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Sample records for algeria iraq jordan

  1. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, L.

    2010-01-01

    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  2. Border Interdiction in Counterinsurgency: A Look at Algeria, Rhodesia, and Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bairstow, Timothy M

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis examines three case studies of border interdiction in insurgency: the French in Algeria from 1954 to 1962, the Rhodesian experience from 1965 to 1980, and the current Coalition experience in Iraq...

  3. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya; Violence de la rente petroliere. Algerie, Irak, Libye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L. [CERI-Sciences Po, 75006 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  4. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  5. Nutritional situation among Syrian refugees hosted in Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon: cross sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S M Moazzem; Leidman, Eva; Kingori, James; Al Harun, Abdullah; Bilukha, Oleg O

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing armed conflict in Syria has caused large scale displacement. Approximately half of the population of Syria have been displaced including the millions living as refugees in neighboring countries. We sought to assess the health and nutrition of Syrian refugees affected by the conflict. Representative cross-sectional surveys of Syrian refugees were conducted between October 2 and November 30, 2013 in Lebanon, April 12 and May 1, 2014 in Jordan, and May 20 and 31, 2013 in Iraq. Surveys in Lebanon were organized in four geographical regions (North, South, Beirut/Mount Lebanon and Bekaa). In Jordan, independent surveys assessed refugees residing in Za'atri refugee camp and refugees residing among host community nationwide. In Iraq, refugees residing in Domiz refugee camp in the Kurdistan region were assessed. Data collected on children aged 6 to 59 months included anthropometric indicators, morbidity and feeding practices. In Jordan and Lebanon, data collection also included hemoglobin concentration for children and non-pregnant women aged 15 to 49 years, anthropometric indicators for both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and household level indicators such as access to safe water and sanitation. The prevalence of global acute malnutrition among children 6 to 59 months of age was less than 5 % in all samples (range 0.3-4.4 %). Prevalence of acute malnutrition among women 15 to 49 years of age, defined as mid-upper arm circumference less than 23.0 cm, was also relatively low in all surveys (range 3.5-6.5 %). For both children and non-pregnant women, anemia prevalence was highest in Za'atri camp in Jordan (48.4 % and 44.8 %, respectively). Most anemia was mild or moderate; prevalence of severe anemia was less than or equal to 1.1 % in all samples of children and women. Despite the ongoing conflict, results from all surveys indicate that global acute malnutrition is relatively low in the assessed Syrian refugee populations. However, prevalence of anemia

  6. Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

  7. Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    Algeria is the 2nd largest state in Africa with a population of 22 million, 45% of which are urban and 57% under the age of 20. Almost all Algerians are Muslim. Education has become a real priority in Algeria and there are now more than 5 million students. Emphasis has begun to be placed on the establishment of technical institutes for training in skill areas needed to supply the nation's quickly expanding industrial sector. Presently there is a shortage of housing. The government of Algeria is centralized with guidance on fundamental issues coming from the periodic congresses of the FLN party and from its central committee between congresses. Laws remaining from the French colonial system are being amended to meet current Algerian needs. There has been relative political stability since 1965. Principal domestic objectives of the Algerian government are to achieve economic development through industrialization and increased agricultural productivity as well as raising the standard of living. The government basically controls the planning, development, and administration of the Algerian economy. The current 5-year economic development plan is financed heavily by hydrocarbon income. Despite the production of large quantities of food, Algeria must import 1/3 of its food to feed its growing population. However, at the same time, they provide a substantial amount of assistance to many of their neighbors. The armed forces are comprised of about 135,000 members and Algeria is considered a leading military power in the region. Its foreign policy is considered 1 of independence and nonalignment, and Algeria advocates the securing of a greater share of the world's wealth for developing countries by getting higher prices for the raw materials they produce. Relations with the US have improved since 1969 following the diplomatic break in realtions during the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. Most of the major political differences have been resolved.

  8. Algeria

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    newly appointed managers adopted the Algerian program with zeal and purpose. By 2006, some half-dozen IDRC-supported projects (amounting to about. CA$1.2 million) were active in Algeria. They included follow-up progress in multi- disciplinary and participatory approaches in ecohealth and resource management;.

  9. Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Jordan is a country of 91,000 sq km, only 11% of which is arable. The 1980 population was 2.8 million, growing at 3.65% per year. Most of the people are of Arab stock, including between 1 and 1 1/4 million Palestinians. 95% of the people are Sunni Muslims. The national language is Arabic, and literacy is 71%. The infant mortality rate in 1984 was 50/1000, and life expectancy is 64 years. Suffrage is universal. The 1986 gross domestic product was $4.3 billion, per capita $1530; the growth rate was 2.6%. 80% of the people are employed in agriculture and 20% in industry. The major resources are phosphate and potash. The dinar is worth $0.35. Jordan's economy grew during the 1960s and 1970s, and it achieved the 10% growth rate called for in its 1st 5-year plan (1976-80). The 2nd 5-year plan saw a slow-down in the economy, and the 3rd 5-year plan aims at a growth rate of only 5.1% and the creation of 97,000 new jobs. A major weakness of the economy is its dependence on money from abroad -- $0.5 billion from other Arab countries, wages of expatriate Jordanians working in the Gulf states, and $1.7 billion in US aid between 1952 and 1987. 1986 exports amounted to $732 million, imports to $2.4 billion. Jordan was settled by Canaanites around 2000 BC and was ruled successively by Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Turks, and from 1919 to 1946 Britain. The independent Hashemite Kingdom, a constitutional monarchy, was founded in 1946. War with Israel ended with the establishment of the present official border in 1949, but Israel has occupied the West Bank of the Jordan since 1967, and the militant pro-Syrian Palestinian fedayeen maintained a guerrilla war within Jordan until 1973. In 1974 King Hussein recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization as the sole representative of the Palestinian people. However, by reconvening Parliament in 1984 with representatives from the West Bank, the King contradicted his recognition of the claims of the Palestine Liberation

  10. Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alazard-Toux, N.; Mathieu, Y

    2003-07-01

    Although Iraq has been producing oil for many years, its turbulent history has prevented it from fully tapping the resources in place. Now in the forefront of the energy and geopolitical scene, Iraq appears to many observers to be a key element of the world oil market, now and in the future. (author)

  11. Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, N.; Mathieu, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Although Iraq has been producing oil for many years, its turbulent history has prevented it from fully tapping the resources in place. Now in the forefront of the energy and geopolitical scene, Iraq appears to many observers to be a key element of the world oil market, now and in the future. (author)

  12. Iraqi Refugees in Jordan: Legal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    OLWAN, Mohamed Y.

    2009-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) Jordan has traditionally been one of the regions most welcoming countries toward Iraqis. The country received several flows of Iraqis during the last four decades, but most of Iraqis residing in Jordan fled the precarious situation prevailing in Iraq following the U.S. –led invasion of Iraq in March 2003. Jordan is not a party to the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refuges or the 1967 Protocol on Refugee...

  13. Algeria; Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-04-01

    Algeria disposes of important fossil energy reserves: 4250 Gm{sup 3} for natural gas and 1300 Mt for oil. Algeria has developed a large capacity of refining on 4 sites: 502700 barrels a day. In 2001 the production reached 67 Mt for crude oil and 32 Mt for oil by-products. The same year the exports reached 36 Mt for liquid hydrocarbons and 21 Mt for oil by-products. In 2001 the production of natural gas reached 79 Gm{sup 3} of which about 78 % were exported (58 Gm{sup 3}). The main clients are Italy (46 %), Spain (18 %), France (18 %), Tunisia (7 %), Belgium (4 %) and Portugal (4 %). Algeria has a low level of energy consumption: 0,8 Tep (equivalent ton of oil) per inhabitant and 670 kWh/inhabitant for electricity. (A.C.)

  14. Republic of Iraq: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-16

    boundaries, which for the most part are without historical basis." The borders of the contemporary state of Iraq were established by the Sykes - Picot ... agreement in 1916, which in effect divided up the Ottomon Empire in the first World War. Iraq’s borders w.kiith Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Syria...years later, Baghdad was restored to the Ottoman Empire only to be lost again. •6: 26) As a result of a series of secret agreements , the Ottoman

  15. EMME (Iraq)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — EMME is a program specific M&E tool for the Iraq Mission that is managed by RTI and provides access to project statuses and success stories for USAID/Iraq Local...

  16. Iraq's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.

    1998-01-01

    The large oil reserves of Iraq make it an important player in the long-term political energy world. This article briefly reviews the oil industry''s development and current status in Iraq and discusses the planned oil and gas field development. Finally there is a political discussion regarding the future of Iraq in terms of religion, race and neighbouring countries. (UK)

  17. The Impact of Syrian Refugees on the Labor Market in Neighboring Countries: Empirical Evidence from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Fakih, Ali; Ibrahim, May

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes time-sensitive data on a humanitarian crisis in the Middle East. It aims to assess the impact of the steep influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan on the country's labor market since the onset of the conflict in Syria (March 2011). As of August 2014, nearly 3 million registered Syrians have sought refuge in neighboring countries (Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Turkey), according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Jordan and Lebanon are hosting the majo...

  18. Local Security, Policing, and Counterinsurgency: Lessons from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    wisdom of my advisor, Dr. Paul Melshen. I would also like to thank Dr. Robert Antis and Colonel James Dickens , USA, who taught me so much about strategy...Eagleburger, Vernon Jordan, Edwin Meese III, Sandra Day O’Connor, Leon Panetta, William Perry, Charles Robb, and Alan Simpson, The Iraq Study Group...Edwin Meese III, Sandra Day O’Connor, Leon Panetta, William Perry, Charles Robb, and Alan Simpson. The Iraq Study Group Report. Washington, DC

  19. Algeria and the middle east petrol, external commerce, finances and economic development; Algerie et Moyen-Orient petrole, commerce exterieur, finances et developpement economique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelatif, R.

    1998-07-01

    This work focusses on the Middle-East and North Africa areas. The geopolitical field comprises 11 countries (274 million habitants) largely representative of the area under study (Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Syria, Turkey). Some countries are excluded because of the lack of available data (Morocco, Tunisia, Gulf Arab Emirates, Yemen, Oman..). Israel, which is the only industrialized country, should have been excluded to keep the homogeneity of the sample but has been kept up as a reference point to appreciate the chances of realization of the development projects discussed at the Casablanca, Amman and Cairo conferences. The first part treats of: the organization of foreign trade (GATT, OMC), the abatement of custom taxes, the development of world trade, the level and structure of exports and imports of the 11 selected countries, the trade terms, the geographical trend of trades. The petroleum exports dependence of most countries is emphasized by the 1984 and 1992 concentration index calculations. The weakness of intra-regional trade, except for Turkey, Egypt and Jordan, is also underlined. These three countries are also the only ones that have had commercial relations with Israel. Egypt and Jordan have stopped these relations in April 1997 for political reasons. The main exchanges of all these countries take place with industrialized countries. In the second part, the socio-economic development problems in relation with the foreign trade are analyzed: balance of trade, balance of payments, balance of capital and finances, exterior debt, monetary reserves, budget imbalances, inflation, banking system development etc.. (J.S.)

  20. Roles and Effects of Media in the Middle East and the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mady, Ahmed M

    2005-01-01

    .... The countries included in the survey are Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain...

  1. Geothermal resources in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saibi, Hakim [Laboratory of Geothermics, Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The geothermal resources in Algeria are of low-enthalpy type. Most of these geothermal resources are located in the northeastern of the country. There are more than 240 thermal springs in Algeria. Three geothermal zones have been delineated according to some geological and thermal considerations: (1) The Tlemcenian dolomites in the northwestern part of Algeria, (2) carbonate formations in the northeastern part of Algeria and (3) the sandstone Albian reservoir in the Sahara (south of Algeria). The northeastern part of Algeria is geothermally very interesting. Two conceptual geothermal models are presented, concerning the northern and southern part of Algeria. Application of gas geothermometry to northeastern Algerian gases suggests that the reservoir temperature is around 198 C. The quartz geothermometer when applied to thermal springs gave reservoir temperature estimates of about 120 C. The thermal waters are currently used in balneology and in a few experimental direct uses (greenhouses and space heating). The total heat discharge from the main springs and existing wells is approximately 642 MW. The total installed capacity from producing wells and thermal springs is around 900 MW. (author)

  2. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Malek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  3. IDRC in Algeria

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    trial's positive results prompted Algeria's. Ministry of Health and Population to develop a strategy and plan of action for e-health services in the country. Quality science ... other parts of the word. The Wikipedia pages on the Arab world that do exist were more often than not written by contributors from non-Arab countries.

  4. IDRC in Algeria

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    tion is nomadic or semi-nomadic, many citizens don't have access to adequate health care. With support from IDRC, the Centre de Développement des. Technologies Avancées developed soft- ware and a computer-based platform to connect two hospitals in the capital,. Algiers, with two remote hospitals in southern Algeria.

  5. Architectural Guide of Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Architectural and cultural guidebook for Jordan that also includes a view on the Syrian refugee situation, especially in the large UNHCR camp of Zaatari. The guide book is a preparatory study for a field trip our master studio undertook to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Fall 2016....

  6. Special Education in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  7. Meeting report:Iraq oil ministry needs assessment workshop.3-5 Septemner 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2006-11-01

    Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and Sandia National Laboratories met with mid-level representatives from Iraq's oil and gas companies and with former employees and senior managers of Iraq's Ministry of Oil September 3-5 in Amman, Jordan. The goals of the workshop were to assess the needs of the Iraqi Oil Ministry and industry, to provide information about capabilities at DOE and the national laboratories relevant to Iraq, and to develop ideas for potential projects.

  8. Dendroagricultural Signal in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchan, R.; Kherchouche, D.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Oudjehih, B.; Touchane, H.; Slimani, S.; Meko, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Dalila Kherchouche2, Kevin J. Anchukaitis3, Bachir Oudjehih2, Hayat Touchan4, Said Slimani5, and David M. Meko1Drought is one of the main natural factors in declining tree-ring growth and the production of agricultural crops in Algeria. Here we will address the variability of growing conditions for wheat in Algeria with climatic data and a tree-ring reconstruction of January-June precipitation from ten Pinus halepensis tree-ring chronologies. A regression-based reconstruction equation explains up to 74% of the variance of precipitation in the 1970-2011 calibration period and cross validates well. Classification of dry years by the 30% percentile of observed precipitation (131 mm) yields a maximum length of drought of five years (1877-1881) and increasing frequency of dry years in the late 20th and early 21stcenturies. A correlation-based sensitivity analysis shows a similar pattern of dependence of tree-growth and wheat production on monthly and seasonal precipitation, but contrasting patterns of dependence on temperature. The patterns are interpreted by reference to phenology, growth phases, and - for wheat agricultural practices. We apply these interpretations to understand possible impacts of climate variability on the agricultural productivity of past civilizations in the Mediterranean. 2Institute of Veterinary and Agronomy Sciences, The University Hadj-Lakhdar, Batna 05000, Algeria, d.kherchouche@yahoo.fr and oudjehihbachir@yahoo.fr3University of Arizona, ENR2 Building, 1064 E Lowell Street, PO Box 210137, Tucson, AZ 85721-0137, kanchukaitis@email.arizona.edu4Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo-Syria, dr.htouchan@gmail.com5Faculty of Biological Sciences and Agronomy, The University Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi Ouzou 15000, Algeria, slimanisaid@yahoo.fr1Laboratory of Tree Ring Research, The University of Arizona, 1215 E. Lowell St. Bldg. 45B, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA, dmeko@ltrr.arizona.edu

  9. Fuel gases in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arachiche, B.; Elandaloussi, H.

    1996-01-01

    For a country like Algeria, fuel gases represent an important economical challenge. To answer the increasing energy demand in the transportation sector, the use of fuel gases allows to preserve the petroleum reserves and to create specific industrial structures devoted to LPG-f (liquefied petroleum gas-fuel) and NGV (natural gas for vehicles). This paper presents the energy policy of Algeria, its reserves, production, and exportations of hydrocarbons and the internal rational use of energy sources according to its economic and environmental policy and to its internal needs. The energy consumption of Algeria in the transportation sector represents 2/3 of the petroleum products consumed in the internal market and follows a rapid increase necessary to the socio-economic development of the country. The Algerian experience in fuel gases is analysed according to the results of two successive experimentation periods for the development of NGV before and after 1994, and the resulting transportation and distribution network is described. The development of LPG-f has followed also an experimental phase for the preparation of regulation texts and a first statement of the vehicles conversion to LPG-f is drawn with its perspectives of development according to future market and prices evolutions. (J.S.)

  10. Algeria embraces globalisation and liberalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Algeria's culture of state monopoly and single party rule has been set aside as the country appears to have resolutely chosen globalisation and liberalisation of its markets. The 2-page article is followed by an interview with the Algerian Minister of Energy and President of OPEC for 2008, explaining the energy policy of Algeria

  11. Algeria embraces globalisation and liberalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2008-07-15

    Algeria's culture of state monopoly and single party rule has been set aside as the country appears to have resolutely chosen globalisation and liberalisation of its markets. The 2-page article is followed by an interview with the Algerian Minister of Energy and President of OPEC for 2008, explaining the energy policy of Algeria.

  12. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1993-11-01

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  13. Jordan Krall's speculative fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubinsky, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    Jordan Krall is one of the most interesting writers in American speculative fiction. This article studies the way Krall redefines the tropes and frames of classical dystopian fiction and references, turning them into an idiosyncratic construction.......Jordan Krall is one of the most interesting writers in American speculative fiction. This article studies the way Krall redefines the tropes and frames of classical dystopian fiction and references, turning them into an idiosyncratic construction....

  14. Woman in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Górecka, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    According to Amnesty International reports, Jordan is the country with the best human rights record in the Middle-Eastern region. Local and international human rights organizations are allowed to publish and disseminate critical reports of Jordan’s policy towards obedience to human rights; and local groups - such as the Arab Organization for Human Rights -are officially registered in Jordan.2 Jordan’s active role in promoting political reforms in Arab League’s forum and her level-headed appro...

  15. The Jordan Curve Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Institute, Calcutta. Apart from mathematics, he likes painting and reading. Unlike most others he dislikes computers. Ritabrata Munshi. Introduction. In this two-part article we will consider one of the classi- cal theorems of mathematics, the Jordan curve theorem. It states that a simple closed curve (i.e., a closed curve which.

  16. IDRC in Jordan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    their health. In Jordan, however, people can access, on average, only one-fifth of this amount. With support from IDRC, the Inter-Islamic Network on Water. Resources Development and Manage - ment built affordable household systems to treat greywater — wastewater collected from laundry tubs, sinks, and showers.

  17. Novikov-Jordan algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Dzhumadil'daev, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Algebras with identity $(a\\star b)\\star (c\\star d) -(a\\star d)\\star(c\\star b)$ $=(a,b,c)\\star d-(a,d,c)\\star b$ are studied. Novikov algebras under Jordan multiplication and Leibniz dual algebras satisfy this identity. If algebra with such identity has unit, then it is associative and commutative.

  18. Households at Pella, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    The excavation of six courtyard houses at Pella in the Jordan Valley, destroyed in a massive earthquake in the mid-eighth century AD, gives an exceptional opportunity to study a wide range of objectives from daily life within a secure archaeological context. The recovery of detailed information...

  19. Saddam is Iraq: Iraq is Saddam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    The Authors ............................................................................................... iii Introduction ...Jerrold M. Post, M.D.2 and Amatzia Baram, Ph.D.3 Introduction Identified as a member of the “axis of evil” by President George W. Bush, Saddam...This assessment draws extensively on “Saddam Hussein of Iraq: A Political Pschology Profile” by Jerrold M. Post, M.D. presented in testimony to

  20. Humanitarian situation in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne ten Veen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing violence is severely constraining the humanitarian space and making it next to impossible to deliver emergency relief to many vulnerable groups in the worst-affected areas of central Iraq.

  1. SESAME in Jordan

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Gaetano; Attal, Maher; Makahleh, Firas; Shehab, Maher M; Varnasseri, Seadat

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the status of SESAME is presented. SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) is an Independent Intergovernmental Organization developed and officially established under the auspices of UNESCO. It involves at the present the following Member States: Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey and United Arab Emirates. Moreover the following States are Observer of SESAME Council: France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Russian Federation, Sweden, UK and United States of America. SESAME will become a major international research center in the Middle East, located in Allan, Jordan. The machine design is based on a 2.5 GeV 3rd generation Light Source with an emittance of 26 nm.rad and 11 straights for insertion devices. The conceptual design of the accelerator complex has been frozen and the engineering design is started. The Phase I scientific program for SESAME has also been finalized and it foresees...

  2. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    .... Iraq's industrial sector was created, in large part, as a result of government efforts to diversify the economy through economic development projects using the proceeds from Iraq's oil wealth and borrowed funds...

  4. Jordan Isomorphisms on Nest Subalgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of Jordan isomorphisms on nest subalgebras of factor von Neumann algebras. It is shown that every Jordan isomorphism ϕ between the two nest subalgebras algMβ and algMγ is either an isomorphism or an anti-isomorphism.

  5. Households at Pella, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    The excavation of six courtyard houses at Pella in the Jordan Valley, destroyed in a massive earthquake in the mid-eighth century AD, gives an exceptional opportunity to study a wide range of objectives from daily life within a secure archaeological context. The recovery of detailed information...... about the layout of buildings and the contextual origin of the many domestic objects recovered permit a full reconstruction of life in the household, especially the use of space. Generally, the upstairs area served as the primary living quarters, whereas the ground floor was used to house valuable...

  6. Geophysical investigations in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, R.L.; Andreasen, G.E.; Gettings, M.E.; El-Kaysi, K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of geophysical investigations have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical investigations directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.

  7. Jordan triple systems by the grid approach

    CERN Document Server

    Neher, Erhard

    1987-01-01

    Grids are special families of tripotents in Jordan triple systems. This research monograph presents a theory of grids including their classification and coordinization of their cover. Among the applications given are - classification of simple Jordan triple systems covered by a grid, reproving and extending most of the known classification theorems for Jordan algebras and Jordan pairs - a Jordan-theoretic interpretation of the geometry of the 27 lines on a cubic surface - structure theories for Hilbert-triples and JBW*-triples, the Jordan analogues of Hilbert-triples and W*-algebras which describe certain symmetric Banach manifolds. The notes are essentially self-contained and independent of the structure theory of Jordan algebras and Jordan pairs. They can be read by anyone with a basic knowledge in algebraic geometry or functional analysis. The book is intended to serve both as a reference for researchers in Jordan theory and as an introductory textbook for newcomers to the subject.

  8. Seismic Performance of Masonry Buildings in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    F. Lazzali; S. Bedaoui

    2012-01-01

    Structural performance and seismic vulnerability of masonry buildings in Algeria are investigated in this paper. Structural classification of such buildings is carried out regarding their structural elements. Seismicity of Algeria is briefly discussed. Then vulnerability of masonry buildings and their failure mechanisms in the Boumerdes earthquake (May, 2003) are examined.

  9. The status of photovoltaic energy in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, A.

    1991-01-01

    Algeria has climatic conditions favourable for the use of renewable forms of energy, particularly solar energy. Average solar radiation is approximately 6,000 Wh/m 2 , with a sunlight duration exceeding 3,000 hr/yr. Status of photovoltaic energy in Algeria is described. 1 fig

  10. Reemerging threat of epidemic typhus in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrani, K; Fournier, P E; Dalichaouche, M; Tebbal, S; Aouati, A; Raoult, D

    2004-08-01

    We report a case of epidemic typhus in a patient from the Batna region of Algeria, who presented with generalized febrile exanthema. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by serological cross-adsorption followed by Western blotting. Our report emphasizes the threat of epidemic typhus in the highlands of Algeria.

  11. A survey of photovoltaic activities in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maafi, A.

    1999-10-01

    This paper summarises the activities in pholovoltaics (PV) in Algeria, for the last fifteen years. The main activities which are reported are related to PV power systems programs, research education and market penetration. Concluding remarks recommend the transition from demonstrating small projects to large scale ones in order to promote and develop PV technology in Algeria. (author)

  12. Algeria | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2005, we resumed our research support in Algeria through grants to improve health care in remote areas. Our support helped develop software and a computer-based. platform to connect two hospitals in the capital of Algiers with two remote hospitals in southern Algeria. The experiment helped rural doctors upgrade their ...

  13. Developing Iraq's mental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Hamada I; Everett, Anita

    2007-10-01

    As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mental health program. However, the lack of an existing mental health plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mental health policy.

  14. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2011-01-01

    the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased......Using data from an occupational medical health surveillance program, we studied the associations between mental stressors and social support and the two outcome measures postdeployment psychological distress and multiple physical symptoms among Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. The study was cross......-sectional and questionnaire-based with soldiers returning from the mission as the target group. Witnessing atrocities, fear of being physically harmed, feeling of insecurity, feeling of meaninglessness, and having been in touch with prisoners were associated with both outcome measures. In conclusion, our findings support...

  15. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Using data from an occupational medical health surveillance program, we studied the associations between mental stressors and social support and the two outcome measures postdeployment psychological distress and multiple physical symptoms among Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. The study was cross......-sectional and questionnaire-based with soldiers returning from the mission as the target group. Witnessing atrocities, fear of being physically harmed, feeling of insecurity, feeling of meaninglessness, and having been in touch with prisoners were associated with both outcome measures. In conclusion, our findings support...... the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased...

  16. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  17. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, M.N.S.

    1997-01-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ''digital and analogue''. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in (μR/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author)

  18. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Database on the geothermal resources of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedaid, Fatima Zohra [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables, B.P. 62, route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah, Alger (Algeria)

    2007-06-15

    The paper describes a database on the low-temperature geothermal resources of Algeria that includes information on thermal springs and wells, a description of hot water resources, and thematic maps. (author)

  20. May 2003 Boumerdes and Algiers, Algeria Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A destructive earthquake of magnitude Mw = 6.8 hit the region of Boumerdes and Algiers (Algeria) on May 21, 2003. This is among the strongest seismic events of the...

  1. October 1980 El Asnam, Algeria Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 7.3 magnitude earthquake killed 5,000 people and caused severe damage. Location: Northern Algeria. Damage: $3,000 million. About 9,000 were injured. Extensive...

  2. Estimation of Okun Coefficient for Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    KORI YAHIA, Abdellah

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the presence of Okun’s (1962) relationship for Algeria for the 1970- 2015 period. Two methodologies are employed to estimate the Okun coefficient: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) linear model and a Bayesian Normal Linear Regression model. The results indicate an Okun coefficient of about -0.2 which suggests some rigidity of the labour market in Algeria.

  3. Learning from the Jordan Compact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Lenner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the implementation of the Jordan Compact offers three key lessons: governmental approval is important but not sufficient, the incorporation of critical voices is crucial, and meeting numeric targets is not the same as achieving underlying goals.

  4. Pediatric nephrology practice in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Akl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of pediatric nephrology in a developing country such as Jordan is governed by social, cultural, and economic issues. The prevalence of consanguinity contributes to the emergence of rare heredofamilial disorders and congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract. Epigenetic factors modify underlying genetic defect predisposing to symptomatic crystalluria. Future research should be directed at prevention.

  5. Dirac, Jordan and quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrigol, O.

    1985-01-01

    The case of two principal physicists of quantum mechanics is specially chose: Paul Dirac and Pascual Jordan. They gave a signification and an importance very different to the notion of quantum field, and in particular to the quantized matter wave one. Through their formation and motivation differences, such as they are expressed in their writings, this deep difference is tentatively understood [fr

  6. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, is increasingly exhibiting peaceful competition but continues to be riven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting...

  7. When Will We Leave Iraq?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, William

    2004-01-01

    .... military forces to depart Iraq and when that departure might occur. To determine the ends United States policy documents were reviewed along with speeches and interviews conducted by administration officials...

  8. Thallium poisoning from eating contaminated cake--Iraq, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-19

    Thallium is an odorless, tasteless, heavy metal formerly used in rodenticides and still used in some manufacturing processes (e.g., electronics, pharmaceuticals, and glass). Thallium also has been used for intentional poisonings. Acute thallium poisoning produces gastrointestinal symptoms and signs, such as vomiting and acute abdominal pain, in the first few hours after ingestion, and initially is indistinguishable from other causes of acute gastrointestinal toxicity. However, within several days of ingestion, acute thallium poisoning often produces neurologic symptoms, such as extreme pain and acute muscle weakness ascending from the lower extremities, consistent with heavy metal toxicity. On January 22, 2008, 10 of 12 members in two families in Baghdad, Iraq, developed gastrointestinal symptoms; four of those 10 persons subsequently died from acute thallium poisoning, and five developed neurologic symptoms but survived. The Jordan Field Epidemiology Training Program investigated this cluster at the request of the World Health Organization (WHO) representative in Iraq. The preliminary investigation indicated this was an intentional poisoning, and law enforcement officials began a criminal investigation. Physicians who see the sudden onset of painful peripheral neuropathy and hair loss in patients should consider the possibility of thallium poisoning.

  9. [Status quo and progress of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yisheng

    2015-10-01

    The development of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria and realistic working status in recent years is in- troduced. From five aspects, including general condition of acupuncture in Algeria, clinical application and analysis, of acupuncture, promotion and publicity of acupuncture, existing problem and deficiency, and awards and honor, the status quo and progress of Chinese acupuncture in Algeria are discussed in detail.

  10. Environmental Issues in Jordan, Solutions and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Nidal A.   Hadadin; Zeyad S.   Tarawneh

    2007-01-01

    Jordans natural resources are limited to support population in a sustainable manner. However, its environment is exposed to a number of threats. In order to best explain Jordan's environmental difficulties, it would be prudent to focus individually on each of these major concerns: water shortages, agriculture/land and air pollution. This study focuses on the environmental problems in Jordan and has addressed the process of reversing environmental decline. A true foundation of environmental pr...

  11. The changing epidemiology of diphtheria in Jordan*

    OpenAIRE

    Khuri-Bulos, N.; Hamzah, Y.; Sammerrai, S. M.; Shehabi, A.; Hamed, R.; Arnaout, M. A.; Turk, J.; Qubain, H.

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of diphtheria used to occur regularly in Jordan, the last such outbreak being in 1977-78. Since that time, a massive immunization programme targeted at pre-school-age children has been markedly successful. Hence, when an outbreak of diphtheria occurred in 1982-83, it was unexpected. Of the 35 patients who were treated at the Jordan University Hospital, two died and the remaining 33 recovered uneventfully. Contrary to our findings in previous diphtheria epidemics in Jordan, this outb...

  12. Towards sustainable water management in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2012-12-01

    Algeria aspires to protect its water resources and to provide a sustainable answer to water supply and management issues by carrying out a national water plan. This program is in line with all projects the Algerian Government is implementing to improve its water sector performance. The water strategy focuses on desalination for the coastal cities, medium-sized dams to irrigate the inland mountains and high plateau, and ambitious water transfer projects interconnecting Algeria\\'s 65 dams to bring water to water scarce parts of the country. Waste water treatment and water reclamation technologies are also highly sought after. The main objective of the country\\'s water policy consists on providing sufficient potable water for the population supply. This objective is undertaken by increasing the water resources and availability. © 2012 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  13. The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction...

  14. The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy and political strength in post-Saddam Iraq is causing friction...

  15. On the Spaces of Guerre Moderne: The French Army in Northern Algeria (1954–1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Henni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The French Colonial War of Anti-Algerian Independence (1954–1962 is widely regarded as the precursor of civil-military counterinsurgency operations, and thereby of the rhetorical Global War on Terror of today. Its theories, known as the guerre moderne, were secretly transferred to North and South America in the sixties. Since the invasion of Iraq in 2003, however, the United States and other Western powers have overtly expressed their interest in French military practices in Algeria, but seldom in the fields of architecture and territorial planning.This article examines the intrinsic relationships between the doctrines of the guerre moderne, the resultant built environments, and the socio-economic consequences of the two over the course of the French war in Algeria. It considers two major timeframes: first, the years between 1954 and 1958, which were characterised by the extraordinary fusion of civil and military authorities, and the construction of camps called centres de regroupement. Second, the period between 1958 and 1962, which brought General Charles de Gaulle back to power, divided military from civil powers, and transformed the camps into ‘rural settlements’. The two phases shared a common attitude, however, which considered the entire Algerian population as potential suspects, and that Algerians should thus be strategically and continuously overseen.

  16. Veterinary medical education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international

  17. Negotiating a deal in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The legal and diplomatic environment surrounding oil production negotiations in Iraq was discussed with reference to the essential terms generally negotiated for upstream contracts between oil companies and the Iraqi Ministry of Oil. Legal considerations were discussed for the following upstream contracts: production sharing contracts, a risk service contract, a modified buy-back contract, a technical service contract, and a joint venture company. It was noted that negotiations in Iraq require a great amount of diplomacy as projects are very high profile and attract significant international attention. Information sharing is critical in gaining valuable government support. The main problem for interested investors in Iraq is predicting when the UN sanctions will be lifted. Once lifted, the Ministry of Oil's Development Plan is to increase oil production through the co-operative assistance of foreign oil companies. While the sanctions remain in place, Iraq is allowed to sell oil on a renewable basis every 6 months under the oil-for-food programme, which permits Iraq to spend US$600 million every 6 months for spare parts to upgrade its oil industry. 9 figs

  18. Iraq`s significant hydrocarbon potential remains relatively undeveloped

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL-Gailani, M. [GeoDesign Ltd., Kingston-upon-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-29

    Iraq is probably one of the least explored countries in the Middle East, despite the fact that it possesses one of the richest hydrocarbon basins in the world almost on a par to Saudi Arabia`s potential, if not more. The aim of this article is to state the facts about Iraq and focus on the huge but untapped and undeveloped hydrocarbon resources to the international oil community. Perhaps it is best to start by describing briefly the sedimentary and tectonic elements responsible for accumulating such large hydrocarbon resources. The paper describes the basin, tectonic elements, structural anomalies, deep drilling, source rocks, reservoir rocks, characteristics, and new reserves.

  19. Entrenchment of the Status Quo in the Arab-Israeli Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    focus of my research and accuracy of detail. Finally, Dr. Sadok Masliyah, chairman of the Hebrew department at the Defense Language Institute and...1960s, a revolutionary-radical group comprised of Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Algeria , Yemen and South Yemen were aligned against a coalition of opposing...the following: Algeria , Bahrain, Djibouti, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan

  20. the greywater reuse case of Jordan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Fox Run Craftsmen

    2003-03-06

    Mar 6, 2003 ... in Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon, and Designed to Expand to Syria. ❖ Ratified Hyderabad .... intensive production methods and re-using natural resources and urban wastes. Massive urbanization ...... outline the concrete results of the CFP greywater reuse project in Jordan, and noted that wastewater results ...

  1. Animal diseases caused by orbiviruses, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Hafsa; Casal, Jordi; Alba, Anna; Allepuz, Alberto; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Hafsi, Leila; Kount-Chareb, Houria; Bouayed-Chaouach, Nadera; Saadaoui, Hassiba; Napp, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    Antibodies against bluetongue virus were detected in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels in Algeria in 2008. Antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were detected in cattle, but antibodies against African horse sickness virus were not detected in horses and mules. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in northern Africa poses a major risk for the European Union.

  2. Modern, sustainable, protected greenhouse cultivation in Algeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.; Speetjens, S.L.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Bruins, M.A.; Sapounas, A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the project was to analyse the structure and technology level of protected cultivation in Algeria, which were followed by recommendations for improvements (technical, cultivation and economic aspects) of existing and newly built greenhouses. Further, in discussion with Dutch and Algerian

  3. The Role of Islamic Fundamentalism in Algeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    delivered a remarkable speech to the General Assembly of the UN, in which he denounced the North-. South difference and demanded a more justice in the world. For example, Algeria included the so-called National Charta, the provision of free health care as a principle in Article 76 of its constitution. The rapid increase in ...

  4. Development research in Algeria | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-11

    Jan 11, 2011 ... IDRC had been present in Algeria in earlier decades — supporting small, episodic programming from the 1970s through the 1990s, mostly in agriculture, natural resource management, and information sciences. But even these modest projects were abandoned by the late 1990s as conditions of political ...

  5. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sheon-Young

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  6. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ick-Soon Chang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  7. Jordan blocks and Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions associated with a degeneracy of unbound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, E.; Mondragon, A.; Jauregui, A.

    2003-01-01

    An accidental degeneracy of unbound states gives rise to a double pole in the scattering matrix, a double zero in the Jost function, and a Jordan chain of length 2 of generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions of the radial Schroedinger equation. The generalized Gamow-Jordan eigenfunctions are basis elements of an expansion in bound- and resonant-state energy eigenfunctions plus a continuum of scattering wave functions of a complex wave number. In this biorthonormal basis, any operator f(H r (l) ) which is a regular function of the Hamiltonian is represented by a complex matrix that is diagonal except for a Jordan block of rank 2. The occurrence of a double pole in the Green's function, as well as the non exponential time evolution of the Gamow-Jordan generalized eigenfunctions are associated with the Jordan block in the complex energy representation

  8. The changing epidemiology of diphtheria in Jordan*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Bulos, N.; Hamzah, Y.; Sammerrai, S. M.; Shehabi, A.; Hamed, R.; Arnaout, M. A.; Turk, J.; Qubain, H.

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of diphtheria used to occur regularly in Jordan, the last such outbreak being in 1977-78. Since that time, a massive immunization programme targeted at pre-school-age children has been markedly successful. Hence, when an outbreak of diphtheria occurred in 1982-83, it was unexpected. Of the 35 patients who were treated at the Jordan University Hospital, two died and the remaining 33 recovered uneventfully. Contrary to our findings in previous diphtheria epidemics in Jordan, this outbreak largely involved adolescents and young adults. PMID:3260143

  9. Estimated use of explosives in the mining industries of Algeria, Iran, Iraq, and Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Russell, J.A.; Bleiwas, D.I. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This work was performed under Memorandum of Agreement B291534 Between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the United States Bureau of Mines. The Bureau of Mines authors are members of the Minerals Availability Field Office (MAFO) in Denver, CO, which uses an extensive network of information sources to develop and maintain the Minerals Availability database concerning mining and minerals properties worldwide. This study was initiated and directed by F. Heuze at LLNL. A previous study on the same subject had been commissioned by LLNL from the Mining Journal Research Services (MJRS) in London ,UK. Its results were integrated into this report. MJRS is shown as one of the numerous sources which were used for this work. All sources are listed in the report. This document is arranged in four sections, one for each country, in alphabetical order. Thie outline is the same for each country.

  10. Burden of Fungal Infections in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chekiri-Talbi, Mey; Denning, David

    2017-01-01

    We report for the first time in Algeria and provide burden estimates.We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the Service (Office) of the Statistics (ONES), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies...

  11. Social Welfare Activism in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marie Juul

    Many Jordanians perceive formal politics in Jordan as illegitimate, corrupt and authoritarian. Thus, when searching for agents of change and reform, we have to look beyond the formal political system. In this regard, recent years have seen an increasing interest in civil society. However......, this interest tends to focus on secular organisations and institutions, overlooking religious ones, although these make up a large part of Jordanian civil society. Particularly interesting are the country's many Muslim social welfare organisations, engaged in activities such as education, health care...... and financial assistance to the poor. This brief asks whether these organisations can be considered potential agents of democratic change or rather as preservers of the status quo. Moreover, do they employ Islam as a means of control or empowerment? Attempting to answer these questions, the brief discusses...

  12. The economics of tobacco use in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Nadia J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    We conducted an independent survey of tobacco use in Jordan following the methods and template of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Using data collected on cigarette use and cigarette prices, we estimated the price elasticity of cigarette demand in Jordan. We used a 2-part model of cigarette demand. In the first part, we estimate the impact of prices on the decision to smoke while controlling for individual demographic and environmental characteristics. Conditional on smoking, we then estimate the effect of price on the number of cigarettes smoked. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand in Jordan was estimated to be -0.6. Smoking among women was found to be relatively unresponsive to price (elasticity of -0.01), whereas smoking among men was much more responsive to price (elasticity of -0.81). The price elasticity estimates suggest that significant increases in tobacco taxes are likely to be effective in reducing smoking in Jordan, particularly smoking among men.

  13. Adolf Sandoz, an Orientalist Painter in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójcik, Agata

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolf Karol Sandoz was a 19th-century Polish artist who spent his life and developed his artistic career in France. In Paris, he studied painting and architecture, and worked as a professional illustrator. He can also be linked with a circle of artist-travellers, who searched for new sources of inspiration in the Orient. In 1879 and 1881, Sandoz travelled in Algeria. He described his impressions from the first journey in vividly written memoires published by the Krakow journal "Czas". His travels inspired several genre paintings, including: "Interior of a house in Biskra", "Dancer from the Uled Nail tribe", "Arab woman by a cradle", "Morning in the Sahara", "Evening in the Sahara", "Oasis", "On the Oued riverbank at El Kantara oasis", and "Sheik Mistress of El Kantara". At present, his works emerge at art auctions, are known from reproductions, or only from descriptions. Sandoz exhibited in Paris, Warsaw, Krakow, and Lviv, where he was appreciated by art critics. The aim of this article is to introduce Sandoz’s journey to Algeria, analyse his paintings with exotic subject matter, and locate them within a wider context of orientalist painting. It will also present the history of artistic travel to Algeria undertaken by 19th-century painters, including those from Poland.

  14. The Iraq Effect: The Middle East After the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    sensitivity of the issue. 18 This includes the closure of Shi‘a mourning houses, the desecration of cemeteries, the banning of books, and other...on refugees as imminent security risks, with some analysts seeing them as vectors for radicalization, terror- ism, sectarianism, and disease .65 Our...by using Iraq as the crux of a hearts -and-minds media campaign have been far less successful. The centrality of an attractive mass-media campaign has

  15. Bumper Stickers in Jordan: A Structural Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Husam Al-Momani; Abdullah Ahmad Jaradat; Baker Mohammad Jamil Bani-Khair; Yousef Mohammad Khaled Alshaboul

    2017-01-01

    This study has set out to determine the structural patterns of bumper stickers in Jordan. This study is significant since it is the first one to approach bumper stickers structurally. The study has investigated 227 stickers, which can be considered the corpus of stickers in Jordan. The study has found that around 90% of the stickers are sentences, most of which are simple sentences expressed in the present tense. This combination of the three elements i.e. sentence, declarative and simple is ...

  16. Performance of Urban Transit in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Hashem R. Al-Masaeid; Amir Shtayat

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transit has essential and active role for sustainable and balanced socio-economic and environmental development. This study investigated the performance of urban public transit services in three major cities in Jordan, including Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa. Accessibility, mobility, productivity, punctuality, waiting time and comfort of public transit were investigated in the study. Data were obtained from Land Transport RegulatoryCommission of Jordan, municipalities, and ...

  17. Iraq: Regional Perspectives and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M; Katzman, Kenneth; Migdalovitz, Carol; Prados, Alfred; Sharp, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    .... Policymakers and observers are considering a number of different "Iraq scenarios," ranging from the resolution of outstanding Iraqi political disputes and the successful consolidation of Iraq's...

  18. Water scarcity in the Jordan River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civic, M A

    1999-03-01

    This article reports the problem on water scarcity in the Jordan River basin. In the Jordan River basin, freshwater scarcity results from multiple factors and most severely affects Israel, Jordan, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip. One of these multiple factors is the duration of rainfall in the region that only occurs in a small area of highlands in the northwest section. The varying method of water use parallels that of Israel that utilizes an estimated 2000 million cu. m. The national patterns of water usage and politically charged territorial assertions compound the competition over freshwater resources in the region. The combination of political strife, resource overuse, and contaminated sources means that freshwater scarcity in the Jordan River basin will reach a critical level in the near future. History revealed that the misallocation/mismanagement of freshwater from the Jordan River basin was the result of centuries of distinct local cultural and religious practices combined with historical influences. Each state occupying near the river basin form their respective national water development schemes. It was not until the mid-1990s that a shared-use approach was considered. Therefore, the critical nature of water resource, the ever-dwindling supply of freshwater in the Jordan River basin, and the irrevocability of inappropriate policy measures requires unified, definitive, and ecologically sound changes to the existing policies and practices to insure an adequate water supply for all people in the region.

  19. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekadja, Mohamed Amine; Brahimi, Mohamed; Osmani, Soufi; Yafour, Nabil; Krim, Amina; Serradj, Faiza; Talhi, Souad; Amani, Kamila; Bouhass, Rachid Amar

    2017-12-01

    Algeria is a country of 40.4 million inhabitants and half of which is under 30years. In Algeria, Health-care insurance covered, 90% of the population. Health care is free and it is supported by the Ministry of Health. 16 university hospitals exist in Algeria and only two (Algiers and Oran) practicing bone marrow transplant. Adult hematologic malignancies account for 10% (about 4000 new cases/year) of the malignancy affecting in most cases young patients under 65years of age. In 2016, 270 transplants were performed in total (Algiers+Oran), including 149 allografts (related donor transplants: 99%) and 121 autografts. 98% of transplants are done in adults and only 2% in children with cord blood transplants. In summary for the two transplant centers, the predominant types of transplantation performed are allogeneic transplant in 55% and autologous transplant in 45%. The particularity of EHU1st November in Oran, is the use of non-cryopreserved stem cells. Stem cell was mobilized using G-CSF alone and the grafts were kept in a conventional blood bank refrigerator at +4°C until reinfusion on day 0. The outcome with non-cryopreserved stem cells are the same as those with cryopreserved stem cells and we conclude that autologous transplant with non cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is a simple, effective and safe method and the cryopreservation is not necessary in our work conditions in developing countries. The projects are achieving the autograft in all University Hospitals with non cryopreserved HSC, achieving a center allograft in the east of the country and the development of bone marrow transplantation in children. Currently in Algeria, the number of transplantation is insufficient and the development of new transplant centers is essential. In the future, we hope to implement the National Society of Bone Marrow transplant and also the National recipient registry and Donor registry in Algeria. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research

  20. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  1. The Thermal Waters of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, I.; Schäffer, R.

    2012-04-01

    In a recent field campaign all known natural hot spring areas of Jordan were investigated. Their hydrochemical properties including some fundamental isotopes were measured. Jordan's thermal springs can be classified into four thermal provinces (Nahr Al-Urdun, Hammamat Ma'in, Zara and Wadi Araba province), with similar hydrochemical and geologicalsettings. Thermal springs of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are situated on prominent faults. Reservoir temperature estimation with the Mg-corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometer indicates temperatures between 61 °C and 82 °C. Even taking into account the increased geothermal gradient at Dead Sea's east coast, the water's origin has to be considered mainly in deeper formations. Carbon dioxide, emitted by tertiary basalts situated close to the springs, may be responsible for gas lift. Mineralisation and δ18O-values indicate, that the spring water's origin is mostly fossil, i.e. not part of the global water cycle. It is shown, that ground water mining led to a shift within δ18O-ratio during the last 30 years due to a reduction of shallow water portion in addition to a dislocation of the catchment area. Ground water mining will impact the thermal spring productivity and quality anyway in the future. Present-day precipitation rates and catchment areas in Dead Sea region are by far not sufficient to explain relative high discharge. For the Hammamat Ma'in Province is documented, that discharge and maximal spring water temperatures are constant during the last 50 years, showing marginal seasonal oscillation and negligible influence by short-term climatic changes. The water characteristics of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are related. However, Zara waters feature systematically less ion concentration and lower temperatures due to a stronger influence of vadose water. The springs of Nahr Al-Urdun province are recharged mainly by shallow groundwater. Thus temperature and mineralisation is lower than at the springs at the Dead Sea

  2. Strategic Effects of the Conflict with Iraq: Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manwaring, Max G

    2003-01-01

    .... military action against Iraq; the role of America in the region after the war with Iraq; the nature of security partnerships in the region after the war with Iraq; and the effect that war with Iraq will have on the war on terrorism in the region.

  3. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia.

  4. Wildfires in Algeria: problems and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Meddour-Sahar O

    2015-01-01

    In the scenario of the Mediterranean area, where about 54 000 fires and 0.4 million hectares of forest are burned and annually registered (2006-2010), the rank for Algeria is non-negligible with 4.11 million hectares of forest. The annual number of fires and the size of area burned depict a critical situation, which became rather dramatic in 2012. Climate change projections and the estimated changes to wildfire risk for the future decades (2030-2060) indicate that the entire Maghreb region, i...

  5. Gender and Justice in Jordan : Women, Demand, and Access

    OpenAIRE

    Prettitore, Paul Scott

    2013-01-01

    Two key dimensions on access to justice sector services in Jordan are poverty and gender. The gender dimension to accessing formal justice sector services, namely court and lawyer services is anchored in the reality that women and men in Jordan demonstrate different needs and priorities for services, and face different obstacles in accessing them. Jordan demonstrates different needs and pr...

  6. About veterinary education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M

    2003-01-01

    The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.

  7. Quadratic Jordan formulation of quantum mechanics and construction of Lie (super)algebras from Jordan (super)algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenaydin, M.

    1979-05-01

    Quadratic Jordan formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of Jordan triple product is presented. This formulation extends to the case of octonionic quantum mechanics for which no Hilbert space formulation exists. Using ternary algebraic techniques we then five the constructions of the derivation, structure and Tits-Koecher (Moebius) algebras of Jordan superalgebras. (orig.) [de

  8. Algeria, an oil state in danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2015-06-01

    After having outlined that Algeria possesses one of the most promising geologies regarding oil, gas and shale gas proved and possible reserves, but that conditions imposed to the private sector are such that investments have been decreasing, thus leaving Sonatrach, the national public company, almost alone do develop this oil and gas patrimony, and after having recalled that the world oil sector is facing a major crisis since the collapse of oil prices in 2014, the author proposes an analysis of this situation of lack of interest of private companies in Algeria, and a discussion of the consequences for Sonatrach. He comments results published by this company in terms of drilling activities, notices the very low percentage of private drilling activities, outlines that Sonatrach is facing a very difficult situation (many contractors to be paid, collapse of revenues, and increased consumption) which may impede its ambitious exploration project for the years to come. The author also comments results of the bidding processes which have been disappointing for the last ten years. He outlines that financial scandals and arbitrations contributed to the loss of confidence of foreign oil companies. He comments how projects have been developed during these last ten years, and discusses the strategy envisaged for the exploitation of shale gases

  9. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Wadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the burden of fungal infections in Jordan for the first time. Material and Methods: Population data was from UN 2011 statistics and TB cases from WHO in 2012. Fewer than 100 patients with HIV were recorded in Jordan in 2013. Approximately 100 renal transplants and eight liver transplants are performed annually. There were 12,233 major surgical procedures in Jordan in 2013, of which 5.3% were major abdominal surgeries; candidemia was estimated in 5% of the population based on other countries, with 33% occurring in the ICU. Candida peritonitis/intra-abdominal candidiasis was estimated to affect 50% of the number of ICU candidemia cases. No adult asthma rates have been recorded for Jordan, so the rate from the Holy Land (8.54% clinical asthma from To et al. has been used. There are an estimated 49,607 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Jordan, with 64% symptomatic, 25% Gold stage 3% or 4%, and 7% (3472 are assumed to be admitted to hospital each year. No cystic fibrosis cases have been recorded. Literature searches on fungal infections revealed few data and no prevalence data on fungal keratitis or tinea capitis, even though tinea capitis comprised 34% of patients with dermatophytoses in Jordan. Results: Jordan has 6.3 million inhabitants (65% adults, 6% are >60 years old. The current burden of serious fungal infections in Jordan was estimated to affect ~119,000 patients (1.9%, not including any cutaneous fungal infections. Candidemia was estimated at 316 cases and invasive aspergillosis in leukemia, transplant, and COPD patients at 84 cases. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis prevalence was estimated to affect 36 post-TB patients, and 175 in total. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS prevalence in adults with asthma were estimated at 8900 and 11,748 patients. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was estimated to affect 97,804 patients, using a 6

  10. Shale Gas Exploitation: Challenges for Development in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boualem Ammar CHEBIRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the situation of Algeria in the field of shale gas to illustrate the various potential benefits and risks in the exploitation area. The constraints for Algeria are numerous : the risks due in its exploitation, particularly the pollution generated by hydraulic fracturing and also the increased risk of earthquake; the scarcity of water resources and the high cost of such investments. Currently, and under conditions of non-availability of clean and safe technologies, the most available choice for Algeria is the diversification of non-hydrocarbon exports and the development of renewable energies.

  11. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  12. Area Handbook Series: Jordan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Jordan reported its first three cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to the WHO in 1987. The most frequently cited causes of morbidity in...Ministry of Occupied Territories), Baha ’ religion, xxvi, 114 49-50, 188 Bahrain, 215 Bush, George, xxix balance of payments, xxviii, 127, 131,251 Byzantine

  13. Communication Skills among Gifted Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarah, Yacoub Fareed

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the communication skills among gifted students in Jordan and to investigate the effect of gender and the level of students in acquiring these communication skills. A questionnaire was distributed among the sample of the study which comprised of (240) tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students from Al…

  14. English in Jordan: Attitudes and Prestige

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saidat, Emad M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the attitudes of a number of Jordanian university students towards English as a foreign language and the place it occupies in Jordan. Although research of a similar nature has been done, this study complements others by following 420 students in their university studies, and it provides another avenue for examining…

  15. Jordan | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    60 activities worth CA$11.2 million since 1976. DFID/A.Trayler-Smith. Research has helped households safely irrigate crops such as olives and pistachios with treated greywater. Our support is helping. assist policymakers in developing critical, modern services for the region; understand and integrate tribalism into Jordan's ...

  16. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    21 Sweat Shop Allegations...small industrial base, Jordan has an economy which is heavily dependent on external aid from abroad, tourism , expatriate worker remittances,30 and...obstacle, as estimates run into the billions of dollars. To date, four companies are in competition to build the main reactor. They include Korea

  17. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-27

    hospitals , schools, sanitation, and water systems are under similar strain. Some Jordanian observers are openly questioning the wisdom of continuing...on external aid from abroad, tourism , expatriate worker remittances, 35 and the service sector. Among the long-standing problems Jordan faces are

  18. Divining Jordan's desert waters | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To most people, a desert — by definition — is a place where water is practically nonexistent. But a team of researchers studying Jordan's badia — a large desert in the country's northwest corner — has uncovered a secret moving slowly beneath the area's vast arid expanses. Using satellite photos, knowledge of the local ...

  19. Algeria Post Arab Spring : The Forced Virtualisation of the Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Louisa Dris-Aït Hamadouche

    2016-01-01

    Algeria is the core of the Maghreb and shares land borders with seven countries Maghreb and Sahel countries. However, since 2011, none of the seven land borders is stable and se-cure. So, even if Algeria is considered as a stable country, this stability is fragile and is likely to be more precarious if the country has to face simultaneously an economic crisis and deli-cate presidential succession. Domestic incertitude coupled to regional conflicts puts the Algerian borders under unprecedented...

  20. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria: quadrennial assessment (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelmouffok, A B; Sellami, M; Boughoufalah, A

    2017-08-01

    To study the prevalence and epidemiological factors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Algeria from 2008 through 2011. The endemic site of M'Sila is the most important in Algeria after the historic site of Biskra, but the disease has spread rapidly and created new and important sites of infection, including Batna, Bechar, El Oued and Ghardaïa. The increased number of cases and the spread of this zoonosis require increased surveillance of its evolution and the application of adequate control measures.

  1. The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... However, the Iraqi Kurds' political autonomy, demands, and ambitions are causing friction with Christian and other minorities in the north, with Arab leaders of Iraq, and with neighboring Turkey, and Iran...

  2. The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth; Prados, Alfred B

    2005-01-01

    ... there. The Kurds also are flourishing politically through recent national elections, raising concerns that the Kurds might use their new political strength to serve their own interests at the expense of a unified Iraq...

  3. How Bush Was 'Churchilled' in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porch, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Rather than the cakewalk assault allegedly promised by Iraqi exiles and echoed in Pentagon circles on the "central front in the War on Terror," increasingly Iraq appears to have become a distracting...

  4. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    ..., %%Strategy for Victory," the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists...

  5. Iran's Activities and Influence in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    ... States by aiding Shiite militias that are willing to combat U.S. forces. Iran is materially assisting and influencing major Shiite Muslim factions in Iraq, most of which have ideological, political, and religious ties to Tehran...

  6. U.S. Forces in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Bryant, JoAnne; Waterhouse, Michael

    2007-01-01

    ...). As interest in troop level deployments continues, recently, President Bush announced "a new strategy for Iraq" on January 10, 2007, including a planned gradual increase of more than 20,000 U.S...

  7. U.S. Forces in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Bryant, JoAnne; Waterhouse, Michael

    2008-01-01

    ...). Interest in troop level deployments continues in 2008. Last year, a major announcement on a surge in troop deployments to Iraq by President Bush included a planned gradual increase of more than 20,000 U.S...

  8. U.S. Forces in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Bryant, JoAnne; Waterhouse, Michael

    2008-01-01

    ...). Interest in troop level deployments continue in 2008. Last year, a major announcement on a surge in troop deployments to Iraq by President Bush included a planned gradual increase of more than 20,000 U.S...

  9. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The attached clarification by a spokesman of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs is being circulated for the information of Member States pursuant to a request made by the Resident Representative of Iraq

  10. The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth; Prados, Alfred B

    2007-01-01

    .... However, there are concerns that the Kurds are using their political strength to serve their own interests at the expense of a unified Iraq, in the process inflaming long-standing Turkish concerns...

  11. The uncertain future of hydrocarbons in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As it has been historically the first oil and gas producer in Africa with Gabon and Nigeria (it is now the third oil producer after Nigeria and Angola, and still the first gas producer), Algeria has faced a strong decrease of investments in this sector for the past ten years, for legal, security and political reasons. This resulted in a decrease of production whereas local consumption has been strongly increasing. The author examines whether measures voted in 2012 will be able to bring back the confidence of foreign investors which is needed to develop the huge oil, gas and shale gas potentials of this country. The author recalls this high resource level, and comments the role and behaviour of Sonatrach, the national company, and the consequences of the oil and gas revenues decrease. He outlines the importance of the issue of security (notably terrorism by AQMI), and comments expectations associated with the new law on hydrocarbons

  12. Geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dobra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocarbon System Ourd Mya is located in the Sahara Basin. It is one of the producing basins in Algeria. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesosoic, it is about 5000 m thick. In the eastern part, the basin is limited by the Hassi-Messaoud high zone which is a giant oil field produced from the Cambrian sands. The western part is limited by Hassi R`mel which is one of the biggest gas field in the world, it is produced from the triassic sands. The Mesozoic section lays on the lower Devonian and in the eastern part, on the Cambrian. The main source rock is Silurian shale with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic matter of 6 % (14 % in some cases. Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also a source rock but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Triassic sequence which is mainly fluvial deposit with complex alluvial channels, it is the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs within the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential in the east of the basin through a southwest-northeast orientation. The late Triassic-Early Jurassic evaporites overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya Basin. This is considered as a super-seal evaporate package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For Paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column.This paper describe the main geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria.

  13. The War in Iraq: An Interim Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    principal challengc confronting lraqi police is not so much traditional crime or criminal proccss. Rather, the challenge is more akin to defeating an...Special Inspectnr General for Iraq Reconstruction, hfessage porn the Special Inspector General for Iraq Recon.>tr~lctlon, p. 4. 185 For example...I’m honor-bound to lull one of you.’ And this introduced a very tleadly, vicious circle of blood revenge , which is very, very difficult to resolve

  14. Iraq: Tribal Structure, Social, and Political Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Services Group Summary For centuries the social and political organization of many Iraqi Arabs has centered on the tribe. Socially, tribes were divided...describes the political orientation of several Iraqi Arab tribes, including the Shammar, Dulaym, and Jibur tribes. This report will be updated as...Relations,” at [http://www.cfr/publication/7681/iraq/html#12], accessed Feb. 23, 2007. Tribal Origin. Many Arab tribes in Iraq are believed to

  15. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    factions. The Sadrists got eight ministries, including Housing, Labor and Social Affairs, Ministry of Planning, and Tourism and Antiquities, as well as one...ships to Iraq, which will assist Iraq’s fast-attack and patrol boats that secure its offshore oil platforms and other coastal and offshore locations...mid-October 2012, Iraq agreed to buy 28 Czech-made military aircraft, a deal valued at about $1 billion.52 On December 12, 2013, South Korea signed

  16. Oil and power: Iraq at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enay, P.

    1995-11-01

    Oil and Power: Iraq at the Crossroads is the first analysis which specifically addresses the oil sector in Iraq. It provides a detailed account of the present Iraqi oil infrastructure and assesses the risks and opportunities facing those who seek to invest in its redevelopment. The report examines the implications for the world oil markets of Iraq's ambitious plans to expand production capacity to 6m barrels per day -almost twice its pre-war peak. It explains in clear, authoritative terms the profound problems confronting Iraq's oil sector and the prospects for rebuilding it. It analyses expertly and in detail the current regime's chances of survival and examines the alternative contenders for power -and their likely attitudes towards co-operation with foreign oil interests. The report examines and explains: Iraq's oil infrastructure, from fields under exploration to nominal administrative structure; the effect on oil prices of Iraq's eventual re-entry into the oil market; the facilities in need of repair and where the shortage of spares and human expertise are; the unofficial decision-making structure in the oil sector; the short- and medium-term impact of economic disintegration on oil development policy; the effects of UN sanctions and the motives of those supporting or opposing sanctions; the likely impact of prevailing economic constraints on Iraqi oil and the historical role of commissions in Iraqi oil contracts; the political impact of General Hussein Kamal Hassan's defection and the Kurdish and Shi'ite threats to Iraqi national unity. (author)

  17. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  18. Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing

    2008-10-01

    Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].

  19. The Jordan structure of lie and Kac-Moody algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Teotonio Sobrinho, P.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    A precise relation between the structures of Lie and Jordan algebras by presenting a method of constructing one type of algebra from the other is established. The method differs in some aspects of the Tits construction and Jordan pairs. The examples of the Lie algebras associated to simple Jordan algebras M m (n ) and Clifford algebras are discussed in detail. This approach will shed light on the role of the realizations of Jordan algebras through some types of Fermi fields used in the construction of Kac-Moodey and Virasoro algebras as well as its relevance in the study of some aspects of conformal fields theories. (author)

  20. Colorectal cancer in Jordan: prevention and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Dardas, Latefa; Dardas, Lubna; Ahmad, Huthaifa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward colorectal cancer prevention and care in Jordan. A survey was designed to produce reliable estimates for the population's knowledge, attitudes, and practices in all 12 governorates of Jordan by using stratified random sampling. A representative sample of the adult population in Jordan completed a comprehensive tool which explored participants' knowledge about the risk factors associated with colorectal cancer, cancer prevention through lifestyle changes, and early cancer diagnosis and screening. According to the participants (n = 3196), colorectal cancer had the second highest percentage of screening recommendation (12.6%) after breast cancer (57.3%). Only 340 individuals (11%) reported ever screening for cancer. About 20% of the participants had heard of one of the screening tests for colorectal cancer. In fact, only 290 (9.1%) participants had performed the colorectal cancer screening tests. This study provides data that will help colorectal cancer prevention and treatment programs and may enhance the efficiency of colorectal cancer-controlling programs. The findings confirm the necessity of starting colorectal screening intervention that targets the most vulnerable individuals. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. All projects related to | Page 348 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Kuwait. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 370,000.00. Arab Democracy Barometer. Project. The joint Arab Democracy Barometer constitutes ...

  2. Arab Democracy Barometer | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Representative national surveys will be carried out by local research centres in 10 countries: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestinian Territories and Yemen. The surveys will look at public attitudes toward cultural diversity, tolerance and equal opportunity; social, religious and political ...

  3. What we do | Page 39 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renegotiating Arab Civil-Military Relations: Political and Economic Governance in Transition. At a time of unprecedented political transitions in the Arab world, this project will promote evidence-based research and analysis of Arab militaries. Egypt, Libya, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, ...

  4. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria, 95. Australia, 5. Bahrain, 2. Belgium, 6. Benin, 1. Brazil, 10. Bulgaria, 2. Canada, 3. Chile, 3. China, 16. Côte d'Ivoire, 1. Croatia, 2. Egypt, Arab Rep. 5. Ethiopia, 2. Finland, 2. France, 7. Germany, 11. Ghana, 5. Hong Kong SAR, China, 3. India, 68. Indonesia, 2. Iran, Islamic Rep. 79. Iraq, 6. Israel, 1. Italy, 8. Jordan, 1.

  5. Democracy in the Arab World: Explaining the Deficit | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 sept. 2010 ... ... from major scholars of the region give a cross-country analysis of economic development, political institutions and social factors, and the impact of oil wealth and regional wars, and present a model for democracy in the Arab world. Case studies are drawn from Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, ...

  6. The Impact of Levant Basin Oil and Natural Gas Discoveries on Lebanese-Israeli Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    has twelve member countries: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Qatar, Libya, the United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador , and...cooperation in tourism and trade. It included a pledge that neither Jordan nor Israel would allow its territory to become a staging ground for military

  7. All projects related to | Page 122 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At a time of unprecedented political transitions in the Arab world, this project will promote evidence-based research and analysis of Arab militaries. Topic: MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, Civil society, Democracy, POLICY MAKING. Region: Egypt, Libya, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, ...

  8. All projects related to | Page 123 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At a time of unprecedented political transitions in the Arab world, this project will promote evidence-based research and analysis of Arab militaries. Topic: MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, Civil society, Democracy, POLICY MAKING. Region: Egypt, Libya, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, ...

  9. Algeria: the illusions of oil wealth - CERI Studies No. 168

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Thirty years after the nationalisation of hydrocarbons Algeria's oil wealth seems to have disappeared judging by its absence in the country's indicators of well-being. In Algeria oil led to happiness for a few and sadness for many. The absence of controls over oil revenue led to the industries downfall. Since 2002 Algeria is again seeing oil wealth. The increase in the price per barrel from 30 to 147 dollars between 2002 and 2008 provided the country with unexpected revenue permitting it to accumulate funds estimated, in 2009, at 150 billion dollars. Abdelaziz Bouteflika, returned to a devastated Algeria to restore civil order, unexpectedly benefited from this price increase. Thus, in addition to national reconciliation he was able to offer Algeria renewed economic growth. However, given that the wounds of the 1990's are not entirely healed and the illusions of oil wealth have evaporated this unexpected return of financial abundance raises concerns. To what ends will this manna be put? Who will control it? Will it provoke new violence and conflict? (author)

  10. Algeria's Role in the Sahelian Security Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Aida Ammour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While Mali is confronting a deep political crisis with a still serious risk of territorial split and Libya is descending into increasing instability, Algeria appears reluctant to assume the responsibilities of a hegemonic power. Algeria’s refusal to consider any joint strategy with its neighbors and other international actors towards the Malian crisis shows it has once again succumbed to the fear of encirclement that characterized its policies in the 1970s. Behind this refusal, there lies a desire to maintain its position as a pivotal actor in regional security matters while conducting a wait-and-see diplomacy, an approach which many observers and regional leaders have deemed incomprehensible. Internal power struggles at the highest levels of government have also without a doubt permeated Algeria’s policy vis-à-vis the regional crisis, hampering Algiers’ ability to act regionally and weakening its position as a regional leader. The initial lack of commitment could in fact be the result of conflicting positions and divergent interests within the regime and of the lack of transparency in decision-making. These factors are crippling its diplomatic power. Today, three revealing events are symptomatic of Algeria’s loss of hegemony within the region.

  11. 31 CFR 575.207 - Prohibited transactions relating to travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or Iraq; (b) Relating to travel and activities for the conduct of the official business of the United... travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq. 575.207 Section 575.207 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY IRAQI SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 575.207 Prohibited transactions relating to travel to...

  12. Post -ISIL Iraq: National Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doç.Dr. Othman Ali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In post-ISIL Iraq the country has little chance to remain as unified democratic state. The foreign intervention and Iranian expansionist policies in the form of building buffer of satellite states on its borders in particular, will leave a permanent impact on the nature of the emerging regime in Iraq. Besides, the issue of growing sectarianism, and ethnic polarization and wil create low intensity conflicts which will be a salient feature of the future political system. It is our contention that unless Iran is restrained in its regional hegemonic policies, Iraq will be disintegrated into two or three entities along sectarian and ethnic lines, and this will have regional consequences with far-reaching consequences

  13. Economic growth and energy consumption in Algeria: a causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the causal link in the Granger sense, between energy consumption and economic growth in Algeria, to determine its implications for economic policy. The analysis was done based on Granger static and causality tests using statistical data on per capita primary energy consumption and gross domestic product per inhabitant in Algeria, over the 1965-2008 period. The results of the survey show that there is, in Algeria, a strong link between energy consumption per inhabitant and GDP per inhabitant. The results also suggest the lack of a long term impetus (no co-integration) between energy consumption and economic growth. In addition, there is a one-way causal link between GDP and energy consumption, i.e. the prior GDP data provides a better forecast of energy consumption level, but not the contrary. In other words, GDP explains consumption, not the contrary. (author)

  14. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michuda Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA, and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a control system by marketing activity of football clubs of Iraq is defined. Positive and negative factors which define management efficiency marketing of football clubs are revealed.

  15. Social Support and Stress among University Students in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…

  16. Barriers to Utilizing ICT in Education in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhawaldeh, Nayef Ibrahim; Menchaca, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study explored barriers to utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) for teaching and learning in the country of Jordan as indicated by participating stakeholders: students, teachers, and administrators. Jordan is a developing country in the heart of the Middle East with both tremendous opportunity as well as significant…

  17. Genetic diversity of indigenous chicken ecotypes in Jordan | Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA polymorphism of 4 indigenous chicken ecotypes was assessed in Jordan using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. 10 RAPD markers showed high genetic diversity values in the 4 ecotypes located in the northern, eastern, western and southern provinces of Jordan. The effective number of alleles per ...

  18. Modeling of groundwater flow for Mujib aquifer, Jordan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 115; Issue 3. Modeling of groundwater flow for Mujib aquifer, ... Associate Professor of Water Resources, Civil Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science & Technology, P.O Box 3030, Irbid 22110, Jordan. Water Resources Consultant, Eco-Consult, ...

  19. Study of hydrogen production from wind power in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiche-Hamane, Lilia; Belhamel, Maiouf; Benyoucef, Boumedienne; Hamane, Mustapha [Centre for Development of Renewable Energies (CDER), Alger (Algeria)

    2010-07-01

    An overview of the potentiality of hydrogen production from wind power in Algeria has been given in this study. Wind resource assessment has been presented in cartographic form and windy sites have been identified for wind power application. A system constituted by a wind turbine, an electrolyser and a power conditioning device have been proposed for the study of hydrogen production in the southwest region of Algeria. For this purpose, the transient system simulation program (TRNSYS) have been used. The results obtained showed the sensitivity of hydrogen production to the wind resource trend and the importance of optimisation of the electrolyser according to the power produced by the wind turbine. (orig.)

  20. U.S. Military Nurses’ Experience of Coming Home after Iraq & Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    CPT MAJ Critical Care NA NA 3 1991 2005 Iraq Iraq 6 12 MSN 25 41 11 MAJ FNP NA 13,15 4 2002 2005 Iraq Iraq 6 12 MSN MSN 44 47...LTC COL Behavioral Health ** 7 2007 Iraq 6 MSN 33 12 MAJ Med/Surg NA 8 2006 Iraq 12 MSN 46 21 LTC FNP 10 9 2009 Afghanistan 6 BSN 28 5.5 ILT...2004 Iraq 8 MSN 39 11 MAJ FNP 7, 9, 11 14 2004 2008 Iraq Iraq 7 12 MSN MSN 43 47 20 24 LTC COL Critical Care 13, 15, 17, 19 15 2003

  1. US Military Nurses: Experience of Coming Home after Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    BSN 36 40 10 14 CPT MAJ Critical Care NA NA 3 1991 2005 Iraq Iraq 6 12 MSN 25 41 11 MAJ FNP NA 13,15 4 2002 2005 Iraq Iraq 6...MAJ MAJ LTC LTC LTC COL Behavioral Health ** 7 2007 Iraq 6 MSN 33 12 MAJ Med/Surg NA 8 2006 Iraq 12 MSN 46 21 LTC FNP 10 9 2009 Afghanistan...1LT Med/Surg NA 13 2004 Iraq 8 MSN 39 11 MAJ FNP 7, 9, 11 14 2004 2008 Iraq Iraq 7 12 MSN MSN 43 47 20 24 LTC COL Critical Care 13

  2. Learning From Iraq: A Final Report From the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Reconstruction and Development Program for Iraq (ARDI) $8.4 M IRRF 1 / $92.0 M IRRF 2 Agribusiness (Inma) $179.8 M ESF Private Sector Development (Izdihar) $107.4...435 434 Tatweer National Capacity Development 309 309 Inma Agribusiness Development 180 162 Tijara Provincial Economic Growth 173 144 PRT...INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION A five-year follow-on agribusiness program, providing nearly $180 million and known as Inma, or “growth” in

  3. Forensic medical aspects of femicide in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Hafsa O Ghanem; Salameh, Rakiz J; Shwaiki, Mohannad; Abder-Rahman, Hasan

    2018-03-28

    This study aims to highlight three types of femicide in Jordan - so-called 'honour killings', fatal intimate partner violence (IPV), and domestic violence committed by male family members other than the husband (DV) - and to compare them with the killing of women in non-gender related situations such as during a robbery. The autopsy reports of 100 adult female homicide victims dealt with at Jordan University Hospital in Amman during a 10-year period from 2006 to 2015 were reviewed. Based on information contained in the police reports they were assigned to one of four categories. Of the 100 deaths, 52% were classed as honour killings, 33% as fatal IPV and 5% as DV crimes, with non-gender related murders making up the remaining 10%. The majority (76%) occurred in the woman's home. The commonest cause of death was gunshot injuries, the severity of violence as judged by the largest number of major injuries was greatest in the honour killings, and 14 victims had defence wounds, again the majority in the honour cases. The hymen was found to be intact in 38% of the honour victims, while 33% in this category were pregnant at the time of death, compared to only 3% of fatal IPV victims. Most female murders in Jordan are committed by an assailant who is either a partner or a family member, the home becoming the most dangerous place to be for a threatened woman. With extra-marital pregnancy being one of the strongest motivators for honour killings, and old injuries a potential sign of ongoing intimate partner violence, forensic doctors can assist in recognizing these risk factors and thereby help potential victims. It is thus important to highlight some of the characteristic features of femicide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ... by Section 1308 of Public Law 110-28 and Section 1224 of Public Law 110-181. The report includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in that legislation...

  5. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    fields to be tendered later in 2012. On March 17, 2012, Baghdad claimed that Exxon-Mobil had frozen the KRG contract, but the KRG denies the company has...promoting brands of its products, such as yogurt and jams, in Iraqi shops primarily in southern Iraq. Some Iraqi businessmen are said to resent what they

  6. Oasis in Iraq: Universities Flourish in Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Zvika

    2007-01-01

    The campus of Salahadin University--peaceful, bustling, and collegial-- is a rare sight in Iraq, where sectarian violence has brought the higher education system to the verge of collapse. Home to the country's historically repressed four million to five million ethnic Kurds, it is an oasis of stability and tranquility while much of the rest of…

  7. The Ayatollahs and Democracy in Contemporary Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Juan R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Iraqi Shiism is undergoing profound changes, leading to new elaborations of the relationship between clerics and democratic principles in an Islamic state. The Najaf tradition of thinking about Shiite Islam and the modern state in Iraq, which first developed during the Iranian constitutional

  8. 15 CFR 746.3 - Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... isotopes for medical, industrial or agricultural purposes. Such resolutions further mandate that Iraq... of isotopes for medical, industrial or agricultural purposes, will be subject to a policy of denial... Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND...

  9. American invasion of Iraq : causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hinnebusch, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Examines the causes of the US invasion n terms of US global grand strategy, the US strategic position in the Middle East and the interests of the ruling coalition. Focuses on the consequences: the destruction of Iraq; radical empowerment in the Middle East and the expenditure of US soft power and legitmacy as a hegemon globally and in the region Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  10. Taboo of alcohol and road safety policies in Algeria | Bencherif ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work is to show the real dimension of drunk driving in Algeria through the statistics of road accidents, the evolution of the legislative framework concerning driving while drunk and road preventive actions undertaken to fight against this risk factor. We first analyzed the statistics published by the National ...

  11. Algeria : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: HEALTH SERVICES, HOSPITALS, MEDICAL RECORDS, TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MEDICAL EDUCATION, DISTANCE STUDY. Région: Algeria, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Financement total : CA$ 191,675.00. Ce que nous faisons · Financement · Ressources ...

  12. The Sidi Mohamed peridotites (Edough Massif, NE Algeria ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    logical evolution of the Mediterranean Sea, frag- ments of the lithosphere were tectonically obducted on the North African margin. In north Algeria, there are several ultramafic outcrops that contain such mantle rocks. From west to east they are ultramafic xenolites of Oran (Zerka et al. 2002), the feldsphatic peridotites of Cape ...

  13. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cow in Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of clinical mastitis at the beginning of lactation on reproductive performance of dairy cows in Algeria. Calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals, number of insemination per conception and conception rate at the first artificial insemination were ...

  14. Telemedicine in Remote Areas of Algeria | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Algeria includes a number of remote and desert areas that are cut off from adequate health services. This grant will allow the Centre de développement des technologies avancées (CDTA - centre for the development of advanced technologies) to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of telemedicine in the country.

  15. All projects related to Algeria | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The North Africa region is home to marginal ecosystems with a large rural population which depends on rain-fed farming systems for their livelihoods. Region: Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 740,000.00. Building Knowledge and Advocacy Agendas for Change in the ...

  16. Pre-School Education in Morocco and Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzoubaa, Khadija; Benghabrit-Remaoun, Nouria

    2004-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the current state of early childhood care in the Maghreb, in particular in Morocco and Algeria, where the pre-schooling rate for 5-year-olds is on the increase. Extending pre-school infrastructures and the need to create unified curricula have been among the most urgent questions to be tackled over the last decade in…

  17. Counter-terrorism strategies in Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse

  18. Bayoud disease of date palm in Algeria: History, epidemiology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gab

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... Scientific and Technical Research Center in the Dry Areas (CRSTRA), Campus Universitaire B.P. 1682 RP, 07000. Biskra, Algeria. Received 31 October, 2014; Accepted 9 February, 2015. The bayoud is ..... Ph.D. Thesis, University of Dijon,. France. Sedra MH, Djerbi M (1985). Mise au point d'une méthode.

  19. What Do Mobiles Speak in Algeria? Evidence from SMS Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostari, Hind Amel

    2009-01-01

    When Algeria opened its markets to foreign investment starting from the early 2000s, a technological boom occurred, including the expansion of mobile phone use. New technologies have had a considerable impact on the Algerian diglossic situation, in recent decades, and have contributed in the democratisation of the local dialects, which are being…

  20. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were ...

  1. Algeria : National Environmental Action Plan for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This staff sector assessment note accompanies the recently completed national environmental action plan for sustainable development (NEAP-SD), which, as an output of the Industrial Pollution Control Project in Algeria, focused on charting a new course for environmental management in the country, based on an objective assessment of past policy, and institutional failures, on a new consensus...

  2. Bayoud disease of date palm in Algeria: History, epidemiology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bayoud is transmitted by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, which causes drying and rapid die back. To date, the disease has destroyed more than 12 million date palms in Morocco, or two-thirds of the producers of the best dates trees in this country, and three million of palm trees in Algeria with the threat ...

  3. Scientific Community in Algeria: Adopting Traditions and Developing Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana I. Tyukaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of scientific development in Algeria, which has not been long, represents a series of continual rises and falls. The Algerian leadership and researchers have been making efforts to create Algeria's national science through protection from the western scientific tradition, which is reminiscent of the colonial period of the country, and at the same time adoption of scientific knowledge and scientific institutions functioning principles from abroad, with no organizational or scientific experience of their own. Since the time the independent Algerian state was established, its scientific development has been inevitably coupled with active support of European countries, especially France, and other western and non-western states. Today the Algerian leadership is highly devoted to the modernization of the national scientific and research potential in strong cooperation with its foreign partners. The article concentrates on examining the present period (the 2000s of the scientific development in Algeria. The main conclusion is that there still is a number of problems - for Algeria until now lacks an integral scientific community with the state preserving its dominating role in science and research activities. Despite these difficulties, the Algerian science has made an outstanding progress. The efficiently built organizational scientific structure, the growing science and technology cooperation with foreign countries as well as the increasing state expenses in science allow to hope for further success of the Algerian scientific development.

  4. The Iraq war: official and unofficial history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Garcia Bonfin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the motivations and the soldiers who fought in the war in Iraq started in March 2003. The attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the foreign policy of the United States, the years of relative peace conquered at the end of the cold war is over, Americans now had a new enemy, political Islam. Soon after the attacks, the Bush Administration (2001-2009 tried to relate Islamic fighters belonging to Al-Qaeda with the regime of Saddam Hussein, in a clear attempt to justify an invasion on Iraq internally. Externally, the American Government, along with the Briton, claimed that the Iraqis had weapons of mass destruction, which inflicted the UN resolutions imposed on the Iraqi Government during the years 1990. However, neither the inspections and subsequently the invasion were able to find such weapons. What if you saw after the invasion was the huge profit obtained by private military and oil companies. In the research was analyzed as if formed the Middle East, the Empire of the United States on a global scale, the report of the Chief Inspector of UNMOVIC, the UN agency responsible for weapons inspections in Iraq, and the letters of soldiers who fought in Iraq. In historiography, as in what if notes is that there were three present interests in the war in Iraq, economic order first, with the possibility of profit of the private military companies and the opportunity to extract oil; second related to foreign policy, which had the interest in rearranging geopolitics of the region; and third of domestic politics, to which there was an increase in the popularity of the Bush administration, with the war on Terror.

  5. Evaluation of dizziness at Jordan University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Baqi, Khader J.; Moamed, Faisal I.; Shubair, Kandil S.; Sarhan, Yusuf S.; Tawalbeh, Mohmed I.

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed prospectively to the dizzy patients in the Neurotology Outpatient Clinic at Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan during the period 1993-2000 and to discuss the prevalence and and etiology of dizziness. Data were collected from 108 patients (52 male and 56 female) with a mean age of 45.6-years. diagnosis was made on the basis of history, physical, otolarygological and neurological examination and confirmed by relevant investigation including laboratory, radiological and audio vestibular tests. Secure diagnosis was made in 98% of patients (14% had one cause alone and 84% had multiple causes). Cardivascular disorders accounted for 31.5% of primary and 49% of secondary causes, perpheral vestibular disorders, 25% of primary and 3% of secondary causes, central vestibular disorders 17% of primary and 9% of secondary causes, metabolic endocrine 13% of primary and 38% of secondary causes and psychogenic 4.6% of primary and 6.5% of secondary causes.Our findings demonstrate that vertigo is most common subtype of dizziness (50%). Multiple causes are more prevalent in older age and single cause is more prevalent in younger age. Cardiovascular was the most common cause of dizziness followed by vestibular disorders, metabolic and cervical osteoarthritis. Vestibular disorders are primary causes and non vestibular are predominantly secondary causes of dizziness. Hyperlipidemia, diabetes and cervical causes are major secondary contributionsto dizziness. We recommend a a multi disciplinary setting and application of a comprehensive diagnostic and treatment approach without unnecessary protracted investigative schemeand installment of rehabilitatioon facilities. (author)

  6. Bumper Stickers in Jordan: A Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Al-Momani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has set out to determine the structural patterns of bumper stickers in Jordan. This study is significant since it is the first one to approach bumper stickers structurally. The study has investigated 227 stickers, which can be considered the corpus of stickers in Jordan. The study has found that around 90% of the stickers are sentences, most of which are simple sentences expressed in the present tense. This combination of the three elements i.e. sentence, declarative and simple is what facilitated the job of drivers to write their opinions, attitudes, beliefs, etc. and is what made it possible for the others i.e. drivers and pedestrians to understand the stickers. The study has also found that imperative and negative imperatives are quite common since the stickers are not addressed to the writer/driver rather to the others so as to inform them about his state, his miserable condition, his opinions, his loyalties, and his vehicle. The stickers are addressed to others to demand certain behaviors from them such as driving wisely, not challenging the sticker writer, respecting him if he is driving a truck or a lorry, etc.

  7. Jordan cells of periodic loop models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Saint-Aubin, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    Jordan cells in transfer matrices of finite lattice models are a signature of the logarithmic character of the conformal field theories that appear in their thermodynamical limit. The transfer matrix of periodic loop models, T N , is an element of the periodic Temperley–Lieb algebra EPTL N (β,α), where N is the number of sites on a section of the cylinder, and β = −q − q −1 = 2cos λ and α the weights of contractible and non-contractible loops. The thermodynamic limit of T N is believed to describe a conformal field theory of central charge c = 1 − 6λ 2 /(π(λ − π)). The abstract element T N acts naturally on (a sum of) spaces V-tilde N d , similar to those upon which the standard modules of the (classical) Temperley–Lieb algebra act. These spaces known as sectors are labeled by the numbers of defects d and depend on a twist parameter v that keeps track of the winding of defects around the cylinder. Criteria are given for non-trivial Jordan cells of T N both between sectors with distinct defect numbers and within a given sector. (paper)

  8. Eating disturbances among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Tamara Yousef; Al-Domi, Hayder Abdullah; Mashal, Rima Hussein; Jibril, Musa Abdel-Khaleq

    2010-02-01

    Several studies indicated that the prevalence of eating disorders has increased among adolescent girls. The aim of the present study, therefore, is to investigate the occurrence and correlates of eating disorders among adolescent girls in Amman, Jordan. A sample of 432 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years were recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Information was collected from adolescent schoolgirls through a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, body shape and eating habits questionnaires. One third of participants had eating disorders, including bulimia nervosa (0.6%), binge eating disorder (1.8%) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (31%), however no anorexic cases were found. Findings also suggested that pubertal, familial and social variables were associated with eating disorders occurrence. Eating disturbances were prevalent among the present population sample. Participants have been more preoccupied with their body weight due to socio-cultural norms that are reinforced by media messages. Further research is needed to develop intervention programs to control eating disorders occurrence in Jordan. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Revised solar maps of Algeria based on sunshine duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaiche, M.R.; Bouhanik, A.; Bekkouche, S.M.A.; Malek, A.; Benouaz, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The global solar irradiation maps for Algeria are drawn. • We performed an independence test using year 1992–2002 data. • The highest intensity of the solar radiation is located around the area of Djanet. • The less intense area is located around the area of Ksar Chellala. - Abstract: Solar irradiation data is generally required in modelling a system’s thermal performance, and evaluation of long-term effects of climatological changes. In Algeria, measurements of solar irradiation have been carried out for a few locations because the measuring instruments are expensive to purchase and install. The only alternative to obtain solar irradiation data is to estimate it by use of an appropriate solar irradiation model. The present study attempted to draw global solar irradiation maps for Algeria, witch are generated for all types of sky. The incident solar radiation on a horizontal surface, on a surface tilted at the latitude angle and for a vertical plane facing east, south, west, south-east, south-west was determined using numerical models. To obtain a solar radiation map of a certain zone it is necessary to know the solar radiation of a huge number of sites spread wide across the zone. The comparison between the measured and the computed values is satisfactory; the relative error is less than 7%. The results allow to view information about 48 provinces of Algeria, and are presented in the form of an annual solar radiation map. The solar maps developed in this paper provide information about the levels of total solar radiation which can be used as a database for future investments in the solar sector in Algeria

  10. Post-Transition Violence in Iraq (2004-2005): The Military Perspective of an Insider

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karam, Jabbar N

    2006-01-01

    .... Governing Iraq has been complicated by the violence Iraq is have since suffered. The nature of this violence in the regions north and west of Baghdad must be analyzed to provide a solution for a safe and secure Iraq...

  11. Women in Iraq: Background and Issues for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pina, Aaron D

    2006-01-01

    The issue of women's rights in Iraq has taken on new relevance, following the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, efforts to reconstruct Iraq, and recent elections for a Transitional National Assembly...

  12. U.S. Anticorruption Efforts in Iraq: Progress Made in Implementing Revised Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriel, Robert; Haigler, Dan; Hlinka, Joan

    2008-01-01

    .... anticorruption activities in Iraq. SIGIR instituted reviews of these programs in recognition of the significant detrimental effect corruption has on Iraq's economic, social, and political reconstruction...

  13. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq - phase ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... et offrir une formation en méthodes et techniques de recherche en sciences sociales destinée à de jeunes intellectuels et réaliser des recherches sur le terrain afin d'examiner le rôle que joue la religion sur le plan politique en Iraq (la concurrence entre Nadjaf, en Iraq et Qom, en Iran), et la gouvernance régionale en Iraq, ...

  14. Iraq: Usa and Great Britain hold up an agreement on limited sales of Iraq petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The negotiations United Nations/Iraq have been stopped because of objections coming from Usa and Great Britain. Three points were developed: The distribution of medicine and foods in three Kurdish countries, these countries are actually under the United nations control, Iraq wants to participate at the distribution but Usa and Great Britain think that it could be a way of pressure from Iraq on Kurdish countries and in this mind they refuse. The second point is about the sequestered banking account on which must be deposited the receipts of Iraqi petroleum sales which must be put under United Nation control in order to avoid, according to Washington and London, that Iraq uses it to get round the sanctions. The third point is that Usa and Great Britain consider that the resolution number 986 has only for object to relieve the pains of Iraqi people and its application must not be interpreted as a lightening of international sanctions against Iraq. The results of the suspension are a surge of petroleum prices on international market and a fall of Iraqi Dinar. (N.C.)

  15. Strategic Implications of Intercommunal Warfare in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    the U.S. embassy in the United Arab Emirates; Major James Overstreet, USAF, the former Assistant Air Attaché in Amman Jordan; Colonel Patrick...Relations from Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California. v SUMMARY Contemporary Iraqi society is comprised of Shi’ite Arabs , Sunni Arabs ...orientation and ideology. Around 60-65 percent of Iraqis are Shi’ite Arabs , 15-20 percent are Sunni Muslim Arabs , and 15-20 percent are Kurds. Turkomans

  16. Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq: Effects and Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2006-01-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq: Effects and Countermeasures Clay Wilson Specialist in Technology and National Security Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division Improvised explosive devices (IEDs...

  17. Multinomial Logit Model of Choices of Internet Modes in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Ph.D. Almas Heshmati; Ph.D. Firas H. Al-Hammadany

    2014-01-01

    Iraq is a country that has the potential to explode onto the Internet market due to the fact that much of Iraq is still largely without access to the Internet. Iraq¡¯s market has much room for corporate and individual investments in Internet technology, mainly, Internet access. However, this requires a deep understanding of the user with regards to the Internet and the market characteristics involved. This study is concerned with the users¡¯ choice of Internet mode connections in Iraq. There ...

  18. 3-qubit entanglement: A Jordan algebraic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsten, L.

    2014-09-01

    It is by now well known that three qubits can be totally entangled in two physically distinct ways. Here we review work classifying the physically distinct forms of 3-qubit entanglement using the elegant framework of Jordan algebras, Freudenthal-Kantor triple systems and groups of type E7. In particular, it is shown that the four Freudenthal-Kantor ranks correspond precisely to the four 3-qubit entanglement classes: (1) Totally separable A-B-C, (2) Biseparable A-BC, B-CA, C-AB, (3) Totally entangled W, (4) Totally entangled GHZ. The rank 4 GHZ class is regarded as maximally entangled in the sense that it has non-vanishing quartic norm, the defining invariant of the Freudenthal-Kantor triple system. While this framework is specific to three qubits, we show here how the essential features may be naturally generalised to an arbitrary number of qubits.

  19. 3-qubit entanglement: A Jordan algebraic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsten, L

    2014-01-01

    It is by now well known that three qubits can be totally entangled in two physically distinct ways. Here we review work classifying the physically distinct forms of 3-qubit entanglement using the elegant framework of Jordan algebras, Freudenthal-Kantor triple systems and groups of type E 7 . In particular, it is shown that the four Freudenthal-Kantor ranks correspond precisely to the four 3-qubit entanglement classes: (1) Totally separable A-B-C, (2) Biseparable A-BC, B-CA, C-AB, (3) Totally entangled W, (4) Totally entangled GHZ. The rank 4 GHZ class is regarded as maximally entangled in the sense that it has non-vanishing quartic norm, the defining invariant of the Freudenthal-Kantor triple system. While this framework is specific to three qubits, we show here how the essential features may be naturally generalised to an arbitrary number of qubits.

  20. NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  1. Characterization of Quercus species distributed in Jordan using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Quercus species distributed in Jordan using morphological and molecular markers. Mohammad S Jawarneh, Mohammad H Brake, Riyadh Muhaidat, Hussein M Migdadi, Jamil N Lahham, Ahmad Ali El-Oqlah ...

  2. Meet EPA Scientist Jordan West, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan West, Ph.D. is an aquatic ecologist at EPA. Her areas of expertise include freshwater & marine ecology, climate change impacts and adaptation, resilience and threshold theory, environmental risk assessment, expert elicitation & stakeholder processes

  3. Military Assistance to Jordan. What Happened to the Peace Dividend?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Herbert

    1999-01-01

    When Jordan signed the peace agreement with Israel in 1994, bringing years of hostilities to an end, expectations were they would also join in the peace dividends' as Egypt and Israel had some years earlier...

  4. Testing Job Matching Services for Unemployed Educated Youth in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Groh; David McKenzie; Nour Shammout; Tara Vishwanath

    2014-01-01

    This note tests the extent to which search and matching frictions are the cause of high levels of unemployment for educated youth in Jordan, and whether a job matching service can reduce unemployment.

  5. Survey of Micro- and Small Enterprises in Jordan (2015) [PUBLIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Jordan Local Enterprise Support Project (LENS) conducted a survey of MSEs in 2014-2015 to better understand Jordanian enterprises and to assess the major...

  6. For beneficiary-led protection programming in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead McGrath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the humanitarian community’s clear focus on addressing the protection concerns of displaced Syrians, in Jordan the beneficiaries of many protection programmes have had limited influence on the shape of the protection response to date.

  7. Jordan : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: FOREIGN TRADE, INTERREGIONAL TRADE, TRADE LIBERALIZATION, TRADE FACILITATION, FINANCIAL SERVICES, TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY, TRANSPORT. Région: Egypt, Jordan, Middle East, Lebanon, Morocco, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia.

  8. Iraq: Learning Civilian Protection the Hard Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahr Muhammedally

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article—based on the author’s interviews with civilians and security forces in areas retaken from the Islamic State (also known as ISIS in Northern Iraq in 2015—examines challenges in civilian protection when pro-government forces take control of areas formerly under control of anti-government forces.1 It recommends to the Iraqi and Kurdish leadership specific harm mitigation training for their forces, a protection-based approach to shield civilians from harm from all sides, and provision of security to returnees, including protection both from crime and revenge attacks. Such preventative measures, if enacted before major military operations to retake populated areas under ISIS control begin, would better protect civilians, strengthen the government’s mission against ISIS and provide building blocks for a stable Iraq.

  9. Blood pressure among school children in jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switty, T A; Shaheen, B H; Habashneh, M S; Kelani, Z; Hazza, I A

    1996-01-01

    A prospective study was carried out over a three-year period (1993-95) on 4469 school children drawn from 20 different schools in rural areas of Jordan. There were 2592 males and 1877 females aged between 6-16 years. The height, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were recorded for both sexes followed by complete clinical examination. The BP was recorded according to the criteria laid down by the second task force on BP in children, using mercury sphygmomanometers, in sitting position and in the right arm. Data were analyzed and the percentiles were calculated for each age-group in both sexes. Both systolic and diastolic BP had positive correlation with age, height, weight and body surface area. There were no differences in the systolic BP for both sexes of corresponding age, while there was a difference in the diastolic. The upper limits of normal, 90th percentile, systolic/diastolic pressures were 116/76, 122/80, 128/81 and 139/86 in children aged 6-8 years, 9-11 years, 12-14, and 15-16 years respectively, with prevalence of 13.35% (n = 596). The lower limits of hypertension, 95th percentile, for systolic/diastolic pressures were 122/81, 126/83, 134/84, and 142/88 mm Hg in each of the same age-groups respectively, with prevalence of 6.85% ( = 306), while for severe hypertension, 99th percentile, for the same age-groups the values were 131/86, 134/87, 145/89 and 154/90 mm Hg respectively, with prevalence of 1.95% (n = 87). The findings in this study were consistent with international data. We emphasize the need for regular check up of BP in our children. Also, further studies are necessary including other areas of Jordan and smaller age-group children.

  10. Evaluation of dizziness at Jordan University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Baqi, Khader J; Mohammed, Faisal I; Shubair, Kandil S; Sarhan, Yusef S; Tawalbeh, Mohamed I

    2004-05-01

    This study was performed prospectively to evaluate the dizzy patients in the Neurotology Outpatient clinic at Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan during the period 1993-2000 and to discuss the prevalence and etiology of dizziness. Data were collected from 108 patients (52 males and 56 females) with a mean age of 45.6-years. Diagnosis was made on the basis of history, physical, otolaryngological and neurological examination and confirmed by relevant investigation including laboratory, radiological and audio vestibular tests. Secure diagnosis were made in 98% of patients (14% had one cause alone and 84% had multiple causes). Cardiovascular disorders accounted for 31.5% of primary and 49% of secondary causes, peripheral vestibular disorders, 25% of primary and 3% of secondary causes, central vestibular disorders 17% of primary and 9% of secondary causes, metabolic endocrine 13% of primary and 38% of secondary causes, cervical osteoarthritis 5.5% of primary and 28% of secondary causes and psychogenic 4.6% of primary and 6.5% of secondary causes. Our findings demonstrate that vertigo is the most common subtype of dizziness (50%). Multiple causes are more prevalent in older age and the single cause is more prevalent in younger age. Cardiovascular was the most common cause of dizziness followed by vestibular disorders, metabolic and cervical osteoarthritis. Vestibular disorders are primary causes and non vestibular are predominantly secondary causes of dizziness. Hyperlipidemia, diabetes and cervical causes are major secondary contributors to dizziness. We recommend a multi disciplinary setting and application of a comprehensive diagnostic and treatment approach without unnecessary protracted investigative scheme and installment of rehabilitation facilities.

  11. Future Potential of ICT Implementation in University Education in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zoubi , Abdallah; Kahhaleh , Bassam; Hasan , Omar; Kharouf , Husam

    2007-01-01

    The emerging information and communication technology (ICT) has become a strategic alternative for universities all over the world to enhance learning and deliver both quantity and quality programs. The status of ICT infrastructure in Jordan is investigated through a number of core indicators to identify the underlying factors which emerge as serious obstacles to the progress of university eEducation. Findings show that Jordan has made a good progress in international ranking in both the netw...

  12. Jordan and left derivations on locally C*-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, Naseer

    2002-07-01

    We show that left derivations as well as Jordan derivations on locally G*-algebras are always continuous. We also obtain some noncommutative extensions of the classical Singer-Wermer theorem for locally C*-algebras: (1) Every left derivation D on a locally (7*-algebra A is identically zero. (2) Every Jordan derivation D on a locally C*-algebra A which satisfies [D(x), x]D(x]=0 for all x in A, is identically zero. (author)

  13. ICTs are improving health equity in Jordan | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 تشرين الأول (أكتوبر) 2013 ... Rural and remote areas often lack specialized and experienced medical staff. Consequently, the health status in Jordan's rural communities is lower than in urban communities. To help bridge this gap, the Royal Scientific Society in Jordan (RSS) developed and implemented an electronic mobile health ...

  14. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-30

    clarification of democracy and governance programs and expressed concern for women and minorities. FY 2010 Regular $416 Support ministerial capacity...1.3million Iraqis displaced inside Iraq as of January 2011. UNHCR also strengthen themedia, and increase the participa- tion of women , youth...pursuing several different alternatives to offset this funding shortfall, such as requesting permission from theMinistry of Planning to use leftover

  15. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-30

    electricity, and housing this quarter. A new seaport planned for al-Faw Peninsula at an estimated cost ofmore than $6 billion is one of the largest...major international hotel group to invest in Iraq.Working under amanagement agreement withNewYork- based real estate developer the Claremont Group...hospitality industry is also thriving, with Marriott andHilton breaking ground on projects and the Lebanese-ownedRotana Hotel providing a viable

  16. Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Tikriti, S. K.; Al-Ani, F.; Jurji, F. J.; Tantawi, H.; Al-Moslih, M.; Al-Janabi, N.; Mahmud, M. I. A.; Al-Bana, A.; Habib, H.; Al-Munthri, H.; Al-Janabi, Sh.; Al-Jawahry, K.; Yonan, M.; Hassan, F.; Simpson, D. I. H.

    1981-01-01

    Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever was recognized for the first time in Iraq in 1979. The first case was reported on 3 September 1979 and since then a further 9 patients have been investigated. Eight patients gave a history of previous contact with sheep or cattle, while 2 patients, a resident doctor and an auxiliary nurse, acquired their infections in hospital by direct contact with patients. The causal virus was isolated from patients' blood and postmortem liver specimens. The virus isolates ...

  17. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Adel Abd al-Mahdi (incumbent) of ISCI and Tariq al-Hashimi, leader of the Sunni Iraqi Islamic Party (IIP). Another Sunni figure, Mahmoud Mashhadani...A senior leader of ISCI, Adel Abdul Mahdi, becomes Minister of Oil. 28 Adam Taylor. “Meet...the United States does not bear the only burden for implementing the programs above, in light of the fact that Iraq is now a major oil exporter. For

  18. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  19. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, Tuna [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gok, Rengin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abdulnaby, Wathiq [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shakir, Ammar M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mahdi, Hanan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Numan, Nazar M.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Shukri, Haydar [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chlaib, Hussein K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ameen, Taher H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abd, Najah A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments (PSHA) form the basis for most contemporary seismic provisions in building codes around the world. The current building code of Iraq was published in 1997. An update to this edition is in the process of being released. However, there are no national PSHA studies in Iraq for the new building code to refer to for seismic loading in terms of spectral accelerations. As an interim solution, the new draft building code was considering to refer to PSHA results produced in the late 1990s as part of the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP; Giardini et al., 1999). However these results are: a) more than 15 years outdated, b) PGA-based only, necessitating rough conversion factors to calculate spectral accelerations at 0.3s and 1.0s for seismic design, and c) at a probability level of 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, not the 2% that the building code requires. Hence there is a pressing need for a new, updated PSHA for Iraq.

  20. Algeria Post Arab Spring : The Forced Virtualisation of the Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Dris-Aït Hamadouche

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Algeria is the core of the Maghreb and shares land borders with seven countries Maghreb and Sahel countries. However, since 2011, none of the seven land borders is stable and se-cure. So, even if Algeria is considered as a stable country, this stability is fragile and is likely to be more precarious if the country has to face simultaneously an economic crisis and deli-cate presidential succession. Domestic incertitude coupled to regional conflicts puts the Algerian borders under unprecedented pressure. Consequently, almost all the governmental declarations expressed worries about the vulnerability of the borders, and assurances about the security services determination to assure the state security. However, to what extant this promise can be entirely fulfilled, regarding the borders’ characteristics and the specificity of the context? Why is the virtualization of the borders forced? As regards to the growing per-meability of the borders, can their militarization guarantee their security?

  1. Carbon dioxide emissions, output, and energy consumption categories in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Fethi

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the relation between CO 2 emissions, income, non-renewable, and renewable energy consumption in Algeria during the period extending from 1980 to 2011. Our work gives particular attention to the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) with break point method outcome demonstrates the positive effect of non-renewable type of energy on CO 2 emissions consumption. On the contrary, the results reveal an insignificant effect of renewable energy on environment improvement. Moreover, the results accept the existence of EKC hypothesis but the highest gross domestic product value in logarithm scale of our data is inferior to the estimated turning point. Consequently, policy-makers in Algeria should expand the ratio of renewable energy and should decrease the quota of non-renewable energy consumption.

  2. Amazigh-State Relations in Morocco and Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Algerian People RCD Rally for Culture and Democracy SNED National Society of Publishing and Distribution for Algeria UN United Nations UNESCO United...Rassemblement pour la Culture Democratie [ RCD ]) have all failed in effecting reform within the Algerian state as a whole, the focus should shift for reform at...by three disparate political and cultural efforts (i.e., the FFS, RCD and MCB).138 The Algerian civil war erupted after the government quashed

  3. Analysis of Steles with Libyan Inscriptions of Grande Kabylia, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Samia Ait Ali Yahia

    2017-01-01

    Several steles with Libyan inscriptions were discovered in Grande Kabylia (Algeria), but very few researchers were interested in these inscriptions. Our work is to list, if possible all these steles in order to do a descriptive study of the corpus. The steles analysis will be focused on the iconographic and epigraphic level and on the different forms of Libyan characters in order to highlight the alphabet used by the Grande Kabylia.

  4. Socio-economic impact of rural electrification in Algeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Djeflat A

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of rural area electrification on economic and social development in Algeria - based on a sample survey, examines power supply, household power consumption, household income, consumer expenditure, and perception of social implications and economic implications; discusses impact on establishments such as shops, factories, public services, farms, etc.; concludes that electrification has social rather than economic benefits; outlines methodology used. ...

  5. Human rickettsioses in the Batna area, eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrani, Khamsa; Tebbal, Soraya; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2012-12-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of rickettsioses in febrile exanthemas in eastern Algeria, we conducted a prospective serological analysis of all patients presenting with this clinical picture at the Infectious Diseases Department in the Batna Hospital from January 2000 to September 2006. One hundred and eight adult patients were included in the study, 46% of whom younger than 25 years, and 72.5% were admitted from May to September. Patients were tested for antibodies to Rickettsia conorii conorii, R. conorii israelensis, R. aeschlimannii, R. felis, R. sibirica mongolitimonae, R. africae, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii using microimmunofluorescence and Western blot as confirmation procedure. Both methods confirmed the diagnosis of Mediterranean spotted fever in 5 patients (4.6%), flea spotted fever in 2 patients (1.9%), and R. aeschlimannii infection in 2 patients (1.9%). In addition, 4 patients were diagnosed as having murine typhus (3.7%) and one with epidemic typhus (0.9%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of R. felis infection and R. aeschlimannii infection in Algeria. In conclusion, at least 5 different kinds of rickettsiosis coexist in eastern Algeria and, being responsible for 13% of cases of febrile exanthemas, should be considered among major causes of this clinical picture in this area. In addition, we emphasize the high incidence of typhus group rickettioses, including epidemic typhus, in this area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Algeria 2002. Concluded; Algerie 2002. Suite et fin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-10-01

    While reinforcing its existing network of oil and gas pipelines, Algeria is launching three more projects of new international gas pipelines and wishes to become one of the main power suppliers of the European Union. The second part of this dossier about Algeria comprises several articles. The first article is the second part of the interview of C. Khelil, Minister of energy and mines and president of Sonatrach company, about the organisational changes and the international development of Sonatrach. The second article treats of the increase of Algeria's hydrocarbons transportation capacity proportionally to its ambitions of oil and gas production in the coming years. The third article presents the activities of Sonatrach (exploration-production, discoveries, partnerships, pipeline transport, liquefaction, refining and petrochemistry, exports, trading and shipping). The next articles present the activities of Sonatrach's daughter companies: Enac (pipelines construction), Naftec (refineries), Egzia (management of industrial infrastructures and networks), Enip (management, exploitation and development of petrochemical industries), Somik (LNG equipments and infrastructures), Egzik (management of the industrial security and safety of petrochemical infrastructures), Naftal (fuel commercialization and service stations), SNTM-Hyproc (LNG transport), JGC Corp (engineering), IAP (training) etc.. (J.S.)

  7. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq - Phase II ... grant will allow the Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) to design and implement a training course for young scholars in social science research methodology and techniques; ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work.

  8. Using a Virtual History Conference to Teach the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In teaching the causes of the Iraq War, the use of "virtual history" can be employed in a conference setting in which different individuals are assigned to different plausible counterfactuals they use to construct virtual histories. The Iraq War lends itself to the virtual history approach because of the availability of many plausible…

  9. Iraq's shop-till-you-drop nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.; Hibbs, M.

    1992-01-01

    In a series of articles that began in March 1991, the authors have tried to separate fact from fiction about Iraq's ability to build nuclear weapons and to produce material to fuel them. After exposing Iraq's efforts to enrich uranium and design an atomic bomb, UN and IAEA experts zeroed in on how Iraq put its program together. The basic answer is that along with determination and persistence, Iraq had a great deal of foreign help. Iraq's 'Petrochemical Three,' the secret nuclear program conducted under the authority of its Atomic Energy Commission with links to the Defense Ministry and the Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization, received massive infusions of money and resources. Like the Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bombs in the United States, Iraq's program simultaneously pursued a number of different technical avenues to the bomb. Not knowing which efforts would succeed, Iraq poured billions of dollars into its multifaceted quest. Providing for these programs required the establishment of elaborate procurement networks in Europe, North America, and Asia. Like the technical quest, the procurement effort was carried out on many fronts at once. Diplomacy and secrecy were required, because few companies would knowingly supply a nuclear weapons program, or even a secret nuclear program that was ostensibly for civil purposes. Iraq showed great ingenuity in hiding its purchases behind such innocuous pursuits as automobile manufacturing, dairy production, and oil refining

  10. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq - Phase II | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq - Phase II ... Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) to design and implement a training course for young scholars in social science research methodology and techniques; to conduct field ... Renforcement de la participation sociale et économique des femmes au Moyen-Orient.

  11. Archaeoseismology in Algeria: observed damages related to probable past earthquakes on archaeological remains on Roman sites (Tel Atlas of Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumane, Kahina; Ayadi, Abdelhakim

    2017-04-01

    The seismological catalogue for Algeria exhibits significant lack for the period before 1365. Some attempts led to retrieve ancient earthquakes evidenced by historical documents and achieves. Archaeoseismology allows a study of earthquakes that have affected archaeological sites, based on the analysis of damage observed on remains. We have focused on the Antiquity period that include Roman, Vandal and Byzantine period from B.C 146 to A.D. 533. This will contribute significantly to the understanding of seismic hazard of the Tell Atlas region known as an earthquake prone area. The Tell Atlas (Algeria) experienced during its history many disastrous earthquakes their impacts are graved on landscape and archaeological monuments. On Roman sites such, Lambaesis (Lambèse), Thamugadi (Timgad) Thibilis (Salaoua Announa) or Thevest (Tebessa), damage were observed on monuments and remains related to seismic events following strong shacking or other ground deformation (subsidence, landslide). Examples of observed damage and disorders on several Roman sites are presented as a contribution to Archaeoseismology in Algeria based on effects of earthquakes on ancient structures and monuments. Keywords : Archaeoseismology. Lambaesis. Drop columns. Aspecelium. Ancient earthquakes

  12. A review of midwifery education curriculum documents in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Insaf; Leap, Nicky

    2012-12-01

    There is worldwide recognition that midwives are specialists in normal pregnancy, labour and birth and the postnatal period and that they should be educated to be primary providers of maternity care. In Jordan midwives currently have limited opportunities to fulfil this role. Since the mid-1980s, two public community colleges have offered three-year diploma midwifery education programmes in two major cities in Jordan. In 2002 the first and only four-year bachelor of midwifery education programme was established in one public university. A review to describe the design and content of midwifery education programmes in Jordan and address the question: Does the design of midwifery education programmes in Jordan encourage confidence that graduates will be competent to practise to the full capacity of the internationally defined role and scope of practice of the midwife and undertake the role of primary maternity care providers for women with low-risk pregnancies? A review of Jordanian midwifery education curriculum documents was undertaken using information and documents provided by midwifery programme coordinators. Programme coordinators in all institutions in Jordan providing midwifery education programmes. The curriculum documents reflected a medical model, with an emphasis on illness and intervention rather than preparation for the internationally defined full role and scope of practice of the midwife. This study provides a profile of midwifery education curriculum documents in Jordan with recommendations for changes that would position midwives as potential primary maternity care providers for women in Jordan who have uncomplicated pregnancies. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-medication patterns in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Al-Motassem M; Al-Bakri, Amal G; Bustanji, Yasser; Wazaify, Mayyada

    2008-01-01

    The classification of medicine as Prescription-Only-Medicine (POM) and Over-The-Counter (OTC) drugs in Jordan is present but not yet enforced on community pharmacies, the fact that allows access of the public to a wider range of medications that otherwise are provided only on prescription. This, of course, has its implications on safety and effectiveness of the pharmacotherapy in question. This research aims to establish a baseline data concerning the extent of self-medication among Jordanians, and to assess possible factors associated with self-medication, so that future interventions can be documented and planned. A total of 155 out of Amman's 900 community pharmacies. A cross-sectional observational study using a pre-piloted questionnaire was conducted. Over 800 customers who visited the pharmacies over a period of 4 months were interviewed and their non-prescription drug requests patterns were recorded to assess the prevalence of self-medication and offered justification. Self-medication was a common practice among Jordanians (42.5%). The variable that was associated with extent of self-medication was respondents' age, where patients younger than 16 years and those older than 60 years were less likely to self-treat. The most common reasons for self-medication were that the ailments were too minor to see a doctor (46.4%), the long waiting time to be seen by doctors (37.7%) and avoiding the cost of doctors' visits (31.4%). People tended to select medication based on advice received from pharmacy staff (14.2%), friends/neighbors (17.6%) or informal advice from other health professionals like dentists and nurses (21.9%). Alternatively, patients selected products based on their previous experiences with similar symptoms (27%) or similar diseases (33.5%). Self-medication is a common health care practice in Jordan, where people are becoming increasingly familiar with drugs and their brand names. Self-medication behavior varied significantly with a number of socio

  14. A Medium-Term Macroeconomic Strategy for Algeria : Sustaining Faster Growth with Economic and Social Stability, Volume 2. Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This study is part of a series of analytical works on Algeria prepared by the Bank, with the aim of laying out the framework, and facilitating the dialogue for elaborating the Bank's Country Assistance Strategy for Algeria. Companion studies include: "A Private Sector Development Strategy Note: A Diagnostic on Foreign Direct Investment in Algeria" (FIAS). This report is divided into three ...

  15. A Medium-Term Macroeconomic Strategy for Algeria : Sustaining Faster Growth with Economic and Social Stability, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This study is part of a series of analytical works on Algeria prepared by the Bank, with the aim of laying out the framework, and facilitating the dialogue for elaborating the Bank's Country Assistance Strategy for Algeria. Companion studies include: "A Private Sector Development Strategy Note: A Diagnostic on Foreign Direct Investment in Algeria" (FIAS). This report is divided into three ...

  16. The performance of water utilities in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assa'd, Tamer; Sauer, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to measure the relative performance of Jordan's water utilities for water sector (WS) and wastewater sector (WWS), and to investigate the major factors behind their inefficiencies. DEA (non-parametric method) and Tobit model (parametric method) were used at two stages. At the first stage DEA was used to evaluate the utilities' efficiency and to investigate the utilities' scale effect on efficiency. At the second stage Tobit model (regression) is applied to determine the impact of the non-controllable factors on utilities' inefficiencies where the efficiency score is the dependent variable in the regression. The results of DEA showed that there is a potential to reduce inputs level: water supply and operational expense (OPEX) for WS, and treated wastewater and OPEX for WWS, by around 15-20 and 23-27%, respectively. Aqaba and Jarash utilities are the most efficient utilities in the WS, while it is Amman utility in the WWS. The utility size has relatively moderate effect on the relative performance. It is concluded that the medium utility size for WS and large utility size for WWS is the most appropriate. Tobit model results indicate that commercialization activities have a clear positive impact on efficiency improvement for both sectors.

  17. Consanguinity and genetic disorders: Profile from Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamy, Hanan A.; Ajlouni, Kamel M.; Masri, Amira T.; Al-Hadidy, Azmy M.

    2007-01-01

    With 20-30% of all marriages occurring between first cousins, increasing attention in Jordan is now given to role of consanguinity in the occurrence of genetic diseases. The objective of this study is to define the specific categories of genetic disorders associated with consanguineous marriages. Etiological categories and consanguinity rates were studied among 623 families with genetic syndromes, congenital anomalies or mental retardation, or both, seen at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics for the period August 2002 to August 2006. Comparisons were made for first cousin marriage rates in the study group and that for the general population. First cousin marriages constituted 69%, 22% and 41.7% of marriages among families with autosomal recessive conditions (group 1), dominant, X-linked and chromosomal conditions (group 2) and sporadic undiagnosed conditions (group 3) respectively. The differences in the rates of the first cousin matings were highly significant when comparing known figures in the general population with group 1 and 3, but not significant with group 2. Two messages to the public and health care personnel regarding consanguinity can be derived from this study. The first message is that among genetic disorders, only autosomal recessive disorders are strongly associated with consanguinity. The second message is that approximately 30% of sporadic undiagnosed cases of mental retardation, congenital anomalies and dimorphism may have an autosomal recessive etiology with risks of recurrence in future pregnancies. (author)

  18. Economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Masaeid, H R; al-Mashakbeh, A A; Qudah, A M

    1999-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic costs of traffic accidents in Jordan during the year of 1996 and to derive unit accident costs for various accident severity levels. The related data were acquired from different sources, including traffic police records, insurance companies, private hospitals and medical centers. In this study, a framework for applying unit casualty class costs, unit property damage cost, as well as police activities and insurance administration costs to accidents of various severity levels was suggested. The loss-of-output, the loss quality of life, the community and family losses, the temporary and permanent losses, and hospitalization and medical treatment costs were estimated in computing the unit cost for fatalities or injuries of different casualty classes. The vehicle repair cost, detention period cost, and public and private costs were accounted for in estimating the unit cost of property damages. The results indicate that the 1996 traffic accidents cost the country about JD 103 million ($US 146.3 million).

  19. Overview of extremity arterial trauma in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heis, H A; Bani-Hani, K E; Elheis, M A

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to review etiologies of trauma, associated injuries, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of patients with vascular injuries in the extremities and relate factors in their treatment to the outcome of the injured extremity. Data were collected retrospectively on 73 patients diagnosed to have upper and lower limbs arterial injuries at King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan, between 2001 and 2006. Factors evaluated included demographic data, location of vessels injured, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, treatment, and outcome. Patients were predominantly males (54 patients). Isolated vascular trauma was present in 36 patients, while in the remaining 37 patients vascular trauma was aggravated by concomitant injuries. The most common etiology of vascular injuries in the upper and lower extremities was a penetrating injury found in 38 patients (52%). The vessels most commonly involved were the femoral and brachial arteries. Various associated injuries were identified mainly orthopedic in 21 patients (29%) and nerve injuries in 18 patients (25%). Autogenous vein graft interposition was mostly performed in 32 patients (44%). Permanent disability was seen in 8 patients (11%), limb amputation was performed in 5 patients (7%). Five patients died due to associated intraabdominal, thoracic, and head injuries giving a mortality rate of 7%. Delay in surgery, blunt trauma and extensive soft tissue defect in combined orthopedic and vascular injuries were associated with increased risk of amputation, while associated nerve injuries and bone injuries with extensive soft tissue damage are risk factors of poor quality outcome.

  20. Dentist-assistant interaction styles in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Y S; Abu-Sharbain, G

    2009-05-01

    To assess dentist-assistant interaction and communication styles and their associated factors in Jordan. Three different areas in Amman where private dental clinics heavily cluster were chosen. The researcher visited all dental clinics in these areas and invited dentists to participate in this study. A structured self-administered questionnaire was designed and included the 22 items on staff communication that were used by Gorter and Freeman to assess communication styles. The culturally adapted items were analysed in such a way to reflect the structure that is used in the original study. There was a significant interaction between dentist's gender and communication styles (F = 3.8, P = 0.022). The only significant difference between men and women was for professional leadership style (P = 0.011) where men were more likely to adopt professional leadership style than women. For men, the average score for friendly leadership style was significantly lower than that for other styles. For women, the average score was the highest for gender interacting style which was significantly higher than that for friendly leadership style and professional interacting style, but not business leadership style. Communication and interaction styles between Jordanian dentists and their assistants differ according to gender. Jordanian dentists are less likely to adopt friendly leadership communication style compared with other styles.

  1. Processing uranium ores of Central Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaboun, H.

    2014-01-01

    A process conceptual design is proposed based on the results of a sequential metallurgical testing campaign. During which, both random and designed samples collected from uranium ore deposits of central Jordan have been subjected to dynamic and static leaching testing. The ore amenability to leaching under alkaline and acidic conditions was studied using finely ground, P80 < 64 μm, arbitrarily picked samples. Findings indicated obvious leaching amenabilities in both media, however acid leaching track was not pursued further due to the high consumption rates of reagent. Alkaline dynamic leaching rates were relatively slower and demonstrated a nonlinear tendency. Deportment analysis and dynamic testing on coarsely crushed bulk samples, planned and collected by JFUMC, supported the choice for heap leach as one promising option to process the aforementioned ore. A set of six columns were used to imitate, on a semi-pilot scale, the flow behavior inside a heap pad. Steadiness of liquid flow inside the bed was observed under a testing range 1 – 5 L/h/m 2 ; however, slumping behavior of around 7% was detected. Uranium recoveries matched well the findings of rotating bottle investigations and were attained in less than two weeks for fluxes larger than 4.5 L/h/m 2 . (author)

  2. Pharmacy education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A

    2006-02-15

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students' attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector.

  3. Primary Nocturnal Enuresis among school children in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazza, I.; Tarwneh, H.

    2002-01-01

    We attempted in this study, to estimate the prevalence of primarynocturnal enuresis (PNE) in children of Jordan and to examine factorsassociated with PNE. We sent questionnaires to 950 parents of children aged6-8 years, randomly selected from three primary schools in Jordan. Thequestionnaire was designed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associatedwith PNE. The response rate was 71.6%. The overall prevalence of PNE was23.8%. This prevalence declined with age from 48.9% at 7 years and 8.4% at 8years. Our findings indicate that the prevalence of PNE in Jordan is higherthan the reported from other Asian or European countries, while theassociated factors are similar. (author)

  4. Trends and Challenges for Mobile Learning in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Al-Zoubi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present state of mobile learning in Jordan isinvestigated in order to provide a meaningful direction forthe future development of university eEducation in Jordan.The strengths of mobile learning are elaborated and itscurrent status including challenging issues from theperspective of cognitive learning is addressed. An onlinesurvey was conducted to investigate the expectations andperceptions of mobile learning amongst university studentsand professors in Jordan and a number of countries in theMiddle East. Various factors that may contribute to theestablishment of mobile learning in educational institutionswere investigated and expectations concerning the impact ofmobile technologies on teaching and learning were explored.The results reflect on the fundamental needs for effectiveimplementation of mobile learning from the view ofcognitive science, instead of technological evolution.

  5. The paralytic poliomyelitis epidemic of 1978 in Jordan: epidemiological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Melnick, Joseph L.; Hatch, Milford H.; Dawod, Saleh T.

    1984-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is endemic in Jordan, but until 1978 there were no epidemics. In that year, 66 children were admitted to the Jordan University Hospital with a paralytic illness, compared with 13 in 1979 and 11 in 1980. The epidemic reached a peak in the summer and fall of 1978. While 54% of the patients had not received any vaccine, 19% had received 3 doses of oral poliovaccine; 82% of the cases were in children less than 2 years of age, and all belonged to the lower socioeconomic group. There were 28 deaths with complications of the disease. Poliovirus was isolated from 10 out of 14 rectal swab samples examined (9 with poliovirus 1, 1 with poliovirus 2), and from 4 out of 13 throat specimens from the same patients. It is concluded that as a result of improving living standards in Jordan and neighbouring countries, more epidemics may occur unless immunization efforts against poliomyelitis are intensified. PMID:6609022

  6. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  7. Management scenarios for the Jordan River salinity crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent geochemical and hydrological findings show that the water quality of the base flow of the Lower Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is dependent upon the ratio between surface water flow and groundwater discharge. Using water quality data, mass-balance calculations, and actual flow-rate measurements, possible management scenarios for the Lower Jordan River and their potential affects on its salinity are investigated. The predicted scenarios reveal that implementation of some elements of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty will have negative effects on the Jordan River water salinity. It is predicted that removal of sewage effluents dumped into the river (???13 MCM/a) will significantly reduce the river water's flow and increase the relative proportion of the saline groundwater flux into the river. Under this scenario, the Cl content of the river at its southern point (Abdalla Bridge) will rise to almost 7000 mg/L during the summer. In contrast, removal of all the saline water (16.5 MCM/a) that is artificially discharged into the Lower Jordan River will significantly reduce its Cl concentration, to levels of 650-2600 and 3000-3500 mg/L in the northern and southern areas of the Lower Jordan River, respectively. However, because the removal of either the sewage effluents or the saline water will decrease the river's discharge to a level that could potentially cause river desiccation during the summer months, other water sources must be allocated to preserve in-stream flow needs and hence the river's ecosystem. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Demographic aspects of unemployment in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, A A

    1979-01-01

    The extent and structure of open unemployment in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan was examined. The data on unemployment in Jordan come from censuses and labor force sample surveys. The last census was conducted in 1961 and obviously cannot provide current information, but a multipurpose household survey has been conducted annually since 1972. The survey sample is a stratified multistage random sample; 3 strata are distinquished, i.e., cities, camps, and rural areas. For this survey, the unemployed are defined as those persons who are physically unable to perform work and who want work and are actively seeking work but are unemployed at present. In this analysis, those persons among the unemployed who are in the age group 12-14 are excluded. 82.3% of the unemployed in the sample were men. The total unemployment rate was 1.6%, but the rate for women was 2.8% and that for men only 1.5%. The rate for women may be overstated to an unknown extent due to underreporting of women in the labor force, yet it seems unlikely that this factor would explain all of the differences in the extent of unemployment between men and women. The cultural bias against work for women outside the home exerts an influence in making it more difficult for women to find a job, but because of this bias many women do not even enter the labor force and hence cannot be unemployed. Most of the unemployed were in the 20-24 age group and to a lesser extent in the 15-19 age group. Almost 60% of the unemployed were in these 2 age groups. Beyond these ages, the percentages of unemployed decreased regularly with age, with the age group 40-44 as a minor exception. When taking sex into account, the 1st phenomenon to be observed was the highly skewed age distribution of female unemployed who were all under age 30. Of the unemployed men, most were also young, with 34.6% in the 20-24 age group and 52.9% younger than 25 years. For married women the low unemployment rate can be explained by the fact that many

  9. REVISITING COLONIAL BEHAVIOUR IN FRENCH ALGERIA AND BRITISH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELKACEM BELMEKKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The British and the French differed in both the approach and method adopted in governing their overseas subjects during their colonial enterprise in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This had a tremendous impact on the psyche of the colonized and was a determinant factor in shaping the nature of the relationship between the colonizers and colonized before and after independence. Therefore, this paper seeks to juxtapose the colonial behaviour of two colonial powers, French and British, in two major colonies, Algeria and India.

  10. Monitoring and performances evaluation of SAPVS in south of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadok, M.; Mehdaoui, A.; Hamek, T. [Station d`Experimentation des Equipements Solaires en milieu saharien, Adrar (Algeria)

    1998-09-01

    Several groups working in the photovoltaics field believe that the monitoring is a useful way for the development of this form of energy. In order to learn about Algerian experiences and to make progress towards a share goal, some photovoltaics installations are provided with monitoring systems. In this article we will try to do a study of the performances of a photovoltaic system and analyse the most representative parameters of its functioning. The studied system is situated at Adrar in southern Algeria. The study include also the evaluation of performance indices recommended by Joint Research Centre of Ispra. (Author)

  11. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay.

  12. Sedentary lifestyle among adults in Jordan, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi F. Sharkas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for physical and mental problems, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal diseases, and psychological stress. About 60% of the world’s population is not sufficiently physically active in leisure time or during work and social activities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of inactive Jordanian adults and describe their demographic and behavioral characteristics. Methods: The study used data from the behavioral risk factors surveillance survey conducted in Jordan in 2007. The sample size was 3654. Respondents who were physically inactive for more than 240 min daily (sleep time not included were considered to have a sedentary lifestyle. Data were analyzed with the program SPSS. Results: The prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle was 82.8% (2965 respondents, with a mean sedentary time of 587 min (95% confidence interval 581–594 min. Among the physically inactive adults, 52.6% were men, one third of them aged 35–44 years. Sedentary lifestyle was reported by 30% of those with a secondary level of education or above. Of those with a sedentary lifestyle, 37.6% were housewives and 37.5% were employees; 66% of them were overweight and obese. Of the physically inactive people, 2.5% had a history of heart failure and 1.3% had a history of cerebrovascular accidents; 57.2% of them tried to engage more in physical activity and almost three quarters of them were interested in improving their dietary habits. Conclusion: Most Jordanian adults have a sedentary lifestyle, which emphasizes that there is a public health problem. Many of them are attempting to lead a healthier lifestyle. Therefore, there is an urgent need to launch an applicable national plan that enables people to practice a healthier lifestyle.

  13. Positive projections of symmetric matrices and Jordan algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Bent; Jensen, Søren Tolver

    2013-01-01

    An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model.......An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model....

  14. The Minnesota notes on Jordan algebras and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Walcher, Sebastian

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains a re-edition of Max Koecher's famous Minnesota Notes. The main objects are homogeneous, but not necessarily convex, cones. They are described in terms of Jordan algebras. The central point is a correspondence between semisimple real Jordan algebras and so-called omega-domains. This leads to a construction of half-spaces which give an essential part of all bounded symmetric domains. The theory is presented in a concise manner, with only elementary prerequisites. The editors have added notes on each chapter containing an account of the relevant developments of the theory since these notes were first written.

  15. Income from oil could have made Iraq's economy flourish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenweisner, R.; Hirman, K.

    2003-01-01

    He whole economy of Iraq is based on oil industry. 95 percent of Iraq's foreign currency income is traditionally related to oil export. Another typical feature of its economy is a high level of government interference and dependence on food import. Though Iraq has the second largest proven oil reserves in the world and a reasonably good transport and export infrastructure it is struggling with economical problems. It was the wars that have had a major impact on the country's economy during the last two decades. In late seventies and early eighties Iraq's economic perspectives seemed very positive. Iraq was winning 3.5 million barrels of oil a day and the export incomes exceeded 27 billion USD. Tedious wars with the neighbouring Iran in the eighties cost Iraq according to American CIA's estimates about 100 billion USD. Before the wars started Iraq's foreign currency reserves reached 35 billion USD but the high cost of the war and all damage done to the oil facilities caused that before it ended Iraq was forced to take credits and later even restructure the related repayments. By the end of the conflict Iraq's foreign indebtedness grew to exceed 40 billion USD. After the war ended conditions became more favourable for increasing volumes of oil export, building of new pipelines and reconstruction of damaged facilities. But only two years later Saddam Hussain's regime invaded Kuwait and this lead to a military intervention by a coalition lead by the USA and the United Nations inflicted economical sanctions against Iraq. As a result the economic activity in the country decreased dramatically. The limited recourses the country had were used to finance military forces. Living conditions of Iraq's citizens slightly improved in second half of the nineties after United Nations allowed the country to export a limited amount of oil in exchange for food, medicines and some spare parts needed for reconstruction of the infrastructure. In 1999 the United Nations adopted changes to

  16. Checklist of the benthic marine macroalgae from Algeria. I. Phaeophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ould-Ahmed, Nora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The seaweed diversity of the Mediterranean is still not completely known, especially in some areas of its African coasts. As an effort to complete a more detailed catalogue to fill such gap, an updated checklist of the brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae from Algeria, based on updated literature records, is provided using as starting point the checklist of Perret- Boudouresque & Seridi published in 1989. As a result, the total number of taxa at specific and infraspecific levels accepted for Algeria, under current taxonomy and nomenclature, is 93.La diversidad de las algas marinas del Mediterráneo no es del todo conocida, especialmente en algunas áreas de su costa africana. Como parte de un esfuerzo para completar un catálogo más detallado, que permita reducir esta carencia, se aporta una lista crítica de las algas pardas (Phaeophyceae de Argelia mediante la recopilación y actualización de todas las citas publicadas, tomando como punto de partida la de Perret-Boudou - resque & Seridi publicada el año 1989. Como resultado, el número total de táxones, a nivel específico e infraespecífico, aceptado para las costas de Argelia es de 93, de acuerdo con la taxonomía y la nomenclatura actuales

  17. Wind energy potential in the site of Batna in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksas, M. [Batna Univ. (Algeria). Dept. of Physics

    2010-07-01

    Algeria has launched a national program that promotes the use of renewable energy sources in the frame of its sustainable energy development plan for 2020. The first target is to increase electricity production by renewable energies to 10-12 per cent of the total production by 2015. Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the world, with an average growth rate of 30 per cent. New technological developments in wind energy design have contributed to this significant growth. Hybrid wind and solar systems are also possible economical alternative for isolated and remote areas. The objective of this study was to establish an accurate assessment of the wind energy resource in the region of Batna in the North East of Algeria. Hourly measured long term wind speed data of Batna during the period of 1999-2008 were statistically analyzed. The probability density distributions were then derived from long term wind speed data and the distributional parameters were identified. Annual mean values of wind speed and power were also calculated. The frequency distribution of daily totals of wind speed data were counted. The mean annual value of Weibull shape parameter k was 1.61 while the annual value of the scale parameter c was 4.91 m/s. 19 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  18. Report to Congress on the Situation in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petraeus, David H

    2007-01-01

    .... Though the improvements have been uneven across Iraq, the overall number of security incidents has declined in 8 of the past 12 weeks, with the number of incidents in the last two weeks at the lowest...

  19. Negotiation in the New Strategic Environment: Lessons From Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tressler, David M

    2007-01-01

    U.S. soldiers in Iraq from junior to senior leaders conduct thousands of negotiations with Iraqi leaders while pursuing tactical and operational objectives that affect the strategic import of the U.S...

  20. Contractors' Support of U.S. Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frisk, Daniel; Trunkey, R. D; Talaber, Adam; Adedeji, Adebayo; Liu, Victoria; Dennis, Robert; Gullo, Theresa; Sammartino, Frank; Murphy, Robert; Elsea, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper, which covers the period from 2003 through 2007, provides an overview of the federal costs of employing contractors in Iraq and in nearby countries, the type of products and services...

  1. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, G.; Baute, J.

    2001-01-01

    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  2. Iran and Iraq: A Prediction for Future Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xavier, Francis

    1997-01-01

    .... Saddam feared Khomeini because Khomeini threatened Saddam's power base in Iraq. Consequently, he started the war after a cost-benefit calculation convinced him that an attack on Iran could solve his external problem (Khomeini...

  3. The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Huri Yaseen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear language policy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study all courses in Arabic, while speaking and using their own culture at home tend to be done in their first language. The minorities’ language usage in Iraq was ignored both inside the schools as well as in the curriculum construction. So this study focuses on the following issues: the first issue is, What is the strategy of language planning policy in Iraq? the study discusses the strategy and the planning educational system that Iraq applies now, the second issue is, What is the status of minority languages in Iraq? Iraq is a multicultural county and has many minorities communities with different languages, the third issue is, What are the challenges of language in Iraq? as long as there is different languages within one country the study also focuses on the challenges that been faced in the planning policy system, and the last issue is, Is there a homogenous relationship during the current policy? How? the study shows the homogenous relationship inside the current policy and the researches give many suggestions and recommendations regarding to the current policy and what is needed for improving the educational planning policy system.

  4. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies d'établir les capacités de recherche en sciences sociales du pays en entreprenant une recherche sur le terrain et une enquête dans trois régions, soit Bagdad, le sud de l'Iraq et le Kurdistan. Il s'agira pour l'institut de cerner les forces et les faiblesses en la ...

  5. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies d'établir les capacités de recherche en sciences sociales du pays en entreprenant une recherche sur le terrain et une enquête dans trois régions, soit Bagdad, le sud de l'Iraq et le Kurdistan. Il s'agira pour l'institut de cerner les forces et les faiblesses en la ...

  6. Chromite Enrichment in the Recent Fluviatile Sediments, North Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al Juboury, Ali I. [علي اسماعيل الجبوري; Ismail, Sabah A.; Ghazal, Mohsin M.

    1999-01-01

    The Recent sediments from North Iraq are characterized by a higher content of chromite. This paper deals with the mineralogy and geochemistry of chromite in the heavy mineral assemblages from Recent fluvial sediments in an attempt to elucidate its distribution and source rock. The heavy fraction is composed of iron oxides and chromite forming about 50% of the total heavies. Chromite forms up to 80% of the opaque minerals at some areas in North Iraq. The non-opaque heavy minerals are composed ...

  7. The Cost and Economic Corruption of the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Bowen, Jr., http://www.sigir.mil/reports/quarterlyreports/Oct07/Default.aspx accessed November 2007. 86 Associated Press, “Iraq Fraud Whistleblowers ...odds with the contemporary tendency to try and find technological solutions to moral dilemmas . More sophisticated technology and increased...stories/2005/11/19/ap/business/mainD8DVB6FO6.shtm l accessed November 2007. Associated Press, “Iraq Fraud Whistleblowers Vilified,” August 25, 2007

  8. Sexual violence in Iraq: Challenges for transnational feminist politics

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ali, Nadje

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses sexual violence by ISIS against women in Iraq, particularly Yezidi women, against the historical background of broader sexual and gender-based violence. It intervenes in feminist debates about how to approach and analyse sexual and wider gender-based violence in Iraq specifically and the Middle East more generally. Recognizing the significance of positionality, the article argues against dichotomous positions and for the need to look at both macrostructural configuration...

  9. Monitoring-based analysis of agriculture in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Tokareva, Olga Sergeevna; Pasko, Olga Anatolievna; Alshaibi, A.; Mochalov, M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with change in area and structure of Iraq agricultural lands. It revealed the main reasons for the change: crisis (war, sanctions, etc.); economic (swamp and lake drainage, melioration, etc.); weather condition. Land-use intensification as a reason for reduction of agricultural land areas was not proved. The area of cultivated lands proved to correlate significantly with the level of precipitation, wheat productivity -with the average temperature in Iraq.

  10. State de-construction in Iraq and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Hinnebusch, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    In International Historical Sociology, states and states systems co-constitute each other. While IHS focuses on state formation, this paper argues that state de-formation, and in its extremes, state failure, is also “co-constituted.” In Syria and Iraq, state failure was co-constituted through an interaction between internal insurgencies and the Western interventions aiming at regime change. Iraq and Syria were created by Western imperialism as weak states suffering from identity fragmentation...

  11. The Impacts of Heritage Tourism on Gadara, Northern Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobiedat, Ammar Abdelkarim

    2014-01-01

    As the tourism industry continues to grow and the desire to visit heritage sites becomes a popular pursuit, heritage has turn into a commodity in the marketplace. This dissertation analyzes the economic, sociocultural and environmental implications of tourism in Gadara, northwest Jordan. It also elaborates on the changing force of tourism and its…

  12. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Northern Jordan: Endoscopy based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Hammouri, Shadi M.

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is considered the most common infection worldwide and is associated with many other disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this infection among patients undergoing endoscopy in Northern Jordan. Between November 1998 and September 2000, all patients referred from the Gastro-esophageal Clinic to the Endoscopy Unit at Princess Basma Teaching Hospital, Irbid, Northern Jordan were enrolled in this prospective study. For each patient clinical and epidemiological data was collected and endoscopy was performed. At least 3 antral biopsies were obtained from each patient, and these were examined histologically for the presence of gastritis and stained for Helicobacter pylori using modified Giemsa stain. A total of 197 consecutive patients (113 females) with a mean age of 40.2 years (range 15-91 years) were studied. Abdominal pain was the highest presenting symptom. Gastritis 91% and esophagitis 42% were the most frequent endoscopic findings. Gastritis was documented histologically in 183 (93%) of patients. Helicobacter pylori was found in 161 patients (82%), with all of these having histological gastritis. The 11 patients with gastric ulcer, compared to the 51 out of the 59 (86%) patients with duodenal ulcer, showed Helicobacter pylori in their biopsies. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients subjected to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Jordan is high. This study confirms that Helicobacter pylori is significantly associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer. Further studies are needed to determine the types of Helicobacter pylori strains present in Jordan. (author)

  13. Determinants of the Internet Islamic Banking Services Adoption in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loai Naser Mahmoud Alhawamdeh

    2017-12-01

     Implication: This researchpresents a conceptually yet empirically supported model to describe the factors influencing internet banking services and internet Islamic banking services. This research will be significant in several areas, by adding new knowledge for the academics, practitioners and organizations in general and particularly in Jordan

  14. Jordan (α,β-Derivations on Operator Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanyuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Let A be a CSL subalgebra of a von Neumann algebra acting on a Hilbert space H. It is shown that any Jordan (α,β-derivation on A is an (α,β-derivation, where α,β are any automorphisms on A. Moreover, the nth power (α,β-maps on A are investigated.

  15. Characterization of Quercus species distributed in Jordan using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... improving conservation, restoration and reforestation strategies of Quercus in Jordan. Key words: Quercus spp., genetic ... ciation of the Mediterranean sclerophyllous broad-leaf forests (Schiller et al., 2004a). ..... genetic diversity and differentiation of Quercus crispula in the. Chichibu Mountains, central ...

  16. Adapting UASB technology for sewage treatment in Palestine and Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    High rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for "sewage" treatment in the temperate climate of Palestine and Jordan. However, local sewage characteristics demand amendments to the conventional UASB reactor design. A solution is found in a parallel operating digester unit that

  17. The Jordan curve theorem in the Khalimsky plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzeddine Bouassida

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The connectivity in Alexandroff topological spaces is equivalent to the path connectivity. This fact gets some specific properties to Z2, equipped with the Khalimsky topology. This allows a sufficiently precise description of the curves in Z2 and permit to prove a digital Jordan curve theorem in Z2.

  18. TIMSS and PISA Impact--The Case of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Emad; Al-Tweissi, Ahmad; Abulibdeh, Khattab

    2016-01-01

    Jordan has participated in international large-scale assessments (LSAs) since 1991 and in most of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies (TIMSS) as well as the Programme for International Student Assessments (PISA). After a short description of education system and policy-making context in the country, this article provides an…

  19. Oral Health Patterns among Schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the oral hygiene patterns among schoolchildren in Jordan. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2010. A simple random sampling method was used. Each student participant completed a detailed questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habits. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software version…

  20. Youth in Jordan: Transitions from Education to Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan Andrew; Constant, Louay; Glick, Peter; Grant, Audra K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite strong economic growth during the last decade, youth unemployment in Jordan remains stubbornly high, and labor-force participation markedly low. Young women in particular face labor??market barriers in access to many career paths, and their job aspirations are often discouraged by their parents. Graduates of secondary and postsecondary…

  1. Promoting Kindergarten Children's Creativity in the Classroom Environment in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dababneh, Kholoud; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating teachers' classroom practices, which either stimulate or inhibit the development of the creative environment of classrooms in Jordan, and determining the differences between practices according to educational level, experience level and type of teaching. The sample of the study consisted of 215 kindergarten…

  2. Practice of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in Jordan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To describe the current role played by pharmacists in delivering pharmaceutical care (PC) in community pharmacies in Jordan (current activities and practices undertaken in the community and extent of provision of PC standards), pharmacists' perspectives on PC implementation and barriers to implementing PC ...

  3. The politics of accessing desert land in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Al Majd; Molle, Francois

    2016-01-01

    With the dramatic increase of the population in Jordan, the value of land has rocketed up. Urban sprawl into semi-desert or desert areas, initially not surveyed or settled by the British and considered as state land, has brought to the surface the problematic status of those lands. Likewise, the

  4. Academic Library Consortium in Jordan: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mustafa H.; Suleiman, Raid Jameel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the current financial and managerial difficulties that are encountered by libraries in public universities in Jordan and the geographical diffusion of these academic institutions, the idea of establishing a consortium was proposed by the Council of Higher Education to combine these libraries. This article reviews the reality of…

  5. All projects related to Jordan | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Establishing a harmonized reproductive health registry in Jordan to improve maternal and child health. Project. The lack of reliable data limits the ability of health providers, planners, and community members to make informed decisions that can influence the well-being of women and children, particularly in vulnerable and ...

  6. Propagation physiology of Juniperus phoenicea L. from Jordan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Propagation physiology of Juniperus phoenicea L. from Jordan using seeds and in vitro culture techniques: Baseline information for a conservation perspective. ... shoot tips with axillary buds responded better than seeds in vitro. Keywords: Germination, in vitro culture, recalcitrance, seed morphology, thidiazuron (TDZ) ...

  7. English Language Education in Jordan: Some Recent Trends and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhabahba, Mohammad Madallh; Pandian, Ambigapathy; Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan Ali

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to map out the status of English language teaching (ELT) as practised in the Arab World and, specifically, in Jordan today. The study also aims to bring into focus significant issues that need to be addressed in ELT in the Arab World. This paper presents a review of the current status of English language education,…

  8. Is There a Silent Hearing Loss among Children in Jordan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaqrabawi, Wala' S.; Alshawabka, Amneh Z.; Al-Addasi, Zainab M.

    2016-01-01

    This study measured the prevalence of hearing loss among school children in Jordan. A random sample of 1649 children (990 males and 659 females) was collected from randomly chosen 40 schools in Amman. Screening was conducted between November 2010 and October 2014. Otoscopic examination, tympanometry, and audiometry were used for screening. Based…

  9. THE EMISSION POTENTIAL FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL IN JORDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was conducted to monitor the emission potential from solid waste landfilled in Jordan over a period of 292 days using an anaerobic lysimeter. A 30 kg waste sample reflecting the typical municipal solid waste (MSW streams generated in Jordan was used to simulate the influence of climate on the emission potential of landfills located in semi-arid areas. The experimental results demonstrated that a significant amount of leachate and landfill gas was produced. The methane content was found to be more than 45% and the leachate produced reached 15.7 l after 200 days. However, after 260 days the gas and leachate production rate became negligible. A significant amount of heavy metal traces was found in the leachate due to mixed waste disposal. Changes in biogas and leachate quality parameters in the lysimeter revealed typical landfill behaviour trends, the only difference being that they developed much more quickly. In view of current landfill practices in Jordan and the effect of climate change, the results suggest that landfill design and operational modes need to be adjusted in order to achieve sustainability. For this reason, optimized design parameters and operational scenarios for sustainable landfill based on the country’s climatic conditions and financial as well as technical potential are recommended as a primary reference for future landfills in Jordan as well as in similar regions and climates.

  10. Genetic diversity of indigenous chicken ecotypes in Jordan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... conservation of genetic resources of indigenous chicken breeds in Jordan. For more general view, Siegel et al. (1992) studied the genetic diversity among wild jungle fowl and commercial chickens, using RAPD fingerprinting technique, and provided information to assess the gene- tic variation and propose ...

  11. Refinements, Generalizations, and Applications of Jordan's Inequality and Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey and expository article. Some new developments on refinements, generalizations, and applications of Jordan's inequality and related problems, including some results about Wilker-Anglesio's inequality, some estimates for three kinds of complete elliptic integrals, and several inequalities for the remainder of power series expansion of the exponential function, are summarized.

  12. International Education: A Case Study from the University of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes international education at the University of Jordan (UJ). Specifically it investigates a random sample of international students comprising Americans, Europeans and Asians. A field survey approach with qualitative and quantitative dimensions was used. Questionnaires were used to solicit information from the students. In…

  13. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... There is an increasing trend to require more efficient use of water resources, both in urban and rural environments. In Jordan, the increase in water demand, in addition to water shortage has led to growing interest in wastewater reuse. In this work, characteristics of wastewater for four wastewater treatment.

  14. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increasing trend to require more efficient use of water resources, both in urban and rural environments. In Jordan, the increase in water demand, in addition to water shortage has led to growing interest in wastewater reuse. In this work, characteristics of wastewater for four wastewater treatment plants were ...

  15. the crossing of the jordan according to josephus 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study offers a detailed examination of Josephus' retelling (in Ant. 5.16-21) of the account of Israel's crossing of the Jordan and its immediate sequels found in Joshua. 3-5. The investigation uncovers (limited) indications of Josephus' use of various text- forms of the biblical passage. It also calls attention to the range of ...

  16. The neglected health needs of older Syrian refugees in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Lupieri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Older refugees are often a neglected population, particularly when it comes to health. In Jordan, the specific health needs of older Syrian refugees tend to be overlooked, due in part to a lack of data, institutional biases and the nature of the humanitarian response.

  17. Library Education in Tunisia and Jordan: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, A.; Nimer, R.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines the state of development of library education in Jordan and Tunisia and pinpoints problems affecting this development in order to verify if library education in countries with similar cultures and type of economy evolves similarly and faces same problems. A brief introduction to the countries is provided. (EJS)

  18. Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-04

    impression of many Jordanians is that the Iraqis here are all wealthy ... and that they are the cause of the inflation and the rising cost of prices in...page report CRS-20 39 Riad Kahwaji, “Forging a New Iraqi Army — in Jordan,” Defense News, February 9, 2004, p.8. alleging sweatshop -like conditions in 28

  19. Jordan : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le projet vise à produire des connaissances sur les perceptions et les besoins en matière de services de santé sexuelle et reproductive des adolescentes dans les camps de réfugiés palestiniens en Cisjordanie et en Jordanie. Sujet: Gender. Région: Jordan, Palestine. Programme: Santé des mères et des enfants.

  20. Evaluation of Family Planning Counselling in North Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okour, Abdulhakeem M; Saadeh, Rami A; Zaqoul, Mona

    2017-11-01

    Counselling plays a key role in enhancing reproductive services, providing contraception-related information and supporting long-term family planning for women of childbearing age. This study aimed to evaluate family planning counselling sessions in selected governmental and private clinics in northern Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2016 in Irbid, Jordan. A total of 200 women attending two private clinics affiliated with the Jordanian Association for Family Planning and Protection (JAFPP) and six governmental clinics were invited to participate in the study. Counselling sessions were attended by an independent observer and evaluated with regards to their compliance with the standard Greet, Ask, Tell, Help, Explain, Return (GATHER) framework. A total of 198 women participated in the study (response rate: 99.0%), including 80 women (40.4%) from JAFPP clinics and 118 (59.6%) from governmental clinics. In total, 42.9% of the counselling sessions were deemed adequate, with providers applying 80% or more of the GATHER framework, while 26.8% of the sessions were deemed semi-adequate and 30.3% were considered inadequate. Counselling services provided in the governmental clinics were significantly less adequate than those provided in JAFPP clinics ( P family planning centres in Jordan needs to be improved to ensure that women receive the highest possible level of care. Healthcare policymakers should therefore focus on developing and supporting effective family planning counselling services in northern Jordan.

  1. All projects related to Jordan | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-09-30

    Local practices pertaining to biodiversity conservation, crop improvement and natural resource management are under stress. Start Date: September 30, 2007. End Date: December 1, 2011. Topic: BIODIVERSITY, PLANT BREEDING, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. Region: China, Far East Asia, Jordan, Middle East, Nepal, ...

  2. Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tikriti, S. K.; Al-Ani, F.; Jurji, F. J.; Tantawi, H.; Al-Moslih, M.; Al-Janabi, N.; Mahmud, M. I. A.; Al-Bana, A.; Habib, H.; Al-Munthri, H.; Al-Janabi, Sh.; Al-Jawahry, K.; Yonan, M.; Hassan, F.; Simpson, D. I. H.

    1981-01-01

    Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever was recognized for the first time in Iraq in 1979. The first case was reported on 3 September 1979 and since then a further 9 patients have been investigated. Eight patients gave a history of previous contact with sheep or cattle, while 2 patients, a resident doctor and an auxiliary nurse, acquired their infections in hospital by direct contact with patients. The causal virus was isolated from patients' blood and postmortem liver specimens. The virus isolates were found to be closely related if not identical serologically to members of the Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus group. Eight of the patients had no epidemiological relationship to one another and lived in widely separated areas around Baghdad and Ramadi (110 km to the west of Baghdad). ImagesFig. 1 PMID:6790183

  3. Dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaaytah A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammar Almaaytah,1 Tareq L Mukattash,2 Julia Hajaj2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Objective: Current regulations in Jordan state that antibiotics cannot be sold without a medical prescription. This study aimed to assess the percentage of pharmacies that dispense antibiotics without a medical prescription in the Kingdom of Jordan and identify and highlight the extent and seriousness of such practices among Jordanian pharmacies. Methods: A prospective study was performed, and five different clinical scenarios were simulated at pharmacies investigated including sore throat, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection in childbearing-aged women. Three levels of demand were used to convince the pharmacists to sell an antibiotic. Results: A total of 202 total pharmacies in Jordan were visited in the present study. The majority of pharmacies (74.3% dispensed antibiotics without prescription with three different levels of demand. The percentage of pharmacies dispensing antibiotics without a prescription for the sore throat scenario was 97.6%, followed by urinary tract infection (83.3%, diarrhea (83%, and otitis media (68.4%. The lowest percentage of antibiotic dispensing was for the acute sinusitis simulation at 48.5%. Among the pharmacies that dispensed antibiotics, the pharmacists provided an explanation as the number of times per day the drug should be taken in 95.3% of the cases, explained the duration of treatment in 25.7%, and inquired about allergies prior to the sale of the antibiotic in only 17.3%. Only 52 pharmacies (25.7% refused to dispense any kind of antibiotics, the majority (61.5% of this refusal response came from acute sinusitis cases, while the minority (2.4% came from the sore throat cases. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that antibiotics continue to be dispensed

  4. Experiences on Jordan Research and Training Reactor Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Se; Lee, Hyun do; Choi, Min Ho

    2014-01-01

    The Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) commenced the Jordan Research and Training Reactor Project (tentatively called JRTR Project hereinafter) in January 2009. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Daewoo Engineering and Construction Co. established the KAERI/Daewoo Consortium (KDC) and signed a contract on March 30, 2010 with Jordan to build the Middle Eastern country's first nuclear research reactor. Owing to an insufficient regulatory infrastructure in Jordan, the JNRC (Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission) determined to cooperate with Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) to support the regulation on the construction and operation of the JRTR. On Aug. 15, 2013, the JNRC issued a Construction Permit (CP) for the JRTR and at the end of this year, KDC will apply for an Operating License (OL). In this paper, the Jordanian regulatory framework and the experiences on the JRTR CP licensing will be discussed. The cooperation between the JNRC and KINS on the JRTR CP review process is a good model of international cooperation on nuclear regulations. Moreover, the experiences on the JRTR licensing will be a good lesson to those countries that plan to introduce a nuclear program, but do not have a sufficient regulatory infrastructure. Additionally, the understandings on the differences and resemblances between the US and European regulatory philosophies on nuclear safety are needed for countries that plan to introduce a nuclear program. These understandings are also needed for the nuclear facility suppliers. The licensing process, applicable regulatory standards and guidelines shall be clearly stated in written form under the contract conditions. If not, unpredictable variables from the difference between US and European regulatory standards may cause a delay in the project schedule. In the case of the JRTR project, clearly-stated licensing process, applicable regulatory standards and guidelines on the contract conditions minimized the delay

  5. Experiences on Jordan Research and Training Reactor Licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yong Se; Lee, Hyun do; Choi, Min Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) commenced the Jordan Research and Training Reactor Project (tentatively called JRTR Project hereinafter) in January 2009. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Daewoo Engineering and Construction Co. established the KAERI/Daewoo Consortium (KDC) and signed a contract on March 30, 2010 with Jordan to build the Middle Eastern country's first nuclear research reactor. Owing to an insufficient regulatory infrastructure in Jordan, the JNRC (Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission) determined to cooperate with Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) to support the regulation on the construction and operation of the JRTR. On Aug. 15, 2013, the JNRC issued a Construction Permit (CP) for the JRTR and at the end of this year, KDC will apply for an Operating License (OL). In this paper, the Jordanian regulatory framework and the experiences on the JRTR CP licensing will be discussed. The cooperation between the JNRC and KINS on the JRTR CP review process is a good model of international cooperation on nuclear regulations. Moreover, the experiences on the JRTR licensing will be a good lesson to those countries that plan to introduce a nuclear program, but do not have a sufficient regulatory infrastructure. Additionally, the understandings on the differences and resemblances between the US and European regulatory philosophies on nuclear safety are needed for countries that plan to introduce a nuclear program. These understandings are also needed for the nuclear facility suppliers. The licensing process, applicable regulatory standards and guidelines shall be clearly stated in written form under the contract conditions. If not, unpredictable variables from the difference between US and European regulatory standards may cause a delay in the project schedule. In the case of the JRTR project, clearly-stated licensing process, applicable regulatory standards and guidelines on the contract conditions minimized the delay

  6. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Algeria: Results of spoligotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Ifticene

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The study of strains isolated between January and December 2011 has allowed insight into the frequency of different genomic families and the importance of existing clusters in the population of central and eastern Algeria.

  7. First report of Siphonatropia cupressi and its parasitoids in Algeria and a first record for Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laamari, M.; Aggoun, H.; Starý, Petr; Coeur d’Acier, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2016), s. 122-124 ISSN 0250-8052 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Siphonatropia cupressi * Algeria * Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/epp.12284/abstract

  8. Treated sewagewater use in irrigated agriculture : theoretical design of farming systems in Seil Al Zarqa and the Middle Jordan Valley in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duqqah, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Most of Jordan is arid and water resources are limited. This situation becomes more acute the more Jordan develops. New techniques in agriculture, industry and the domestic sector place an increasing demand upon clean and safe water. Good-quality water is hardly

  9. Genetic evaluation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Iraq using FTA cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kzayer, Lika'a Fasih Y; Sakashita, Kazuo; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Al-Hadad, Salma Abbas; Al-Jadiry, Mazin Faisal; Abed, Wisam Majeed; Abdulkadhim, Jaafar M H; Al-Shujairi, Tariq Abadi; Hasan, Janan Ghalib; Al-Abdullah, Hussam M Salih; Al-Ani, Mouroge H; Saber, Paiman Ali I; Inoshita, Toshi; Kamata, Minoru; Koike, Kenichi

    2012-09-01

    Genetic examination of childhood leukemia has not been available in Iraq. We here report the frequency of TEL-AML1, E2A-PBX1, MLL-AF4, and BCR-ABL chimeric transcripts in 264 Iraqi children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), using FTA cards impregnated with bone marrow aspirate or whole blood. The diagnosis of ALL was made according to standard French-American-British morphologic criteria. Based on the results of storage temperature and duration, most of the FTA samples were preserved at 4°C for up to 6 weeks in five Iraqi hospitals and then transferred to Japan for molecular analysis. Nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was adopted for the analysis. TEL-AML1 chimeric transcript product was found in 32 (12.1%) of 264 ALL patients. Eleven (4.2%) patients, 4 (1.5%) patients, and 11 (4.2%) patients had E2A-PBX1 mRNA, MLL-AF4 mRNA, and BCR-ABL mRNA, respectively. One patient had both TEL-AML1 and E2A-PBX1 fusion genes. The incidence of TEL-AML1 in Iraqi ALL children appears to be similar to or slightly higher than those of Jordan (12%) and Kuwait (7%). The prevalence and clinical findings of ALL patients with either E2A-PBX1 or BCR-ABL were comparable to the data reported elsewhere. International collaboration via FTA cards may be helpful to improve diagnosis and management of patients with hematological malignancies in low-income and underdeveloped countries. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Forecast future production of municipal waste on the basis of a panel data model in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Djemaci, Brahim

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the factors that influenced the production of municipal waste in Algeria. It carries an estimate of future quantities of waste on the basis of data from 48 departments from 1997 to 2008. We use econometric projection of the waste to determine the factors that influence the production of waste. The analysis shows that the production of municipal waste in Algeria is related to several factors: population density, the retail trade. The projection of future municipal waste amo...

  11. Courting the former colony:Algeria's special position in French Third World policy, 1963

    OpenAIRE

    Zia-Ebrahimi, Reza

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between France and Algeria in the immediate aftermath of Algerian independence. In 1963, Algeria repeatedly breached the Evian Accords, and continuously threatened France’s national interests. Yet, French policymakers accommodated Algeria’s reassertion and even rewarded it with a generous coopeération package. I will argue thatthis remarkable discrepancy was due to Gaullist France’s belief that association with its former colony would benefit its image a...

  12. First case report of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma in “Ouled Djellal” ewe in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Sid, Nassim; Belalmi, Nour El Houda; Benhamza, Louiza; Ouhida, Soraya; Zebiri, Mohammed Ezine; Aydoğan, Ahmet; Leroux, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    We report clinical and pathological features of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) in one sheep in Algeria. A one-year-old Ouled Djellal sheep from a large herd (~1240 animals), located in Bordj Bou Arreridj, Algeria, was clinically diagnosed by the presence of persistent seromucous nasal discharge, head shaking, muzzle licking, dyspnoea, exophthalmia and frontal protrusion. The sheep was euthanized, and the necropsy was performed. Gross examination showed soft touch, pinkish-white tumour ma...

  13. First case report of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma in "Ouled Djellal" ewe in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nassim Sid; Nour El Houda Belalmi; Louiza Benhamza; Soraya Ouhida; Mohammed Ezine Zebiri; Ahmet Aydoğan; Caroline Leroux

    2018-01-01

    We report clinical and pathological features of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) in one sheep in Algeria. A one-year-old Ouled Djellal sheep from a large herd (~1240 animals), located in Bordj Bou Arreridj, Algeria, was clinically diagnosed by the presence of persistent seromucous nasal discharge, head shaking, muzzle licking, dyspnoea, exophthalmia and frontal protrusion. The sheep was euthanized, and the necropsy was performed. Gross examination showed soft touch, pinkish-white tumour ma...

  14. The Diet of the Rhinolophidae in the “Kabylia of the Babors” Region, Northern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmim Mourad; Moali Aissa

    2012-01-01

    Many bats of the Rhinolophidae family are currently threatened all over the world. In Algeria they are represented by six species listed in the IUCN red list and whose hunting habits and diet are, at best, poorly known. This paper describes the diet composition of four of these species (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale and R. blasii) in the Bejaia and Jijel districts, and in Kabylia of the Babors region, in northern Algeria. Between March 2007 and January 2008 guano was ...

  15. The French in Algeria, 1954-1962 Military Success Failure of Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-09

    not determined to maintain Algeris francaise; The French army.. .would feel outraged by the abandonment; One cannot predict how it would react in its...34Certainly Algeria will be independent.ŗ 7 For the 10 army to think De Gaulle was committed to Algerie Francaise was an egregious error, one with... Algerie francaise hard-liners. Heavily armed and including many veterans of WWII, Indochina and Algeria, the several thousand members frequently paraded

  16. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    .... Administrations had ruled out major U.S. military action to change Iraq's regime, believing such action would be risky and not necessarily justified by the level of Iraq's lack of compliance on WMD disarmament...

  17. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-War Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    .... Administrations had ruled out major U.S. military action to change Iraq's regime, believing such action would be risky and not necessarily justified by the level of Iraq's lack of compliance on WMD disarmament...

  18. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-War Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    .... Administrations ruled out major U.S. military action to change Iraq's regime, believing such action would be risky and not necessarily justified by the level of Iraq's lack of compliance on WMD disarmament...

  19. Congressional Authority to Limit U.S. Military Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K; Garcia, Michael J; Nicola, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    .... The situation in Iraq has focused attention on whether Congress has the constitutional authority to legislate limits on the President's authority to conduct military operations in Iraq, even though...

  20. Snapshot of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanad Mohsin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Iraq is specific in having its own most predominant lineage (SIT1144/T1 which is not found among neighboring countries. The 15-locus MIRU-VNTR can be useful in discriminating M. tuberculosis isolates in Iraq.

  1. Presence of Phlebotomus perniciosus Atypical Form in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Eddine Benallal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus longicuspis are two phlebotomine sand fly species morphologically similar and differing in males only by the shape of the copulatory valves which are bifurcated in P. perniciosus, tip long and tapered in P. longicuspis.Methods: A count of the median coxite setae was carried out on 208 specimens from the collections of Dedet and of Parrot, identified previously as P. longicuspis and on 38 P. perniciosus male sand flies captured during the year 2012–2013, in order to seek the presence of atypical P. perniciosus form.Results: The analysis revealed the presence of 33/246 (13% atypical P. perniciosus previously confused with P. longicuspis species and whose distribution is mainly located in the semi-arid and arid bioclimatic regions.Conclusion: This study proved for the first time the presence of atypical form of P. perniciosus in Algeria.

  2. Urban Community, poverty and corruption: the case of Annaba, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadji KAHOUA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The population in the most Mediterranean countries, particularly in Algeria, is concentrated to the urban communities, cities with more or less importance, urban and coastal regions. This trend of rapid growth of the urban communities leads to multiple consequences both economically and socially on the use of resources and their distribution. The urban is the area where cross the resources, the population and the production activities and yours management. To analyze the corruption as a phenomenon triple (economic, social and institutional through an urban community (as Annaba’s case in this research it may well prove very fruitful in terms of lessons on this central phenomenon and its impacts in the North African countries.

  3. The copper-silver occurrences of Rahmani, Western Sahara, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Y.; Arbey, F.; Bouima, T.

    1996-05-01

    The copper-silver occurrences of Rahmani (Western Sahara, Algeria) are located in paleochannel facies of Cambrian sandstones deposited on Pan-African volcanics and intrusives. Sulfur isotope analyses were performed on pyrite and copper sulfides in order to trace the origin of the copper-silver mineralization. S isotopic data preclude that bacterial reduction of Cambrian sulfate could have induced the formation of the sulfides. Non-bacterial reduction of sulfate during burial diagenesis is the most valuable explanation for disseminated pyrite. Isotopic ratios on copper sulfides indicate that they result from the reaction of actual or subactual sulfate-bearing surface water with the disseminated pyrite. The origin of copper and silver remains unclear. They are thought to be brought by the downward migrating surface water but their origin could be either the leaching of the Cambrian sandstones or of the weathered volcanics.

  4. Blood micronutrients in Algeria, relationships with sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachili, B; Faure, H; Arnaud, J; Richard, M J; Benlatreche, C; Favier, A; Roussel, A M

    2001-03-01

    Despite trace elements and vitamins are major public health problems in some African countries, there are few studies reporting micronutrient status in North Africa. Therefore, it could be interesting to evaluate plasma concentrations of vitamin A, E and beta-cartene, along with zinc, copper, selenium erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in Algeria. Volunteers were randomly recruited in Constantine, Batna and Mila. Vitamins, trace elements and enzymes were measured in the University Hospital of Grenoble. 455 persons were included in the study. Subjects were divided in 3 groups: group I: 15 girls and 12 boys who were 6 to 12.9 years old, group II: 190 women and 192 men 13 to 49.9 years old, group III: 24 women and 24 men 50 to 65 years old. Plasma concentrations of micronutrients and enzymes are close to those commonly observed in Europe, except for vitamin A concentrations. Indeed, retinol levels are 30-35% lower than those reported in European countries, moreover almost 8% of the population showed retinol concentrations less than 1.05 mumol/l. beta-Carotene levels were also lower than in the French average population. Ten per cent of the population had plasma zinc levels lower than 10.6 mumol/l. Vitamin E, copper and selenium status seems satisfactory in Algeria. Vitamin A is not a public health problem, however a significant percentage of residents exhibits impaired vitamin A levels and may benefit from retinol supplementation. Larger studies are needed, and particularly in children, to detect possible higher prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in poor socio-economical classes and in inner geographic areas.

  5. Arab League Boycott of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-19

    1 Members are: Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen, Libya, Sudan, Morocco, Tunisia, Kuwait, Algeria, United Arab Emirates...Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Mauritania, Somalia, Palestinian Authority, Djibouti, and Comoros. In 2003, Eritrea joined the Arab League as an observer...Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RS22424 April 19, 2006 Arab League

  6. 76 FR 29141 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... of Iraq, the restoration and maintenance of peace and security in the country, and the development of... country, and the development of political, administrative, and economic institutions in Iraq continue to... in which Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C...

  7. Corporate Governance Quality and Earnings Management: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan. Using a panel data set of all industrial and service firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE during the period 2009-2013; this paper provides evidence that earnings management is affected negatively by corporate governance quality. In particular; the results show that earnings management is affected negatively by overall categories of governance index represented by board of director, board meeting, Audit and nomination and compensation committee. Furthermore, results suggest that corporate governance quality has increased over time. Thus, its ability to constrain earnings management has also increased. It is recommended to industrial and service companies to boost their compliance with corporate governance code to improve the integrity and reliability of financial reports. This paper fills a gap in the literature by providing evidence about the effect of corporate governance quality on earnings management in Jordan as an emerging economy.

  8. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  9. Business continuity management in emerging markets: the case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Anchor, John R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their considerable growth in last few decades, emerging markets (EM) face numerous risks that have the potential to slow down or obstruct their development. Three main issues are discussed in this paper: first, the risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets and Jordan in particular; secondly, the role of business continuity management (BCM) in emerging markets; and thirdly, potential factors that underpin the role of BCM in emerging markets. These issues are significant, as they represent the role of BCM in highly dynamic and fast changing business environments. The paper provides a discussion of the significance of BCM in reducing or preventing risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets, especially those in Jordan.

  10. Body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A

    2010-01-01

    The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality assurance and accreditation of engineering education in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqlan, Faisal; Al-Araidah, Omar; Al-Hawari, Tarek

    2010-06-01

    This paper provides a study of the quality assurance and accreditation in the Jordanian higher education sector and focuses mainly on engineering education. It presents engineering education, accreditation and quality assurance in Jordan and considers the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) for a case study. The study highlights the efforts undertaken by the faculty of engineering at JUST concerning quality assurance and accreditation. Three engineering departments were accorded substantial equivalency status by the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology in 2009. Various measures of quality improvement, including curricula development, laboratories improvement, computer facilities, e-learning, and other supporting services are also discussed. Further assessment of the current situation is made through two surveys, targeting engineering instructors and students. Finally, the paper draws conclusions and proposes recommendations to enhance the quality of engineering education at JUST and other Jordanian educational institutions.

  12. Predictors of Coping Strategies Employed by Iraqi Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala; Alzoubi, Fatmeh Ahmad; Slater, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by Iraqi refugees in Jordan based on their demographic details. A cross-sectional design was used. A representative sample of 333 refugees living in Jordan participated in the study. The Cope inventory and the demographic details were compiled to produce and collate the relevant data. Being older, female, educated, single, and living with more than three family members was associated with greater use of the problem solving coping strategy. Being female, educated, and unemployed was associated with greater use of the active emotional coping strategy. In addition, being older, male, illiterate, unemployed, and living with less than three family members was associated with greater use of the avoidant emotional coping strategy. This study recommends a multidisciplinary approach intervention as being the best method of addressing and fulfilling the health and socioeconomic needs of older, male, illiterate, unemployed people.

  13. Archaeological discoveries in Jordan: their impact on biblical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Olivier

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The major impact of archaeological exploration in Jordan on the history and development of Biblical studies is not always fully appreciated. It is shown here that several important innovations and developments in the field of Biblical studies are directly to be linked to such archaeological discoveries. Moreover, contrary to the more easily accessible and religiously more significant Cisjordan, certain regions in Transjordan have remained virtually untouched until a few years ago. Consequently, they can presently be explored by means of the most advanced survey and excavation techniques. The current interest in the social, cultural and economical aspects of society in Biblical times has been served significantly by modern socio-anthropolocical based archaeological research in the more isolated regions of Jordan.

  14. Worker programs and resource use: Evidence from better work jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Nathan

    This paper examines data collected for the Better Work program in Jordan which aims to protect laborers in the garment industry from poor working conditions. Data are examined to look for benefits to the factories participating in the program beyond improved compliance with labor law. In particular, potential impacts to firm energy use are examined and correlations are tested between electricity use rates and measures of worker outcomes and a number of factory traits such as size and production input costs. Evidence was found to back up work done in Vietnam with regard to resource use and distribution of electricity expenses. It was also found that the type of data being collected is not ideal for examinations of energy, and more direct methods are desirable, and that considerable production obstacles are worker skill level, electricity prices, and to a greater degree in Jordan than in previously examined countries, water prices.

  15. Passive downdraught evaporative cooling in office building - Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Al Asir, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    Wind driven ventilation presented in wind tower finds its roots in the Middle East vernacular architecture it catches the upper air stream cools and channelled it down to the occupied spaces. This paper explores the cooling potential of passive downdraught evaporative cooling wind catcher to ventilate an office building in Amman/Jordan. Summer comfort zone for Amman is developed to present a thermal assessment tool for the results. Study case of an office building in Amman is introduced based...

  16. E-Government Architecture In Jordan: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein A. Omari; Hussein A. Omari

    2006-01-01

    This study explains architecture for the E-Government system; its main concepts, objectives, most common applications, famous worldwide experiences and the E-Government in Jordan. It introduces the E-Government model as a modern evolution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and how to convert the life of societies to the communication and networked age. It presents the experiences of countries like USA, UK, Singapore, UAE and Egypt. The study focuses on launching the E-Governmen...

  17. Tourism in Conflict Areas: Complex Entanglements in Jordan.

    OpenAIRE

    Buda, D

    2015-01-01

    In this article the workings of tourism in areas of socio-political turmoil are critically examined. In so doing the aim is to scrutinize interconnections between tourism, safety and conflict as I contend that tourism, tourists and the danger generated by ongoing socio-political conflicts are intimately connected. The empirical focus is on tourism in Jordan, a country in a region troubled by ongoing conflicts. Fieldwork for this project was carried out in 2009 and 2010 and data was collected ...

  18. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Yahya; Mustafa, Mairna; Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen; Mashal, Kholoud; Mohsen, Mousa

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise standards and specifications

  19. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of Jordan's Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Senior international nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded an 11-day International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Jordan. The mission team said in its preliminary findings that Jordan's nuclear regulator, the Energy and Minerals Regulatory Commission (EMRC), faces challenges because it is a relatively new body that handles a high workload while also working to recruit, train and keep competent staff. The team also noted that a recent merger provided the regulator with more of the resources it needs to perform its duty. The team made recommendations and suggestions to the regulatory body and the Government to help them strengthen the effectiveness of Jordan's regulatory framework and functions in line with IAEA Safety Standards. The main observations of the IRRS Review team comprised the following: The regulatory body, founded in 2007 and merged with other regulators in April 2014 to form EMRC, faces large challenges in terms of its regulatory workload, management system building and staff recruitment and training; The new EMRC structure and revision of the radiation and nuclear safety law represents an important opportunity to strengthen Jordan's radiation and nuclear safety infrastructure; The Government has shown commitment to radiation and nuclear safety through measures including becoming party to international conventions. It could further demonstrate its commitment by adopting a formal national policy and strategy for safety that defines the role of the Minister of Energy in relation to EMRC and protects the independence of regulatory decision-making

  20. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  1. An evaluation of the effectiveness of environmental policy in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Yacoub Shamaileh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of the environmental policy in Jordan. The article reviews laws, measures, instruments and the implementation process and evaluates their effectiveness in banning, removing and/or reducing negative externalities in Jordan. Data was collected by administration of questionnaires distributed to all key enforcement officials working in the Ministries of Environment, Agriculture, and Health. Additional sources were laws, regulations, official documents and reports issued by the government, international organizations, NGOs and media. The study shows that Jordan’s environmental policy relies solely on the command and control approach to mitigate negative externalities, while completely overlooking price-based and rights -based instruments. Such instruments are widely and increasingly employed in developed countries and have proved their efficiency and effectiveness in protecting the environment. The results of the study reveal that command and control measures are insufficient to achieve effective environmental policy and consequently are incapable of internalizing negative externalities in Jordan. The results may motivate government regulators to endorse price-based and rights-based measures, in addition to command and control measures.

  2. Acute respiratory infections among returning Hajj pilgrims-Jordan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdallat, Mohammad Mousa; Rha, Brian; Alqasrawi, Sultan; Payne, Daniel C; Iblan, Ibrahim; Binder, Alison M; Haddadin, Aktham; Nsour, Mohannad Al; Alsanouri, Tarek; Mofleh, Jawad; Whitaker, Brett; Lindstrom, Stephen L; Tong, Suxiang; Ali, Sami Sheikh; Dahl, Rebecca Moritz; Berman, LaShondra; Zhang, Jing; Erdman, Dean D; Gerber, Susan I

    2017-04-01

    The emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has prompted enhanced surveillance for respiratory infections among pilgrims returning from the Hajj, one of the largest annual mass gatherings in the world. To describe the epidemiology and etiologies of respiratory illnesses among pilgrims returning to Jordan after the 2014 Hajj. Surveillance for respiratory illness among pilgrims returning to Jordan after the 2014 Hajj was conducted at sentinel health care facilities using epidemiologic surveys and molecular diagnostic testing of upper respiratory specimens for multiple respiratory pathogens, including MERS-CoV. Among the 125 subjects, 58% tested positive for at least one virus; 47% tested positive for rhino/enterovirus. No cases of MERS-CoV were detected. The majority of pilgrims returning to Jordan from the 2014 Hajj with respiratory illness were determined to have a viral etiology, but none were due to MERS-CoV. A greater understanding of the epidemiology of acute respiratory infections among returning travelers to other countries after Hajj should help optimize surveillance systems and inform public health response practices. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Content-Based Analysis of Bumper Stickers in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Jaradat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has set out to investigate bumper stickers in Jordan focusing mainly on the themes of the stickers. The study hypothesized that bumper stickers in Jordan reflect a wide range of topics including social, economic, and political. Due to being the first study of this phenomenon, the study has adopted content-based analysis to determine the basic topics. The study has found that the purpose of most bumper sticker is fun and humor; most of them are not serious and do not carry any biting messages. They do not present any criticism to the most dominant problems at the level of society including racism, nepotism, anti-feminism, inflation, high taxes, and refugees. Another finding is that politics is still a taboo; no political bumper stickers were found in Jordan. Finally, the themes the stickers targeted are: lessons of life 28.85 %; challenging or warning other drivers 16%; funny notes about social issues 12%; religious sayings 8%; treating the car as a female 7%; the low economic status of the driver 6%; love and treachery 5.5%; the prestigious status of the car 5%; envy 4%; nicknames for the car or the driver 4%; irony 3 %; and English sayings 1.5 %. Keywords: bumper stickers, themes, politics

  4. Assessment of Corporate Governance in Jordan: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the reality of corporate governance in Jordan. It identifies the framework of corporate governance, which has here been set into two dimensions – institutionalisations and regulations – and describes the five major principles of corporate governance. The study was carried out by interviews with key employees and the review of related laws and selected annual reports. The study found (1 basic shareholder rights were honoured in decision-making, except for large decisions such as major asset sales; (2 shareholders were not treated equitably in practice, although controllers sometimes took action and prohibited insider trading; (3 the role and rights of stakeholders in corporate governance were respected, and stakeholders had a number of legal protections, which were largely covered in Jordan's Company Law; (4 disclosure and transparency were observed to a large extent, although limited to quantity rather than quality, because Jordan has fully adopted IFRS and ISA and (5 boards largely fulfilled their responsibilities, as these are extensively defined by law and regulation.

  5. Nursing shortage in Jordan: what is the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualrub, Raeda Fawzi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (1) to analyze the forces behind the nursing shortage in Jordan and (2) to propose strategies and policy directions to deal with the nursing shortage in Jordan. Nursing shortage is one of the challenges that the nursing profession faces in general. There should be an adequate number of nurses if quality care is to be maintained. Patient care provided by nurses is the commodity that hospitals provide; therefore, if hospitals worry about the satisfaction of their consumers, they need to learn how to retain an adequate number of nurses. In Jordan, the decline in the number of nurses is a result of slow salary increases for nurses, the fact that fewer women are selecting nursing careers, a decrease in the number of nursing faculty, and unattractive work conditions. Nurse researchers, educators, clinicians, and administrators need to work together to actively deal with the issue of nursing shortage. The "hog cycle" needs to be broken and work conditions need to be improved so that nurses can feel more satisfied and more committed to their profession. Strategies and recommendations to tackle nursing shortage are proposed.

  6. Prospects for the exploitation of Jordan oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O; Probert, S.D.; Badr, O.

    1997-01-01

    Oil shale is the major indigenous fossil-fuel in Jordan: its predicted reserves, of about 5·10 1 0 tonnes, should be sufficient to satisfy Jordan's energy requirements for several centuries. Jordanian oil shale has, on an average, a gross calorific value of between 5 and 7 MJ/kg, an oil yield of ∼ 10 %, and a sulfur content of approximately 3 % by weight of the raw shale (i.e. 7 to 9 % of the organic matter content). Using the oil shale as the input fuel, a multipurpose production process (i.e. retorting, electricity generation, thermal water-desalination, chemicals production as well as mineral extraction) could achieve high utilisation-factors of both its chemical and energy potentials. In the long-term, oil shale is the only indigenous energy resource that could reduce Jordan's dependence on imported crude oil and hence ease the pressure on the national economy. The conversion of oil shale into a liquid or gaseous fuel and raw materials will be of decisive importance in attempts to secure the future of energy supplies. So national efforts devoted to the exploration for, and harnessing more economically, this energy resource, while limiting the associated adverse environmental impacts, should be accelerated. (author)

  7. Estimation of clear sky hourly global solar radiation in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Al-Zuhairi, Munya F.; Mahdi, Zahraa S. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2012-07-01

    The availability of hourly solar radiation data is very important for applications utilizing solar energy and for climate and environmental aspects. The aim of this work is to use a simple model for estimating hourly global solar radiation under clear sky condition in Iraq. Calculations were compared with measurements obtained from local station in Baghdad city and from Meteosat satellite data for different locations in Iraq. The statistical test methods of the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and t-test were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results indicated that a fairly good agreement exists between calculated and measured values for all locations in Iraq. Since the model is independent of any meteorological variable, it would be of a practical use for rural areas where no meteorological data are available.

  8. Academic development for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Dirk J; Maghdid, Delshad M; Mohammed, Maqsood S; Sherwani, Govand H S

    2014-03-01

    Continuous education is mandatory for all urologists, and undertaking cooperative research is a very effective means for this. We describe the experience and possibilities for continuing education for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. We hope to provide a framework for stimulating urological education and research in other countries where urologists face the same obstacles. Data were obtained from the perspective of two academics who co-operate with urologists from Iraq, and from the perspective of two officials from the Ministry of Higher education of the Kurdistan Regional Government who are responsible for stimulating continuous education. Based on a co-operative and supportive attitude of both Government and Academics, urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq have brought the standards of education and cooperative research to an internationally competitive level. The authors hope that the examples given here can stimulate urologists from Arab countries to fully engage in new urological developments, despite the obstacles that they perceive.

  9. THE POST SADDAM HUSSEIN IRAQ A SECURITY OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenţiu-Cristian DUMITRU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The stabilization and reconstruction efforts of Iraq are part of a broad strategy of the international community. The latter’s focus is on countering the asymmetrical threats stemming from the new challenges, vulnerabilities and risks at play within the international security environment. At regional level, namely in Iraq, such aspects are even more pressing due to the disappearance of a repressive government that left room for airing out ethnic and religious divergences. However, despite the overall insecurity climate characterizing the post Saddam Hussein Iraq, some progress has been made towards the post-conflict stabilization and reconstruction of this country. Hence, the focus of this paper is on outlining these efforts and their results, as well as on describing the Romanian contribution to such endeavours.

  10. Spatial and temporal variations of aridity indices in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şarlak, Nermin; Mahmood Agha, Omar M. A.

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the spatial and temporal variations of the aridity indices to reveal the desertification vulnerability of Iraq region. Relying on temperature and precipitation data taken from 28 meteorological stations for 31 years, the study aims to determine (1) dry land types and their delineating boundaries and (2) temporal change in aridity conditions in Iraq. Lang's aridity (Im), De Martonne's aridity (Am), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) aridity (AIu), and Erinç aridity (IE) indices were selected in this study because of the scarcity of the observed data. The analysis of the spatial variation of aridity indices exhibited that the arid and semi-arid regions cover about 97% of the country's areas. As for temporal variations, it was observed that the aridity indices tend to decrease (statistically significant or not) for all stations. The cumulative sum charts (CUSUMs) were applied to detect the year on which the climate pattern of aridity indices had changed from one pattern to another. The abrupt change point was detected around year 1997 for the majority of the stations. Thus, the spatial and temporal aridity characteristics in Iraq were examined for the two periods 1980-1997 and 1998-2011 (before and after the change-point year) to observe the influence of abrupt change point on aridity phenomena. The spatial variation after 1997 was observed from semi-arid (dry sub humid) to arid (semi-arid) especially at the stations located in northern Iraq, while hyper-arid and arid climatic conditions were still dominant over southern and central Iraq. Besides, the negative temporal variations of the two periods 1980-1997 and 1998-2011 were obtained for almost every station. As a result, it was emphasized that Iraq region, like other Middle East regions, has become drier after 1997. The observed reduction in precipitation and increase in temperature for this region seem to make the situation worse in future.

  11. Ballistic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Emily H.; Sabino, Jennifer M.; Nanos, George P.; Valerio, Ian L.

    2015-01-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:25685099

  12. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bar...

  13. Brain injury: Iraq's unseen burden of wounded civilians

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrier, Gilles; Baron, Emmanuel; Fakri, Rasheed; Mouniaman, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The burden of war-related mental disorders is well documented among US veterans (Nature 477, 390–393; 2011), but not among civilians in Iraq. This oversight must be rectified so that adequate medical support can be provided to the Iraqi people. US combat troops will soon depart Iraq, leaving Iraqis to cope with the consequences of the 2003 invasion. Although the number of violent deaths is falling, civilians have been killed almost every day this year, most of them in coordinated bomb att...

  14. 'Iraq Water Treatment Vulnerabilities': a challenge to public health ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Graeme; Nagy, Thomas; Santa Barbara, Joanna; Raichle, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    A formerly classified US document, 'Iraq Water Treatment Vulnerabilities,' provides evidence that ill health was knowingly induced in the population of Iraq through the ruination of that country's water purification system. We believe that the uncovering of this document should stimulate the public health community to clarify principles of public health ethics and to formulate statements giving voice to these principles. We propose here two statements, one dealing with the broad issue of public health ethics and international relations, and one dealing specifically with public health ethics and water purification.

  15. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  16. "You Have Come a Long Way Woman": A Sparkle Slogan without Realistic Meaning for Woman Status in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudeir, Dua'a Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This research paper discusses woman status in the country of Jordan in terms of rights, equality and personal liberties, freedom of choice in particular. It argues that, although Jordan is working hard to be open to Western values and civilization; however, it lags behind when it comes to woman liberty and equality. Jordan is a patriarchal…

  17. The Oran (Northwest Algeria) earthquake of 9 October 1790

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buforn, Elisa; Coca, Pilar; Udías, Agustín; Bezzeghoud, Mourad

    2017-04-01

    On the 9th of October of 1790, one of the largest earthquakes in the western Mediterranean took place that destroyed almost completely the city of Oran in the Northwest coast of Algeria, produced a small tsunami and was followed by an aftershock series. At that time, Oran was a Spanish presidium-city of small dimensions surrounded by relevant defensive walls and fortifications with five outside defense forts. Contemporary reports preserved at Spanish archives give very detailed information of the damage, including maps of the destruction suffered by the buildings and the number of casualties, approximately 2,000 of its 9,500 inhabitants. Due to its total destruction, Spain abandoned the site in 1792. Based on contemporary documents, seismic intensities according to EMS-98 scale have been estimated for the city and its fortifications, as well as in other Spanish and Algerian sites. Generation of the tsunami, which affected Spanish and Algerian coasts, locate the epicenter offshore very near to the city itself. The source may be assigned to the off-shore NE-SW trending faults.

  18. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius in Algeria: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bennoune

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission.

  19. STUDY OF YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF CAMEL MILK IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEYLA HADEF

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield and composition of raw camel milk throughout the lactation period. For this purpose seventeen multiparous she-camels, kept under grazing and supplement farming system in South East of Algeria were used in this study. A total of 153 milk samples were collected and analyzed through standard procedures to determine yield and physicochemical parameters of milk such as pH, acidity, density, fat, protein, lactose, ash and total solids. The results demonstrated that the overall means of daily milk yield and composition of pH, acidity, density, fat, protein, lactose, ash and total solids (TS were 3.96 ± 1.24 L∙day-1, 6.55 ± 0.14, 0.17 ± 0.01 %, 1.032 ± 0.002 g∙cm-3, 3.72 ± 0.14%, 3.37 ± 0.18 %, 4.13 ± 0.29 %, 0.96 ± 0.22 % and 9.99 ± 1.82 %, respectively. Moreover, the milk yield was significantly (p 0.05. The results indicated that Algerian camel milk could provide a valuable nutritious food and energy source for population living in arid and semi arid zones and it was concluded that the stage of lactation had a significant effect (p < 0.05 on milk yield and most physicochemical parameters of raw camel milk.

  20. The 2003 Boumerdes, Algeria earthquake: Regional moment tensor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunmiller, Jochen; Bernardi, Fabrizio

    2005-03-01

    We used regional broadband seismograms to determine seismic moment tensors for the destructive May 21, 2003 Boumerdes (Algeria) Mw = 7.0 earthquake and its larger aftershocks. Fully automatic inversions using near-real time data provided solutions for seven Mw >= 4.7 events within 90 minutes after event occurrence. After adding off-line data, we manually obtained 30 solutions (Mw >= 3.8) from May 2003 to January 2004. All have shallow source depths (6-21 km). The median P-axis orientation (338°) of 24 thrust and four strike-slip events is consistent with Africa-Eurasia plate motion (330°). The main shock hypocenter at 8-10 km depth at the coastline and its shallow southward dip (25° +/- 5°) puts the fault surface trace 15-20 km offshore, consistent with documented seafloor deformation at the base of the continental slope. A main shock rupture length of about 50 km is deduced from first day aftershocks and location of strike-slip events. The strike-slip events probably define the western rupture end and indicate a left-step of main convergence. Fault strike variability of thrust events suggests fault orientation changes and possibly fault segmentation.

  1. Incidence and severity of scorpion stings in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Laïd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Maghreb region. In Algeria, epidemiological data were collected over the past twenty years by the Algerian health authorities. This study is an analysis of morbidity and mortality data collected from 2001 to 2010. Annual incidence and mortality due to scorpion envenoming were 152 ± 3.6 stings and 0.236 ± 0.041 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI, respectively. The risk of being stung by a scorpion was dramatically higher in southern areas and central highlands due to environmental conditions. Incidence of envenoming was especially higher in the adult population, and among young males. In contrast, mortality was significantly higher among children under 15 years, particularly ages 1-4. Upper limbs were more often affected than lower limbs. Most stings occurred at night, indoors and during the summer. Data collected since 2001 showed a reduction of mortality by nearly 50%, suggesting that the medical care defined by the national anti-scorpion project is bearing fruit.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE PRODUCTION OF SOLAR HYDROGEN IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bendaikha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. In this study hydrogen is produced using a hydrogen generator with a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM electrolyser. An experimental study is done in the Center of Development of the Renewable Energy, Algiers, Algeria.The experimental device contains essentially a photovoltaic module, a PEM electrolyser, a gasometer and the devices of measures of characteristics of the PEM electrolyser as well as two pyranometers for the horizontal and diffuse global radiance registration. This system in pilots scale is permitted on the one hand, to measured and analyzed the characteristics: of the PEM electrolyser for two different pressures of working (Patm and P=3 bar, on the other hand, to study the volume of hydrogen produces in the time with different sources of electrical power (generator, photovoltaic module, fluorescent lamp, the efficiency for every case is calculated and compared. We present in this paper the variation of the solar hydrogen flow rate produced according to the global radiance and according to the time for a typical day’s of August.

  3. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria: First report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennoune, Omar; Adili, Nezar; Amri, Khaled; Bennecib, Lakhdar; Ayachi, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission. PMID:25568684

  4. Chemotypes of Pistacia atlantica leaf essential oils from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourine, Nadhir; Bombarda, Isabelle; Yousfi, Mohamed; Gaydou, Emile M

    2010-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of Pistacia atlantica Desf. leaves collected from different regions of Algeria were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil was rich in monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major components were alpha-pinene (0.0-67%), delta-3-carene (0.0-56%), spathulenol (0.5-22%), camphene (0.0-21%), terpinen-4-ol (0.0-16%) and beta-pinene (0.0-13%). Among the various components identified, twenty were used for statistical analyses. The result of principal component analysis (PCA) showed the occurrence of three chemotypes: a delta-3-carene chemotype (16.4-56.2%), a terpinen-4-ol chemotype (10.8-16.0%) and an alpha-pinene/camphene chemotype (10.9-66.6%/3.8-20.9%). It was found that the essential oil from female plants (delta-3-carene chemotype) could be easily differentiated from the two other chemotypes corresponding to male trees.

  5. Trace element content of medicinal plants from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamari, Z.; Neggache, H.; Larbi, R.; Landsberger, S.; Braisted, J.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol, Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Mg, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn have been determined by short, and long irradiation times with a thermal and epithermal flux of 1.4 x 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 and 1.4 x 10 11 n x cm -2 x s -1 , respectively. These analyses were performed in conjunction with Compton suppression. In almost herbs studied the Co, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sb , Sc, Se and V are found to be present at trace levels, Br, Mn, and Zn at the minor level, and Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg and Na are generally at the major level. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing NISTbotanical references materials. (author)

  6. Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    2009-01-01

    Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

  7. Anaerobic pre-treatment of strong sewage : a proper solution for Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halalsheh, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of applying low cost anaerobic technology for the treatment of relatively high strength sewage of Jordan using two-stage and one-stage UASB reactors operated at ambient temperatures. The wastewater produced in Jordan is

  8. Celebrating the intellectual legacy of A.C. Jordan | Ndlela | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paucity or dearth of scholarship around A.C. Jordan's contributions as teacher, visionary, scholar and political activist in South Africa is as disconcerting as it is disillusioning. This paper seeks to take A.C. Jordan's rich and eclectic oeuvre from the peripheral position which it seems to occupy in contemporary academic ...

  9. Teaching for Sustainable Development in Higher Education Institutions: University of Jordan as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hola, Imfadi R. M.; Tareef, Atif Bin

    2009-01-01

    In Jordan, a rapid movement of educational reform is taking place nowadays. Curricula development, teacher education, using information and communication technology (ICT), improving teaching and learning strategies and integrating different subjects are among the main objectives of this reform. One of the main challenges in Jordan in order to cope…

  10. Evaluation of the Emergency Education Response for Syrian Refugee Children and Host Communities in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culbertson, S.; Ling, T.; Henham, M.L.; Corbett, J.; Karam, R.; Pankowska, P.K.P.; Saunders, C.L.; Bellasio, J.; Baruch, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Emergency Education Response Programme (EER), launched by UNICEF, the Government of Jordan and partners in 2012, aims to provide free public formal education, as well as safe and appropriate supportive educational services, for Syrian refugee children living in Jordan. RAND's evaluation

  11. K-Bessel functions associated to a 3-rank Jordan algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacen Dib

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the Bessel-Muirhead system, we can express the K-Bessel function defined on a Jordan algebra as a linear combination of the J-solutions. We determine explicitly the coefficients when the rank of this Jordan algebra is three after a reduction to the rank two. The main tools are some algebraic identities developed for this occasion.

  12. Extension Education for Dryland Cropping Systems in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Ghanem, Rita; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne; Koenig, Richard; Pannkuk, Chris; Pan, William; Parker, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Iraq, formerly known as Mesopotamia, is the birthplace of agriculture. The recent war and instability have significantly impacted the country's agricultural production and knowledge support systems. To support revitalization of the Iraqi agricultural system, the USDA funded a consortium of five U.S. universities (Washington State University,…

  13. Consequences of the Iraq War for International and Constitutional Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that international law can be changed by state practice as it has been attempted by the attacking parties in the Iraq war, but also that their objective has failed because of unclear, changing, and mutually contradictory aims stated for the invasion. The incidents raise the need for ...... for extended control with the royal/executive prerogative on foreign policy...

  14. Big questions cloud Iraq's future role in world oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippee, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Iraq raises questions for the world oil market beyond those frequently asked about when and under what circumstances it will resume exports. Two wars since 1981 have obscured encouraging results from a 20 year exploration program that were only beginning to come to light when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. Those results indicate the country might someday be able to produce much more than the 3.2 million b/d it was flowing before a United Nations embargo blocked exports. If exploratory potential is anywhere near what officials asserted in the late 1980s, and if Iraq eventually turns hospitable to international capital, the country could become a world class opportunity for oil companies as well as an exporter with productive capacity approaching that of Saudi Arabia. But political conditions can change quickly. Under a new, secular regime, Iraq might welcome non-Iraqi oil companies and capital as essential to economic recovery. It's a prospect that warrants a new industry look at what the country has revealed about its geology and exploration history

  15. Economic Questions Raised in Iraq’s New Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    the debates in Iraq have become increasingly polarized. Sunni Arab delegates on the constitutional commission have accused the dominant Shia and...systems will be able to coexist successfully is something the theoretical literature has yet to shed much light. Would the likely more efficient Kurdish

  16. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three regions: Baghdad, southern Iraq and Kurdistan. In doing so, the Institute will identify strengths and weaknesses, gaps in the literature, themes of current interest to ...

  17. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three regions: Baghdad, southern Iraq and Kurdistan. In doing so, the Institute will identify strengths and weaknesses, gaps in the literature, themes of current interest to ...

  18. Academic development for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Kok (Dirk); D.M. Maghdid (Delshad); M.S. Mohammed (Maqsood); G.H.S. Sherwani (Govand)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Continuous education is mandatory for all urologists, and undertaking cooperative research is a very effective means for this. We describe the experience and possibilities for continuing education for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. We hope to provide a framework

  19. Eyeless in America: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article examines 50 films produced and released between the years 2001 and 2012 that are concerned with the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using Jacques Ellul's theories set out in his book "Propaganda," the article argues that while the films have failed at the box office, they were intended to function as integration…

  20. Civil Society and Islamism in Iraq | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Islamic civil society organizations have been especially successful in this role, and in doing so have acquired the reputation for honesty and integrity, gained public confidence and built political capital. In Iraq, the weakness of civil society, the devastating consequences of decades of war and an international embargo have ...

  1. Civil Society and Islamism in Iraq | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Iraq, the weakness of civil society, the devastating consequences of decades of war and an international embargo have all lead to a deep fragmentation of ... in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to establish careers and become leaders in the fields of science, technology, engineering, ...

  2. 75 FR 21597 - Business Development Trade Mission to Baghdad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...*. Nearly two thirds of Iraq's 112 billion dollar economy relies on our target export industries such as... selection criteria as outlined below. U.S. companies already doing business in the target sectors as well as... dual pricing reflects the Commercial Service's user fee schedule that became effective May 1, 2008 (for...

  3. The Arab spring and online protests in Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Al-Rawi (Ahmed)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis article traces the influence of the Arab Spring on Iraq as activists staged fervent protests against the corruption, sectarianism, and favoritism of Nouri Maliki's government. A group of young Iraqi intellectuals, journalists, students, government employees, and unemployed youth

  4. The influence of geopotential height on temperature variability over Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhalidi, Jasim; Stefan, Sabina

    2017-04-01

    The study of the relationships between climatic parameters and geopotential heights is helpful to understand the climate variability. In this study we have analyzed the anomalies of monthly temperature for Iraq related to the geopotential height 500hPa and 200hPa fields. The data used was recorded at 8 stations for Iraq temperature, over the period 1971-2010 and the same period for the geopotential height fields. The regression maps and correlation coefficients analysis was used to show the link between the temperature anomalies (PCs) and the geopotential 500hPa and 200hPa for all seasons. The regression maps emphasized the influence of geopotential height fields on the temperature anomalies by the ridge (high pressure system) that brings the warm air over Iraq area, but it tends to affect by trough in summer season that brings the dry air over this region. Correlation coefficient analysis showed good relationships between geopotential fields with temperature anomalies in winter, spring and summer seasons (0.7, 0.6, 0.6) respectively, but it is less in autumn season (0.4). Also the results showed that the influence of Subtropical jet stream in geopotential height 200hPa is playing important role on climate of Iraq.

  5. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM INVESTMENT GAS INDUSTRY IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Hayder Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern world. Economy of the biggest part of states based on the foreigninvestments, which are quite necessaryfor developing their economy and infrastructure. On the present stage of thedevelopment the Republic of Iraq the gassector problems could be solved onlythrough investments.

  6. Iraq cracks a few heads in the Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J.

    1990-08-20

    Last month Saddam Hussein charged that oil overproduction by his neighbors was costing Iraq dearly. When an OPEC meeting collapsed last week, he sent 100,000 troops to seize Kuwait, which he had accused of stealing oil. The US is scrambling to organize a Western boycott, but some analysts question just how effective such a more would be.

  7. The IAEA in Iraq: Past activities and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    This summary paper was first published in August 2002 along with papers of similar scope describing other aspects of Iraq's WMD programmes. Despite its inclusion in a compendium introducing the concept of 'coercive inspections', the author made it clear to the publisher the Carnegie Foundation for International Peace (CEIP) - that he did not support that concept which he considered to have the potential to result in a serious hazard to inspectors in the field. Since that time the UN Security Council has adopted resolution 1441 - not dissimilar in scope and objective to that contained in the author's paper to the CEIP workshop on Iraq in July 1991 - and inspectors have already resumed their activities in Iraq. Resolution 1441 contains little new but is extremely helpful in bringing to prominence and elaborating the extensive rights of the inspection authorities already embodied in their respective plans for on goings monitoring and verification. What is new is the inspectorates' right to transport Iraqi nationals and their family members outside Iraq in order to conduct unencumbered interviews. This new right seems to have been viewed with circumspection within the inspectorates and rightly so. Its implementation is fraught with difficulty. For example, if the Iraqi regime is true to the media model then it must be assumed that valued family members of critical interviewees have already been at least identified by the regime if, that is, they are not already 'enjoying the hospitality of the State'. Again, would the apparent refusal of family members, young and old, to accompany the interviewee be deemed to be non-co-operation? Does 1441 really give the inspectorates the right of extradition or does it mean that those interviewees willing to leave, along with their families, and released without serious objections by the Iraqi regime, are likely to have little to contribute to current knowledge? Despite the above reservation, resolution 1441 provides a firm basis for

  8. Treated sewagewater use in irrigated agriculture : theoretical design of farming systems in Seil Al Zarqa and the Middle Jordan Valley in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Duqqah, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Most of Jordan is arid and water resources are limited. This situation becomes more acute the more Jordan develops. New techniques in agriculture, industry and the domestic sector place an increasing demand upon clean and safe water. Good-quality water is hardly available. Unconventional water sources, including treated sewagewater, must be considered as alternative sources. This book focuses on treated sewagewater as a nutrient and water resource for agri...

  9. Large branchiopods (Branchiopoda: Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata from the salt lakes of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudjéma SAMRAOUI

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of large branchiopods (Crustacea, Branchiopoda of the major salt lakes of Algeria, particularly those of the eastern Hauts Plateaux. The aim of the survey was to complement a previous survey that focused on the freshwater habitats of Numidia, northeast Algeria. The study revealed 8 species, with one taxon new to Algeria and North Africa (Chirocephalus salinus. Data on the status, phenology and habitats of collected and previously known species are presented for 19 taxa. The distribution of many species has been greatly extended and the co-occurrence of Artemia tunisiana and Branchinella spinosa has been recorded. The studied salt lakes, owing to a large production of fairy shrimps, support a great number of wintering and breeding waterbirds, but are subject to increasing human pressure.

  10. Dynamique spatio-temporelle de Planococcus ficus (Signoret, 1875 dans les vignobles de la Mitidja (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zohra Bissaad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bissaad, F. Bounaceur, F. and Doumandji-Mitichet B. 2017. Spatio-temporal dynamics of Planococcus ficus (Signoret, 1875 in the vineyards of Mitidja (Algeria. Lebanese Science Journal. 18(1: 26-46. Until now, the research undertaken in Algeria on controlling Planococcus ficus or mealybug, a pest responsible of high level of damages on vines, were very limited. A study on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the pest was conducted for three years in the vineyards of the Western Mitidja in Algeria. The weekly sampling of leaves and clusters were carried out from 2006 to 2008, on wine and table grapes. A high contamination by P. ficus was observed in summer and the beginning of autumn depending on the varieties and years. The monitoring system showed the development of 5 to 6 successive peaks on leaves, and 3 to 4 successive peaks on grape clusters.

  11. DETECTION OF PAENIBACILLUS LARVAE SPORES IN HONEY SAMPLES FROM BEEKEEPERS OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjlane Noureddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The American foulbrood in one of the most serious diseases that may affect brood of larvae and pupae stages, which cause economic losses and biological hazards in a large beekeeping sector in several countries across the world in general and Algeria in particular. The causative agent of this disease is a bacterium called Paenibacillus larvae that target bees Apis mellifera the latter are often present in honey.The aim of this project is studying the spread of this disease in the northern region of Algeria through the analysis of honey obtained from these areas. Microbiological, microscopic and biochemical methods were used in this study. The results obtained have shown that the prevalence rate varies from region to region, several factors may explain this variation in the prevalence of the disease. The average infection rate for all regions is 32%. To prevent the spread of this disease in Algeria must be taken is mandatory and means of prevention into account.

  12. Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Algeria: Cointegration and Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherfi Souhila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the energy consumption-growth nexus in Algeria. The causal relationship between the logarithm of per capita energy consumption (LPCEC and the logarithm of per capita GDP (LPCGDP during the 1965-2008 period is examined using the threshold cointegration and Granger causality tests. The estimation results indicate that the LPCEC and LPCGDP for Algeria are non cointegrated and that there is a uni-directional causality running from LPCGDP to LPCEC, but not vice versa. The research results strongly support the neoclassical perspective that energy consumption is not a limiting factor to economic growth in Algeria. Accordingly, an important policy implication resulting from this analysis is that government can pursue the conservation energy policies that aim at curtailing energy use for environmental friendly development purposes without creating severe effects on economic growth. The energy should be efficiently allocated into more productive sectors of the economy.

  13. Algeria as Postcolony? Rethinking the Colonial Legacy of Post-Structuralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriam Haleh Davis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is little doubt that Algeria was of enormous importance to the theoretical output that is often recognized as French, here I would like to ask: what is at stake in re-inscribing these French intellectuals as postcolonial? In what ways did the particularities of Algerian history impact French philosophy? Indeed, if the term postcolonial is meant to describe those who were influenced by events in Algeria, then an entire generation of French thinkers might be considered postcolonial to varying degrees. Surely Derrida’s oeuvre was influenced by his experiences in Algeria, but does this make him postcolonial in the same way as Jean-Paul Sartre or Pierre Bourideu, who have also become important figures in postcolonial theory? 

  14. The Sportive Origin of Revolution: Youth Movements and Generational Conflicts in Late Colonial Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Krais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting in the 1920s and 30s, youth came to be seen, in colonial Algeria as elsewhere in the Arab world, as a social category that educators, academics and politicians had to deal with in one way or another. Modernizers and many young men and women established a host of youth movements from the 1920s onwards: cultural circles and student associations, sports teams and scout troops as well as youth wings of political parties. In this contribution I examine such youth movements and the generational conflicts they brought with them in French Algeria from around 1930 until the achievement of independence in 1962. Based on theories by Johan Huizinga and José Ortega y Gasset about the generative potential of generational communities centered around play, I will demonstrate the importance of allegedly non-political youth groups for the social and political transformations in late colonial Algeria.

  15. Shale gas in Algeria: a new disaster for the population, a new income for its government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    After having outlined that the access to information on activities and projects of companies committed in the exploration and exploitation of non conventional hydrocarbons is generally very difficult in European countries, and that opacity is almost absolute in Maghreb countries, the authors try to shed a light on these activities in Algeria. They first outline that Total and GDF-Suez are both giant gas companies which are well settled in Algeria, and that Europe and France are top clients of Algeria as far as gas is concerned. They also notice that, as authorized by a new law and in reference with announced reserves, negotiations will take place between the Sonatrach (the public Algerian oil and gas company) and international firms. They finally briefly outline the various environmental threats associated with this exploitation (threat on agriculture, water pollution), and notices that, even though it somehow supports these activities, Europe is saying that it supports a Mediterranean sustainable development

  16. [Evaluation of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) isolates of Mycobacterium bovis in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Naima; Muller, Borna; Djamel, Yala; Fadéla, Boulahbal; Rachid, Ouzrout; Jakob, Zinsstag; Djamel, Guetarni

    2010-01-01

    The discriminatory potency of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), based on 7 loci (MIRU 26, 27 and 5 ETRs A, B, C, D, E) was assayed on Mycobacterium bovis strains obtained from samples due to tuberculosis in two slaughterhouses in Algeria. The technique of MIRU-VNTR has been evaluated on 88 strains of M. bovis and one strain of M. caprea and shows 41 different profiles. Results showed that the VNTR were highly discriminatory with an allelic diversity of 0.930 when four loci (ETR A, B, C and MIRU 27) were highly discriminatory (h>0.25) and three loci (ETR D and E MIRU 26) moderately discriminatory (0.11VNTR loci were highly discriminatory be adequate for the first proper differentiation of strains of M. bovis in Algeria. The VNTR technique has proved a valuable tool for further development and application of epidemiological research for the of tuberculosis transmission in Algeria.

  17. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 μm) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles.

  18. Vitamin D Deficiency among Newborns in Amman, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Lang, Ryan D.; Blevins, Meridith; Kudyba, Katherine; Lawrence, Lindsey; Davidson, Mario; Faouri, Samir; Halasa, Natasha B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is well recognized in selected Middle Eastern countries, but neonatal vitamin D status is not well studied in Jordan and other nearby countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Jordanian newborns and risk factors associated with low levels. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of newborn infants who were delivered at the Al Bashir Government Hospital in Amman, Jordan, from January 31, 2010, to January 27, 2011. Heel stick blood samples for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were obtained within 96 hours of birth. Maternal dress pattern, vitamin supplementation, smoke exposure during pregnancy, mode of delivery, gestational age, and birth weight were documented. Results: Samples were obtained from 3,731 newborns. Median gestational age was 39 weeks, median birth weight was 3.1 kilograms, median maternal age was 27 years, and median newborn 25(OH)D level was 8.6nmol/L. A total of 3,512 newborns (94.1%) in this study were vitamin D deficient (< 50 nmol/L). Lower gestational age, maternal smoke exposure, and birth during winter months were associated with lower infant vitamin D levels, while vitamin D supplementation and time spent outside during pregnancy were associated with higher vitamin D levels. Conclusions: The prevalence of severely low vitamin D levels in newborn infants in Amman, Jordan, is substantial, even in newborns born during the spring and summer months. Vitamin D supplementation is needed in this population. PMID:24373276

  19. Sediment fingerprinting in Northern Jordan - approaching sediment comparability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Schumann, Thomas; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Joerg

    2014-05-01

    Jordan has a quantitative and qualitative water problem in combination with a growing demand by population increase. Around 65% of the freshwater used in Jordan is reported to originate from surface waters and reservoirs. Sediment loads harm the quality of these water bodies and fill up dams. A sediment fingerprint pilot study was implemented in an exemplary catchment in the NW of Jordan to investigate the possibility of geochemical differentiation between 6 sediment sources and calculate their relative contribution to the sink, the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir. The sediment fingerprint method relies on the comparability of sediment properties of the sources and the sink. However, selection processes during transport, preferential adsorption of elements on fine particles, and differences in inorganic carbonate content prevent a direct comparison. In previous studies this has been solved through selective sampling and analyzing certain grain size fractions or the mathematical derivation of correction factors. As no pre-knowledge existed in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment, selective grain size sampling would have implied the risk of neglecting important information already during the sampling process. Hence, a method was established that includes several steps to identify influential parameters (IPs), eliminate their impact and take account of their interrelations. It is based on a stepwise multiple regression analysis model (SMRAM) and generates element specific correction factors that take account for possible interdependencies between influential parameters as clay percentage and total organic and inorganic carbonates. In the further selection process of suitable elements for the fingerprint, we complemented the common used methods by a solubility analysis. Therefore, water profiles were physicochemical investigated in the dam lake. Differences in the chemical milieus during transport and sedimentation that affect the conservativeness of the chosen elements could be detected

  20. Potential of utilizing solar cooling in The University of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasfous, A.; Asfar, J.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Sakhrieh, A.; Al-Hamamre, Z.; Al-bawwab, A.; Hamdan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Potential of utilizing a solar cooling system in Jordan is investigated. ► The suggested system will be used for cooling a 41 m 2 laboratory. ► Solar collectors of 196 m 2 are required for an 8 kW solar air-conditioning system. ► The estimated payback period of the solar cooling system exceeds the project life time of the project. - Abstract: In this paper, the potential of utilizing a solar cooling system to improve the indoor air quality is investigated. The analysis is performed for a 41 m 2 with a 3.65 m height laboratory located at Mango Center for Scientific Research – University of Jordan in Amman. The hourly ambient temperatures and the monthly solar radiation in Amman are recorded. The calculations of the cooling demand were done using two methods, i.e. manual calculations and block load software. For the analysis, the internal loads of lightning, computer, etc. and the building envelope (e.g. double glass, no shading) were considered. The results show that proposed solar collectors of 40 m 2 area can provide solar heat for an 8 kW solar air-conditioning system. Moreover, domestic hot water (solar fraction up to 100%) and solar heating (approx. 15–25% solar fraction) could be also provided, with the solar air-conditioning system, for the centre. An economic study was also carried, which showed that the estimated payback period of the solar cooling system, exceeds that of project life time of the project, which is assumed to be 24 years unless the government of Jordan issues a new law for renewable energy that grants incentives, exemptions and subsidizes projects that invest in solar energy applications by about 40% of initial investment cost of the system.

  1. Long-term trends in daily temperature extremes in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Saleem A.; Shahid, Shamsuddin; Ismail, Tarmizi; Chung, Eun-Sung; Al-Abadi, Alaa M.

    2017-12-01

    The existence of long-term persistence (LTP) in hydro-climatic time series can lead to considerable change in significance of trends. Therefore, past findings of climatic trend studies that did not consider LTP became a disputable issue. A study has been conducted to assess the trends in temperature and temperature extremes in Iraq in recent years (1965-2015) using both ordinary Mann-Kendal (MK) test; and the modified Mann-Kendall (m-MK) test, which can differentiate the multi-decadal oscillatory variations from secular trends. Trends in annual and seasonal minimum and maximum temperatures, diurnal temperature range (DTR), and 14 temperature-related extremes were assessed. MK test detected the significant increases in minimum and maximum temperature at all stations, where m-MK test detected at 86% and 80% of all stations, respectively. The temperature in Iraq is increasing 2 to 7 times faster than global temperature rise. The minimum temperature is increasing more (0.48-1.17 °C/decade) than maximum temperature (0.25-1.01 °C/decade). Temperature rise is higher in northern Iraq and in summer. The hot extremes particularly warm nights are increasing all over Iraq at a rate of 2.92-10.69 days/decade, respectively. On the other hand, numbers of cold days are decreasing at some stations at a rate of - 2.65 to - 8.40 days/decade. The use of m-MK test along with MK test confirms the significant increase in temperature and some of the temperature extremes in Iraq. This study suggests that trends in many temperature extremes in the region estimated in previous studies using MK test may be due to natural variability of climate, which empathizes the need for validation of the trends by considering LTP in time series.

  2. English language education in Jordan: Some recent trends and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Madallh Alhabahba; Ambigapathy Pandian; Omer Hassan Ali Mahfoodh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to map out the status of English language teaching (ELT) as practised in the Arab World and, specifically, in Jordan today. The study also aims to bring into focus significant issues that need to be addressed in ELT in the Arab World. This paper presents a review of the current status of English language education, with an emphasis on the need for urgent reforms in the teaching of English in the Arab World. Further, longitudinal data in respect to classroom and wo...

  3. Dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaaytah, Ammar; Mukattash, Tareq L; Hajaj, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current regulations in Jordan state that antibiotics cannot be sold without a medical prescription. This study aimed to assess the percentage of pharmacies that dispense antibiotics without a medical prescription in the Kingdom of Jordan and identify and highlight the extent and seriousness of such practices among Jordanian pharmacies. Methods A prospective study was performed, and five different clinical scenarios were simulated at pharmacies investigated including sore throat, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection in childbearing-aged women. Three levels of demand were used to convince the pharmacists to sell an antibiotic. Results A total of 202 total pharmacies in Jordan were visited in the present study. The majority of pharmacies (74.3%) dispensed antibiotics without prescription with three different levels of demand. The percentage of pharmacies dispensing antibiotics without a prescription for the sore throat scenario was 97.6%, followed by urinary tract infection (83.3%), diarrhea (83%), and otitis media (68.4%). The lowest percentage of antibiotic dispensing was for the acute sinusitis simulation at 48.5%. Among the pharmacies that dispensed antibiotics, the pharmacists provided an explanation as the number of times per day the drug should be taken in 95.3% of the cases, explained the duration of treatment in 25.7%, and inquired about allergies prior to the sale of the antibiotic in only 17.3%. Only 52 pharmacies (25.7%) refused to dispense any kind of antibiotics, the majority (61.5%) of this refusal response came from acute sinusitis cases, while the minority (2.4%) came from the sore throat cases. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that antibiotics continue to be dispensed without prescription in Jordan in violation with national regulations regarding this practice. The findings of this study could provide a layout for governmental health authorities to implement strict enfrorcment of national

  4. Safety of radiation sources and other radioactive materials in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Since joining the IAEA Model Project for upgrading radiation protection infrastructure in countries of West Asia, Jordan has amended its radiation safety legislation. The Regulatory Authority is improving its inventory system for radiation sources and other radioactive materials and also its notification, registration, licensing, inspection and enforcement systems. It has established national provisions for the management of orphan sources after they have been found. The system for the control of the radiation sources and other radioactive materials entering the country has been improved by the Regulatory Authority. (author)

  5. Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brian R.; Makhlouf, Issa M.; Armstrong, Howard A.

    2005-11-01

    The Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan, comprise a lower and upper glacially incised palaeovalley system, occupying reactivated basement and Pan-African fault-controlled depressions. The lower palaeovalley, incised into shoreface sandstones of the pre-glacial Tubeiliyat Formation, is filled with thin glaciofluvial sandstones at the base, overlain by up to 50 m of shoreface sandstone. A prominent glaciated surface near the top of this palaeovalley-fill contains intersecting glacial striations aligned E-W and NW-SE. The upper palaeovalley-fill comprises glaciofluvial and marine sandstones, incised into the lower palaeovalley or, where this is absent, into the Tubeiliyat Formation. Southern Jordan lay close to the margin of a Late Ordovician terrestrial ice sheet in Northwest Saudi Arabia, characterised by two major ice advances. These are correlated with the lower and upper palaeovalleys in southern Jordan, interrupted by two subsidiary glacial advances during late stage filling of the lower palaeovalley when ice advanced from the west and northwest. Thus, four ice advances are now recorded from the Late Ordovician glacial record of southern Jordan. Disturbed and deformed green sandstones beneath the upper palaeovalley-fill in the Jebel Ammar area, are confined to the margins of the Hutayya graben, and have been interpreted as structureless glacial loessite or glacial rock flour. Petrographic and textural analyses of the deformed sandstones, their mapped lateral transition into undeformed Tubeiliyat marine sandstones away from the fault zone, and the presence of similar sedimentary structures to those in the pre-glacial marine Tubeiliyat Formation suggest that they are a locally deformed facies equivalent of the Tubeiliyat, not part of the younger glacial deposits. Deformation is attributed to glacially induced crustal stresses and seismic reactivation of pre-existing faults, previously weakened by epeirogenesis, triggering sediment

  6. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? Materials and Methods: To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients′ opinions. Results and Conclusion : At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women′s lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous

  7. Kamikazes: youth serving youth in a dangerous climate. Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gataa, R

    1995-01-01

    The Algerian Family Planning Association (FPA) launched its youth project in July 1993 in Oran. The first project of its kind in the Arab world, members call themselves Kamikazes in recognition of the hostile climate they face. The project's goal was to deal with social, cultural, and health problems. They also designed the project's logo, a cartoon booklet on the dangers of AIDS, and a T-shirt for members to wear. They based their activities in the local government-run information center. Between 15 and 25 years old, from a wide variety of social backgrounds, the young people drew up a list of common problems: drugs, alcohol, smoking, relationships with the opposite sex, abortion, contraception, sex education, AIDS, homosexuality, unemployment, the lack of clubs for young people, delinquency, lack of communication between parents and children, the repression of women, the lack of popular entertainment for young people, and the shortage of books. This project now is to be extended to Algiers and other cities. Over an 8-month period, the committee received instruction in contraception and combatting drug addition, participated in a workshop on empowerment and self esteem, and were trained in role-playing techniques. In their first 18 months of existence, the Kamikazes in Oran have succeeded in involving over 1000 of their peers. They have had particular success in reaching teenagers in secondary schools. One of the most valuable aspects of the project has been the sessions held with gynecologists and psychologists on sexual development, relationships between the sexes, and the avoidance of unwanted pregnancies, abortion, and sexually transmitted diseases. The success of the Oran Kamikaze project bodes well for the extension of the project to other parts of Algeria and indeed to some other countries of the Arab world.

  8. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Meskine, Djamila; El Gradechi, Aldjia

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients' opinions. At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women's lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous responsibilities taken by women in the modern society.

  9. Natural radionuclide concentrations in two phosphate ores of east Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakehal, Ch; Ramdhane, M; Boucenna, A

    2010-05-01

    Ore is considered as an important source of many elements such as the iron, phosphorus, and uranium. Concerning the natural radionuclides, their concentrations vary from an ore to other depending on the chemical composition of each site. In this work, two phosphate ores found in East of Algeria have been chosen to assess the activity concentration of natural radionuclides represented mainly by three natural radioactive series (238)U, (235)U and (232)Th, and the primordial radionuclide (40)K where they were determined using ultra-low background, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The measured activity concentrations of radioactive series ranged from 6.2 +/- 0.4 to 733 +/- 33 Bq.kg(-1) for the (232)Th series, from 249 +/- 16 to 547 +/- 39 Bq.kg(-1) for the (238)U series, around 24.2 +/- 2.5 Bq.kg(-1) for the (235)U series, and from 1.4 +/- 0.2 to 6.7 +/- 0.7 Bq.kg(-1) for (40)K. To assess exposure to gamma radiation in the two ores, from specific activities of (232)Th, (40)K and (226)Ra, three indexes were determined: Radium equivalent (Ra(eq)), external and internal hazard indexes (H(ex) and H(in)), their values ranged from 831 +/- 8 to 1298 +/- 14 Bq.kg(-1) for Ra(eq), from 2.2 +/- 0.4 to 3.5 +/- 0.7 Bq.kg(-1) for H(ex), and from 4.2 +/- 0.7 to 4.5 +/- 0.7 Bq.kg(-1) for H(in). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing Actual Visit Behavior through Antecedents of Tourists Satisfaction among International Tourists in Jordan: A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Moh’d Al Muala

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jordan tourism industry is facing fluctuating tourist visit provoked by dissatisfaction, high visit risk, low hotel service, or negative Jordan image. This study aims to examine the relationships between the antecedents of tourist satisfaction and actual visit behavior in tourism of Jordan, and the mediating effect of tourist satisfaction (SAT in the relationship between Jordan image (JOM, service climate (SER and actual visit behavior (ACT. A total of 850 international tourists completed a survey that were conducted at southern sites in Jordan. Using structural equation modeling (SEM technique, confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was performed to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement, and the structural equation modeling techniques (Amos 6.0 were used to evaluate the casual model. Results of the study demonstrate the strong predictive power and explain of international tourists’ behavior in Jordan. The findings highlighted that the relationship between Jordan image and service climate are significant and positive on actual visit behavior.

  11. Depletion of the Complex Multiple Aquifer System of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödiger, T.; Siebert, C.; Geyer, S.; Merz, R.

    2017-12-01

    In many countries worldwide water scarcity pose a significant risk to the environment and the socio-economy. Particularly in countries where the available water resources are strongly limited by climatic conditions an accurate determination of the available water resources is of high priority, especially when water supply predominantly rely oon groundwater resources and their recharge. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge in heavily used well field areas, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. This is the case in the Kingdom of Jordan, where a multi-layer aquifer complex forms the eastern subsurface catchment of the Dead Sea basin. Since the begin of the industrial and agricultural development of the country, dramatically falling groundwater levels, the disappearance of springs and saltwater intrusions from deeper aquifers is documented nation-wide. The total water budget is influenced by (i) a high climatic gradient from hyperarid to semiarid and (ii) the intnese anthropogenic abstraction. For this multi-layered aquifer system we developed a methodology to evaluate groundwater depletion by linking a hydrological and a numerical flow model including estimates of groundwater abstraction. Hence, we define groundwater depletion as the rate of groundwater abstraction in excess of natural recharge rate. Restricting our analysis, we calculated a range of groundwater depletion from 0% in the eastern Hamad basin to around 40% in the central part of Jordan and to extreme values of 100% of depletion in the Azraq and Disi basin.

  12. First Aid Knowledge Among University Students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatatbeh, Moawiah

    2016-01-01

    This study has aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about the first aid process among the university students in Jordan. The study population consisted of students of the 14 scientific and unscientific faculties at Yarmouk University, Jordan. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 883 students. The majority of participants were females (65.9%) with mean age (standard deviation) of 19.9 (2.6) years. Only 29.2% of students had previous first aid experience. When asked, only 11% of students knew the normal respiration rate of an adult in 1 min. Results revealed that female students, having previous first aid experience, and being a student of the health sciences and scientific colleges were the only factors had significant statistical associations with better level of first aid knowledge. The students' knowledge about first aid is not at an adequate level. It would be advisable that first aid course be handled as a separate and practical course at secondary school level.

  13. Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors from Aerial Parts of Grown in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayadah B. Shehadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis L., grown in Jordan, two furanocoumarins (bergapten and chalepensin, one flavonoid glycoside (rutin as well as several minor compounds have been isolated. The structural elucidation of these compounds was established based on spectral data (UV, IR, MS, 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR. In Jordan, R. chalepensis is recommended for the treatment of rheumatism, mental disorders and menstrual problems. Fresh and dried leaves are used as flavoring agent in food and beverages. Antiplatelet activities of the crude methanolic and ethylacetate extracts in addition to the three isolated major compounds were measured by the aggrometric method according to Beretz and Casenave. Optical aggregometer connected to dual channel recorder was used for measuring aggregation. Both, ethylacetate and methanol extracts inhibited ADP- induced platelet aggregation (ADP-IA of human blood. However, only ethylacetate extract was able to induce 50% inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation (Co-IA platelet rich plasma. Bergapten was more active against ADP-IA compared to chalepensin while the latter was more active against Co-IA compared to bergapten.

  14. Psychological stress among dental students at the University of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghazaleh, Suha B; Rajab, Lamis D; Sonbol, Hawazen N

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of psychological stress as well as the perceived sources of stress among undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan. The top perceived stressors were compared with those of a previous study that examined the perceived sources of stress among undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan in the year 2000. Psychological stress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Perceived sources of stress were evaluated using the Dental Environment Stress questionnaire. In the study, 520 students completed the questionnaires, for a response rate of 74 percent. These students showed a high level of psychological stress, with 70 percent at the cutoff point of a score of more than 3 for the GHQ-12. Women had a higher level of stress than men: 73 percent scored more than 3 on the GHQ-12 vs. 63 percent for men, which was statistically significant at p=0.05. The top perceived sources of stress from the year 2000 were mostly unaltered in our study, despite a substantial increase in the number of students as well as changes in the curriculum. Further research is needed into methods to minimize stress on dental students.

  15. Design, Development and Installation of Jordan Subcritical Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Xoubi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following its announcement in 2007 to pursue a nuclear power program and in the absence of any nuclear facility essential for the education, training, and research, Jordan decided to build a subcritical reactor as its first nuclear facility. Jordan Subcritical Assembly (JSA is uranium fueled light water moderated and reflected subcritical reactor driven by a plutonium-beryllium source, and the core consists of 313 LEU fuel rods, loaded into a water-filled vessel in a square lattice of 19.11 mm pitch. The fuel rods are based on PWR fuel structural pattern type, made of uranium oxide (UO2 with 3.4 wt% 235U enrichment in zirconium alloy (Zr-4 cladding. Design, optimization, and verification were performed using MCNP5 nuclear code; the computed effective multiplication factor is 0.95923. The JSA is designed to fulfill the training needs of students and is equipped to perform all of the fundamental experiments required for a typical nuclear engineering university program. This paper presents the design, development, modeling, core analysis, and utilization of Jordan’s first nuclear facility and why this simplified low cost reactor presents an attractive choice to fulfill the preliminary experimental needs of nuclear engineering education in developing countries.

  16. First results from the Jordan COLTRIMS imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afaneh, Feras, E-mail: afaneh@hu.edu.jo [Physics Department, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Ali, Rami; Qasem, Rajaie; Balasmeh, Naeem [Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan); Hamasha, Safeia [Physics Department, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Dörner, Reinhard; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst [Institut fuer Kernphysik, University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    A Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) apparatus has been constructed and operated cooperatively by the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory in the Physics Department at the Hashemite University, Jordan, and the Atomic and Molecular Physics Group at the 4.75 MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility at the University of Jordan. This COLTRIMS imaging system allows the investigation of the dynamics of various ion impact induced atomic and molecular interactions and fragmentations. The performance of the COLTRIMS system was tested by carrying out preliminary studies of two collision systems. In the first study, electron capture processes in the He{sup 2+}–Ne collision system at 0.25 and 1.0 MeV impact energies were investigated. Significant simultaneous electron capture and target excitation has been observed for the 0.25 MeV as opposed to the 1.0 MeV impact energy. In the other study, projectile single electron loss and simultaneous single target ionization in the O{sup +}–He collision system was studied at three different projectile impact energies: 0.6, 1.45 and 2 MeV. Enhancement of the electron–electron contribution to projectile electron loss with increasing collision energy has been observed.

  17. Delay in Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment for Breast Cancer Patients in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Helalah, Ahmad Munir; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Al-Hanaqtah, Mo'tasem; Da'na, Moh'd; Al-Omari, Asim; Mubaidin, Rasmi

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and one of the leading causes of death for females in Jordan and many countries in the world. Studies have shown that delay in symptoms presentation, diagnosis or treatment would result in poor prognosis. There has been no published study from Jordan on delays in patient presentation, delays in diagnosis, or delays in treatment. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess these important quality indicators aiming to improve prognosis for breast cancer patients in Jordan. This project was a cross-sectional study on female breast cancer patients in Jordan. The total number of participants was 327. The proportion of patients with presentation delay, diagnosis delay, and treatment delay was 32.2%, 49.1%, or 32.4%, respectively. The main reported reasons for delay in presentation were ignorance of the nature of the problem (65.6%), limited/lack of knowledge that symptoms were suggestive of cancer diagnosis (16.7%), and misdiagnosis (16.7%). Predictors of delay and mean time for presentation, diagnosis, and treatment were identified. Our results reveal that breast cancer patients in Jordan are experiencing delays in presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. This could justify the advanced stages at diagnosis and poor outcomes for breast cancer patients in Jordan. We recommend revising the current early detection and down-staging programs in Jordan. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Failure of Third World Air Power: Iraq and the War with Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Neuman, 24. 20. Dilip Hiro , The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict (New York: Routledge, Chapman and Hall, Inc., 1991), 277. 21. Aharon...33. Cordesman and Wagner, 139. 34. Mottale, 157. 35. Cordesman, The Gulf, 686. 36. Dilip Hiro , The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military...Balance. Tel Aviv: Jaffee Center for" Strategic Studies, 1983. Hiro , Dilip . The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict. New York: Routledge

  19. Approaches to realization of year cycle of Iraq football players’ sport training

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek Drevel Khalaf; A.U. Diachenko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: to substantiate ways of increase of Iraq football players’ training process effectiveness, depending on calendar of events. Material: analysis of technical-tactic actions was conducted by quantitative and qualitative characteristics of football players in every match. The analysis was presented by mean indicators of matches of the first (n=15) and second (n=15) rounds of championships of Iraq premier league 2011-2014. Results: we realized conception of periodization of Iraq elite foo...

  20. Differences in Services and Fees for Management and Administration of Iraq Reconstruction Contracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, David; Childress, David; Salvatierra, George; Thompson, Chuck; Williams, Roger M

    2008-01-01

    ...), a field operating agency of the Air Force Civil Engineer, are two primary organizations providing project management and contract administration services for major Iraq reconstruction projects...

  1. Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer; Serafino, Nina M

    2004-01-01

    .... In Iraq, private companies are currently providing security services such as the protection of individuals, nonmilitary transport convoys, buildings, and other economic infrastructure, as well...

  2. SIG-CLIMALG: The geographical dimension of climate data in Algeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Algeria, implementation, monitoring and exploitation of climate data, development and dissemination of periodic publications and climate assistance to users, are tasks of the National Climatological Centre (NCC). Moreover, the effective management of this large volume of data requires the use of new technologies such ...

  3. Radiological analysis of materials sampled on the old nuclear test site of In Ekker (Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chareyron, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    After having recalled the context of the French nuclear test campaign in Algeria between 1961 and 1966, this document reports and comments radiological measurements performed on the site of In Ekker, and also results of analysis performed in laboratory (contamination by cesium 137, americium 241, plutonium); recommendations are given

  4. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 3, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents 91 English language annotations of newspaper articles, journals, and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Although the title also includes Maghreb, this issue does not contain any annotations for that country. All articles were published during the period July-September 1975.…

  5. (InEdible Algeria: Transmitting Pied-Noir Nostalgia Through Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Hubbell

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For those exiled from Algeria during and after the Algerian War for Independence (1954-1962, sustaining memories of the homeland has been a consuming pastime. Food has especially played a large part in reconnecting Algeria’s former French citizens, the Pieds-Noirs, to their past. Annual gatherings feature typical dishes such as couscous, merguez, méchoui, mouna, which like the Proustian madeleine, transport the Pieds-Noirs to a preceding time of wholeness and comfort, allowing them to experience, if only fleetingly, a sense of immortality. While food has a reparative quality for the community’s memory, it is also the site of rejection and pain for some. Marie Cardinal writes about food as a site of unity with the indigenous Algerian community and rejection from her colonial French family. Similarly, in the collective autobiography Quatre soeurs: Hier, en Algérie, aujourd’hui en France, Frédérique Boblin, Eve Calo, Nelly Collet and Fabienne Rozotte explain their shared eating disorders as tied to their expulsion from Algeria. This essay demonstrates that the Pieds-Noirs can eat to remember Algeria, but the Algeria they knew can also prove to be inedible.

  6. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....

  7. Teaching Morality and Religion in Nineteenth-Century Colonial Algeria: Gender and the Civilising Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Historians have long presented France's "civilizing mission" within its colonies in secular terms ignoring women's presence as both actors and subjects. This is particularly true in Algeria where the colonial government's explicitly prohibited proselytism. This article emphasizes women's roles pursuing both secular and religious goals in…

  8. Relationship between National TB program and prevalence of TB drug resistance in Algeria, 1965 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila Boulahbal

    2015-01-01

    The different steps will be presented of the development of the National TB program in Algeria between 1964 and 2014, and in the same way the variations of the prevalence rate of TB drug resistance to demonstrate that the drug resistance surveillance is an acceptable indicator of the performance of TB control program in the country.

  9. Empirical relations to convert magnitudes of the earthquake catalogue for the north western of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayadi, Ilyes; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Fontiela, João; Nadji, Amansour

    2017-04-01

    North Algeria is one of the most seismically active regions on the western Mediterranean basin and it is related with the boundaries of the Eurasian and Nubian plates. We compiled an earthquake catalogue for the north western of Algeria, within the area -2°W-1°E and 34°N-37°N for the time span 1790 - 2016. To compile the earthquake catalogue we merge all available catalogues either national and international. Then we remove all duplicates and fake earthquakes. The lower level of the catalogue entries is set at M = 2.5. Nevertheless, the magnitudes reported on the catalogue are ML, Ms, Mb, Mw and macroseismic intensity. Thus, we develop new empirical relations to calculate the Mw from the different magnitudes and intensity suitable to the seismic hazard and geodynamic context of North Algeria. Acknowledgements: Ilyes Belayadi is funded entirely by the University of Oran 2 Mohamed Ben Ahmed (Algeria). This work is co-financed by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund under COMPETE 2020 (Operational Program for Competitiveness and Internationalization) through the ICT project (UID / GEO / 04683/2013) under the reference POCI-01-0145 -FEDER-007690.

  10. Maximum Runoff of the Flood on Wadis of Northern Part of Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wadis of Algeria are characterized by a very irregular hydrological regime. The question of estimating the maximum flow of wadis is relevant. We propose in this paper a method based on an interpretation of the transformation of surface runoff in streamflow. The technique of account the maximal runoff of flood for the rivers ...

  11. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 2, Numbers 1, 2, 3, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Three volumes comprise a 375-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English, French, Italian, and Arabic that provides information on various aspects of education in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and foreign language titles are…

  12. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 4, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French dating from 1953 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational and higher education;…

  13. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 1 No. 3 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated compilation of 108 educational publications in Arabic, French, and English includes texts and data on elementary and secondary school curricula in the Maghreb countries (Tunisia, Morroco, Algeria, and Libya). Categories in this bibliography include--(1) Philosophy and Theory of Education, (2) Administration of the Educational…

  14. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  15. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 2, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for an annotated bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia cover topics such as the philosophy and theory of education, educational organization, adult education, teacher…

  16. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 6, Number 1, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Annotations of articles, written in English, provide the content for a bibliography of educational materials written in French useful to those with an interest in North Africa. Sections on Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia are preceded by a section on the Maghreb which deals with the special problems of illiteracy, multilingualism, and rapid…

  17. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 8, Number 1, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    This annotated bibliography contains 100 English-language annotations of newspapers and government publications covering educational topics of interest to North Africans. The majority of the items cited were published in 1974. Citations are categorized by country: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Within these major categories are subtopics…

  18. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Numbers 2, 3, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A two volume, 200-item bibliography with English abstracts of books and articles in English and French dating from 1957 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and higher education; and…

  19. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 10, No. 4, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    Ninety-one English language annotations are presented of newspaper articles and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Most of the entries were published during the period October-December 1976. Organized by country, the references cover topics of philosophy and theory of education, teacher training,…

  20. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4 No. 3, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    This report, part of a series of educational bibliographies from the Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) and Libya, consists of excerpts from periodicals published in those countries. Each entry is marked to indicate the particular country. The articles are organized under 13 major subjects that include: the structure of educational…

  1. Selected Bibliography of Materials; Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 1, Number 2, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A bibliography with abstracts of 106 items from books and articles covers materials on education in the Maghreb countries of Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, and Morocco. Special emphasis is given to the two problems besetting the area's educational system: illiteracy and multilingualism. The entries cover philosophy and theory of education,…

  2. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 3, Number 1, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 130-item bibliography with abstracts of books and articles in English and French provides information on various aspects of education (many of them language-related) in the Maghreb countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Each entry identifies the country with which it is concerned, and French titles are translated into English.…

  3. Archives Educational Programs in Librarianship Schools : A Compression Study Between Algeria and Some Arab Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheba Gheriamy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A Study about the training of archivists in Algeria, specially of the origin and aims of archival studies programme in librarianship institute at the university of Algiers and comparing its experience with some Arabic contries like Egypt,Tunisia and Arabic Golf countries.

  4. Prospects of hydroponics and protected cultivation in semi-arid regions piloted in Algeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, Van E.A.; Bruins, M.A.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Sapounas, A.; Speetjens, B.

    2017-01-01

    Algeria is used as an example for exploring and analysing the prospects of hydroponics and protected cultivation within the horticultural sector in a semi-arid climate. First step is to analyse the present horticultural situation (protected and open field cultivation, technology and knowledge level)

  5. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani-Bouguessa, Nadjia; Rahal, Kheira

    2003-02-01

    There are few data on antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Algeria. Among 309 strains, 34.6% were penicillin G-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae strains (25.2% were intermediate and 9.4% were resistant). Serotypes 1, 5, 14, and 6 were the most frequent in invasive child infections. A multicenter study to standardize the national guidelines is needed.

  6. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Iraq consists of a lowland trough lying between asymmetrical and very different upland massifs to the east, north and west and continuing southeastwards to the Persian Gulf. The region is one of crustal weakness and subsidence with relatively young plastic sedimentary rocks engulfed in downwarped, ancient, rigid and highly resistant blocks. Exploration in the 1954-55 period found some minor radioactive anomalies and very low uranium contents in limestones and phosphates. The results of an aerial radiometric survey in 1973-74 are not known to IAEA. Iraq has no reported uranium resources but there are several favourable formations which warrant a detailed survey. In view of the size of the country and the small amount of systematic exploration carried out up to the present time, the Speculative Potential is considered to lie in the 1,000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium category. (author)

  7. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2012: Iraq Energy Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Iraq is already the world’s third largest oil exporter. It has the resources and intention to increase its oil production vastly. Contracts are already in place. Will Iraq’s ambitions be realised? And what would the implications be for Iraq’s economy and for world oil markets? The obstacles are formidable: political, logistical, legal, regulatory, financial, lack of security and sufficient skilled labour. One example: in 2011 grid electricity could meet only 55% of demand. The International Energy Agency has studied these issues with the support and close cooperation of the government of Iraq and many other leading officials, commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.

  8. Decommissioning plan for Tammuz-2 research reactor in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A. A.; Jasim, H. I.

    2012-12-01

    For nuclear facilities, decommissioning is the final phase in the life cycle after sitting, design, construction, commissioning and operation. It is a process involving operations such as decontamination, dismantling of plant equipment of result in materials. All these activities take into account health and safety requirements for operating personnel and the general public, and any implications for the environment. (1) In several projects to decommission various type of nuclear facilities, it has been shown that technical methods and equipment are available today to dismantle safely nuclear facilities, of whatever type or size. Much experience in the use of these techniques has the decommissioning of prototype, demonstration, and small power reactors or other nuclear facilities. In Iraq these activities will be done by the cooperation with (IAEA) International Atomic Energy Agency and the other national regulatory bodies such as (IRSRA) Iraqi Radioactive Sources Regulatory Authority, and (RPC/MoEn) Radiation Protection Center/ Ministry of Environment in Iraq. (Author)

  9. Attenuation of earthquake generated P waves in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsinawi, A. S.; Al-Tikriti, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to investigate seismic wave attenuation in Iraq. it studies longitudinal waves recorded at Baghdad (BHD) and Musul (MSL) observatories from earthquakes originated in Turkey and in Iran. Thirty seven earthquakes were chosen for this investigation, twenty three of them were recorded at Baghdad observatory, and fourteen were recorded at Mousul observatory. The epicenters of some of these earthquakes are located within the Iraqi territory; the rest of the events have their epicenters on the Iraqi-Iran borders or on the Turkish and Iranian sides of the boeder. The path of the investigated earthquakes cover the central, north and eastern regions of Iraq; with magnitudes (mb) varying between (4.1-5.7). The amplitude-distance curve method was utilized in this investigation. The mean attenuation value obtained for the study area was 0.0035 km -1 . (authors). 19 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs

  10. A seismic hazard overview of the Mitidja Basin (Northern Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontiela, J. F.; Borges, J.; Ouyed, M.; Bezzeghoud, M.; Idres, M.; Caldeira, B.; Boughacha, M. S.; Carvalho, J.; Samai, S.; Aissa, S.; Benfadda, A.; Chimouni, R.; Yalaoui, R.; Dias, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Mitidja Basin (MB) is located in N Algeria and it is filled by quaternary sediments with a length of 100 km on the EW direction and around 20 km width. The S and N limites comprise the Boumerdes-Larbaa-Blida, and the Thenia-Sahel active fault system, respectively. Both fault systems are of the reverse type with opposed dips and accommodate a general slip rate of ˜4 mm/year. In the basin occurred earthquakes that caused severe damage and losses such as the ones of Algiers (1365, Io=X; 1716, Io=X) and the Bourmedes earthquake (Mw 6.9; May 2003) that affected the area of Zemmouri and caused 2.271 deaths. The event was caused by the reactivation of the MB boundary faults. The earthquake generated a max uplift of 0.8m along the coast and a horizontal max. slip of 0.24m.Recent studies show that the Boumerdes earthquake overloaded the adjacent faults system with a stress increase between 0.4 and 1.5 bar. The stress change recommends a detailed study of mentioned faults system due to the increase of the seismic hazard. The high seismogenic potential of the fault system bordering the MB, increases the vulnerability of densely populated areas of Algiers and the amplification effect caused by the basin are the motivation of this project that will focus on the evaluation of the seismic hazard of the region. To achieve seismic hazard assessment on the MB, through realistic predictions of strong ground motion, caused by moderate and large earthquakes, it is important 1) develop a detailed 3D velocity/structure model of the MB that includes geological constraints, seismic reflection data acquired on wells, refraction velocities and seismic noise data, and determination of the attenuation laws based on instrumental records; 2) evaluate the seismic potential and parameters of the main active faults of the MB; 3) develop numerical methods (deterministic and stochastic) to simulate strong ground motions produced by extended seismic sources. To acquire seismic noise were used

  11. Combat wounds in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2005 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, Philip J; McCriskin, Brendan J; Sieg, Ryan N; Burks, Robert; Schoenfeld, Andrew J

    2012-07-01

    There have been no large cohort studies examining the wounding patterns and injury mechanisms in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2005 to 2009. This investigation sought to characterize the incidence and epidemiology of combat-related injuries for this period. Using the Joint Theater Trauma Registry, a detailed description of the combat casualty care statistics, distribution of wounds, and injury mechanisms sustained by all US service members for wounds (DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes 800-960) during the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars from 2005 to 2009 was performed. Among the 1,992,232 military service members who were deployed, there were 29,624 distinct combat wounds in 7,877 combat casualties. The mean age of the combat casualty cohort was 26.0 years old. The combat casualties were predominantly male (98·8%), Army (77·5%), and junior enlisted (59·0%). The distribution of combat wounds was as follows: head/neck, 28·1%; thorax, 9·9%; abdomen, 10·1%; and extremities, 51·9%. Explosive injury mechanisms accounted for 74·4% of all combat casualties, which was significantly higher than those caused by gunshot wounds (19·9%) (p wounding patterns observed in Iraq and Afghanistan from 2005 to 2009 differ from previous conflicts. Explosive mechanisms accounted for 74·4% of combat casualties, which is a higher percentage than in previous US conflicts. A progressive increase in the use of explosive mechanisms in Afghanistan, eventually equaling that in Iraq, was observed during the study period.

  12. Nassriya Water Treatment Plant Nassriya, Iraq. Sustainment Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-28

    Shatra substation to the WTP with associated switchgear and transformer. By early 2006, it was recognized that the MMPW was not taking action to have...standard transmission line cables require the use of load break elbows and bushings to connect the power lines to the transformers. Since the load break...elbows and bushings are not available in Iraq, the Thi Qar provincial reconstruction team (PRT) is attempting to order the parts from a supplier in

  13. Thinking About Nuclear Power in Post-Saddam Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    advanced scientific brains and capabilities in all disciplines and fields,” but now fretted that the recent brain drain would remove Iraq from “the caravan...Between the Ugliness of Military Use and the Inevitability of Peaceful Applications), Al-Majalla al-ilmiyya al-iraqiyya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ... Brains That Have Emigrated?), Al-Mada, June 9, 2007, www.almadapaper.com. The country’s Minister of Science and Technology likewise longed for earlier

  14. Criminals, Militias, and Insurgents: Organized Crime in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    can be understood in terms of what Sebastian Rotella describes as “the semiotics of murder” in which the message is as important as the killing.4...described as everything from a political party to a warlord-run fiefdom to a death squad. Whatever description is used, it is clear that Thaar Allah...garners international attention but most often it occurs in relative obscurity; it can end in death and tragedy or relief and celebration. In Iraq

  15. Health service access and utilization among Syrian refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Burnham, Gilbert

    2016-07-14

    The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system. Changing lifestyles and aging populations are shifting the global disease burden towards increased non-infectious diseases including chronic conditions, co-morbidities, and injuries which are more complicated and costly to manage. The strain placed on health systems threatens the ability to ensure the health needs of both refugees and host country populations are adequately addressed. In light of the increasing challenges facing host governments and humanitarian actors to meet health needs of Syrian refugees and affected host communities, this study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Differences in household characteristics by geographic region, facility type, and sector utilized were examined using chi-square and t-test methods. Care-seeking was high with 86.1 % of households reporting an adult sought medical care the last time it was needed. Approximately half (51.5 %) of services were sought from public sector facilities, 38.7 % in private facilities, and 9.8 % in charity/NGO facilities. Among adult care seekers, 87.4 % were prescribed medication during the most recent visit, 89.8 % of which obtained the medication. Overall, 51.8 % of households reported out-of-pocket expenditures for the consultation or medications at the most recent visit (mean US$39.9, median US$4.2). Despite high levels of care-seeking, cost was an important barrier to health service access for Syrian refugees in Jordan. The cessation of free access to health care since the time of the survey is likely to have worsened

  16. Determinants of energy sector performance in Iraq, 2003 to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedemann, K.H.

    2007-01-01

    Iraq's energy sector was rehabilitated from 2003 to 2005. The focus of rehabilitation was on restoring Iraq's electricity and oil infrastructure to pre-war production levels; delivering electricity and refined fuels for domestic consumption; and delivering electricity and oil security. This paper provided an analysis of the impact of Coalition efforts and insurgent activities on energy sector performance using time-series models. The paper presented a simple three-equation model consisting of an insurgent attack equation, an investment equation, and production function. The paper also discussed the phases of the insurgency in Iraq, with particular reference to the beginning of the insurgency; initial bombing campaign; escalation of the insurgency; and intra-Iraqi conflict. Key energy sector indicators and regression results were also presented for oil production; diesel production; gasoline production; oil exports; and production and consumption of electricity. It was concluded that expenditures by the United States on oil infrastructure appear to have been relatively efficiently spent. 16 refs., 9 tabs

  17. Occupational risks in families at a battery factory in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omari, Y. I.; Al-Mahasneh, Q. M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of lead exposure on rate of spontaneous abortion of workers at a battery factory was studied. The study comprised 25 male workers in a lead-smelter and controls of 24 male university employees without any known occupational exposure to toxic agent. The most interesting outcome of the present study has been the discovery of high incidence of spontaneous abortion in lead-exposed workers compared to that of controls. Comparative evaluation between smokers and non-smokers with respect to the incidence of spontaneous abortion does not exhibit any statistically significant variations in lead-exposed workers and controls as well. However, such findings are considered to be indicative of the possible existence of a genetic risk and sufficient for justifying further work on a wider scale of risk assessment and occupational hazard in Jordan. (author

  18. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 μg/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 μg/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 μg/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 μg/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents.

  19. Eating Habits and Associated Factors Among Adolescent Students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalky, Heyam F; Al Momani, Maysa H; Al-Drabaah, Taghreed Kh; Jarrah, Samiha

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to assess adolescent patterns of eating habits, determine factors influencing these patterns, and identify male and female differences related to eating habits. Using a cross-sectional study approach, a sample of adolescents ( N = 423) in randomly selected clusters chosen from government and private schools in the south of Jordan completed self-administered questionnaires relating to socio-demographic data and personal eating habits. Results showed that parents, peers, and mass media are contributing factors, with peer pressure likely outweighing parental guidance. Males were more likely to be influenced by peers than females, whereas females were more likely to be influenced by media-based advertising. Lower body mass indices correlate with eating breakfast, which a majority of adolescents reported they do not do. Interventions targeted toward improving eating and active behaviors should involve peers as well as parents.

  20. Complex Symmetry, Jordan Blocks and Microscopic Self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändas, Erkki J.

    The basis and motivation for extending quantum mechanics beyond its traditional domain are recognized and examined. The mathematical details are briefly discussed and a convenient compact complex symmetric representation derived. An original formula is proved and demonstrated to incorporate general Jordan block configurations characterized by Segrè characteristics larger than one. It is verified that these triangular forms can portray realistic evolutions via maps established both within fundamental quantum mechanics as well as within a generalized thermodynamic formulation displaying features that are reminiscent of self-organization on a microscopic level. Various applications of these so-called coherent dissipative structures in physics and chemistry are pointed out, and discussed with possible inferences also made to the biological domain.

  1. Olive mill wastewater treatment in Jordan: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawab, Abeer Al; Ghannam, Noor; Abu-Mallouh, Saida; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Zurayk, Rund A.; Al-Ajlouni, Yazan A.; Alshawawreh, Fida'a.; Odeh, Fadwa; Abu-Dalo, Muna A.

    2018-02-01

    The environmental impact of olive mill wastewater (OMW) pollution is a public concern. OMW contains high levels of phenols, organic compounds, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), microorganisms, nutrients, and toxic compounds. The treatment of OMW has been investigated by many researchers in the Mediterranean region, using several treatment techniques to remove contaminants from OMW. These techniques include chemical, biological, physiochemical, and biophysical techniques. Surfactants and some adsorbents were used in chemical techniques, anaerobic and aerobic in biological techniques, while the combined treatment methods used Electroosmosis, ozonation and electrocoagulation processes as physiochemical methods, and ultrasonic irradiation combined with aerobic biodegradation as biophysical method. The effects of OMW, whether treated or untreated, have been evaluated on both plants’ growth and soil properties. The treatment methods as well as the environmental impact of OMW in Jordan were summarized in this review.

  2. The business of desire: "Russian" bars in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beňová, Lenka

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses the type of work migrant women from the former Eastern European countries perform in nightclubs in Amman, Jordan. The fieldwork for this qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and is based on in-depth interviews with 13 women. The topic is approached from the perspective of describing women's choices and journeys to this work. It juxtaposes the sexualised nature of their work with their yearning for a "normal" family life, which they imagine, yet know, is impossible to achieve with the men they meet in their workplaces. Layered on top of these private desires among both women and their clients is the business strategy of the clubs, which operate in the lucrative but marginal space of selling exotic but respectable seduction. I draw on the literature about female migration to the Middle East in order to argue that hostesses in these bars perform affective labour akin to care work, within the neoliberal global economy that individualises risk.

  3. Action research: developing a pediatric cancer pain program in jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, G Allen; Forgeron, Paula; Arnaout, Maha

    2008-04-01

    Children's pain is undertreated worldwide. Using a model of pediatric cancer pain management in Amman, Jordan, the authors demonstrated that an action research approach to pain service development resulted in a sustainable program of pain control. Barriers to care were due more often to health professionals' misconceptions concerning pain and opioid use than to concerns related to cultural, religious, or societal beliefs. Successful implementation of a pain management program requires education, policy development, and support from several levels of hospital administration. Role-modelpan>ing and mentorship are important factors. Established knowledge translation theories explained some but not all of the findings. Outcomes included consistent pain assessment and documentation by nursing staff, increased consultation for pain management, and increased use of intravenous opioids.

  4. Radon anomalies along faults in North of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Tamimi, M.H.; Abumurad, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    Radon emanation was sampled in five locations in a limestone quarry area using SSNTDs CR-39. Radon levels in the soil air at four different well-known traceable fault planes were measured along a traverse line perpendicular to each of these faults. Radon levels at the fault were higher by a factor of 3-10 than away from the faults. However, some sites have broader shoulders than the others. The method was applied along a fifth inferred fault zone. The results show anomalous radon level in the sampled station near the fault zone, which gave a radon value higher by three times than background. This study draws its importance from the fact that in Jordan many cities and villages have been established over an intensive faulted land. Also, our study has considerable implications for the future radon mapping. Moreover, radon gas is proved to be a good tool for fault zones detection

  5. Jordan-H\\"older theorems for derived categories of derived discrete algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Yongyun

    2015-01-01

    For any positive integer $n$, $n$-derived-simple derived discrete algebras are classified up to derived equivalence. Furthermore, the Jordan-H\\"older theorems for all kinds of derived categories of derived discrete algebras are obtained.

  6. Adapting to the new normal- Educating Syrian refugee children in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culbertson, S.; Ling, T.; Henham, M.L.; Corbett, J.; Karam, R.; Pankowska, P.K.P.; Saunders, C.L.; Bellasio, J.; Baruch, B.

    2016-01-01

    RAND's evaluation of Jordan's Emergency Education Response Programme for Syrian refugee children identified significant successes and longer-term challenges. Key recommendations related to developing medium-term thinking and targeting gendered needs.

  7. 75 FR 38800 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting... following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public... 13, 2009. d. Applicant: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership. e. Name of Project: Flannagan...

  8. Cigarette demand is responsive to higher prices: findings from a survey of University students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Nadia J; Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the price elasticity of cigarette demand for university students aged 18-24 years in Jordan. Questions from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey were adapted and administered to students from 10 public universities in Jordan in 2014. A two-part econometric model of cigarette demand was estimated. Nearly one-third of university students in Jordan smoke, purchasing 33.2 packs per month and paying 1.70 Jordanian dinars on average (US$2.40) for a pack of 20 cigarettes. The price elasticity of cigarette demand was estimated to be -1.15. Higher taxes may be particularly effective in reducing smoking among University students in Jordan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Water Scarcity as a Cause of Conflict in the Nile, Euphrates, and Jordan River Basins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Still, Douglas R

    2006-01-01

    The Euphrates, Nile, and Jordan Rivers are at center stage in the continued existence of the peoples in their basins where water scarcity serves as a source of conflict between the region's riparian...

  10. Neil Jordan jagab pühapäeval Viru keskuses autogramme / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2006-01-01

    10. Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali oodatuim külaline saabub Tallinna 2. detsembril. 3. dets. Viru keskuses Rahva Raamatu kaupluses esitletakse raamatut: Jordan, Neil. Vari / tõlkinud Krista Kaer. Tallinn : Varrak, 2006

  11. Clinical and inheritance profiles of Kallmann syndrome in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shegem Nadima S

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper management of patients with Kallmann syndrome (KS allows them to attain a normal reproductive health. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the presentation modalities, phenotypes and the modes of inheritance among 32 patients with Kallmann syndrome in Jordan. Recognition of the syndrome allows for prompt proper management and provision of genetic counselling. Subjects Over a period of five years (1999–2004, the clinical and inheritance profiles of 26 male and 6 female patients with Kallmann syndrome from 12 families were evaluated at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics in Jordan. Results The patients belonged to twelve Jordanian and Palestinian families and their age at presentation ranged from 4 – 46 years. Nine boys aged 4–14 years presented with cryptorchidism and microphallus, all other males presented with delayed puberty, hypogonadism and/or infertility. The main presentation among six female patients was primary amenorrhea. Intrafamilial variability in clinical phenotype was specifically evident for renal abnormalities and sensorineural hearing impairment. Familial KS was diagnosed in 27 patients belonging to five families with the X-linked mode of inheritance and two families with the autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Conclusions (1 the majority of cases in this study represented the X-linked form of KS, which might point to a high prevalence of Kal 1 gene in the population. (2 Genetic counselling helps these families to reach a diagnosis at an early age and to decide about their reproductive options. (3 Children presenting with cryptorchidism and microphallus in our population should be investigated for KS.

  12. Sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology and provenance of the Upper Cretaceous siliciclastic sediments of South Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Baaske, Uwe Peter

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework for the Upper Cretaceous (Albian to Santonian) sedimentary rocks of South Jordan. This was accomplished by detailed sedimentological studies and facies analysis. Furthermore the provenance and weathering history of the siliciclastic rocks was determined by using sedimentary petrography and bulk rock geochemistry. The study area is situated in the southern part of Jordan, about 60 km south of the city Ma'an, between t...

  13. E-GOVERNMENT SUCCESS FACTORS FROM A BUSINESSES PERSPECTIVE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE OF JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Anas Ghassan Kanaan; Shahizan Bin Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study which examines several e-government success factors in Jordan. Due to the pace of globalization and rapid global growth of technology and the Internet information, many governments around the world have turned their services from traditional services into e-government services. Were the citizens, business organizations and other stakeholders are served via the internet. Jordan is one of the rare countries in the Middle East with a history of commitment to good gove...

  14. Jordan Pairs, E6 and U-Duality in Five Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Zumino, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting the Jordan pair structure of U-duality Lie algebras in D = 3 and the relation to the super-Ehlers symmetry in D = 5, we elucidate the massless multiplet structure of the spectrum of a broad class of D = 5 supergravity theories. Both simple and semi-simple, Euclidean rank-3 Jordan algebras are considered. Theories sharing the same bosonic sector but with different supersymmetrizations are also analyzed.

  15. The near-future outlook of the energy situation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkarmi, F.

    1991-02-01

    A national energy plan must be formulated to be applied in the near future concerning energy sources supplies in Jordan. The important issue is that Jordan must secure energy supplies from new sources, and therefore the plan must cover all aspects of energy consumption as domestic, industrial, heating and transport as well as storage facilities. The plan must aim at decreasing consumption rates rationing in order to guarantee a continuous and adequate of energy supplies. (S.T.). 2 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Managers and minerals in a monarchy: The political economy of mining in Jordan, 1970-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigates why developing states that profess to follow free market principles continue to intervene in their economies. The study investigates the extent to which the state in Jordan has penetrated its most potentially productive economic sector - the extractive mineral industry (phosphates, potash, fertilizers, cement, and the refining of oil). The study examined Jordan's [open quotes]Big 5[close quotes] companies: the Jordan Cement Factories Company, the Jordan Phosphate Mines Company, the Jordan Petroleum Refinery Company, the Arab Potash Company, and the Jordan Fertilizer Industries Company. This examination sought to reveal the political factors that give rise to an interventionist state and that sustain intervention over time. The study discusses the political nature of building a national economy in a society with limited resources and in which certain groups and classes are favored over others. In Jordan the absence of a real entrepreneurial class or vibrant private sector prompted the state to enter the economy in order to construct its economic infrastructure. This is evidenced in the establishment of Jordan's extractive minerals companies. Through its links to these companies, the state crafted an economy in which the role of labor is weak and economic power is still situated within the organs of the state. Centralized authority within the kingdom and the various policy networks linking the state to industry make it difficult for the state to withdraw from the economy. Regional and international factors reinforce this tendency. A review of these companies' activities from 1970 to 1989 reveals the political contours of state capitalism and demonstrates why the private sector has not taken hold in many small developing nations. This study analyzes the institutional environment in which public officials act. The study concludes that the state's room to maneuver within the political arena and the economy is quite substantial.

  17. On the equivalence of Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan reduction in solving linear equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Nai-Kuan

    1989-01-01

    A novel general approach to round-off error analysis using the error complexity concepts is described. This is applied to the analysis of the Gaussian Elimination and Gauss-Jordan scheme for solving linear equations. The results show that the two algorithms are equivalent in terms of our error complexity measures. Thus the inherently parallel Gauss-Jordan scheme can be implemented with confidence if parallel computers are available.

  18. Some remarks on the genus Echinogammarus Stebbing, 1899 with description of a new species E. valedictus from Algeria (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkster, Sjouk; Platvoet, Dirk

    1990-01-01

    Some short remarks are made on taxonomic problems in the genus Echinogammarus and a description is given of a new species from mountain streams in Algeria, characterized by a onesegmented exopodite in uropod 3.

  19. Biomass energy in Jordan, and its potential contribution towards the total energy mix of the Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1994-04-01

    An evaluation of Jordan's bio-energy status was carried out. Available sources and the viability of exploitation were studied in order to identify the size of contribution that bio-energy could provide to the total energy mix of the Kingdom. The advantages of biogas technology were discussed, and a general description of Jordan's experience in this field was presented. Data on Jordan' animal, municipal, and agricultural wastes that are available as a potential source of bio-energy was tabulated. The report ascertained the economic feasibility of biogas utilization in Jordan, and concluded that the annual energy production potential from biogas, with only animal wastes being utilized, would amount to 80,000 ton oil equivalent. This amount of energy is equivalent to 2% of Jordan's total energy consumption in 1992. The utilization of biogas from municipal wastes would produce an additional 2.5% of the total energy consumption of Jordan. The annual value of utilizing animal and municipal wastes would reach 23 million Jordanian Dinars (JD). This value would increase to 61.5 million JD with the utilization of human wastes. The investment required for the utilization of bio-energy sources in Amman and its suburbs on the scale of family unit fermenters was estimated to be in the order of a million JD. The size of investment for industrial scale utilization for power generation with an electricity feed to the national grid, would range from 3 to 4 million JD. (A.M.H.). 8 refs., 4 tabs

  20. The changing pattern and determinants of declining consanguinity in Jordan during 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mazharul

    2018-03-01

    Consanguinity is a deep rooted cultural trait in Jordan. To examine the patterns and determinants of declining rates of consanguineous marriage in Jordan during 1990-2012 in the context of the changing pattern of socio-economic and demographic conditions. The data come from the 1990 and 2012 Jordan Population and Family Health Surveys (JPFHSs). A total of 6461 women in 1990 and 11,352 women in 2012 were successfully interviewed. Descriptive and multivariate statistical techniques were used for data analysis. Consanguinity was found to be widely practiced (35% in 2012) until recent times in Jordan. However, there has been a secular declining trend over the last few decades as the practice of consanguinity has declined from 56% in 1990 to 35% in 2012. Increasing age at marriage and female education, higher level of education of husbands, declining family size, increasing rate of urbanisation and female employment, exposure to mass media and higher economic status appeared as significant predictors of declining consanguinity in Jordan. The findings of this study support Goode's hypothesis of a decrease of consanguinity with modernisation. Although consanguinity is a deeply rooted cultural trend in Jordan, it is gradually losing ground due to modernisation and socio-demographic transition of the country.

  1. HOUSING AS AN EXPRESSION OF SELF-IDENTITY IN CONTEMPORARY ALGERIA: THE WORK OF EL-MINIAWY BROTHERS

    OpenAIRE

    Tahar Bellal

    2012-01-01

    This paper tries to shed light on post-traditional environment in Algeria in a post global civilisation era. Some chosen projects implemented in some parts of the country are dealt with in relation to the expression of self identity through housing architecture. The focus of the work is on methods, achievements and implications of the projects. As from the seventies of the last century Algeria witnessed dramatic changes in its physical environment. The cities became the focus of intern...

  2. Chemical constituents in the essential oil of the endemic plant Cotula cinerea (Del.) from the southwest of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Djellouli; Houcine Benmehdi; Siham Mammeri; Abdellah Moussaoui; Laid Ziane; Noureddine Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To extract and identify the main constituents of the essential oil of Cotula cinerea (Del.) (Asteraceae family) from southwest of Algeria. Methods: The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, from the aerial parts of the endemic plant Cotula cinerea which was collected in the region of Sahara from southwest of Algeria, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 33 compounds were identified representing 98.66% of the oil. The main compound...

  3. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ALGERIA AFTER 1990 IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL UNREST, TERRORIST ATTACKS AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTRICTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile POPA; Răzvan C. OPREA; Octavian COCOȘ

    2014-01-01

    After the conquest of independence, Algeria experienced major socio-economic changes, but it also faced a civil war that has been responsible for more than 150,000 casualties. Despite the efforts made by the auhorities in the direction of national reconciliation, the terrorist activities, like the one of January 2013, still feed the insecurity feeling. In its economic and social development, Algeria depends to a very large extent both on its oil fields and on the oil price on t...

  4. Kurd-Arab tensions along the Green Line: Iraq's roadblock to long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For nearly two millennia, the Kurds have inhabited a mountainous region known as Kurdistan, a territory including parts of Iraq, Syria, Turkey and Iran. Within Iraq, Kurds are the second largest ethnic group, comprising 15–20% of the population and constituting the majority of citizens in the provinces of Dohuk, Irbil and ...

  5. 75 FR 26879 - Temporary Organization To Facilitate a Strategic Partnership With the Republic of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Reconstruction Teams; (c) support and create a sustainable Rule of Law mission in Iraq, including the Police Development Program; (d) complete any remaining coordination, oversight, or reporting functions for Iraq.... (c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or...

  6. Treating Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with PTSD Who Are at High Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Varra, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders commit suicide at a higher rate than the general population (Kang & Bullman, 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in veterans (Bullman & Kang, 1994) and is the most common mental disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan…

  7. Brothers or Rivals? Iran and the Shi'a of Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the loyalty of the Shi a of Iraq. While some Sunni Arab leaders have recently accused the Shi a of Iraq of pledging loyalty to Iran, in fact the Iraqi Shi a are loyal to their own nation...

  8. Quality Assurance Strategies of Higher Education in Iraq and Kurdistan: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaghed, Nabeel; Dezaye, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on two different strategies that have been implemented in Iraq to improve quality assurance in the higher education sector in Iraq. One strategy has been developed by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Baghdad. It involved conducting a pilot study at the University of Babylon. This pilot included…

  9. 31 CFR 575.406 - Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq. 575.406 Section 575.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Interpretations § 575.406 Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq. (a) The prohibition in § 575.210 applies to the...

  10. University Interaction with National Development Plans: A Case Study from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naimi, Taha T.; Al-Nassri, Sabah A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the University of Technology in Baghdad, Iraq, is discussed, illustrating how it has adjusted its work to national needs as expressed in national development plans. As industry in Iraq has broadened its scope, the curriculum in the university has widened. (Author/MLW)

  11. Malaysian Educators and Their Perspectives on the Iraq War: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    This case study provides perspectives on the War in Iraq with information collected from Sabah, Malaysia, educators. The author has analyzed input from Sabahan teachers regarding their discussions of United States-led war efforts in Iraq. The implications for discourse in Sabahan classrooms are described. The author then argues that Sabahan…

  12. Post-Saddam Iraq and the Challenges of Peace | Agbebaku | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Iraq / United States (US) differences have lasted for quite some time. Iraq, having been branded as one of the three axis-of-evils, is considered a threat to international stability and global security. Within this context, its activities must be regulated to ensure stability and international peace. The irony is that efforts at ...

  13. Overseas Contingency Operations: Observations on the Use of Force Management Levels in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    OVERSEAS CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS Observations on the Use of Force Management Levels in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria... OPERATIONS Observations on the Use of Force Management Levels in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria What GAO Found Military officials planning for...and executing operations under force management levels have taken various actions to maximize military capabilities deployed to countries under those

  14. U.S. Post-Conflict Integration Policy of Militias in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    46, 49. 150 Beehner, Iraq: Militia Groups, 3. With high unemployment , a job in the Iraq political system is highly desirable. For example, the...mandated to “devote itself to social work and the poor.”158 This was no small feat: areas such as Sadr City were overpopulated , underemployed and

  15. Counseling Adolescent Students Affected by the War in Iraq: Using History as a Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Adria E.; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2006-01-01

    The schemes of war of today's generation of adolescents might be heavily influenced by the War in Iraq because it is the first war this generation is likely to remember living through. Although the War in Iraq has produced a unique set of circumstances and concerns for adolescents who have experienced it, there is much to be learned from past wars…

  16. 77 FR 30181 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Stabilization of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ..., the restoration and maintenance of peace and security in the country, and the development of political... reconstruction of Iraq, the restoration and maintenance of peace and security in the country, and the development... Iraq has an interest, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706...

  17. "The Kurds and the Role of Kurdistan Region in Developing Iraq" Where are Iraq and the Iraqi Kurds heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anonymous, Student Author

    Iraq remains one of the hot topics in world politics today and probably more so in the coming decades, with its Kurds as an ever-evolving puzzle of the country's domestic stability and regional conflict. In modern history, the Kurds' resistance to "occupiers" of their region became more evident with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, following which they were promised their independence. Due to reasons explained in Chapter One--with energy and oil being some of these reasons--this independence, however, led to nothing but fading ink on dusty paper. Since the Kurds were only partially assimilated into their host states, they were treated as though they had a status apart from the host state, yet the host state denied Kurdish efforts to achieve self-determination. In some cases, the host state denied the very existence of the Kurdish culture. This created an ambiguous situation in which Kurds variously saw themselves as nationals of their host states or as Kurds or as both. For the purpose of this thesis, attention will be given mainly to Iraqi Kurds and their struggle for the right to self-determination which they were finally able to achieve following the Gulf War in early 1990s, leading to the establishment of a regional Kurdish government in Northern Iraq (explained in Chapter Two). Chapter Three will focus on what some of the ways to mediate such disputes may be, including the introduction of renewable energy such as wind and solar energy. It will demonstrate how Iraq can take advantage of wind and solar energy as alternative means to oil, by which the country's economy can diversify, and the security situation and ecological conditions can improve. This thesis will further focus on some of the potential challenges in Iraq that may surface in the future, and whether the Kurds can play a role in stabilising the country by remaining part of it, and if so, what may be some of the responsibilities of the Arabs of Iraq in order to provide the required incentives to

  18. THE MEDIEVAL AND OTTOMAN HAMMAMS OF ALGERIA; ELEMENTS FOR A HISTORICAL STUDY OF BATHS ARCHITECTURE IN NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Cherif-Seffadj

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Algerian medinas (Islamic cities have several traditional public baths (hammams. However, these hammams are the least known in the Maghreb countries. The first French archaeological surveys carried out on Islamic monuments and sites in Algeria, have found few historic baths in medieval towns. All along the highlands route, from Algiers (capital city of Algeria located in the North to Tlemcen (city in the Western part of Algeria, these structures are found in all the cities founded after the Islamic religion expanded in the Western North Africa. These buildings are often associated to large mosques. In architectural history, these baths illustrate original spatial and organizational compositions under form proportions, methods of construction, ornamental elements and the technical skills of their builders. The ancient traditions of bathing interpreted in this building type are an undeniable legacy. They are present through architectural typology and technical implementation reflecting the important architectural heritage of the great Roman cities in Algeria. Furthermore, these traditions and buildings evolved through different eras. Master builders, who left Andalusia to seek refuge in the Maghreb countries, added the construction and ornamentation skills and techniques brought from Muslim Spain, while the Ottomans contribution in the history of many urban cities is important. Hence, the dual appellation of the hammam as “Moorish bath” and “Turkish bath” in Algeria is the perfect illustration of the evolution of bath architecture in Algeria.

  19. Role and Place of the Oil Industry in the Economic and Political Development in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Pashkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors consider economic and political aspects of restoration and development of the oil industry in Iraq and make a brief historical analysis of it. It’s emphasized the role of political factors in the history of the development of the oil sector in the country. The article deals with the current situation in the oil industry of Iraq, and also the prospects and forecasts of development of it. It’s emphasized the idea that the oil export is one of the most important directions of Iraq's oil policy, which has a high degree of flexibility. It is noted that currently, the speedy recovery of Iraq and its oil industry depends on international companies. However, it is emphasized that there are established a lot of state-owned oil companies in recent decades in Iraq, which are working successfully in the global market. Authors consider the activity of one of them, a marketing company SOMO.

  20. First report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Oran, West of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benallal, K E; Allal-Ikhlef, A; Benhamouda, K; Schaffner, F; Harrat, Z

    2016-12-01

    The increasing globalisation of trades, human movements and environmental changes facilitate the introduction and the establishment of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus outside its native geographical area. Alerted by the complaints about mosquito biting which occurred daytime for the inhabitants of the seaside town Ain Turk (West of Algeria), an entomological survey was conducted in December 2015 to determine the origin of this nuisance. Among the collected mosquitoes, specimens of Ae. albopictus (2 males, 3 females and 3 pupae) were collected. This is the first observation of that invasive mosquito in the west of Algeria which confirms its presence and establishment in Mediterranean Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.