination of seawater in Algeria. It starts by giving actual data about the needs of Algeria of fresh water up to the year 2025 and presents the strategies, which are adopted to satisfy these needs by various techniques including nuclear desalination of seawater. Finally the application of nuclear seawater desalination is presented in more details. (author)

  5. A survey of photovoltaic activities in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the activities in pholovoltaics (PV) in Algeria, for the last fifteen years. The main activities which are reported are related to PV power systems programs, research education and market penetration. Concluding remarks recommend the transition from demonstrating small projects to large scale ones in order to promote and develop PV technology in Algeria. (author)

  6. Algeria: Revolution, Army and Political Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraoui, Zidane

    2012-01-01

    Despite the numerous similarities among the Arab countries that explain the rapid popular movements since the end of 2010, the case of Algeria presents particular features. It shares the same inequalities and social challenges as the rest of the countries in the region. However, the revolutionary process in Algeria between 1954 and 1962 and the…

  7. Jordan triple systems by the grid approach

    CERN Document Server

    Neher, Erhard

    1987-01-01

    Grids are special families of tripotents in Jordan triple systems. This research monograph presents a theory of grids including their classification and coordinization of their cover. Among the applications given are - classification of simple Jordan triple systems covered by a grid, reproving and extending most of the known classification theorems for Jordan algebras and Jordan pairs - a Jordan-theoretic interpretation of the geometry of the 27 lines on a cubic surface - structure theories for Hilbert-triples and JBW*-triples, the Jordan analogues of Hilbert-triples and W*-algebras which describe certain symmetric Banach manifolds. The notes are essentially self-contained and independent of the structure theory of Jordan algebras and Jordan pairs. They can be read by anyone with a basic knowledge in algebraic geometry or functional analysis. The book is intended to serve both as a reference for researchers in Jordan theory and as an introductory textbook for newcomers to the subject.

  8. Solid Waste Management in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste became one of the major environmental problems in Jordan, which has been aggravated over the past 15 years by the sharp increase in the volume of waste generated as well as qualitative changes in its composition. The challenges face solid waste management (SWM) in Jordan are numerous. Financial constraints, shortage of proper equipment and limited availability of trained and skilled manpower together with massive and sudden population increases due to several waves of forced migra...

  9. Negotiating a deal in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal and diplomatic environment surrounding oil production negotiations in Iraq was discussed with reference to the essential terms generally negotiated for upstream contracts between oil companies and the Iraqi Ministry of Oil. Legal considerations were discussed for the following upstream contracts: production sharing contracts, a risk service contract, a modified buy-back contract, a technical service contract, and a joint venture company. It was noted that negotiations in Iraq require a great amount of diplomacy as projects are very high profile and attract significant international attention. Information sharing is critical in gaining valuable government support. The main problem for interested investors in Iraq is predicting when the UN sanctions will be lifted. Once lifted, the Ministry of Oil's Development Plan is to increase oil production through the co-operative assistance of foreign oil companies. While the sanctions remain in place, Iraq is allowed to sell oil on a renewable basis every 6 months under the oil-for-food programme, which permits Iraq to spend US$600 million every 6 months for spare parts to upgrade its oil industry. 9 figs

  10. Mapping Ecosystem Services in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Ana; Marques, Ana; Ribeiro, Inês; Alho, Maria; Catarina Afonso, Ana; Almeida, Erika; Branquinho, Cristina; Talozi, Samer; Pinho, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade researchers started using ecosystem services as a new framework to understand the relationships between environment and society. Habitat quality and water quality are related with ecosystem services regulation and maintenance, or even provision. According to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) both habitat quality and water quality are associated with lifecycle maintenance, habitat and gene pool protection, and water conditions, among others. As there is increased pressure on habitats and rivers especially for agricultural development, mapping and evaluating habitat and water quality has important implications for resource management and conservation, as well as for rural development. Here, we model and map habitat and water quality in the Jordan Valley, Jordan. In this study, we aim to identify and analyse ecosystem services both through 1) habitat quality and 2) water quality modelling using InVest, an integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs. The data used in this study mainly includes the LULC, Jordan River watershed and main threats and pollutants in the study area, such as agriculture, industry, fish farms and urbanization. Results suggest a higher pressure on natural habitats in the Northern region of the Jordan Valley, where industry is dominant. Agriculture is present along the Jordan Valley and limits the few natural forested areas. Further, water pollution is mainly concentrated in disposal sites due to the low flow of the Jordan River. Our results can help to identify areas where natural resources and water resource management is most needed in the Jordan Valley. Acknowledgements: Transbasin FP7 project

  11. 2003 Boumerdes and Algiers, Algeria Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A destructive earthquake of magnitude Mw = 6.8 hit the region of Boumerdes and Algiers (Algeria) on May 21, 2003. This is among the strongest seismic events of the...

  12. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement.

  13. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  14. Review of wind energy use in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most scientists now agree that human-induced global climate change poses a serious threat to both society and the Earth's ecosystems. Renewable energy holds the key to future prosperity and a healthy global environment and is considered as a promising way to solve the problem of environmental pollution such as major environmental accidents, water pollution, maritime pollution, land use and sitting impact, radiation and radioactivity, solid waste disposal, hazardous air pollutants, ambient air quality (CO, CO2, SOx, NOx effluent gas emissions), acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming (GHG). Solar, wind and hydrogen power can be considered as potential renewable energy sources in Algeria. The share of renewable energy sources in Algeria primary energy supply is relatively low compared with European countries, though the trends of development are positive. One of the main strategic priorities of New Energy Algeria (NEAL) which is Algeria's renewable energy agency (government, Sonelgaz and Sonatrach), is striving to achieve a share of renewable energy sources in primary energy supply of 10-12% by 2010. IEA projects that the fastest growing sources of energy will be supplied by renewables. Much of this capacity will be installed in developing nations where solar and wind electric power is already competitive. Clearly, the nation that can capture a leadership position has potential for substantial economic returns. The article presents a review of the present wind energy situation and assessed potential of wind energy sources in Algeria in particular the southwest region of Algeria (Adrar, Timimoun and Tindouf). (author)

  15. 31 CFR 575.306 - Government of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Iraq. 575.306 Section....306 Government of Iraq. The term Government of Iraq includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iraq... of Iraq; (b) Any partnership, association, corporation, or other organization substantially owned...

  16. 31 CFR 575.210 - Prohibited transfer of funds to the Government of Iraq or any person in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Iraq or any person in Iraq. 575.210 Section 575.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Iraq or any person in Iraq. Except as otherwise authorized, no U.S. person may commit or transfer, directly or indirectly, funds or other financial or economic resources to the Government of Iraq or...

  17. 31 CFR 575.207 - Prohibited transactions relating to travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq. 575.207 Section 575.207 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iraq or to activities within Iraq. Except as otherwise authorized, no U.S. person may engage in any transaction relating to travel by any U.S. citizen or permanent resident alien to Iraq, or to activities...

  18. Dirac, Jordan and quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of two principal physicists of quantum mechanics is specially chose: Paul Dirac and Pascual Jordan. They gave a signification and an importance very different to the notion of quantum field, and in particular to the quantized matter wave one. Through their formation and motivation differences, such as they are expressed in their writings, this deep difference is tentatively understood

  19. Can Iraq Overcome the Oil Curse?

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    In an important document2 released toward the end of 2005, the United States outlined its strategy for victory in Iraq. Victory is defined in states: (1) Short term, Iraq is making steady progress in fighting terrorists, meeting political milestones, building democratic institutions and indigenous security forces; (2) Medium term, Iraq is in the lead defeating terrorists and providing its own security, with a fully constitutional government in place and on its way to achievi...

  20. Economic policy and prospects in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, Keith; Block, DE; Foote, Christopher; Gray, Simon

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the Coalition Provisional Authority's attempts to stabilize and reform Iraq's economy along market lines. It argues that while security concerns remain serious, Iraq's economy has not been crippled by violence. However, sustained economic growth will depend on whether Iraq's future leaders pursue the pro-market approaches the Coalition has advocated. If the Iraqi economy is to reach its potential, it will need to go even farther than the Coalition did, implementing reform...

  1. Marketing of Banking Services in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Omran, Waleed

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The study is all about identifying the role of marketing in the Banking sector of Iraq. The Iraq financial sector is entirely equipped with banks and has an aggressive, competitive environment, in this case, making a place for newbies is kind a hard to survive. Therefore, this study evaluates the Iraq environment with the help of PEST (Political, Economical, Social and Technological) analysis and Porter‟s Five Forces to understand the market environment and demands. The study totall...

  2. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  3. Towards sustainable water management in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2012-12-01

    Algeria aspires to protect its water resources and to provide a sustainable answer to water supply and management issues by carrying out a national water plan. This program is in line with all projects the Algerian Government is implementing to improve its water sector performance. The water strategy focuses on desalination for the coastal cities, medium-sized dams to irrigate the inland mountains and high plateau, and ambitious water transfer projects interconnecting Algeria\\'s 65 dams to bring water to water scarce parts of the country. Waste water treatment and water reclamation technologies are also highly sought after. The main objective of the country\\'s water policy consists on providing sufficient potable water for the population supply. This objective is undertaken by increasing the water resources and availability. © 2012 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimated use of explosives in the mining industries of Algeria, Iran, Iraq, and Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Russell, J.A.; Bleiwas, D.I. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This work was performed under Memorandum of Agreement B291534 Between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the United States Bureau of Mines. The Bureau of Mines authors are members of the Minerals Availability Field Office (MAFO) in Denver, CO, which uses an extensive network of information sources to develop and maintain the Minerals Availability database concerning mining and minerals properties worldwide. This study was initiated and directed by F. Heuze at LLNL. A previous study on the same subject had been commissioned by LLNL from the Mining Journal Research Services (MJRS) in London ,UK. Its results were integrated into this report. MJRS is shown as one of the numerous sources which were used for this work. All sources are listed in the report. This document is arranged in four sections, one for each country, in alphabetical order. Thie outline is the same for each country.

  5. The changing epidemiology of diphtheria in Jordan*

    OpenAIRE

    Khuri-Bulos, N.; Hamzah, Y.; Sammerrai, S. M.; Shehabi, A.; Hamed, R.; Arnaout, M. A.; Turk, J.; Qubain, H.

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of diphtheria used to occur regularly in Jordan, the last such outbreak being in 1977-78. Since that time, a massive immunization programme targeted at pre-school-age children has been markedly successful. Hence, when an outbreak of diphtheria occurred in 1982-83, it was unexpected. Of the 35 patients who were treated at the Jordan University Hospital, two died and the remaining 33 recovered uneventfully. Contrary to our findings in previous diphtheria epidemics in Jordan, this outb...

  6. IAEA planning to send team to Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency is planning to send a team to the Iraqi nuclear research centre at Tuwaitha soon, to verify the nuclear material under safeguards pursuant to Iraq's NPT safeguards agreement. The despatch of such a mission has been agreed to with the US government. The mission will be limited to verifying Iraq's safeguards obligations. (IAEA)

  7. IAEA inspections and Iraq's nuclear capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is reported that IAEA teams have been investigating Iraq's nuclear capabilities since May 1991 and following the Gulf War under terms of United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 directed at eliminating Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and means to produce and use them. A chronology of the events as well as the IAEA plan of further actions are described

  8. The Gasoline Crisis in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap Chatterjee

    2006-01-01

    Pratap Chatterjee in his report to Corpwatch1 indicates the politics of the current fuel crisis is leading to unlikely bedfellows. The governments of Turkey and Saudi Arabia have shut down gasoline exports to Iraq and as a result Baghdad has begun to negotiate with its former arch-rival, Iran. Government officials in Baghdad and Washington claim that the gasoline shortage is ‘insurgent’ or ‘terrorist’ activity but the trucking companies and those living the crisis says it is more often due to...

  9. Oil and power: Iraq at the crossroads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enay, P.

    1995-11-01

    Oil and Power: Iraq at the Crossroads is the first analysis which specifically addresses the oil sector in Iraq. It provides a detailed account of the present Iraqi oil infrastructure and assesses the risks and opportunities facing those who seek to invest in its redevelopment. The report examines the implications for the world oil markets of Iraq`s ambitious plans to expand production capacity to 6m barrels per day -almost twice its pre-war peak. It explains in clear, authoritative terms the profound problems confronting Iraq`s oil sector and the prospects for rebuilding it. It analyses expertly and in detail the current regime`s chances of survival and examines the alternative contenders for power -and their likely attitudes towards co-operation with foreign oil interests. The report examines and explains: Iraq`s oil infrastructure, from fields under exploration to nominal administrative structure; the effect on oil prices of Iraq`s eventual re-entry into the oil market; the facilities in need of repair and where the shortage of spares and human expertise are; the unofficial decision-making structure in the oil sector; the short- and medium-term impact of economic disintegration on oil development policy; the effects of UN sanctions and the motives of those supporting or opposing sanctions; the likely impact of prevailing economic constraints on Iraqi oil and the historical role of commissions in Iraqi oil contracts; the political impact of General Hussein Kamal Hassan`s defection and the Kurdish and Shi`ite threats to Iraqi national unity. (author)

  10. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  11. U.S. Strategic Predicament in Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Wenlin

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Iraq war is the biggest experimental site of Bushism and the success or failure of the war there has a direct bearing on the spread of Bushism as a strategic model. Hence it is necessary to make a systematic assessment of America's situation in Iraq. The current situation shows that the United has got into an unprecedented strategic haziness. In the security field, U.S. forces have dispatched large number of troops to carry out suppression and won frequent victories,but they are suffering stronger resistances. In the realm of political reconstruction, the democratic process in Iraq is now under in accordance with the prescribed order, but religious contradictions are on the rise, and political structures become more fragile. Over economic reconstruction, the United States has kept increasing input and at the same time appealed to the international community for more assistance. Even though Iraq is faced with difficulties in the reconstruction. Therefore, there is a widening disagreement in America over "whether the U.S. is winning or losing the war in Iraq. "① Based on the major views of experts and scholars from both China and overseas,the author thinks that the following three criteria are important for judging whether the United States has succeeded or failed in pursuing its strategy in Iraq: the feasibility of strategic objectives, balance of objectives and means and adaptability of strategic means. Judged by the above-mentioned criteria, the United States is now landing in a strategic predicament in Iraq.

  12. Born-Jordan quantization theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Gosson, Maurice A

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive mathematical study of the operators behind the Born–Jordan quantization scheme. The Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures of quantum mechanics are equivalent only if the Born–Jordan scheme is used. Thus, Born–Jordan quantization provides the only physically consistent quantization scheme, as opposed to the Weyl quantization commonly used by physicists. In this book we develop Born–Jordan quantization from an operator-theoretical point of view, and analyze in depth the conceptual differences between the two schemes. We discuss various physically motivated approaches, in particular the Feynman-integral point of view. One important and intriguing feature of Born-Jordan quantization is that it is not one-to-one: there are infinitely many classical observables whose quantization is zero.

  13. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ick-Soon Chang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  14. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sheon-Young

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  15. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Sheon-Young; Chang Ick-Soon; Kim Hark-Mahn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation). Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation) mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  16. Iraq: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that no reliable information on Iraqi E and P operations and only a few reports on oil field facilities damage have been available since last August. Most of what is known originated from the Middle East Economic Survey (MEES), the authoritative newsletter covering the Middle East. According to MEES reports in major northern oil fields (Kirkuk, Bai Hasan and Jambur) is put at 800,000 bpd. The northern fields and the pipeline system through Turkey to the Mediterranean Sea that serves as an export outlet for the area apparently were not damaged much by coalition air strikes or subsequent fighting by the Kurds. Last May production was estimated at 250,000 bpd, presumably from northern fields. If and when U.N. sanctions are lifted, Iraq should be able to export promptly through the Turkish line

  17. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attached clarification by a spokesman of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs is being circulated for the information of Member States pursuant to a request made by the Resident Representative of Iraq

  18. Mediterranean spotted fever in Algeria - new trends

    OpenAIRE

    Mouffok, N.; Parola, P; Lepidi, H; Raoult, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) due to Rickettsia conorii is the most important tick-borne disease occurring in North Africa. However, there are only a few fragmentary reports on the epidemiology and clinical aspects of rickettsioses in North Africa, and cases are still rarely documented. We report herein a prospective study conducted in Oran, the second largest city in Algeria. This disease has not been property described in Oran or in other Algerian cities. Methods: A total ...

  19. Wildfires in Algeria: problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meddour-Sahar O

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the scenario of the Mediterranean area, where about 54 000 fires and 0.4 million hectares of forest are burned and annually registered (2006-2010, the rank for Algeria is non-negligible with 4.11 million hectares of forest. The annual number of fires and the size of area burned depict a critical situation, which became rather dramatic in 2012. Climate change projections and the estimated changes to wildfire risk for the future decades (2030-2060 indicate that the entire Maghreb region, including Algeria, will be among the most affected areas of the Mediterranean. Longer fire seasons will be experienced and extended by an additional month with each passing year. Despite Algeria’s recent investments in technical means for controlling forest fires, the current suppression-oriented model seems unable to cope with such a phenomenon. Furthermore, the model is unfit in view of the approaching scenario, when fire-exclusion policies need to be complemented with fuel-reduction techniques and fire prevention management. This study aims to establish an understanding of the context and public policy issues related to wildfire management in Algeria. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires to foresters with the objective of identifying obstacles and constraints hindering the efficacy of pro-active measures. Analysis of the data gathered indicates that Algerian foresters are well aware of the importance of prevention, contrasting with current governmental policies that are predominantly oriented towards improving the technical extinction apparatus. A SWOT analysis suggests possible strategic options for improving the efficiency of wildfire control by building on strengths, eliminating weaknesses, exploiting opportunities, and mitigating threats. The results of this study may be adapted to other countries with similar problems as those of Algeria.

  20. Modern, sustainable, protected greenhouse cultivation in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Os, van, H.; Speetjens, S.L.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Bruins, M.A.; Sapounas, A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the project was to analyse the structure and technology level of protected cultivation in Algeria, which were followed by recommendations for improvements (technical, cultivation and economic aspects) of existing and newly built greenhouses. Further, in discussion with Dutch and Algerian parties, the goal was to come to a final design which can be built with local partners. The Wageningen UR “adaptive greenhouse approach” was used at which results of the simulation models for the ...

  1. STABILITY AND SUPERSTABILITY OF JORDAN HOMOMORPHISMS AND JORDAN DERIVATIONS ON BANACH ALGEBRAS AND C*-ALGEBRAS: A FIXED POINT APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Eshaghi Gordji; A. Najati; A. Ebadian

    2011-01-01

    Using fixed point methods,we prove the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability and superstability of Jordan homomorphisms (Jordan *-homomorphisms),and Jordan derivations (Jordan *-derivations) on Banach algebras (C*-algebras) for the generalized Jensen-type functional equationrf(x+g/r)+rf(x-g/r)=2f(x)where r is a fixed positive real number in (1,∞).

  2. Nematophagous fungi from soils of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik M. Muhsin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Filteen taxa of nematode-trapping fungi were isolated from soil samples collected in Iraq. Among them. seven taxa belonged to Arthrobotrys, two to cach of Dactylella, Dactyleria, Monacrosporium, and one to Stylopage and Cyslopage. The trapping devices of each fungal species were recognized. A brief description of each species from pure cultures is provided. All the reported taxa are new to Iraq.

  3. Mosquito species geographical distribution in Iraq 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Haidar A. Hantosh, Hameeda M. Hassan, Bushra Ahma & Ali Al-fatlawy

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills threemillion persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species.In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomologicalsurvey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009.Methods: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi...

  4. The Role of Islamic Fundamentalism in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zola Sonkosi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Algeria and the Islamist challenge For six years, Algeria has been experiencing a true nightmare of terror. Human rights organisations estimate that since 1992, 120 000 people were killed by armed Islamic groups or state security, among them many civilians. During Ramadan 1998, there were shocking news of cruelly executed and mutilated women, men and children in Koraa, 80 kilometres south-west of the capital Algiers. The alleged culprits were assumed to belong to the Groupe lslamique Armée (GIA. The critical Algerian press increasingly becomes a victim of fanaticism and state censorship4. In order to understand these events better, it is necessary to take a look at the history of this country. In 1962, Algeria celebrated its independence from 132 years of colonial occupation by France. This great event was preceded by a long and bitter war, which was led by the Front De Libération Nationale (FLN, and its ally, the Armée de Libération Nationale (ALN. In 1954, Algerians began to fight the French army that was considered unbeatable. Its defeat was achieved in 1962, but the country was never exposed to democracy and pluralism because the FLN-leadership preferred to practice one-party-rule after the Soviet model. Critics, especially from the ranks of former freedom fighters, among them Mohamed Boudiaf and Hocine Ait Ahmeds, were arrested or forced to go into exile.

  5. Oil and power: Iraq at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil and Power: Iraq at the Crossroads is the first analysis which specifically addresses the oil sector in Iraq. It provides a detailed account of the present Iraqi oil infrastructure and assesses the risks and opportunities facing those who seek to invest in its redevelopment. The report examines the implications for the world oil markets of Iraq's ambitious plans to expand production capacity to 6m barrels per day -almost twice its pre-war peak. It explains in clear, authoritative terms the profound problems confronting Iraq's oil sector and the prospects for rebuilding it. It analyses expertly and in detail the current regime's chances of survival and examines the alternative contenders for power -and their likely attitudes towards co-operation with foreign oil interests. The report examines and explains: Iraq's oil infrastructure, from fields under exploration to nominal administrative structure; the effect on oil prices of Iraq's eventual re-entry into the oil market; the facilities in need of repair and where the shortage of spares and human expertise are; the unofficial decision-making structure in the oil sector; the short- and medium-term impact of economic disintegration on oil development policy; the effects of UN sanctions and the motives of those supporting or opposing sanctions; the likely impact of prevailing economic constraints on Iraqi oil and the historical role of commissions in Iraqi oil contracts; the political impact of General Hussein Kamal Hassan's defection and the Kurdish and Shi'ite threats to Iraqi national unity. (author)

  6. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Salmonella typhimurium from Chicken Meat in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseel A. Saeed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonellae contamination of chicken meat imported from different origin to local markets in south of Iraq (Diwaniya. The bacteria were cultured, isolated and biochemically characterized by the analytical profiling index (API 20E system. The 16s rRNA and invA gene primers were selected specifically for the detection of Salmonella to amplify a 406 and 558 bp DNA fragments, respectively. The results of this study showed that 22 Salmonella isolates were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR from 100 chicken meats and only 7 isolates out of 22 were identified as S. typhimurium, the highest percent of isolates were 83.8 % for India origin and the lowest percent were 25% from Jordan origin.

  7. Chaotic inflation in Jordan frame supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Min

    2010-01-01

    We consider the inflationary scenario with non-minimal coupling in 4D Jordan frame supergravity. We find that there occurs a tachyonic instability along the direction of the accompanying non-inflaton field in generic Jordan frame supergravity models. We propose a higher order correction to the Jordan frame function for solving the tachyonic mass problem and show that the necessary correction can be naturally generated by the heavy thresholds without spoiling the slow-roll conditions. We discuss the implication of the result on the Higgs inflation in NMSSM.

  8. Jordan C*-Algebras and Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Rios, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It is known that black hole charge vectors of N=8 and magic N=2 supergravity in four and five dimensions can be represented as elements of Jordan algebras of degree three over the octonions and split-octonions and their Freudenthal triple systems. We show both such Jordan algebras are contained in the exceptional Jordan C*-algebra and construct its corresponding Freudenthal triple system and single variable extension. The transformation groups for these structures give rise to the complex forms of the U-duality groups for N=8 and magic N=2 supergravities in three, four and five dimensions.

  9. Jordan Higher Derivable Mappings on Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let R be a ring. We say that a family of maps D={dn}n∈N is a Jordan higher derivable map (without assumption of additivity on R if d0=IR (the identity map on R and dn(ab+ba=∑p+q=n‍dp(adq(b+∑p+q=n‍dp(bdq(a hold for all a,b∈R and for each n∈N. In this paper, we show that every Jordan higher derivable map on a ring under certain assumptions becomes a higher derivation. As its application, we get that every Jordan higher derivable map on Banach algebra is an additive higher derivation.

  10. Jordan structures in mathematics and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Iordanescu, Radu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer an overview of the most important applications of Jordan structures inside mathematics and also to physics, up-dated references being included. For a more detailed treatment of this topic see - especially - the recent book Iordanescu [364w], where sugestions for further developments are given through many open problems, comments and remarks pointed out throughout the text. Nowadays, mathematics becomes more and more nonassociative and my prediction is that in few years nonassociativity will govern mathematics and applied sciences. Keywords: Jordan algebra, Jordan triple system, Jordan pair, JB-, JB*-, JBW-, JBW*-, JH*-algebra, Ricatti equation, Riemann space, symmetric space, R-space, octonion plane, projective plane, Barbilian space, Tzitzeica equation, quantum group, B\\"acklund-Darboux transformation, Hopf algebra, Yang-Baxter equation, KP equation, Sato Grassmann manifold, genetic algebra, random quadratic form.

  11. JORDAN TEAM VALID8故人重来

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖

    2005-01-01

    作为与 JORDAN TEAM BIG FUND同时上市的 JORDAN TEAM 款式,JOR-DAN TEAM VALID8的受关注度远远没有前者大。外形与 AIR JORDAN Ⅳ相象的 JORDAN TEAM BIG FUND 凭借ⅢP HOP 风格得到了许多人的喜爱,而JORDAN TEAM VALID8却始终显得不温不火。其实,外观简单的 JORDAN TEAM

  12. Sickle cell disease in the Kurdish population of northern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Allawi, Nasir A S; Jalal, Sana D; Nerwey, Farida F; Al-Sayan, Galawezh O O; Al-Zebari, Sahima S M; Alshingaly, Awny A; Markous, Raji D; Jubrael, Jaladet M S; Hamamy, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that sickle cell disease patients are clustered in two geographical areas in Iraq, one among the Arabs in the extreme south, another among the Kurdish population in the extreme north, where they constitute major health problems. However, no studies have focused on the genotypes responsible for sickle cell disease or the β-globin gene haplotypes associated with it. For the latter purpose, a total of 103 unrelated Kurdish sickle cell disease patients were evaluated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for the sickle cell mutation, followed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse hybridization for β- and α-thalassemia (β- and α-thal) mutations, whenever indicated. Results showed that the most common genotype was sickle cell anemia (68.0%) followed by Hb S/β(0)-thal and Hb S/β(+)-thal at frequencies of 24.2 and 7.8%, respectively. Eight β-thal mutations were associated with the latter two genotypes including: IVS-II-1 (G>A), IVS-I-110 (G>A), codon 8 (-AA), codon 44 (-C), codon 22 (-7 bp), IVS-I-1 (G>A), codon 30 (G>C) and IVS-I-6 (T>C). In Hb SS patients, the -α(3.7) deletion was documented in 10.0% and was the only α-thal mutation detected. Furthermore, 5' β-globin gene cluster haplotyping of 128 β(S) chromosomes revealed that the most common haplotype seen in 69.5% was the Benin haplotype, followed by the Arab-Indian haplotype in 12.5%. These latter findings closely resemble reports from neighboring Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Mediterranean countries, suggesting a possible common origin, but are in contrast to findings from the Eastern Arabian Peninsula and Iran. PMID:22686351

  13. Wildfires in Algeria: problems and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Meddour-Sahar O

    2015-01-01

    In the scenario of the Mediterranean area, where about 54 000 fires and 0.4 million hectares of forest are burned and annually registered (2006-2010), the rank for Algeria is non-negligible with 4.11 million hectares of forest. The annual number of fires and the size of area burned depict a critical situation, which became rather dramatic in 2012. Climate change projections and the estimated changes to wildfire risk for the future decades (2030-2060) indicate that the entire Maghreb region, i...

  14. Jordan Country Gender Assessment : Economic Participation, Agency and Access to Justice in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Over the last three decades Jordan has made substantial investments in its human resources, spending more than 10 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on health and education. Like their male counterparts, women and girls have benefitted from these policies and their quality of life has improved. The Jordan Country Gender Assessment (CGA) has two primary objectives. The first is to asse...

  15. The Thermal Waters of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, I.; Schäffer, R.

    2012-04-01

    In a recent field campaign all known natural hot spring areas of Jordan were investigated. Their hydrochemical properties including some fundamental isotopes were measured. Jordan's thermal springs can be classified into four thermal provinces (Nahr Al-Urdun, Hammamat Ma'in, Zara and Wadi Araba province), with similar hydrochemical and geologicalsettings. Thermal springs of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are situated on prominent faults. Reservoir temperature estimation with the Mg-corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometer indicates temperatures between 61 °C and 82 °C. Even taking into account the increased geothermal gradient at Dead Sea's east coast, the water's origin has to be considered mainly in deeper formations. Carbon dioxide, emitted by tertiary basalts situated close to the springs, may be responsible for gas lift. Mineralisation and δ18O-values indicate, that the spring water's origin is mostly fossil, i.e. not part of the global water cycle. It is shown, that ground water mining led to a shift within δ18O-ratio during the last 30 years due to a reduction of shallow water portion in addition to a dislocation of the catchment area. Ground water mining will impact the thermal spring productivity and quality anyway in the future. Present-day precipitation rates and catchment areas in Dead Sea region are by far not sufficient to explain relative high discharge. For the Hammamat Ma'in Province is documented, that discharge and maximal spring water temperatures are constant during the last 50 years, showing marginal seasonal oscillation and negligible influence by short-term climatic changes. The water characteristics of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are related. However, Zara waters feature systematically less ion concentration and lower temperatures due to a stronger influence of vadose water. The springs of Nahr Al-Urdun province are recharged mainly by shallow groundwater. Thus temperature and mineralisation is lower than at the springs at the Dead Sea

  16. [Epidemiological data on scorpion envenomation in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellal, H; Guerinik, M; Griene, L; Laid, Y; Mesbah, S; Merad, R; Alamir, B

    2012-08-01

    The scorpion envenomation is a major public health problem in Algeria. Given this fact, the Ministry of Health has developed a national strategy for prevention and control based on the training of health personnel, information, education and communication, and standardization of care on the basis of a therapeutic consensus. The monitoring and evaluation activities are carried out by epidemiological indicators through the implementation of an information system based in the services of Epidemiology, INSP (National Institute of Public Health) and Prevention Department of the Health Ministry. The information carriers are report cards implemented in different health facilities that collect data on bites and deaths from scorpion envenomation. Summaries of notifications from the wilayas are collected monthly, and processed by the Epi info software using monitoring indicators. From 1991 to 2010, there has been a stagnation in the number of stings with an average of 50,000 cases per year, but mortality decreased from more than 100 deaths in the last fifty years to 50 nowadays. The higher proportion of stings was recorded during the summer period. The most affected group is from 15 to 49 years which constitute the workforce, but children from 5 to 14 years rank first in terms of mortality. But these rates vary across years and regions. Despite all these efforts, the scorpion envenomation in Algeria remains of concern and our main challenges are to strengthen cross-sectional actions at the local level and improving the quality of care. PMID:22555670

  17. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia.

  18. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michuda Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA, and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a control system by marketing activity of football clubs of Iraq is defined. Positive and negative factors which define management efficiency marketing of football clubs are revealed.

  19. 31 CFR 575.329 - Areas of Iraq not controlled by the Government of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the “Green Line” and under the control of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) or the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) in the following provinces of Iraq: Dahuk (Dohuk), Arbil (Erbil), and...

  20. Gender and Justice in Jordan : Women, Demand, and Access

    OpenAIRE

    Prettitore, Paul Scott

    2013-01-01

    Two key dimensions on access to justice sector services in Jordan are poverty and gender. The gender dimension to accessing formal justice sector services, namely court and lawyer services is anchored in the reality that women and men in Jordan demonstrate different needs and priorities for services, and face different obstacles in accessing them. Jordan demonstrates different needs and pr...

  1. Hom-alternative algebras and Hom-Jordan algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Makhlouf, Abdenacer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Hom-alternative algebras and Hom-Jordan algebras. We discuss some of their properties and provide construction procedures using ordinary alternative algebras or Jordan algebras. Also, we show that a polarization of Hom-associative algebra leads to Hom-Jordan algebra.

  2. KURDISH BASIC COURSE, DIALECT OF SULAIMANIA, IRAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABDULLA, JAMAL JALAL; MCCARUS, ERNEST N.

    THIS BEGINNING COURSE, DESIGNED FOR THE STUDENT WITH SOME KNOWLEDGE OF LINGUISTICS, FOLLOWS THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH IN TEACHING THE PHONOLOGY, BASIC STRUCTURE, AND VOCABULARY OF THE EDUCATED KURDISH DIALECT OF SULAIMANIA, IRAQ. THE CULTURAL CONTENT OF THE MATERIAL PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH A GENERAL BACKGROUND OF SULAIMANIAN CULTURE. PART I,…

  3. 15 CFR 746.3 - Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for transactions with Iraq, as provided in 31 CFR part 575. This section establishes a validity period... on the U.S. Munitions List (USML) (22 CFR part 121, International Traffic in Arms Regulations) or the... International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR parts 120 through 130). (e) Transition for licenses issued...

  4. Oasis in Iraq: Universities Flourish in Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Zvika

    2007-01-01

    The campus of Salahadin University--peaceful, bustling, and collegial-- is a rare sight in Iraq, where sectarian violence has brought the higher education system to the verge of collapse. Home to the country's historically repressed four million to five million ethnic Kurds, it is an oasis of stability and tranquility while much of the rest of…

  5. The War in Iraq: Scholarly Societies Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academic Questions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The American Sociological Association, the Modern Language Association, the American Historical Society, the American Psychological Association, and the American Anthropological Association have taken official stands on questions pertaining to America's current military involvement in Iraq. Here are their resolutions. (Contains 2 footnotes.)

  6. Jordan Canonical Form Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, Steven H

    2009-01-01

    Jordan Canonical Form (JCF) is one of the most important, and useful, concepts in linear algebra. The JCF of a linear transformation, or of a matrix, encodes all of the structural information about that linear transformation, or matrix. This book is a careful development of JCF. After beginning with background material, we introduce Jordan Canonical Form and related notions: eigenvalues, (generalized) eigenvectors, and the characteristic and minimum polynomials. We decide the question of diagonalizability, and prove the Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Then we present a careful and complete proof of t

  7. Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Jordan is committed to aligning its national corporate financial reporting requirements with the International Accounting Standards and International Standards on Auditing, and it has achieved significant improvements, including issuance of a new Accountancy Profession Law. Although this law is a significant step toward regulating the profession, the Report on the Observance of Standards a...

  8. Qubit entanglement: A Jordan algebraic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L

    2013-01-01

    We review work classifying the physically distinct forms of 3-qubit entanglement using the elegant framework of Jordan algebras, Freudenthal triple systems and groups of type E_7. While this framework is, in the first instance, specific to three qubits, it is shown here how the essential features may be naturally generalised to an arbitrary number of qubits.

  9. English in Jordan: Attitudes and Prestige

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saidat, Emad M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the attitudes of a number of Jordanian university students towards English as a foreign language and the place it occupies in Jordan. Although research of a similar nature has been done, this study complements others by following 420 students in their university studies, and it provides another avenue for examining…

  10. Iraq: Usa and Great Britain hold up an agreement on limited sales of Iraq petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The negotiations United Nations/Iraq have been stopped because of objections coming from Usa and Great Britain. Three points were developed: The distribution of medicine and foods in three Kurdish countries, these countries are actually under the United nations control, Iraq wants to participate at the distribution but Usa and Great Britain think that it could be a way of pressure from Iraq on Kurdish countries and in this mind they refuse. The second point is about the sequestered banking account on which must be deposited the receipts of Iraqi petroleum sales which must be put under United Nation control in order to avoid, according to Washington and London, that Iraq uses it to get round the sanctions. The third point is that Usa and Great Britain consider that the resolution number 986 has only for object to relieve the pains of Iraqi people and its application must not be interpreted as a lightening of international sanctions against Iraq. The results of the suspension are a surge of petroleum prices on international market and a fall of Iraqi Dinar. (N.C.)

  11. Iraq: Learning Civilian Protection the Hard Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahr Muhammedally

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article—based on the author’s interviews with civilians and security forces in areas retaken from the Islamic State (also known as ISIS in Northern Iraq in 2015—examines challenges in civilian protection when pro-government forces take control of areas formerly under control of anti-government forces.1 It recommends to the Iraqi and Kurdish leadership specific harm mitigation training for their forces, a protection-based approach to shield civilians from harm from all sides, and provision of security to returnees, including protection both from crime and revenge attacks. Such preventative measures, if enacted before major military operations to retake populated areas under ISIS control begin, would better protect civilians, strengthen the government’s mission against ISIS and provide building blocks for a stable Iraq.

  12. The economic burden of hemodialysis in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Adel Al-Shdaifat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodialysis treatment is a costly procedure that requires specific resources. It has a considerable burden on patients, caregivers, and healthcare system. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden borne by the Ministry of Health (MOH in Jordan, with a focus on direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect cost. Materials and Methods:The study was conducted at MOH hospitals in Jordan, from August to November 2010. A total of 138 patients and 49 caregivers were involved in the study. An economic evaluation study was used to analyze the burden of hemodialysis treatment at MOH, Jordan. Direct medical costs were estimated through micro and macro costing from the provider′s perspective. Patients′ and caregivers′ costs were included to calculate direct non-medical costs. Human capital approach was employed to evaluate the productivity loss for indirect cost and premature death and potential year life loss was used to estimate the premature death cost. Results: The total burden of hemodialysis at MOH, Jordan was USD17.70 million per year. Cost per session was $72 and the annual cost per patient was $9976. Direct medical cost was $7.20 million (41% and direct non-medical cost was $2.02 million (11%. On the other hand, indirect cost (productivity loss was $8.48 million (48%. All 722 patients on hemodialysis at MOH hospitals consumed 2.7% of MOH budget. Conclusions: Costs of treating and managing patients on hemodialysis at MOH hospitals in Jordan are substantial. Therefore, efforts should be taken to slow down the progress of renal failure to save resources and a comparative study with other modalities, such as continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation, should be considered.

  13. Multinomial logit model of choices of Internet modes in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati, Almas; Firas H. Al-Hammadany

    2014-01-01

    Iraq is a country that has the potential to explode onto the Internet market due to the fact that much of Iraq is still largely without access to the Internet. Iraq’s market has much room for corporate and individual investments in Internet technology, mainly, Internet access. However, this requires a deep understanding of the user with regards to the Internet and the market characteristics involved. This study is concerned with the users’ choice of Internet mode connections in Iraq. There ar...

  14. Consequences of Iraq war on petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the last Iraq conflict on the petroleum market can be analyzed under two different aspects: one is the will of the USA to re-establish a political stability in a country which represents an important oil reserve for their future supplies, the other is a US-Russia cooperation/rivalry in a region of prime importance for both countries which are in competition for the exploitation of the Caspian sea hydrocarbon resources. (J.S.)

  15. History and Policy: The Case of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Kuklick

    2008-01-01

    The decision by Americans to go to war against Iraq has appeared to be such a colossal mistake that it has called forth many condemnations by historically minded intellectuals. Most have condemned the hubris and historical insouciance of the administration of George Bush. Few historians think that the President resembles Abraham Lincoln, guiding his country through a necessarily difficult but morally majestic period. Rather, we are told, history directs us to other policy choices and will mer...

  16. Mosquito species geographical distribution in Iraq 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar A. Hantosh, Hameeda M. Hassan, Bushra Ahma & Ali Al-fatlawy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills threemillion persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species.In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomologicalsurvey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009.Methods: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi provinces werecollected and speciated. Five to 10 villages were selected randomly in each province and in each village 10houses were selected randomly to collect mosquitoes and the density of mosquitoes per room was calculated.Kits for entomological investigation were used and the collected mosquitoes were sent to the vector bornedisease section laboratory for classification using the Naval Medical Research Unit 3 standard classificationkey.Results: A total of 29,156 mosquitoes were collected, representing two genera: Anopheles (n=13,268, or 46%of the total collected and Culex (n=15,888, or 54% of the total collected. Four Anopheles (An. pulcherrimus,An. stephensi, An. superpictus, and An. sacharovi and one Culex (Cx. pipiens species were identified. Anophelespulcherrimus was found in 11 provinces, An. stephensi in 7, An. superpictus in 2 and An. sacharovi in oneprovince, while Cx. pipiens was found in all the 12 provinces. Two peaks of mosquito density were found: thefirst from April–June and the other from September–October.Interpretation & conclusion: There are clear differences in Anopheles mosquito species geographical distributionand density among Iraqi provinces, while Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are distributed all over Iraq. All mosquitogenera show clear seasonal density variation. The study highlights that the manual mosquito classification isnot enough to identify all the species of mosquitoes in Iraq

  17. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  18. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, Tuna [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gok, Rengin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abdulnaby, Wathiq [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shakir, Ammar M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mahdi, Hanan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Numan, Nazar M.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Shukri, Haydar [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chlaib, Hussein K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ameen, Taher H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abd, Najah A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments (PSHA) form the basis for most contemporary seismic provisions in building codes around the world. The current building code of Iraq was published in 1997. An update to this edition is in the process of being released. However, there are no national PSHA studies in Iraq for the new building code to refer to for seismic loading in terms of spectral accelerations. As an interim solution, the new draft building code was considering to refer to PSHA results produced in the late 1990s as part of the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP; Giardini et al., 1999). However these results are: a) more than 15 years outdated, b) PGA-based only, necessitating rough conversion factors to calculate spectral accelerations at 0.3s and 1.0s for seismic design, and c) at a probability level of 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, not the 2% that the building code requires. Hence there is a pressing need for a new, updated PSHA for Iraq.

  19. Jane's intelligence backgrounder. A timely reassessment of Iraq's nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iraq has recently been attracting a lot of attention, some of it contradictory. With the launch of the book Saddam's Bombmaker by the Iraqi nuclear defector Dr Khadir Hamza, which details his efforts to build an atomic bomb, there have been a spate of press conferences and news reports regarding Iraq's potential for joining the nuclear club. Though specifics are obscure, the perception among some observers is that Saddam Hussein could be within months of exploding his first nuclear test device if Iraq were to get illegal fissile material from Russia or on the international black market. Without that Iraq would need to rebuild many of the factories destroyed during Operation Desert Storm

  20. Multinomial logit model of choices of Internet modes in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati, Almas; Firas H. Al-Hammadany

    2014-01-01

    Iraq is a country that has the potential to explode onto the Internet market due to the fact that much of Iraq is still largely without access to the Internet. Iraq¡¯s market has much room for corporate and individual investments in Internet technology, mainly, Internet access. However, this requires a deep understanding of the user with regards to the Internet and the market characteristics involved. This study is concerned with the users¡¯ choice of Internet mode connections in Iraq. There ...

  1. Development of nuclear engineering education in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The establishment of a Nuclear Engineering program is another step in Jordan's efforts to develop its nuclear infrastructure, and to introduce nuclear power as part of its energy mix. Nuclear energy offers a promising approach to meeting Jordan's energy needs - an approach that would reduce our dependence on oil imports, create jobs, raise the standard of living, and alleviate the burden on the national budget. Nuclear energy will also be required to provide electricity to fulfil growing electrical demands, water desalination, and hydrogen production. The Nuclear Engineering department at Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), is the first and only such department/program in Jordan. The university it self is a scientific university with more than 17000 undergraduate students and 1000 graduates, including more than 3000 international students from 41 different countries. Approximately 6,000 students are enrolled in the college of engineering. Our goal is to establish a world class department, which will enhance nuclear knowledge in Jordan, and will graduate qualified engineers that will help in the design, building and running of Jordan's first nuclear power plant. It is also our goal to serve as Jordan's leading nuclear research center. The department is planning to start accepting students in the next academic year (2007/2008), which starts in September 2007, it will accept students both in the freshman and sophomore levels (first and second year). Thus graduating its first class in 2011, this is the period that Jordan will be in the building phase of its first nuclear power plant. Consequently nuclear knowledge transfer from nuclear suppliers and contractors of developed nations to our graduates working with them will be more realistic. The objectives of the nuclear engineering program are to educate students in the fundamental subjects necessary for a career in nuclear engineering, and in the basics of nuclear technology, radiation

  2. Immediate Economic History of Iraq: Effects of the Recent Global Crisis on the Oil Sector of Northern Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Dinc

    2012-01-01

    I have analyzed effects of the economic crisis, which began in the usa, on Northern Iraq under three main titles: First, I studied the economic history of Iraq. Second, I analyzed the effects of it in Northern Iraq. Finally, I interviewed entrepreneurs about the effects of crisis on private sectors in this region. I have been in northern Iraq for three years. I have tried to reach original sources, have interviewed people in the government and examined the impact of the crisis on the people a...

  3. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a holy month in Algeria where diabetes mellitus (DM is more frequent in urban areas with a frequency which varies from 8 to 16%. DM complications are broadly as frequent as in developed countries, except for neuropathy which seems more frequent. Despite contraindications which are regularly explained to our patients and despite the flexible side of Islam toward chronic diseases, most Algerian people with DM insist on fasting. Not fasting is considered a sin and shameful. There are also other reasons put forward by diabetic persons, such as very strong religious faith, habit of fasting together with the whole family since an early age, solidarity with the family, friends, and neighbors, and finally and probably because of the desire to appear "normal" and share a festive and a spiritual atmosphere of Ramadan. As in other Muslim countries, severe hypoglycemia the main motive of hospitalizations during the holy month, ketoacidosis, dehydration, orthostatic hypotension and thrombosis are some of the complications which Algerian people with DM are exposed to when fasting.

  4. Algeria's Role in the Sahelian Security Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Aida Ammour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While Mali is confronting a deep political crisis with a still serious risk of territorial split and Libya is descending into increasing instability, Algeria appears reluctant to assume the responsibilities of a hegemonic power. Algeria’s refusal to consider any joint strategy with its neighbors and other international actors towards the Malian crisis shows it has once again succumbed to the fear of encirclement that characterized its policies in the 1970s. Behind this refusal, there lies a desire to maintain its position as a pivotal actor in regional security matters while conducting a wait-and-see diplomacy, an approach which many observers and regional leaders have deemed incomprehensible. Internal power struggles at the highest levels of government have also without a doubt permeated Algeria’s policy vis-à-vis the regional crisis, hampering Algiers’ ability to act regionally and weakening its position as a regional leader. The initial lack of commitment could in fact be the result of conflicting positions and divergent interests within the regime and of the lack of transparency in decision-making. These factors are crippling its diplomatic power. Today, three revealing events are symptomatic of Algeria’s loss of hegemony within the region.

  5. On strongly Jordan zero-product preserving maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Khoddami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a characterization of strongly Jordan zero-product preserving maps on normed algebras as a generalization of  Jordan zero-product preserving maps. In this direction, we give some illustrative examples to show that the notions of strongly zero-product preserving maps and strongly Jordan zero-product preserving maps are completely different. Also, we prove that the direct product and the composition of two strongly Jordan zero-product preserving maps are again  strongly Jordan zero-product preserving maps. But this fact is not the case for tensor product of them in general. Finally, we prove  that every $*-$preserving linear map from a normed $*-$algebra into a $C^*-$algebra that strongly preserves Jordan zero-products is necessarily continuous.

  6. Economic development, mobility and traffic accidents in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougueroua, M; Carnis, L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this contribution is to estimate the impact of road economic conditions and mobility on traffic accidents for the case of Algeria. Using the cointegration approach and vector error correction model (VECM), we will examine simultaneously short term and long-term impacts between the number of traffic accidents, fuel consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capital, over the period 1970-2013. The main results of the estimation show that the number of traffic accidents in Algeria is positively influenced by the GDP per capita in the short and long term. It implies that a higher economic development worsens the road safety situation. However, the new traffic rules adopted in 2009 have an impact on the forecast trend of traffic accidents, meaning efficient public policy could improve the situation. This result calls for a strong political commitment with effective countermeasures for avoiding the further deterioration of road safety record in Algeria. PMID:27070081

  7. Plague outbreak in Libya, 2009, unrelated to plague in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanel, Nicolas; Leclercq, Alexandre; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Annajar, Badereddin; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Bekkhoucha, Souad; Bertherat, Eric; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2013-02-01

    After 25 years of no cases of plague, this disease recurred near Tobruk, Libya, in 2009. An epidemiologic investigation identified 5 confirmed cases. We determined ribotypes, Not1 restriction profiles, and IS100 and IS1541 hybridization patterns of strains isolated during this outbreak. We also analyzed strains isolated during the 2003 plague epidemic in Algeria to determine whether there were epidemiologic links between the 2 events. Our results demonstrate unambiguously that neighboring but independent plague foci coexist in Algeria and Libya. They also indicate that these outbreaks were most likely caused by reactivation of organisms in local or regional foci believed to be dormant (Libya) or extinct (Algeria) for decades, rather than by recent importation of Yersinia pestis from distant foci. Environmental factors favorable for plague reemergence might exist in this area and lead to reactivation of organisms in other ancient foci.

  8. Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing

    2008-10-01

    Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].

  9. The Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Tushar Poddar; Hasmik V Khachatryan; Randa Sab

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines monetary transmission in Jordan using the vector autoregressive approach. We find that the real 3-month CD rate, the Central Bank's operating target, affects bank retail rates and that monetary policy, measured by the spread between the 3-month CD rate and the U.S. Federal Funds rate, is effective in influencing foreign reserves. We do not find evidence of monetary policy affecting output. Output responds very little to changes in bank lending rates. Furthermore, equity pr...

  10. Equivalence of the Einstein and Jordan frames

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, Marieke; Volponi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    No experiment can measure an absolute scale: every dimensionfull quantity has to be compared to some fixed unit scale in order to be measured, and thus only dimensionless quantities are really physical. The Einstein and Jordan frame are related by a conformal transformation of the metric, which amounts to rescaling all length scales. Since the absolute scale cannot be measured, both frames describe the same physics, and are equivalent. In this article we make this explicit by rewriting the ac...

  11. Jordan blocks and Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions associated to a double pole of the S-matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, E; Mondragón, A

    2002-01-01

    An accidental degeneracy of resonances gives rise to a double pole in the scattering matrix, a double zero in the Jost function and a Jordan chain of length two of generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions of the radial Schroedinger equation. The generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions are basis elements of an expansion in bound and resonant energy eigenfunctions plus a continuum of scattering wave functions of complex wave number. In this biorthonormal basis, any operator which is a regular function of the Hamiltonian is represented by a complex matrix which is diagonal except for a Jordan block of rank two. The occurrence of a double pole in the Green's function, as well as the non-exponential time evolution of the Gamow-Jordan generalized eigenfunctions are associated to the Jordan block in the complex energy representation.

  12. Using a Virtual History Conference to Teach the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In teaching the causes of the Iraq War, the use of "virtual history" can be employed in a conference setting in which different individuals are assigned to different plausible counterfactuals they use to construct virtual histories. The Iraq War lends itself to the virtual history approach because of the availability of many plausible…

  13. Prevalence of Selected Chronic, Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors in Jordan: Results of the 2007 Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Nsour, Mohannad; Zindah, Meyasser; Belbeisi, Adel; Hadaddin, Raja; Brown, David W.; Walke, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of illness and death in Jordan. Since 2002, the Jordan Ministry of Health, in cooperation with the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, established the Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey to collect information on many of the behaviors and conditions related to NCDs. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of selected NCD risk factors and the relations...

  14. Uncovering the Costs of the Iraq War

    OpenAIRE

    Fred E. Foldvary

    2008-01-01

    Fred Foldvary reviews the recent book by Joseph Stiglitz and Linda Bilmes, The Three Trillion Dollar War: The True Cost of the Iraq Conflict. Foldvary commends the book for its assembly of both the budgeted and implicit costs of the war, and its analysis of the economic impact of the war. The review posits that the better knowledge and accounting of the war costs as provided by this work will aid in establishing a more coherent dialog on policy for dealing with this and future conflicts abroad.

  15. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Dalaram S. Ismael; Alena Vollmannová; Mária Timoracká; Ľuboš Harangozo

    2014-01-01

    Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas) and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a tr...

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the Stabilization of Iraq Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of May 19, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq On May 22, 2003... for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the...

  17. What Do Mobiles Speak in Algeria? Evidence from SMS Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostari, Hind Amel

    2009-01-01

    When Algeria opened its markets to foreign investment starting from the early 2000s, a technological boom occurred, including the expansion of mobile phone use. New technologies have had a considerable impact on the Algerian diglossic situation, in recent decades, and have contributed in the democratisation of the local dialects, which are being…

  18. Promotion of renewable energies in Algeria: Strategies and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years, political support for renewable energies has been growing continuously both at the national and international level and most scientists now agree that the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are perfectly placed to play a leading role in the lucrative future solar and wind power industries. The interest for the development of renewable energies was perceived very early in Algeria with the creation of the solar energy institute as soon as 1962. Algeria plays a very important role in world energy markets, both as a significant hydrocarbons producer and exporter, as well as a key participant in the renewable energy market. Due to its geographical location, Algeria holds one of the highest solar reservoirs in the world. This paper deals with a review of the present renewable energy (RE) situation and assessed present and future potential of RE sources in Algeria. It also discusses the trends and expectation in solar and wind systems applications and the aspects of future implementation of renewable energies making emphasis on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region status. The problem related to the use of RES and polices to enhance the use of these sources are also analysed in this paper. In addition the available capacity building, the technical know-how for each RE sources technology and localising manufacturing of RE equipments have been defined. (author)

  19. Algeria : National Environmental Action Plan for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This staff sector assessment note accompanies the recently completed national environmental action plan for sustainable development (NEAP-SD), which, as an output of the Industrial Pollution Control Project in Algeria, focused on charting a new course for environmental management in the country, based on an objective assessment of past policy, and institutional failures, on a new consensus...

  20. Iraq: A Hot Zone for HAV Infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Case Presentation: A 25 year-old man referred to our center with symptoms compatible with acute hepatitis for the past two weeks. He was a government employee and had married two months before. We evaluated his lab test and while we were waiting for his lab test result, he called us to say that his wife had the same symptoms. We visited her and found that the clinical picture was compatible with the acute hepatitis, too. It was really interesting for us to see acute presentation in a husband and his wife simultaneously. We asked them about important risk factors like history of transfusion, recent surgery, tattooing, and addiction, all of which were negative. They mentioned that they had a trip to Karbala in Iraq one month before. Afterwards, we received their lab data showing: ALT and AST more than 10 times of upper limit of normal range, elevation in direct bilirubin, HBsAg negative, HBcAb IgM negative, HCV Ab by Eliza test negative and HAV Ab IgM positive. During follow up, fortunately, the symptoms and signs improved and they lived happily ever after! The question is: "should we consider the trip to Iraq a risk factor for acquiring acute HAV infection?

  1. Application of the loss estimation tool QLARM in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, P.; Trendafiloski, G.; Yelles, K.; Semmane, F.; Wyss, M.

    2009-04-01

    During the last six years, WAPMERR has used Quakeloss for real-time loss estimation for more than 440 earthquakes worldwide. Loss reports, posted with an average delay of 30 minutes, include a map showing the average degree of damage in settlements near the epicenter, the total number of fatalities, the total number of injured, and a detailed list of casualties and damage rates in these settlements. After the M6.7 Boumerdes earthquake in 2003, we reported 1690-3660 fatalities. The official death toll was around 2270. Since the El Asnam earthquake, seismic events in Algeria have killed about 6,000 people, injured more than 20,000 and left more than 300,000 homeless. On average, one earthquake with the potential to kill people (M>5.4) happens every three years in Algeria. In the frame of a collaborative project between WAPMERR and CRAAG, we propose to calibrate our new loss estimation tool QLARM (qlarm.ethz.ch) and estimate human losses for future likely earthquakes in Algeria. The parameters needed for this calculation are the following. (1) Ground motion relation and soil amplification factors (2) distribution of building stock and population into vulnerability classes of the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-98) as given in the PAGER database and (3) population by settlement. Considering the resolution of the available data, we construct 1) point city models for cases where only summary data for the city are available and, 2) discrete city models when data regarding city districts are available. Damage and losses are calculated using: (a) vulnerability models pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes previously validated with the existing ones in Algeria (Tipaza and Chlef) (b) building collapse models pertinent to Algeria as given in the World Housing Encyclopedia and, (c) casualty matrices pertinent to EMS-98 vulnerability classes assembled from HAZUS casualty rates. As a first trial, we simulated the 2003 Boumerdes earthquake to check the validity of the proposed

  2. K-Bessel functions associated to 3-rank Jordan algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Hacen Dib

    2005-01-01

    Using the Bessel-Muirhead system, we can express the K-Bessel function defined on a Jordan algebra as a linear combination of the J-solutions. We determine explicitly the coefficients when the rank of this Jordan algebra is three after a reduction to the rank two. The main tools are some algebraic identities developed for this occasion.

  3. Social Support and Stress among University Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…

  4. Jordan higher all-derivable points in triangular algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Let ${\\mathcal{T}}$ be a triangular algebra. We say that $D=\\{D_{n}: n\\in N\\}\\subseteq L({\\mathcal{T}})$ is a Jordan higher derivable mapping at $G$ if $D_{n}(ST+TS)=\\sum_{i+j=n}(D_{i}(S)D_{j}(T)+D_{i}(T)D_{j}(S))$ for any $S,T\\in {\\mathcal{T}}$ with $ST=G$. An element $G\\in {\\mathcal{T}}$ is called a Jordan higher all-derivable point of ${\\mathcal{T}}$ if every Jordan higher derivable linear mapping $D=\\{D_{n}\\}_{n\\in N}$ at $G$ is a higher derivation. In this paper, under some mild conditions on ${\\mathcal{T}}$, we prove that some elements of ${\\mathcal{T}}$ are Jordan higher all-derivable points. This extends some results in [6] to the case of Jordan higher derivations.

  5. Poverty and Poverty Reduction Policies in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Lenner, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The extent, depth and profile of poverty have been the subject of much debate since poverty became an issue in Jordan in the late 1980s. Until then poverty among the general population was low (estimated at below 3%), and it was only within the realms of UNRWA and its Special Hardship Cases Program that it was discussed as an issue. However, since the economic crisis of the late 1980s and the IMF and WB-sponsored structural adjustment programs of the 1990s poverty has significantly risen and ...

  6. Income from oil could have made Iraq's economy flourish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He whole economy of Iraq is based on oil industry. 95 percent of Iraq's foreign currency income is traditionally related to oil export. Another typical feature of its economy is a high level of government interference and dependence on food import. Though Iraq has the second largest proven oil reserves in the world and a reasonably good transport and export infrastructure it is struggling with economical problems. It was the wars that have had a major impact on the country's economy during the last two decades. In late seventies and early eighties Iraq's economic perspectives seemed very positive. Iraq was winning 3.5 million barrels of oil a day and the export incomes exceeded 27 billion USD. Tedious wars with the neighbouring Iran in the eighties cost Iraq according to American CIA's estimates about 100 billion USD. Before the wars started Iraq's foreign currency reserves reached 35 billion USD but the high cost of the war and all damage done to the oil facilities caused that before it ended Iraq was forced to take credits and later even restructure the related repayments. By the end of the conflict Iraq's foreign indebtedness grew to exceed 40 billion USD. After the war ended conditions became more favourable for increasing volumes of oil export, building of new pipelines and reconstruction of damaged facilities. But only two years later Saddam Hussain's regime invaded Kuwait and this lead to a military intervention by a coalition lead by the USA and the United Nations inflicted economical sanctions against Iraq. As a result the economic activity in the country decreased dramatically. The limited recourses the country had were used to finance military forces. Living conditions of Iraq's citizens slightly improved in second half of the nineties after United Nations allowed the country to export a limited amount of oil in exchange for food, medicines and some spare parts needed for reconstruction of the infrastructure. In 1999 the United Nations adopted changes to

  7. Mortality in Iraq Associated with the 2003-2011 War and Occupation: Findings from a National Cluster Sample Survey by the University Collaborative Iraq Mortality Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rawaf, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Salman Rawaf discusses the implications of the most recent estimate of excess deaths associated with the Iraq war and subsequent occupation in the context of the current situation in Iraq. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

  8. Italian Jihadists in Syria and Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marone

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'This article explores the current extent of Italy’s Sunni jihadists in Syria and Iraq. The country presents interesting particularities, including a relatively small number of foreign fighters compared to other European countries (not more than 90 individuals, and' 'only a dozen with Italian passports''. However, the Italian case has not been extensively investigated. This article first examines the scale of the problem and then focuses on the cases of three Italian nationals who left for Syria: ''a convert who died in combat in the Aleppo area in 2013, a second-generation immigrant who joined the ranks of the Islamic State (IS'' and a 'muhajira' (“emigrant” who, ''as a woman, has not been allowed to take combat roles in the self-proclaimed “caliphate”''.'''

  9. Sand Dunes Fixation in Baiji District, Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out at Sand Dunes Stabilization Researches Station in Baiji district (230 ln north of Baghdad, Iraq) to evaluate the effects of local soil conditioners manufactured from oil derivatives and plant residuals on sand dunes fixation as the first step for sand dunes stabilization. The results indicate that the fuel oil has the first place in improving wind erosion parameters in the study area, such as increasing mean weight diameter, dry aggregates percentage, the needed time for complete disaggregation by dry sieving, and decreasing the disaggregation rates. Bitumen emulsion occupies the second place, while the plant residuals occupies the third place and has slight effects on the studied parameters. Effects of conditioners on natural vegetation cover are negative in oil derivatives treatments,while positive in plants residuals treatments.

  10. Energy analysis of Jordan's commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents some insight into energy consumption in the commercial and public service sector (CAPSS) in Jordan. In this sector, space- and water-heating is dependent particularly upon the combustion of fossil fuels. Which thereby contribute significantly to air pollution and the build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The results of a recent survey were used to evaluate the energy demand of the commercial and public service buildings. Diesel fuel, LPG and kerosene are mainly used for space heating, with diesel being the most popular fuel followed by LPG. Unvented combustion appliances, i.e. portable kerosene and LPG heaters, are still employed in this sector in order to provide space heating in unclassified hotels, some clinics and health centres as well as retail shops. These stoves, usually, produce high levels of combustion by-products that often exceed acceptable limits especially in a closed space. Consequently, the indoor air quality is degraded and may cause unnecessary exposure to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Electricity consumption is relatively high due to the excessive lighting and heavy use of air-conditioning and ventilation systems during the dry and hot summer. It is estimated that about 15% of the annual consumption in CAPSS can be reduced annually with little investment. Consequently the corresponding annual CO2 emissions reduction is approximately 1%, i.e. 160x103 tons, of the present total greenhouse gas emissions in Jordan

  11. Performance of Urban Transit in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hashem R. Al-Masaeid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban public transit has essential and active role for sustainable and balanced socio-economic and environmental development. This study investigated the performance of urban public transit services in three major cities in Jordan, including Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa. Accessibility, mobility, productivity, punctuality, waiting time and comfort of public transit were investigated in the study. Data were obtained from Land Transport RegulatoryCommission of Jordan, municipalities, and field surveys. The accessibility was found to be relatively low in Irbid and Amman city. Also, the results indicated that the mobility and waiting time for public transit were found to be marginally comparable with that in developed countries. In contrast, the productivity of public transit was very high compared with the productivity of transit in developed countries. However, one-quarter of users’ rated the comfort inside public transit as poor. Thus, enhancement of public transit service and introduction of new modes of transport are necessary to ease the existed urban congestion levels

  12. The Spectrum of Glomerulopathy in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Riyad

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we reviewed the records and the histological findings of a total of 350 adequate native kidney biopsies at both the Jordan University Hospital (260 biopsies in the period 1986-1989 and the Jordan Hospital (90 biopsies in the period 1997-1999. There were 187 males (53.4% and 163 females (46.6%. Their ages ranged between 12-77 years. The nephrotic syndrome was the presenting feature in 194 (55.4% patients, acute renal failure in 55 (15.7%, hematuria and/or non-nephrotic proteinuria in 45 (12.9%, chronic renal failure in 32 (9.1% and hematuria alone 24 (6.9%. In the patients with the nephrotic syndrome, 140 (72.2% had primary nephrotic syndrome. In this group membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN was the most common pathology and was detected in 49 patients (35% followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS in 38 (27.1%. Amyloidosis and systemic lupus erythematosus were the commonest findings among the 54 patients with secondary nephrotic syndrome (40.7% and 38.8% respectively. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis was seen in 34.5% of those patients presenting with acute renal failure, while FSGS was seen in 25% of those with chronic renal failure. Finally IgA nephropathy was the major finding among both the 45 patients with hematuria-proteinuria and the 24 patients with isolated hematuria (26.2% and 66.6% respectively.

  13. Nuclear disarmament and ongoing monitoring and verification in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the ceasefire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq's nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq's compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  14. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  15. Nuclear disarmament and ongoing monitoring and verification in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Following Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq's nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq's compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  16. Transport of carbon-bearing dusts from Iraq to Japan during Iraq's War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaki, Kazue; Wakimoto, Rie; Minami, Yukiya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Miyata, Koshirou; Sato, Kazuhiro; Saji, Ichiro; Chaerun, S. Khodijah; Zhou, Guoping; Morishita, Tomoaki; Asada, Ryuji; Segawa, Hiromi; Imanishi, Hiroki; Kato, Rie; Otani, Yusuke; Watanabe, Tomoko

    Rainwater collected during the period of February-April, 2003 in Kanazawa University and Hakui, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, was investigated by ion chromatography of the dissolved ions, and Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive analyzer (SEM-EDX), electron microprobe analyzer (EPMA), transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses of the filtered samples. The pH, Eh, EC, dissolved oxygen (DO) and depleted U (DU) of the rainwater were also measured. The results show a rare case with low pH value of rain and high value of electrical conductivity (EC) in the rainwater during certain period. The NO 3-, SO 42- and NH 4+ concentrations on 26th March, show quite high values after oil field fires on 21st March 2003. The powdery dust and carbon-bearing nm sized particles contained in the rainwater have characteristics different from that of the Asian dust (Kosa). Since 21 March, 2003 the Iraq plunged into the war, the 9 oil field fires were reported on 25 March, 2003 in Rumaylah oil field near the borderline of Kuwait. The first precipitation was caught in Kanazawa on 24 March, 2003. The pH value of the rainwater indicated a strong acid rain (pH 3.6) with black powdery dusts. The acid rain on 27th March to 2nd April (pH 3.4-4.3; 5-17 mm) associated with WNW wind (2.7-4.1 m/s) has continued to the first 10 days of April in Kanazawa, during the 9 oil fields were burning in Iraq. The EC in rainwater collected from 24 March to 15 April, 2003, shows high concentrations of ions, suggesting high contents of water soluble-carbon particles and soot. In the meantime, it was the highest season of sandstorms at bare dried land in Iraq from the end of March to the beginning of April. Westerly wind blew around 5500 m high, and the sandstorm with 2000 m wide was transported by strong wind to Zagros 3000 m high mountains. The hot wind hit the Zagros Mountains and easily to join and rise to Westerly wind high by a rising air current. The

  17. The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Huri Yaseen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear language policy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study all courses in Arabic, while speaking and using their own culture at home tend to be done in their first language. The minorities’ language usage in Iraq was ignored both inside the schools as well as in the curriculum construction. So this study focuses on the following issues: the first issue is, What is the strategy of language planning policy in Iraq? the study discusses the strategy and the planning educational system that Iraq applies now, the second issue is, What is the status of minority languages in Iraq? Iraq is a multicultural county and has many minorities communities with different languages, the third issue is, What are the challenges of language in Iraq? as long as there is different languages within one country the study also focuses on the challenges that been faced in the planning policy system, and the last issue is, Is there a homogenous relationship during the current policy? How? the study shows the homogenous relationship inside the current policy and the researches give many suggestions and recommendations regarding to the current policy and what is needed for improving the educational planning policy system.Keywords: Planning Policy, Bilingualism, Education, Culture, Harmony, Language Shift

  18. Eastern Europe and the 2002-2003 Iraq crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Svarenieks, Edgars

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited In the 2002-2003 Iraq crisis, most Eastern European countries aimed first of all to maintain positive relations with their main strategic partner, the United States. This priority was closely connected with NATO, Eastern Europe's preferred collective defense organization. Eastern European governments were concerned that if they supported the position of France and Germany regarding the Iraq crisis, the greater U.S. frustration with pre...

  19. What visibility conceals. Re-embedding Refugee Migration from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelard, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    To be published in Dawn Chatty (ed.) (2009) Dispossession and Displacement: Forced-Migration in the Middle Eastand Africa (Proceedings of Conference), London: British Academy. This book chapter aims at reconnecting the mass refugee migration from Iraq that has followed the fall ofthe regime of Saddam Hussein in April-May 2003 with previous and concomitant social and spatialmigratory trends from Iraq through a combination of disciplinary approaches from the fields of thesociology of migrati...

  20. Evaluation of Uranium Concentration in Soil Samples of Central Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Ned Xoubi

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as uranium, thorium and their decay products (226Ra, 222Rn) are present in a number of geological settings in Jordan. Motivated by the existence of uranium anomalies ‎coupled with its lack of conventional ‎‎energy ‎‎resources, Jordan decided that the development of ‎this indigenes ‎resource (uranium) is the first step in introducing nuclear power as part of its energy mix. Uranium deposits in Central Jordan were perceived not only as a secured resource t...

  1. CPECC Broke Ground for EPC Project in Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On August 20, 2005, ground breaking ceremony of EPC project, a condensate refinery with a annual capacity of 5million tons, was held in Skikda, western Algeria, its construction will be undertaken by China Petroleum Engineering Construction Company (CPECC), a subsidiary of CNPC. Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika presented at the ceremony with his governmental officials. Present were top managers of the project owner, Algerian State Oil Company (SONATRACH), and Mr. Wang Yilin, Vice President of CNPC and CNPC delegation.

  2. Market Analysis for Gas Engine Technology in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Michaut, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this diploma thesis is to investigate the potential of combined heat and power plants based on gas engine technology in Algeria. This market analysis has been performed in order to identify the key markets for the newly created French subsidiary of Clarke Energy Group to expand its business in North Africa. After analyzing the structure of the Algerian energy sector and the potential of each gas engine application, three key sectors were identified. For each sector, a technic...

  3. A contribution in the actualization of wind map of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellali, Farouk [Unit of Applied Research in Renewable Energy, B.P. 88 Gaarat Taam, Z I, 47000 Ghardaia (Algeria); Electrical Engineering Departments, Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, EL Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Khellaf, Adballah [Center of Development of Renewable Energies, Algiers (Algeria); Belouchrani, Adel [Electrical Engineering Departments, Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, EL Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Recioui, Abdelmadjid [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Boumerdes (Algeria)

    2011-02-15

    In the following work, we propose an assessment of wind potential in Algeria. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, to draw the attention to the important wind potential in the region of Hassi-R'mel anti v{approx}6m/s. In the previous maps, the wind potential in this region has been underestimated due the fact that it is located between two less windy regions. Second, the actualization of the wind map of Algeria using very recent data stretching from February 2004 to December 2009. This paper is structured in three main parts. First, a stochastic and the cyclic study of the wind behaviors in the site of Hassi-R'mel are proposed. The stochastic study is carried out by fitting the wind speed data to Weibull distribution while the cyclic study is carried out via the use of time-frequency analysis. We have used the time-frequency analyses instead of the traditional Fourier analysis due its ability to follow the spectrum variation with respect to time. As results, it has been found that spectrum wind process enfold many limited interval oscillations. In the second part, we propose to contribute to the actualisation of the wind map in Algeria. In this part, we have considered also the topographical aspect of Algeria. Such consideration is very helpful for understanding the wind potential reparation over the country. Finally, a techno-economical study of a stand along hybrid system (wind/diesel) in the site of Hassi-R'mel is considered. Via this study, it has been found that been found that the site of Hassi-R'mel is very adequate for wind energy conversion systems. (author)

  4. Examples of geomorphologic and geological hazards in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Machane, D.; Bouhadad, Y.; Cheikhlounis, G.; Chatelain, Jean-Luc; Oubaiche, E.H.; Abbes, K.; Guillier, Bertrand; Bensalem, R.

    2008-01-01

    We present three geomorphologic and geological phenomena that have occurred in Algeria in recent years: (i) the Bab El Oued mudflow on 11 November 2001, which claimed several hundred lives, (ii) a soil collapse induced by sand liquefaction triggered by the Boumerdes earthquake (M-w = 6.8) on 21 May 2003, and (iii) landslides that are threatening Constantine city, for which a hazard map is presented using a qualitative approach. We briefly describe and analyze these natural disasters, and in t...

  5. Preliminary study of the Gravimetric Local Geoid Model in Jordan: case study (GeoJordan Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying and defining the Local and Regional Geoid Model worldwide, due to its importance in geodetic and geophysics applications.The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS is internationally growing, yet the lack of a Geoid Model for Jordan has limited the use of GPS for the geodetic applications in the country. This work aims to present the preliminary results that we propose for «The Gravimetric Jordanian Geoid Model (GeoJordan». The model is created using gravimetric data and the GRAVSOFT program. The model is validated using GPS and precise level measurements in the Amman area. Moreover, we present a comparison using the Global Geopotential Model OSU91A and the EGM96 Model and the results showed great discrepancies. We also present the approach used to obtain the orthometric height from GPS ellipsoidal height measurements. We found that the error margin obtained in this work of the GeoJordan after fitting the data with GPS/leveling measurements is about (10 cm in the tested area whereas the standard error of the created model is about (40 cm.

  6. Pulviometric regime evolution in the North of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western Algeria has been experiencing drought since the middle of 1970's,which is characterized by severity and remarkable persistent of rainfalldeficit. The effects of this drought are also felt in the extreme east. Theaim of this study is to identify the variations of climate in order topredict and analyze their impact on water resources in future work. Theselected study area includes 15 basins of the North of Algeria. Rainfall datafrom 86 precipitation stations with low percentages of missing data were usedin this study. All of these station's data have been utilized at least overthe period 1930-1999/2000, on which the study focused. To explore rainfallvariability, long series of rainfall on annual, seasonal and monthly scaleswere subjected to statistical tests for detecting breaks in those series.Statistical methods used are U Buishand, the non-parametric test of Pettit,the procedure of Bayesian Lee and Heghinian and the procedure of segmentationof Pierre Hubert. The univariate analysis showed a change in the rainfallpattern in the western region since 1975. However, in the east of Algeria, nobreak was detected by the application of these methods. (author)

  7. Algeria 2002. Concluded; Algerie 2002. Suite et fin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-10-01

    While reinforcing its existing network of oil and gas pipelines, Algeria is launching three more projects of new international gas pipelines and wishes to become one of the main power suppliers of the European Union. The second part of this dossier about Algeria comprises several articles. The first article is the second part of the interview of C. Khelil, Minister of energy and mines and president of Sonatrach company, about the organisational changes and the international development of Sonatrach. The second article treats of the increase of Algeria's hydrocarbons transportation capacity proportionally to its ambitions of oil and gas production in the coming years. The third article presents the activities of Sonatrach (exploration-production, discoveries, partnerships, pipeline transport, liquefaction, refining and petrochemistry, exports, trading and shipping). The next articles present the activities of Sonatrach's daughter companies: Enac (pipelines construction), Naftec (refineries), Egzia (management of industrial infrastructures and networks), Enip (management, exploitation and development of petrochemical industries), Somik (LNG equipments and infrastructures), Egzik (management of the industrial security and safety of petrochemical infrastructures), Naftal (fuel commercialization and service stations), SNTM-Hyproc (LNG transport), JGC Corp (engineering), IAP (training) etc.. (J.S.)

  8. Pascual Jordan, Varying Gravity, and the Expanding Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-06-01

    In the 1950s, surprising links were proposed between cosmological theory and the geological and paleontological sciences. These links were mainly provided by Paul Dirac's hypothesis of 1937 that the gravitational constant G decreases with cosmic time. Pascual Jordan, famous for his pioneering contributions to quantum theory, took up Dirac's hypothesis; after the end of World War II, Jordan developed its geophysical consequences, concluding that the Earth is expanding. Much of Jordan's later scientific work focused on the expanding Earth and other aspects of the earth sciences relating to the varying- G hypothesis. This chapter in the history of science has received almost no attention from either scientists or historians. The article analyzes Jordan's cosmo-geological work in relation to the somewhat similar efforts of other "expansionists" in the period that led to the plate tectonic revolution in the earth sciences.

  9. Jordan's experience in oil shale studies employing different technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan's long experience in dealing with oil shale as a source of energy is introduced and discussed. Since the 1960s, Jordan has been investigating economical and environmental methods for utilizing this indigenous natural resource, which, due to its high organic content, is considered a suitable source of energy either by direct burning to generate electricity or by retorting to produce oil and gas. More than three decades of comprehensive engineering and economical studies, and test experiments for both retorting and direct burning carried out in co-operation with several international oil shale companies provide a solid foundation for a future oil shale industry in the country. Oil shale utilization in Jordan should be pursued because it will result in significant savings in foreign exchange, improve Jordan's energy supply security and create new jobs. (author)

  10. Survey of Micro- and Small Enterprises in Jordan (2015) [PUBLIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Jordan Local Enterprise Support Project (LENS) conducted a survey of MSEs in 2014-2015 to better understand Jordanian enterprises and to assess the major...

  11. k-Jordan可乘映射%k-Jordan multiplicative maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳娟

    2013-01-01

    Using some methods of operator theory,the triple k-Jordan map on self-adjoint operator algebras and the k-Jordan map on nest algebra are studied.It is shown that a triple k-Jordan bijective map on self -adjoint operator algebras is a unitary isomorphism.A k-Jordan bijective map on nest algebra is a linear isomorphism,or a linear anti-isomorphism.%运用算子论的方法研究了自伴算子代数上的3重k-Jordan映射和套代数上k-Jordan映射.得到了自伴算子代数上的3重k-Jordan双射为酉同构;套代数上k-Jordan双射为线性同构,或线性反同构.

  12. NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  13. Marketing of a destination: Jordan as a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Alhroot, Abdel-Hafiz Hussein Jaddou

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the internal and external environmental factors that affect destination marketing in Jordan and the use of the destination marketing concept by tourism companies in Jordan. Furthermore, special emphasis is placed on investigating and identifying the existing relationship between the internal and external factors in destination marketing by pinpointing the factors being used by tourism companies and those factors that contribute to the attraction of touri...

  14. ANTIQUITY IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION AT GADARA, JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; El-Khalili, Mohammad M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies have pointed out that the northern parts of Jordan are exposed to high levels of ground ozone. North Jordan is a wealthy reservoir of ancient heritage including six out of the ten Decapolis Cities. It is alleged that air pollution-via acid deposition - has led to the deterioration and erosion of buildings, structures, statues, and monuments. Therefore, this research is conducted to assess air quality at Gadara, the capital of the ancient Decapolis and to come up with mi...

  15. General Overview of Migration Into, From and Through Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    ATHAMNEH, Abdel Baset

    2012-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) Jordan is both a receiving and a sending country for migration. Since its independence, it has received several waves of forced migration as a result of regional instability. Moreover, Jordan is a major receiver of labour migrants, too, especially from Egypt and non-Arab Asian countries, the non Arab-Asian migrants being mainly women and typically employed in the service sector. As to emigration trends, J...

  16. Consumer Attitudes toward Online Shopping: An Exploratory Study from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Nabot; Vanja Garaj; Wamadeva Balachandran

    2014-01-01

    In the era of the diffusion of e-commerce and its services offered to the consumers over the Internet, the Internet is commonly used by both consumers and businesses to buy and sell their goods and services worldwide. This study focuses on the factors influencing customers' decisions and attitudes toward adopting online shopping in Jordan. The study found that online shopping in Jordan is still not very common, due to challenges and barriers that affect the diffusion of online shopping: deliv...

  17. Superconformal M2-branes and generalized Jordan triple systems

    OpenAIRE

    NILSSON, B.; Palmkvist, J.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal theories with six supersymmetries and SU(4) R-symmetry describing stacks of M2-branes are here proposed to be related to generalized Jordan triple systems. Writing the four-index structure constants in an appropriate form, the Chern-Simons part of the action immediately suggests a connection to such triple systems. In contrast to the previously considered three-algebras, the additional structure of a generalized Jordan triple system is associated to a graded Lie al...

  18. THE EMISSION POTENTIAL FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL IN JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aljaradin; Kenneth M. Persson

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to monitor the emission potential from solid waste landfilled in Jordan over a period of 292 days using an anaerobic lysimeter. A 30 kg waste sample reflecting the typical municipal solid waste (MSW) streams generated in Jordan was used to simulate the influence of climate on the emission potential of landfills located in semi-arid areas. The experimental results demonstrated that a significant amount of leachate and landfill gas was produced. The methane c...

  19. Future Potential of ICT Implementation in University Education in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zoubi, Abdallah; Kahhaleh, Bassam; Hasan, Omar; Kharouf, Husam

    2007-01-01

    The emerging information and communication technology (ICT) has become a strategic alternative for universities all over the world to enhance learning and deliver both quantity and quality programs. The status of ICT infrastructure in Jordan is investigated through a number of core indicators to identify the underlying factors which emerge as serious obstacles to the progress of university eEducation. Findings show that Jordan has made a good progress in international ranking in both the netw...

  20. On Jordan Decomposition of Characters for SU(n,q)

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanes, Marc

    2011-01-01

    As shown by Bonnaf\\'e, a step in proving a Jordan decomposition of characters of finite special linear groups is the parametrization of unipotent characters of centralizers of semi-simple elements in projective linear groups. We show the same kind of result in the case of finite special unitary groups. The proof leads to a mild adaptation of Bonnaf\\'e's methods expounded in [B99]. The outcome is a Jordan decomposition of characters compatible with Lusztig's twisted induction.

  1. Biomass Energy Utilization in Northeast Badia of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Al-Smairan; Sura Al-Harahsheh; Hassan Al-Khazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Biogas systems can contribute to rural development, utilization of renewable energy, climate change mitigation, as well as environmental protection. Due to its multiple benefits, the Jordan Government must made great efforts to promote the development of biogas systems in rural areas, especially household biogas plants and medium scale biogas plants for intensive livestock and poultry farms. In order to better promote and improve biogas systems in rural Jordan, a comprehensive literature revi...

  2. Radiation Doses from Computed tomography in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation doses to Patient during CT scanner and the radiological risk are significant. Patient dose survey has been conducted to investigate the Iraq patient radiation doses received in CT scanners in order to established reference dose levels. These doses are Entrance Surface Dose (ESD),computed tomography dose index(CTDI)), and dose length product (DLP). Two CT scanner were investigated in this study were, Siemens Somatom Plus 4, located in at medical city of Baghdad, and Philips, Optimus located in privet hospital at Baghdad. ESD were measured by TLD and Dosimax ionization chamber for head, chest, and abdomen for both sex and different weights. The TLD results were higher than that measured with Dosimax due to scattered radiation .The scattering factor which is the ratio between dose measured by TLD and that measured by ionization chamber range between (1.14-1.34) compare to international measurement which is range between (1.1-1.5).The (ESD) measured by the two methods were agree well after the subtraction of scattering dose, and have compered with original research. Dose profile were measured using array of TLD chips shows that its full width at half maximum is(7.99 mm) approximately equal the slice thickness(8 mm). Our results compare with reference level at U.K, European Guidelines and

  3. Radioactivity in building materials in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in 45 samples of different building materials used in Iraq were measured using gamma-spectroscopy system based on high-purity germanium detector with an efficiency of 40 %. Radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index due to radon inhalation originating from building materials were measured to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to range from below detection limit (BDL) to 223.7±9, BDL to 93.0±3 and BDL to 343.1±12, respectively. Values of average radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, indoor and outdoor annual effective doses, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index ranged from 6.5 to 124.9, 16.2 to 89.5 (nGy h-1), 0.08 to 0.44 mSv, 0.02-0.11 mSv, 0.09 to 0.53, 0.13 to 0.69 and 0.03 to 0.62, respectively. These values indicate a low dose. Therefore, the building materials used in the current study are quite safe to be used as building materials. (author)

  4. Cancer, infant mortality and birth sex-ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Chris; Hamdan, Malak; Ariabi, Entesar

    2010-07-01

    There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium) in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulting sample was 4,843 persons with and overall response rate was better than 60%. Relative Risks for cancer were age-standardised and compared to rates in the Middle East Cancer Registry (MECC, Garbiah Egypt) for 1999 and rates in Jordan 1996-2001. Between Jan 2005 and the survey end date there were 62 cases of cancer malignancy reported (RR = 4.22; CI: 2.8, 6.6; p < 0.00000001) including 16 cases of childhood cancer 0-14 (RR = 12.6; CI: 4.9, 32; p < 0.00000001). Highest risks were found in all-leukaemia in the age groups 0-34 (20 cases RR = 38.5; CI: 19.2, 77; p < 0.00000001), all lymphoma 0-34 (8 cases, RR = 9.24;CI: 4.12, 20.8; p < 0.00000001), female breast cancer 0-44 (12 cases RR = 9.7;CI: 3.6, 25.6; p < 0.00000001) and brain tumours all ages (4 cases, RR = 7.4;CI: 2.4, 23.1; P < 0.004). Infant mortality was based on the mean birth rate over the 4 year period 2006-2009 with 1/6th added for cases reported in January and February 2010. There were 34 deaths in the age group 0-1 in this period giving a rate of 80 deaths per 1,000 births. This may be compared with a rate of 19.8 in Egypt (RR = 4.2 p < 0.00001) 17 in Jordan in 2008 and 9.7 in Kuwait in 2008. The mean birth sex-ratio in the recent 5-year cohort was anomalous. Normally the sex ratio in human populations is a constant with 1,050 boys born to 1,000 girls. This is disturbed if there is a genetic damage stress. The ratio of boys to 1,000 girls in the 0-4, 5-9, 10-14 and 15-19 age cohorts in the Fallujah sample were 860

  5. Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Chris; Hamdan, Malak; Ariabi, Entesar

    2010-01-01

    There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium) in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulting sample was 4,843 persons with and overall response rate was better than 60%. Relative Risks for cancer were age-standardised and compared to rates in the Middle East Cancer Registry (MECC, Garbiah Egypt) for 1999 and rates in Jordan 1996–2001. Between Jan 2005 and the survey end date there were 62 cases of cancer malignancy reported (RR = 4.22; CI: 2.8, 6.6; p < 0.00000001) including 16 cases of childhood cancer 0–14 (RR = 12.6; CI: 4.9, 32; p < 0.00000001). Highest risks were found in all-leukaemia in the age groups 0–34 (20 cases RR = 38.5; CI: 19.2, 77; p < 0.00000001), all lymphoma 0–34 (8 cases, RR = 9.24;CI: 4.12, 20.8; p < 0.00000001), female breast cancer 0–44 (12 cases RR = 9.7;CI: 3.6, 25.6; p < 0.00000001) and brain tumours all ages (4 cases, RR = 7.4;CI: 2.4, 23.1; P < 0.004). Infant mortality was based on the mean birth rate over the 4 year period 2006–2009 with 1/6th added for cases reported in January and February 2010. There were 34 deaths in the age group 0–1 in this period giving a rate of 80 deaths per 1,000 births. This may be compared with a rate of 19.8 in Egypt (RR = 4.2 p < 0.00001) 17 in Jordan in 2008 and 9.7 in Kuwait in 2008. The mean birth sex-ratio in the recent 5-year cohort was anomalous. Normally the sex ratio in human populations is a constant with 1,050 boys born to 1,000 girls. This is disturbed if there is a genetic damage stress. The ratio of boys to 1,000 girls in the 0–4, 5–9, 10–14 and 15–19 age cohorts in the

  6. Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Hamdan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulting sample was 4,843 persons with and overall response rate was better than 60%. Relative Risks for cancer were age-standardised and compared to rates in the Middle East Cancer Registry (MECC, Garbiah Egypt for 1999 and rates in Jordan 1996–2001. Between Jan 2005 and the survey end date there were 62 cases of cancer malignancy reported (RR = 4.22; CI: 2.8, 6.6; p < 0.00000001 including 16 cases of childhood cancer 0-14 (RR = 12.6; CI: 4.9, 32; p < 0.00000001. Highest risks were found in all-leukaemia in the age groups 0-34 (20 cases RR = 38.5; CI: 19.2, 77; p < 0.00000001, all lymphoma 0–34 (8 cases, RR = 9.24;CI: 4.12, 20.8; p < 0.00000001, female breast cancer 0–44 (12 cases RR = 9.7;CI: 3.6, 25.6; p < 0.00000001 and brain tumours all ages (4 cases, RR = 7.4;CI: 2.4, 23.1; P < 0.004. Infant mortality was based on the mean birth rate over the 4 year period 2006–2009 with 1/6th added for cases reported in January and February 2010. There were 34 deaths in the age group 0–1 in this period giving a rate of 80 deaths per 1,000 births. This may be compared with a rate of 19.8 in Egypt (RR = 4.2 p < 0.00001 17 in Jordan in 2008 and 9.7 in Kuwait in 2008. The mean birth sex-ratio in the recent 5-year cohort was anomalous. Normally the sex ratio in human populations is a constant with 1,050 boys born to 1,000 girls. This is disturbed if there is a genetic damage stress. The ratio of boys to 1,000 girls in the 0–4, 5–9, 10–14 and 15–19 age cohorts in

  7. Analysis of synoptic situation for dust storms in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Ibrahim, Morwa K. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Dust storms are considered major natural disasters that cause many damages to society and environment in Iraq and surrounded deserted regions. The aim of this research is to analyze and study the synoptic patterns leading to the formation of dust storms in Iraq. Analysis are based on satellite images, aerosols index and synoptic weather maps. Two severe dust storms occurred over Iraq on February 22, 2010, and on December 10, 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that dust storms form when a low-pressure system forms over Iran causing Shamal winds blow; they carry cool air from that region towards warmer regions like eastern Syria and Iraq. In some cases, this low-pressure system is followed by a high-pressure system brining more cold air to the region and pushing dust toward south. Dust storms are initiated from source regions near Iraq-Syria borders by the existence of negative vertical velocity, which causes dust particles to be lifted upwards, and the strong westerly wind drives dust to travel eastward.

  8. Recent Sighting of Smooth-Coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli in Hawizeh Marsh (Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1956, there were very few sightings of Iraq Smooth-coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli especially after the Iraqi marshlands inundation. In April 2015, an adult male Iraq Smooth-coated Otter was trapped near Al-Edheam, in the northern part of Hawizeh Marsh (Southern Iraq. The recent sighting along with present photographic record represents very rare evidence documenting the occurrence of L. p. maxwelli otter in Iraq since the1950s.

  9. The prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV disorders in the Iraq Mental Health Survey (IMHS)

    OpenAIRE

    ALHASNAWI, SALIH; Sadik, Sabah; RASHEED, MOHAMMAD; BABAN, ALI; AL-ALAK, MAHDI M.; OTHMAN, ABDULRAHMAN YONIS; OTHMAN, YONIS; ISMET, NEZAR; SHAWANI, OSMAN; MURTHY, SRINIVASA; ALJADIRY, MONAF; Chatterji, Somnath; AL-GASSEER, NAEEMA; STREEL, EMMANUEL; NAIDOO, NIRMALA

    2009-01-01

    Data on the prevalence and correlates of anxiety, mood, behavioral, and substance disorders are presented from a 2007-8 national survey of the Iraq population, the Iraq Mental Health Survey (IMHS). The IMHS was carried out by the Iraq Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Iraq Ministry of Planning and the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. Interviews were administered to a probability sample of Iraqi household residents by trained lay interview...

  10. 31 CFR 575.413 - Goods intended for export to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods intended for export to Iraq... Interpretations § 575.413 Goods intended for export to Iraq. The prohibitions contained in § 575.201 do not apply to goods manufactured, consigned, or destined for export to Iraq and not subject to § 575.517, if...

  11. 76 FR 29141 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ..., 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-12551 Filed 5-18-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Stabilization of Iraq On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in which Iraq has an interest,...

  12. 31 CFR 575.403 - Termination and acquisition of an interest of the Government of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interest of the Government of Iraq. 575.403 Section 575.403 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Government of Iraq. (a) Whenever a transaction licensed or authorized by or pursuant to this part results in the transfer of property (including any property interest) from the Government of Iraq, such...

  13. 31 CFR 575.208 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions involving Iraq. 575.208 Section 575.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 575.208 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Iraq. Except as... transportation to or from Iraq; (b) The provision of transportation to or from the United States by any...

  14. 77 FR 72709 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Iraq AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... Sulaymaniyah International Airports in Northern Iraq by any United States (U.S.) air carrier or commercial... determined that a full flight prohibition is no longer necessary for these airports in Northern Iraq,...

  15. 31 CFR 575.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iraq. 575.205 Section 575.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Iraq. Except as otherwise authorized, no goods, technology (including... U.S. jurisdiction, exported or reexported from a third country to Iraq, to any entity owned...

  16. The Influence of the of Iraq Kurdistan Banking System to Development of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Sheykkha Nissrat Sabir

    2013-01-01

    The author is examine the questions of development of the financial and credit System in Iraq and Iraq Kurdistan, the most substantial problems are distinguished in forming and development of the banking system of Iraq and Kurdistan, and also their influence on development of industry of tourism.

  17. Deportations and counterinsurgency: a comparison of Malaya, Algeria and Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Miroiu, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    This article considers in a comparative historical and strategic perspective the large-scale deportations of restive populations during the Malayan Emergency, the Algerian War and the Romanian anti-communist rebellions. The failed American campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan witnessed a rebirth of military and academic interest in post-war counterinsurgencies (COIN), with an entire "COIN school" being put in charge of the two wars from 2006 to 2011. This particular school elevated the experienc...

  18. Sources, Dangers and Treatments of Oily Soil Pollutants in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi M. Mutter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil pollution presents significant risks to living organism and human health because it can alter the ecosystem in rivers, seas, oceans, and pollutes air and soil. Oil, for example, can even reduce the efficiency of drinking water plants. Iraq suffers a lot from oil pollution as a result of wars that not only damage the oil infrastructures but also cause loss of thousand hectare of agriculture lands. In addition, oil pollution become primary factor that contribute to the electricity, fuel shortage and traffic jam problems. Oil pollution can be easily found in many parts of Iraq, even in main streets, houses and gardens due to the residents mismanagement and misuse of oily products. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to focus in detail about the sources and dangers of oil pollution on the environment and soil, as well as to provide some suggestions and measurements that can help in limiting the impact of oil pollution in Iraq.

  19. Environmental contamination by mercury in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernelöv, A

    1976-01-01

    Following the outbreak of organomercury poisoning in Iraq, an investigation was carried out during the spring and summer of 1972 to evaluate environmental contamination by organomercury.Analyses were performed on fish of several species (not typical predators) and on a few specimens of aquatic birds (not fish-eating). Most fish samples contained concentrations in muscle ranging from 0.01 to 0.15 mg/kg. These concentrations are within the range found in tropical rivers. Higher figures, 0.3-0.5 mg/kg, were found downstream from a caustic soda plant south of Baghdad. A few cases of very high mercury concentrations (25-30 mg/kg) were reported from an area where fish kills had occurred. Aquatic birds (ducks and waders) contained low concentrations of mercury (900-2750 ng/g). Tail feathers of seed-eating birds were found to contain 13 500-21 000 ng/g of mercury, which is about 10 times higher than values reported from Ethiopia and within the range found in Sweden and Canada. Insect-eating birds contained 1850-5200 ng/g, which is thought to be slightly elevated. Extremely high concentrations of mercury were found in muscle tissue of dead seed-eating birds (15 000-40 000 ng/g), while feathers contained similar concentrations (9000-52 000 ng/g). These extremely high concentrations were found only in the vicinity of storehouses where treated seed was kept. No birds of prey could be caught and analysed. PMID:1086159

  20. Cancer estimation of incidence and survival in Algeria 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Cherif M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the major public health problems in Algeria. In the last 25 years, a significant increase in the incidence of the major types of cancers has been observed in both sexes. Moreover, the 5-year survival rate is low for the severe tumors due to a difficulty in access to cancer care and an incomplete health care framework. Cancer Registry of Setif, Algeria, has been recording cancer incidence, mortality, and survival since 1986 in collaboration with International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC of Lyon. Cancer Registry of Setif is being a source of information for cancer planning and corresponding surveillance in the National Cancer Plan 2015-2019, starting in January 2015. Data is recorded by means of CanReg 5 software. This software is developed and provided by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC of Lyon. It is designed specifically for cancer registration, and standardized to capture, control, and process the data. Estimation of cancer incidence in Algeria and survival rates are very important for surveillance, control, and planning of care. In men the incidence of lung, colorectal, bladder, prostate, and laryngeal cancers has significantly and steadily increased in the last decade. In women, the incidence of breast, colorectal, thyroid, and lung cancers has also increased significantly in the same period. Five-year survival rates for cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast, cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and childhood leukemia are relatively low compared with other countries. The aim of our study was to estimate incidence and survival by means of Setif cancer registry data.

  1. IAEA calls for urgent action on nuclear situation in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, called on the United States and other Coalition authorities to allow IAEA experts to return to Iraq to address a possible radiological emergency there. 'I am deeply concerned by the almost daily reports of looting and destruction at nuclear sites and about the potential radiological safety and security implications of nuclear and radiological materials that may no longer be under control.' Such reports have described among other things yellow cake emptied on the ground from containers then taken for domestic use, and radioactive sources being stolen and removed from their shielding. 'We have a moral responsibility to establish the facts without delay and take urgent remedial action,' said Dr. ElBaradei. As hostilities in Iraq were coming to an end, Dr. ElBaradei wrote on 10 April to the US government bringing its attention to the need to secure the nuclear material stored at Tuwaitha - Iraq's nuclear research centre - and under IAEA seal since 1991. The IAEA also provided the United States with information about the nuclear material, radioactive sources, and nuclear waste in Iraq. The IAEA received oral assurances that physical protection of the site was in place; but following reports of looting there and at other sites, Dr. ElBaradei wrote again on 29 April, emphasizing the responsibility of the Coalition forces to maintain appropriate protection over the materials in question. This includes natural and low-enriched uranium, radioactive sources such as Cobalt 60 and Caesium 137, and nuclear waste. Dr. ElBaradei regrets that the IAEA has to date not received a response. He again urged that the Agency be allowed to send a safety and security team to Iraq so that a potentially serious humanitarian situation can be addressed without further delay. The IAEA has experienced international teams of radiation safety, nuclear security and emergency response specialists

  2. REVISITING COLONIAL BEHAVIOUR IN FRENCH ALGERIA AND BRITISH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELKACEM BELMEKKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The British and the French differed in both the approach and method adopted in governing their overseas subjects during their colonial enterprise in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This had a tremendous impact on the psyche of the colonized and was a determinant factor in shaping the nature of the relationship between the colonizers and colonized before and after independence. Therefore, this paper seeks to juxtapose the colonial behaviour of two colonial powers, French and British, in two major colonies, Algeria and India.

  3. Neotectonic deformation model of the Northern Algeria from Paleomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derder, M. E. M.; Henry, B.; Maouche, S.; Amenna, M.; Bayou, B.; Djellit, H.; Ymel, H.; Gharbi, S.; Abtout, A.; Ayache, M.

    2012-04-01

    The seismic activity of the Western Mediterranean area is partly concentrated in northern Africa, particularly in northern Algeria, as it is shown by the strongest recent earthquakes of "Zemmouri" 21 May 2003 Mw=6.9 and the "El Asnam" 10 October 1980 Ms= 7.3. This seismicity is due to the tectonic activity related to the convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates since at least the Oligocene. The deformation is mostly compressional with associated folds, strike-slip faults and thrusts, and a direction of shortening between N-S and NNW-SSE. This convergence involves a tectonic transpression which is expressed by active deformation along the plate boundary. In northern Algeria, the seismicity is concentrated in a coastal E-W thin band zone (the Tell Atlas). Active structures define there NE-SW trending folds and NE-SW sinistral transpressive faults, which affect the intermountain and coastal Neogene to Quaternary sedimentary basins (e.g. " Cheliff "basin, " Mitidja "basin, …). These reverse faults are associated with NW-SE to E-W strike-slips deep faults. The active tectonics could be explained by a simple blocks rotation kinematics model. In order to test the validity of this kinematic model, three different paleomagnetic studies have been conducted. The first one concerned the "Cheliff" basin where sedimentary Neogene formations were extensively sampled (66 sites). The second study was carried out on Miocene andesite and dacite rocks cropping out along the northern coastal zone of the "Cheliff" basin ("Beni Haoua" area, 19 sites). The third study has been carried out on the Miocene magmatic rocks (rhyolites and basalts) cropping out north-eastern part of the "Mitidja" basin ("Cap Djinet" - "Boumerdes" area, 23 sites). The obtained results show existence of paleomagnetic clockwise rotations in all the studied areas and then validates the kinematics block rotation model. Accordingly, the deformation related to the convergence between the Africa and Eurasia

  4. Stability of -Jordan Homomorphisms from a Normed Algebra to a Banach Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Hi Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish the hyperstability of -Jordan homomorphisms from a normed algebra to a Banach algebra, and also we show that an -Jordan homomorphism between two commutative Banach algebras is an -ring homomorphism.

  5. Total and direct normal solar radiation for Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study divides Iraq into three zones according to the availability of the total and direct normal solar radiation. These radiations are derived from correlation based on measured data. These maps show that total solar radiation on horizontal surface in Iraq varies from 4KWH/M2/day in the north to 5.6 KWH/M2/day in the south while the direct normal solar radiation varies from 5 to 7 KWH/M2/day. The results show that about 25 percent more solar radiation is available to tracking concentrating collectors which use direct normal solar radiation. (4 figs., 6 refs.)

  6. Iraq; Staff Report for the 2005 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    Iraq’s 2005 Article IV Consultation reports that there has been a marked deterioration in Iraq’s human development indicators over the last twenty years. There is relatively little firm data on the balance of payments other than on oil exports, government imports of goods and services, and external reserves. There have been large current account deficits in 2004 and 2005, reflecting high levels of imports related to reconstruction and recovery. The Iraqi government has begun to engage wit...

  7. Can Iraq be deterred from using weapons of mass destruction?

    OpenAIRE

    Klemick, Michael T

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited It generally is assumed that the threat of a U.S. nuclear strike deterred the intentional use of chemical and biological weapons by Iraq during the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Evidence suggests that this assumption might be faulty, or at least incomplete. The purpose of this thesis is to test the common wisdom about nuclear deterrence and Iraq's non-use of chemical and biological weapons (CBW) during the Gulf War. This thesis examines the u...

  8. Occurrence of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balqees A. Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available California mastitis tests (CMT and white side test (WST were used to determine the occurrence rate of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok province of Iraq. The rate of subclinical mastitis was 40.5% and 37.5% by CMT and WST respectively. The Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent isolate with 72.38% followed by Klebsiella spp. (29.79% and Escherichia coli (27.65%. This is the first report on subclinical mastitis report in Duhok area of Iraq.

  9. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bar...

  10. Ballistic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Emily H.; Sabino, Jennifer M.; Nanos, George P.; Valerio, Ian L.

    2015-01-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:25685099

  11. Consanguinity and genetic disorders: Profile from Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With 20-30% of all marriages occurring between first cousins, increasing attention in Jordan is now given to role of consanguinity in the occurrence of genetic diseases. The objective of this study is to define the specific categories of genetic disorders associated with consanguineous marriages. Etiological categories and consanguinity rates were studied among 623 families with genetic syndromes, congenital anomalies or mental retardation, or both, seen at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics for the period August 2002 to August 2006. Comparisons were made for first cousin marriage rates in the study group and that for the general population. First cousin marriages constituted 69%, 22% and 41.7% of marriages among families with autosomal recessive conditions (group 1), dominant, X-linked and chromosomal conditions (group 2) and sporadic undiagnosed conditions (group 3) respectively. The differences in the rates of the first cousin matings were highly significant when comparing known figures in the general population with group 1 and 3, but not significant with group 2. Two messages to the public and health care personnel regarding consanguinity can be derived from this study. The first message is that among genetic disorders, only autosomal recessive disorders are strongly associated with consanguinity. The second message is that approximately 30% of sporadic undiagnosed cases of mental retardation, congenital anomalies and dimorphism may have an autosomal recessive etiology with risks of recurrence in future pregnancies. (author)

  12. Stream Processing Environmental Applications in Jordan Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Ahmad Aldasouqi, Jalal Atoum

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Database system architectures have been gone through innovative changes, specially theunifications of algorithms and data via the integration of programming languages with thedatabase system. Such an innovative changes is needed in Stream-based applications since theyhave different requirements for the principal of stream data processing system. For example, themonitoring component requires query processing system to detect user-defined events in a timelymanner as in real time monitoring system. Furthermore, stream processing fits a large class ofnew applications for which conventional DBMSs fall short since many stream-oriented systemsare inherently geographically distributed and the distribution offers a scalable load managementand higher availability.This paper presents statistical information about metrological data such as the weather, soil andevapotranspiration as collected by the weather stations distributed in different locations in JordanValley. In addition, it shows the importance of Stream Processing in some real life applications,and shows how the database systems can help researcher in building prototypes that can beimplemented and used in a continuous monitoring system.

  13. Strengthening Biosecurity in Iraq: Development of a National Biorisk Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jewari, Mahdi F H; Koblentz, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    Since 2004, the Republic of Iraq has undertaken a concerted effort to comply with all of its international obligations to prevent the proliferation and the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) weapons. A centerpiece of this effort is Iraq's development of a National Biorisk Management System. The Iraqi National Monitoring Authority (INMA), which is responsible for CBRN security and non-proliferation in Iraq, has played a key role in establishing this system. This article provides an overview of Iraq's international non-proliferation commitments, describes the legal and organizational steps it has taken to implement these commitments, and examines current initiatives to strengthen Iraq's biosecurity. PMID:26952002

  14. Evaluation of Uranium Concentration in Soil Samples of Central Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Xoubi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring radionuclides such as uranium, thorium and their decay products (226Ra, 222Rn are present in a number of geological settings in Jordan. Motivated by the existence of uranium anomalies ‎coupled with its lack of conventional ‎‎energy ‎‎resources, Jordan decided that the development of ‎this indigenes ‎resource (uranium is the first step in introducing nuclear power as part of its energy mix. Uranium deposits in Central Jordan were perceived not only as a secured resource that will ‎fulfill Jordan’s energy needs, but also as an economic asset that will ‎finance Jordan’s nuclear program. The average uranium concentration of 236 soil samples using ICP-Mass (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was found to be 109 parts per million (ppm. Results analysis revealed a wide range of 1066 ppm for uranium concentration, and a median of 41 ppm uranium. The measurements frequency distribution indicates that 72% of samples measured had a uranium content of less than 100 ppm, a concentration that characterizes overburden and tailings quality, rather than minable reserves. This paper presents and evaluates the concentration of uranium in central Jordan, being the most promising area with the highest radioactive anomalies in Jordan.

  15. Emigration for Higher Education: The Case of Palestinians Living in Israel Studying in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Haj-Yehia, Kussai

    2010-01-01

    This study explored reasons for the rapid increase in the number of Palestinian Arabs from Israel (PAI) studying higher education (HE) in Jordan. Four hundred and sixty PAI studying in Jordan answered a questionnaire assessing factors related to HE in both countries. Lenient admission requirements and cultural-language similarity explain Jordan's…

  16. [Targeting abattoirs to control cystic echinococcosis in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchikh ElFegoun, M C; Kohil, K; L'Ollivier, C; Lleu, M; Babelhadj, B; Piarroux, M; Gharbi, M; Piarroux, R

    2016-08-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important anthropozoonotic parasitic common in Algeria. The predominant life cycle of E. granulosus is a synanthropic cycle with domestic dogs as definitive hosts and livestock animals as intermediate hosts. Slaughter activity represents a potential source for dogs to access infected offal. The aim of the present study was to determine if the contact between dogs and potentially infected offal was possible in licensed abattoirs. Eighty-one private and public abattoirs located in eastern Algeria were assessed with respect to their level of protection against the intrusion of dogs.We have demonstrated that in 42 % of these abattoirs, dogs could easily come in contact with potentially parasitized offal. The most common incorrect practices were the dumping of offal freely into the environment, the feeding of dogs with offal, and the leaving of unattended offal in an unsealed chamber. Overall, some hazardous practices remained common customs of workers, and enough abattoirs remain non-compliant that the cattledog domestic cycle of CE is unlikely to be broken. Hence, some recommended measures to interrupt parasite transmission include the following: recognition of the importance of abattoirs in the maintenance of canine echinococcosis, the controlled and proper disposal of offal, the abolishment of the custom of feeding dogs with infected offal and improvements in the level of health education of abattoir staff. PMID:27251548

  17. Spain and the Promotion of Governance in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bustos García de Castro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the reasons why Spain which possesses a consolidated democratic regime continues to promote democracy and even good governance in certain countries in such an uncertain, ambiguous manner. Recent events, such as the impact of international terrorism, have meant that there is an even more urgent need for providing democratic assistance to the neighbouring countries of the Maghreb region. In spite of its initial limitations and slants,the very concept of governance would represent a non-intrusive promotion of democracy. Nevertheless, Spain’s actors in the field of foreign policy and cooperation with development (as the case of Algeria illustrates perfectly have been clearly reluctant to commit themselves to this course of action. Spain’s patent energy dependence on Algeria (a fact that is often put forward as the main explanatory reason is called into question, with an argument based not only on the evidence of Spanish action in other countries in regions (such as Tunisia and Latin America, but also in an analysis of the discourses and instruments of Spanish foreign policy. As an alternative explanation, it is suggested that practices that have long been used in Spain’s “Arab” foreign policy, the pending reform of the external service, the Europeisation of external action and the “second-player syndrome” (i.e. second to France, provide a better explanation ofSpain’s ambiguousness and of its slow abandonment of policies that favour the status quo.

  18. LL and E awarded E and D contract area in eastern Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-07

    This paper reports that a Louisiana Land and Exploration Co. unit has been awarded on exploration and production contract in Algeria by state oil company Enterprise Nationale Sonatrach. LL and E Algeria Ltd.'s contract covers two blocks in the central Ghadames oil basin of eastern Algeria. LL and E said the contract, yet to be submitted for government approval, calls for a minimum investment of $33 million during a 5 year work program that includes seismic acquisition and drilling a minimum of three wildcats.

  19. Trends and Challenges for Mobile Learning in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Al-Zoubi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present state of mobile learning in Jordan isinvestigated in order to provide a meaningful direction forthe future development of university eEducation in Jordan.The strengths of mobile learning are elaborated and itscurrent status including challenging issues from theperspective of cognitive learning is addressed. An onlinesurvey was conducted to investigate the expectations andperceptions of mobile learning amongst university studentsand professors in Jordan and a number of countries in theMiddle East. Various factors that may contribute to theestablishment of mobile learning in educational institutionswere investigated and expectations concerning the impact ofmobile technologies on teaching and learning were explored.The results reflect on the fundamental needs for effectiveimplementation of mobile learning from the view ofcognitive science, instead of technological evolution.

  20. Radioactive waste management challenges and progress in Iraq - 59164

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of Iraq, through the Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) is decommissioning Iraq's former nuclear facilities. The 18 former facilities at the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center near Baghdad include partially destroyed research reactors, a fuel fabrication facility and radioisotope production facilities. These 18 former facilities contain large numbers of silos and drums of un-characterized radioactive waste and approximately 30 tanks that contain or did contain un-characterized liquid radioactive wastes. Other key sites outside of Al Tuwaitha include facilities at Jesira (uranium processing and waste storage facility), Rashdiya (centrifuge facility) and Tarmiya (enrichment plant). The newly created Radioactive Waste Treatment Management Directorate (RWTMD) within MoST is responsible for Iraq's centralized management of radioactive waste, including safe and secure disposal. In addition to being responsible for the un-characterized wastes at Al Tuwaitha, the RWTMD will be responsible for future decommissioning wastes, approximately 900 disused sealed radioactive sources, and unknown quantities of NORM wastes from oil production in Iraq. This paper presents the challenges and progress that the RWTMD has made in setting-up a radioactive waste management program. The progress includes the establishment of a staffing structure, staff, participation in international training, rehabilitation of portions of the former Radioactive Waste Treatment Station at Al-Tuwaitha and the acquisition of equipment. (authors)

  1. Consequences of the Iraq War for International and Constitutional Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that international law can be changed by state practice as it has been attempted by the attacking parties in the Iraq war, but also that their objective has failed because of unclear, changing, and mutually contradictory aims stated for the invasion. The incidents raise the need for ...

  2. Academic development for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Kok (Dirk); D.M. Maghdid (Delshad); M.S. Mohammed (Maqsood); G.H.S. Sherwani (Govand)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Continuous education is mandatory for all urologists, and undertaking cooperative research is a very effective means for this. We describe the experience and possibilities for continuing education for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. We hope to provide a framework f

  3. Cyanophyta recorded in Erbil ,Kurdistan region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janan Jabbar Toma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred fourty four species of blue green algae have been listed and recorded in this investigation. The listed species belong to five main groups of cyanophyta, making up all together fourty six genus. It was found that blue green algae in Erbil represented (54% of Iraqi blue green algae, and (11% of all known algae in Iraq so far

  4. 75 FR 21597 - Business Development Trade Mission to Baghdad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... business culture in which deals are made on the strength of personal contacts. This trade mission offers U... International Trade Administration Business Development Trade Mission to Baghdad, Iraq AGENCY: International... to assist U.S. firms find business partners and sell equipment and services in the promising...

  5. Identifying water mass depletion in Northern Iraq observed by GRACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.; Olsthoorn, T.N.; Al-manmi, D.A.M.A.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Smidt, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Observations acquired by Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission indicate a mass loss of 31 ± 3 km3 or 130 ± 14 mm in Northern Iraq between 2007 and 2009. This data is used as an independent validation of a hydrologic model of the region including lake mass variations. We developed a

  6. Extension Education for Dryland Cropping Systems in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Ghanem, Rita; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne; Koenig, Richard; Pannkuk, Chris; Pan, William; Parker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Iraq, formerly known as Mesopotamia, is the birthplace of agriculture. The recent war and instability have significantly impacted the country's agricultural production and knowledge support systems. To support revitalization of the Iraqi agricultural system, the USDA funded a consortium of five U.S. universities (Washington State University,…

  7. Big questions cloud Iraq's future role in world oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Iraq raises questions for the world oil market beyond those frequently asked about when and under what circumstances it will resume exports. Two wars since 1981 have obscured encouraging results from a 20 year exploration program that were only beginning to come to light when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. Those results indicate the country might someday be able to produce much more than the 3.2 million b/d it was flowing before a United Nations embargo blocked exports. If exploratory potential is anywhere near what officials asserted in the late 1980s, and if Iraq eventually turns hospitable to international capital, the country could become a world class opportunity for oil companies as well as an exporter with productive capacity approaching that of Saudi Arabia. But political conditions can change quickly. Under a new, secular regime, Iraq might welcome non-Iraqi oil companies and capital as essential to economic recovery. It's a prospect that warrants a new industry look at what the country has revealed about its geology and exploration history

  8. Eyeless in America: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article examines 50 films produced and released between the years 2001 and 2012 that are concerned with the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using Jacques Ellul's theories set out in his book "Propaganda," the article argues that while the films have failed at the box office, they were intended to function as integration propaganda. The…

  9. The IAEA in Iraq: Past activities and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary paper was first published in August 2002 along with papers of similar scope describing other aspects of Iraq's WMD programmes. Despite its inclusion in a compendium introducing the concept of 'coercive inspections', the author made it clear to the publisher the Carnegie Foundation for International Peace (CEIP) - that he did not support that concept which he considered to have the potential to result in a serious hazard to inspectors in the field. Since that time the UN Security Council has adopted resolution 1441 - not dissimilar in scope and objective to that contained in the author's paper to the CEIP workshop on Iraq in July 1991 - and inspectors have already resumed their activities in Iraq. Resolution 1441 contains little new but is extremely helpful in bringing to prominence and elaborating the extensive rights of the inspection authorities already embodied in their respective plans for on goings monitoring and verification. What is new is the inspectorates' right to transport Iraqi nationals and their family members outside Iraq in order to conduct unencumbered interviews. This new right seems to have been viewed with circumspection within the inspectorates and rightly so. Its implementation is fraught with difficulty. For example, if the Iraqi regime is true to the media model then it must be assumed that valued family members of critical interviewees have already been at least identified by the regime if, that is, they are not already 'enjoying the hospitality of the State'. Again, would the apparent refusal of family members, young and old, to accompany the interviewee be deemed to be non-co-operation? Does 1441 really give the inspectorates the right of extradition or does it mean that those interviewees willing to leave, along with their families, and released without serious objections by the Iraqi regime, are likely to have little to contribute to current knowledge? Despite the above reservation, resolution 1441 provides a firm basis for

  10. Epidemiology of Thyroid Cancer in Jordan from 1996 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Fayez Nimri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of thyroid cancer has varied from 2 per 100,000 in Europe to 21 per 100,000 in the Hawaiian Chinese population and is 2-3 fold more common in females. Middle East Cancer Consortium figures from 1996-2001 have recorded different age standardized incidence rates that ranged from 2 per 100,000 inEgypt to 7.5 per 100,000 among Israeli Jews. In Jordan the age standardized incidence rate of thyroid cancer was 3 per 100,000 during that period. This study aimed to define the incidence of thyroid cancer in Jordan and to explore the epidemiological char-acteristics of patients and tumors. Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study that utilized data reported to the Jordan Cancer Registry during 1996-2008. Results: The incidence rate in Jordan varied during the period from 1996 to 2008; however the recorded rate (2.6 per 100,000 in 1996 and 2008 was similar. The incidence rate was higher among Jordanian females. Age specific incidence rate and age standardized incidence rate were parallel during the study period with no peaks. The most common morphological type of thyroid cancer in Jordan was papillarycarcinoma (76%. The average annual incidence during the study period was highest (3.3 per 100,000 in Amman and (2.2 per 100,000 in Jarash governorates. Conclusion: The results of our study are consistent with international studies. The incidence of thyroid cancer in Jordan is not high when compared with other countries. The high incidence of thyroid cancer in Amman and Jarash governorates in comparisonto the incidence in other governorates needs further assessment.

  11. Management scenarios for the Jordan River salinity crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent geochemical and hydrological findings show that the water quality of the base flow of the Lower Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is dependent upon the ratio between surface water flow and groundwater discharge. Using water quality data, mass-balance calculations, and actual flow-rate measurements, possible management scenarios for the Lower Jordan River and their potential affects on its salinity are investigated. The predicted scenarios reveal that implementation of some elements of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty will have negative effects on the Jordan River water salinity. It is predicted that removal of sewage effluents dumped into the river (???13 MCM/a) will significantly reduce the river water's flow and increase the relative proportion of the saline groundwater flux into the river. Under this scenario, the Cl content of the river at its southern point (Abdalla Bridge) will rise to almost 7000 mg/L during the summer. In contrast, removal of all the saline water (16.5 MCM/a) that is artificially discharged into the Lower Jordan River will significantly reduce its Cl concentration, to levels of 650-2600 and 3000-3500 mg/L in the northern and southern areas of the Lower Jordan River, respectively. However, because the removal of either the sewage effluents or the saline water will decrease the river's discharge to a level that could potentially cause river desiccation during the summer months, other water sources must be allocated to preserve in-stream flow needs and hence the river's ecosystem. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay. PMID:24732060

  13. Characterization of historical mortars in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Heras, M.; Arce, I.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the petrographic and mineralogical characterization of mortars from different archaeological sites in Jordan which encompass Nabatean, Late-Antique and Early Islamic (Umayyad) sites, in some cases offering a sequence of different period mortars from the same building. These sites include the Nabataean city of Petra, the Late Antique town of Umm al Jimal and the castle of Qasr Al Hallabat. These mortars were produced with different raw materials and manufacturing technologies, which are reflected on distinctive variations of mineralogy, texture and crystal size and aggregates composition (including volcanic ashes, ceramic fragments, burnt organic material) size and their puzzolanic properties. As a consequence these mortars present different physical properties and reveal nowadays very different states of conservation. There is a dramatic change in mortar properties between those manufactured in pre-Islamic period and those from early Islamic - Ummayad times with a general trend in which these last ones present coarser crystal and aggregate sizes with less puzzolanic aggregates that result in less durable mortars. All of this reflects changes in the different stages of production of the mortar, from the use of either hydraulic, lime putty or slaked lime and the selection of aggregates to the application techniques (polishing). This reflects the evolution of building technology that took place in this area during early Islamic period and how petrological information can shed light on historical interpretation of building technologies. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10), GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-16) and MCU (Analisis y Documentación de tipología arquitectónica y técnicas constructivas en el periodo de transición Bizantino-Omeya en Jordania)

  14. Noise Pollution in Irbid City — Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odat, Sana'A.

    2015-09-01

    Noise defined as any sound that annoys or disturbs humans or that causes or tends to cause an adverse psychological and physiological effect on humans. Irbid is one of the most populated cities in Jordan. It is environmentally noise polluted due to the rapid and widespread introduction of mechanical methods for production and for their transportation. L10, L50, L90 and LAeq noise levels were measured during the day time and night time to assess and evaluate the noise levels from mosques, schools, celebration halls, streets, building works, industrial areas and commercial areas. The results of the investigation showed that the measured noise levels from all the selected sources were high during the day time and the noise problem is not only limited to day time, but continues in night time in this city. These noise levels were higher than those set by Jordanian limits during day time and night time. A significant correlation between the measured statistical noise levels L10, L50 and L90 and equivalent continuous noise level LAeq were also detected. The mean value of industrial noise source was motors of large vehicles and engines. Whereas the presence of slow moving vehicles, low speed and honking of horns during traffic ingestion periods lead to an increase in noise levels in commercial areas. The noise from building machines and equipment (dredges, concrete mixers, concrete pumps and jackhammers) is quite different from that of traditional equipment. The construction machines have engines that produce a loud, fluctuating noise with varying frequencies that can propagate the sound for a long distance. The noise produced by these engines is particularly disturbing due to the wide variations in frequency and volume.

  15. Two-dimensional streamflow simulations of the Jordan River, Midvale and West Jordan, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Terry A.; Freeman, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The Jordan River in Midvale and West Jordan, Utah, flows adjacent to two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites: Midvale Slag and Sharon Steel. At both sites, geotechnical caps extend to the east bank of the river. The final remediation tasks for these sites included the replacement of a historic sheet-pile dam and the stabilization of the river banks adjacent to the Superfund sites. To assist with these tasks, two hydraulic modeling codes contained in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS), System for Transport and River Modeling (SToRM) and Flow and Sediment Transport and Morphological Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH), were used to provide predicted water-surface elevations, velocities, and boundary shear-stress values throughout the study reach of the Jordan River. A SToRM model of a 0.7 mile subreach containing the sheet-pile dam was used to compare water-surface elevations and velocities associated with the sheet-pile dam and a proposed replacement structure. Maps showing water-surface elevation and velocity differences computed from simulations of the historic sheet-pile dam and the proposed replacement structure topographies for streamflows of 500 and 1,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) were created. These difference maps indicated that the velocities associated with the proposed replacement structure topographies were less than or equal to those associated with the historic sheet-pile dam. Similarly, water-surface elevations associated with the proposed replacement structure topographies were all either greater than or equal to water-surface elevations associated with the sheet-pile dam. A FaSTMECH model was developed for the 2.5-mile study reach to aid engineers in bank stabilization designs. Predicted water-surface elevations, velocities and shear-stress values were mapped on an aerial photograph of the study reach to place these parameters in a spatial context. Profile plots of predicted

  16. Structure of associative subalgebras of Jordan operator algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Hamhalter, J

    2011-01-01

    We show that any order isomorphism between ordered structures of associative unital JB-subalgebras of JBW algebras is implemented naturally by a Jordan isomorphism. Consequently, JBW algebras are determined by the structure of their associative unital JB subalgebras. Further we show that in a similar way it is possible to reconstruct Jordan structure from the order structure of associative subalgebras endowed with an orthogonality relation. In case of abelian subalgebras of von Neuman algebra it is we shown that order isomorphisms of the structure of abelian C*-subalgebras that are well behaved with respect to the structure of two by two matrices over original algebra are implemented by *-isomorphisms.

  17. Superconformal M2-branes and generalized Jordan triple systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Bengt E W

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal theories with six supersymmetries and SU(4) R-symmetry describing stacks of M2-branes are here proposed to be related to generalized Jordan triple systems. Writing the four-index structure constants in an appropriate form, the Chern-Simons part of the action immediately suggests a connection to such triple systems. In this note we show that the whole theory with six manifest supersymmetries can be naturally expressed in terms of structure constants of generalized Jordan triple systems. We comment on the associated graded Lie algebra, which corresponds to an extension of the gauge group.

  18. Positive projections of symmetric matrices and Jordan algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Bent; Jensen, Søren Tolver

    2013-01-01

    An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model.......An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model....

  19. Road traffic fatalities in Qatar Jordan and UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Elawad, Elmogiera

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smeed’s equation is a widely used model for prediction of traffic fatalities but has been found inadequate for use in developing countries. We applied regression analysis to time-series data on vehicles, population and traffic fatalities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Jordan and Qatar. The data were fitted to exponential models for fatality prediction, producing an average absolute error of 20.9% for Qatar, 10.9% for Jordan and 5.5% for the UAE. We found a strong linear relations...

  20. JORDAN 23/501DENIM PACK“牛”鞋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian

    2008-01-01

    2月17日,2008年全明星周末中的一天,这一天也是飞人乔丹的生日。席间,也是谣传“最后一位正神”Air Jordan XX3全明星版本的发售之日。当然这一天同是惊为天人的Jordan 23/501 Denim Pack正式确定尺码和公布发售日期的一天。

  1. The Minnesota notes on Jordan algebras and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Walcher, Sebastian

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains a re-edition of Max Koecher's famous Minnesota Notes. The main objects are homogeneous, but not necessarily convex, cones. They are described in terms of Jordan algebras. The central point is a correspondence between semisimple real Jordan algebras and so-called omega-domains. This leads to a construction of half-spaces which give an essential part of all bounded symmetric domains. The theory is presented in a concise manner, with only elementary prerequisites. The editors have added notes on each chapter containing an account of the relevant developments of the theory since these notes were first written.

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L. IN BOUMERDES MOUNTAINOUS REGION (ALGERIA)

    OpenAIRE

    L. Bendifallah; A. E. Benmahfoud; Y. Hameni; S. Mameche

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia lentiscus L. (Pistaciaceae) is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. For this study, the leaves were collected from the mountainous region of Boumerdes, in northern Algeria. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Pistacia lentiscus as a medicinal herb. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against three pathogenic bacterial strains and...

  3. Preparation Before Signature of Upgrade of Algeria Heavy Water Research Reactor Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Song; ZAN; Huai-qi; XU; Qi-guo; JIA; Yu-wen

    2012-01-01

    <正>Algeria heavy water research reactor (Birine) is a multiple-purpose research reactor, which was constructed with the help of China more than 20 years ago. By request of Algeria, China will upgrade the research reactor; so as to improve the status of current reactor such as equipment ageing, shortage of spare parts, several systems do not meet requirements of current standards and criteria etc.

  4. Adapting to climate change: water distribution in BBA City, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeroual, A.; Meddi, M.; Assani, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    For over 20 years, the eastern Algeria region has had significant rainfall deficits that resulted in severe droughts, which seriously affected the availability of water for drinking. Owing to considerations of affordability, drinking water is systematically underpriced because water is essential for life. Such a low price results in water being used inefficiently. This research presents the impact that a high leakage level in the water distribution network has on the water service price in BBA (Bordj Bou Arréridj) city and expected future water resources management scenarios in BBA watersheds by taking into account to the river flow simulated by GR2M using the outputs of climate models with emissions scenarios A1 and A1B. The analysis of the results shows a large economy can be made with regard to water losses, reaching up to 47% saving of the produced water volume; also, BBA city is expected to experience water stress before 2030.

  5. New species of Pseudachorutes (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Northeastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoughailech, Abdelmalek; Hamra-Kroua, Salah; Deharveng, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Pseudachorutes are described from the Collo massif in northeastern Algeria, all three with morphological features unique or rare in the genus. P. deficiens sp. nov. lacks chaeta E on the labium, a character only retrieved in P. ouatilouensis Najt & Weiner, 1997 from New Caledonia, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and of chaeta M on tibiotarsus. P. octosensillatus sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that have 8 S-chaetae on Ant IV. P. labiatus sp. nov. has 3 x-papillae on the labium, like P. cf. indiana Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980 from Alaska, from which it differs by the presence of chaeta a2 on Th. II and a lower number of vesicles in PAO (5-6 vs 10-14). PMID:27615903

  6. Urban Community, poverty and corruption: the case of Annaba, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadji KAHOUA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The population in the most Mediterranean countries, particularly in Algeria, is concentrated to the urban communities, cities with more or less importance, urban and coastal regions. This trend of rapid growth of the urban communities leads to multiple consequences both economically and socially on the use of resources and their distribution. The urban is the area where cross the resources, the population and the production activities and yours management. To analyze the corruption as a phenomenon triple (economic, social and institutional through an urban community (as Annaba’s case in this research it may well prove very fruitful in terms of lessons on this central phenomenon and its impacts in the North African countries.

  7. Analysis of drought areas in northern Algeria using Markov chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mourad Lazri; Soltane Ameur; Michel Brucker; Maurad Lahdir; Mounir Sehad

    2015-02-01

    The present work studies the trends in drought in northern Algeria. This region was marked by a severe, wide-ranging and persistent drought due to its extraordinary rainfall deficit. In this study, drought classes are identified using SPI (standardized precipitation index) values. A Markovian approach is adopted to discern the probabilistic behaviour of the time ser ies of the drought. Thus, a transition probability matrix is constructed from drought distribution maps. The trends in changes in drought types and the distribution area are analyzed. The results show that the probability of class severe/extreme drought increases considerably rising from the probability of 0.2650 in 2005 to a stable probability of 0.5756 in 2041.

  8. Zeta functional equation on Jordan algebras of type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayoya, J. B.

    2005-02-01

    Using the Jordan algebras methods, specially the properties of Peirce decomposition and the Frobenius transformation, we compute the coefficients of the zeta functional equation, in the case of Jordan algebras of type II. As particular cases of our result, we can cite the case of studied by Gelbart [Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 108 (1971)] and Godement and Jacquet [Zeta functions of simple algebras, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 260, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972], and the case of studied by Muro [Adv. Stud. Pure Math. 15 (1989) 429]. Let us also mention, that recently, Bopp and Rubenthaler have obtained a more general result on the zeta functional equation by using methods based on the algebraic properties of regular graded algebras which are in one-to-one correspondence with simple Jordan algebras [Local Zeta Functions Attached to the Minimal Spherical Series for a Class of Symmetric Spaces, IRMA, Strasbourg, 2003]. The method used in this paper is a direct application of specific properties of Jordan algebras of type II.

  9. Adapting UASB technology for sewage treatment in Palestine and Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    High rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for "sewage" treatment in the temperate climate of Palestine and Jordan. However, local sewage characteristics demand amendments to the conventional UASB reactor design. A solution is found in a parallel operating digester unit that sta

  10. International Education: A Case Study from the University of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes international education at the University of Jordan (UJ). Specifically it investigates a random sample of international students comprising Americans, Europeans and Asians. A field survey approach with qualitative and quantitative dimensions was used. Questionnaires were used to solicit information from the students. In…

  11. Youth in Jordan: Transitions from Education to Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan Andrew; Constant, Louay; Glick, Peter; Grant, Audra K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite strong economic growth during the last decade, youth unemployment in Jordan remains stubbornly high, and labor-force participation markedly low. Young women in particular face labor??market barriers in access to many career paths, and their job aspirations are often discouraged by their parents. Graduates of secondary and postsecondary…

  12. AN ALGORITHM FOR JORDAN CANONICAL FORM OF A QUATERNION MATRIX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜同松; 魏木生

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce a concept of companion vector, and studythe Jordan canonical forms of quaternion matrices by using the methods of complex representation and companion vector, not only give out a practical algorithm for Jordancanonical form J of a quaternion matrix A, but also provide a practical algorithm forcorresponding nonsingular matrix P with P- 1 AP = J.

  13. Oral Health Patterns among Schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the oral hygiene patterns among schoolchildren in Jordan. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2010. A simple random sampling method was used. Each student participant completed a detailed questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habits. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software version…

  14. THE EMISSION POTENTIAL FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL IN JORDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was conducted to monitor the emission potential from solid waste landfilled in Jordan over a period of 292 days using an anaerobic lysimeter. A 30 kg waste sample reflecting the typical municipal solid waste (MSW streams generated in Jordan was used to simulate the influence of climate on the emission potential of landfills located in semi-arid areas. The experimental results demonstrated that a significant amount of leachate and landfill gas was produced. The methane content was found to be more than 45% and the leachate produced reached 15.7 l after 200 days. However, after 260 days the gas and leachate production rate became negligible. A significant amount of heavy metal traces was found in the leachate due to mixed waste disposal. Changes in biogas and leachate quality parameters in the lysimeter revealed typical landfill behaviour trends, the only difference being that they developed much more quickly. In view of current landfill practices in Jordan and the effect of climate change, the results suggest that landfill design and operational modes need to be adjusted in order to achieve sustainability. For this reason, optimized design parameters and operational scenarios for sustainable landfill based on the country’s climatic conditions and financial as well as technical potential are recommended as a primary reference for future landfills in Jordan as well as in similar regions and climates.

  15. Trace element analysis of archaeological artefacts from Pella, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history of the site at Pella, Jordan is presented, as a prelude to an analysis of the element composition of 82 pottery sherds. Statistical results from this data support the archaeological evidence for occupation during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age

  16. Biomass Energy Utilization in Northeast Badia of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al-Smairan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogas systems can contribute to rural development, utilization of renewable energy, climate change mitigation, as well as environmental protection. Due to its multiple benefits, the Jordan Government must made great efforts to promote the development of biogas systems in rural areas, especially household biogas plants and medium scale biogas plants for intensive livestock and poultry farms. In order to better promote and improve biogas systems in rural Jordan, a comprehensive literature review of the various sources was undertaken for this research. This study aimed at exploring weaknesses in the biogas value chain that hinder wider dissemination of the technology in Jordan. The methodology used is holistic, combing literature review with interviews with farmers and observations of processes across the value chain in Jordan Badia regions, where biogas technology has no any history in Badia. It was revealed that wider dissemination of biogas is hampered by weaknesses in the processes and linkages among the actors. Many potential users are not aware of the technology and therefore the market remains slim. All these, coupled with inadequate policy environment, lack of stakeholder development, missing linkage to finance and few technicians, render the market unattractive to entrepreneurs who would have invested in the dissemination of the technology. The government should conduct awareness campaigns through media, translate current policies into actions to development key stakeholders, set the required institutional framework and programmes to support biogas dissemination activities. It should also train more technicians and concentrate on research and development.

  17. Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the Better Parenting Programme (BPP) which has been implemented nationally in Jordan to enhance parents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to caring for young children. The participants (N = 337, 94% female) were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in…

  18. IAEA concerned about security of nuclear material in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several recent media reports have raised concerns about the security of nuclear material stored near the Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Centre in Iraq. U.S. military forces recently entered the Tuwaitha site. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) asked the United States to ensure that the material located there is properly protected and that access to the site is restricted. The IAEA has subsequently received such assurances. 'I have written yesterday to the United States Government asking that it ensure the security and safety of all the nuclear material there, which has been under IAEA seal since 1991. I indicated that until our inspectors return to Iraq, the U.S. has responsibility for maintaining security at this important storage facility,' said Dr Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. Most of the nuclear and other radioactive material at Iraq's Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Centre is stored near the main complex in the three buildings which are known as 'Location C.' It contains nuclear material, covered by Iraq's Safeguards Agreement under the NPT, that the Agency was not required by the U.N. Security Council to remove after the Gulf war in 1991 because it could not be used directly for nuclear weapons purposes. A separate building at Location C is used to store radioisotope sources. Radiation levels are high and great care must be taken if entering the building. IAEA inspectors have been monitoring and inspecting the material at Location C periodically since 1991. The IAEA applied seals on the drums containing the nuclear materials and the building itself. 'As soon as circumstances permit, the IAEA should return to verify that there has been no diversion of this material,' said Dr. ElBaradei. During weapons inspections in Iraq from November 2002 until March 2003, IAEA inspectors visited the Tuwaitha research center many times. Inspectors have examined underground areas at Tuwaitha as part of the inspection process, including the

  19. [Spread of Leishmania major to the north of Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrissa, A; Cherif, K; Kherrachi, I; Benbetka, S; Bouiba, L; Boubidi, S C; Benikhlef, R; Arrar, L; Hamrioui, B; Harrat, Z

    2012-02-01

    Since a long time, Leishmania major and L. infantum foci in Algeria were geographically separated by the mountains of the Tell Atlas which represent a natural barrier. Recently, a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has emerged in the village of El M'hir, located on the north side of the chain of the Tell Atlas, in the basin of the Soummam. During the period 2004-2010, 152 CL cases have been registered and 12 isolates were obtained from patients who declared never having been outside the village the last years. The identification of the parasites showed that all strains belonged to L major MON-25. Investigations on the reservoir hosts showed the presence of the sand rat (Psammomys obesus), for the first time, in this locality. Five strains isolated from this rodent belonged to L. major MON-25. The sand rat, which is usually observed around the chotts in the Saharan and steppe areas, acts as the main reservoir of L. major in Algeria. Its presence in the new focus of El M'hir is reported for the first time. Entomological surveys carried out in 2009 showed the predominance of two sandfly species: Phlebotomus papatasi and P. perniciosus. The first one is known as a vector of L major in the Algerian Sahara. This study highlights the spread of L. major from the arid zones towards the semi arid areas, particularly in the Soummam valley. Climate changes and desertification observed in the steppe area northern Sahara could play a role in the extension of the disease. PMID:22170408

  20. Dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaaytah A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammar Almaaytah,1 Tareq L Mukattash,2 Julia Hajaj2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Objective: Current regulations in Jordan state that antibiotics cannot be sold without a medical prescription. This study aimed to assess the percentage of pharmacies that dispense antibiotics without a medical prescription in the Kingdom of Jordan and identify and highlight the extent and seriousness of such practices among Jordanian pharmacies. Methods: A prospective study was performed, and five different clinical scenarios were simulated at pharmacies investigated including sore throat, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection in childbearing-aged women. Three levels of demand were used to convince the pharmacists to sell an antibiotic. Results: A total of 202 total pharmacies in Jordan were visited in the present study. The majority of pharmacies (74.3% dispensed antibiotics without prescription with three different levels of demand. The percentage of pharmacies dispensing antibiotics without a prescription for the sore throat scenario was 97.6%, followed by urinary tract infection (83.3%, diarrhea (83%, and otitis media (68.4%. The lowest percentage of antibiotic dispensing was for the acute sinusitis simulation at 48.5%. Among the pharmacies that dispensed antibiotics, the pharmacists provided an explanation as the number of times per day the drug should be taken in 95.3% of the cases, explained the duration of treatment in 25.7%, and inquired about allergies prior to the sale of the antibiotic in only 17.3%. Only 52 pharmacies (25.7% refused to dispense any kind of antibiotics, the majority (61.5% of this refusal response came from acute sinusitis cases, while the minority (2.4% came from the sore throat cases. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that antibiotics continue to be dispensed

  1. Attenuation of earthquake generated P waves in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is the first attempt to investigate seismic wave attenuation in Iraq. it studies longitudinal waves recorded at Baghdad (BHD) and Musul (MSL) observatories from earthquakes originated in Turkey and in Iran. Thirty seven earthquakes were chosen for this investigation, twenty three of them were recorded at Baghdad observatory, and fourteen were recorded at Mousul observatory. The epicenters of some of these earthquakes are located within the Iraqi territory; the rest of the events have their epicenters on the Iraqi-Iran borders or on the Turkish and Iranian sides of the boeder. The path of the investigated earthquakes cover the central, north and eastern regions of Iraq; with magnitudes (mb) varying between (4.1-5.7). The amplitude-distance curve method was utilized in this investigation. The mean attenuation value obtained for the study area was 0.0035 km-1. (authors). 19 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs

  2. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2012: Iraq Energy Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Iraq is already the world’s third largest oil exporter. It has the resources and intention to increase its oil production vastly. Contracts are already in place. Will Iraq’s ambitions be realised? And what would the implications be for Iraq’s economy and for world oil markets? The obstacles are formidable: political, logistical, legal, regulatory, financial, lack of security and sufficient skilled labour. One example: in 2011 grid electricity could meet only 55% of demand. The International Energy Agency has studied these issues with the support and close cooperation of the government of Iraq and many other leading officials, commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.

  3. Sir Harry Sinderson Pasha and Iraq's first medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fattal, Sa'ad

    2013-08-01

    During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria. Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history. He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in 1946 he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least 500 local doctors.

  4. Sir Harry Sinderson Pasha and Iraq's first medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fattal, Sa'ad

    2013-08-01

    During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria. Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history. He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in 1946 he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least 500 local doctors. PMID:24585764

  5. "Explosions and Examinations": Growing up Female in Post-Saddam Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Perri; Kelly, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In the aftermath of the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, Iraqi civilians have witnessed their country descend into profound and often deadly chaos. HNK and Aunt Najma are two young voices from post-Saddam, post-invasion Iraq who write www-based diaries (blogs) on life in post-invasion Iraq. Through their voices, and via the voices of many other…

  6. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and depositional history of the late Cretaceous to early Miocene sequence of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Starkie, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents a new calcareous nannofossil based zonation scheme for Iraq based upon the examination of 515 drill cutting, conventional core and bit samples from both southern and northern Iraq. This zonation consists of 13 zones and 7 subzones covering the Late Cretaceous to Early Miocene. To date no detailed nannofossil zonation scheme was available for Iraq and therefore the nannofossil zonation presented here breaks new ground. The new zonation scheme has also been successfully cor...

  7. Engagement in mental health treatment among veterans returning from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Stecker, Tracy; Fortney, John; Hamilton, Francis; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Ajzen, Icek

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many veterans return from combat experiencing a variety of mental health concerns. Previous research has documented a stigma associated with seeking treatment that interferes with the decision to seek treatment. This study, conceptualized using the theory of planned behavior, assessed beliefs about mental health treatment in order to understand mental health treatment seeking behavior among a group of returning National Guard soldiers who served in the war in Iraq. Methods: Partic...

  8. Risky Driving Behaviours among Medical Students in Erbil, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Shabila, Nazar P; Kamaran H. Ismail; Saleh, Abubakir M; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil, Iraq, and to explore the relationship between risky driving behaviours and perceptions of risky driving. Methods: This self-administered questionnaire-based survey was conducted from January to May 2014 among a random sample of 400 medical students at Hawler Medical University in Erbil. The questionnaire was designed to assess the frequency of engagement in 21 risky driving behaviours,...

  9. Adolescent male with anorexia nervosa: a case report from Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younis Maha S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the first reported case of an adolescent male with anorexia nervosa in Iraq. This disorder is believed to be rare in males across cultures and uncommon for both genders in Arab countries. The patient met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa. He was hospitalized and received medical and psychiatric treatment at local facilities as discussed below and responded well to treatment.

  10. The Economic Costs of the War in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Kosec, Katrina; Wallsten, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Government policies are routinely subjected to rigorous cost analyses. Yet one of today's most controversial and expensive policies ,the ongoing war in Iraq, has not been. The $212 billion allocated by the U.S. Treasury has been widely reported. But the real, direct economic costs include more than budgetary allocations. Other costs include lives lost, injuries, and lost civilian productivity of National Guard and Reserve troops mobilized for the conflict. The conflict, however, also has gene...

  11. The Economic Consequences of a War with Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Nordhaus, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Much has been written about the national-security aspects of a potential conflict in Iraq, but there are no studies of the cost. A review of several past wars indicates that nations historically have consistently underestimated the cost of military conflicts. This study reviews the potential costs of a conflict including the postwar expenses that might be required for occupation, humanitarian assistance, reconstruction, nation-building, along with the implications for oil markets and macroeco...

  12. The Economic Consequences of a War in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Nordhaus, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Much has been written about the national-security aspects of a potential conflict with Iraq, but there are no studies of the cost. A review of several past wars indicates that nations historically have consistently underestimated the cost of military conflicts. This study reviews the potential costs of a conflict including the postwar expenses that might be required for occupation, humanitarian assistance, reconstruction, nation-building along with the implications for oil markets and macroec...

  13. Occurrence of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Balqees A. Ali

    2012-01-01

    California mastitis tests (CMT) and white side test (WST) were used to determine the occurrence rate of subclinical mastitis in dairy does in Duhok province of Iraq. The rate of subclinical mastitis was 40.5% and 37.5% by CMT and WST respectively. The Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent isolate with 72.38% followed by Klebsiella spp. (29.79%) and Escherichia coli (27.65%). This is the first report on subclinical mastitis repor...

  14. Extreme precipitation events and related weather patterns over Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    raheem Al-nassar, Ali; Sangrà, Pablo; Alarcón, Marta

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the extreme precipitation events and the associated weather phenomena in the Middle East and particularly in Iraq. For this purpose we used Baghdad daily precipitation records from the Iraqi Meteorological and Seismology Organization combined with ECMWF (ERA-Interim) reanalysis data for the period from January 2002 to December 2013. Extreme events were found statistically at the 90% percentile of the recorded precipitation, and were highly correlated with hydrological flooding in some cities of Iraq. We identified fifteen extreme precipitation events. The analysis of the corresponding weather patterns (500 hPa and 250 hPa geopotential and velocity field distribution) indicated that 5 events were related with cut off low causing the highest precipitation (180 mm), 3 events related with rex block (158 mm), 3 events related with jet streak occurrence (130 mm) and 4 events related with troughs (107 mm). . Five of these events caused flash floods and in particular one of them related with a rex block was the most dramatic heavy rain event in Iraq in 30 years. We investigated for each case the convective instability and dynamical forcing together with humidity sources. For convective instability we explored the distribution of the K index and SWEAT index. For dynamical forcing we analyzed at several levels Q vector, divergence, potential and relative vorticity advection and omega vertical velocity. Source of humidity was investigated through humidity and convergence of specific humidity distribution. One triggering factor of all the events is the advection and convergence of humidity from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Therefore a necessary condition for extreme precipitation in Iraq is the advection and convergence of humidity from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Our preliminary analysis also indicates that extreme precipitation events are primary dynamical forced playing convective instability a secondary role.

  15. Decentralized Local Governance In Fragile States: Learning From Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkerhoff, Derick W.; Johnson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role that local governance plays in creating an effective state and in building constructive state—society relations. Reconstruction efforts in fragile, post-conflict states have focused largely on central government, yet decentralized local authorities offer a number of positive features. Looking at the governance reconstruction experience in Iraq, the analysis explores the extent to which these positive features have characterized Iraqi sub-national government. The...

  16. Sources, Dangers and Treatments of Oily Soil Pollutants in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi M. Mutter; Aqeel R. Lamy

    2014-01-01

    Oil pollution presents significant risks to living organism and human health because it can alter the ecosystem in rivers, seas, oceans, and pollutes air and soil. Oil, for example, can even reduce the efficiency of drinking water plants. Iraq suffers a lot from oil pollution as a result of wars that not only damage the oil infrastructures but also cause loss of thousand hectare of agriculture lands. In addition, oil pollution become primary factor that contribute to the electricity, fuel sho...

  17. IAEA inspectors complete verification of nuclear material in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A team of IAEA inspectors has returned from Iraq to Vienna after completing the annual Physical Inventory Verification of declared nuclear material. The material - natural or low-enriched uranium - is consolidated at a storage facility near the Tuwaitha complex, south of Baghdad. The inspectors found no diversion of nuclear material. The two-day inspection was conducted with the logistical and security assistance of the Multinational Force, the Office of the UN Security Coordinator, and the UN Assistance Mission for Iraq. Every non-nuclear-weapon State party to the NPT that has declared holdings of nuclear material is required to undergo such inspections. The inspectors verify the correctness of the State's declaration, and that material has not been diverted to any undeclared activity. Such inspections have been performed in Iraq on a continuing basis. NPT safeguards inspections are limited in scope and coverage as compared to the verification activities carried out in 1991-98 and 2002-03 by the IAEA under Security Council resolution 687 and related resolutions. (IAEA)

  18. What Strategic Outlook Holds for America in Iraq?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Zugui

    2006-01-01

    @@ Agreat controversy is stirring up the world opinion over the future direction of developments in Iraq, a matter affecting overall U.S. foreign policy and even the international power configuration as well. An accurate assessment, however, requires analyzing the relevance of the issue to U.S. vital interests, the results of its current policy over there and its ability to cope with further potential challenges. The author rules out U. S. giving up its cause in Iraq or the likelihood of any drastic modifications in its present policy. He also concedes its ability to achieve partial successful reconstruction in the war-torn country, albeit in a scaled-down version, far short of its original much-vaunted expectations. In sum, Washington will naturally make constant policy adjustments to meet challenges for realization of its dynamic phased goals and maintain its continued military presence there in a certain form so as to ensure its strategic interests in Iraq,the Greater Middle East and even the entire "arc of instability."

  19. Treated Sewage Water Use in Irrigated Agriculture. Theoretical design of farming systems in Seil Al Zarqa and the Middle Jordan Valley in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duqqah, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Most of Jordan is arid and water resources are limited. This situation becomes more acute the more Jordan develops. New techniques in agriculture, industry and the domestic sector place an increasing demand upon clean and safe water. Good-quality water is hardly available. Unco

  20. Landscape development in the context of soil distribution in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Processes of landscape change can be assessed by studying the distribution of soil types and their connection to climate, the geology, and land use. In this context, even in areas where no virgin soils are available, paleosols pre-dating the introduction of agriculture can be utilized for estimating potential soil development without human impact. Soil distribution in Jordan follows closely the climate and topography: specific soil orders can be found within the dry and hot subtropical, subhumid-semiarid, semiarid-arid, and arid regions. The pattern of soil and paleosol distribution in Jordan points to an important role of the geology (bedrock and relief), and of climate in their formation, both locally such as in the vicinity of the ancient site of Abila, and regionally in the whole country. In contrast, the impact of land use appears relatively limited: overall erosion has been estimated not to exceed the expected geological rate, and Jordan is considered to be in the stable state of completed geologic erosion. This is further supported by strongly varying soil properties and archaeological material on agricultural fields, which suggests that overall erosion processes during historical periods were limited. The presence of a quite uniform 4 m thick loess cover around the site of Umm el-Jimal in north-east Jordan suggests that aeolian deposits are probably the by far dominating parent material of current soils in northern Jordan. In this context, an apparent division of some soil profiles into subsoil and topsoil could correspond to dominant in-situ soil formation out of bedrock weathering at the bottom, while the upper part of the profiles could correspond to aeolian dust as main parent material. A stone line or lithological discontinuity separating these two parts of the profile might refer to a major erosion event. If true, this could indicate that current soils in Jordan might represent a mixture of at least two phases of soil development with probably

  1. A surveillance summary of smoking and review of tobacco control in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The burden of smoking-related diseases in Jordan is increasingly evident. During 2006, chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs accounted for more than 50% of all deaths in Jordan. With this evidence in hand, we highlight the prevalence of smoking in Jordan among youth and adults and briefly review legislation that governs tobacco control in Jordan. The prevalence of smoking in Jordan remains unacceptably high with smoking and use of tobacco prevalences ranging from 15% to 30% among students aged 13-15 years and a current smoking prevalence near 50% among men. Opportunities exist to further reduce smoking among both youth and adults; however, combating tobacco use in Jordan will require partnerships and long-term commitments between both private and public institutions as well as within local communities.

  2. Back to Syria? : conflicting patterns of mobility among Syrian refugees in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    ACHILLI, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years, Jordan has adopted harsher polices towards refugees by periodically closing its borders and limiting access to employment opportunities as well as health and educational facilities. Against the backdrop of their deteriorating situation in Jordan, large numbers of Syrian refugees have expressed a desire to leave this host country. Many of them see migration as a way of escaping their hardships in Jordan. However, even when the leaving is not in doubt, the destination i...

  3. Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of Jordan homomorphisms on Banach algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirasawa Go

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that a Jordan homomorphism from a Banach algebra into a semisimple commutative Banach algebra is a ring homomorphism. Using a signum effectively, we can give a simple proof of the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of a Jordan homomorphism between Banach algebras. As a direct corollary, we show that to each approximate Jordan homomorphism from a Banach algebra into a semisimple commutative Banach algebra there corresponds a unique ring homomorphism near to .

  4. Business continuity management in emerging markets: the case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Anchor, John R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their considerable growth in last few decades, emerging markets (EM) face numerous risks that have the potential to slow down or obstruct their development. Three main issues are discussed in this paper: first, the risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets and Jordan in particular; secondly, the role of business continuity management (BCM) in emerging markets; and thirdly, potential factors that underpin the role of BCM in emerging markets. These issues are significant, as they represent the role of BCM in highly dynamic and fast changing business environments. The paper provides a discussion of the significance of BCM in reducing or preventing risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets, especially those in Jordan. PMID:22576137

  5. Worker programs and resource use: Evidence from better work jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Nathan

    This paper examines data collected for the Better Work program in Jordan which aims to protect laborers in the garment industry from poor working conditions. Data are examined to look for benefits to the factories participating in the program beyond improved compliance with labor law. In particular, potential impacts to firm energy use are examined and correlations are tested between electricity use rates and measures of worker outcomes and a number of factory traits such as size and production input costs. Evidence was found to back up work done in Vietnam with regard to resource use and distribution of electricity expenses. It was also found that the type of data being collected is not ideal for examinations of energy, and more direct methods are desirable, and that considerable production obstacles are worker skill level, electricity prices, and to a greater degree in Jordan than in previously examined countries, water prices.

  6. Pesticide residues in the soil of the Central Jordan Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples were taken from three zones in the Central Jordan Valley to evaluate the range of contamination with pesticides. Several pesticides belonging to different groups, particularly chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides such as the DDT family and cyclodienes, were detected. In zone I, most of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides occurred in open fields cultivated with tomatoes at a depth of 30-60 cm, at 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone II, and at 0-15 and 30-60 cm in zone III. When considering pesticide residues under plastic house conditions cultivated with tomatoes, most of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide residues were detected at a depth of 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone I, at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm in zone II, and at 0-15 and 15-30 cm in zone III of the Central Jordan Valley. (author). 13 refs, 3 tabs

  7. Business continuity management in emerging markets: the case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Anchor, John R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their considerable growth in last few decades, emerging markets (EM) face numerous risks that have the potential to slow down or obstruct their development. Three main issues are discussed in this paper: first, the risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets and Jordan in particular; secondly, the role of business continuity management (BCM) in emerging markets; and thirdly, potential factors that underpin the role of BCM in emerging markets. These issues are significant, as they represent the role of BCM in highly dynamic and fast changing business environments. The paper provides a discussion of the significance of BCM in reducing or preventing risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets, especially those in Jordan.

  8. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  9. Corporate Governance Quality and Earnings Management: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan. Using a panel data set of all industrial and service firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE during the period 2009-2013; this paper provides evidence that earnings management is affected negatively by corporate governance quality. In particular; the results show that earnings management is affected negatively by overall categories of governance index represented by board of director, board meeting, Audit and nomination and compensation committee. Furthermore, results suggest that corporate governance quality has increased over time. Thus, its ability to constrain earnings management has also increased. It is recommended to industrial and service companies to boost their compliance with corporate governance code to improve the integrity and reliability of financial reports. This paper fills a gap in the literature by providing evidence about the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan as an emerging economy.

  10. Provenance and Technology of Early Islamic Pottery from North Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarboush, Maher Mithqal Fayez

    Pottery remains the main tool in evaluating relative chronologies in archaeology. However, only in a few cases has production techniques and the technological characterizations of pottery been studied from specific sites that spans a longer chronological period. This thesis presents a detailed...... study of pottery samples selected from four sites located in the north part of Jordan. Three of the sites were once major cities of the Decapolis: Jarash (Gerasa), Umm Qais (Gadara), and Tabaqat Fahl (Pella). The fourth site is Tal al - Husn, a substantial rural village located between Umm Qais and...... Jarash. A wide range of early Islamic pottery types known in Jordan dating to the 7 th - 10 th centuries CE were select ed. The provenance studies offered in the thesis examine the chemical as well as mineralogical composition of pottery, with a focus on issues such as the sources of the raw materials...

  11. Determinants of direct foreign investment: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Zakaria Siam

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to show the effect of direct foreign investment flows on the economy of Jordan, this studycomes to examine the economic and financial risks on FDI on the macro level over the period (1997-2007. This study applies a version of the model developed by Chan and Gemayel (2004 by usingMultiple Linear Regression Model. The analysis revealed that there exists significant and positiverelationship between foreign direct investment flows into the economy of Jordan and economic andfinancial variables. The study claims for further FDI promotion through incentives to attract newinvestments. These factors are: providing targeted fiscal incentives, such as tax concessions, cash grants,and specific subsidies; improving domestic infrastructure; promoting local skills development to meetinvestor needs and expectations; establishing broad-reaching FDI promotion agencies and improvingthe regulatory environment and decreasing red tape.

  12. Why Do the Quantum Observables Form a Jordan Operator Algebra?

    CERN Document Server

    Niestegge, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan algebra structure of the bounded real quantum observables was recognized already in the early days of quantum mechanics. While there are plausible reasons for most parts of this structure, the existence of the distributive nonassociative multiplication operation is hard to justify from a physical or statistical point of view. Considering the non-Boolean extension of classical probabilities, presented in a recent paper, it is shown in this paper that such a multiplication operation can be derived from certain properties of the conditional probabilities and the observables, i.e., from postulates with a clear statistical interpretation. The well-known close relation between Jordan operator algebras and C*-algebras then provides the connection to the quantum-mechanical Hilbert space formalism, thus resulting in a novel axiomatic approach to general quantum mechanics that includes the types II and III von Neumann algebras.

  13. Non-autonomous Svinolupov Jordan KdV Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gurses, Metin; Karasu, Atalay; Turhan, Refik

    2001-01-01

    Non-autonomous Svinolupov-Jordan systems are considered. The integrability criteria of such systems are associated with the existence of recursion operators. A new non-autonomous KdV system is obtained and its recursion operator is given for all $N$. The examples for N=2 and N=3 are studied in detail. Some possible transformations are also discussed which map some systems to autonomous cases.

  14. Generalized Derivations and Bilocal Jordan Derivations of Nest Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangui Yan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let H be a complex Hilbert space and B(H the collection of all linear bounded operators, A is the closed subspace lattice including 0 an H, then A is a nest, accordingly alg A={T∈B(H:TN⊆N,  ∀N∈A} is a nest algebra. It will be shown that of nest algebra, generalized derivations are generalized inner derivations, and bilocal Jordan derivations are inner derivations.

  15. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahya [Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mustafa, Mairna [Department of Sustainable Tourism, Queen Rania' s Institute of Tourism and Heritage, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen [International Office, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mashal, Kholoud [Department of Land Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mohsen, Mousa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise

  16. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Lafi, Hamzeh A.; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T.; Hussein M. Migdadi

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal ...

  17. Corporate Governance Quality and Earnings Management: Evidence from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan S. Abbadi; Qutaiba F. Hijazi; Ayat S. Al-Rahahleh

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan. Using a panel data set of all industrial and service firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) during the period 2009-2013; this paper provides evidence that earnings management is affected negatively by corporate governance quality. In particular; the results show that earnings management is affected negatively by overall categories of governance index represented by board of director, board...

  18. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  19. Soil erosion and land degradation in the Highlands of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2013-04-01

    The Highlands of Jordan has a Mediterranean type of climate characterized by hot dry summers and cold wet winters. Unsustainable land use practices, recurrent droughts and climate change are the main causes of land degradation in the Highlands area of Jordan. Unsustainable land use practices include improper plowing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, forest cutting, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. In addition, Jordan's rapid population growth (2.8% per year) is exerting considerable pressure upon its limited arable land through uncontrolled and random urbanization activities. Water erosion is the most widespread Land degradation type in the country. It greatly increases on slopes where the vegetation cover is (seasonally) reduced. It is further aggravated by a loss of soil structure and reduced infiltration rates. Wind erosion occurs most frequently in the arid and semi-arid portions of the southern Highlands, especially in areas with sandy or loamy soils. Rangeland degradation is the second most widespread land degradation type that is driven by overgrazing. The impact of overgrazing on the vegetation is evident from the excessive uprooting of the green matter (grass and bushes), leading to reduced seeding, reduced regeneration, and the consequent loss of plant cover which make the soil more susceptible to water and wind erosion. It is estimated that about 41 percent of Jordan's total land area is characterized as degraded of which 22 percent of the total land mass is classified as moderately degraded and agricultural productivity is greatly reduced. Observed aspects of land degradation include the recession of forest areas, high rate of erosion by water (formation of rills and gullies), expansion of urbanized area, reduction in soil organic matter and soil structure deterioration. Implementation of soil erosion control measures such as contour cultivation

  20. Performance consequences of management accounting system information usage in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Al-Mawali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to contribute to the body of knowledge in the area of management accounting systems (MAS within the context of Jordanian manufacturing companies. However, the current study empirically investigated the relationship between MAS information usage and companies' performance. Data were collected from manufacturing companies listed in Amman Stock Exchange. The results of this study provide ample confirmation on the role of the usage of MAS information in enhance the manufacturing companies performance in Jordan

  1. Health service access and utilization among Syrian refugees in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Burnham, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    Background The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system. Changing lifestyles and aging populations are shifting the global disease burden towards increased non-infectious diseases including chronic conditions, co-morbidities, and injuries which are more complicated and costly to manage. The strain placed on health systems threatens the ability to ensure the health needs of both refugees and host country populations are adequately addresse...

  2. Islamic Finance for SMEs in Jordan 1978-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Mumani, Hamzeh Fayez

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Small and Medium Size enterprises (SMEs) are considered an essential yield for both social and economic development of countries around the world. The purpose of this study is to identify the role of Islamic banks and Islamic financial institutions in financing the development of SMEs in Jordan. The study revealed that the Islamic finance for SMEs is sufficient. It is also concluded that Islamic banks focus on increasing investors‟ profits, eliminates society‟s inequalities and ...

  3. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise standards and specifications

  4. New static spheroidal solution in Jordan-Brands-Dicke theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyrev, S M

    2010-01-01

    The static spheroidal solutions of Jordan-Brands-Dicke theory (JBD) are studied. We consider the effect of the anisotropic stresses of scalar field on the shape of JBD self-graviting objects. It is shown that scalar fields can have significant effect on the structure and properties of self-graviting objects. In contrast with general relativity in JBD theory there are nonflat static spheroidal solutions.

  5. Jordan: social protection in a low employment state

    OpenAIRE

    Cousins, Mel

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the Jordanian social protection system. Part 1 outlines the demographic and social context, including data on the level of poverty and inequality in Jordan. Part 2 discusses the challenges and opportunities facing Jordanian policy makers while part 3 describes the social protection system (including the role of development partners). Part 4 outlines the key issues and challenges in social protection reform while part 5 concludes.

  6. Prestressed Concrete Pipe Failure Jordan Aqueduct, Reach 3

    OpenAIRE

    United States Bureau of Reclamation

    1994-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation conducted failure investigations to identify the cause(s) of a catastrophic rupture of prestressed concrete pipe under impressed current cathodic protection, which occurred on Reach 3 of the Jordan Aqueduct near Salt Lake City, Utah, on August 7, 1984. The multidisciplinary analyses included corrosion, design, petrographic, structural, and metallurgical investigations. From the onset of the failure, the issue was one of reconciling cathodic overprotection and defec...

  7. (Never) Mind your p's and q's: Von Neumann versus Jordan on the Foundations of Quantum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Anthony; Janssen, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In two papers entitled "On a new foundation [Neue Begr\\"undung] of quantum mechanics," Pascual Jordan (1927b,g) presented his version of what came to be known as the Dirac-Jordan statistical transformation theory. As an alternative that avoids the mathematical difficulties facing the approach of Jordan and Paul A. M. Dirac (1927), John von Neumann (1927a) developed the modern Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we focus on Jordan and von Neumann. Central to the formal...

  8. Depositional environments of the early cretaceous Kurnub (Hathira) sandstones, North Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Abdulkader M.

    1982-04-01

    The Kurnub (Hathira) sandstones in north Jordan, which are most probably of Early Cretaceous age, are about 300 m thick varicoloured, friable quartz-arenitic sandstones. Based on grain-size analysis, sedimentary structures, palaeocurrent, fossil content and petrography, these sandstones are postulated to be dominantly of fluvial origin with a few interfingering shallow marine horizons. A southward displacement of Jordan by at least 100 km would bring these sandstones opposite to similar rocks west of the Jordan-Araba rift, with Jordan being higher during the EArly Cretaceous.

  9. Preliminary Study of the Gravimetric Local Geoid Model in Jordan:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there is an increased interest in studying and defining the Local and Regional Geoid Model worldwide, due to its importance in geodetic and geophysics applications. The use of the Global Positioning System (GPS is internationally growing, yet the lack of any Geoid Model for Jordan has limited the use of GPS for geodetic applications. Therefore, this work aims to present the preliminary results that we propose for The Gravimetric Jordanian Geoid Model (GeoJordan. The model is created using gravimetric data and the GravSoft program. The validation of this model is done by using GPS measurements and precise leveling at Amman area. However, a comparison between the Global Geopotential Models OSU91A and EGM96 showed great discrepancies through the presented results. Also, presenting the approach used to obtain the orthometric height from GPS ellipsoidal height measurements. Nevertheless, the error margin; obtained in this initial study of the GeoJordan after fitting the data with GPS/leveling measurement; is about (10cm, in tested area whereas the standard error of the created model is about (40cm.

  10. The surface heat flow of the Arabian Shield in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, A.; Förster, H.-J.; Masarweh, R.; Masri, A.; Tarawneh, K.; Desert Group

    2007-04-01

    Surface heat flow in southern Jordan (western part of the Arabian Plate) was determined in a dense cluster of five, up to 900-m-deep boreholes that have encountered sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic (Ordovician and Silurian) age. These rocks are underlain by an igneous and metamorphic basement, which has been studied for its radiogenic heat production, along the eastern margin of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system. The heat flow, calculated from continuous temperature logs and laboratory-measured thermal conductivity of drillcores and surface samples, averages to 60.3 ± 3.4 mW m -2 and contrasts the common view of the late Proterozoic-consolidated Arabian Shield constituting a low heat-flow province of ⩽45 mW m -2. Although only characterizing an area of about 300 km 2, this average is unlikely representing a positive local anomaly caused by voluminous HHP granites/rhyolites at shallow depths. Instead, a heat flow of 60 mW m -2 is considered a robust estimate of the Phanerozoic conductive surface heat flow not only for Jordan, but for the Arabian Shield in areas unaffected by younger reactivation. The large variation in conductive heat flow (36-88 mW m -2) previously observed in Jordan, southern Syria, and Saudi Arabia is irreconcilable with their broad similarity in lithosphere structure and composition and rather reflects a combination of factors including low-quality temperature data and insufficient knowledge on thermal rock properties.

  11. Country report - Jordan: Brief description of feasibility study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jordanian nuclear power programme was officially launched in 2001, when the nuclear energy and radiation protection law established the Jordan Nuclear Energy Commission to both promote and regulate nuclear energy in the country. In July 2007, to clearly separate the responsibility for the promotion and regulation of nuclear power, two key agencies were established by law: the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) and the Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Key activities associated with implementing a nuclear power programme have been initiated: - Adoption of international nuclear treaties; - Establishment of Jordanian nuclear legislation; - Ongoing educational and training programmes for implementing the nuclear energy programme; - Productive cooperation with the IAEA and other international organizations; - Bilateral agreements with many countries for cooperation in the nuclear power area; - Development of uranium exploration and mining; - Implementation of a research reactor programme to be completed in 2015; - Site selection for the first NPP; - Selection of nuclear technology vendor and investor/operator for the first Jordanian NPP; - Execution of a plant construction contract, including an early works phase; - The start of commercial operation of Jordan’s first nuclear power station is scheduled for 2021/2022

  12. Molecular characterization of the circulating Bacillus anthracis in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqel, Amin Abdelfattah; Hailat, Ekhlas; Serrecchia, Luigina; Aqel, Suad; Campese, Emanuele; Vicari, Nadia; Fasanella, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    To understand the biomolecular charcteristics of Bacillus anthracis in Jordan, 20 blood smear slides from dead animals with suspected anthrax were analyzed using conventional and molecular approaches. All slides were positive for B. anthracis by conventional staining but no growth of the organism on selective media was detected. However, of the 20 samples, 16 were B. anthracis DNA-positive using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seven samples provided enough quantity and quality of DNA, and their multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)-15 loci analysis revealed two different genotypes. All genotypes were belonging to A.B..r. 008/009 which is very common in Asia and Europe. Single nucleotide repeat (SNR) analysis revealed that there were no sub genotypes. Molecular diagnosis of animal anthrax in Jordan is not used routinely; henceforth, official diagnosis of anthrax is based on the observation of the slides by optical microscope and this can often cause reading errors. Therefore, the prevalence of the disease in Jordan might be slightly lower than that reported by the official bodies. PMID:26156620

  13. Assessment of Corporate Governance in Jordan: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the reality of corporate governance in Jordan. It identifies the framework of corporate governance, which has here been set into two dimensions – institutionalisations and regulations – and describes the five major principles of corporate governance. The study was carried out by interviews with key employees and the review of related laws and selected annual reports. The study found (1 basic shareholder rights were honoured in decision-making, except for large decisions such as major asset sales; (2 shareholders were not treated equitably in practice, although controllers sometimes took action and prohibited insider trading; (3 the role and rights of stakeholders in corporate governance were respected, and stakeholders had a number of legal protections, which were largely covered in Jordan's Company Law; (4 disclosure and transparency were observed to a large extent, although limited to quantity rather than quality, because Jordan has fully adopted IFRS and ISA and (5 boards largely fulfilled their responsibilities, as these are extensively defined by law and regulation.

  14. Trace element content of medicinal plants from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol, Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Mg, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn have been determined by short, and long irradiation times with a thermal and epithermal flux of 1.4 x 1012 n x cm-2 x s-1 and 1.4 x 1011 n x cm-2 x s-1, respectively. These analyses were performed in conjunction with Compton suppression. In almost herbs studied the Co, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sb , Sc, Se and V are found to be present at trace levels, Br, Mn, and Zn at the minor level, and Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg and Na are generally at the major level. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing NISTbotanical references materials. (author)

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE PRODUCTION OF SOLAR HYDROGEN IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bendaikha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. In this study hydrogen is produced using a hydrogen generator with a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM electrolyser. An experimental study is done in the Center of Development of the Renewable Energy, Algiers, Algeria.The experimental device contains essentially a photovoltaic module, a PEM electrolyser, a gasometer and the devices of measures of characteristics of the PEM electrolyser as well as two pyranometers for the horizontal and diffuse global radiance registration. This system in pilots scale is permitted on the one hand, to measured and analyzed the characteristics: of the PEM electrolyser for two different pressures of working (Patm and P=3 bar, on the other hand, to study the volume of hydrogen produces in the time with different sources of electrical power (generator, photovoltaic module, fluorescent lamp, the efficiency for every case is calculated and compared. We present in this paper the variation of the solar hydrogen flow rate produced according to the global radiance and according to the time for a typical day’s of August.

  16. Incidence and severity of scorpion stings in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Laïd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Maghreb region. In Algeria, epidemiological data were collected over the past twenty years by the Algerian health authorities. This study is an analysis of morbidity and mortality data collected from 2001 to 2010. Annual incidence and mortality due to scorpion envenoming were 152 ± 3.6 stings and 0.236 ± 0.041 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI, respectively. The risk of being stung by a scorpion was dramatically higher in southern areas and central highlands due to environmental conditions. Incidence of envenoming was especially higher in the adult population, and among young males. In contrast, mortality was significantly higher among children under 15 years, particularly ages 1-4. Upper limbs were more often affected than lower limbs. Most stings occurred at night, indoors and during the summer. Data collected since 2001 showed a reduction of mortality by nearly 50%, suggesting that the medical care defined by the national anti-scorpion project is bearing fruit.

  17. The 2003 Boumerdes, Algeria earthquake: Regional moment tensor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunmiller, Jochen; Bernardi, Fabrizio

    2005-03-01

    We used regional broadband seismograms to determine seismic moment tensors for the destructive May 21, 2003 Boumerdes (Algeria) Mw = 7.0 earthquake and its larger aftershocks. Fully automatic inversions using near-real time data provided solutions for seven Mw >= 4.7 events within 90 minutes after event occurrence. After adding off-line data, we manually obtained 30 solutions (Mw >= 3.8) from May 2003 to January 2004. All have shallow source depths (6-21 km). The median P-axis orientation (338°) of 24 thrust and four strike-slip events is consistent with Africa-Eurasia plate motion (330°). The main shock hypocenter at 8-10 km depth at the coastline and its shallow southward dip (25° +/- 5°) puts the fault surface trace 15-20 km offshore, consistent with documented seafloor deformation at the base of the continental slope. A main shock rupture length of about 50 km is deduced from first day aftershocks and location of strike-slip events. The strike-slip events probably define the western rupture end and indicate a left-step of main convergence. Fault strike variability of thrust events suggests fault orientation changes and possibly fault segmentation.

  18. Sandstorms as indicators of Land degradation in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirche, azziz; Oukil, youcef; Boughani, madjid; Nedjraoui, dalila; Salamani, mostefa

    2013-04-01

    : Land degradation, is an important environmental issue in arid lands, especially in Algeria's high plateaus. The Algerian steppes, the most widespread rangelands in the North African countries, occupy a pivotal position between the north, hilly and humid (called the tell), with a limited area (approximately 5%) and the south, the Sahara, which represents the largest area of the country (approximately 86%) and the largest desert of the planet .The main vegetation units constituted by Stipa tenacissima a key species , constituted 2/3 of the landscape in 1978 and occupies in 2012 only 1/10. The vegetation cover reached 40% in the seventies and is generally less than 10% nowadays. The increase of both population and livestock leads to a high pressure on this fragile ecosystems aggravated by the huge drought in the eighties (1980-1988). It results a tremendous soil degradation and sand encroachment. This study emphasizes on the correlation between the desertification steps and the occurrence of sandstorms. It appears that a high correlation is observed and reflect perfectly the land degradation . The recent decrease of sand storms, after a decennium, shows a re-greening, that must be distinguished of an absence of desertification. It appears that sandstorms , could be an interesting indicator, to monitor land degradation.

  19. 75 FR 27399 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ..., 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-11884 Filed 5-14-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national emergency protecting the Development Fund for Iraq and certain other property in...

  20. 31 CFR 560.536 - Humanitarian activities in and around Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Iraq. (a) A nongovernmental organization specifically licensed pursuant to 31 CFR part 575 or otherwise authorized pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 to conduct certain humanitarian activities in and around Iraq is... organization pursuant to 31 CFR 575.527 and the terms of its license or registration. This section does...

  1. 77 FR 30181 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ..., 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-12487 Filed 5-18-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register... of Iraq On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national...

  2. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that are subject to the requirements of 14 CFR parts 119, 121, or 135, each person who deviates from... the Territory and Airspace of Iraq Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 77 Aeronautics and... No. 77—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq 1....

  3. 31 CFR 575.414 - Imports of Iraqi goods and purchases of goods from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imports of Iraqi goods and purchases of goods from Iraq. 575.414 Section 575.414 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 575.414 Imports of Iraqi goods and purchases of goods from Iraq....

  4. 78 FR 30193 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... 17, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-12261 Filed 5-20-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... of Iraq On May 22, 2003, by Executive Order 13303, the President declared a national...

  5. 31 CFR 575.406 - Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq. 575.406 Section 575.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Interpretations § 575.406 Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq. (a) The prohibition in § 575.210 applies to...

  6. 31 CFR 575.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iraq. 575.204 Section 575.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 575.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iraq. Except as...

  7. 75 FR 26879 - Temporary Organization To Facilitate a Strategic Partnership With the Republic of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    .... [FR Doc. 2010-11557 Filed 5-11-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Partnership With the Republic of Iraq By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the..., United States Code, a temporary organization to be known as the Iraq Strategic Partnership Office...

  8. Protesting Their Apathy? An Analysis of British Press Coverage of Young Anti-Iraq War Protestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on a systematic content analysis of UK newspaper coverage of young anti-Iraq war protestors, I examine how young people's opinions were mediated before and during the war in Iraq. I explore the extent and nature of coverage, and ask whether newspapers encouraged young people to be active citizens in the public sphere. I argue that the UK…

  9. Treating Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with PTSD Who Are at High Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Varra, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders commit suicide at a higher rate than the general population (Kang & Bullman, 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in veterans (Bullman & Kang, 1994) and is the most common mental disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan…

  10. Quality Assurance Strategies of Higher Education in Iraq and Kurdistan: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaghed, Nabeel; Dezaye, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on two different strategies that have been implemented in Iraq to improve quality assurance in the higher education sector in Iraq. One strategy has been developed by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Baghdad. It involved conducting a pilot study at the University of Babylon. This pilot included…

  11. 75 FR 26938 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... in Iraq; --Promotion of business opportunities in both Iraq and the United States, and identification of opportunities for U.S. and Iraqi firms to work together; and --Attracting U.S. businesses to... International Trade Administration Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business...

  12. 78 FR 77426 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... promote private sector business growth in Iraq; --Promotion of business opportunities in both Iraq and the United States, and identification of opportunities for U.S. and Iraqi firms to work together; and --Attracting U.S. businesses to opportunities in Iraq and serving as a catalyst for Iraqi private sector...

  13. Algeria as Postcolony? Rethinking the Colonial Legacy of Post-Structuralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriam Haleh Davis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is little doubt that Algeria was of enormous importance to the theoretical output that is often recognized as French, here I would like to ask: what is at stake in re-inscribing these French intellectuals as postcolonial? In what ways did the particularities of Algerian history impact French philosophy? Indeed, if the term postcolonial is meant to describe those who were influenced by events in Algeria, then an entire generation of French thinkers might be considered postcolonial to varying degrees. Surely Derrida’s oeuvre was influenced by his experiences in Algeria, but does this make him postcolonial in the same way as Jean-Paul Sartre or Pierre Bourideu, who have also become important figures in postcolonial theory? 

  14. DETECTION OF PAENIBACILLUS LARVAE SPORES IN HONEY SAMPLES FROM BEEKEEPERS OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjlane Noureddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The American foulbrood in one of the most serious diseases that may affect brood of larvae and pupae stages, which cause economic losses and biological hazards in a large beekeeping sector in several countries across the world in general and Algeria in particular. The causative agent of this disease is a bacterium called Paenibacillus larvae that target bees Apis mellifera the latter are often present in honey.The aim of this project is studying the spread of this disease in the northern region of Algeria through the analysis of honey obtained from these areas. Microbiological, microscopic and biochemical methods were used in this study. The results obtained have shown that the prevalence rate varies from region to region, several factors may explain this variation in the prevalence of the disease. The average infection rate for all regions is 32%. To prevent the spread of this disease in Algeria must be taken is mandatory and means of prevention into account.

  15. International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards after Iraq - some Austrailian perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iraq's nuclear weapons development program used facilities and nuclear material separate from its safeguarded activities. To detect such a strategy the IAEA's safeguards inspectors need access to locations and information beyond that foreseen in NPT safeguards agreements. But the IAEA is short of money. And detecting undeclared activities could be expensive. If the IAEA can establish a capability to detect undeclared activities, then it might be able to save on regular safeguards. But it's important not to put the cart before the horse - effective safeguards must come first, savings second

  16. Economic aspects of peacekeeping in Iraq: What went wrong?

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam Yousif

    2006-01-01

    Prospects for Iraq's economy are bleak: unemployment remains high and the post-war rebuilding effort has slowed to a trickle, weighed down by chronic instability. Rising oil prices increased GDP in 2004 and 2005. But an oil-induced rise in GDP will not necessarily bring about a general rise in incomes, as the oil sector employs only 1 percent of the labor force. To raise general living standards, oil income needs to be converted into increased employment and output in sectors with high social...

  17. Causes and differentials of childhood mortality in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khawla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited information is available in Iraq regarding the causes of under-five mortality. The vital registration system is deficient in its coverage, particularly from rural areas where access to health services is limited and most deaths occur at home, i.e. outside the health system, and hence the cause of death goes unreported. Knowledge of patterns and trends in causes of under-five mortality is essential for decision-makers in assessing programmatic needs, prioritizing interventions, and monitoring progress. The aim of this study was to identify causes of under-five children deaths using a simplified verbal autopsy questionnaire. The objective was to define the leading symptoms and cause of death among Iraqi children from all regions of Iraq during 1994–1999. Methods To determine the cause structure of child deaths, a simplified verbal autopsy questionnaire was used in interviews conducted in the Iraqi Child & Maternal Mortality Survey (ICMMS 1999 national sample. All the mothers/caregivers of the deceased children were asked open-ended questions about the symptoms within the two weeks preceding death; they could mention more than one symptom. Results The leading cause of death among under-five children was found to be childhood illnesses in 81.2%, followed by sudden death in 8.9% and accidents in 3.3%. Among under-five children dying of illnesses, cough and difficulty in breathing were the main symptoms preceding death in 34.0%, followed by diarrhea in 24.4%. Among neonates the leading cause was cough/and or difficulty in breathing in 42.3%, followed by sudden death in 11.9%, congenital abnormalities in 10.3% and prematurity in 10.2%. Diarrhea was the leading cause of death among infants in 49.8%, followed by cough and/or difficulty in breathing in 26.6%. Among children 12–59 months diarrhea was the leading cause of death in 43.4%, followed by accidents, injuries, and poisoning in 19.3%, then cough/difficulty in

  18. Genocide of Kurd by dominating countries (Turkey, Syria, Iraq)

    OpenAIRE

    JAMSHİDİRAD, Jaafar; MORTAZA, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract.   Kurdistan is a geographical place in the middle east that is the home of Kurd  ecologically.Aryan Kurds distinguished themselves as a distinct ethnic group without the need of integration into the dominant identity of Turky,Iraq and Syria.Some of them asked for independence and establishing a country based on Kurdish identity.These demands led to suppress Kurds by those countries especially Arabic-Bsy under the leadership of Sadam.Genocide is the outcome of Kurd suppression in tho...

  19. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  20. Teaching for Sustainable Development in Higher Education Institutions: University of Jordan as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hola, Imfadi R. M.; Tareef, Atif Bin

    2009-01-01

    In Jordan, a rapid movement of educational reform is taking place nowadays. Curricula development, teacher education, using information and communication technology (ICT), improving teaching and learning strategies and integrating different subjects are among the main objectives of this reform. One of the main challenges in Jordan in order to cope…

  1. His Majesty King Abdullah II of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Photo 03: King of Jordan visited some ATLAS installations. From left to right: Maurice Bourquin, President of the CERN Council, Luciano Maiani, Director-General of CERN, King Abdullah II of Jordan, Herwig Schopper, President of the SESAME Council and Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman.

  2. Application of Decomposed Theo ry of Planned Behavior on Internet Banking A doption in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Al-Majali

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates twelve factors that may influence internet banking adoption in Jordan. Using of DTPB (Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior model in this study provide a comprehensive model to understand the antecedents of Internet Banking Adoption in Jordan. The results show that all hypotheses were supported except for two hypotheses related to compatibility and technology support

  3. Application of Decomposed Theo ry of Planned Behavior on Internet Banking A doption in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Malek Al-Majali; Nik Kamariah Nik Mat

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates twelve factors that may influence internet banking adoption in Jordan. Using of DTPB (Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior) model in this study provide a comprehensive model to understand the antecedents of Internet Banking Adoption in Jordan. The results show that all hypotheses were supported except for two hypotheses related to compatibility and technology support

  4. Effects of Collateral Pledges in Reducing Credit Risks - Confronting Banks in Jordan, as Lending Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ahmad Z.  Siam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available he research aims at investigating the effects of Collaterals pledges in reducing credit Risks .To achieve research goals data were collected from all commercial banks operating in Jordan. Research concluded that banks in Jordan use collaterals effectively and in a wide range, and collaterals size have a direct impact on credit risk. Credit risk differs with collaterals.

  5. K-Bessel functions associated to a 3-rank Jordan algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacen Dib

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the Bessel-Muirhead system, we can express the K-Bessel function defined on a Jordan algebra as a linear combination of the J-solutions. We determine explicitly the coefficients when the rank of this Jordan algebra is three after a reduction to the rank two. The main tools are some algebraic identities developed for this occasion.

  6. Assessment of Special Needs People Towards Environmental Awareness in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Ayed H. Ziadat; Anf H. Ziadat

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This research examines knowledge and attitudes towards environmental awareness among special needs individuals in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The population census of (136) special needs individuals with different types of disabilities; physical impairments, visual impairments and hearing impairments from different locations of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan participated in the survey and completed the questionnaire in 2010. The targeted popul...

  7. Experiences of Students with Disabilities in a Public University in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The study examined students with disabilities perspectives toward their experiences in a public University in Jordan using a survey approach. The aim of this study was to take a closer look at the experiences of students with disabilities in Jordan and, in light of new legislation, to identify obstacles in the higher education system. It found…

  8. Kamikazes: youth serving youth in a dangerous climate. Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gataa, R

    1995-01-01

    The Algerian Family Planning Association (FPA) launched its youth project in July 1993 in Oran. The first project of its kind in the Arab world, members call themselves Kamikazes in recognition of the hostile climate they face. The project's goal was to deal with social, cultural, and health problems. They also designed the project's logo, a cartoon booklet on the dangers of AIDS, and a T-shirt for members to wear. They based their activities in the local government-run information center. Between 15 and 25 years old, from a wide variety of social backgrounds, the young people drew up a list of common problems: drugs, alcohol, smoking, relationships with the opposite sex, abortion, contraception, sex education, AIDS, homosexuality, unemployment, the lack of clubs for young people, delinquency, lack of communication between parents and children, the repression of women, the lack of popular entertainment for young people, and the shortage of books. This project now is to be extended to Algiers and other cities. Over an 8-month period, the committee received instruction in contraception and combatting drug addition, participated in a workshop on empowerment and self esteem, and were trained in role-playing techniques. In their first 18 months of existence, the Kamikazes in Oran have succeeded in involving over 1000 of their peers. They have had particular success in reaching teenagers in secondary schools. One of the most valuable aspects of the project has been the sessions held with gynecologists and psychologists on sexual development, relationships between the sexes, and the avoidance of unwanted pregnancies, abortion, and sexually transmitted diseases. The success of the Oran Kamikaze project bodes well for the extension of the project to other parts of Algeria and indeed to some other countries of the Arab world. PMID:12319368

  9. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Oued Mya basin, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamrane, O.; Messaoudi, M.; Messelles, H. (Sonatrach Division Exploration, Algiers (Algeria))

    1993-09-01

    The Oued Mya hydrocarbon system is located in the Sahara basin. It is one of the best producing basins in Algeria, along with the Ghadames and Illizi basins. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and is about 5000 m thick. This intracratonic basin is limited to the north by the Toughourt saddle, and to the west and east it is flanked by regional arches, Allal-Tilghemt and Amguid-Hassi Messaoud, which culminate in the super giant Hassi Messaoud and Hassi R'mel hydrocarbon accumulations, respectively, producing oil from the Cambrian sands and gas from the Trissic sands. The primary source rock in this basin is lower Silurian shale, with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic carbon of 6% (14% in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also source rocks, but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Trissic sequence, which is mainly fluvial deposits with complex alluvial channels, and the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs in the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential east of the basin through a southwest-northwest orientation. The Late Trissic-Early Jurassic evaporites that overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya basin, are considered to be a super-seal evaporite package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column. This super seal does not present oil dismigration possibilities. We can infer that a large amount of the oil generated by the Silurian source rock from the beginning of Cretaceous until now still is not discovered and significantly greater volumes could be trapped within structure closures and mixed or stratigraphic traps related to the fluvial Triassic sandstones, marine Devonian sands, and Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  10. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum potential, Ghadames basin, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emme, J.J. (Anadarko Algeria Corp., Houston, TX (United States)); Sunderland, B.L. (Anadarko Petroleum Corp., Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The Ghadames basin in east-central Algeria extends over 65,000 km{sup 2} (25,000 mi{sup 2}), of which 90% is covered by dunes of the eastern Erg. This intracratonic basin consists of up to 6000 m (20,000 ft) of dominantly clastic Paleozoic through Mesozoic strata. The Ghadames basin is part of a larger, composite basin complex (Ilizzi-Ghadames-Triassic basins) where Paleozoic strata have been truncated during a Hercynian erosional event and subsequently overlain by a northward-thickening wedge of Mesozoic sediments. Major reservoir rocks include Triassic sandstones that produce oil, gas, and condensate in the western Ghadames basin, Siluro-Devonian sandstones that produce mostly oil in the shallower Ilizzi basin to the south, and Cambro-Ordovician orthoquartzites that produce oil at Hassi Messaoud to the northwest. Organic shales of the Silurian and Middle-Upper Devonian are considered primary source rocks. Paleozoic shales and Triassic evaporite/red bed sequences act as seals for hydrocarbon accumulations. The central Ghadames basin is underexplored, with less than one wildcat well/1700 km{sup 2} (one well/420,000 ac). Recent Devonian and Triassic oil discoveries below 3500 m (11,500 ft) indicate that deep oil potential exists. Exploration to date has concentrated on structural traps. Subcrop and facies trends indicate that potential for giant stratigraphic or combination traps exists for both Siluro-Devonian and Triassic intervals. Modern seismic acquisition and processing techniques in high dune areas can be used to successfully identify critical unconformity-bound sequences with significant stratigraphic trap potential. Advances in seismic and drilling technology combined with creative exploration should result in major petroleum discoveries in the Ghadames basin.

  11. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? Materials and Methods: To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients′ opinions. Results and Conclusion : At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women′s lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous

  12. Containing IRAQ: World oil market projections, 1993-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The likely impact of key uncertainties affecting the oil market were assessed and a reference price path was provided upon which industry and governments could base their investment decisions and policy prescriptions. The reference case was based on a timely resurgence in Iraqi oil exports, which would result in a three percent inflation of oil price over the remainder of this decade. An alternative scenario was based on two assumptions: (1) Iraq failed to negotiate a re-entry into the export market until 1996; and (2) the other OPEC members increased their production roughly in line with anticipated market growth. An alternative scenario examined a situation in which Iraqi production and exports were brought back on stream much earlier than anticipated. This was the worst case scenario for OPEC since prices would have fallen rapidly to below $ 10.00 per barrel in 1994. The study concluded that any shift in the timing of a return to uninhibited Iraq oil sales would have long lasting and significant effects. tabs., figs., refs

  13. Identifying water mass depletion in Northern Iraq observed by GRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mulder

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations acquired by Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE mission indicate a mass loss of 31 ± 3 km3 or 130 ± 14 mm in Northern Iraq between 2007 and 2009. This data is used as an independent validation of a hydrologic model of the region including lake mass variations. We developed a rainfall–runoff model for five tributaries of the Tigris River, based on local geology and climate conditions. Model inputs are precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM observations, and potential evaporation from GLDAS model parameters. Our model includes a representation of the karstified aquifers that cause large natural groundwater variations in this region. Observed river discharges were used to calibrate our model. In order to get the total mass variations, we corrected for lake mass variations derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in combination with satellite altimetry and some in-situ data. Our rainfall–runoff model confirms that Northern Iraq suffered a drought between 2007 and 2009 and is consistent with the mass loss observed by GRACE over that period. Also, GRACE observed the annual cycle predicted by the rainfall–runoff model. The total mass depletion seen by GRACE between 2007 and 2009 is mainly explained by a lake mass depletion of 74 ± 4 mm and a natural groundwater depletion of 37 ± 6 mm. Our findings indicate that man-made groundwater extraction has a minor influence in this region while depletion of lake mass and geology play a key role.

  14. Studies on bilharziasis endemicity in the vicinity of Basra, Iraq*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, H. H.; de Araoz, J.; Klimt, C. R.; al Ani, K.; Azzawi, J.

    1961-01-01

    This paper reports on investigations into the distribution of snail genera and possible limiting environmental factors in the endemic and non-endemic areas of human bilharziasis in and near Basra, carried out in 1958 by the WHO Bilharziasis Control Project staff in Iraq. These investigations confirmed the existence of an abrupt line of demarcation between these areas immediately south of Basra. During June and October 1958, the known intermediate snail host, Bulinus truncatus, was not found in canals bordering on areas of either infected or non-infected human populations. From these findings and the evidence of previous investigations it is concluded that in southern Iraq, and particularly in Basra, B. truncatus has been demonstrated with difficulty, if at all. Nevertheless, transmission has continued to take place. Explanations of this apparent phenomenon are discussed and it is concluded that populations of B. truncatus may be completely absent for several years and that other snail genera may play a role in transmitting the disease. A study of environmental factors indicates that water velocities, salinity, turbidity, and pH in the endemic and non-endemic areas showed no significant differences, but that the continuous change in water flow may be a factor limiting B. truncatus colonization. It is also concluded that the salinity in the Shatt al Arab River originates from Lake Hammar and is not introduced from the Persian Gulf by tidal wave, as has been previously believed. PMID:14478047

  15. Zinc deficiency among a healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the current zinc status among a sample selected from the healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq. We carried out a community-based study in Baghdad City, Iraq from November through June 2002. We selected a sample of 2090 healthy subjects (aged 1 month to 85 years). We used a pre-tested questionnaire, designed to obtain information on gender, birth dates, height, weight, residence, habitual food consumption patterns, and social status. We performed laboratory assessment of serum zinc level, dietary assessment of food frequency and usual zinc intake. We considered subjects with serum zinc concentration of /-7.7 to 12.3 umol/l mild to moderately zinc deficient. The prevalence of zinc deficiency among the studied sample was 2.7%. We found mild to moderate zinc deficiency among 55.7% of the study sample. Dietary zinc intake assessment showed that 74.8% of the studied sample consumed less than the recommended intake, and in 62.3%, the intakes were deficient and grossly deficient. Mean daily zinc ranged from 5.2 mg in children to 8.5 mg in adults. We observed a high prevalence of mild to moderate zinc deficiency, with inadequate dietary zinc intake among a considerable proportion of the studied sample. Zinc supplementation may be an effective public health intervention means to improve the zinc status of the population. (author)

  16. Assessing the Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Sa'eb; Shraidaeh, Fadi; Maddat, Amer

    2015-04-01

    Climate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing Jordan. In particular, the combined effects of climate change and water scarcity threaten to affect food and water resources that are critical for livelihoods in Jordan. This is especially true for those communities who live in the dryland area in the country and who rely wholly on rain-fed agriculture. The exact nature and extent of the impact of climate change on temperature and precipitation distribution pattern remain uncertain and it is the poor and vulnerable who will be the most susceptible to climate change adverse effects. A vulnerability assessment of rain fed agriculture to climate change and variability in semi-arid parts of Jordan was conducted in 2014. The purpose of this study is to assess the vulnerability and resilience of the most vulnerable groups where rainfed and irrigated agriculture is practiced. Also, the study focused on quantifying the impacts on agricultural productivity in response to climate change. This will help policymakers and researchers better understand and anticipate the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture and on vulnerable communities in Jordan. Also, it will provide them with tools to identify and implement appropriate adaptation strategies. The data used includes; Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 adopted by the IPCC for its fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Those pathways were used for climate modeling. A decision support system (DSSAT) for agricultural production was used to assess the impact of climate changes on agricultural production. This approach was used for the Identification of climate change risk and their impacts on Agriculture. Outputs from models are used to assess the vulnerability of farmers and crops to climate and socio-economic change by estimating their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to external factors as a means of identifying what causes the differences in their

  17. Treated Sewage Water Use in Irrigated Agriculture. Theoretical design of farming systems in Seil Al Zarqa and the Middle Jordan Valley in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Duqqah, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Most of Jordan is arid and water resources are limited. This situation becomes more acute the more Jordan develops. New techniques in agriculture, industry and the domestic sector place an increasing demand upon clean and safe water. Good-quality water is hardly available. Unconventional water sources, including treated sewagewater, must be considered as alternative sources. This book focuses on treated sewagewater as a nutrient and water resource for agriculture. We expect that treated sewag...

  18. An Econometric Model for Water Sector in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I.  Shahateet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study argued that there is an economic approach to reduce water problems faced by Jordan. The study took into consideration the increasing population size, the declining rainfall, a deepening shortage of supply and increasing demand for water, the production of agricultural and industrial sectors, price of unit exports, and lack of financial resources. Approach: The framework for a tool which takes into consideration the links between economic growth and the availability of water was developed in this study, in the form of a dynamic simulation econometric model. The model served as a quantitative tool to evaluate the water policy measures and forecast the effect of future policy variables on the water status in Jordan. Results: Agricultural, industrial and other types of production are affected by water uses which in turn are influenced by production and other socioeconomic variables, including population size, the extent of production market, and the size of linkage effects working through certain increases in water consumption. The results also showed the model can be used to solve key issues related to the formulation and implementation of water policy. They also identified lessons for water management policy within a broad socio-economic perspective. Conclusions: First, with regard to production sector, a major effect can be attributed to the supply of water. Second, gross domestic products of agricultural, industrial and other sectors were found to be highly significant factors in influencing the supply of water. Finally, priorities for making the most of Jordan's water resources should be given to options affecting water-supply strategy which relates the supply of water to the level of production.

  19. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 μm) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles.

  20. Equivalence of Jordan and Einstein frames at the quantum level

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the Jordan frame and its conformally transformed version, the Einstein frame of nonminimally coupled theories of gravity, are actually equivalent at the quantum level. The example of the theory taken up is the Brans-Dicke theory, and the wave packet calculations are done for a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model in the purest form of the theory, i.e., in the absence of any additional matter sector. The calculations are clean and exact, and the result obtained are unambiguous.

  1. (InEdible Algeria: Transmitting Pied-Noir Nostalgia Through Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Hubbell

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For those exiled from Algeria during and after the Algerian War for Independence (1954-1962, sustaining memories of the homeland has been a consuming pastime. Food has especially played a large part in reconnecting Algeria’s former French citizens, the Pieds-Noirs, to their past. Annual gatherings feature typical dishes such as couscous, merguez, méchoui, mouna, which like the Proustian madeleine, transport the Pieds-Noirs to a preceding time of wholeness and comfort, allowing them to experience, if only fleetingly, a sense of immortality. While food has a reparative quality for the community’s memory, it is also the site of rejection and pain for some. Marie Cardinal writes about food as a site of unity with the indigenous Algerian community and rejection from her colonial French family. Similarly, in the collective autobiography Quatre soeurs: Hier, en Algérie, aujourd’hui en France, Frédérique Boblin, Eve Calo, Nelly Collet and Fabienne Rozotte explain their shared eating disorders as tied to their expulsion from Algeria. This essay demonstrates that the Pieds-Noirs can eat to remember Algeria, but the Algeria they knew can also prove to be inedible.

  2. Difficulty in transforming the savings into investment in Algeria or the regulation in question

    OpenAIRE

    Bellal, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic History of Algeria reveals a blocking of the transformation of the savings into investment. Beyond the conventional diagnosis that involves the failure of the banking system, this blocking is the macroeconomic expression of a deep crisis of the mode of regulation of the economy as a whole. This is the idea that we propose, in what follows, to support.

  3. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte;

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....

  4. The origin of Iraq's nuclear weapons program: Technical reality and Western hypocrisy

    CERN Document Server

    Erkman, S; Hurni, J P; Klement, S; Erkman, Suren; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre; Klement, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    This report is based on a series of papers written between 1980 and 2005 on the origin of Iraq's nuclear weapons program, which was known to one of the authors in the late 1970s already, as well as to a number of other physicists, who independently tried without success to inform their governments and the public. It is concluded that at no point did the Western governments effectively try to stop Iraq's nuclear weapons program, which suggests that its existence was useful as a foreign policy tool, as is confirmed by its use as a major justification to wage two wars on Iraq.

  5. Tectonic geomorphology of the Safeen Anticline (Northern Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, N.; Grasemann, B.; Faber, R.; Lockhart, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Zagros Fold- and Thrust Belt extends over 1800 km from Kurdistan in N-Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Iran and is one of the world most promising regions for the future hydrocarbon exploration. The Zagros Mountains are the result of the collision of the Eurasian and the Arabian Plates starting in the Late Cretaceous. Recent GPS measurements in have shown that the shortening between these two plates is about 2.5 cm/a most of which is distributed within the Zagros collision orogen. Whereas the tectonic structure and the geomorphological response to active deformation is thoroughly studied in the SE part of the Zagros in Iran, there are almost no modern field based studies of the NW part of the Zagros in Iraq. Here we present the first structural field studies, the mechanical stratigraphy and geomorphological investigations of the Safeen anticline in the NE of the city of Erbil in the Kurdistan region, which is a province of Northern Iraq. The sub-cylindrical part of the anticline strikes for about 65 km NW-SE and has a dominant wavelength of about 6 km. Perpendicular to the strike of the anticline Cretaceous to Tertiary sediments are exposed consisting mainly of bedded to massif limestones and sandstones (competent lithologies), intercalated with marl and claystones (incompetent lithologies). Whereas deformation in the competent lithologies is accommodated by diffusive mass transfer processes and mainly fracturing, the incompetent lithologies record distributed plastic deformation. Along the investigated section, the limbs of the anticline dip with 55° towards NE (backlimb) and 60° towards SW (forelimb). Interestingly the drainage pattern of the forelimb differs significantly to the erosional signature along the backlimb. Both limbs are dominated by transverse river segments. The backlimb records straight almost perpendicular to the fold axis with a spacing of the segments of about 200 m. The forelimb, however, is dominated by a more irregular pattern with a

  6. Identifying Important Plants Areas (Key Biodiversity Areas for Plants in northern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yahi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken in 2010 to identify Important Plant Areas (Key Biodiversity Areas for Plants in the south and east Mediterranean region, in order to prioritise the best sites for plant conservation action. It follows a first work of identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs initiated for Algeria and relates exclusively to the flora of northern Algeria. These IPAs were delineated in northern Algeria for those sites harbouring a number of “IPA selection species” (threatened species and locally endemic or restricted range. Recent taxonomic revisions estimate the number of national endemics for the north of Algeria (excluding the Sahara to be over 300 taxa. In the present study, data were extracted from the global list of 22 IPAs identified for the north of Algeria. The species considered are i threatened species as defined by the 1997 IUCN global red list of plants, ii locally endemic species, iii nationally threatened species. Trigger species, identified by combining the criteria of endemism and rarity, are mainly Algerian national endemics but also include some Algerian-Moroccan and Algerian-Tunisian endemics. One hundred and fifty two (152 trigger species were identified and these species, which have high ecological value, can be used to characterize the particular floristic interest of a site and can therefore be a useful tool for conservation purposes. Important gaps in knowledge have been highlighted, in particular those relating to taxonomy and the lack of up-to-date field data. It is therefore essential to undertake in situ research in order to better understand the distribution and status of these species. A flexible approach to identifying and recognising priority sites for plants using surrogate criteria, supplemented by expert opinion, alongside existing globally standardised criteria, is therefore essential if the most important sites for plant diversity are to receive the conservation attention they deserve.

  7. Assessing Actual Visit Behavior through Antecedents of Tourists Satisfaction among International Tourists in Jordan: A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Moh’d Al Muala

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jordan tourism industry is facing fluctuating tourist visit provoked by dissatisfaction, high visit risk, low hotel service, or negative Jordan image. This study aims to examine the relationships between the antecedents of tourist satisfaction and actual visit behavior in tourism of Jordan, and the mediating effect of tourist satisfaction (SAT in the relationship between Jordan image (JOM, service climate (SER and actual visit behavior (ACT. A total of 850 international tourists completed a survey that were conducted at southern sites in Jordan. Using structural equation modeling (SEM technique, confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was performed to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement, and the structural equation modeling techniques (Amos 6.0 were used to evaluate the casual model. Results of the study demonstrate the strong predictive power and explain of international tourists’ behavior in Jordan. The findings highlighted that the relationship between Jordan image and service climate are significant and positive on actual visit behavior.

  8. Geospatial Techniques for Improved Water Management in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad T. Al-Bakri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research shows a case from Jordan where geospatial techniques were utilized for irrigation water auditing. The work was based on assessing records of groundwater abstraction in relation to irrigated areas and estimated crop water consumption in three water basins: Yarmouk, Amman-Zarqa and Azraq. Mapping of irrigated areas and crop water requirements was carried out using remote sensing data of Landsat 8 and daily weather records. The methodology was based on visual interpretation and the unsupervised classification for remote sensing data, supported by ground surveys. Net (NCWR and gross (GCWR crop water requirements were calculated by merging crop evapotranspiration (ETc, calculated from daily weather records, with maps of irrigated crops. Gross water requirements were compared with groundwater abstractions recorded at a farm level to assess the levels of abstraction in relation to groundwater safe yield. Results showed that irrigated area and GCWR were higher than officially recorded cropped area and abstracted groundwater. The over abstraction of groundwater was estimated to range from 144% to 360% of the safe yield in the three basins. Overlaying the maps of irrigation and groundwater wells enabled the Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI to detect and uncover violations and illegal practices of irrigation, in the form of unlicensed wells, incorrect metering of pumped water and water conveyance for long distances. Results from the work were utilized at s high level of decision-making and changes to the water law were made, with remote sensing data being accredited for monitoring water resources in Jordan.

  9. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hassan, Suha; Takash, Hanan

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes in Jordan. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 112 families. RESULTS: There were no significant main effects of gender on any of the constructs of interest. Mothers and fathers reported similar levels of attributions regarding uncontrollable success, adult-controlled failure, and child-controlled failure in the same family. Regarding attitudes, mothers and fathers reported greater progressive attitudes than authoritarian attitudes. Large, significant correlations were found for concordance between parents in the same family on all seven attributions and attitudes examined; all remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Significant positive correlations were found for mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding uncontrollable success, adult-controlled failure, child-controlled failure, perceived control over failure, progressive attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: This study concluded that in Jordan mothers and fathers hold similar levels of attributions and attitudes.

  10. Rainy Season Assessment of Azraq Basin in Eastern Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Shatnawi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the rainfall pattern in the Azraq basin in the Eastern part of Jordan. Azraq Basin is an extensive inland drainage system lying in the steppe and desert to the east of Jordan. The Azraq area is around 17,000 km2, which accounts for about 15% of the country’s total area, stretching from the lava peaks of Jebel Arab in southern Syria to Wadi Sirhan in northern Saudi Arabia. The Basin is considered part of the desert where the annual precipitation is estimated to be less than 150 mm/year and some areas receiving as little as 50 mm rainfall annually. Dry and hot climate during the summer and very cold winter with little rain falls in the form of thunderstorms and is similar to the continental climate of the desert climate where the big difference in temperature between day and night. The study aimed at assessing the rainy season’s conditions in the basin. The data for three rain gauges with monthly records of rainfall between (1960-2010 are used in the analysis. These stations are: Azraq, Um Alquttein and Deir Alkahf stations. The rainy seasons in the study area seem to get shorter and shifted in their start. The highest percentage of rain falls in the middle stage of the season (i.e., between December and February. This percentage is getting increased for Azraq and Deir Alkahf stations; however Um Alquttein shows a cyclic pattern of rainfall during the different seasons.

  11. Comparisons of Four Methods for Evapotranspiration Estimates in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Gorelick, S.; Yoon, J.

    2014-12-01

    We compared evapotranspiration (ET) estimates in Jordan calculated by four theoretically-different methods. The first method was the FAO Single Crop Coefficient method. Our calculation took into account 20 dominant crop species in Jordan, utilized the global Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data set, and generated spatially heterogeneous crop coefficients. The second approach was the Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) method. It was used with Landsat TM/ETM+ images to calculate instantaneous ET at the moment of satellite overpass, and the results of multiple images were combined to derive seasonal and annual ET estimates. The third method was based on the 1-km land surface ET product from MODIS, which was calculated using MODIS-observed land cover and photosynthetically active radiation. The fourth method was based on the SWAT model, which combines the Penman-Monteith equation and vegetation growth to estimate daily ET rates at the watershed scale. The results show substantial differences in both magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of ET estimates across different regions from the four methods. Such differences were particularly evident in the Highlands region, where irrigation plays a critical role in local water balance. Results also suggest that land cover data is a major source of uncertainty in estimating regional ET rates. Although it is difficult to conclude which method was more reliable due to the limited availability of validation data, the results suggest caution in developing and interpreting ET estimates in this arid environment.

  12. First results from the Jordan COLTRIMS imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaneh, Feras; Ali, Rami; Qasem, Rajaie; Balasmeh, Naeem; Hamasha, Safeia; Dörner, Reinhard; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst

    2016-08-01

    A Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) apparatus has been constructed and operated cooperatively by the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory in the Physics Department at the Hashemite University, Jordan, and the Atomic and Molecular Physics Group at the 4.75 MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility at the University of Jordan. This COLTRIMS imaging system allows the investigation of the dynamics of various ion impact induced atomic and molecular interactions and fragmentations. The performance of the COLTRIMS system was tested by carrying out preliminary studies of two collision systems. In the first study, electron capture processes in the He2+-Ne collision system at 0.25 and 1.0 MeV impact energies were investigated. Significant simultaneous electron capture and target excitation has been observed for the 0.25 MeV as opposed to the 1.0 MeV impact energy. In the other study, projectile single electron loss and simultaneous single target ionization in the O+-He collision system was studied at three different projectile impact energies: 0.6, 1.45 and 2 MeV. Enhancement of the electron-electron contribution to projectile electron loss with increasing collision energy has been observed.

  13. Design, Development and Installation of Jordan Subcritical Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Xoubi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following its announcement in 2007 to pursue a nuclear power program and in the absence of any nuclear facility essential for the education, training, and research, Jordan decided to build a subcritical reactor as its first nuclear facility. Jordan Subcritical Assembly (JSA is uranium fueled light water moderated and reflected subcritical reactor driven by a plutonium-beryllium source, and the core consists of 313 LEU fuel rods, loaded into a water-filled vessel in a square lattice of 19.11 mm pitch. The fuel rods are based on PWR fuel structural pattern type, made of uranium oxide (UO2 with 3.4 wt% 235U enrichment in zirconium alloy (Zr-4 cladding. Design, optimization, and verification were performed using MCNP5 nuclear code; the computed effective multiplication factor is 0.95923. The JSA is designed to fulfill the training needs of students and is equipped to perform all of the fundamental experiments required for a typical nuclear engineering university program. This paper presents the design, development, modeling, core analysis, and utilization of Jordan’s first nuclear facility and why this simplified low cost reactor presents an attractive choice to fulfill the preliminary experimental needs of nuclear engineering education in developing countries.

  14. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  15. Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad (Iraq Ministry of Science and Technology)

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

  16. Study of the properties of soil in Kirkuk, IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Taqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The properties of soil in Kirkuk city (IRAQ are studied using gamma and neutron radiation. Ten locations are selected for the process of making field measurements on soils at 40–50 cm depth levels then the samples were collected to be studied in the laboratory also. In the field, we measured the density and moisture contents of soils. The laboratory measurement has been performed to obtain mass attenuation coefficients, using gamma spectrometer contains shielded NaI (Tl detector at the energies of 59.5, 356.5, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. The obtained results were presented and discussed. The study has practical importance to know the nature of the soil in the oil and agricultural city Kirkuk.

  17. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaisen, Furhan T; Al-Rubaie, Abdul-Razzak L

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. PMID:27559480

  18. The American way of war: Afghanistan and Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Parraguez Kobek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist attacks of 9/11 placed the United States in a position to exercise its political objectives of securing national interests through military means. The War on Terror waged in Afghanistan and Iraq shifted the development of U.S. foreign policy, allowing for American leadership to exercise its right to sovereignty and power. The doctrine required a victory in each of the scenarios, and the inability to secure these aims resulted in civil war and insurgency in both countries. Important lessons can be learned from analyzing foreign policy implementations through the use of force, applying responsible sovereignty to pressing transnational security threats and strengthening the international architecture through a multidimensional response.

  19. Paediatric trauma in northern Iraq: the Kurdish refugee crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, G; Pollok, A J

    1992-08-01

    In May 1991 a team of five doctors and two nurses from Edinburgh hospitals were flown to Northern Iraq to assist in the Kurdish refugee relief effort. The two surgical members of the team helped to re-establish surgical services in a small hospital in the Iraqi town of Zakho. During an 8-day stay in the hospital, frequently in extremely difficult circumstances, the surgical team undertook 19 major and 15 minor surgical procedures in 25 patients; 11 major and eight minor procedures were undertaken in 15 children under the age of 16 years. The largest group of children treated had suffered bomb-blast injuries from unexploded ordinance; injuries sustained were primarily to the hands, face and upper trunk. Road traffic accidents and burns were also common. Two children requiring postoperative intensive care were evacuated by military helicopter at night to hospital facilities in Turkey. PMID:1383513

  20. Lumpy Skin Disease in Iraq: Study of the Disease Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salihi, K A; Hassan, I Q

    2015-10-01

    This study intends to report the first emergence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Iraq, in addition to describing its related clinical signs. In August 2013, 21 cases of four outbreaks developed clinical signs suggestive of LSD in the Nineveh (Mosul) and Baghdad Governorates, which were considered as the first infected foci of LSD in Iraq. The disease was diagnosed tentatively, on the basis of clinical signs and epidemiological features, and it was confirmed as positive by the polymerase chain reaction and histopathological features. In September 2013, eight new outbreaks of LSD also appeared in Baghdad and Nineveh. In 2014, the disease spread rapidly to the governorates of Kirkuk, Salah Al-Din, Al-Anbar, Diyala, Wasit, Babil, Karbala, Najaf, Al-Diwaniyah, Muthanna, Maysan, DhiQar and Basra. The total number of infected cows and calves reported was 7396 and 227, respectively. The apparent morbidity and mortality rates were 9.11% and 0.51%, respectively, while the apparent case-fatality rate was 5.56%. Skin nodules, anorexia, reduce in milk production and decrease in bodyweight were the common clinical signs. Moreover, myiasis and mastitis were seen as complications in some infected animals. Attempts were made to stop the distribution of the disease including quarantine and treatment, control over animal movement and arthropod control. Ring vaccination was used in a 10 km radius zone around the outbreak with live sheep pox vaccine. The highly contagious transboundary nature of the LSD, its endemic distribution in the Iraqi neighbouring countries, and the current armed conflict in the area were the possible factors for the disease being introduced into the country. LSD had spread through the Middle East and Gulf peninsula and could be a cause of danger to the rest of Asia and Europe. International precaution, cooperation and exchange of information could guarantee the prevention and further spread of the disease to the rest of Asia and Europe. PMID:26105081

  1. Lumpy Skin Disease in Iraq: Study of the Disease Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salihi, K A; Hassan, I Q

    2015-10-01

    This study intends to report the first emergence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Iraq, in addition to describing its related clinical signs. In August 2013, 21 cases of four outbreaks developed clinical signs suggestive of LSD in the Nineveh (Mosul) and Baghdad Governorates, which were considered as the first infected foci of LSD in Iraq. The disease was diagnosed tentatively, on the basis of clinical signs and epidemiological features, and it was confirmed as positive by the polymerase chain reaction and histopathological features. In September 2013, eight new outbreaks of LSD also appeared in Baghdad and Nineveh. In 2014, the disease spread rapidly to the governorates of Kirkuk, Salah Al-Din, Al-Anbar, Diyala, Wasit, Babil, Karbala, Najaf, Al-Diwaniyah, Muthanna, Maysan, DhiQar and Basra. The total number of infected cows and calves reported was 7396 and 227, respectively. The apparent morbidity and mortality rates were 9.11% and 0.51%, respectively, while the apparent case-fatality rate was 5.56%. Skin nodules, anorexia, reduce in milk production and decrease in bodyweight were the common clinical signs. Moreover, myiasis and mastitis were seen as complications in some infected animals. Attempts were made to stop the distribution of the disease including quarantine and treatment, control over animal movement and arthropod control. Ring vaccination was used in a 10 km radius zone around the outbreak with live sheep pox vaccine. The highly contagious transboundary nature of the LSD, its endemic distribution in the Iraqi neighbouring countries, and the current armed conflict in the area were the possible factors for the disease being introduced into the country. LSD had spread through the Middle East and Gulf peninsula and could be a cause of danger to the rest of Asia and Europe. International precaution, cooperation and exchange of information could guarantee the prevention and further spread of the disease to the rest of Asia and Europe.

  2. Prioritisation process for decommissioning of the Iraq former nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of sites in Iraq which have been used for nuclear activities and which contain potentially significant amounts of radioactive waste. The principal nuclear site is Al-Tuwaitha, the former nuclear research centre. Many of these sites suffered substantial physical damage during the Gulf Wars and have been subjected to subsequent looting. All require decommissioning in order to ensure both radiological and non-radiological safety. However, it is not possible to undertake the decommissioning of all sites and facilities at the same time. Therefore, a prioritization methodology has been developed in order to aid the decision-making process. The methodology comprises three principal stages of assessment: i) a quantitative surrogate risk assessment ii) a range of sensitivity analyses and iii) the inclusion of qualitative modifying factors. A group of five Tuwaitha facilities presented the highest evaluated risk, followed by a middle ranking grouping of Tuwaitha facilities and some other sites, with a relatively large number of lower risk facilities and sites comprising a third group. This initial risk-based order of priority is changed when modifying factors are taken into account. It is necessary to take account of Iraq's isolation from the international nuclear community over the last two decades and the lack of experienced personnel. Therefore it is appropriate to initiate decommissioning operations on selected low risk facilities at Tuwaitha in order to build capacity/experience and prepare for work to be carried out in more complex and potentially high hazard facilities. In addition it is appropriate to initiate some prudent precautionary actions relating to some of the higher risk facilities. (author)

  3. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10‑8 m3 kg‑1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  4. HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among women in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who are aware of the risk of infection and perceive themselves to be at risk of infection are more likely to take action to prevent HIV infection. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2000 Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey (MICS for Iraq was carried out to assess the extent of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among Iraqi women. Results The majority of the 22,997 respondents were age 15–24 years (44.3%, currently married (51.4%, and resided in urban areas (71.7%. About 1 in 4 (26.0% of the study participants had no formal education. Only 49.9% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Overall, 60.5% did not know that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Meanwhile, 98.5% of the respondents did not know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child through breast milk. Only 0.7% of the respondents reported that HIV cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites. The proportion of the respondents who had adequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS was 9.8%. Adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS was negatively associated with being married, poor, having low education, and residing in rural areas. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi is very limited and associated with marital status, education, wealth, and place of residence. This information may be of use in the design, targeting, monitoring and evaluation of programs aimed at improving HIV and AIDS related knowledge in Iraq.

  5. Isolation of aerobic bacteria from ticks infested sheep in Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Waleed Ibrahem Jalil; Mohammad Mushgil Zenad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the presence of aerobic bacteria in live ticks infested sheep, in Diyala Governorate, Iraq. Methods: One hundred and thirty adult alive ticks were picked up from sheep which were reared in different farms in Diyala Governorate, Iraq, during the period from November 2012 to May 2013. Ticks were classified in the Natural History Museum in Baghdad. They were dissected aseptically for extraction of the salivary gland and mid-gut. The removed tissue from each organ was inoculated in buffer peptone water (1%) and incubated for 2 h at 37℃, to maintain weak and/or injured bacterial cells, then transmitted to nutrient broth incubated at 37℃ for 18 h. Culturing was done on three solid bacteriological media (nutrient, blood and McConkey agars), and then incubated at 37℃ for 24 h. Bacterial identification was performed by using multiple biochemical tests and API-20 strips. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System version 9.1, 2010. Chi-square test was used for comparison at significant level of P ≤0.05. Results: Two species of ticks were identified [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Hyalomma turanicum]. High bacterial isolation rate was observed (483 isolates). A significant high isolation rate was recorded from Rhipicephalus annulatus (63.14%). Six bacterial species were identified [Escherichia coli (28.36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.01%), Bacillus cereus (14.69%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.66%), Citrobacter freundii (13.04%), and Enterobacter species (12.21%)]. Also the high bacterial isolation rates were recorded in the temperate months (November, March and April); these coin-cided with high reproductive performance of ticks. Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.

  6. Nuclear verification in Iraq: Are we closing the file? 1 June 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of an essay on IAEA's nuclear verification in Iraq written by the Director General of the IAEA, and published in the Editorial Pages of the Washington Post on 1 June 1998

  7. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Infectious Diseases Veterans who were deployed to Southwest Asia (including Iraq) or Afghanistan may experience symptoms of infectious diseases while on active duty, or they may later ...

  8. Chemical constituents in the essential oil of the endemic plantCotula cinerea (Del.) from the southwest of Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Djellouli; Houcine Benmehdi; Siham Mammeri; Abdellah Moussaoui; Laid Ziane; Noureddine Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To extract and identify the main constituents of the essential oil ofCotula cinerea (Del.) (Asteraceae family) from southwest of Algeria. Methods: The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, from the aerial parts of the endemic plantCotula cinerea which was collected in the region of Sahara fromsouthwest of Algeria, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 33 compounds were identified representing 98.66% of the oil. The main compounds were (E)-citral (24.01%), limonene epoxide cis- (18.26%), thymol methyl ether (15.04%), carvacrol (15.03%), trans-carveol (13.79%), carvone (3.06%) and trans-piperitol (2.54%). Conclusions: The main constituents in essential oil of the aerial part of the plant from southwest of Algeria were different from that collected from southeast of Algeria or in Morocco.

  9. Molecular Characterization of G6PD Deficient Variants in Nineveh Province, Northwestern Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Kashmoola, Muna A.; Adil A Eissa; Al-Takay, Dahlia T.; Al-Allawi, Nasir A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency considered to be the commonest inherited enzymopathies disorders worldwide including Iraq. Studies have addressed its prevalence and molecular characterization in several parts of the country, but no data were available from Nineveh province, northwestern-Iraq regarding molecular basis of this inherited enzymopathy. To determine the molecular basis of G6PD deficient variants in Nineveh province. A total of 61 G6PD deficient male individuals ...

  10. Risk-based prioritization of pharmaceuticals in the natural environment in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Khazrajy, Omar S A; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the natural environment, raising concerns about their impact on non-target organisms or human health. One region where little is known about the exposure and effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment is Iraq. Due to the high number of pharmaceuticals used by the public health sector in Iraq (hospitals and care centres) and distributed over the counter, there is a need for a systematic approach for identifying substanc...

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis B seromarkers and hepatitis C antibodies in blood donors in Basra, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rubaye, Ali; Tariq, Ziad; Alrubaiy, Laith

    2016-01-01

    Background Transfusion-caused hepatitis remains a major problem in Iraq. Therefore, testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and antibodies to hepatitis C antigen (anti-HCV) is a very important preventative measure. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus seromarkers among blood donors as a foundation for safe blood transfusion in Iraq. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was con...

  12. Birth defects in Iraq and the plausibility of environmental exposure: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hadithi Tariq S; Al-Diwan Jawad K; Saleh Abubakir M; Shabila Nazar P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An increased prevalence of birth defects was allegedly reported in Iraq in the post 1991 Gulf War period, which was largely attributed to exposure to depleted uranium used in the war. This has encouraged further research on this particular topic. This paper reviews the published literature and provided evidence concerning birth defects in Iraq to elucidate possible environmental exposure. In addition to published research, this review used some direct observation of birth defects dat...

  13. Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Malak Hamdan; Entesar Ariabi; Chris Busby

    2010-01-01

    There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium) in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulti...

  14. Aghas, Sheiks, and Daesh in Iraq: Kurdish robust action in turmoil

    OpenAIRE

    Couch, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The conflicts in Iraq and Syria are protracted civil wars with multi-state and non-state actors vying for influence. Iraqi Kurdistan is arguably the most important partner for the United States in our current fight against Daesh, which has exploited the factional politics of Iraq. Special Operations Forces (SOF) will be maintaining persistent engagement in the region for the foreseeable future, and must understand the formal and inform...

  15. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document includes three attachments: the letter of 3 May 1984 from the Director General of the IAEA to the Resident Representative of Iraq, the letter of 10 May 1984 to the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of Iraq and the summary record of discussion in the Board of Governors on 5 June 1984 at its 619th meeting concerning item 20 of the provisional agenda ''Military attack on Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant''

  16. Efforts of the British Empire to Build a State in Iraq After the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study searches for the policies carried out by the British Empire in Mesopotamia where the British invaded during the First World War. However, it will be convenient to know the political, social and economic background of Iraq or Mesopotamia as a general outline to understand the period clearly. Therefore, we have primarily tried to explain the overview of pre-invasion in Iraq. The traditional social structure of the Iraqi population and their relationship with the administration and each other have been questioned in the context of national identity. Then the developments in Iraq after the invasion have been discussed.The strategies which the Britain used to rule Iraq and the public’s reaction to this strategy have been investigated. In this context, the facts and the events such as the Mandate, 1920 Arab Revolt, the Cairo Conference of 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq have been focused. It has been endeavored to per-form an analysis to understand the present problems in Iraq by discussing the cause and effect relations of the facts and the events. The research has been prepared by benefiting from a rich bibliography based on the scientific works of the experts for Iraq and the Middle East. As a result, this research has revealed the difficulties in ruling Iraq both internally and externally due to its sui generis political, social and economic conditions and found out that the mistakes made in the nation building process have caused the instability occured at the present time in the country.

  17. Responding to Saddam: U.S. policy toward Iraq since the Gulf War

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Daniel E

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is an analysis of U.S. policy toward Iraq since the Gulf War. UN Security Council Resolution 687 was the formal cease-fire agreement ending the Gulf War, the resolution requiring the elimination of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and created the UN Special Commission (UNSCOM). Attempts to gain Iraqi compliance with Resolution 687 consumed U.S. Iraq policy for nine years. In 1999, UNSCOM was disestablished without fulfilling its mandate. The Security Council then adopted Resoluti...

  18. Co-opting identity: the manipulation of Berberism, the frustration of democratisation, and the generation of violence in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Hugh

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to explore one of the political premises of the current violence in Algeria, namely the character of the identity politics which has developed in the Berberophone Kabylia region of the country, which was the theater of the most sustained riots in Algeria's history. A secondary, theoretical, purpose is to demonstrate and establish the analytical value of the concepts of forms of politics and political mutation.

  19. Detection of Bartonella tamiae, Coxiella burnetii and rickettsiae in arthropods and tissues from wild and domestic animals in northeastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Leulmi, Hamza; Aouadi, Atef; Bitam, Idir; Bessas, Amina; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, the scope and importance of emergent vector-borne diseases has increased dramatically. In Algeria, only limited information is currently available concerning the presence and prevalence of these zoonotic diseases. For this reason, we conducted a survey of hematophagous ectoparasites of domestic mammals and/or spleens of wild animals in El Tarf and Souk Ahras, Algeria. Methods Using real-time PCR, standard PCR and sequencing, the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickett...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories support of the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Danneels, Jeffrey John

    2009-03-01

    Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there are now enormous radioactive waste problems in Iraq. These waste problems include destroyed nuclear facilities, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, liquid radioactive waste in underground tanks, wastes related to the production of yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, activated metals and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq currently lacks the trained personnel, regulatory and physical infrastructure to safely and securely manage these facilities and wastes. In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreed to organize an international cooperative program to assist Iraq with these issues. Soon after, the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) was initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to support the IAEA and assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials. The Iraq NDs Program is providing support for the IAEA plus training, consultation and limited equipment to the GOI. The GOI owns the problems and will be responsible for implementation of the Iraq NDs Program. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is a part of the DOS's team implementing the Iraq NDs Program. This report documents Sandia's support of the Iraq NDs Program, which has developed into three principal work streams: (1) training and technical consultation; (2) introducing Iraqis to modern decommissioning and waste management practices; and (3) supporting the IAEA, as they assist the GOI. Examples of each of these work streams include: (1) presentation of a three-day training workshop on 'Practical Concepts for Safe Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste in Arid Settings;' (2) leading GOI representatives on a tour of two operating low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the U.S.; and (3) supporting the IAEA's Technical Meeting with the GOI from April 21

  1. Occupational risks in families at a battery factory in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of lead exposure on rate of spontaneous abortion of workers at a battery factory was studied. The study comprised 25 male workers in a lead-smelter and controls of 24 male university employees without any known occupational exposure to toxic agent. The most interesting outcome of the present study has been the discovery of high incidence of spontaneous abortion in lead-exposed workers compared to that of controls. Comparative evaluation between smokers and non-smokers with respect to the incidence of spontaneous abortion does not exhibit any statistically significant variations in lead-exposed workers and controls as well. However, such findings are considered to be indicative of the possible existence of a genetic risk and sufficient for justifying further work on a wider scale of risk assessment and occupational hazard in Jordan. (author

  2. General analysis of inflation in the Jordan frame supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study various inflation models in the Jordan frame supergravity with a logarithmic Kähler potential. We find that, in a class of inflation models containing an additional singlet in the superpotential, three types of chaotic inflation can be realized: the Higgs-type inflation, power-law inflation, and inflation with/without a running kinetic term. The former two are possible if the holomorphic function dominates over the non-holomorphic one in the frame function, while the inflation with/without a running kinetic term occurs when both are comparable. Interestingly, the fractional-power potential can be realized by the running kinetic term. We also discuss the implication for the Higgs inflation in supergravity

  3. Generalized derivations on Jordan ideals in prime rings

    OpenAIRE

    EL-SOUFI, Mahmmoud; ABOUBAKR, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Let R be a 2-torsion free prime ring with center Z(R), J be a nonzero Jordan ideal also a subring of R, and F be a generalized derivation with associated derivation d. In the present paper, we shall show that J\\subseteq Z(R) if any one of the following properties holds: (i) [F(u), u]\\in Z(R), (ii) F(u)u = ud(u), (iii) d(u2)=2F(u)u, (iv) F(u2)-2uF(u) = d(u2)-2ud(u), (v) F2(u)+3d2(u)=2Fd(u)+2dF(u), (vi) F(u2) = 2uF(u) for all u \\in J.

  4. The Complexity of Proving the Discrete Jordan Curve Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Phuong

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan Curve Theorem (JCT) states that a simple closed curve divides the plane into exactly two connected regions. We formalize and prove the theorem in the context of grid graphs, under different input settings, in theories of bounded arithmetic that correspond to small complexity classes. The theory $V^0(2)$ (corresponding to $AC^0(2)$) proves that any set of edges that form disjoint cycles divides the grid into at least two regions. The theory $V^0$ (corresponding to $AC^0$) proves that any sequence of edges that form a simple closed curve divides the grid into exactly two regions. As a consequence, the Hex tautologies and the st-connectivity tautologies have polynomial size $AC^0(2)$-Frege-proofs, which improves results of Buss which only apply to the stronger proof system $TC^0$-Frege.

  5. Neil Jordan jagab pühapäeval Viru keskuses autogramme / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2006-01-01

    10. Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali oodatuim külaline saabub Tallinna 2. detsembril. 3. dets. Viru keskuses Rahva Raamatu kaupluses esitletakse raamatut: Jordan, Neil. Vari / tõlkinud Krista Kaer. Tallinn : Varrak, 2006

  6. The gravity field and crustal structure of the northwestern Arabian Platform in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batayneh, A. T.; Al-Zoubi, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity field over the northwestern Arabian Platform in Jordan is dominated by large variations, ranging from -132 to +4 mGal. A study of the Bouguer anomaly map shows that the gravity field maintains a general north-northeasterly trend in the Wadi Araba-Dead Sea-Jordan Riff, Northern Highlands and Northeast Jordanian Limestone Area, while the remainder of the area shows north-northwesterly-trending gravity anomalies. Results of 2-D gravity modeling of the Bouguer gravity field indicate that the crustal thickness in Jordan is ˜ 38 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses obtained from refraction data in northern Jordan and Saudi Arabia, and from gravity data in Syria.

  7. Alkylthiophenes as sensitive indicators of palaeoenvironmental changes : a study of a Cretaceous oil shale from Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen samples of the immature, Cretaceous Jurf ed Darawish oil shade (Jordan) were analysed quantitatively for aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkylthiophenes in the bitumens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after isolation of appropriate fractions.

  8. Oil Federalism In Iraq: Resource Curse, Patronage Networks and Stability. Case Studies of Baghdad, Kurdistan and the Advent of ISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Bilal A.

    Petroleum wealth is the lifeblood of Iraq, with the potential to promote prosperity, or become a curse that destabilizes the country and interrupts its economic and political development. The management and sharing of petroleum wealth has been at the center of economic, political and security developments in Iraq since the country's invasion in 2003. This study analyzes Iraq's experiment with petrofederalism, the influence of different actors (e.g. international oil companies and ISIS), and the emergence of Iraqi Kurdistan as a petroregion. Using case study method, it demonstrates how patronage politics exacerbated resource curse in Iraq and resulted in instability.

  9. Physical and Biochemical Characteristics of Sharhabiel Reservoir Water, NW Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem M. El-Radaideh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jordan relies heavily on rainwater stored in reservoirs because it has extremely limited alternative water resources. These reservoirs are essential for drinking water and irrigation, so monitoring their water quality is extremely important. Variations in physical and biochemical conditions were investigated at Sharhabiel Reservoir (Jordan. Water quality monitoring of Sharhabiel Dam, from January to December 2013 indicates that the dam is subject to agricultural runoff. It also revealed that mineral dissolution, sediment load, rainfall evaporation and pumping, are the major contributors to variations in water quality. The water chemistry of the impounded Sharnabiel Reservoir showed that Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3 , and Cl are the principal ions, reflecting the dominance of calcareous weathering, with some contribution of silicates. The pH values showed an irregular pattern with highest values observed in the spring months. Total dissolved solids (TDS, Ca, Mg, and HCO3 are primarily related to leaching and evaporation, with elevated levels that occurred in the winter months. In contrast, seasonal patterns in Na, K, Cl, and NH4–N contents showed decreased values in wet months. Peaks in NO3 –N observed in winter are strongly associated with agricultural runoff. Changes in chlorophyll-a level were coincided with low ratio of TN to TP. BOD5 and COD peaks in spring corresponding with high algal growth. No significant changes in most of physical and biochemical parameters with depth, probably due to shallow depth, high annual sedimentation rate and heavy pumping rate in dry months. No available recorded data for long-term monitoring of Sharhabiel reservoir water to emphasize the self-purification capacity of dam.

  10. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafi, Hamzeh A; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T; Migdadi, Hussein M

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal fields had bifenestrate vulval cone and a strong underbridge. Wherever, cysts of the cabbage population had ambifenestrate vulval cone with long vulval slit. The bullae were absent in Ar-Ramtha, Madaba and Dana populations, but present in Al-Karak and Jerash. Based on 12 morphometrical characters, the first three functions in canonical discriminant analysis accounted 99.3% of the total variation. Distance from dorsal gland duct opening to stylet base, underbridge length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and length of hyaline tail tip had strong and significant contributions in the first function. While the second function was strongly influenced by length of hyaline tail, fenestral length, fenestral width and tail length. However, the third canonical discriminate function was found to be influenced by stylet length, fenestral length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and underbridge width. The graphical representation of the distribution of the samples showed that the first canonical discriminant function clearly separated H. schachtii from Jerash from other populations. Whereas, H. latipons collected from Madaba and Dana were clearly separated in the second function. The results indicated that differences at morphological and morphometrical levels revealed diverse populations of Heterodera spp. in Jordan. PMID:26858546

  11. (Never) Mind your p's and q's: Von Neumann versus Jordan on the foundations of quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, A.; Janssen, M.

    2013-03-01

    In 1927, in two papers entitled "On a new foundation [Neue Begründung] of quantum mechanics," Pascual Jordan presented his version of what came to be known as the Dirac-Jordan statistical transformation theory. Jordan and Paul Dirac arrived at essentially the same theory independently of one another at around the same time. Later in 1927, partly in response to Jordan and Dirac and avoiding the mathematical difficulties facing their approach, John von Neumann developed the modern Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics. We focus on Jordan and von Neumann. Central to the formalisms of both are expressions for conditional probabilities of finding some value for one quantity given the value of another. Beyond that Jordan and von Neumann had very different views about the appropriate formulation of problems in quantum mechanics. For Jordan, unable to let go of the analogy to classical mechanics, the solution of such problems required the identification of sets of canonically conjugate variables, i.e., p's and q's. For von Neumann, not constrained by the analogy to classical mechanics, it required only the identification of a maximal set of commuting operators with simultaneous eigenstates. He had no need for p's and q's. Jordan and von Neumann also stated the characteristic new rules for probabilities in quantum mechanics somewhat differently. Jordan and Dirac were the first to state those rules in full generality. Von Neumann rephrased them and, in a paper published a few months later, sought to derive them from more basic considerations. In this paper we reconstruct the central arguments of these 1927 papers by Jordan and von Neumann and of a paper on Jordan's approach by Hilbert, von Neumann, and Nordheim. We highlight those elements in these papers that bring out the gradual loosening of the ties between the new quantum formalism and classical mechanics. This paper was written as part of a joint project in the history of quantum physics of the Max Planck

  12. Milk losses due to bovine tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouarda Ayadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the impact of tropical theileriosis onset on milk yield decrease in 10 local bred cows in Skikda (Northern Algeria during 2015 summer season. The milk yield decrease estimated weekly during two months was 2.76 L/day/cow corresponding to 31.92% of the total milk yield. This decrease corresponds to 110.5 Algerian Dinars (1.02 US$/day/diseased cow. The relative variation of milk yield showed a dramatic decrease from 82.72% to 0.76% at Day 21 then became constant. Further studies are needed to improve these estimations of financial losses due to bovine tropical theileriosis in Algeria.

  13. Meningoencephalitis due to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri in ruminants in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterki, Mohamed Seghir; Ayachi, Ammar; Bennoune, Omar; Régoudis, Estelle; Pélandakis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection in most cases, caused by the amoeba flagellate Naegleria fowleri. This report describes the first cases of PAM in Algeria, in a cow and a ewe from Batna, north-eastern Algeria. The death of both ruminants occurred a week after the first clinical manifestations. The cerebrospinal fluid, after staining with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, showed the presence of amoebae cells. Histological sections revealed numerous amoebae in all parts of the brain. The presence of N. fowleri was confirmed using a species-specific real-time PCR in histological tissue sections. The two PAM cases were reported during the hot season, and the source of infection is very likely the water where the cattle came to drink. Particular attention should be focused on this type of infection in aquatic environments when the temperature is high and preventive measures must be taken to avoid the proliferation of N. fowleri.

  14. Meningoencephalitis due to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri in ruminants in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benterki Mohamed Seghir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM is a fatal infection in most cases, caused by the amoeba flagellate Naegleria fowleri. This report describes the first cases of PAM in Algeria, in a cow and a ewe from Batna, north-eastern Algeria. The death of both ruminants occurred a week after the first clinical manifestations. The cerebrospinal fluid, after staining with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, showed the presence of amoebae cells. Histological sections revealed numerous amoebae in all parts of the brain. The presence of N. fowleri was confirmed using a species-specific real-time PCR in histological tissue sections. The two PAM cases were reported during the hot season, and the source of infection is very likely the water where the cattle came to drink. Particular attention should be focused on this type of infection in aquatic environments when the temperature is high and preventive measures must be taken to avoid the proliferation of N. fowleri.

  15. Performances and failure of field-aged PV modules operating in Saharan region of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, M.; Benyoucef, B.; Othmani, M.; Mehdaoui, A.

    2016-07-01

    This article deals with behaviour of PV modules, of different technologies and manufacturers, exposed for long periods in Saharan region of Algeria. These modules are exposed in Adrar in the south-western part of Algeria. The study uses experimental I-V curves of PV modules for determining their performances. The datasheet information of modules will be useful in determination of degradation rates of the modules. Three types of modules have been tested: Photowatt (PWX 500), UDTS-50 and Isofoton (I-75 and I-100 serials). Results showed that Isofoton I-100 modules present the highest degradation rate while the lowest degradation rate was reached with I-75 serial. However, these rates tallies with other studies. The visual inspection of the modules has revealed various kinds of failures and defects responsible of performances drop (EVA browning, delamination, burn marks,…).

  16. Impact of urban and industrial effluents on the coastal marine environment in Oran, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, A; Chellali, M R; Hamou, A; Debbah, S

    2015-09-15

    In Algeria most of the urban waste water is dumped without treatment into the Sea. It is tremendously important to assess the consequences of organic matter rich sewage on marine ecosystem. In this study we investigated the effects of industrial and urban sewage on the dissolved oxygen (O2), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demands (BOD5), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), Metal element (Hg, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd), petroleum hydrocarbons (HC), oil and grease (OG) in Bay of Oran, Algeria. A ten-year follow-up research showed that the concentrations of oil and grease released into the bionetwork are of higher ecological impact and this needs to be given the desired consideration. Information on bathing water quality revealed that the most beaches in Oran are under the national environmental standard limit. PMID:26164780

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L. IN BOUMERDES MOUNTAINOUS REGION (ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bendifallah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia lentiscus L. (Pistaciaceae is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. For this study, the leaves were collected from the mountainous region of Boumerdes, in northern Algeria. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Pistacia lentiscus as a medicinal herb. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against three pathogenic bacterial strains and one pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in leucoanthocyanins, in glucosids, alcaloids, flavonoïds and in saponosids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against some species.

  18. HADRIAN’S ARCHES FROM ROMAN PERIOD, JORDAN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a study of Hadrian arches from three main locations: Jordan, Turkey, and Greece. Collectively within these countries, four arches have been found the Hadrian arch at Jerash (Gerasa) in Jordan, the Hadrian arch in Antalya and Ephesus, both in Turkey, and the Hadrian arch in Athens, Greece. The units of our analysis include all the different designs and plans used in constructing these arches. The analyzed design and planning units constitute a database that enables the...

  19. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN ZAIN CELLULAR COMMUNICATIONS COMPANY OPERATING IN JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sulieman Ibraheem Shelash Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the best human resource management (HRM) practices at ZAIN; cellular communications company operating in Jordan. study consisted of employees in ZAIN Cellular Communications Company in Jordan. All participants of this study were employees working in the organization - staff, team leaders, supervisors, programmers, project leaders, business analysts, managers, assistant managers. The findings in the paper that there are relatively high levels of practic...

  20. Prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs in Family Practice Clinics at Jordan University Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Drabah, Essam; Irshaid, Yacoub; Yasein, Nada; Zmeili, Suheil

    2013-01-01

    The present study represents the current prescribing trend for antihypertensive drugs in family medicine clinics at Jordan University Hospital in Jordan. The study sample involved 416 male and female hypertensive Jordanian patients. Our results demonstrate that 2 hypertensive patients were not receiving any antihypertensive therapy at the time of evaluation, 192 patients were on a single antihypertensive therapy, 157 patients were on two antihypertensive drugs, 52 patients were on triple anti...

  1. Conceptual for User Satisfaction with the E-government in North of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Fawzi hasan Altaany; Khalid ahmmad alsoudani

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the concept of e-government which enables the availability of services to Jordanian, to identify the requirements of application of e-government, and the problems faced at the local level and thus to identify user satisfaction with e-government in Jordan A questionnaire was adjusted and structured base on previous study and distributed in the north of Jordan. Data were analyzed through the use of statistical software SPSS) .The current study had conclusions and re...

  2. Compliance with the Principles of Corporate Governance: Different Perspectives from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mo'taz Amin AL-SA'EED

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine the extent to which Jordanian banks comply with the principles of Corporate Governance from the viewpoint of the related regulatory bodies. We rely on the corporate governance topics discussed in the World Bank’s ROSC Report. Sixty postal questionnaires have been distributed randomly to the Audit Committee Members in Jordanian Banks, Control and Governance Department in the Central Bank of Jordan and in the Jordan Securities Commission (JSC), to empirically explor...

  3. On the equivalence of Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan reduction in solving linear equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Nai-Kuan

    1989-01-01

    A novel general approach to round-off error analysis using the error complexity concepts is described. This is applied to the analysis of the Gaussian Elimination and Gauss-Jordan scheme for solving linear equations. The results show that the two algorithms are equivalent in terms of our error complexity measures. Thus the inherently parallel Gauss-Jordan scheme can be implemented with confidence if parallel computers are available.

  4. The near-future outlook of the energy situation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national energy plan must be formulated to be applied in the near future concerning energy sources supplies in Jordan. The important issue is that Jordan must secure energy supplies from new sources, and therefore the plan must cover all aspects of energy consumption as domestic, industrial, heating and transport as well as storage facilities. The plan must aim at decreasing consumption rates rationing in order to guarantee a continuous and adequate of energy supplies. (S.T.). 2 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Born-Jordan and Weyl quantizations of the 2D anisotropic harmonic oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Rastelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We apply the Born-Jordan and Weyl quantization formulas for polynomials in canonical coordinates to the constants of motion of some examples of the superintegrable 2D anisotropic harmonic oscillator. Our aim is to study the behaviour of the algebra of the constants of motion after the different quantization procedures. In the examples considered, we have that the Weyl formula always preserves the original superintegrable structure of the system, while the Born-Jordan formula, when producing d...

  6. THE IMPACT OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ON COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    KAMAL A. M. AL-QUDAH

    2012-01-01

    TQM is a general philosophy of management that attempts to enhance competitive advantage of organizations, This paper aims to investigate the impact of total quality management on competitive advantage of Pharmaceutical manufacturing companies in Jordan. The data are collected from mid- to senior-level managerial employees of Pharmaceutical manufacturing companies in Jordan. The data were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analyses. The results indicate that, there is effec...

  7. Recent changes in climate, hydrology and sediment load in the Wadi Abd, Algeria (1970–2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Achite, M.; Ouillon, S

    2015-01-01

    Here we investigate the changes of temperature, precipitation, river runoff and sediment transport in the Wadi Abd in NW Algeria over a time series of 40 hydrological years (1970–2010). Temperature increased and precipitation decreased with the reduction in rainfall being relatively higher during the rainy season. A shift towards an earlier onset of first rains during summer was also found with cascading effects on hydrology (hydrological regimes, vegetation etc) and thus on erosion ...

  8. Recent changes in climate, hydrology and sediment load in the Wadi Abd, Algeria (1970–2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Achite, Mohammed; Ouillon, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Here we investigate the changes of temperature, precipitation, river runoff and sediment transport in the Wadi Abd in northwest Algeria over a time series of 40 hydrological years (1970–2010). Temperature increased and precipitation decreased with the reduction in rainfall being relatively higher during the rainy season. A shift towards an earlier onset of first rains during summer was also found with cascading effects on hydrology (hydrological regimes, vegetation, et...

  9. Uranium-series disequilibrium data for tooth fragments from the fossil hominid site at Ternifine, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    I report here analyses of elephant molar-tooth fragments that were submitted by the late K.P.Oakley for uranium-series dating. The tooth fragments were collected by the late C. Arambourg from Pleistocene sand in association with the hominid fossils of Ternifine Man, Algeria. Of the results reported the minimum age of over 360 000 yr BP for the enamel appears to be the most reliable. -Authors

  10. Difficulty in transforming the savings into investment in Algeria or the regulation in question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir BELLAL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent economic History of Algeria reveals a blocking of the transformation of the savings into investment. Beyond the conventional diagnosis that involves the failure of the banking system, this blocking is the macroeconomic expression of a deep crisis of the mode of regulation of the economy as a whole. This is the idea that we propose, in what follows, to support.

  11. Farming transitions under socioeconomic and climatic constraints in the southern part of Sétif, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Amar Rouabhi; Abdelhamid Mekhlouf; Sihem Mokhneche; Nawel Elkolli

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on a sample of 224 farms in the southern region of Sétif-Algeria, aimed to identify the different typologies and the agricultural changes caused by the climatic constrains experienced in recent decades. Indeed, the combined effect of climatic and anthropogenic factors on agricultural practices transitions is too tangled. A series of multivariate and classification statistical tests have been implemented to demonstrate the main trends and adaptation tactics of farme...

  12. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF AIRBORNE BACTERIA IN THE MUNICIPAL SLAUGHTERHOUSE OF CONSTANTINE - ALGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Agabou; Mouhamed-Cherif Abdeldjalil; Abderahmane Bensegueni; Soumia Semouma

    2013-01-01

    The spatial distribution of airborne bacterial contamination (with Total aerobic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, Coliforms, Staphylococci and Streptococci) was studied within the municipal abattoir of Constantine (North-East of Algeria). Open plate air samples were collected at twenty sampling locations weekly during two months. At the same chosen locations, temperature and humidity of the air were measured. The spatial distribution of bacterial contamination was studied using a Geographic ...

  13. Recovery process of the mineral sphalerite of Chaabet El Hamra’s deposit (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeghlal M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study rests on the treatment’s process optimization by flotation of the Chaabet El Hamra’s zinc ore (Algeria, for the optimization parameters relating to the production. The choice of parameter to optimize for flotation, and the arrangements and the scheme’s initial flotation, while considering the studies already undertaken, all this has enabled us to better focus our work, while minimizing the consumption of reagents in different tests, This has resulted in successful outcomes.

  14. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers from South-West Algeria: An ethnobotanical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarba, Bachir

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: This study aimed to document and analyzes the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. Methods: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, 22 local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), and informant consensus factor (FIC) were used to analyze the obtained data. Results: Our results showed that 83 medicinal plants species belonging to 38 families are used by traditional healers from South-west of Algeria to treat several ailments. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Fabaceae were the most dominant families with 13, 8, 6, and 4 species, respectively. Leaves were the plant parts mostly used (36%), followed by seeds (18%), aerial parts (17%) and roots (12%). Furthermore, a decoction was the major mode of preparation (49%), and oral administration was the most preferred (80%). Thymus vulgaris L. (UV = 1.045), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (UV = 0.863), Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV=0.590), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV = 0.545), and Ruta chalepensis L. (UV = 0.5) were the most frequently species used by local healers. A great informant consensus has been demonstrated for kidney (0.727), cancer (0.687), digestive (0.603), and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge in South-west Algeria. The reported species with high UV, FL, and FIC could be of great interest for further pharmacological studies. PMID:27757260

  15. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human.

  16. The ammonoids from the Argiles de Teguentour of Oued Temertasset (early Late Tournaisian; Mouydir, Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, D; Bockwinkel, J.; V. Ebbighausen

    2010-01-01

    The ammonoids from the Teguentour Shales (Tournaisian, Early Carboniferous) of Oued Temertasset (Mouydir, Algeria) are described monographically. The following new ammonoid taxa are introduced: Imitoceras dimidium n. sp., Imitoceras strictum n. sp., Triimitoceras tantulum n. sp., Acrocanites disparilis n. sp., Jdaidites cultellus n. sp., Pericyclus tortuosus n. sp., Pericyclus circulus n. sp., Pericyclus trochus n. sp., Pericyclus intercisus n. sp., Nodopericyclus n. gen., Nodopericyclus circ...

  17. Subclinical mastitis in cattle in Algeria: Frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Radhwane Saidi; Djamel Khelef; Rachid Kaidi

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in cattle in eighteen herds in the center region of Algeria. Milk samples were collected from 560 quarters of 140 cows free of clinical mastitis. The samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT) and the positive samples were analysed by bacteriological culture and Speed ​​Mam® Color. The overall quarter prevalence was 28.77% whilst animal prevalence was 28.57%.Bacteriological analysis showe...

  18. Comparative analysis of the Gran Dolina-TD6 (Spain) and Tighennif (Algeria) hominin mandibles

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez de Castro, J.-M.; Martinón-Torres, M.; Gómez-Robles, A.; Prado, L.; Sarmiento, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative study of the Tighennif (Algeria) and Gran Dolina-TD6 (Spain) hominin mandibles, which represent two geographically near and contemporaneous populations separated by the Mediterranean sea, in order to test the hypothesis that these populations belong to the same evolutionary lineage, as it has been suggested by some authors. The Tighennif mandibles show a clear primitive structural pattern, derived in some features with regard to the oldest Homo specimens from H. habil...

  19. Solid waste as renewable source of energy. Current and future possibility in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taqiy Eddine, Boukelia; Salah, Mecibah Med [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Mechanical Dept.

    2012-11-01

    Algeria has created a green momentum by launching an ambitious program to develop renewable energies and promote energy efficiency. Solid waste is one of most important sources of biomass potential in Algeria, which can be used as renewable energy sources. With economic development and the evolution of population, the quantity of solid waste is increasing rapidly in Algeria; according to the National Cadastre for Solid Waste Generation, the overall generation of municipal solid waste was more than 10.3 million tons per year, and the amount of industrial solid waste, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste was 2,547,000 tons per year, with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. The hazardous waste generated amounts to 325,100 tons per year; the quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons. Healthcare waste reaches to 125,000 tons per year. The management of solid waste and its valorization is based on the understanding of solid waste composition by its categories and physicochemical characteristics. Elimination is the solution applied to 97% of waste produced in Algeria. Wastes are disposed in the following ways: open dumps (57%), burned in the open air in public dumps or municipal uncontrolled ones (30%), and controlled dumps and landfill (10%). On the other side, the quantities destined for recovery are too low: only 2% for recycling and 1% for composting. Waste to energy is very attractive option for elimination solid waste with energy recovery. In this paper, we give an overview for this technology, including its conversion options and its useful products (such as electricity, heat and transportation fuel), and waste to energy-related environmental issues and its challenges. (orig.)

  20. FTIR spectroscopic study of human urinary stones from El Bayadh district (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Sekkoum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Identification of components of urinary stones is essential to provide information about the etiological factors considered responsible for stones formation making the therapy and the prevention possible. Morphological examination combined to infrared spectroscopy can provide helpful information about its chemical composition. As the composition of urinary stones varies from one place to another, we have undertaken a study by FTIR of constituents of urinary stones from various patients of El Bayadh region (south west of Algeria.

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Eight Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L.) Varieties Grown in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    BACHIR BEY Mostapha; LOUAILECHE Hayette; MOUHOUBI Zina

    2014-01-01

    The harmful effects of the free radicals on human organism could be inhibited by antioxidants of fruits and vegetables such as tomato. In the present work, the antioxidant contents as well as the antioxidant activity of eight tomato varieties grown in Algeria are evaluated. Ascorbic acid and carotenoid contents are assessed using spectrophotometric methods.The phenolic compounds extracted using solvents with different polarities (methanol, 50% methanol, ethanol, and 50% ethanol) have been det...

  2. Total Petroleum Systems of the Illizi Province, Algeria and Libya—Tanezzuft-Illizi

    OpenAIRE

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within a total petroleum system of the Illizi Province (2056) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Illizi Province is in eastern Algeria and a small portion of western Libya. The province and its total petroleum system coincide with the Illizi Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within the Illizi Province, only one “composite” total petroleum system is identified. This ...

  3. IAEA Preliminary Assessment of the Former French Nuclear Test Sites in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999, the International Atomic Energy Agency received a request from the Government of Algeria to perform an assessment of the radiological conditions of the former sites used by the French Government in the early 1960s for the testing of nuclear weapons. This paper describes the history and the nature of the test site and the tests that were performed, the methodology of the IAEA assessment and the results and conclusions drawn from the mission of international experts. (author)

  4. Analysis of forest fires causes and their motivations in northern Algeria: the Delphi method

    OpenAIRE

    Meddour-Sahar O; Meddour R; Leone V; Lovreglio R; Derridj A

    2013-01-01

    Forest fires in Algeria are mostly human-caused and result from local social behavior, whether voluntary (arson) or involuntary (negligence). Understanding the reasons why fires start is, therefore, a crucial factor in preventing or reducing their incidence, developing significant prevention efforts and designing specific fire prevention campaigns. The Delphi method is a promising tool for improving knowledge about how fire starts and why, and above all helps reduce the number of fires starte...

  5. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human. PMID:27021186

  6. Technico-economic assessment of hybrid diesel-photovoltaic power plant in the south of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, A. Y.; Hamidat, A.

    2016-07-01

    In Algeria, Electrical energy demand has knew a significant growth in recent years. The important increase in demand is due to the development of industrial and commercial sectors, and the comfort of residents customers by using multiple equipment of household such as the TV, ventilator, especially air-conditioners in the south of Algeria. To address the problem of imbalance between supply and demand, it is compulsory to add other units of productions of electricity. These units can be use conventional sources or renewable energy sources. This study focuses on the feasibility of hybridizing diesel power plants supplying the isolated villages in southern Algeria by the introduction of PV systems. The town of Djanet was taken as a case study. The comparison between the different technical and economic parameters allows determining the contribution of the hybridization of conventional resources of production. However, the cost-effectiveness based on the net present cost (NPC) is estimated at 176, 054.208 for the hybrid system and 194, 965.280 for all Diesel system. In terms of the cost per kWh produced by the two systems, the kWh produced by the hybrid system is less expensive than the kWh produced by any conventional diesel system is 0.551 / kWh against 0.610 / kWh. The results also show that the hybrid system provides coverage of the expected load in the future.

  7. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouzrout Rachid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89% showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis.

  8. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumberge, J.E. (GeoMark Research Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Macko, S. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)) Engel, M. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)) (and others)

    1996-01-01

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R'Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  9. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumberge, J.E. [GeoMark Research Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Macko, S. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)] Engel, M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R`Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  10. Emergence of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Companion Animals in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Massilia; Touati, Abdelaziz; Mairi, Assia; Brasme, Lucien; Gharout-Sait, Alima; Guillard, Thomas; De Champs, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    The emergence and worldwide spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli in companion animals in Algeria. Two hundred fecal samples were obtained from healthy and diseased dogs and cats in one veterinary office and private owners in Bejaia city, Algeria, during November 2014 to March 2015. Isolates were screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of carbapenemase, acquired plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes. Five carbapenemase-producing E. coli isolates were detected including four OXA-48-producing isolates and one isolate producing NDM-5. Coexpression of ESBL and pAmpC genes was observed in these isolates. Phylogenetic grouping revealed that these isolates belonged to A and D phylogroups. The results of this study show that carbapenemase-producing E. coli spread to the companion animals in Algeria. PMID:26741510

  11. Analysis of forest fires causes and their motivations in northern Algeria: the Delphi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meddour-Sahar O

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires in Algeria are mostly human-caused and result from local social behavior, whether voluntary (arson or involuntary (negligence. Understanding the reasons why fires start is, therefore, a crucial factor in preventing or reducing their incidence, developing significant prevention efforts and designing specific fire prevention campaigns. The Delphi method is a promising tool for improving knowledge about how fire starts and why, and above all helps reduce the number of fires started by unknown causes, the majority type in Algeria. The Delphi method uses a set of procedures for eliciting and refining the opinions of a panel of experts on a particular subject of interest. This method was used in three case studies, in coastal or inner wilayas (provinces selected from a highly fire-prone area in north-central Algeria. Results showed the traditional use of fire in agriculture and forestry, in situations related to land use changes and in interpersonal conflicts are the major causes of voluntary fires. For involuntary events (negligence, experts unanimously identified the importance of the restart of fire, caused by fire crews who do not ensure the mopping up of controlled fires (91.49% and the negligent use of agricultural fires, particularly stubble burning (80.14%. For voluntary fires (arson, results highlight the importance of fires set for land use changes (77.30%, pyromania (67.38% and honey gathering (62.41%. Illegal dumping and burning of garbage was also mentioned by responders in all study-areas.

  12. Generic medicines: Perceptions of Physicians in Basrah, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adheed Khalid Sharrad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of cheaper generic medicines is a strategy promotedin many countries to reduce rising health care costs. The aimof this study was to explore factors affecting generic medicineprescribing by physicians in Basrah, Iraq.MethodologyA purposive sample of ten physicians practicing in Basrahwas interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide.ResultsAnalysis of the interviews identified seven major themes:medicine prescribing practice, knowledge of therapeuticequivalency of generic medicine, patients’ acceptance ofgeneric medicine, counterfeit medicine, drug informationsource and effect of drug advertising on medicines choice,brand substitution practice by community pharmacists, and,finally strategies to improve generic medicine usefulness.Participants identified helpful strategies to increase genericprescribing including; physician and patient education ongeneric medicine; persuading physicians about the safety andefficacy of generic medicines; and finally educating seniormedical students on generic prescribing.ConclusionThe data suggest that participants were enthusiasticabout prescribing generic medicines. However physiciansinsist that pharmacists should not be allowed tosubstitute generic drugs without prior approval ofdoctors.

  13. Sexual revictimization among Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R; Beckham, Jean C; The Va Mid-Atlantic Mirecc Workgroup; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2016-06-30

    Research in both civilian and military populations has demonstrated that females who experience childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely to experience sexual assault in adulthood than females who did not experience CSA. Among veteran samples, however, little research has examined previous sexual assault as a risk factor of military sexual assault and post-military sexual assault, and very little research has examined revictimization in male veterans. The purpose of this study was to examine risk of sexual revictimization in a sample of veterans who served during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. A sample of 3106 veterans (80.4% male) completed a measure of lifetime exposure to traumatic events, including sexual abuse and sexual assault. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine previous sexual abuse/assault as predictors of later sexual assault; analyses were conducted separately for males and females. In general, previous sexual abuse/assault was associated with later sexual assault in both male and female veterans. These findings have important assessment and treatment implications for clinicians working with veterans. PMID:27149409

  14. Assessment of Natural radionuclides in Powdered milk Consumed in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K radionuclides were measured for 10 brands of powdered milk samples consumed in Iraq, which are imported from different countries. The main detected activity corresponding to 40K with average activity of 290.661 BqKg-1, while the average activities of 226Ra and 232Th were below the detection level (B.D.L.). Results are compared with those of different countries worldwide. The total average annual effective doses due to intake of 40K from the ingestion of the powdered milk for children (2-7, 7-12, 12-17)y and adults (≥ 17 y) were estimated to be 82.21, 50.90, 29.75 and 22.55 μSvy-1, respectively. These results indicate no significant radiation dose to the public. The resulting data may serve as base-line levels of activity concentration in powdered milk in the area of study. (authors)

  15. Assessment of Natural radionuclides in Powdered milk Consumed in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Sahar A.; Al-ani, Rana R. [Environmental Research Center, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); AL-kafaje, Mohammed S.M. [Department of Laser Engineering and Electronic Optics, University of Technology (Iraq)

    2014-07-01

    The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K radionuclides were measured for 10 brands of powdered milk samples consumed in Iraq, which are imported from different countries. The main detected activity corresponding to {sup 40}K with average activity of 290.661 BqKg{sup -1}, while the average activities of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were below the detection level (B.D.L.). Results are compared with those of different countries worldwide. The total average annual effective doses due to intake of {sup 40}K from the ingestion of the powdered milk for children (2-7, 7-12, 12-17)y and adults (≥ 17 y) were estimated to be 82.21, 50.90, 29.75 and 22.55 μSvy{sup -1}, respectively. These results indicate no significant radiation dose to the public. The resulting data may serve as base-line levels of activity concentration in powdered milk in the area of study. (authors)

  16. Iraq-lran chemical war: calendar, mortality and morbidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mansour Razavi; Mahdiyeh Sadat Razavi; Mohsen Pirhosseinloo; Payman Salamati

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To review the calendar,mortality and morbidity of Iraq-Iran chemical war among Iranians based on researchers' reports.Methods:We used national and international databanks such as PubMed,ISI,Scopus,Irandoc and Iranmedex and studied 350 articles related to chemical agents and their effects on different organs.The main criteria for qualification of articles were relevancy orientation and being published in approved medical journals.Results:The Iraqi army invaded to west and southwest Iran using chemical weapons such as nerve agents (NAs) and sulfur mustard (SM).Most victims were civilians including women and children.These attacks had imposed more than 150 types of diseases and complications on Iranians and the frequency of death was 2%-3%.Most reports were about respiratory problems and a few were in the domain of socio-economic damages.Conclusion:At present,25 years after the end of war,the victims are faced with different complications induced by chemical agents and it is estimated that they will be continuously troubled by these problems in future.

  17. Evaluation of Sand Dunes Stabilization Techniques in Baiji District, Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This research was conducted at the sand dunes stabilization research station in Baiji district, Iraq. Three techniques for sand dunes stabilization are selected: the first method is stabilization by clayey block barriers; the second method is stabilization by dry planting of tamarix (tamarix articulata)cuttings and the third is stabilization by using cane branch barriers. Randomized samples were taken from the surface and subsurface layers of the stabilized and shifting sand dunes to evaluate the effect of the three techniques on wind erosion parameters. The results indicate high significant differences between the wind erosion parameters in the surface and subsurface layers in the stabilized sand dunes, while there are insignificant differences between the subsurface layer of the stabilized dunes and the surface and subsurface layers in the active sand dunes. The results clarify the fact that there is an increase in the percentage of clay, silt, organic matter, mean weight diameter and the percentage of the dry aggregates (>0. 84 mm). A decrease is found in the rate of disaggregation for the dry aggregates in the samples of the surface layer of stabilized dunes when compared with the subsurface layer of stabilized dunes and the surface layer of the shifting sand dunes. There is a positive high significant correlation among the aggregate stability parameters and the percentage of clay and silt, and the content of organic matter in the studied layers.

  18. Determination trends and abnormal seasonal wind speed in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassoon, Ahmed F. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, AL- Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Monthly observed wind speed data at four weather stations (Baghdad, Mosul, Basra, Rutba) at 10m above surface were used to explore the temporal variations of the wind speed (1971-2000) in Iraq. There are different methods to analyze wind speed variation data, but the time series are one of the powerful analysis methods to diagnose the seasonal wind speed anomaly. The results show most high abnormal data is found in summer seasons in all the stations of study, where it concentrated at 1975, 1976, 1978,1996-1995, 2000. Rutba station is different where its high deviation about annual average at nearly all the seasons, in this station there are trends in seasonal wind towards decreases in all the seasons, for example in winter it reached to about 0.046m/s.a-1, while in other stations Mosul and Basra there increases in annual seasonal wind speed trends in seasons spring, summer, autumn where its reached higher value at summer in Basra about 0.0482m/s.a-1. The second method to determine abnormal annual seasonal wind speed is through comparison seasonal average wind speed, where the average wind speed at the seasons summer and spring in Baghdad and Basra station have very high averages at nearly all years, this cannot see in Mosul and Rutba, in Rutba the seasonal average is intersected with each other, summer and spring is not have greater seasonal average in this station.

  19. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN COMMONLY UTILIZED LEGUME CULTIVARS FROM IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Total polyphenol content as well as total antioxidant capacity in three chickpea, four fababean and four lentil cultivars from regions of Iraq with different environmental growth conditions were investigated in the work. The total polyphenol content (TP was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau assay and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of legume extracts was measured using the DPPH spectrophotometrically. The obtained results confirmed that the polyphenols content in the tested legume cultivars was influenced by locality. From tested legumes the highest polyphenol content was measured in fababean (1220 – 6286 mg GAE.kg-1. In lentil (2351 – 3011 mgGAE.kg-1 the average TP value was slightly lower (by 1,6%, while in chickpea (549 – 978 mg GAE.kg-1 it was dramatically (by 71,5% lower in comparison to fababean. The similar trend was observed at values of TAC. The highest average TAC value was determined in fababean (15.2 – 25.6% DPPH, in lentil (14.2 – 28.9% DPPH the TAC value was by 2% and in chickpea (1.9 – 4.5% DPPH by 83,6% lower in comparison to fababean. Only in lentil a statistically strong correlation (P-value 2.391E-06; R = 0.802 was found. Our results confirmed that legumes can be a good source of bioactive compounds in the human nutrition.

  20. Screening for domestic violence in Jordan: validation of an Arabic version of a domestic violence against women questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, Linda G; Ali Shotar; Janet B Younger; et al

    2011-01-01

    Linda G Haddad1, Ali Shotar2, Janet B Younger1, Sukaina Alzyoud3, Claudia M Bouhaidar11Virginia Commonwealth University School of Nursing, Richmond, VA, USA; 2Forensic and Legal Medicine Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Hashemite University School of Nursing, Zarqua, JordanObjectives: Abuse against women causes a great deal of suffering for the victims and is a major public health problem. Measuring lifetime abuse is a complicated task; the various meth...

  1. Survey of attitudes, materials and methods employed in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners in North Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Omari Wael M

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background General dental practitioners provide the majority of endodontic treatment in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gather information on the methods, materials and attitudes employed in root canal treatment by dentists in North Jordan, in order to evaluate and improve the quality of current practice. Methods A questionnaire was posted to all registered general dental practitioners working in private practice in Irbid Governate in North Jordan (n = 181). The questionnaire in...

  2. Recovery and reprocessing of legacy geophysical data from the archives of the State Company of Geology and Mining (GEOSURV) of Iraq and Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.V.; Drenth, B.R.; Fairhead, J.D.; Lei, K.; Dark, J.A.; Al-Bassam, K.

    2011-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data belonging to the State Company of Geology and Mining of Iraq (GEOSURV) have been recovered from magnetic tapes and early paper maps. In 1974 a national airborne survey was flown by the French firm Compagnie General de Geophysique (CGG). Following the survey the magnetic data were stored on magnetic tapes within an air conditioned archive run by GEOSURV. In 1990, the power supply to the archive was cut resulting in the present-day poor condition of the tapes. Frontier Processing Company and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been able to recover over 99 percent of the original digital data from the CGG tapes. Preliminary reprocessing of the data yielded a total magnetic field anomaly map that reveals fine structures not evident in available published maps. Successful restoration of these comprehensive, high quality digital datasets obviates the need to resurvey the entire country, thereby saving considerable time and money. These data were delivered to GEOSURV in a standard format for further analysis and interpretation. A parallel effort by GETECH concentrated on recovering the legacy gravity data from the original field data sheets archived by IPC (Iraq Petroleum Company). These data have been compiled with more recent GEOSURV sponsored surveys thus allowing for the first time a comprehensive digital and unified national gravity database to be constructed with full principal facts. Figure 1 shows the final aeromagnetic and gravity data coverage of Iraq. The only part of Iraq lacking gravity and aeromagnetic data coverage is the mountainous areas of the Kurdish region of northeastern Iraq. Joint interpretation of the magnetic and gravity data will help guide future geophysical investigations by GEOSURV, whose ultimate aim is to discover economical mineral and energy resources. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Calibration and validation of earthquake catastrophe models. Case study: Impact Forecasting Earthquake Model for Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Gaspa Rebull, O.; Ewing, C.; Podlaha, A.; Magee, B.

    2012-04-01

    Calibration and validation are crucial steps in the production of the catastrophe models for the insurance industry in order to assure the model's reliability and to quantify its uncertainty. Calibration is needed in all components of model development including hazard and vulnerability. Validation is required to ensure that the losses calculated by the model match those observed in past events and which could happen in future. Impact Forecasting, the catastrophe modelling development centre of excellence within Aon Benfield, has recently launched its earthquake model for Algeria as a part of the earthquake model for the Maghreb region. The earthquake model went through a detailed calibration process including: (1) the seismic intensity attenuation model by use of macroseismic observations and maps from past earthquakes in Algeria; (2) calculation of the country-specific vulnerability modifiers by use of past damage observations in the country. The use of Benouar, 1994 ground motion prediction relationship was proven as the most appropriate for our model. Calculation of the regional vulnerability modifiers for the country led to 10% to 40% larger vulnerability indexes for different building types compared to average European indexes. The country specific damage models also included aggregate damage models for residential, commercial and industrial properties considering the description of the buildings stock given by World Housing Encyclopaedia and the local rebuilding cost factors equal to 10% for damage grade 1, 20% for damage grade 2, 35% for damage grade 3, 75% for damage grade 4 and 100% for damage grade 5. The damage grades comply with the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS-1998). The model was validated by use of "as-if" historical scenario simulations of three past earthquake events in Algeria M6.8 2003 Boumerdes, M7.3 1980 El-Asnam and M7.3 1856 Djidjelli earthquake. The calculated return periods of the losses for client market portfolio align with the

  4. Hepatitis C virus genotypes among multiply transfused hemoglobinopathy patients from Northern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil A Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Owing to the scarcity of data on hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes in Iraq and due to their epidemiological as well as therapy implications, this study was initiated aiming at determining these genotypes in Northern Iraq. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 HCV antibody positive multi transfused patients with hemoglobinopathies, who had detectable HCV ribonucleic acid, were recruited for genotyping using genotype-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Results: The most frequent genotype detected was genotype 4 (52.9% followed by 3a (17.1%, 1b (12.9% and 1a (1.4%, while mixed genotypes (4 with either 3a or 1b were detected in 7.1%. Conclusion: The predominance of genotype 4 is similar to other studies from surrounding Eastern Mediterranean Arab countries and to the only earlier study from central Iraq, however the significant high proportion of 3a and scarcity of 1a, are in contrast to the latter study and may be explainable by the differing population interactions in this part of Iraq. This study complements previous studies from Eastern Mediterranean region and demonstrates relative heterogeneity of HCV genotype distribution within Iraq and should trigger further studies in other parts of the country.

  5. Communication of 7 December 1999 received from the Permanent Mission of Iraq to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the communication of 7 December 1999 received by the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Iraq to the IAEA, including an attachment referring to the Non-implementation of the IAEA Technical Assistance Programs to Iraq for the years 1999/2000

  6. 77 FR 66180 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... Dialogue (Business Dialogue or Dialogue) as a bilateral forum to facilitate private sector business growth... areas: --Factors that affect the growth of private sector business in Iraq, including disincentives to... regulations, to promote private sector business growth in Iraq; --Promotion of business opportunities in...

  7. 78 FR 72640 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Dialogue (Business Dialogue or Dialogue) as a bilateral forum to facilitate private sector business growth..., amending, enforcing, or repealing laws and regulations, to promote private sector business growth in Iraq... International Trade Administration Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business...

  8. United States and Europe and the Neo-Wilsonian revolution in the post-Iraq war international order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekestijn, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Every attempt to discuss American-European relations without taking the war in Iraq into account is doomed to fail. Analysts who exclude Iraq or insist that the Americans have already lost do not understand how much is at stake. An early withdrawal of the USA will boost international terrorism aroun

  9. Re-Humanizing the development process: On participation, local organizations and social learning as building blocks of an alternative development view in Algeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malki, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study concerns agricultural development planning and policy-making in the context of post-independent Algeria, which went unquestioned for more than three decades. Algeria won its independence in 1962 after 132 years of French colonization. A post-independence State was formed, taking over the

  10. A crustal structure study of Jordan derived from seismic refraction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Isa, Z.; Mechie, J.; Prodehl, C.; Makris, J.; Rihm, R.

    1987-07-01

    The interpretation of a deep seismic refraction study in Jordan, performed in May 1984, shows that much of the country is underlain by continental crust, 32-35 km thick, and normal mantle with a velocity of 8.0-8.2 km/s. In the Aqaba region, southwest and central Jordan, east of Wadi Araba, the crustal thickness is of the order of 32-35 km, while in the Amman region it is not less than 35 km. In southeast Jordan the crust thickens to at least 37 km in what is probably the transition to the Arabian Shield type of crust. The boundaries between the upper and lower crust at about 20 km depth and the lower crust and uppermost mantle are probably transition zones. The upper crystalline crust has velocities of 5.8-6.5 km/s while the lower crust has velocities greater than or around 6.65 km/s. While the crystalline basement is exposed in southwest Jordan and is at a depth of 2-2.5 km north of Amman, it is at a depth of not less than 5 km in central Jordan. A comparison of the crustal type and structure of Jordan and the adjacent Dead Sea rift with that of the Black Forest and the Rhine valley yields a striking resemblance. The situation of the Jordan-Dead Sea rift is explained in terms of the continental crust of Arabia rifting in preference to the thin (?oceanic) crust of the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Urbanisation of Suweimeh area, Jordan, versus sinkholes and landslides proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib

    2013-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a terminal lake whose level lowers each year of about one meter per year since more than one decade. This is caused mainly by the diversion of surface waters from its watershed. Currently, 1/10 of the Jordan River still reaches the salt lake. The rapid lowering of the lake level does not allow all the surrounding groundwater tables to adjust their level to that of the Dead Sea. This imbalance causes an always faster migration of a part of the groundwater causing underground erosion leading to the formation of sinkholes along the coast, especially where discontinuities, such as faults, are present. The first collapses occurred in the years 1980-90. From the 2000s, in Jordan, they have proliferated to the point of causing serious damages to the facilities of the Arab Potash Company, the agricultural area of Ghor Al Haditha, and more recently the touristic region of Suweimeh. Aware of the problem and the need for gradual rising of the lake level, the Jordanian authorities attended from 2009 to 2011 to the feasibility study of the Red Sea - Dead Sea conduit. Currently, on the one hand, the growing environmental imbalance, and, on the other hand, the desires to develop economic activities along the coast, imply that more goods will be exposed to damages. For example, the area of Wadi Mujib Bridge was rebuilt completely in the late 2000s. It is the same for the 12 km of the dam 18 of an evaporation pond Arab Potash Company. The Numeira Salt Factory was completely destroyed in Ghor Al Haditha and was relocated to Safi. In August 2012, during touristic period, a landslide destroyed half of the Holiday Inn front beach, Suweimeh area ... End of December 2012, a team lead by Prof. Najib Abou Karaki warned the Arab Potash Company of the presence of a circular depression 250 m in diameter within the evaporation pond SP-0A. Although the dike of this saltpan is closely monitored, the exact location and shape of this large sinkhole were not known to the security

  12. Modeling of groundwater flow for Mujib aquifer, Jordan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fayez Abdulla; Tamer Al-Assa’d

    2006-06-01

    Jordan is an arid country with very limited water resources.Groundwater is the main source for its water supply.Mujib aquifer is located in the central part of Jordan and is a major source of drinking water for Amman,Madaba and Karak cities.High abstraction rates from Mujib aquifer during the previous years lead to a major decline in water levels and deterioration in groundwater quality. Therefore,proper groundwater management of Mujib aquifer is necessary;and groundwater flow modeling is essential for proper management.For this purpose,Mod flow was used to build a groundwater flow model to simulate the behavior of the flow system under different stresses.The model was calibrated for steady state condition by matching observed and simulated initial head counter lines.Drawdown data for the period 1985-1995 were used to calibrate the transient model by matching simulated drawdown with the observed one.Then,the transient model was validated by using drawdown data for the period 1996-2002.The results of the calibrated model showed that the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the B2/A7 aquifer ranges between 0.001 and 40 m/d. Calibrated speci fic yield ranges from 0.0001 to 0.15.The water balance for the steady state condition of Mujib aquifer indicated that the total annual direct recharge is 20.4 × 106 m3, the total annual in flow is 13.0 × 106 m3, springs discharge is 15.3 × 106 m3, and total annual out flow is 18.7 × 106 m3. Different scenarios were considered to predict aquifer system response under different conditions. The results of the sensitivity analysis show that the model is highly sensitive to horizontal hydraulic conductivity and anisotropy and with lower level to the recharge rates.Also the model is sensitive to specific yield.

  13. IAEA Director General makes his views known to Security Council on resumption of inspections in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 'The IAEA should resume its work in Iraq as soon as possible,' said IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei in a statement delivered on his behalf to an informal meeting of the UN Security Council today. 'The IAEA continues to be the sole organization with legal powers - derived from both the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and successive Security Council resolutions - to verify Iraq's nuclear disarmament,' Dr. ElBaradei said. 'We await the guidance of the Council as to the modalities of our return,' he added. Dr. ElBaradei further informed the Council that the IAEA had advised the Coalition about the need for physical protection of the location of Iraq's declared nuclear material. He said the IAEA had also provided information about the location of radioactive sources, to enable safety and security measures to be taken. (IAEA)

  14. IAEA activities and experience in Iraq under the relevant resolutions of the United Nations Security Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United National Security Council Resolution 687 (1991) mandated, inter alia, the destruction of all weapons of mass destruction - chemical, biological, ballistic and nuclear - existing in Iraq, including equipment, facilities and materials used for their production. Resolution 715 (1991) adopted an open-ended plan for ongoing monitoring and verification aimed at preventing a reconstruction of Iraq's capabilities in the production of weapons of mass destruction. Under these resolutions the IAEA was given responsibility to implement the Security Council mandate in the nuclear area, with the assistance and co-operation of the United Nations Special Commission. The paper provides an overview of the IAEA's activities in Iraq under United Nations Security Council resolutions and offers some comments on the lessons to be learned. (author)

  15. Estimation of the net solar radiation in Iraq and it's relation with radiation and weather parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAO-56 Model, which is widely used in the world, was used to estimate the net Radiation (Rn) in 19 weather stations spread in Iraq for the time period (1980-2008). Linear Regression Equations were found fir Iraq between the mean monthly values of (Rn) and the mean monthly values of: Extraterrestrial Radiation (Ra), Total solar radiation (Rs), Net short wave radiation (R ns), Net Long wave radiation (R nl), Sun shine ratio (n/N), which gives a correlation coefficients ranged between (0.707-0.986). Multiple Regression Equation was found between the mean monthly values of (Rn) and the mean monthly values of all the following climatic elements [RH, Tmin, Tmax, Rs] for Iraq which gives a highly correlation coefficient reach (0.999). (authors)

  16. Otter Hunting and Trapping, a Traditional Practice of Marsh Arabs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of otter inhabit the marshes of southern Iraq: the European otter (Lutra lutra and the smooth-coated otter (endemic subspecies: Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli. Marsh Arabs have targeted otters since at least the 1950s. Nowadays, local marsh inhabitants are still heavily hunting otters for their fur or trapping their cubs to be raised as pets. These practices, together with habitat destruction (i.e., marshland drainage, represent primary threats to the otters’ survival in Iraq, and have caused a dramatic decline in otter populations. We report on traditional hunting and trapping methods in Iraq on European and smooth-coated otter, and on the consequences on the conservation of these endangered species.

  17. Analysis of Internet Usage Intensity in Iraq: An Ordered Logit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almas Heshmati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensity of Internet use is significantly influenced by government policies, people’s levels of income, education, employment and general development and economic conditions. Iraq has very low Internet usage levels compared to the region and the world. This study uses an ordered logit model to analyse the intensity of Internet use in Iraq. The results showed that economic reasons (internet cost and income level were key cause for low level usage intensity rates. About 68% of the population revealed that Internet access at homes is costly. Thus, it is no wonder that Internet cafés is the most commonly used mode of Internet use followed by broadband and dial-up connections. Iraq has to develop proper strategies to enhance the rate of Internet use in the country. These strategies need to focus on decreasing internet access prices, increasing awareness about the importance of the technology and internet education in schools and universities.

  18. Les Irakiens en Syrie et en Jordanie : régimes d'entrée et de séjour et effets sur les configurations migratoires (Iraqis in Syria and Jordan: Entry and Residency Regimes and Their Impact on Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kamel Doraî

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available L'émigration des Irakiens, qui remonte aux années 1990, s'inscrit dans la longue liste des migrations forcées qui marquent la région du Moyen-Orient à chaque nouvelle crise géopolitique. Elle est aussi le fruit de relations migratoires plus longues, qui s'appuient sur des logiques plurielles, contribuant à redéfinir les frontières entre l'Irak, la Syrie et la Jordanie. Ces deux derniers pays accueillent aujourd'hui l'essentiel des Irakiens qui quittent leur pays depuis le changement de régime, et jouent un rôle central dans l'architecture actuelle de la diaspora irakienne. Après avoir retracé les différentes phases d'arrivées des Irakiens dans ces deux pays, la question de la gestion de ce flux migratoire est traitée en montrant les convergences et les spécificités propres des politiques d'accueil mises en place.(Emigration of Iraqis, which began in the 1990s, is among the long list of forced emigrations in the Middle East, which occur with each new geopolitical crisis. It is also the result of long-term migratory patterns that have contributed to the redefinition of the boundaries between Iraq, Syria and Jordan. Today, Syria and Jordan are the destination for the majority of Iraqis fleeing their country since the regime change and as such they play a key role in shaping the Iraqi diaspora. After outlining the different phases of Iraqi emigration to Syria and Jordan, this article studies the policies put in place to deal with the waves of immigration.

  19. IRAQ 2003 (PART 2: THE ROAD TO BAGHDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopold Scholtz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The operational plansThe attack on Iraq, or Operation Iraqi Freedom as it was called, would be very different from its predecessor Operation Desert Storm, 12 years before. The main strategic difference was, of course, the fact that Desert Storm encompassed an enormous international military coalition, with ground, air and naval forces being supplied by America, Britain, France, Italy, Australia, Argentina, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Syria. Iraqi Freedom was shouldered by only two countries, the US and the UK, with Australia supplying a small contingent of SAS troops, the Czech Republic a platoon of chemical warfare troops and Spain a hospital ship.To drive the Iraqi occupying forces out of Kuwait in 1991, an enormous force of 15 divisions had been amassed. These had been organised into 3 American corps (XVIII Airborne Corps, consisting of two airborne divisions, a mechanised infantry division, as well as a French light armoured division; VII Corps, consisting of three US and one UK armoured divisions and one US mechanised infantry division; and a US Marine corps, consisting of two Marine divisions, a Saudi Arabian corps of two divisions, an Egyptian corps of two divisions, and a Syrian division.3 For Iraqi Freedom, only a single army corps (V, consisting of two mechanised infantry divisions and an airborne division, together with a marine division, an understrength composite British armoured division, and some smaller independent units, was available. And because of political wrangling, one mechanised infantry division arrived far too late on the battlefield to participate in the fighting. So, compared to 15 divisions in 1991, the job would now have to be done by only four. Nevertheless, with the new American weapons of precision and the extremely able Abrams tank, a repeat of Gulf War I was not really necessary.

  20. Investigation of depleted uranium contamination in south west of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of DU emanation for the first time contaminated certain areas in the south west region of Iraq after the second Gulf war (1991). These contaminated areas were discovered in 1994. Radioactive contamination was detected using the nuclear enterprise PCM5/1 in soil samples collected from two regions near by grazing lands. This study was done for assessment of DU contaminated soil in the regions under study. Materials and Methods: Portable detector was used for radiation measurement of the contaminated area. Samples from each region were selected and taken to Baghdad kept in plastic bags for gamma ray spectroscopy measurement. Gamma-ray spectroscopy system consists of high purity germanium detector surrounded by appropriate shield. The measurement of detector efficiency using (GDR) computer programs, supplied by Canberra Company was used to analyze gamma-ray spectrum. The activity of 234Th, 235U, 238Pa and other natural isotopes were measured. Results: The measurement by gamma x-ray spectrometry system showed that six samples were heavily contaminated with DU, because the presence of 243Pa and 235U peak and the percentage ratio between 235U/238U were less than 0.005, when both international mathematical methods, namely IAEA and Kosovo, were used. Because of existence of radiation equilibrium between 234Th and 234Pa, the measurements should be accurate Conclusion : The result showed that six of the samples were heavily contaminated with DU and there is a good agreement between the two methods. Because of the accuracy and ease of the Kosovo method, it is recommended for future investigations

  1. Risky Driving Behaviours among Medical Students in Erbil, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar P. Shabila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil, Iraq, and to explore the relationship between risky driving behaviours and perceptions of risky driving. Methods: This self-administered questionnaire-based survey was conducted from January to May 2014 among a random sample of 400 medical students at Hawler Medical University in Erbil. The questionnaire was designed to assess the frequency of engagement in 21 risky driving behaviours, the perceived risk of each behaviour and the preference for each behaviour as ranked on a 5-point scale. Results: A total of 386 students responded to the survey (response rate: 96.5%. Of these, 211 reported that they currently drove a vehicle (54.7%. Drivers most frequently engaged in the following behaviours: playing loud music (35.9%, speeding (30.4%, allowing front seat passengers to not wear seat belts (27.9% and using mobile phones (27.7%. Least frequent driving behaviours included not stopping at a red light (3.9%, driving while sleepy (4.4%, driving after a mild to moderate intake of alcohol (4.5% and drunk driving (6.4%. Mean risky driving behaviour scores were significantly higher among males (P 20-year-olds (P = 0.028. There was a significant positive relationship between the preference for risky behaviours and risky driving behaviours (beta = 0.44; P <0.001. Conclusion: Medical students in Erbil reported high frequencies of several serious risky driving behaviours. The preference for risky behaviours was found to be an important predictor of risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil.

  2. Engagement in mental health treatment among veterans returning from Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Stecker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tracy Stecker1,2, John Fortney3,4, Francis Hamilton1,2, Cathy D Sherbourne5, Icek Ajzen61Psychiatric Research Center, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH, USA; 2VA Health Services Research and Development, White River Junction Veterans Administration, White River Junction, VT, USA; 3VA Health Services Research and Development (HR S&D, Center for Mental Health and Outcomes Research, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, North Little Rock, AR, USA; 4Division of Health Services Research, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 5RAND, Santa Monica, CA, USA; 6Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USAObjectives: Many veterans return from combat experiencing a variety of mental health concerns. Previous research has documented a stigma associated with seeking treatment that interferes with the decision to seek treatment. This study, conceptualized using the theory of planned behavior, assessed beliefs about mental health treatment in order to understand mental health treatment seeking behavior among a group of returning National Guard soldiers who served in the war in Iraq.Methods: Participants were one hundred and fifty Operation Iraqi Freedom National Guard soldiers who screened positive for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder or alcohol abuse disorder on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing beliefs about mental health treatment and treatment-seeking behavior.Results: Beliefs related to symptom reduction and work were significantly related to mental health treatment-seeking behavior. Conclusions: Interventions developed to engage veterans into care must be directed toward cognitive factors that motivate treatment seeking in addition to traditionally targeted structural barriers.Keywords: treatment

  3. Calculation and mapping of the distribution of global and diffuse solar radiation in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For most applications, it is necessary to predict the amount of global and diffuse radiation arriving on a horizontal surface at any specified location. Several methods have been developed to estimate solar radiation using different atmospheric and physical parameters. In this paper an empirical formula has been established to predict the daily global radiation per month falling on a horizontal surface at twenty-seven locations in Iraq. The daily diffuse radiation averaged per month is estimated for the same locations using page's correlation. The results are plotted and analyzed on monthly basis on the map of Iraq. 6 tabs.; 4 figs.; 35 refs

  4. Establishing Justice in Iraq: A Journey into the Cradle of Civilization

    OpenAIRE

    Luther D. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In the spring of 2003, a multi-national coalition led by the United States invaded Iraq, beginning a conflict that has lasted for over five years. The principal asserted reasons for the invasion were to disarm Iraq of alleged weapons of mass destruction, to end Saddam Hussein’s support for terrorism, and to free Iraqis from Saddam’s dictatorial reign. A major component of the coalition’s multi-faceted offensive was to restore some semblance of order after removing Hussein from power. To this ...

  5. The maladies of water and war: addressing poor water quality in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2013-06-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions.

  6. The performance of the first Jordan Badia's solar powered refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are facing a significant challenge in Jordan's Badia region. Such challenge present us given that it will be environmentally protected with easy access to the refrigeration process to food and medical vaccines keeping at a reasonably and economical low cost. Solar cooling method that is generated from the sun as a substitute for batteries or electrical power is characteristic of its kind to store a power system for continued use. A pilot project of solar refrigerator was tested to collect technological data on a standard basis so the method control tests are accurate and precise. Solar refrigerator does not require electricity, which utilizes a combination of heat conduction and convection. In addition, it can be made from readily available material such as cardboard, sand, and recycled metal. It is constructed from two cylinders: an inner metal cylinder, fitted inside, and an outer cylinder that can be made of wood or plastic, etc, and organic material such as (sand, wool, or soil) placed in the left space between the two cylinders which is then saturated with water. As heat from the sun evaporates the water, the inner chamber is cooled to reduce and maintains the temperature at (6 degree C). (authors)

  7. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M R; Castor, S B; Robins, J W

    1982-04-01

    The Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits in accordance with criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Surface radiometric reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were used for overall evaluation of the quadrangle. Detailed rock sampling, geologic mapping, and examination of uranium deposits and occurrences were performed in areas suspected to be favorable. The northeast part of the McDermitt caldera within the quadrangle is favorable for volcanogenic deposits associated with the ring-fracture zone. The favorable area contains the Aurora uranium deposit, the Bretz mercury mine, and the Cottonwood Creek occurrence. The Triangle Ranch area and the Snake River Plain, both in the northeast part of the quadrangle, have environments that may be favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone but are considered unevaluated due to lack of subsurface data and lack of detailed investigations. Rocks in the remainder of the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits because of low uranium contents, basic to intermediate compositions, or lack of favorable structures.

  8. Mineral chemistry in dioritic hornblendites from Wadi Araba, southwest Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrar, Ghaleb

    1998-02-01

    The mineral chemistry of dioritic rocks from Wadi Araba, southwest Jordan, has been determined by electron microprobe, with special emphasis on the amphiboles. These are calcic amphiboles, according to Leake (1978), since all analyses have (Ca + Na)>1.34 and Na B<0.67. The observed chemical variations in the amphiboles are attributed to a combination of edenite, pargasite, hornblende and hastingsite end-member substitutions. Calculated average pressures of emplacement using four Al-in-hornblende barometers are 2.41 ± 1.33, 3.47 ± 1.60 and 4.52 ± 1.42 kbar for the pegmatitic diorite (PD), biotite-hornblende diorite (BHD) and diopside-hornblende diorite (DHD), respectively. The corresponding temperatures of crystallisation according to the Holland and Blundy (1994) thermometer are 730 ±40, 763 ± 37 and 783 ± 103°C. The variation of temperature of equilibration is almost within the uncertainty range of the applied thermometer. However, if this variation is real, the studied hornblende shows both temperature and pressure dependent substitutions. The calculated pressures fall within the estimated range (2.4 to 5.5 kbar), as deduced from the metamorphic grade of the metasedimentary rocks exposed at the same crustal level.

  9. English language education in Jordan: Some recent trends and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Madallh Alhabahba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to map out the status of English language teaching (ELT as practised in the Arab World and, specifically, in Jordan today. The study also aims to bring into focus significant issues that need to be addressed in ELT in the Arab World. This paper presents a review of the current status of English language education, with an emphasis on the need for urgent reforms in the teaching of English in the Arab World. Further, longitudinal data in respect to classroom and workplace English proficiency are presented. English language education seems to be up-to-date teacher-centred and bound to other issues such as teaching the textbook rather than focusing on developing lifelong strategies. There is a critical need for writing national standards for English language professional development programmes that should be based on the findings of sound research. The paper highlights the significance of teaching English language through observing and reviewing the current practices.

  10. The Private Sector's Role in limiting unemployment in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M.M.A. Aliqah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to define unemployment, and private sector, to know more about both, and to study the role of the private sector in limiting unemployment in Jordan in special. In a particular year the level of unemployment is determined by the level of aggregate demand for the goods and services which a country produces .if demand higher this reduces unemployment so the demand side approach to unemployment .so to expand demand through higher budget deficits and lower interest rates. But unfortunately unemployment cannot be reduced indefinitely by expand demand .for eventually the economy will run into bottle necks and labor shortage that point employers will increasingly raise wages to attract labor and there will all be increased union demands for higher wages .so demand will have to stop rising-either of its own or through policy action. Thus our ability to reduce unemployment is limited by the labor shortages which begin to appear as unemployment falls are features of the “supply-side of the economy and it is they which determine how unemployment can fall without creating inflationary pressures while demand management is important the key issue for employment policy is how reduce the level of unemployment at which inflationary pressures appear.

  11. An audit on public awareness of depression symptoms in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayer Al-Azzam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Depression is acommon mental health disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the level of public awareness regarding this illness, its symptoms, associated factors, available forms of treatment, and the attitude towards depressed people. Methods: A self administered questionnaire was filled in by approximately 5000 individuals selected from various regions of Jordan. Results: The majority of participants thought that depression is a treatable condition that can affect patient at any age, and may be controlled by the will power. Loss of interest in things and presence of negative feelings were the most commonly recognized symptoms of depression, while, unemployment and poverty were found to be the most recognized risk factors for depression. In addition, most participants considered support from family and friends (93.6% as well as exercise (80.4% to be the best available forms of depression treatment. Respondents found it acceptable to work, make friends with, or marry depressed individuals. The first choice persons for seeking help by most participants were family members and friends (49.8%. Conclusion: Collectively, the level of awareness of depression was acceptable. However, further efforts are necessary to establish public educational programs related to depression in order to raise awareness regarding the disease.

  12. Inorganic Chemical Composition of Swimming Pools in Amman-Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bety Saqarat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring was carried out during summer 2011 in three types of swimming pools in Amman-Jordan. Thirty six water samples, collected from three users type of swimming pools (adults, family and infants, were examined for its major ionic composition (HCO3-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4=, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, K+ and PO4+4 in addition to its BOD and COD content. All of the examined samples from the swimming pools water were acceptable according to the local and WHO standards. The type and number of users as well as the maintenance of the swimming pool water influenced the water quality. The results showed that there was a noticeable increase in NO3, PO4 and Cl than other ions. All of the examined samples from the swimming pools water were acceptable according to the local and WHO standards and although the water of the infant’s users changed frequently, it showed the highest concentration of most of the parameters and Adults’ pool showed the lowest.

  13. Geotechnical and mineralogical characteristics of marl deposits in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaqour, Fathi M.; Jarrar, Ghaleb; Hencher, Steve; Kuisi, Mostafa

    2008-10-01

    Marls and marly limestone deposits cover most of Northern Jordan, where Amman City and its suburbs are located. These deposits serve as foundations for most buildings and roads as well as fill material for structural back filling, especially road bases and sub-bases. The present study aims at investigating the geotechnical characteristics and mineral composition of the marl units of these deposits through field investigations and laboratory testing. Using X-ray diffraction technique along with chemical analysis, representative samples of marl horizons were tested for mineral composition, and for a set of index and geotechnical properties including: specific gravity, grain size, Atterberg limits, Proctor compaction and shear strength properties. The test results show a positive linear relationship as expected between the clay content and both liquid and plastic limits. The tests results also show an inverse linear relationship between the clay content and the maximum dry density in both standard and modified compaction. This is attributed to the adsorption of water by the clay minerals. The relationship is more prominent in the case of modified compaction test. The results also indicate a similar relationship for the angle of internal friction. No clear correlation between cohesion and clay content was apparent.

  14. Fraud Risk Factors and Audit Programme Modifications: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modar Abdullatif

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how audit firms in Jordan deal with the presence of fraud risk factors in audit clients. In doing so, the study seeks to explore which fraud risk factors are more important to Jordanianauditors, and how Jordanian auditors consider modifying their audit programmes when fraud risk factors are present in clients. The study uses a structured questionnaire that was administered to seniorlevel auditors in the largest Jordanian audit firms. The findings show that almost all of the 20 fraud risk factors included in the questionnaire were only slightly important (if not unimportant, a finding that is arguably alarming. The perceived importance of modifying the audit programme in the presence of each fraud risk factor was related to the perceived importance of the fraud risk factor itself. However, changes in the nature and extent of audit procedures were more important than changes in the timing of the procedures or the members of the audit team. The most important fraud risk factors were related to the characteristics of management and its attitude towards the audit, while the least important fraud risk factors were related to the difficulties in the client’s financial performance. Factor analysis found that the fraud risk factors could be classified into four separate groups. Possible interpretations of the findings were discussed, such as considering the Jordanian business environment characteristics, and the findings were compared to those of extant international studies.

  15. Energy demand, poverty and the urban environment in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some insights into the prime problems of energy and related environmental issues as well as urbanisation in Jordan. The country has very limited natural resources: water is scarce; arable land is limited; and fossil-fuel sources are few. Moreover, the population is increasing rapidly. Hence, problems are arising. During the last 30 years, the country has experienced vast changes in its infrastructure with respect to the housing, urbanisation, commerce, agriculture and industry. Such developments have led to increasing demographic stresses: unemployment has increased and poverty is experienced by more than half of the population. The pressures have resulted in a high percentage of the population moving from rural to urban areas and so society is becoming less self-sufficient. At present, energy consumption in the residential sector accounts for about one quarter of the kingdom's fuel consumption. Kerosene, bottled LPG, diesel fuel and electricity are the main forms of energy used by households, but kerosene is still the dominant fuel because about 83% of households depend on it for space and water heating. The use of open fires and/or portable stoves has led to an increasing number of people being killed each year by suffocation or suffering health problems due to the inhalation of fumes and gaseous pollutants. Thus a national plan to achieve energy thrift and protect the environment, as well as accomplish the more rational utilisation of the limited natural resources available, is urgently needed and should be enacted soon. (author)

  16. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits in accordance with criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Surface radiometric reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were used for overall evaluation of the quadrangle. Detailed rock sampling, geologic mapping, and examination of uranium deposits and occurrences were performed in areas suspected to be favorable. The northeast part of the McDermitt caldera within the quadrangle is favorable for volcanogenic deposits associated with the ring-fracture zone. The favorable area contains the Aurora uranium deposit, the Bretz mercury mine, and the Cottonwood Creek occurrence. The Triangle Ranch area and the Snake River Plain, both in the northeast part of the quadrangle, have environments that may be favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone but are considered unevaluated due to lack of subsurface data and lack of detailed investigations. Rocks in the remainder of the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits because of low uranium contents, basic to intermediate compositions, or lack of favorable structures

  17. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu Aqoulah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93 in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004. The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection.

  18. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu Aqoulah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93 in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004. The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection.

  19. Approximately -Jordan Homomorphisms on Banach Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi T; Kaboli Gharetapeh S; Gordji MEshaghi

    2009-01-01

    Let , and let be two rings. An additive map is called -Jordan homomorphism if for all . In this paper, we establish the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of -Jordan homomorphisms on Banach algebras. Also we show that (a) to each approximate 3-Jordan homomorphism from a Banach algebra into a semisimple commutative Banach algebra there corresponds a unique 3-ring homomorphism near to , (b) to each approximate -Jordan homomorphism between two commutative Banach algebras there corresp...

  20. Genome Sequence of Geobacillus sp. Strain ZGt-1, an Antibacterial Peptide-Producing Bacterium from Hot Springs in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhalili, Rawana N; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Canbäck, Björn

    2015-07-23

    This paper reports the draft genome sequence of the firmicute Geobacillus sp. strain ZGt-1, an antibacterial peptide producer isolated from the Zara hot spring in Jordan. This study is the first report on genomic data from a thermophilic bacterial strain isolated in Jordan.