WorldWideScience

Sample records for algebraic specification language

  1. CASL, the Common Algebraic Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossakowski, Till; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Sannella, Donald

    2008-01-01

    CASL is an expressive specification language that has been designed to supersede many existing algebraic specification languages and provide a standard. CASL consists of several layers, including basic (unstructured) specifications, structured specifications and architectural specifications...

  2. CASL The Common Algebraic Specification Language Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1998-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998.......This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the first complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop at Cachan in November 1998....

  3. CASL - The CoFI Algebraic Specification Language - Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1999-01-01

    This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the second complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop in Amsterdam in March 1999.......This is version 1.0 of the CASL Language Summary, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with the semantics of constructs. This is the second complete but possibly imperfect version of the semantics. It was compiled prior to the CoFI workshop in Amsterdam in March 1999....

  4. Banana Algebra: Compositional syntactic language extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means of compositional syntactic language extension. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms...... algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  5. Syntactic Language Extension via an Algebra of Languages and Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means for extending languages syntactically. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms). The algebra...... is self-contained in that any term of the algebra specifying a transformation can be reduced to a catamorphism, before the transformation is run. Thus, the algebra comes “for free” without sacrificing the strong safety and efficiency properties of constructive catamorphisms. The entire algebra...... as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds of extensions....

  6. An Algebraic Specification of the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ksystra, Katerina; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Stefaneas, Petros; Frangos, Panayiotis

    2011-01-01

    We present a formal specification of the Semantic Web, as an extension of the World Wide Web using the well known algebraic specification language CafeOBJ. Our approach allows the description of the key elements of the Semantic Web technologies, in order to give a better understanding of the system, without getting involved with their implementation details that might not yet be standardized. This specification is part of our work in progress concerning the modeling the Social Semantic Web.

  7. Modular specifications in process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. van Glabbeek (Rob); F.W. Vaandrager (Frits)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years a wide variety of process algebras has been proposed in the literature. Often these process algebras are closely related: they can be viewed as homomorphic images, submodels or restrictions of each other. The aim of this paper is to show how the semantical reality,

  8. Thought beyond language: neural dissociation of algebra and natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Martin M; Parsons, Lawrence M; Osherson, Daniel N

    2012-08-01

    A central question in cognitive science is whether natural language provides combinatorial operations that are essential to diverse domains of thought. In the study reported here, we addressed this issue by examining the role of linguistic mechanisms in forging the hierarchical structures of algebra. In a 3-T functional MRI experiment, we showed that processing of the syntax-like operations of algebra does not rely on the neural mechanisms of natural language. Our findings indicate that processing the syntax of language elicits the known substrate of linguistic competence, whereas algebraic operations recruit bilateral parietal brain regions previously implicated in the representation of magnitude. This double dissociation argues against the view that language provides the structure of thought across all cognitive domains.

  9. Order-sorted Algebraic Specifications with Higher-order Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a proposal for how order-sorted algebraic specification languages can be extended with higher-order functions. The approach taken is a generalisation to the order-sorted case of an approach given by Mller, Tarlecki and Wirsing for the many-sorted case. The main idea in the proposal...

  10. A Relational Algebra Query Language for Programming Relational Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Anderson, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Relational Algebra Query Language (RAQL) and Relational Algebra Query (RAQ) software product we have developed that allows database instructors to teach relational algebra through programming. Instead of defining query operations using mathematical notation (the approach commonly taken in database textbooks), students…

  11. Language Analysis and Generation in Algebra Tutorial Dialogues for Language-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Jung

    2004-01-01

    The North Carolina A&T State University algebra tutoring dialogue project collects and analyzes algebra tutoring dialogues with the aim of describing tutoring strategies and language with enough rigor that they may...

  12. Parallel object-oriented specification language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florescu, O.; Voeten, J.P.M.; Theelen, B.D.; Geilen, M.C.W.; Corporaal, H.; Burns, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The Parallel Object-Oriented Specification Language (POOSL) is an expressive modelling language for hardware/software systems [10]. It was originally defined in [7] as an object-oriented extension of process algebra CCS [6], supporting (conditional) synchronous message passing between

  13. Algebraic Aspects of Families of Fuzzy Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Scollo, Giuseppe

    2000-01-01

    We study operations on fuzzy languages such as union, concatenation,Kleene $\\star$, intersection with regular fuzzy languages, and several kinds of (iterated) fuzzy substitution. Then we consider families of fuzzy languages, closed under a fixed collection of these operations, which results in the

  14. LCM and MCM: Specification of a control system using dynamic logic and process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Lewerentz, Claus; Lindner, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    LCM 3.0 is a specification language based on dynamic logic and process algebra, and can be used to specify systems of dynamic objects that communicate synchronously. LCM 3.0 was developed for the specification of object-oriented information systems, but contains sufficient facilities for the

  15. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some of the tests use interactions between the child and puppets and other toys to focus on specific rules of grammar, especially ... is not treated early, it can affect a child’s performance in school. ... language development. This kind of classroom program might enlist normally ...

  16. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  17. Algebra Sets, Symbols, and the Language of Thought (Revised Edition)

    CERN Document Server

    Tabak, John

    2011-01-01

    Algebra, Revised Edition describes the history of both strands of algebraic thought. This updated resource describes some of the earliest progress in algebra as well as some of the mathematicians in Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and Greece who contributed to this early period. It goes on to explore the many breakthroughs in algebraic techniques as well as how letters were used to represent numbers. New material has been added to the chapter on "modern" algebra, a type of mathematical research that continues to occupy the attention of many mathematicians today.

  18. Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Tabak, John

    2004-01-01

    Looking closely at algebra, its historical development, and its many useful applications, Algebra examines in detail the question of why this type of math is so important that it arose in different cultures at different times. The book also discusses the relationship between algebra and geometry, shows the progress of thought throughout the centuries, and offers biographical data on the key figures. Concise and comprehensive text accompanied by many illustrations presents the ideas and historical development of algebra, showcasing the relevance and evolution of this branch of mathematics.

  19. Multilingualism and Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? When should we be concerned about a multilingual child's language skills? What are the signs of Specific Language Impairment in a child who speaks more than one language? Developmental psychologist and Associate Professor in multilingual cognitive development at the University of Luxembourg Pascale Engel de Abreu will address these questions based on what...

  20. A Generalised Approach to Petri Nets and Algebraic Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje

    1998-02-01

    The present report represents a continuation of the work on Petri nets and algebraic specifications. The reported research has focused on generalising the approach introduced in HWR-454, with the aim of facilitating the translation of a wider class of Petri nets into algebraic specification. This includes autonomous Petri nets with increased descriptive power, as well as non-autonomous Petri nets allowing the modelling of systems (1) involving extensive data processing; (2) with transitions synchronized on external events; (3) whose evolutions are time dependent. The generalised approach has the important property of being modular in the sense that the translated specifications can be gradually extended to include data processing, synchronization, and timing. The report also discusses the relative merits of state-based and transition-based specifications, and includes a non-trivial case study involving automated proofs of a large number of interrelated theorems. The examples in the report illustrate the use of the new HRP Prover. Of particular importance in this context is the automatic transformation between state-based and transitionbased specifications. It is expected that the approach introduced in HWR-454 and generalised in the present report will prove useful in future work on combination of wide variety of specification techniques

  1. Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Harley

    1975-01-01

    Algebra presents the essentials of algebra with some applications. The emphasis is on practical skills, problem solving, and computational techniques. Topics covered range from equations and inequalities to functions and graphs, polynomial and rational functions, and exponentials and logarithms. Trigonometric functions and complex numbers are also considered, together with exponentials and logarithms.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of algebra, each topic explained, illustrated, and accompanied by an ample set of exercises. The proper use of a

  2. Emphasizing Language and Visualization in Teaching Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, John; Stewart, Sepideh; Thomas, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Linear algebra with its rich theoretical nature is a first step towards advanced mathematical thinking for many undergraduate students. In this paper, we consider the teaching approach of an experienced mathematician as he attempts to engage his students with the key ideas embedded in a second-year course in linear algebra. We describe his…

  3. Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Sepanski, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    Mark Sepanski's Algebra is a readable introduction to the delightful world of modern algebra. Beginning with concrete examples from the study of integers and modular arithmetic, the text steadily familiarizes the reader with greater levels of abstraction as it moves through the study of groups, rings, and fields. The book is equipped with over 750 exercises suitable for many levels of student ability. There are standard problems, as well as challenging exercises, that introduce students to topics not normally covered in a first course. Difficult problems are broken into manageable subproblems

  4. An embedded domain specific language for general purpose vectorization

    CERN Document Server

    Karpinski, Przemyslaw

    2017-01-01

    Portable SIMD code generation is an open problem in modern High Performance Computing systems. Performance portability can already be achieved, however it might fail when user-framework interaction is required. Of all portable vectorization techniques, explicit vectorization, using wrapper-class libraries, is proven to achieve the fastest performance, however it does not exploit optimization opportunities outside the simplest algebraic primitives. A more advanced language is therefore required, but the design of a new independent language is not feasible due to its high costs. This work describes an Embedded Domain Specific Language for solving generalized 1-D vectorization problems. The language is implemented using C++ as a host language and published as a lightweight library. By decoupling expression creation from evaluation a wider range of problems can be solved, without sacrificing runtime efficiency. In this paper we discuss design patterns necessary, but not limited, to efficient EDSL implementatio...

  5. Prior knowledge of deaf students fluent in brazilian sign languages regarding the algebraic language in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Teresinha Frizzarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few researches with deeper reflections on the study of algebra with deaf students. In order to validate and disseminate educational activities in that context, this article aims at highlighting the deaf students’ prior knowledge, fluent in Brazilian Sign Language, referring to the algebraic language used in high school. The theoretical framework used was Duval’s theory, with analysis of the changes, by treatment and conversion, of different registers of semiotic representation, in particular inequalities. The methodology used was the application of a diagnostic evaluation performed with deaf students, all fluent in Brazilian Sign Language, in a special school located in the north of Paraná State. We emphasize the need to work in both directions of conversion, in different languages, especially when the starting record is the graphic. Therefore, the conclusion reached was that one should not separate the algebraic representation from other records, due to the need of sign language perform not only the communication function, but also the functions of objectification and treatment, fundamental in cognitive development.

  6. An Algebraic Approach to Incomparable Families of Formal Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenberg, G.; Asveld, P.R.J.; Salomaa, A.

    1993-01-01

    We extend some results of Ginsburg and Spanier [S. Ginsburg & E.H. Spanier, On incomparable Abstract Families of Languages (AFL), J. Comput. Systems Sci. 9 (1974) 88-108] on incomparable full AFL's (full Abstract Families of Languages) to similar structures like full hyper-AFL's, full hyper(1)-AFL's

  7. An Algebraic Approach to Incomparable Families of Formal Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.; Rozenberg, G.; Salomaa, A.

    1992-01-01

    We extend some results of Ginsburg and Spanier [S. Ginsburg & E.H. Spanier, On incomparable Abstract Families of Languages (AFL), J. Comput. Systems Sci. 9 (1974) 88-108] on incomparable full AFL's (full Abstract Families of Languages) to similar structures like full hyper-AFL's, full hyper(1)-AFL's

  8. Optlang: An algebraic modeling language for mathematical optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian; Cardoso, Joao; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Optlang is a Python package implementing a modeling language for solving mathematical optimization problems, i.e., maximizing or minimizing an objective function over a set of variables subject to a number of constraints. It provides a common native Python interface to a series of optimization...

  9. HAL/S language specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, P. M.

    1974-01-01

    A programming language for the flight software of the NASA space shuttle program was developed and identified as HAL/S. The language is intended to satisfy virtually all of the flight software requirements of the space shuttle. The language incorporates a wide range of features, including applications-oriented data types and organizations, real time control mechanisms, and constructs for systems programming tasks.

  10. Domain-specific languages in perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Heering (Jan); M. Mernik (Marjan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDomain-specific languages (DSLs) are languages tailored to a specific application domain. They offer substantial gains in expressiveness and ease of use compared with general-purpose languages in their domain of application. Although the use of DSLs is by no means new, it is receiving

  11. Cerebellum, Language, and Cognition in Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Steven M.; Makris, Nikos; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S., Jr.; Howard, James; McGrath, Lauren; Steele, Shelly; Frazier, Jean A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Harris, Gordon J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed cerebellum segmentation and parcellation on magnetic resonance images from right-handed boys, aged 6-13 years, including 22 boys with autism [16 with language impairment (ALI)], 9 boys with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), and 11 normal controls. Language-impaired groups had reversed asymmetry relative to unimpaired groups in…

  12. Community-Specific Strategies of Intergenerational Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study concerns minority language maintenance, specifically it explores local practices that make it possible for a community to sustain its traditional language. Two variables were the focus of the research; speakers' attitudes and language use patterns. These were examined to determine their influence in facilitating ...

  13. An Improved Algorithm for Generating Database Transactions from Relational Algebra Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Dougherty

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alloy is a lightweight modeling formalism based on relational algebra. In prior work with Fisler, Giannakopoulos, Krishnamurthi, and Yoo, we have presented a tool, Alchemy, that compiles Alloy specifications into implementations that execute against persistent databases. The foundation of Alchemy is an algorithm for rewriting relational algebra formulas into code for database transactions. In this paper we report on recent progress in improving the robustness and efficiency of this transformation.

  14. Application software, domain-specific languages, and language design assistants

    OpenAIRE

    Heering, Jan

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile application software does the real work, domain-specific languages (DSLs) are tools to help produce it efficiently, and language design assistants in turn are meta-tools to help produce DSLs quickly. DSLs are already in wide use (HTML for web pages, Excel macros for spreadsheet applications, VHDL for hardware design, ...), but many more will be needed for both new as well as existing application domains. Language design assistants to help develop them currently exist only in...

  15. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  16. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  17. Application software, domain-specific languages, and language design assistants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Heering (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile application software does the real work, domain-specific languages (DSLs) are tools to help produce it efficiently, and language design assistants in turn are meta-tools to help produce DSLs quickly. DSLs are already in wide use (HTML for web pages, Excel macros for spreadsheet

  18. Quantization, Frobenius and Bi algebras from the Categorical Framework of Quantum Mechanics to Natural Language Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrzadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2017-07-01

    Compact Closed categories and Frobenius and Bi algebras have been applied to model and reason about Quantum protocols. The same constructions have also been applied to reason about natural language semantics under the name: ``categorical distributional compositional'' semantics, or in short, the ``DisCoCat'' model. This model combines the statistical vector models of word meaning with the compositional models of grammatical structure. It has been applied to natural language tasks such as disambiguation, paraphrasing and entailment of phrases and sentences. The passage from the grammatical structure to vectors is provided by a functor, similar to the Quantization functor of Quantum Field Theory. The original DisCoCat model only used compact closed categories. Later, Frobenius algebras were added to it to model long distance dependancies such as relative pronouns. Recently, bialgebras have been added to the pack to reason about quantifiers. This paper reviews these constructions and their application to natural language semantics. We go over the theory and present some of the core experimental results.

  19. Quantization, Frobenius and Bi Algebras from the Categorical Framework of Quantum Mechanics to Natural Language Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Compact Closed categories and Frobenius and Bi algebras have been applied to model and reason about Quantum protocols. The same constructions have also been applied to reason about natural language semantics under the name: “categorical distributional compositional” semantics, or in short, the “DisCoCat” model. This model combines the statistical vector models of word meaning with the compositional models of grammatical structure. It has been applied to natural language tasks such as disambiguation, paraphrasing and entailment of phrases and sentences. The passage from the grammatical structure to vectors is provided by a functor, similar to the Quantization functor of Quantum Field Theory. The original DisCoCat model only used compact closed categories. Later, Frobenius algebras were added to it to model long distance dependancies such as relative pronouns. Recently, bialgebras have been added to the pack to reason about quantifiers. This paper reviews these constructions and their application to natural language semantics. We go over the theory and present some of the core experimental results.

  20. Algebraic Specifications, Higher-order Types and Set-theoretic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Hélène; Mosses, Peter David

    2001-01-01

    , and power-sets. This paper presents a simple framework for algebraic specifications with higher-order types and set-theoretic models. It may be regarded as the basis for a Horn-clause approximation to the Z framework, and has the advantage of being amenable to prototyping and automated reasoning. Standard......In most algebraic  specification frameworks, the type system is restricted to sorts, subsorts, and first-order function types. This is in marked contrast to the so-called model-oriented frameworks, which provide higer-order types, interpreted set-theoretically as Cartesian products, function spaces...... set-theoretic models are considered, and conditions are given for the existence of initial reduct's of such models. Algebraic specifications for various set-theoretic concepts are considered....

  1. Methodes for identification of specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam Maleki Shahmahmood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impiarment (SLI is one of the most prevalent developmental language disorders its diagnosis is a problematic issue among researchers and clinicians because of the heterogeneity of language profiles in the affected population and overlapping with other developmental language disorders. The aim of this study was to review the suggested diagnostic criteria for this disorder, controversies about these criteria and identify the most accurate diagnostic methods.Methods: Published article from 1980 to 2012 in bibliographic and publisher databases including Pubmed, Google scholar, Cochran library, Web of Science, ProQuest, Springer, Oxford, Science direct, Ovid, Iran Medex and Magiran about the diagnostic methods for discriminating preschoool children with specific language impiarment from normal developing children were reviewd in this article. These keywords were used for research: “specific language impairment”, “SLI”, “diagnosis or identification”, “standardized tests”, and “tests for language development”.Conclusion: The results of this study show inspite of agreement of researchers and clinicians about exclusionary criteria as one basic part of the diagnosis of specific language impiarment , there is no consensus about the other part, inclusionary criteria. Different studies used different inclusionary criteria which can be divided to categories of clincal judgment, discrepancy-based criteria, standardized testing, clinical markers and markers from spontaneous speech samples. Advantages, disadvantages, and clinical applicability of each diagnostic method are discussed in this article.

  2. Genetic algorithms in teaching artificial intelligence (automated generation of specific algebras)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballa, Hashim; Jendryscik, Radek

    2017-11-01

    The problem of teaching essential Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods is an important task for an educator in the branch of soft-computing. The key focus is often given to proper understanding of the principle of AI methods in two essential points - why we use soft-computing methods at all and how we apply these methods to generate reasonable results in sensible time. We present one interesting problem solved in the non-educational research concerning automated generation of specific algebras in the huge search space. We emphasize above mentioned points as an educational case study of an interesting problem in automated generation of specific algebras.

  3. Method of computer algebraic calculation of the matrix elements in the second quantization language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Masashi; Mori, Kazuhide; Itoh, Reikichi

    1995-01-01

    An automated method by the algebraic programming language REDUCE3 for specifying the matrix elements expressed in second quantization language is presented and then applied to the case of the matrix elements in the TDHF theory. This program works in a very straightforward way by commuting the electron creation and annihilation operator (a † and a) until these operators have completely vanished from the expression of the matrix element under the appropriate elimination conditions. An improved method using singlet generators of unitary transformations in the place of the electron creation and annihilation operators is also presented. This improvement reduces the time and memory required for the calculation. These methods will make programming in the field of quantum chemistry much easier. 11 refs., 1 tab

  4. Clojure for domain-specific languages

    CERN Document Server

    Kelker, Ryan D

    2013-01-01

    An example-oriented approach to develop custom domain-specific languages.If you've already developed a few Clojure applications and wish to expand your knowledge on Clojure or domain-specific languages in general, then this book is for you. If you're an absolute Clojure beginner, then you may only find the detailed examples of the core Clojure components of value. If you've developed DSLs in other languages, this Lisp and Java-based book might surprise you with the power of Clojure.

  5. Hand Specific Representations in Language Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMoody-Triantis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences - a dominant hand effect -. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience.

  6. Hand specific representations in language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody-Triantis, Claire; Humphreys, Gina F; Gennari, Silvia P

    2014-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand) is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested self-reported right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences-a dominant hand effect. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a) language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b) language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience.

  7. Which Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment Receive Language Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Potential biases in service provision for preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) were explored. Method: In Study 1, children with SLI receiving treatment (SLI-T) and those with SLI not receiving treatment (SLI-NT) were compared on demographic characteristics and developmental abilities. Study 2 recruited children with…

  8. Software engineering with application-specific languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David J.; Barker, Linda; Mitchell, Deborah; Pollack, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    Application-Specific Languages (ASL's) are small, special-purpose languages that are targeted to solve a specific class of problems. Using ASL's on software development projects can provide considerable cost savings, reduce risk, and enhance quality and reliability. ASL's provide a platform for reuse within a project or across many projects and enable less-experienced programmers to tap into the expertise of application-area experts. ASL's have been used on several software development projects for the Space Shuttle Program. On these projects, the use of ASL's resulted in considerable cost savings over conventional development techniques. Two of these projects are described.

  9. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  10. Forum on specification and Design Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Maehne, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the sixteenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which was held in September 2013 in Paris, France. FDL is a well-established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modeling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems. • Covers applications of formal methods for specification, verification and debug; • Includes embedded analog and mixed-signal system design; • Enables model-driven engineering for embedded systems design and development.

  11. Language Teachers' Target Language Project: Language for Specific Purposes of Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.

  12. Linear algebra meets Lie algebra: the Kostant-Wallach theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shomron, Noam; Parlett, Beresford N.

    2008-01-01

    In two languages, Linear Algebra and Lie Algebra, we describe the results of Kostant and Wallach on the fibre of matrices with prescribed eigenvalues of all leading principal submatrices. In addition, we present a brief introduction to basic notions in Algebraic Geometry, Integrable Systems, and Lie Algebra aimed at specialists in Linear Algebra.

  13. Domain Specific Language Support for Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-10-20

    A multi-institutional project known as D-TEC (short for “Domain- specific Technology for Exascale Computing”) set out to explore technologies to support the construction of Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) to map application programs to exascale architectures. DSLs employ automated code transformation to shift the burden of delivering portable performance from application programmers to compilers. Two chief properties contribute: DSLs permit expression at a high level of abstraction so that a programmer’s intent is clear to a compiler and DSL implementations encapsulate human domain-specific optimization knowledge so that a compiler can be smart enough to achieve good results on specific hardware. Domain specificity is what makes these properties possible in a programming language. If leveraging domain specificity is the key to keep exascale software tractable, a corollary is that many different DSLs will be needed to encompass the full range of exascale computing applications; moreover, a single application may well need to use several different DSLs in conjunction. As a result, developing a general toolkit for building domain-specific languages was a key goal for the D-TEC project. Different aspects of the D-TEC research portfolio were the focus of work at each of the partner institutions in the multi-institutional project. D-TEC research and development work at Rice University focused on on three principal topics: understanding how to automate the tuning of code for complex architectures, research and development of the Rosebud DSL engine, and compiler technology to support complex execution platforms. This report provides a summary of the research and development work on the D-TEC project at Rice University.

  14. A Requirement Specification Language for AADL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    models. The objective of ReqSpec is to support the elicitation , definition, and modeling of requirements for real-time embedded systems in an iterative...A Requirement Specification Language for AADL Peter H. Feiler Julien Delange Lutz Wrage June 2016 TECHNICAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2016-TR-008...is required for any other external and/or commercial use. Requests for permission should be directed to the Software En- gineering Institute at

  15. Domain Specific Languages for Interactive Web Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus

    This dissertation shows how domain specific languages may be applied to the domain of interactive Web services to obtain flexible, safe, and efficient solutions. We show how each of four key aspects of interactive Web services involving sessions, dynamic creation of HTML/XML documents, form field......, , that supports virtually all aspects of the development of interactive Web services and provides flexible, safe, and efficient solutions....

  16. Diagrammatic Representations in Domain-Specific Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tourlas, Konstantinos

    2002-01-01

    One emerging approach to reducing the labour and costs of software development favours the specialisation of techniques to particular application domains. The rationale is that programs within a given domain often share enough common features and assumptions to enable the incorporation of substantial support mechanisms into domain-specific programming languages and associated tools. Instead of being machine-oriented, algorithmic implementations, programs in many domain-speci...

  17. Domain Specific Language Support for Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) offer an attractive path to Exascale software since they provide expressive power through appropriate abstractions and enable domain-specific optimizations. But the advantages of a DSL compete with the difficulties of implementing a DSL, even for a narrowly defined domain. The DTEC project addresses how a variety of DSLs can be easily implemented to leverage existing compiler analysis and transformation capabilities within the ROSE open source compiler as part of a research program focusing on Exascale challenges. The OSU contributions to the DTEC project are in the area of code generation from high-level DSL descriptions, as well as verification of the automatically-generated code.

  18. Forum on Specifications and Design Languages 2012

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the fifteenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which was held in September 2012 at Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria.  FDL is a well-established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modeling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems.  ·         Covers Assertion Based Design, Verification & Debug; ·         Includes language-based modeling and design techniques for embedded systems; ·         Covers design, modeling and verification of mixed physical domain and mixed signal systems that include significant analog parts in electrical and non-electrical domains; ·         Includes formal and semi-formal system level design methods fo...

  19. Language and executive functioning in the context of specific language impairment and bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laloi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis has investigated how French-speaking monolingual and bilingual children with SLI (specific language impairment) performed on various tasks examining language and executive functioning (EF) abilities, in comparison to monolingual and bilingual peers without SLI. Language was

  20. Specification of the GummyModule Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakuti Khah Olun Abadi, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    The GummyModule language is an extension to the Java language and is the successor of the EventReactor language The GummyModule language adopts the linguistic constructs of offered by EventReactor to define event types, events and to publish events. As for EventReactor, GummyModule facilitates

  1. Sentence Repetition in Deaf Children with Specific Language Impairment in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë; Mason, Kathryn; Rowley, Katherine; Herman, Rosalind; Atkinson, Joanna; Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) perform poorly on sentence repetition tasks across different spoken languages, but until now, this methodology has not been investigated in children who have SLI in a signed language. Users of a natural sign language encode different sentence meanings through their choice of signs and by altering…

  2. Componential Skills in Second Language Development of Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Leeuwe, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated which componential skills can be distinguished in the second language (L2) development of 140 bilingual children with specific language impairment in the Netherlands, aged 6-11 years, divided into 3 age groups. L2 development was assessed by means of spoken language tasks representing different language skills…

  3. Abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level course, Abstract Algebra provides an example-oriented, less heavily symbolic approach to abstract algebra. The text emphasizes specifics such as basic number theory, polynomials, finite fields, as well as linear and multilinear algebra. This classroom-tested, how-to manual takes a more narrative approach than the stiff formalism of many other textbooks, presenting coherent storylines to convey crucial ideas in a student-friendly, accessible manner. An unusual feature of the text is the systematic characterization of objects by universal

  4. A conceptual model specification language (CMSL Version 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1992-01-01

    Version 2 of a language (CMSL) to specify conceptual models is defined. CMSL consists of two parts, the value specification language VSL and the object spercification language OSL. There is a formal semantics and an inference system for CMSL but research on this still continues. A method for

  5. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  6. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  7. Domain-Specific Modelling Languages in Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Gian David

    " of models, in order to improve the utility of the models we build, and to ease the process of model construction by moving the languages we use to express such models closer to their respective domains. This thesis is concerned with the study of bigraphical reactive systems as a host for domain...... for deciding reaction rule causation. Finally, we provide a mechanism for the modular construction of domain-specic modelling languages as bigraphical reactive systems, exploring the relationship between vertical renement and language specialisation in this setting. The thesis is composed of several...

  8. On the PR-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedenko, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The PR-algebras, i.e. the Lie algebras with commutation relations of [Hsub(i),Hsub(j)]=rsub(ij)Hsub(i)(i< j) type are investigated. On the basis of former results a criterion for the membership of 2-solvable Lie algebras to the PR-algebra class is given. The conditions imposed by the criterion are formulated in the linear algebra language

  9. Writing Motivation of Students with Specific Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Kyle Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the writing motivation of students with specific language impairments with their non-disabled peers. Due to the cognitive and linguistic demands of the writing process, students with language impairments face unique difficulties during the writing process. It was hypothesized that students with specific language…

  10. An introduction to algebraic geometry and algebraic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Geck, Meinolf

    2003-01-01

    An accessible text introducing algebraic geometries and algebraic groups at advanced undergraduate and early graduate level, this book develops the language of algebraic geometry from scratch and uses it to set up the theory of affine algebraic groups from first principles.Building on the background material from algebraic geometry and algebraic groups, the text provides an introduction to more advanced and specialised material. An example is the representation theory of finite groups of Lie type.The text covers the conjugacy of Borel subgroups and maximal tori, the theory of algebraic groups

  11. An Integrated Framework to Specify Domain-Specific Modeling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    , a logic-based specification language. The drawback of MS DSL Tools is it does not provide a formal and rigorous approach for semantics specifications. In this framework, we use Microsoft DSL Tools to define the metamodel and graphical notations of DSLs, and an extended version of ForSpec as a formal......In this paper, we propose an integrated framework that can be used by DSL designers to implement their desired graphical domain-specific languages. This framework relies on Microsoft DSL Tools, a meta-modeling framework to build graphical domain-specific languages, and an extension of ForSpec...... language to define their semantics. Integrating these technologies under the umbrella of Microsoft Visual Studio IDE allows DSL designers to utilize a single development environment for developing their desired domain-specific languages....

  12. Predictors of Growth or Attrition of the First Language in Latino Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Sweet, Monica

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the factors that may help understand the differential rates of language development in the home language (i.e., Spanish) of Latino preschoolers with specific language impairment. Children were randomly assigned to either bilingual or English-only small group interventions and followed from preschool to kindergarten. Predictors of…

  13. Developmental Associations between Working Memory and Language in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugs, Brigitte; Hendriks, Marc; Cuperus, Juliane; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study examined differences in the development of working memory (WM) between children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children. Further, it explored to what extent language at ages 7-8 years could be predicted by measures of language and/or WM at ages 4-5 years. Method: Thirty…

  14. Formal specification with the Java modeling language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Grahl, Daniel; Hentschel, Martin; Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Beckert, Bernhard; Bubel, Richard; Hähnle, Reiner; Schmitt, Peter H.; Ulbrich, Mattoas

    2016-01-01

    This text is a general, self contained, and tool independent introduction into the Java Modeling Language, JML. It appears in a book about the KeY approach and tool, because JML is the dominating starting point of KeY style Java verification. However, this chapter does not depend on KeY, nor any

  15. Towards Domain-specific Flow-based Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert; Sarjoughian, Hessam S.

    2018-01-01

    describe their problems and solutions, instead of using general purpose programming languages. The goal of these languages is to improve the productivity and efficiency of the development and simulation of concurrent scientific models and systems. Moreover, they help to expose parallelism and to specify...... the concurrency within a component or across different independent components. In this paper, we introduce the concept of domain-specific flowbased languages which allows domain experts to use flow-based languages adapted to a particular problem domain. Flow-based programming is used to support concurrency, while......Due to the significant growth of the demand for data-intensive computing, in addition to the emergence of new parallel and distributed computing technologies, scientists and domain experts are leveraging languages specialized for their problem domain, i.e., domain-specific languages, to help them...

  16. Classification of SOA Contract Specification Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous existing notations and standards in the Web service community. These may be grouped broadly into three competing families, namely; Web Services, Semantic Web, and Electronic Business. Although the families are competing, we expect that applications will cut across them...... and there is a need to map from one to another and to analyze compatibility and other properties. Therefore we survey how they deal with different aspects. We then illustrate with examples, the aspects of contracts captured by one language from each of the three competing families in addition to WSDL, the core...... standard for Web services description. The result is a classification based on the aspects of computations: functionality, protocol, and for instance performance covered by the languages. The classification is used to identify similarities between semantic models and thus find potential mappings between...

  17. Does simultaneous bilingualism aggravate children's specific language problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Stenroos, Maria; Mickos, Annika; Westman, Martin; Ekholm, Pia; Byring, Roger

    2012-09-01

    There is little data on whether or not a bilingual upbringing may aggravate specific language problems in children. This study analysed whether there was an interaction of such problems and simultaneous bilingualism. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old children with specific language problems (LANG group, N = 56) or who were typically developing (CONTR group, N = 60). Seventy-three children were Swedish-Finnish bilingual and 43 were Swedish-speaking monolingual. Assessments (in Swedish) included tests of expressive language, comprehension, repetition and verbal memory. Per definition, the LANG group had lower scores than the CONTR group on all language tests. The bilingual group had lower scores than the monolingual group only on a test of body part naming. Importantly, the interaction of group (LANG or CONTR) and bilingualism was not significant on any of the language scores. Simultaneous bilingualism does not aggravate specific language problems but may result in a slower development of vocabulary both in children with and without specific language problems. Considering also advantages, a bilingual upbringing is an option also for children with specific language problems. In assessment, tests of vocabulary may be sensitive to bilingualism, instead tests assessing comprehension, syntax and nonword repetition may provide less biased methods. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  18. The acquisition of nouns in children with Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Krzemien, Magali; Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; Zghonda, Hela; Maillart, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the language development of children with a normal nonverbal intelligence and no history of neurological disorder nor auditory deficit (Leonard, 2014). A difficulty linked to SLI is the poor language productivity and the input dependency that children display compared with their peers: they tend to use a limited variety of verbal forms compared to younger siblings (Conti-Ramsden & Jones, 1997) and use a high prop...

  19. How Language Is Embodied in Bilinguals and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ashley M.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript explores the role of embodied views of language comprehension and production in bilingualism and specific language impairment. Reconceptualizing popular models of bilingual language processing, the embodied theory is first extended to this area. Issues such as semantic grounding in a second language and potential differences between early and late acquisition of a second language are discussed. Predictions are made about how this theory informs novel ways of thinking about teaching a second language. Secondly, the comorbidity of speech, language, and motor impairments and how embodiment theory informs the discussion of the etiology of these impairments is examined. A hypothesis is presented suggesting that what is often referred to as specific language impairment may not be so specific due to widespread subclinical motor deficits in this population. Predictions are made about how weaknesses and instabilities in speech motor control, even at a subclinical level, may disrupt the neural network that connects acoustic input, articulatory motor plans, and semantics. Finally, I make predictions about how this information informs clinical practice for professionals such as speech language pathologists and occupational and physical therapists. These new hypotheses are placed within the larger framework of the body of work pertaining to semantic grounding, action-based language acquisition, and action-perception links that underlie language learning and conceptual grounding. PMID:27582716

  20. Experimental analysis of specification language impact on NPP software diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chang Sik; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1998-01-01

    When redundancy and diversity is applied in NPP digital computer system, diversification of system software may be a critical point for the entire system dependability. As the means of enhancing software diversity, specification language diversity is suggested in this study. We set up a simple hypothesis for the specification language impact on common errors, and an experiment based on NPP protection system application was performed. Experiment result showed that this hypothesis could be justified and specification language diversity is effective in overcoming software common mode failure problem

  1. Analogical Reasoning in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Sandrine; Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    Usage-based theory considers analogical reasoning as a cognitive process required in language development. We hypothesized that difficulties with analogical reasoning could hinder the abstraction of construction schemas, thus slowing down morphosyntactic development for children with specific language impairment (SLI). We also hypothesized, in…

  2. Social Stress in Young People with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadman, Ruth; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions can be a source of social stress for adolescents. Little is known about how adolescents with developmental difficulties, such as specific language impairment (SLI), feel when interacting socially. Participants included 28 adolescents with SLI and 28 adolescents with typical language abilities (TL). Self-report measures of…

  3. Theory of Mind Ability in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillott, A.; Furniss, F.; Walter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Whilst evidence of theory of mind impairments in children with autism is well established, possible impairments in children with language disorder have only recently been investigated. Children with specific language impairment aged between eight and 12 years were matched by age and gender to high functioning children with autism and normally…

  4. The Continuing Evolution of Languages for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Voght, Geoffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    This overview to "The Modern Language Journal"'s Focus Issue on Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP) takes a fresh look at issues examined in a 1991 article by Grosse and Voght. Reflecting on change drivers and growth in LSP, the authors comment on current challenges to the field and future research needs. Their remarks are based on new insights…

  5. Lexical Specificity Training Effects in Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Caressa; Segers, Eliane; McQueen, James M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Children who start formal education in a second language may experience slower vocabulary growth in that language and subsequently experience disadvantages in literacy acquisition. The current study asked whether lexical specificity training can stimulate bilingual children's phonological awareness, which is considered to be a precursor to…

  6. Specific language impairment is associated with maternal and family factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, F.B.; Dommelen, P. van; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with specific language impairment (SLI). Methods: In a nested case–control design, 253 children attending special needs schools for severe speech and language difficulties in the Netherlands were matched for sex and date of birth with

  7. Abnormal functional lateralization and activity of language brain areas in typical specific language impairment (developmental dysphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guibert, Clément; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Tréguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting structural language (n=21), to a matched group of typically-developing children using a panel of four language tasks neither requiring reading nor metalinguistic skills, including two auditory lexico-semantic tasks (category fluency and responsive naming) and two visual phonological tasks based on picture naming. Data processing involved normalizing the data with respect to a matched pairs pediatric template, groups and between-groups analysis, and laterality indexes assessment within regions of interest using single and combined task analysis. Children with specific language impairment exhibited a significant lack of left lateralization in all core language regions (inferior frontal gyrus-opercularis, inferior frontal gyrus-triangularis, supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus), across single or combined task analysis, but no difference of lateralization for the rest of the brain. Between-group comparisons revealed a left hypoactivation of Wernicke’s area at the posterior superior temporal/supramarginal junction during the responsive naming task, and a right hyperactivation encompassing the anterior insula with adjacent inferior frontal gyrus and the head of the caudate nucleus during the first phonological task. This study thus provides evidence that this specific subtype of specific language impairment is associated with atypical lateralization and functioning of core language areas. PMID:21719430

  8. ASLan++ — A Formal Security Specification Language for Distributed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Oheimb, David; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces ASLan++, the AVANTSSAR Specification Language. ASLan++ has been designed for formally specifying dynamically composed security-sensitive web services and service-oriented architectures, their associated security policies, as well as their security properties, at both communi...

  9. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  10. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A 5 sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E 8

  11. A Methodology For The Development Of Complex Domain Specific Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Risoldi, Matteo; Falquet, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    The term Domain-Specific Modeling Language is used in software development to indicate a modeling (and sometimes programming) language dedicated to a particular problem domain, a particular problem representation technique and/or a particular solution technique. The concept is not new -- special-purpose programming language and all kinds of modeling/specification languages have always existed, but the term DSML has become more popular due to the rise of domain-specific modeling. Domain-specific languages are considered 4GL programming languages. Domain-specific modeling techniques have been adopted for a number of years now. However, the techniques and frameworks used still suffer from problems of complexity of use and fragmentation. Although in recent times some integrated environments are seeing the light, it is not common to see many concrete use cases in which domain-specific modeling has been put to use. The main goal of this thesis is tackling the domain of interactive systems and applying a DSML-based...

  12. Contrasting Specific English Corpora: Language Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Carrió Pastor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific community has traditionally considered technical English as neutral and objective, able to transmit ideas and research in simple sentences and specialized vocabulary. Nevertheless, global communication and intense information delivery have produced a range of different ways of knowledge transmission. Although technical English is considered an objective way to transmit science, writers of academic papers use some words or structures with different frequency in the same genre. As a consequence of this, contrastive studies about the use of second languages have been increasingly attracting scholarly attention. In this research, we evidence that variation in language production is a reality and can be proved contrasting corpora written by native writers of English and by non-native writers of English. The objectives of this paper are first to detect language variation in a technical English corpus; second, to demonstrate that this finding evidences the parts of the sentence that are more sensitive to variation; finally, it also evidences the non-standardisation of technical English. In order to fulfil these objectives, we analysed a corpus of fifty scientific articles written by native speakers of English and fifty scientific articles written by non-native speakers of English. The occurrences were classified and counted in order to detect the most common variations. Further analysis indicated that the variations were caused by mother tongue interference in virtually all cases, although meaning was only very rarely obscured. These findings suggest that the use of certain patterns and expressions originating from L1 interference should be considered as correct as standard English.La comunidad científica considera al inglés técnico como un tipo de lenguaje neutral y objetivo, capaz de transmitir ideas y hallazgos en frases simples y vocabulario reconocido por los especialistas de ese campo. Sin embargo, la comunicación global y el

  13. Autistic symptomatology and language ability in autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucas, Tom; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Meldrum, David; Baird, Gillian

    2008-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are common developmental disorders characterised by deficits in language and communication. The nature of the relationship between them continues to be a matter of debate. This study investigates whether the co-occurrence of ASD and language impairment is associated with differences in severity or pattern of autistic symptomatology or language profile. Participants (N = 97) were drawn from a total population cohort of 56,946 screened as part of study to ascertain the prevalence of ASD, aged 9 to 14 years. All children received an ICD-10 clinical diagnosis of ASD or No ASD. Children with nonverbal IQ > or =80 were divided into those with a language impairment (language score of 77 or less) and those without, creating three groups: children with ASD and a language impairment (ALI; N = 41), those with ASD and but no language impairment (ANL; N = 31) and those with language impairment but no ASD (SLI; N = 25). Children with ALI did not show more current autistic symptoms than those with ANL. Children with SLI were well below the threshold for ASD. Their social adaptation was higher than the ASD groups, but still nearly 2 SD below average. In ALI the combination of ASD and language impairment was associated with weaker functional communication and more severe receptive language difficulties than those found in SLI. Receptive and expressive language were equally impaired in ALI, whereas in SLI receptive language was stronger than expressive. Co-occurrence of ASD and language impairment is not associated with increased current autistic symptomatology but appears to be associated with greater impairment in receptive language and functional communication.

  14. Domain Specific Language for Modeling Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram

    environmental technologies i.e. solid waste management systems. Flow-based programming is used to support concurrent execution of the processes, and provides a model-integration language for composing processes from homogeneous or heterogeneous domains. And a domain-specific language is used to define atomic......In order to develop sustainable waste management systems with considering life cycle perspective, scientists and domain experts in environmental science require readily applicable tools for modeling and evaluating the life cycle impacts of the waste management systems. Practice has proved...... a domain specific language for modeling of waste-management systems on the basis of our framework. We evaluate the language by providing a set of case studies. The contributions of this thesis are; addressing separation of concerns in Flow-based programming and providing the formal specification of its...

  15. Conflict resolution abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Erica Macêdo de; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the conflict resolution abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment, and to verify whether the time of speech-language therapy correlates to the performance on the conflict resolution task. Participants included 20 children with Specific Language Impairment (Research Group) and 40 children with normal language development (Control Group), with ages ranging from 7 years to 8 years and 11 months. To assess the conflict resolution abilities, five hypothetical contexts of conflict were presented. The strategies used by the children were classified and scored by the following levels: level 0 (solutions that do not match the other levels), level 1 (physical solutions), level 2 (unilateral solutions), level 3 (cooperative solutions), and level 4 (mutual solutions). Statistical analysis showed group effect for the variable total score. There was a difference between the groups for modal development level, with higher level of modal development observed in the Control Group. There was no correlation between the period of speech-language therapy attendance and the total score. Children with Specific Language Impairment present difficulties in solving problems, in view of the fact that they mainly use physical and unilateral strategies. There was no correlation between the time of speech-language therapy and performance in the task.

  16. Textese and use of texting by children with typical language development and Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; van Dijk, C.; Vasić, N.; van Witteloostuijn, M.; Avrutin, S.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages

  17. Failure to meet language milestones at two years of age is predictive of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, F.B.; Dusseldorp, E.; Bol, G.W.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    This study established predictive properties of single language milestones for specific language impairment (SLI) after the age of four, as these had not previously been reported in the literature. Methods In this nested case-control study, children attending special needs schools for severe speech

  18. Working Memory Capacity and Language Processes in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the interaction between working memory and language comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI), focusing on the function of the central executive component and its interaction with the phonological loop (A. D. Baddeley, 1986) in complex working memory tasks. Thirteen children with SLI and 13 age-matched…

  19. Interaction of Language Processing and Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…

  20. Textese and use of texting by children with typical language development and Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; van Dijk, Chantal; Vasic, Nada; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Avrutin, S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages

  1. Comparison of Spontaneously Elicited Language Patterns in Specific Language Impairment and High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Megan; Trauner, Doris

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to characterize differences in the use of language in children with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism by analyzing verbal responses on standardized tests. The overall goal was to provide clinicians with additional tools with which to aid in distinguishing the two neurodevelopmental disorders. This study included 16 children with specific language impairment, 28 children with high-functioning autism, and 52 typically developing participants between the ages of six and 14. Groups were matched for age, and specific language impairment and high-functioning autism groups were matched on verbal and performance IQ. Responses from standardized tests were examined for response length, grammatical errors, filler words, perseverations, revisions (repeated attempts to begin or continue a sentence), off-topic attention shifts (lapses in attention to the task), and rambling. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric methods. Specific language impairment responses were longer and contained more filler words than did those of the other two groups, whereas high-functioning autism responses exhibited more grammatical errors, off-topic attention shifts, and rambling. Specific language impairment and high-functioning autism responses showed higher rates of perseveration compared with controls. There were no significant differences in revisions among the three groups. Differences in language patterns of participants with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism may be useful to the clinician in helping to differentiate isolated language impairment from high-functioning autism. The results also support the conclusion that the two conditions are separable, and each exhibits a different pattern of language dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 13th Forum for Specification and Design Languages (FDL) conference

    CERN Document Server

    Morawiec, Adam; System Specification and Design Languages : Selected Contributions from FDL 2010

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the thirteenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which was held in Southampton, UK in September 2010.  FDL is a well established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modelling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems. Covers design verification, automatic synthesis and mechanized debug aids; Includes language-based modeling and design techniques for embedded systems; Covers design, modeling and verification of mixed physical domain and mixed signal systems that include significant analog parts in electrical and non-electrical domains; Includes formal and semi-formal system level design methods for complex embedded systems based on the Unified Modelling Language (UML) and Model Driven E...

  3. The programming language HAL: A specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    HAL accomplishes three significant objectives: (1) increased readability, through the use of a natural two-dimensional mathematical format; (2) increased reliability, by providing for selective recognition of common data and subroutines, and by incorporating specific data-protect features; (3) real-time control facility, by including a comprehensive set of real-time control commands and signal conditions. Although HAL is designed primarily for programming on-board computers, it is general enough to meet nearly all the needs in the production, verification and support of aerospace, and other real-time applications.

  4. Modular Domain-Specific Language Components in Scala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Christian; Ostermann, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Programs in domain-­specific embedded languages (DSELs) can be represented in the host language in different ways, for instance implicitly as libraries, or explicitly in the form of abstract syntax trees. Each of these representations has its own strengths and weaknesses. The implicit approach ha...... or transformation. We propose a new design for implementing DSELs in Scala which makes it easy to use different program representations at the same time. It enables the DSL implementor to define modular language components and to compose transformations and interpretations for them....

  5. Cylindric-like algebras and algebraic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Ferenczi, Miklós; Németi, István

    2013-01-01

    Algebraic logic is a subject in the interface between logic, algebra and geometry, it has strong connections with category theory and combinatorics. Tarski’s quest for finding structure in logic leads to cylindric-like algebras as studied in this book, they are among the main players in Tarskian algebraic logic. Cylindric algebra theory can be viewed in many ways:  as an algebraic form of definability theory, as a study of higher-dimensional relations, as an enrichment of Boolean Algebra theory, or, as logic in geometric form (“cylindric” in the name refers to geometric aspects). Cylindric-like algebras have a wide range of applications, in, e.g., natural language theory, data-base theory, stochastics, and even in relativity theory. The present volume, consisting of 18 survey papers, intends to give an overview of the main achievements and new research directions in the past 30 years, since the publication of the Henkin-Monk-Tarski monographs. It is dedicated to the memory of Leon Henkin.

  6. HAL/S language specification. Version IR-542

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The formal HAL/S language specification is documented with particular referral to the essentials of HAL/S syntax and semantics. The language is intended to satisfy virtually all of the flight software requirements of NASA programs. To achieve this, HAL/S incorporates a wide range of features, including applications oriented data types and organizations, real time control mechanisms, and constructs for systems programming tasks.

  7. Social stress in young people with specific language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Wadman, Ruth; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Social interactions can be a source of social stress for adolescents. Little is known about how adolescents with developmental difficulties, such as specific language impairment (SLI), feel when interacting socially. Participants included 28 adolescents with SLI and 28 adolescents with typical language abilities (TL). Self-report measures of social stress, social skills and social acceptance were obtained. Participants with SLI reported experiencing significantly more social stress than did p...

  8. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the...

  9. The relationship between mathematics and language: academic implications for children with specific language impairment and English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D; Beal, Carole R

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between mathematics and language to better understand the nature of the deficit and the academic implications associated with specific language impairment (SLI) and academic implications for English language learners (ELLs). School-age children (N = 61; 20 SLI, 20 ELL, 21 native monolingual English [NE]) were assessed using a norm-referenced mathematics instrument and 3 experimental computer-based mathematics games that varied in language demands. Group means were compared with analyses of variance. The ELL group was less accurate than the NE group only when tasks were language heavy. In contrast, the group with SLI was less accurate than the groups with NE and ELLs on language-heavy tasks and some language-light tasks. Specifically, the group with SLI was less accurate on tasks that involved comparing numerical symbols and using visual working memory for patterns. However, there were no group differences between children with SLI and peers without SLI on language-light mathematics tasks that involved visual working memory for numerical symbols. Mathematical difficulties of children who are ELLs appear to be related to the language demands of mathematics tasks. In contrast, children with SLI appear to have difficulty with mathematics tasks because of linguistic as well as nonlinguistic processing constraints.

  10. UPC Language and Library Specifications, Version 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UPC Consortium; Bonachea, Dan; Funck, Gary

    2013-11-16

    UPC is an explicitly parallel extension to the ISO C 99 Standard. UPC follows the partitioned global address space programming model. This document is the formal specification for the UPC language and library syntax and semantics, and supersedes prior specification version 1.2 (LBNL-59208).

  11. Improving developer productivity with C++ embedded domain specific languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacik, Stephen; Chao, Evenie; Paolini, Aaron; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-05-01

    Domain-specific languages are a useful tool for productivity allowing domain experts to program using familiar concepts and vocabulary while benefiting from performance choices made by computing experts. Embedding the domain specific language into an existing language allows easy interoperability with non-domain-specific code and use of standard compilers and build systems. In C++, this is enabled through the template and preprocessor features. C++ embedded domain specific languages (EDSLs) allow the user to write simple, safe, performant, domain specific code that has access to all the low-level functionality that C and C++ offer as well as the diverse set of libraries available in the C/C++ ecosystem. In this paper, we will discuss several tools available for building EDSLs in C++ and show examples of projects successfully leveraging EDSLs. Modern C++ has added many useful new features to the language which we have leveraged to further extend the capability of EDSLs. At EM Photonics, we have used EDSLs to allow developers to transparently benefit from using high performance computing (HPC) hardware. We will show ways EDSLs combine with existing technologies and EM Photonics high performance tools and libraries to produce clean, short, high performance code in ways that were not previously possible.

  12. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  13. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lum, J. A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, G.; Page, D.

    2012-01-01

    at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed......According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which...... in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact...

  14. Heritability of specific language impairment depends on diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D V M; Hayiou-Thomas, M E

    2008-04-01

    Heritability estimates for specific language impairment (SLI) have been inconsistent. Four twin studies reported heritability of 0.5 or more, but a recent report from the Twins Early Development Study found negligible genetic influence in 4-year-olds. We considered whether the method of ascertainment influenced results and found substantially higher heritability if SLI was defined in terms of referral to speech and language pathology services than if defined by language test scores. Further analysis showed that presence of speech difficulties played a major role in determining whether a child had contact with services. Childhood language disorders that are identified by population screening are likely to have a different phenotype and different etiology from clinically referred cases. Genetic studies are more likely to find high heritability if they focus on cases who have speech difficulties and who have been referred for intervention.

  15. Interoperable domain-specific languages families for code generation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malohlava, M.; Plášil, F.; Bureš, Tomáš; Hnětynka, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2013), s. 479-499 ISSN 0038-0644 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD201/09/H057 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) ASCENS 257414 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/1489 Program:FP7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : code generation * domain specific languages * models reuse * extensible languages * specification * program synthesis Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.148, year: 2013

  16. Algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lefschetz, Solomon

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to algebraic geometry and a bridge between its analytical-topological and algebraical aspects, this text for advanced undergraduate students is particularly relevant to those more familiar with analysis than algebra. 1953 edition.

  17. Grassmann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.L.

    1983-11-01

    The Grassmann algebra is presented briefly. Exponential and logarithm of matrices functions, whose elements belong to this algebra, are studied with the help of the SCHOONSCHIP and REDUCE 2 algebraic manipulators. (Author) [pt

  18. Simplicity and Specificity in Language: Domain-General Biases Have Domain-Specific Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Kirby, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which the linguistic system—its architecture, the representations it operates on, the constraints it is subject to—is specific to language has broad implications for cognitive science and its relation to evolutionary biology. Importantly, a given property of the linguistic system can be “specific” to the domain of language in several ways. For example, if the property evolved by natural selection under the pressure of the linguistic function it serves then the property is domain-specific in the sense that its design is tailored for language. Equally though, if that property evolved to serve a different function or if that property is domain-general, it may nevertheless interact with the linguistic system in a way that is unique. This gives a second sense in which a property can be thought of as specific to language. An evolutionary approach to the language faculty might at first blush appear to favor domain-specificity in the first sense, with individual properties of the language faculty being specifically linguistic adaptations. However, we argue that interactions between learning, culture, and biological evolution mean any domain-specific adaptations that evolve will take the form of weak biases rather than hard constraints. Turning to the latter sense of domain-specificity, we highlight a very general bias, simplicity, which operates widely in cognition and yet interacts with linguistic representations in domain-specific ways. PMID:26793132

  19. The Development of English as a Second Language With and Without Specific Language Impairment: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of typical and atypical development of English as a second language (L2) and to present strategies for clinical assessment with English language learners (ELLs). A review of studies examining the lexical, morphological, narrative, and verbal memory abilities of ELLs is organized around 3 topics: timeframe and characteristics of typical English L2 development, comparison of the English L2 development of children with and without specific language impairment (SLI), and strategies for more effective assessment with ELLs. ELLs take longer than 3 years to converge on monolingual norms and approach monolingual norms asynchronously across linguistic subdomains. Individual variation is predicted by age, first language, language learning aptitude, length of exposure to English in school, maternal education, and richness of the English environment outside school. ELLs with SLI acquire English more slowly than ELLs with typical development; their morphological and nonword repetition abilities differentiate them the most. Use of strategies such as parent questionnaires on first language development and ELL norm referencing can result in accurate discrimination of ELLs with SLI. Variability in the language abilities of ELLs presents challenges for clinical practice. Increased knowledge of English language learning development with and without SLI together with evidence-based alternative assessment strategies can assist in overcoming these challenges.

  20. Music identification skills of children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Giorgia; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Reali, Laura; D'Alatri, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    To date very few studies have investigated the musical skills of children with specific language impairment (SLI). There is growing evidence that SLI affects areas other than language, and it is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that children with this disorder may have difficulties in perceiving musical stimuli appropriately. To compare melody and song identification skills in a group of children with SLI and in a control group of children with typical language development (TD); and to study possible correlations between music identification skills and language abilities in the SLI group. This is a prospective case control study. Two groups of children were enrolled: one meeting DSM-IV-TR(®) diagnostic criteria for SLI and the other comprising an age-matched group of children with TD. All children received a melody and a song identification test, together with a test battery assessing receptive and productive language abilities. 30 children with SLI (mean age = 56 ± 9 months) and 23 with TD (mean age = 60 ± 10 months) were included. Melody and song identification scores among SLI children were significantly lower than those of TD children, and in both groups song identification scores were significantly higher than melody identification scores. Song identification skills bore a significant correlation to chronological age in both groups (TD: r = 0.529, p = 0.009; SLI: r = 0.506, p = 0.004). Whereas no other variables were found explaining the variability of melody or song identification scores in either group, the correlation between language comprehension and song identification in the SLI group approached significance (r = 0.166, p = 0.076). The poorer music perception skills of SLI children as compared with TD ones suggests that SLI may also affect music perception. Therefore, training programmes that simultaneously stimulate via language and music may prove useful in the rehabilitation of children affected by SLI. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and

  1. Conceptual model of the globalization for domain-specific languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, T.; van den Brand, M.; Combemale, B.; Rumpe, B.; Combemale, B.

    2015-01-01

    Domain Specific Languages (DSL) have received some prominence recently. Designing a DSL and all their tools is still cumbersome and lots of work. Engineering of DSLs is still at infancy, not even the terms have been coined and agreed on. In particular globalization and all its consequences need to

  2. Do Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment Understand Driving Terminology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfe, Jessica M.; Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined if adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) understand driving vocabulary as well as their typically developing (TD) peers. Method: A total of 16 adolescents with SLI and 16 TD comparison adolescents completed a receptive vocabulary task focused on driving terminology derived from statewide driver's manuals.…

  3. Type Error Customization for Embedded Domain-Specific Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano Mena, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    Domain-specific languages (DSLs) are a widely used technique in the programming world, since they make communication between experts and developers more fluid. Some well-known examples are SQL for databases and HTML for web page description. There are two different approaches to developing DSLs:

  4. Negative Sentences in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Rosalind; Rombough, Kelly; Martin, Jasmine; Orton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study used elicited production methodology to investigate the negative sentences that are produced by English-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI). Negative sentences were elicited in contexts in which adults use the negative auxiliary verb doesn't (e.g., "It doesn't fit"). This form was targeted to see how…

  5. Executive function behaviours in children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, J.M.; Vugs, B.A.M.; Scheper, A.R.; Hendriks, M.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that linguistic and non-linguistic factors may contribute to the problems associated with specific language impairment (SLI). One factor that has been implicated is executive functioning (EF). Most studies investigating EF in children with SLI use performance

  6. Language-specific dysgraphia in Korean stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji Hye; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, HyangHee

    2010-12-01

    We investigated how changes in the writing of 14 Korean stroke patients reflect the unique features of the Korean writing system. The Korean writing system, Han-geul, has both linguistic and visuospatial/constructive characteristics. In the visuospatial construction of a syllable, the component consonant(s) and vowel(s) must be arranged from top-to-bottom and/or left-to-right within the form of a square. This syllabic organization, unique to Korean writing, may distinguish dysgraphia in Korean patients from the disorder in other languages, and reveal the effects of stroke on visuospatial/constructive abilities. We compared 2 groups of patients affected by stroke, 1 group with left hemisphere (LH) lesions and the other with right hemisphere (RH) lesions. We instructed them to write from a dictation of 90 monosyllabic stimuli, each presented with a real word cue. Patients had to repeat a target syllable and a word cue, and then to write the target syllable only. Patients with LH and RH lesions produced qualitatively different error patterns. While the LH lesion group produced primarily linguistic errors, visuospatial/constructive errors predominated in the group with RH lesions. With regard to language-specific features, these Korean patients with RH lesions produced diverse visuospatial/constructive errors not commonly observed in dysgraphia of the English language. Language-specific writing errors by Korean stroke patients reflect the unique characteristics of Korean writing, which include the arrangement of strokes and graphemes within a square syllabic form by dimensional and spatial rules. These findings support the notion that the Korean writing system possesses a language-specific nature with both linguistic and visuospatial/constructive processes. Distinctive patterns of dysgraphia in the Korean language also suggest interactivity between linguistic and visuospatial/constructive levels of processing. This study is noteworthy for its systematic description of

  7. Algebras of holomorphic functions and control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sasane, Amol

    2009-01-01

    This accessible, undergraduate-level text illustrates the role of algebras of holomorphic functions in the solution of an important engineering problem: the stabilization of a linear control system. Its concise and self-contained treatment avoids the use of higher mathematics and forms a bridge to more advanced treatments. The treatment consists of two components: the algebraic framework, which serves as the abstract language for posing and solving the problem of stabilization; and the analysis component, which examines properties of specific rings of holomorphic functions. Elementary, self-co

  8. Specific language impairment as a maturational lag: evidence from longitudinal data on language and motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D V; Edmundson, A

    1987-08-01

    Longitudinal language-test data on 87 language-impaired children assessed at the ages of four, 4 1/2 and 5 1/2 years were converted to age-equivalent scores to compare the rates of development of children who recover from early language delay with those who have more persisting problems. On most measures, over the 18-month period all the children progressed by about 18 months. Thus although children with good and poor outcomes were distinguished in terms of initial level of performance, they did not differ in rate of progress. Speed on a peg-moving task was closely related to language performance. Children who had a good outcome after early language delay had significantly impaired scores at four years, but subsequently were indistinguishable from a control group. Quantitative but not qualitative differences in peg-moving performance were found for children with good and poor outcomes. No association was found between presumptive aetiological factors and language or pegboard performance. These findings are interpreted in terms of a theory which attributes specific language impairment to a maturational lag in neurological development.

  9. Predictors of growth or attrition of the first language in Latino children with specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Sweet, Monica

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the factors that may help understand the differential rates of language development in the home language (i.e., Spanish) of Latino preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI). Children were randomly assigned to either bilingual or English-only small group interventions and followed from preschool to kindergarten. Predictors of Spanish growth included the language of intervention, the child’s level of language development or severity, the child’s socio-emotional skills, and the child’s level of English use. Spanish performance outcomes were assessed over time using a series of longitudinal models with baseline and post-treatment measures nested within child. Children demonstrated growth on Spanish outcomes over time. The language of instruction and the child’s level of vocabulary and socio-emotional development at baseline were significant predictors of differences in rates of growth in the home language. Clinicians may need to take into consideration these factors when making clinical recommendations. PMID:24489415

  10. Linguistic transfer in bilingual children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Balkom, Hans

    2012-01-01

    In the literature so far the limited research on specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children has concentrated on linguistic skills in the first language (L1) and/or the second language (L2) without paying attention to the relations between the two types of skills and to the issue of linguistic transfer. To examine the first and second language proficiency of 75 Turkish-Dutch bilingual children with SLI in the age range between 7 and 11 years living in the Netherlands. A multidimensional perspective on language proficiency was taken in order to assess children's Turkish and Dutch proficiency levels, whereas equivalent tests were used in order to determine language dominance. A second aim was to find out to what extent the children's proficiency in L2 can be predicted from their L1 proficiency, while taking into account their general cognitive abilities. The children's performance on a battery of equivalent language ability tests in Turkish and Dutch was compared at three age levels. By means of analyses of variance, it was explored to what extent the factors of language and grade level as well as their interactions were significant. Bivariate correlations and partial correlations with age level partialled out were computed to examine the relationships between L1 and L2 proficiency levels. Moreover, regression analysis was conducted to find out to what extent the variance in general L2 proficiency levels could be explained by children's L1 proficiency, short-term memory and non-verbal intelligence. Repeated measures analyses showed that the children had generally higher scores on L1 as compared with L2 and that with progression of age the children's scores in L1 and L2 improved. Medium to high correlations were found between phonological memory, phonological awareness, grammatical skills and story comprehension in the two languages. Regression analysis revealed that children's L2 proficiency levels could be explained by their proficiency levels in L1

  11. Vertex algebras and algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Frenkel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Vertex algebras are algebraic objects that encapsulate the concept of operator product expansion from two-dimensional conformal field theory. Vertex algebras are fast becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern mathematics, with applications to representation theory, algebraic geometry, the theory of finite groups, modular functions, topology, integrable systems, and combinatorics. This book is an introduction to the theory of vertex algebras with a particular emphasis on the relationship with the geometry of algebraic curves. The notion of a vertex algebra is introduced in a coordinate-independent way, so that vertex operators become well defined on arbitrary smooth algebraic curves, possibly equipped with additional data, such as a vector bundle. Vertex algebras then appear as the algebraic objects encoding the geometric structure of various moduli spaces associated with algebraic curves. Therefore they may be used to give a geometric interpretation of various questions of representation theory. The book co...

  12. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized. Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Key words: Implicative ...

  13. Monomial algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Villarreal, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The book stresses the interplay between several areas of pure and applied mathematics, emphasizing the central role of monomial algebras. It unifies the classical results of commutative algebra with central results and notions from graph theory, combinatorics, linear algebra, integer programming, and combinatorial optimization. The book introduces various methods to study monomial algebras and their presentation ideals, including Stanley-Reisner rings, subrings and blowup algebra-emphasizing square free quadratics, hypergraph clutters, and effective computational methods.

  14. Learning abstract algebra with ISETL

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinsky, Ed

    1994-01-01

    Most students in abstract algebra classes have great difficulty making sense of what the instructor is saying. Moreover, this seems to remain true almost independently of the quality of the lecture. This book is based on the constructivist belief that, before students can make sense of any presentation of abstract mathematics, they need to be engaged in mental activities which will establish an experiential base for any future verbal explanation. No less, they need to have the opportunity to reflect on their activities. This approach is based on extensive theoretical and empirical studies as well as on the substantial experience of the authors in teaching astract algebra. The main source of activities in this course is computer constructions, specifically, small programs written in the mathlike programming language ISETL; the main tool for reflections is work in teams of 2-4 students, where the activities are discussed and debated. Because of the similarity of ISETL expressions to standard written mathematics...

  15. Interactions between working memory and language in young children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugs, Brigitte; Knoors, Harry; Cuperus, Juliane; Hendriks, Marc; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The underlying structure of working memory (WM) in young children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) was examined. The associations between the components of WM and the language abilities of young children with SLI were then analyzed. The Automated Working Memory Assessment and four linguistic tasks were administered to 58 children with SLI and 58 children without SLI, aged 4-5 years. The WM of the children was best represented by a model with four separate but interacting components of verbal storage, visuospatial storage, verbal central executive (CE), and visuospatial CE. The associations between the four components of WM did not differ significantly for the two groups of children. However, the individual components of WM showed varying associations with the language abilities of the children with SLI. The verbal CE component of WM was moderately to strongly associated with all the language abilities in children with SLI: receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, verbal comprehension, and syntactic development. These results show verbal CE to be involved in a wide range of linguistic skills; the limited ability of young children with SLI to simultaneously store and process verbal information may constrain their acquisition of linguistic skills. Attention should thus be paid to the language problems of children with SLI, but also to the WM impairments that can contribute to their language problems.

  16. Gesture-speech integration in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Alibali, Martha W; Hostetter, Autumn B; Evans, Julia L

    2014-11-01

    Previous research suggests that speakers are especially likely to produce manual communicative gestures when they have relative ease in thinking about the spatial elements of what they are describing, paired with relative difficulty organizing those elements into appropriate spoken language. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit poor expressive language abilities together with within-normal-range nonverbal IQs. This study investigated whether weak spoken language abilities in children with SLI influence their reliance on gestures to express information. We hypothesized that these children would rely on communicative gestures to express information more often than their age-matched typically developing (TD) peers, and that they would sometimes express information in gestures that they do not express in the accompanying speech. Participants were 15 children with SLI (aged 5;6-10;0) and 18 age-matched TD controls. Children viewed a wordless cartoon and retold the story to a listener unfamiliar with the story. Children's gestures were identified and coded for meaning using a previously established system. Speech-gesture combinations were coded as redundant if the information conveyed in speech and gesture was the same, and non-redundant if the information conveyed in speech was different from the information conveyed in gesture. Children with SLI produced more gestures than children in the TD group; however, the likelihood that speech-gesture combinations were non-redundant did not differ significantly across the SLI and TD groups. In both groups, younger children were significantly more likely to produce non-redundant speech-gesture combinations than older children. The gesture-speech integration system functions similarly in children with SLI and TD, but children with SLI rely more on gesture to help formulate, conceptualize or express the messages they want to convey. This provides motivation for future research examining whether interventions

  17. Influence of Language Load on Speech Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletta, Meredith; Goffman, Lisa; Ward, Caitlin; Oleson, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular deficits in the generation of sequenced action--the quintessential procedural task. Practiced imitation of a sequence may become rote and require reduced procedural memory. This study explored whether speech motor deficits in children with SLI occur generally or only in…

  18. Examining the Language Phenotype in Children with Typical Development, Specific Language Impairment, and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Sterling, Audra; Hoover, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: One aspect of morphosyntax, finiteness marking, was compared in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development matched on mean length of utterance (MLU). Method: Nineteen children with typical development (mean age = 3.3 years), 20 children with SLI (mean age = 4.9 years), and 17 boys…

  19. Structural Alterations of the Language Connectome in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vydrová, R.; Komárek, V.; Šanda, J.; Štěrbová, K.; Jahodová, A.; Maulisová, A.; Žáčková, J.; Reissigová, Jindra; Kršek, P.; Kyncl, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 151, December (2015), s. 35-41 ISSN 0093-934X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Specific language disorder * DTI * Arcuate fascicle * IFOF * Ventral stream Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.038, year: 2015

  20. RAPID NAMING IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT AND IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda MILOSHEVIĆ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined. Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI, age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD, age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants. Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development. Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.

  1. Using principles of learning to inform language therapy design for children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Ancharski, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Language treatment for children with specific language impairment (SLI) often takes months to achieve moderate results. Interventions often do not incorporate the principles that are known to affect learning in unimpaired learners. To outline some key findings about learning in typical populations and to suggest a model of how they might be applied to language treatment design as a catalyst for further research and discussion. Three main principles of implicit learning are reviewed: variability, complexity and sleep-dependent consolidation. After explaining these principles, evidence is provided as to how they influence learning tasks in unimpaired learners. Information is reviewed on principles of learning as they apply to impaired populations, current treatment designs are also reviewed that conform to the principles, and ways in which principles of learning might be incorporated into language treatment design are demonstrated. This paper provides an outline for how theoretical knowledge might be applied to clinical practice in an effort to promote discussion. Although the authors look forward to more specific details on how the principles of learning relate to impaired populations, there is ample evidence to suggest that these principles should be considered during treatment design. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Predictors of second language acquisition in Latino children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Sweet, Monica

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which the language of intervention, the child's development in Spanish, and the effects of English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure predict differences in the rates of acquisition of English in Latino children with specific language impairment (SLI). In this randomized controlled trial, 188 Latino preschoolers with SLI participated in a small-group academic enrichment program for 12 weeks and were followed up 3 and 5 months later. Children were randomly assigned to either a bilingual or an English-only program. Predictors of English growth included measures of Spanish language skills and English vocabulary, use, proficiency, and exposure. Performance on English outcomes (i.e., picture description and narrative sample) was assessed over time. A series of longitudinal models were tested via multilevel modeling with baseline and posttreatment measures nested within child. Children demonstrated growth on the English outcomes over time. The language of intervention, Spanish skills, English vocabulary, and English use significantly predicted differences in rates of growth across children for specific measures of English development. This study underscores the role of the child's first language skills, the child's level of English vocabulary development, and level of English use for predicting differences in English acquisition in Latino preschoolers with SLI. These factors should be carefully considered in making clinical decisions.

  3. Quadratic algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Polishchuk, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Quadratic algebras, i.e., algebras defined by quadratic relations, often occur in various areas of mathematics. One of the main problems in the study of these (and similarly defined) algebras is how to control their size. A central notion in solving this problem is the notion of a Koszul algebra, which was introduced in 1970 by S. Priddy and then appeared in many areas of mathematics, such as algebraic geometry, representation theory, noncommutative geometry, K-theory, number theory, and noncommutative linear algebra. The book offers a coherent exposition of the theory of quadratic and Koszul algebras, including various definitions of Koszulness, duality theory, Poincar�-Birkhoff-Witt-type theorems for Koszul algebras, and the Koszul deformation principle. In the concluding chapter of the book, they explain a surprising connection between Koszul algebras and one-dependent discrete-time stochastic processes.

  4. Language Cultural Specificity of the Language Units “Cat” and “Dog” in English and Chinese Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Жером Багана

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the national and cultural features of zoonyms “cat” and “dog” in English and Chinese languages. The authors point out zoonyms’ main characteristics and their national cultural originality. Zoonyms represent the special features of national linguistic world view and values in the comparative analysis’ aspect The article represents interpretation of the language units in the monolingual explanatory dictionaries. The dictionary definitions of the terms phraseology and zoonym are given. The research is devoted to phraseology in the English and Chinese languages. The historical notes about the attitude toward cats and dogs in Britain and China are shown. Also some peculiarities of zoonyms function in English and Chinese animal fairy-tales are observed. Based on the differences the authors notice differences of phraseology between zoonyms “cat” and “dog”. Some examples in the English and Chinese languages are observed. The analysis represents universal and national specific semantic features of the present units in the languages so far as phraseology contains the most vivid representation of the national-cultural specificity of world view, connotative features and values peoples in Europe and Asia.

  5. Nonverbal imitation skills in children with specific language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmen, Andrea; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-10-01

    Research in children with language problems has focussed on verbal deficits, and we have less understanding of children's deficits with nonverbal sociocognitive skills which have been proposed to be important for language acquisition. This study was designed to investigate elicited nonverbal imitation in children with specific language delay (SLD). It is argued that difficulties in nonverbal imitation, which do not involve the processing of structural aspects of language, may be indicative of sociocognitive deficits. Participants were German-speaking typically developing children (n=60) and children with SLD (n=45) aged 2-3 ½ years. A novel battery of tasks measured their ability to imitate a range of nonverbal target acts that to a greater or lesser extent involve sociocognitive skills (body movements, instrumental acts on objects, pretend acts). Significant group differences were found for all body movement and pretend act tasks, but not for the instrumental act tasks. The poorer imitative performance of the SLD sample was not explained by motor or nonverbal cognitive skills. Thus, it appeared that the nature of the task affected children's imitation performance. It is argued that the ability to establish a sense of connectedness with the demonstrator was at the core of children's imitation difficulty in the SLD sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Domain-Specific Programming Language for Secure Multiparty Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janus Dam; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2007-01-01

    We present a domain-specific programming language for Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC). Information is a resource of vital importance and considerable economic value to individuals, public administration, and private companies. This means that the confidentiality of information is crucial...... on secret values and results are only revealed according to specific protocols. We identify the key linguistic concepts of SMC and bridge the gap between high-level security requirements and low-level cryptographic operations constituting an SMC platform, thus improving the efficiency and security of SMC...

  7. Hybrid parallel execution model for logic-based specification languages

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Jeffrey J P

    2001-01-01

    Parallel processing is a very important technique for improving the performance of various software development and maintenance activities. The purpose of this book is to introduce important techniques for parallel executation of high-level specifications of software systems. These techniques are very useful for the construction, analysis, and transformation of reliable large-scale and complex software systems. Contents: Current Approaches; Overview of the New Approach; FRORL Requirements Specification Language and Its Decomposition; Rewriting and Data Dependency, Control Flow Analysis of a Lo

  8. A Case of Specific Language Impairment in a Deaf Signer of American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto-Pozos, David; Singleton, Jenny L; Hauser, Peter C

    2017-04-01

    This article describes the case of a deaf native signer of American Sign Language (ASL) with a specific language impairment (SLI). School records documented normal cognitive development but atypical language development. Data include school records; interviews with the child, his mother, and school professionals; ASL and English evaluations; and a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychoeducational evaluation, and they span an approximate period of 7.5 years (11;10-19;6) including scores from school records (11;10-16;5) and a 3.5-year period (15;10-19;6) during which we collected linguistic and neuropsychological data. Results revealed that this student has average intelligence, intact visual perceptual skills, visuospatial skills, and motor skills but demonstrates challenges with some memory and sequential processing tasks. Scores from ASL testing signaled language impairment and marked difficulty with fingerspelling. The student also had significant deficits in English vocabulary, spelling, reading comprehension, reading fluency, and writing. Accepted SLI diagnostic criteria exclude deaf individuals from an SLI diagnosis, but the authors propose modified criteria in this work. The results of this study have practical implications for professionals including school psychologists, speech language pathologists, and ASL specialists. The results also support the theoretical argument that SLI can be evident regardless of the modality in which it is communicated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Foreign language teaching for specific purposes: basic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Grynyuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article is an attempt to understand, analyse and provide an overall picture on basic aspects of English for Specific Purposes: its definition, scope, historical background, characteristics, types and aims. It also discusses the ESP teaching objectives, the role of ESP teacher and the training process to become an ESP teacher, the purpose of an ESP course and an ESP program.We see a clear rationale, amongst the variety of contradicting views on ESP policy, in coming to an agreement finally that ESP is the teaching of English to the learners who have specific goals and purposes: professional, academic or scientific.The article analyses the main roles and functions of teachers of foreign languages for specific purposes. It outlines the general tasks and responsibilities of higher education teachers whose professional activity is multispectral and multifunctiona; it also analyses the ESP courses and their specific features

  10. An Experiment on Creating Enterprise Specific BPM Languages and Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Steen

    Many enterprises use their own domain concepts in modeling business process and use technology in specialized ways when they implement them in a Business Process Management (BPM) system.In contrast, BPM tools used for modeling and implementing business processes often provide a standard modeling...... and automation to BPM tools through a tool experiment in Danske Bank, a large financial institute; We develop business process modeling languages, tools and transformations that capture Danske Banks specific modeling concepts and use of technology, and which automate the generation of code. An empirical...... language, a standard implementation technology and a fixed transformation that may generate the implementation from the model. This makes the tools inflexible and difficult to use.This paper presents another approach. It applies the basic model driven development principles of direct representation...

  11. Boolean algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    2007-01-01

    This elementary treatment by a distinguished mathematician employs Boolean algebra as a simple medium for introducing important concepts of modern algebra. Numerous examples appear throughout the text, plus full solutions.

  12. Influence of Phonology on Morpho-Syntax in Romance Languages in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Serra-Raventos, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Background: The profiles of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ greatly according to the language they speak. The Surface Hypothesis attempts to explain these differences through the theory that children with SLI will incorrectly produce elements in their language with low phonological weights or that are produced in a…

  13. Levels of processing and language modality specificity in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Karlsson, Thomas; Gunnarsson, Johan; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2013-03-01

    Neural networks underpinning working memory demonstrate sign language specific components possibly related to differences in temporary storage mechanisms. A processing approach to memory systems suggests that the organisation of memory storage is related to type of memory processing as well. In the present study, we investigated for the first time semantic, phonological and orthographic processing in working memory for sign- and speech-based language. During fMRI we administered a picture-based 2-back working memory task with Semantic, Phonological, Orthographic and Baseline conditions to 11 deaf signers and 20 hearing non-signers. Behavioural data showed poorer and slower performance for both groups in Phonological and Orthographic conditions than in the Semantic condition, in line with depth-of-processing theory. An exclusive masking procedure revealed distinct sign-specific neural networks supporting working memory components at all three levels of processing. The overall pattern of sign-specific activations may reflect a relative intermodality difference in the relationship between phonology and semantics influencing working memory storage and processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we

  15. Jordan algebras versus C*- algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormer, E.

    1976-01-01

    The axiomatic formulation of quantum mechanics and the problem of whether the observables form self-adjoint operators on a Hilbert space, are discussed. The relation between C*- algebras and Jordan algebras is studied using spectral theory. (P.D.)

  16. Feature-Oriented Programming with Object Algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C.d.S. Oliveira (Bruno); T. van der Storm (Tijs); A. Loh; W.R. Cook

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractObject algebras are a new programming technique that enables a simple solution to basic extensibility and modularity issues in programming languages. While object algebras excel at defining modular features, the composition mechanisms for object algebras (and features) are still

  17. Impact of specific language impairment and type of school on different language subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Marina Leite; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore quantitative and qualitative effects of type of school and specific language impairment (SLI) on different language abilities. 204 Brazilian children aged from 4 to 6 years old participated in the study. Children were selected to form three groups: 1) 63 typically developing children studying in private schools (TDPri); 2) 102 typically developing children studying in state schools (TDSta); and 39 children with SLI studying in state schools (SLISta). All individuals were assessed regarding expressive vocabulary, number morphology and morphosyntactic comprehension. All language subsystems were vulnerable to both environmental (type of school) and biological (SLI) effects. The relationship between the three language measures was exactly the same to all groups: vocabulary growth correlated with age and with the development of morphological abilities and morphosyntactic comprehension. Children with SLI showed atypical errors in the comprehension test at the age of 4, but presented a pattern of errors that gradually resembled typical development. The effect of type of school was marked by quantitative differences, while the effect of SLI was characterised by both quantitative and qualitative differences.

  18. Interaction of language processing and motor skill in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for articulatory duration and variability. Standard measures of motor, language, and articulation skill were also obtained. Sentences containing particles, as compared with prepositions, were less likely to be produced in a priming task and were longer in duration, suggesting increased difficulty with this syntactic structure. Children with SLI demonstrated higher articulatory variability and poorer gross and fine motor skills compared with aged-matched controls. Articulatory variability was correlated with generalized gross and fine motor performance. Children with SLI show co-occurring speech motor and generalized motor deficits. Current theories do not fully account for the present findings, though the procedural deficit hypothesis provides a framework for interpreting overlap among language and motor domains.

  19. Chiral algebras of class S

    CERN Document Server

    Beem, Christopher; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C.

    2015-01-01

    Four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories have families of protected correlation functions that possess the structure of two-dimensional chiral algebras. In this paper, we explore the chiral algebras that arise in this manner in the context of theories of class S. The class S duality web implies nontrivial associativity properties for the corresponding chiral algebras, the structure of which is best summarized in the language of generalized topological quantum field theory. We make a number of conjectures regarding the chiral algebras associated to various strongly coupled fixed points.

  20. Matlab linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Linear Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to giving an introduction to

  1. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  2. Assessment Measures for Specific Contexts of Language Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Tarone, Elaine

    A discussion of second language testing focuses on the need for collaboration among researchers in second language learning, teaching, and testing concerning development of context-appropriate language tests. It is argued that the nature of the proficiency construct in language is not constant, but that different linguistic, functional, and…

  3. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  4. Imitative Production of Regular Past Tense -Ed by English-Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Rinky Harish; Loeb, Diane Frome

    2005-01-01

    Background: Language intervention procedures often involve the speech-language pathologist highlighting or making more salient forms that are problematic for the child with a language impairment. According to limited processing accounts of specific language impairment (SLI), one way to increase the saliency of a form is to manipulate its sentence…

  5. Singing abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain eCLEMENT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific Language impairment (SLI is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed when a child has difficulties learning to produce and/or understand speech for no apparent reason (Bishop et al., 2012. The verbal difficulties of children with SLI have been largely documented, and a growing number of studies suggest that these children may also have difficulties in processing non-verbal complex auditory stimuli (Brandt et al., 2012; Corriveau et al., 2007. In a recent study, we reported that a large proportion of children with SLI present deficits in music perception (Planchou et al, submitted. Little is known, however, about the singing abilities of children with SLI. In order to investigate whether or not the impairments in expressive language extend to the musical domain, we assessed singing abilities in 8 children with SLI and 15 children with Typical Language Development (TLD matched for age and non-verbal intelligence. To this aim, we designed a ludic activity consisting of two singing tasks: a pitch-matching and a melodic reproduction task. In the pitch-matching task, the children were requested to sing single notes. In the melodic reproduction task, children were asked to sing short melodies that were either familiar (FAM-SONG and FAM-TUNE conditions or unfamiliar (UNFAM-TUNE condition. The analysis showed that children with SLI were impaired in the pitch-matching task, with a mean pitch error of 250 cents (mean pitch error for children with TLD: 154 cents. In the melodic reproduction task, we asked 30 healthy adults to rate the quality of the sung productions of the children on a continuous rating scale. The results revealed that singing of children with SLI received lower mean ratings than the children with TLD. Our findings thus indicate that children with SLI showed impairments in musical production and are discussed in light of a general auditory-motor dysfunction in children with SLI.

  6. Control of Auditory Attention in Children With Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorino, Kristen R; Schwartz, Richard G

    2015-08-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a cross-modal word recognition task. Twenty participants with SLI (ages 9-12 years) and 20 age-matched peers with typical language development (TLD) listened to words through headphones and were instructed to attend to the words in 1 ear while ignoring the words in the other ear. They were simultaneously presented with pictures and asked to make a lexical decision about whether the pictures and auditory words were the same or different. Accuracy and reaction time were measured in 5 conditions, in which the stimulus in the unattended channel was manipulated. The groups performed with similar accuracy. Compared with their peers with TLD, children with SLI had slower reaction times overall and different within-group patterns of performance by condition. Children with TLD showed efficient inhibitory control in conditions that required active suppression of competing stimuli. Participants with SLI had difficulty exerting control over their auditory attention in all conditions, with particular difficulty inhibiting distractors of all types.

  7. Executive functions and language in children with different subtypes of specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Rodríguez, V; Ramírez Santana, G M; Hernández Expósito, S

    The marked heterogeneity among children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI) highlights the importance of studying and describing cases based on the distinction between the expressive and receptive-expressive SLI subtypes. The main objective of this study was to examine neuropsychological, linguistic, and narrative behaviours in children with different SLI subtypes. A comprehensive battery of language and neuropsychological tests was administered to a total of 58 children (29 with SLI and 29 normal controls) between 5.60 and 11.20 years old. Both SLI subtypes performed more poorly than the control group in language skills, narrative, and executive function. Furthermore, the expressive SLI group demonstrated substantial ungrammaticality, as well as problems with verbal fluency and both verbal and spatial working memory, while the receptive-expressive SLI subtype displayed poorer neuropsychological performance in general. Our findings showed that children with either SLI subtype displayed executive dysfunctions that were not limited to verbal tasks but rather extended to nonverbal measures. This could reflect a global cognitive difficulty which, along with declining linguistic and narrative skills, illustrates the complex profile of this impairment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/.

  9. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  10. Simplifying Scalable Graph Processing with a Domain-Specific Language

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Sungpack; Salihoglu, Semih; Widom, Jennifer; Olukotun, Kunle

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale graph processing, with its massive data sets, requires distributed processing. However, conventional frameworks for distributed graph processing, such as Pregel, use non-traditional programming models that are well-suited for parallelism and scalability but inconvenient for implementing non-trivial graph algorithms. In this paper, we use Green-Marl, a Domain-Specific Language for graph analysis, to intuitively describe graph algorithms and extend its compiler to generate equivalent Pregel implementations. Using the semantic information captured by Green-Marl, the compiler applies a set of transformation rules that convert imperative graph algorithms into Pregel's programming model. Our experiments show that the Pregel programs generated by the Green-Marl compiler perform similarly to manually coded Pregel implementations of the same algorithms. The compiler is even able to generate a Pregel implementation of a complicated graph algorithm for which a manual Pregel implementation is very challenging.

  11. Simplifying Scalable Graph Processing with a Domain-Specific Language

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Sungpack

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale graph processing, with its massive data sets, requires distributed processing. However, conventional frameworks for distributed graph processing, such as Pregel, use non-traditional programming models that are well-suited for parallelism and scalability but inconvenient for implementing non-trivial graph algorithms. In this paper, we use Green-Marl, a Domain-Specific Language for graph analysis, to intuitively describe graph algorithms and extend its compiler to generate equivalent Pregel implementations. Using the semantic information captured by Green-Marl, the compiler applies a set of transformation rules that convert imperative graph algorithms into Pregel\\'s programming model. Our experiments show that the Pregel programs generated by the Green-Marl compiler perform similarly to manually coded Pregel implementations of the same algorithms. The compiler is even able to generate a Pregel implementation of a complicated graph algorithm for which a manual Pregel implementation is very challenging.

  12. Languages for specific purposes in the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Bárcena, Elena; Arús, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This book features the work of leading researchers who review state-of-the-art developments in computer-assisted language learning. It includes case studies as well as theoretical analysis of the links between CALL and natural language processing.

  13. From CML to its Process Algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    and behaviours may lose prefixes as well as decrease. As the syntax of behaviours is rather similar to that of a process algebra, our main result may therefore be viewed as regarding the semantics of a process algebra as an abstraction of the semantics of an underlying programming language. This establishes...... a new kind of connection between "realistic" concurrent programming languages and "theoretical" process algebras...

  14. Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At least three different models have been proposed: the severity model, the additional deficit model and the component model. We address this issue by comparing children with specific language impairment only, those with dyslexia-only, those with specific language impairment and dyslexia and those with no impairment, using a broad test battery of language skills. We find that specific language impairment and dyslexia do not always co-occur, and that some children with specific language impairment do not have a phonological deficit. Using factor analysis, we find that language abilities across the four groups of children have at least three independent sources of variance: one for non-phonological language skills and two for distinct sets of phonological abilities (which we term phonological skills versus phonological representations). Furthermore, children with specific language impairment and dyslexia show partly distinct profiles of phonological deficit along these two dimensions. We conclude that a multiple-component model of language abilities best explains the relationship between specific language impairment and dyslexia and the different profiles of impairment that are observed. PMID:23413264

  15. A New Formalism for Relational Algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Larsen, Kim Skak; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1992-01-01

    We present a new formalism for relational algebra, the FC language, which is based on a novel factorization of relations. The acronym stands for factorize and combine. A pure version of this language is equivalent to relational algebra in the sense that semantics preserving translations exist...

  16. Relational Algebra and SQL: Better Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Hadfield, Steven; Wolthuis, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe how database instructors can teach Relational Algebra and Structured Query Language together through programming. Students write query programs consisting of sequences of Relational Algebra operations vs. Structured Query Language SELECT statements. The query programs can then be run interactively, allowing students to…

  17. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML: Language Specification for Level 3 Version 2 Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hucka Michael

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological functions, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that different software systems can exchange. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 2 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML, their encoding in XML (the eXtensible Markup Language, validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and examples of models in SBML form. The design of Version 2 differs from Version 1 principally in allowing new MathML constructs, making more child elements optional, and adding identifiers to all SBML elements instead of only selected elements. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project website at http://sbml.org/.

  18. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 2 Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2018-03-09

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological functions, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that different software systems can exchange. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 2 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML, their encoding in XML (the eXtensible Markup Language), validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and examples of models in SBML form. The design of Version 2 differs from Version 1 principally in allowing new MathML constructs, making more child elements optional, and adding identifiers to all SBML elements instead of only selected elements. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project website at http://sbml.org/.

  19. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML: Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hucka Michael

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological functions, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that different software systems can exchange. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Release 2 of Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML, their encoding in XML (the eXtensible Markup Language, validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and examples of models in SBML form. No design changes have been made to the description of models between Release 1 and Release 2; changes are restricted to the format of annotations, the correction of errata and the addition of clarifications. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project website at http://sbml.org/.

  20. Polynomials in algebraic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Multarzyński, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The concept of polynomials in the sense of algebraic analysis, for a single right invertible linear operator, was introduced and studied originally by D. Przeworska-Rolewicz \\cite{DPR}. One of the elegant results corresponding with that notion is a purely algebraic version of the Taylor formula, being a generalization of its usual counterpart, well known for functions of one variable. In quantum calculus there are some specific discrete derivations analyzed, which are right invertible linear ...

  1. Characteristics of early spelling of children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A H; Bosman, Anna M T; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated active grapheme knowledge and early spelling of 59 first grade children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Speed, nature, and knowledge transfer of spelling acquisition were taken into account. Four orthographic characteristics that influence early spelling, namely, 'Type of Grapheme', 'Grapheme Position', 'Number of Graphemes', and 'Word Structure' were examined at the middle and at the end of first grade. At the beginning of first grade when children were between 71 and 97 months, they performed well below national norms on assessment of active grapheme knowledge. The delay in word spelling persisted, but decreased between the middle and the end of first grade. Despite this delay, the findings suggest that characteristics of early spelling for children with SLI are rather similar to those of children with typical language development. For example, children with SLI represented more graphemes at the end of first grade than at the middle of first grade, found it easier to represent the initial grapheme in words than the final or medial grapheme (Grapheme Position), were more successful spelling shorter than longer words (Number of Graphemes), and spelled words with simple structures (CVC) more accurately than those with complex structures (CVCC and CCVC; Word Structure). Finally, participants demonstrated that they can use known graphemes to spell words, but the transfer between active grapheme knowledge and word spelling was not always stable. As a result of this activity, readers will be able to explain the speed and the nature of spelling acquisition of children with SLI. As a result of this activity, readers will be able to explain what skills are most important for teachers to practice with children with SLI to improve the spelling skills of these children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Languages for Specific Academic Purposes or Languages for General Academic Purposes? A Critical Reappraisal of a Key Issue for Language Provision in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The debate about the subject specificity of university language tuition has been going on for decades; it has mostly been discussed in the context of English for Academic Purposes. This paper considers the case for disciplinary specificity with regard to languages other than English. Few, if any, developed curricula, syllabuses, suitable textbooks…

  3. Realization Of Algebraic Processor For XML Documents Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, are presented some possibilities concerning the implementation of an algebraic method for XML hierarchical data processing which makes faster the XML search mechanism. Here is offered a different point of view for creation of advanced algebraic processor (with all necessary software tools and programming modules respectively). Therefore, this nontraditional approach for fast XML navigation with the presented algebraic processor may help to build an easier user-friendly interface provided XML transformations, which can avoid the difficulties in the complicated language constructions of XSL, XSLT and XPath. This approach allows comparatively simple search of XML hierarchical data by means of the following types of functions: specification functions and so named build-in functions. The choice of programming language Java may appear strange at first, but it isn't when you consider that the applications can run on different kinds of computers. The specific search mechanism based on the linear algebra theory is faster in comparison with MSXML parsers (on the basis of the developed examples with about 30%). Actually, there exists the possibility for creating new software tools based on the linear algebra theory, which cover the whole navigation and search techniques characterizing XSLT/XPath. The proposed method is able to replace more complicated operations in other SOA components.

  4. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  5. Language and Social Factors in the Use of Cell Phone Technology by Adolescents with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Simkin, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare cell phone use (both oral and text-based) by adolescents with and without specific language impairment (SLI) and examine the extent to which language and social factors affect frequency of use. Method: Both interview and diary methods were used to compare oral and text-based communication using cell phones by…

  6. Children's understanding of fraction and decimal symbols and the notation-specific relation to pre-algebra ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A; Cordes, Sara

    2018-04-01

    Fraction and decimal concepts are notoriously difficult for children to learn yet are a major component of elementary and middle school math curriculum and an important prerequisite for higher order mathematics (i.e., algebra). Thus, recently there has been a push to understand how children think about rational number magnitudes in order to understand how to promote rational number understanding. However, prior work investigating these questions has focused almost exclusively on fraction notation, overlooking the open questions of how children integrate rational number magnitudes presented in distinct notations (i.e., fractions, decimals, and whole numbers) and whether understanding of these distinct notations may independently contribute to pre-algebra ability. In the current study, we investigated rational number magnitude and arithmetic performance in both fraction and decimal notation in fourth- to seventh-grade children. We then explored how these measures of rational number ability predicted pre-algebra ability. Results reveal that children do represent the magnitudes of fractions and decimals as falling within a single numerical continuum and that, despite greater experience with fraction notation, children are more accurate when processing decimal notation than when processing fraction notation. Regression analyses revealed that both magnitude and arithmetic performance predicted pre-algebra ability, but magnitude understanding may be particularly unique and depend on notation. The educational implications of differences between children in the current study and previous work with adults are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Algebra: A Challenge at the Crossroads of Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mary Kay; Kaufman, Julia Heath; Sherman, Milan; Hillen, Amy F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review what is known about early and universal algebra, including who is getting access to algebra and student outcomes associated with algebra course taking in general and specifically with universal algebra policies. The findings indicate that increasing numbers of students, some of whom are underprepared, are taking algebra earlier.…

  8. Discrimination and identification of long vowels in children with typical language development and specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Hia; Shafer, Valerie; Kurtzberg, Diane

    2004-05-01

    Researchers have claimed that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have particular difficulties in discriminating and identifying phonetically similar and brief speech sounds (Stark and Heinz, 1966; Studdert-Kennedy and Bradley, 1997; Sussman, 1993). In a recent study (Shafer et al., 2004), children with SLI were reported to have difficulty in processing brief (50 ms), phonetically similar vowels (/I-E/). The current study investigated perception of long (250 ms), phonetically similar vowels (/I-E/) in 8- to 10-year-old children with SLI and typical language development (TLD). The purpose was to examine whether phonetic similarity in vowels leads to poorer speech-perception in the SLI group. Behavioral and electrophysiological methods were employed to examine discrimination and identification of a nine-step vowel continuum from /I/ to /E/. Similar performances in discrimination were found for both groups, indicating that lengthening vowel duration indeed improves discrimination of phonetically similar vowels. However, these children with SLI showed poor behavioral identification, demonstrating that phonetic similarity of speech sounds, irrespective of their duration, contribute to the speech perception difficulty observed in SLI population. These findings suggest that the deficit in these children with SLI is at the level of working memory or long term memory representation of speech.

  9. Influence of Language Load on Speech Motor Skill in Children With Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletta, Meredith; Goffman, Lisa; Ward, Caitlin; Oleson, Jacob

    2018-03-15

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular deficits in the generation of sequenced action: the quintessential procedural task. Practiced imitation of a sequence may become rote and require reduced procedural memory. This study explored whether speech motor deficits in children with SLI occur generally or only in conditions of high linguistic load, whether speech motor deficits diminish with practice, and whether it is beneficial to incorporate conditions of high load to understand speech production. Children with SLI and typical development participated in a syntactic priming task during which they generated sentences (high linguistic load) and, then, practiced repeating a sentence (low load) across 3 sessions. We assessed phonetic accuracy, speech movement variability, and duration. Children with SLI produced more variable articulatory movements than peers with typical development in the high load condition. The groups converged in the low load condition. Children with SLI continued to show increased articulatory stability over 3 practice sessions. Both groups produced generated sentences with increased duration and variability compared with repeated sentences. Linguistic demands influence speech motor production. Children with SLI show reduced speech motor performance in tasks that require language generation but not when task demands are reduced in rote practice.

  10. Aberration studies and computer algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    The labour of calculating expressions for aberration coefficients is considerably lightened if a computer algebra language is used to perform the various substitutions and expansions involved. After a brief discussion of matrix representations of aberration coefficients, a particular language, which has shown itself to be well adapted to particle optics, is described and applied to the study of high frequency cavity lenses. (orig.)

  11. Teasing out specific language impairment from an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Cheryl D; Gupta, Vidya Bhushan; Angel, Alma Patricia Del; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2012-04-01

    Marcus is a handsome, sweet, 7½-year-old boy with a significant history of delayed development, specifically in speech and language skills, as well as difficulties with social interactions that have led other specialists to be concerned about a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder.He has been seen in our primary care practice since birth. He was born full-term after vaginal delivery weighing 6 pounds, 6 ounces. There were no pregnancy or delivery complications noted. Genetic testing revealed normal chromosomes, fragile X, and microarray testing. Marcus was a picky eater and good sleeper and had delays in toilet training.There is no family history of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, or substance abuse. Maternal grandmother and mother have a history of learning difficulties, and his father and a paternal uncle have a history of depression and anxiety. Marcus lives in a supportive environment with his mother, father, and sister.Marcus was noted to have significantly delayed language, stuttering, and immediate echolalia as a toddler. Gross and fine motor milestones were met on time, but he did not talk or follow directions until 4 to 5 years old. As a younger child, he would pretend to talk on the phone or mow the grass with a pretend lawn mower, but other household activities were not of interest to Marcus.Currently, he enjoys puzzles, reading, and board games. He likes to play with other children and can interact with familiar adults. Marcus is reported to initiate social interactions, although he has difficulty in understanding personal space. Imaginative play is preferred over other types. He seeks out adult attention and will bring objects over to an adult especially to share his perceived accomplishment. Marcus has difficulty in playing cooperatively with his sister.He is independent with activities of daily living. Marcus is noted to have auditory defensiveness including covering his ears to loud noises and becoming distressed

  12. Fetal head circumference growth in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Blair, Eve; Newnham, John P; Hickey, Martha

    2012-01-01

    To characterise fetal brain growth in children with specific language impairment (SLI). A nested case-control study. Perth, Western Australia. Thirty children meeting criteria for SLI at age 10 years were individually matched with a typically developing comparison child on sex, non-verbal ability, fetal gestational age, maternal age at conception, smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy. Occipitofrontal head circumference (HC) was measured using ultrasonography at approximately 18 weeks gestation. Femur length provided a measure of fetal length. Occipitofrontal HC was measured at birth and at the 1-year postnatal follow-up using a precise paper tape measure, while crown-heel length acted as an index of body length at both time points. Raw data were transformed to z-scores using reference norms. The SLI group had a significantly smaller mean HC than the typically developing comparison children at birth, but there was no group difference at 18 weeks gestation or at the 1-year postnatal follow-up. Individual analyses found that 12 SLI children had an HC z-score less than -1 at birth, with three of these cases meeting criteria for microcephaly. There was no group difference in the indices of overall body size at any time point. Children with SLI are more likely to have a small HC at birth but not at 18 weeks gestation or infancy, suggesting growth asynchrony in brain development during the second half of pregnancy.

  13. Cognitive functions in preschool children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Katrin; Bastian, Laura; Rohrbach, Saskia; Gross, Manfred; Sarrar, Lea

    2016-07-01

    A growing body of research has focused on executive functions in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, results show limited convergence, particularly in preschool age. The current neuropsychological study compared performance of cognitive functions focused on executive components and working memory in preschool children with SLI to typically developing controls. Performance on the measures cognitive flexibility, inhibition, processing speed and phonological short-term memory was assessed. The monolingual, Caucasian study sample consisted of 30 children with SLI (Mage = 63.3 months, SD = 4.3 months) and 30 healthy controls (Mage = 62.2 months, SD = 3.7 months). Groups were matched for age and nonverbal IQ. Socioeconomic status of the participating families was included. Children with SLI had significantly poorer abilities of phonological short-term memory than matched controls. A tendency of poorer abilities in the SLI group was found for inhibition and processing speed. We confirmed phonological short-term memory to be a reliable marker of SLI in preschoolers. Our results do not give definite support for impaired executive function in SLI, possibly owing to limited sensitivity of test instruments in this age group. We argue for a standardization of executive function tests for research use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Language-specific memory for everyday arithmetic facts in Chinese-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yalin; Yanke, Jill; Campbell, Jamie I D

    2016-04-01

    The role of language in memory for arithmetic facts remains controversial. Here, we examined transfer of memory training for evidence that bilinguals may acquire language-specific memory stores for everyday arithmetic facts. Chinese-English bilingual adults (n = 32) were trained on different subsets of simple addition and multiplication problems. Each operation was trained in one language or the other. The subsequent test phase included all problems with addition and multiplication alternating across trials in two blocks, one in each language. Averaging over training language, the response time (RT) gains for trained problems relative to untrained problems were greater in the trained language than in the untrained language. Subsequent analysis showed that English training produced larger RT gains for trained problems relative to untrained problems in English at test relative to the untrained Chinese language. In contrast, there was no evidence with Chinese training that problem-specific RT gains differed between Chinese and the untrained English language. We propose that training in Chinese promoted a translation strategy for English arithmetic (particularly multiplication) that produced strong cross-language generalization of practice, whereas training in English strengthened relatively weak, English-language arithmetic memories and produced little generalization to Chinese (i.e., English training did not induce an English translation strategy for Chinese language trials). The results support the existence of language-specific strengthening of memory for everyday arithmetic facts.

  15. Universality versus language-specificity in listening to running speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Demuth, K.; McQueen, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Recognizing spoken language involves automatic activation of multiple candidate words. The process of selection between candidates is made more efficient by inhibition of embedded words (like egg in beg) which leave a portion of the input stranded (here, b). Results from European languages suggest

  16. Recovering grammar relationships for the Java language specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lämmel (Ralf); V. Zaytsev (Vadim)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGrammar convergence is a method that helps in discovering relationships between different grammars of the same language or different language versions. The key element of the method is the operational, transformation-based representation of those relationships. Given input grammars for

  17. Specific language impairment as a syntax-phonology (PF) interface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whereas these authors attribute the language problems of children with SLI to ... know enough, in the externalisation process of getting it out into the sensory motor system” (Chomsky 2010:21). ... limits; and one was in a school for children with general and language learning difficulties. ...... competence across populations.

  18. A Simple and Practical Linear Algebra Library Interface with Static Size Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Abe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear algebra is a major field of numerical computation and is widely applied. Most linear algebra libraries (in most programming languages do not statically guarantee consistency of the dimensions of vectors and matrices, causing runtime errors. While advanced type systems—specifically, dependent types on natural numbers—can ensure consistency among the sizes of collections such as lists and arrays, such type systems generally require non-trivial changes to existing languages and application programs, or tricky type-level programming. We have developed a linear algebra library interface that verifies the consistency (with respect to dimensions of matrix operations by means of generative phantom types, implemented via fairly standard ML types and module system. To evaluate its usability, we ported to it a practical machine learning library from a traditional linear algebra library. We found that most of the changes required for the porting could be made mechanically, and changes that needed human thought are minor.

  19. Imitation of Body Postures and Hand Movements in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Within the domain-general theory of language impairment, this study examined body posture and hand movement imitation in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and in their age-matched peers. Participants included 40 children with SLI (5 years 3 months to 6 years 10 months of age) and 40 children with typical language development (5…

  20. Memory Functioning and Mental Verbs Acquisition in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George C.; Natsopoulos, Demetrios

    2011-01-01

    Memory and language operate in synergy. Recent literature stresses the importance of memory functioning in interpreting language deficits. Two groups of 50 children each, ages 8-12 were studied. The first group included children with specific language impairment, while the participants in the second group were typically developing children. The…

  1. Spoken Word Recognition in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Spoken word recognition, during gating, appears intact in specific language impairment (SLI). This study used gating to investigate the process in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (ALI). Adolescents with ALI, SLI, and typical language development (TLD), matched on nonverbal IQ listened to gated words that varied…

  2. Txt Lang: Texting, Textism Use and Literacy Abilities in Adolescents with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, K.; Conti-Ramsden, G.; Walker, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined text messaging in adolescence, in particular relationships among textism use, language and literacy skills. Forty-seven typically developing (TD) 17-year-olds and 47 adolescents of the same age with specific language impairment (SLI) participated. Participants completed standardised assessments of cognitive, language and…

  3. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler…

  4. The perception and expression of verb morphology in bilinguals with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourieh Ahadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Most of the researches are about bilingual children with specific language impairment and importance of it in recognition and treatment. This study aimed to assess verb morphology in bilinguals with specific language impairment (SLI and compare them with normal bilinguals.Methods: Six bilingual (Azeri and Persian children with specific language impairment at the age of 7-8 years were collected from clinics of Tehran, Iran. They were evaluated about verb morphology using narrative speech and specific language impairment test and then, compared with six age-matched and six other language-matched children as control group. Children with specific language impairment were diagnosed by exhibiting a significant delay (more than one year in language that can not be explained by intelligence deficits, hearing loss or visual impairment. We used Man-Whitney test for comparing the groups.Results: Bilingual children with specific language impairment had delay in comparison with their age-matched group in subject-verb agreement (p=0.020 and articulating tense morphemes (p=0.019. They also had meaningful delay in using proper tense of verbs (past, present, and future in comparison with language-matched control group (p=0.029.Conclusion: Comparison of typical development of bilingual children and bilinguals with specific language impairment shows that verb morphology is a good clinical marker for diagnosing and treatment of these children.

  5. College algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Kolman, Bernard

    1985-01-01

    College Algebra, Second Edition is a comprehensive presentation of the fundamental concepts and techniques of algebra. The book incorporates some improvements from the previous edition to provide a better learning experience. It provides sufficient materials for use in the study of college algebra. It contains chapters that are devoted to various mathematical concepts, such as the real number system, the theory of polynomial equations, exponential and logarithmic functions, and the geometric definition of each conic section. Progress checks, warnings, and features are inserted. Every chapter c

  6. Deficits in narrative abilities in child British Sign Language users with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Ros; Rowley, Katherine; Mason, Kathryn; Morgan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This study details the first ever investigation of narrative skills in a group of 17 deaf signing children who have been diagnosed with disorders in their British Sign Language development compared with a control group of 17 deaf child signers matched for age, gender, education, quantity, and quality of language exposure and non-verbal intelligence. Children were asked to generate a narrative based on events in a language free video. Narratives were analysed for global structure, information content and local level grammatical devices, especially verb morphology. The language-impaired group produced shorter, less structured and grammatically simpler narratives than controls, with verb morphology particularly impaired. Despite major differences in how sign and spoken languages are articulated, narrative is shown to be a reliable marker of language impairment across the modality boundaries. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  7. Phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in children with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haresabadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impairment (SLI, one variety of developmental language disorder, has attracted much interest in recent decades. Much research has been conducted to discover why some children have a specific language impairment. So far, research has failed to identify a reason for this linguistic deficiency. Some researchers believe language disorder causes defects in phonological working memory and affects auditory processing speed. Therefore, this study reviews the results of research investigating these two factors in children with specific language impairment.Recent Findings: Studies have shown that children with specific language impairment face constraints in phonological working memory capacity. Memory deficit is one possible cause of linguistic disorder in children with specific language impairment. However, in these children, disorder in information processing speed is observed, especially regarding the auditory aspect.Conclusion: Much more research is required to adequately explain the relationship between phonological working memory and auditory processing speed with language. However, given the role of phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in language acquisition, a focus should be placed on phonological working memory capacity and auditory processing speed in the assessment and treatment of children with a specific language impairment.

  8. How Intuition and Language Use Relate to Students' Understanding of Span and Linear Independence in an Elementary Linear Algebra Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Catherine Frieda

    2010-01-01

    A possible contributing factor to students' difficulty in learning advanced mathematics is the conflict between students' "natural" learning styles and the formal structure of mathematics, which is based on definitions, theorems, and proofs. Students' natural learning styles may be a function of their intuition and language skills. The purpose of…

  9. WORM: A general-purpose input deck specification language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.

    1999-01-01

    Using computer codes to perform criticality safety calculations has become common practice in the industry. The vast majority of these codes use simple text-based input decks to represent the geometry, materials, and other parameters that describe the problem. However, the data specified in input files are usually processed results themselves. For example, input decks tend to require the geometry specification in linear dimensions and materials in atom or weight fractions, while the parameter of interest might be mass or concentration. The calculations needed to convert from the item of interest to the required parameter in the input deck are usually performed separately and then incorporated into the input deck. This process of calculating, editing, and renaming files to perform a simple parameter study is tedious at best. In addition, most computer codes require dimensions to be specified in centimeters, while drawings or other materials used to create the input decks might be in other units. This also requires additional calculation or conversion prior to composition of the input deck. These additional calculations, while extremely simple, introduce a source for error in both the calculations and transcriptions. To overcome these difficulties, WORM (Write One, Run Many) was created. It is an easy-to-use programming language to describe input decks and can be used with any computer code that uses standard text files for input. WORM is available, via the Internet, at worm.lanl.gov. A user's guide, tutorials, example models, and other WORM-related materials are also available at this Web site. Questions regarding WORM should be directed to wormatlanl.gov

  10. A domain specific language for performance portable molecular dynamics algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, William Robert; Grant, James; Müller, Eike Hermann

    2018-03-01

    Developers of Molecular Dynamics (MD) codes face significant challenges when adapting existing simulation packages to new hardware. In a continuously diversifying hardware landscape it becomes increasingly difficult for scientists to be experts both in their own domain (physics/chemistry/biology) and specialists in the low level parallelisation and optimisation of their codes. To address this challenge, we describe a "Separation of Concerns" approach for the development of parallel and optimised MD codes: the science specialist writes code at a high abstraction level in a domain specific language (DSL), which is then translated into efficient computer code by a scientific programmer. In a related context, an abstraction for the solution of partial differential equations with grid based methods has recently been implemented in the (Py)OP2 library. Inspired by this approach, we develop a Python code generation system for molecular dynamics simulations on different parallel architectures, including massively parallel distributed memory systems and GPUs. We demonstrate the efficiency of the auto-generated code by studying its performance and scalability on different hardware and compare it to other state-of-the-art simulation packages. With growing data volumes the extraction of physically meaningful information from the simulation becomes increasingly challenging and requires equally efficient implementations. A particular advantage of our approach is the easy expression of such analysis algorithms. We consider two popular methods for deducing the crystalline structure of a material from the local environment of each atom, show how they can be expressed in our abstraction and implement them in the code generation framework.

  11. Working memory and sentence comprehension of Hong Kong Chinese children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Elaine; Man, David W K

    2006-09-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment present with delayed language development, but do not have a history of hearing impairment, mental deficiency, or associated social or behavioral problems. Non-word repetition was suggested as an index to reflect the capacity of phonological working memory. There is a paucity of such studies among Hong Kong Chinese children. This preliminary study aimed to examine the relationship between phonological working memory and Specific Language Impairment, through the processes of non-word repetition and sentence comprehension, of children with Specific Language Impairment and pre-school children with normal language development. Both groups of children were screened by a standardized language test. A list of Cantonese (the commonest dialect used in Hong Kong) multisyllabic nonsense utterances and a set of 18 sentences were developed for this study. t-tests and Pearson correlation were used to study the relationship between non-word repetition, working memory and specific language impairment. Twenty-three pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (mean age = 68.30 months; SD = 6.90) and another 23 pre-school children (mean age = 67.30 months; SD = 6.16) participated in the study. Significant difference performance was found between the Specific Language Impairment group and normal language group in the multisyllabic nonsense utterances repetition task and the sentence comprehension task. Length effect was noted in Specific Language Impairment group children, which is consistent with the findings of other literature. In addition, correlations were also observed between the number of nonsense utterances repeated and the number of elements comprehended. Cantonese multisyllabic nonsense utterances might be worth further developing as a screening tool for the early detection of children with Specific Language Impairment.

  12. Algebraic entropy for algebraic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, A N W; Ragnisco, Orlando; Zullo, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We propose an extension of the concept of algebraic entropy, as introduced by Bellon and Viallet for rational maps, to algebraic maps (or correspondences) of a certain kind. The corresponding entropy is an index of the complexity of the map. The definition inherits the basic properties from the definition of entropy for rational maps. We give an example with positive entropy, as well as two examples taken from the theory of Bäcklund transformations. (letter)

  13. Hidden Language Impairments in Children: Parallels between Poor Reading Comprehension and Specific Language Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kate; Clarke, Paula; Marshall, Catherine M.; Durand, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the oral language skills of 8-year-old children with impaired reading comprehension. Despite fluent and accurate reading and normal nonverbal ability, these children are poor at understanding what they have read. Tasks tapping 3 domains of oral language, namely phonology, semantics, and morphosyntax, were administered,…

  14. Preschool Language Profiles of Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia: Continuities with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles; Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children at family risk of dyslexia have been reported to show phonological deficits as well as broader language delays in the preschool years. Method: The preschool language skills of 112 children at family risk of dyslexia (FR) at ages 3½ and 4½ were compared with those of children with SLI and typically developing (TD) controls.…

  15. Assessment of second language proficiency in bilingual children with specific language impairment: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; van Balkom, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine to what extent the conditions of restricted input of L2 and SLI have an additive impact on language acquisition. Therefore, the Dutch language achievement of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old bilingual children with SLI was compared with that of typically developing monolingual Dutch children, typically developing bilingual children, and monolingual Dutch children with SLI. Assuming that speaking a language in varying environments involves distinct subskills that can be acquired in differential patterns, the achievement of phonological, lexical, morphosyntactic and textual abilities were assessed separately. For each of these abilities, it was determined to what extent the conditions of restricted input (first vs. second language) and language deficit (typically developing vs. SLI) cause stagnation or a delay in language acquisition. Bilingual children with SLI perform at a lower level than the other groups in almost all aspects of achievement in Dutch. For language tasks related to the mental lexicon and grammar, an additional disadvantage was evidenced as a result of the combination of learning Dutch as second language and having SLI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MATLAB matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez López, César

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Matrix Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. Starting with a look at symbolic and numeric variables, with an emphasis on vector and matrix variables, you will go on to examine functions and operations that support vectors and matrices as arguments, including those based on analytic parent functions. Computational methods for finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices are detailed, leading to various matrix decompositions. Applications such as change of bases, the classification of quadratic forms and ...

  17. Several complex variables and Banach algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper aims to present certain applications of the theory of holomorphic functions of several complex variables to the study of commutative Banach algebras. The material falls into the following sections: (A) Introcution to Banach algebras (this will not presuppose any knowledge of the subject); (B) Groups of differential forms (mainly concerned with setting up a useful language); (C) Polynomially convex domains. (D) Holomorphic functional calculus for Banach algebras; (E) Some applications of the functional calculus. (author)

  18. Conceptual language models for domain-specific retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Trieschnigg, D.; de Rijke, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, various meta-languages have been used to manually enrich documents with conceptual knowledge of some kind. Examples include keyword assignment to citations or, more recently, tags to websites. In this paper we propose generative concept models as an extension to query modeling within

  19. Legal Language – a Cultural Ambassador. A Language for Various Purposes, not only a Language for Specific Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita

    2014-01-01

    to another. It means also overcoming the typical blindness to one’s own culture. The Spanish-Danish Legal Language course introduces Danish language students to a new world of cultural knowledge, as they generally have insignificant knowledge of Danish law and the Danish legal system. Furthermore, they have......KONFERENCE SINGAPORE Culture-related competence Courses in comparative Spanish -Danish legal language: A cultural Kinder egg? Learning comparative legal language is not only a question of linguistic competence, but it is also cultural training in which the students achieve culture......-related competences as culture is implicitly embedded in many legal terms in the shape of historical, societal and legal knowledge from two different worlds. Students need to understand these legal terms, fixed expressions, metaphors, collocations, etc. in order to be able to translate from one legal language/culture...

  20. Sequence-specific procedural learning deficits in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-05-01

    This study tested the procedural deficit hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) by comparing children's performance in two motor procedural learning tasks and an implicit verbal sequence learning task. Participants were 7- to 11-year-old children with SLI (n = 48), typically developing age-matched children (n = 20) and younger typically developing children matched for receptive grammar (n = 28). In a serial reaction time task, the children with SLI performed at the same level as the grammar-matched children, but poorer than age-matched controls in learning motor sequences. When tested with a motor procedural learning task that did not involve learning sequential relationships between discrete elements (i.e. pursuit rotor), the children with SLI performed comparably with age-matched children and better than younger grammar-matched controls. In addition, poor implicit learning of word sequences in a verbal memory task (the Hebb effect) was found in the children with SLI. Together, these findings suggest that SLI might be characterized by deficits in learning sequence-specific information, rather than generally weak procedural learning. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Algebraic computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCallum, M.A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The implementation of a new computer algebra system is time consuming: designers of general purpose algebra systems usually say it takes about 50 man-years to create a mature and fully functional system. Hence the range of available systems and their capabilities changes little between one general relativity meeting and the next, despite which there have been significant changes in the period since the last report. The introductory remarks aim to give a brief survey of capabilities of the principal available systems and highlight one or two trends. The reference to the most recent full survey of computer algebra in relativity and brief descriptions of the Maple, REDUCE and SHEEP and other applications are given. (author)

  2. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  3. HAL/SM language specification. [programming languages and computer programming for space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. P. W., Jr.; Ross, C.

    1975-01-01

    A programming language is presented for the flight software of the NASA Space Shuttle program. It is intended to satisfy virtually all of the flight software requirements of the space shuttle. To achieve this, it incorporates a wide range of features, including applications-oriented data types and organizations, real time control mechanisms, and constructs for systems programming tasks. It is a higher order language designed to allow programmers, analysts, and engineers to communicate with the computer in a form approximating natural mathematical expression. Parts of the English language are combined with standard notation to provide a tool that readily encourages programming without demanding computer hardware expertise. Block diagrams and flow charts are included. The semantics of the language is discussed.

  4. [Multilingualism and child psychiatry: on differential diagnoses of language disorder, specific learning disorder, and selective mutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Multilingualism poses unique psychiatric problems, especially in the field of child psychiatry. The author discusses several linguistic and transcultural issues in relation to Language Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder and Selective Mutism. Linguistic characteristics of multiple language development, including so-called profile effects and code-switching, need to be understood for differential diagnosis. It is also emphasized that Language Disorder in a bilingual person is not different or worse than that in a monolingual person. Second language proficiency, cultural background and transfer from the first language all need to be considered in an evaluation for Specific Learning Disorder. Selective Mutism has to be differentiated from the silent period observed in the normal successive bilingual development. The author concludes the review by remarking on some caveats around methods of language evaluation in a multilingual person.

  5. A process algebra software engineering environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diertens, B.

    2008-01-01

    In previous work we described how the process algebra based language PSF can be used in software engineering, using the ToolBus, a coordination architecture also based on process algebra, as implementation model. In this article we summarize that work and describe the software development process

  6. XAL: An algebra for XML query optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frasincar, F.; Houben, G.J.P.M.; Pau, C.D.; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes XAL, an XML ALgebra. Its novelty is based on the simplicity of its data model and its well-defined logical operators, which makes it suitable for composability, optimizability, and semantics definition of a query language for XML data. At the heart of the algebra resides the

  7. Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Nathan

    1979-01-01

    Lie group theory, developed by M. Sophus Lie in the 19th century, ranks among the more important developments in modern mathematics. Lie algebras comprise a significant part of Lie group theory and are being actively studied today. This book, by Professor Nathan Jacobson of Yale, is the definitive treatment of the subject and can be used as a textbook for graduate courses.Chapter I introduces basic concepts that are necessary for an understanding of structure theory, while the following three chapters present the theory itself: solvable and nilpotent Lie algebras, Carlan's criterion and its

  8. Basic algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    A classic text and standard reference for a generation, this volume and its companion are the work of an expert algebraist who taught at Yale for two decades. Nathan Jacobson's books possess a conceptual and theoretical orientation, and in addition to their value as classroom texts, they serve as valuable references.Volume I explores all of the topics typically covered in undergraduate courses, including the rudiments of set theory, group theory, rings, modules, Galois theory, polynomials, linear algebra, and associative algebra. Its comprehensive treatment extends to such rigorous topics as L

  9. Automatic Requirements Specification Extraction from Natural Language (ARSENAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    studies: the Time-Triggered Ethernet (TTEthernet) communication platform used in space, and FAA-Isolette infant incubators used in NICU . We...in space, and FAA-Isolette infant incubators used in Neonatal Intensive Care Units ( NICUs ). We systematically evalu- ated various aspects of ARSENAL...effect, we present the ARSENAL methodology. ARSENAL uses state-of-the-art advances in natural language processing (NLP) and formal methods (FM) to

  10. Vertex algebras and mirror symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Mirror Symmetry for Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in toric varieties is by now well established. However, previous approaches to it did not uncover the underlying reason for mirror varieties to be mirror. We are able to calculate explicitly vertex algebras that correspond to holomorphic parts of A and B models of Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces and complete intersections in toric varieties. We establish the relation between these vertex algebras for mirror Calabi-Yau manifolds. This should eventually allow us to rewrite the whole story of toric mirror symmetry in the language of sheaves of vertex algebras. Our approach is purely algebraic and involves simple techniques from toric geometry and homological algebra, as well as some basic results of the theory of vertex algebras. Ideas of this paper may also be useful in other problems related to maps from curves to algebraic varieties.This paper could also be of interest to physicists, because it contains explicit description of holomorphic parts of A and B models of Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces and complete intersections in terms of free bosons and fermions. (orig.)

  11. Principles of algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Phillip A

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive, self-contained treatment presenting general results of the theory. Establishes a geometric intuition and a working facility with specific geometric practices. Emphasizes applications through the study of interesting examples and the development of computational tools. Coverage ranges from analytic to geometric. Treats basic techniques and results of complex manifold theory, focusing on results applicable to projective varieties, and includes discussion of the theory of Riemann surfaces and algebraic curves, algebraic surfaces and the quadric line complex as well as special top

  12. Polymorphism and Module-Reuse Mechanisms for Algebraic Petri Nets in CoopnTools

    OpenAIRE

    Buffo, Mathieu; Buchs, Didier; Donatelli, S.; Kleijn, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces CoopnTools, a tool set allowing the support of object-oriented specifications written by means of the language CO-OPN/2, based on synchronised algebraic Petri nets. In particular, this paper shows how concrete mechanisms dealing with polymorphism and module-reuse are implemented in CoopnTools.

  13. ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion - 6. How Architectural Features Affect. Building During Earthquakes? C VRMurty. 48 Turbulence and Dispersion. K 5 Gandhi. BOOK REVIEWS. 86 Algebraic Topology. Siddhartha Gadgil. Front Cover. - .. ..-.......... -. Back Cover. Two-dimensional vertical section through a turbulent plume. (Courtesy: G S Shat, CAOS, IISc.).

  14. Algebraic stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deligne, Mumford and Artin [DM, Ar2]) and consider algebraic stacks, then we can cons- truct the 'moduli ... the moduli scheme and the moduli stack of vector bundles. First I will give ... 1–31. © Printed in India. 1 ...... Cultura, Spain. References.

  15. Specific developmental disorders. The language-learning continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, L K

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this article is to inform and educate those who work with children who present with language-learning disorders about phonologic processing deficits, because this area has been shown to have a significant impact on children and adults who exhibit reading disabilities. Mental health professionals who work with children with reading problems need to be aware of what is known about this source of reading disorders and the implications of this knowledge for prevention and treatment. Advocating for appropriate instruction for children with reading problems is an important role mental health professionals can play in working with this population.

  16. Implementing domain-specific languages with Xtext and Xtend

    CERN Document Server

    Bettini, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide that enables you to quickly implement a DSL with Xtext and Xtend in a test-driven way with the aid of simplified examples.This book is for programmers who want to learn about Xtext and how to use it to implement a DSL (or a programming language) together with Eclipse IDE tooling. It assumes that the user is familiar with Eclipse and its functionality. Existing basic knowledge of a compiler implementation would be useful, though not strictly required, since the book will explain all the stages of the development of a DSL.

  17. Methods and Techniques for the Design and Implementation of Domain-Specific Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) are programming language aimed at a particular problem domain, e.g. banking, database querying or website page lay-outs. Through the use of high-level concepts, a DSL raises the level of abstraction and expressive power of the programmer, and reduces the size of

  18. Utility of the Spelling Sensitivity Score to Analyze Spellings of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Krimm, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Spelling Sensitivity Score (SSS) beyond percentage correct scoring in analyzing the spellings of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Participants were 31 children with SLI and 28 children with typical language in grades 2-4. Spellings of individual words were scored using…

  19. Declarative and Procedural Memory in Danish Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Bleses, Dorthe

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the language problems in specific language impairment (SLI) arise from basal ganglia abnormalities that lead to impairments with procedural and working memory but not declarative memory. In SLI, this profile of memory functioning has been hypothesized to underlie grammatical impairment but leave lexical knowledge…

  20. Connective processing by bilingual children and monolinguals with specific language impairment : distinct profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, W.M.; Tribushinina, E.; Lomako, Julia; Gagarina, N.; Abrosova, Ekaterina; Sanders, T.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Production studies show that both Russian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual children for whom Russian is a non-dominant language have difficulty distinguishing between the near-synonymous connectives i ‘and’ and a ‘and/but’. I is a preferred connective when

  1. Tense Marking and Spontaneous Speech Measures in Spanish Specific Language Impairment: A Discriminant Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, John; Baron, Alisa; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; De la Mora, Juliana; Cantu-Sanchez, Myriam; Flores, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the proposal that the tense deficit that has been demonstrated for children with specific language impairment (SLI) in other languages is also found in child Spanish and that low performance on tense-related measures can distinguish Spanish-speaking children with SLI from those without. Method: The authors evaluated evidence from…

  2. Working Memory and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Archibald, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The authors compared 6- to 11-year-olds with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with specific language impairment (SLI) on measures of memory (verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory) and learning (reading and mathematics). Children with DCD with typical language skills were impaired in all four areas of memory…

  3. Discipline-Specific Language Instruction for International Students in Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trien T.; Williams, Julia; Trimarchi, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores student perceptions of the effects of pairing discipline-specific language instruction with the traditional method of course delivery in economics. Our research involved teaching content-based English as an additional language (EAL) tutorials to a small group of ten international students taking first-year introductory…

  4. Auxiliary BE Production by African American English-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine 3 forms ("am," "is," "are") of auxiliary BE production by African American English (AAE)-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Thirty AAE speakers participated: 10 six-year-olds with SLI, 10 age-matched controls, and 10 language-matched controls. BE production was examined through…

  5. (Dis)connections between Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; Kidd, Joanna C.; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are found to co-occur in school-aged children learning Chinese, a non-alphabetic language (Wong, Kidd, Ho, & Au in "Sci Stud Read" 14:30--57, 2010). This paper examined the "Distinct" hypothesis--that SLI and dyslexia have different cognitive deficits and behavioural…

  6. Cognitive and Linguistic Precursors to Early Literacy Achievement in Children With Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of cognitive and language skills as predictors of early literacy skills in children with Specific Language Impairment. A range of cognitive and linguistic skills were assessed in a sample of 137 eight-year-old children with SLI at the beginning of the school year,

  7. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  8. Teaching Foreign Languages to Pupils with Specific Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    VOLDÁNOVÁ, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the topic of specific learning disability. In the theoretical part I define the term specific learning disability and I mention the related terms. I deal with the history, types and causes of specific learning disability, further I describe the possibilities of diagnostics and re-education concerning specific learning disability. I also attend to the situation of a pupil in the family and school background. The main attention is especially paid to teaching forei...

  9. A Domain Specific Embedded Language in C++ for Automatic Differentiation, Projection, Integration and Variational Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Prud'homme

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a domain specific embedded language in C++ that can be used in various contexts such as numerical projection onto a functional space, numerical integration, variational formulations and automatic differentiation. Albeit these tools operate in different ways, the language overcomes this difficulty by decoupling expression constructions from evaluation. The language is implemented using expression templates and meta-programming techniques and uses various Boost libraries. The language is exercised on a number of non-trivial examples and a benchmark presents the performance behavior on a few test problems.

  10. Differentiating Second Language Acquisition from Specific Learning Disability: An Observational Tool Assessing Dual Language Learners' Pragmatic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Overrepresentation of Dual Language Learners (DLLs) in special education remains a problem even after 40 years of inquiry. One factor is that the U.S. federal government has neither clearly explained the definition of Specific Learning Disability (SLD) nor operationally defined it to identify children for special education services. This lack of…

  11. LANGUAGE LABORATORY SPECIFICATIONS. A PROCUREMENT GUIDE FOR THE PURCHASE OF LANGUAGE LABORATORY INSTALLATIONS IN WISCONSIN, NDEA, TITLE III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRITTNER, FRANK; PAVLAT, RUSSELL

    THE KNOWLEDGE ACCUMULATED FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF INSTALLING MANY LANGUAGE LABORATORIES UNDER THE TITLE III, NDEA PROGRAM FORMS THE BASIS FOR THE GUIDELINES PRESENTED IN THIS BULLETIN. THE DOCUMENT INCLUDES A SUMMARY OF CONDITIONS DESIRABLE PRIOR TO THE PURCHASE OF A LABORATORY, SAMPLE SPECIFICATIONS FOR EACH COMPONENT OF THE LAB, SPECIFICATIONS…

  12. Elements of algebraic coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso da Rocha, Jr, Valdemar

    2014-01-01

    Elements of Algebraic Coding Systems is an introductory text to algebraic coding theory. In the first chapter, you'll gain inside knowledge of coding fundamentals, which is essential for a deeper understanding of state-of-the-art coding systems. This book is a quick reference for those who are unfamiliar with this topic, as well as for use with specific applications such as cryptography and communication. Linear error-correcting block codes through elementary principles span eleven chapters of the text. Cyclic codes, some finite field algebra, Goppa codes, algebraic decoding algorithms, and applications in public-key cryptography and secret-key cryptography are discussed, including problems and solutions at the end of each chapter. Three appendices cover the Gilbert bound and some related derivations, a derivation of the Mac- Williams' identities based on the probability of undetected error, and two important tools for algebraic decoding-namely, the finite field Fourier transform and the Euclidean algorithm f...

  13. Analogical reasoning in children with specific language impairment: Evidence from a scene analogy task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemien, Magali; Jemel, Boutheina; Maillart, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a human ability that maps systems of relations. It develops along with relational knowledge, working memory and executive functions such as inhibition. It also maintains a mutual influence on language development. Some authors have taken a greater interest in the analogical reasoning ability of children with language disorders, specifically those with specific language impairment (SLI). These children apparently have weaker analogical reasoning abilities than their aged-matched peers without language disorders. Following cognitive theories of language acquisition, this deficit could be one of the causes of language disorders in SLI, especially those concerning productivity. To confirm this deficit and its link to language disorders, we use a scene analogy task to evaluate the analogical performance of SLI children and compare them to controls of the same age and linguistic abilities. Results show that children with SLI perform worse than age-matched peers, but similar to language-matched peers. They are more influenced by increased task difficulty. The association between language disorders and analogical reasoning in SLI can be confirmed. The hypothesis of limited processing capacity in SLI is also being considered.

  14. Declarative capacity does not trade-off with procedural capacity in children with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengottuvel Kuppuraj

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims The procedural deficit hypothesis attributes the language phenotype in children with specific language impairment to an impaired procedural and relatively intact declarative memory system. The declarative compensatory hypothesis is an extension of the procedural deficit hypothesis which claims that the declarative system in specific language impairment compensates for the procedural deficit. The present study’s aim was to examine the claims of the procedural deficit hypothesis and declarative compensatory hypothesis by examining these memory systems and relation between them in specific language impairment. Methods Participants were children aged 8–13 years, 30 with specific language impairment and 30 typically developing controls, who spoke Kannada (an agglutinating language of the Dravidian family. Procedural learning was assessed using a serial reaction time task. Declarative memory was assessed using two non-verbal tasks that differed at the level of encoding and retrieval: a recognition memory task after incidental encoding using real and novel object images and a recall task after intentional encoding using visual paired associates. Retrieval was examined after short (10 min and long (60 min delays after encoding on both declarative tasks. Results Findings confirmed that children with specific language impairment (SLI have impaired procedural memory on a non-verbal serial reaction time task. On recognition memory task after incidental encoding though children with specific language impairment encoded less well, they recognized items as well as typically developing controls. Both the groups retrieved more at short compared to long intervals and retrieved real (verbalizable objects better than novel objects. On visual paired associates (recall task with intentional encoding children with specific language impairment retrieved less than typically developing children (even after controlling for non-verbal ability

  15. Communicative Language Testing: Implications for Computer Based Language Testing in French for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Laborda, Jesús; López Santiago, Mercedes; Otero de Juan, Nuria; Álvarez Álvarez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Current evolutions of language testing have led to integrating computers in FSP assessments both in oral and written communicative tasks. This paper deals with two main issues: learners' expectations about the types of questions in FSP computer based assessments and the relation with their own experience. This paper describes the experience of 23…

  16. Preschool language profiles of children at family risk of dyslexia: continuities with specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles; Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children at family risk of dyslexia have been reported to show phonological deficits as well as broader language delays in the preschool years. Method The preschool language skills of 112 children at family risk of dyslexia (FR) at ages 3½ and 4½ were compared with those of children with SLI and typically developing (TD) controls. Results Children at FR showed two different profiles: one third of the group resembled the children with SLI and scored poorly across multiple domains of language including phonology. As a group, the remaining children had difficulties on tasks tapping phonological skills at T1 and T2. At the individual level, we confirmed that some FR children had both phonological and broader oral language difficulties (compared with TD controls), some had only phonological difficulties and some appeared to be developing typically. Conclusions We have highlighted the early overlap between family risk of dyslexia and SLI. A family history of dyslexia carries an increased risk for SLI and the two disorders both show an increased incidence of phonological deficits which appear to a proximal risk factor for developing a reading impairment. PMID:23772651

  17. Parsing with Regular Expressions & Extensions to Kleene Algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathwohl, Niels Bjørn Bugge

    . In the second part of this thesis, we study two extensions to Kleene algebra. Chomsky algebra is an algebra with a structure similar to Kleene algebra, but with a generalized mu-operator for recursion instead of the Kleene star. We show that the axioms of idempotent semirings along with continuity of the mu......-operator completely axiomatize the equational theory of the context-free languages. KAT+B! is an extension to Kleene algebra with tests (KAT) that adds mutable state. We describe a test algebra B! for mutable tests and give a commutative coproduct between KATs. Combining the axioms of B! with those of KAT and some...

  18. Brain responses in 4-month-old infants are already language specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederici, Angela D; Friedrich, Manuela; Christophe, Anne

    2007-07-17

    Language is the most important faculty that distinguishes humans from other animals. Infants learn their native language fast and effortlessly during the first years of life, as a function of the linguistic input in their environment. Behavioral studies reported the discrimination of melodic contours [1] and stress patterns [2, 3] in 1-4-month-olds. Behavioral [4, 5] and brain measures [6-8] have shown language-independent discrimination of phonetic contrasts at that age. Language-specific discrimination, however, has been reported for phonetic contrasts only for 6-12-month-olds [9-12]. Here we demonstrate language-specific discrimination of stress patterns in 4-month-old German and French infants by using electrophysiological brain measures. We compare the processing of disyllabic words differing in their rhythmic structure, mimicking German words being stressed on the first syllable, e.g., pápa/daddy[13], and French ones being stressed on the second syllable, e.g., papá/daddy. Event-related brain potentials reveal that experience with German and French differentially affects the brain responses of 4-month-old infants, with each language group displaying a processing advantage for the rhythmic structure typical in its native language. These data indicate language-specific neural representations of word forms in the infant brain as early as 4 months of age.

  19. A Note on Intelligence Assessment within Studies of Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarata, Stephen; Swisher, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Research procedures used to evaluate the intelligence of children with specific language impairment are reviewed. Almost half of the 167 studies did not include adequate descriptions of intelligence assessment. (Author/JDD)

  20. ViSlang: A system for interpreted domain-specific languages for scientific visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Rautek, Peter; Bruckner, Stefan; Grö ller, Meister Eduard; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    -level interface). In this paper we present a system that integrates domain-specific languages (DSLs) and facilitates the creation of new DSLs. DSLs provide an effective interface for domain scientists avoiding the difficulties involved with low-level interfaces

  1. Algebraic characterizations of measure algebras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jech, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 4 (2008), s. 1285-1294 ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Von - Neumann * sequential topology * Boolean-algebras * Souslins problem * Submeasures Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.584, year: 2008

  2. Quantum W-algebras and elliptic algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigin, B.; Kyoto Univ.; Frenkel, E.

    1996-01-01

    We define a quantum W-algebra associated to sl N as an associative algebra depending on two parameters. For special values of the parameters, this algebra becomes the ordinary W-algebra of sl N , or the q-deformed classical W-algebra of sl N . We construct free field realizations of the quantum W-algebras and the screening currents. We also point out some interesting elliptic structures arising in these algebras. In particular, we show that the screening currents satisfy elliptic analogues of the Drinfeld relations in U q (n). (orig.)

  3. Electrical brain responses in language-impaired children reveal grammar-specific deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Fonteneau

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and public fascination with human language have included intensive scrutiny of language disorders as a new window onto the biological foundations of language and its evolutionary origins. Specific language impairment (SLI, which affects over 7% of children, is one such disorder. SLI has received robust scientific attention, in part because of its recent linkage to a specific gene and loci on chromosomes and in part because of the prevailing question regarding the scope of its language impairment: Does the disorder impact the general ability to segment and process language or a specific ability to compute grammar? Here we provide novel electrophysiological data showing a domain-specific deficit within the grammar of language that has been hitherto undetectable through behavioural data alone.We presented participants with Grammatical(G-SLI, age-matched controls, and younger child and adult controls, with questions containing syntactic violations and sentences containing semantic violations. Electrophysiological brain responses revealed a selective impairment to only neural circuitry that is specific to grammatical processing in G-SLI. Furthermore, the participants with G-SLI appeared to be partially compensating for their syntactic deficit by using neural circuitry associated with semantic processing and all non-grammar-specific and low-level auditory neural responses were normal.The findings indicate that grammatical neural circuitry underlying language is a developmentally unique system in the functional architecture of the brain, and this complex higher cognitive system can be selectively impaired. The findings advance fundamental understanding about how cognitive systems develop and all human language is represented and processed in the brain.

  4. How specific is second language-learning ability? A twin study exploring the contributions of first language achievement and intelligence to second language achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimfeld, K; Dale, P S; Plomin, R

    2015-09-22

    Learning a second language is crucially important in an increasingly global society, yet surprisingly little is known about why individuals differ so substantially in second language (SL) achievement. We used the twin design to assess the nature, nurture and mediators of individual differences in SL achievement. For 6263 twin pairs, we analyzed scores from age 16 UK-wide standardized tests, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). We estimated genetic and environmental influences on the variance of SL for specific languages, the links between SL and English and the extent to which the links between SL and English are explained by intelligence. All SL measures showed substantial heritability, although heritability was nonsignificantly lower for German (36%) than the other languages (53-62%). Multivariate genetic analyses indicated that a third of genetic influence in SL is shared with intelligence, a third with English independent of intelligence and a further third is unique to SL.

  5. On 2-Banach algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, N.; Siddiqui, A.H.

    1987-11-01

    The notion of a 2-Banach algebra is introduced and its structure is studied. After a short discussion of some fundamental properties of bivectors and tensor product, several classical results of Banach algebras are extended to the 2-Banach algebra case. A condition under which a 2-Banach algebra becomes a Banach algebra is obtained and the relation between algebra of bivectors and 2-normed algebra is discussed. 11 refs

  6. L_∞ algebras and field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohm, Olaf; Zwiebach, Barton

    2017-01-01

    We review and develop the general properties of L_∞ algebras focusing on the gauge structure of the associated field theories. Motivated by the L_∞ homotopy Lie algebra of closed string field theory and the work of Roytenberg and Weinstein describing the Courant bracket in this language we investigate the L_∞ structure of general gauge invariant perturbative field theories. We sketch such formulations for non-abelian gauge theories, Einstein gravity, and for double field theory. We find that there is an L_∞ algebra for the gauge structure and a larger one for the full interacting field theory. Theories where the gauge structure is a strict Lie algebra often require the full L_∞ algebra for the interacting theory. The analysis suggests that L_∞ algebras provide a classification of perturbative gauge invariant classical field theories. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Basic algebraic topology and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Mahima Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an accessible introduction to algebraic topology, a field at the intersection of topology, geometry and algebra, together with its applications. Moreover, it covers several related topics that are in fact important in the overall scheme of algebraic topology. Comprising eighteen chapters and two appendices, the book integrates various concepts of algebraic topology, supported by examples, exercises, applications and historical notes. Primarily intended as a textbook, the book offers a valuable resource for undergraduate, postgraduate and advanced mathematics students alike. Focusing more on the geometric than on algebraic aspects of the subject, as well as its natural development, the book conveys the basic language of modern algebraic topology by exploring homotopy, homology and cohomology theories, and examines a variety of spaces: spheres, projective spaces, classical groups and their quotient spaces, function spaces, polyhedra, topological groups, Lie groups and cell complexes, etc. T...

  8. Towards tool support for spreadsheet-based domain-specific languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Marian Sorin; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2015-01-01

    Spreadsheets are commonly used by non-programmers to store data in a structured form, this data can in some cases be considered to be a program in a domain-specific language (DSL). Unlike ordinary text-based domain-specific languages, there is however currently no formalism for expressing...... the syntax of such spreadsheet-based DSLs (SDSLs), and there is no tool support for automatically generating language infrastructure such as parsers and IDE support. In this paper we define a simple notion of two-dimensional grammars for SDSLs, and show how such grammars can be used for automatically...

  9. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers. Results of the study revealed that children with SLI performed similarly to their typically developing peers on a single word spelling task. Alternatively, those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia evidenced poor spelling accuracy. Errors made by both those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia were characterized by numerous phonologic, orthographic, and semantic errors. Cumulative results support the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in typically developing school-age children and their peers with SLI and dyslexia. Findings are provided as further support for the notion that SLI and dyslexia are distinct, yet co-morbid, developmental disorders. PMID:22876769

  10. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  11. Skill-specificity of language practice and transferability of language skills: The case of listening and speaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Farshid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of skill acquisition is of great importance in cognitive psychology. One aspect of skill acquisition research is whether practice in SLA is skill-specific or not. To date, research done has not led to either unanimous rejection or acceptance of the theory. This article is an attempt to examine this question in an EFL context where L2 learners have limited or no access to target language data outside the classroom. More specifically, it tries to see whether listening and speaking in an EFL context necessitate their own specific practice or not. Based on a post-test only design, 16 male, beginner Iranian EFL learners received input-based instruction for three months. When the instruction was over, both listening and speaking performances of the subjects were assessed. The result showed that the subjects had significantly improved their listening ability while their speaking ability had little or no improvement, indicating that different language skills in EFL contexts need specific practice. The findings not only confirm the skill-specificity of language practice, but also rejects VanPatten’s seminal claim that comprehension practice is enough to bring about development, not only in comprehension but also in production.

  12. Experimental analysis of specification language diversity impact on NPP software diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chang Sik

    1999-02-01

    In order to increase computer system reliability, software fault tolerance methods have been adopted to some safety critical systems including NPP. Prevention of software common mode failure is very crucial problem in software fault tolerance, but the effective method for this problem is not found yet. In our research, to find out an effective method for prevention of software common mode failure, the impact of specification language diversity on NPP software diversity was examined experimentally. Three specification languages were used to compose three requirements specifications, and programmers made twelve product codes from the specifications. From the product codes analysis, using fault diversity criteria, we concluded that diverse specification language method would enhance program diversity through diversification of requirements specification imperfections

  13. Current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1967-01-01

    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The following topics are successively dealt with: semi leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons, Kroll- Ruderman theorem, non leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons ( ΔI = 1/2 rule), low energy theorems concerning processes with emission (or absorption) of a pion or a photon, super-convergence sum rules, and finally, neutrino reactions. (author) [fr

  14. Algebraic Systems and Pushdown Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Ion; Salomaa, Arto

    We concentrate in this chapter on the core aspects of algebraic series, pushdown automata, and their relation to formal languages. We choose to follow here a presentation of their theory based on the concept of properness. We introduce in Sect. 2 some auxiliary notions and results needed throughout the chapter, in particular the notions of discrete convergence in semirings and C-cycle free infinite matrices. In Sect. 3 we introduce the algebraic power series in terms of algebraic systems of equations. We focus on interconnections with context-free grammars and on normal forms. We then conclude the section with a presentation of the theorems of Shamir and Chomsky-Schützenberger. We discuss in Sect. 4 the algebraic and the regulated rational transductions, as well as some representation results related to them. Section 5 is dedicated to pushdown automata and focuses on the interconnections with classical (non-weighted) pushdown automata and on the interconnections with algebraic systems. We then conclude the chapter with a brief discussion of some of the other topics related to algebraic systems and pushdown automata.

  15. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development program...

  16. Assessment of short-term memory in Arabic speaking children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddah, F A; Shoeib, R M; Mahmoud, H E

    2010-12-15

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) may have some kind of memory disorder that could increase their linguistic impairment. This study assessed the short-term memory skills in Arabic speaking children with either Expressive Language Impairment (ELI) or Receptive/Expressive Language Impairment (R/ELI) in comparison to controls in order to estimate the nature and extent of any specific deficits in these children that could explain the different prognostic results of language intervention. Eighteen children were included in each group. Receptive, expressive and total language quotients were calculated using the Arabic language test. Assessment of auditory and visual short-term memory was done using the Arabic version of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. Both groups of SLI performed significantly lower linguistic abilities and poorer auditory and visual short-term memory in comparison to normal children. The R/ELI group presented an inferior performance than the ELI group in all measured parameters. Strong association was found between most tasks of auditory and visual short-term memory and linguistic abilities. The results of this study highlighted a specific degree of deficit of auditory and visual short-term memories in both groups of SLI. These deficits were more prominent in R/ELI group. Moreover, the strong association between the different auditory and visual short-term memories and language abilities in children with SLI must be taken into account when planning an intervention program for these children.

  17. Fibered F-Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Aleks

    2007-01-01

    The concept of F-algebra and its representation can be extended to an arbitrary bundle. We define operations of fibered F-algebra in fiber. The paper presents the representation theory of of fibered F-algebra as well as a comparison of representation of F-algebra and of representation of fibered F-algebra.

  18. A Domain-Specific Language for Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    ). Furthermore, the paper describes an interlocking table generator (ITG) that generates automatically a well-formed interlocking table from a well-formed railway network layout. Experiments with the DSL and ITG using the RAISE tools and the C++ implementation show that the use of the DSL and ITG can increase...... the productivity and significantly reduce errors in the specifications of railway interlocking systems....

  19. Regular algebra and finite machines

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, John Horton

    2012-01-01

    World-famous mathematician John H. Conway based this classic text on a 1966 course he taught at Cambridge University. Geared toward graduate students of mathematics, it will also prove a valuable guide to researchers and professional mathematicians.His topics cover Moore's theory of experiments, Kleene's theory of regular events and expressions, Kleene algebras, the differential calculus of events, factors and the factor matrix, and the theory of operators. Additional subjects include event classes and operator classes, some regulator algebras, context-free languages, communicative regular alg

  20. [Diagnostic Accuracy of the LiSe-DaZ for Children with Specific Language Impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, T; Keilmann, A

    2015-12-01

    Currently, only few tests for the development of speech and language exist for bi- or multilingual children in Germany. One of those, the LiSe-DaZ (Linguistic performance measurement - German as a second language), was examined in a prospective study regarding its practicability and the sensitivity to detect children with specific language impairment in a group of children aged 5 to 7 who suffered from a severe language impairment according to clinical tests. 74 children (mean age: 60 months; 46% monolingual German-speaking; 54% bi- or multilingual) with severe specific language impairment were examined with the LiSe-DaZ in addition to the clinical established diagnostic during their in-patient stay in the hospital. The children, on average, showed in the receptive language abilities (LiSe-DaZ vs. TROG-D), the expressive vocabulary (LiSe-DaZ vs. AWST-R or WWT) and in the use of prepositions (LiSe-DaZ vs. Ravensburger Dysgrammatical clinical trial) significantly (pchildren were diagnosed as language impaired by clinically established tests whereas the LiSe-DaZ considered the children's language development to be normal. This difference was consistently more prominent for children with German as a second language. Compared with the clinically established tests, the informative value of the LiSe-DaZ turned out to be insufficient. The LiSe-DaZ does not detect children with the need of language therapy. Nevertheless, a norming of the established speech tests for bi- or multilingual children would be desirable to avoid unfounded judgements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Domain Specific Language Support for Exascale. Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baden, Scott [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-07-11

    The project developed a domain specific translator enable legacy MPI source code to tolerate communication delays, which are increasing over time due to technological factors. The translator performs source-to-source translation that incorporates semantic information into the translation process. The output of the translator is a C program runs as a data driven program, and uses an existing run time to overlap communication automatically

  2. Visual-motor integration performance in children with severe specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, K; Watter, P

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated (1) the visual-motor integration (VMI) performance of children with severe specific language impairment (SLI), and any effect of age, gender, socio-economic status and concomitant speech impairment; and (2) the relationship between language and VMI performance. It is hypothesized that children with severe SLI would present with VMI problems irrespective of gender and socio-economic status; however, VMI deficits will be more pronounced in younger children and those with concomitant speech impairment. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that there will be a relationship between VMI and language performance, particularly in receptive scores. Children enrolled between 2000 and 2008 in a school dedicated to children with severe speech-language impairments were included, if they met the criteria for severe SLI with or without concomitant speech impairment which was verified by a government organization. Results from all initial standardized language and VMI assessments found during a retrospective review of chart files were included. The final study group included 100 children (males = 76), from 4 to 14 years of age with mean language scores at least 2SD below the mean. For VMI performance, 52% of the children scored below -1SD, with 25% of the total group scoring more than 1.5SD below the mean. Age, gender and the addition of a speech impairment did not impact on VMI performance; however, children living in disadvantaged suburbs scored significantly better than children residing in advantaged suburbs. Receptive language scores of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals was the only score associated with and able to predict VMI performance. A small subgroup of children with severe SLI will also have poor VMI skills. The best predictor of poor VMI is receptive language scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Children with poor receptive language performance may benefit from VMI assessment and multidisciplinary

  3. Methods for Identifying Specific Language Impairment in Bilingual Populations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Hamann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the performance of 22 monolingual and 54 bilingual children with and without specific language impairment (SLI, in a non-word repetition task (NWRT and a sentence repetition task (SRT. Both tasks were constructed according to the principles for LITMUS tools (Language Impairment Testing in Multilingual Settings developed within COST Action IS0804 and incorporated phonological or syntactic structures that are linguistically complex and have been shown to be difficult for children with SLI across languages. For phonology these are in particular (nonwords containing consonant clusters. In morphosyntax, complexity has been attributed to factors such as embedding and/or syntactic movement. Tasks focusing on such structures are expected to identify SLI in bilinguals across language combinations. This is notoriously difficult because structures that are problematic for typically developing bilinguals (BiTDs and monolingual children with SLI (MoSLI often overlap. We show that the NWRT and the SRT are reliable tools for identification of SLI in bilingual contexts. However, interpretation of the performance of bilingual children depends on background information as provided by parental questionnaires. To evaluate the accuracy of our tasks, we recruited children in ordinary kindergartens or schools and in speech language therapy centers and verified their status with a battery of standardized language tests, assessing bilingual children in both their languages. We consider a bilingual child language impaired if she shows impairments in two language domains in both her languages. For assessment, we used tests normed for monolinguals (with one exception and adjusted the norms for bilingualism and for language dominance. This procedure established the following groups: 10 typical monolinguals (MoTD, 12 MoSLI, 46 BiTD, and 8 bilingual children with SLI (BiSLI. Our results show that both tasks target relevant structures: monolingual

  4. Theory of mind and specific language impairment in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between aspects of language development and Theory of Mind (ToM) in children with language impairments suggests that children with language impairment show a delay in ToM development. This study aimed to examine the relationships of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills with ToM in school-age children. Twenty children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aged 9-12 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language ability (LA) (aged 8-10 years) were compared on a set of language tasks tapping syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills and on an advanced test of ToM. Results showed that children with SLI performed poorly on the ToM task compared to the CA matches. Also, analysis showed that language skills and ToM are related and that syntactic and pragmatic abilities contributed significantly to the prediction of ToM performance in the SLI group. It is concluded that the syntax/pragmatic aspects of the language impact on ToM understanding in children with SLI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 18th edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Wille, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the eighteenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which took place on September 14-16, 2015, in Barcelona, Spain. FDL is a well-established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modeling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems. Covers Assertion Based Design, Verification & Debug; Includes language-based modeling and design techniques for embedded systems; Covers design, modeling and verification of mixed physical domain and mixed signal systems that include significant analog parts in electrical and non-electrical domains; Includes formal and semi-formal system level design methods for complex embedded systems based on the Unified Modelling Language (UML) and Model Driven Engineering...

  6. 17th edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Pasaje, Julio

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the seventeenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which took place on October 14-16, 2014, in Munich, Germany.  FDL is a well-established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modeling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems.   •Covers Assertion Based Design, Verification & Debug; •Includes language-based modeling and design techniques for embedded systems; •Covers design, modeling and verification of mixed physical domain and mixed signal systems; •Includes formal and semi-formal system level design methods for complex embedded systems based on the Unified Modelling Language (UML) and Model Driven Engineering (MDE); •Covers parallel architectures – both as platforms f...

  7. Cluster algebras in mathematical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francesco, Philippe Di; Gekhtman, Michael; Kuniba, Atsuo; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    identities in conformal field theory and so forth. It is remarkable that the key ingredients in such a variety of theories and models are captured and described universally in the common language of cluster algebras. This special issue provides a bird's-eye view of the known and latest results in various topics in mathematical physics where cluster algebras have played an essential role. The contributed articles are themselves an eloquent illustration of the breadth and depth of the subject of cluster algebras. We are confident that the issue will stimulate both newcomers and experts, since the applications to physics still seem to be growing

  8. [Specific developmental language disorder: a theoretical approach to its diagnosis, aetiology and clinical symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rebolledo, R; Giraldo-Prieto, M; Hincapié-Henao, L; Lopera, F; Pineda, D A

    This article presents an updated review about the definition, diagnostic criteria, classifications, etiology and the evolution of the specific language impairment (SLI). The specific language impairment is characterized by a developmental language delay and an impaired language, that persist over time and it is not explained by sensorial, motor and mental disabilities, neither by psycopathological disorders, socio-emotional deprivation, nor brain injury. The diagnosis is based on exclusional criteria. Some researchers propose different classifications considering the children performance in language comprehension and language production. Genetical linkage to the FOXP2 gen in the SPCH1 region of the chromosome 7 and to the chromosomes 13, 16 y 19 has been reported. The neuroimage studies have shown alterations in the volume and perfusion of some brain structures related to language. The manifestations of SLI may change during the development of the children and may disturb the self-esteem, the academic performance and the social abilities. The variability in the linguistic and cognitive performance, and the variety in the etiological findings in children with SLI, don't allow to settle the affected population as an homogeneous group. Different theoretical positions have emerged as a consequence of this condition.

  9. SPECIFIC USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN A BLENDED MODEL OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Kameneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the role and analyzes specificity of the use of information technology in a mixed model of learning foreign languages in higher educational institutions. The authors also describe such forms of e-learning as a webinar, seminar videos, video conferencing, case-technology. The ways of overcoming difficulties in learning foreign languages, which the students can face when using distance learning technologies, are indicated. The positive experience of using E-learning System «Virtual Campus» in the teaching foreign languages at the Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics and Informatics is mentioned.

  10. Generalized symmetry algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragon, N.

    1979-01-01

    The possible use of trilinear algebras as symmetry algebras for para-Fermi fields is investigated. The shortcomings of the examples are argued to be a general feature of such generalized algebras. (author)

  11. Hom-Novikov algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, Donald

    2011-01-01

    We study a twisted generalization of Novikov algebras, called Hom-Novikov algebras, in which the two defining identities are twisted by a linear map. It is shown that Hom-Novikov algebras can be obtained from Novikov algebras by twisting along any algebra endomorphism. All algebra endomorphisms on complex Novikov algebras of dimensions 2 or 3 are computed, and their associated Hom-Novikov algebras are described explicitly. Another class of Hom-Novikov algebras is constructed from Hom-commutative algebras together with a derivation, generalizing a construction due to Dorfman and Gel'fand. Two other classes of Hom-Novikov algebras are constructed from Hom-Lie algebras together with a suitable linear endomorphism, generalizing a construction due to Bai and Meng.

  12. From General Game Descriptions to a Market Specification Language for General Trading Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielscher, Michael; Zhang, Dongmo

    The idea behind General Game Playing is to build systems that, instead of being programmed for one specific task, are intelligent and flexible enough to negotiate an unknown environment solely on the basis of the rules which govern it. In this paper, we argue that this principle has the great potential to bring to a new level artificially intelligent systems in other application areas as well. Our specific interest lies in General Trading Agents, which are able to understand the rules of unknown markets and then to actively participate in them without human intervention. To this end, we extend the general Game Description Language into a language that allows to formally describe arbitrary markets in such a way that these specifications can be automatically processed by a computer. We present both syntax and a transition-based semantics for this Market Specification Language and illustrate its expressive power by presenting axiomatizations of several well-known auction types.

  13. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which proc...

  14. Visual attentional engagement deficits in children with specific language impairment and their role in real-time language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispaldro, Marco; Leonard, Laurence B; Corradi, Nicola; Ruffino, Milena; Bronte, Tiziana; Facoetti, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    In order to become a proficient user of language, infants must detect temporal cues embedded within the noisy acoustic spectra of ongoing speech by efficient attentional engagement. According to the neuro-constructivist approach, a multi-sensory dysfunction of attentional engagement - hampering the temporal sampling of stimuli - might be responsible for language deficits typically shown in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). In the present study, the efficiency of visual attentional engagement was investigated in 22 children with SLI and 22 typically developing (TD) children by measuring attentional masking (AM). AM refers to impaired identification of the first of two sequentially presented masked objects (O1 and O2) in which the O1-O2 interval was manipulated. Lexical and grammatical comprehension abilities were also tested in both groups. Children with SLI showed a sluggish engagement of temporal attention, and individual differences in AM accounted for a significant percentage of unique variance in grammatical performance. Our results suggest that an attentional engagement deficit - probably linked to a dysfunction of the right fronto-parietal attentional network - might be a contributing factor in these children's language impairments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Algebraic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bliss, Gilbert Ames

    1933-01-01

    This book, immediately striking for its conciseness, is one of the most remarkable works ever produced on the subject of algebraic functions and their integrals. The distinguishing feature of the book is its third chapter, on rational functions, which gives an extremely brief and clear account of the theory of divisors.... A very readable account is given of the topology of Riemann surfaces and of the general properties of abelian integrals. Abel's theorem is presented, with some simple applications. The inversion problem is studied for the cases of genus zero and genus unity. The chapter on t

  16. Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method: An…

  17. Iterated Leavitt Path Algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazrat, R.

    2009-11-01

    Leavitt path algebras associate to directed graphs a Z-graded algebra and in their simplest form recover the Leavitt algebras L(1,k). In this note, we introduce iterated Leavitt path algebras associated to directed weighted graphs which have natural ± Z grading and in their simplest form recover the Leavitt algebras L(n,k). We also characterize Leavitt path algebras which are strongly graded. (author)

  18. Clifford Algebras and magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.

    1987-01-01

    It is known that the introduction of magnetic monopolies in electromagnetism does still present formal problems from the point of view of classical field theory. The author attempts to overcome at least some of them by making recourse to the Clifford Algebra formalism. In fact, while the events of a two-dimensional Minkowski space-time M(1,1) are sufficiently well represented by ordinary Complex Numbers, when dealing with the events of the four-dimensional Minkowski space M(1,3)identical to M/sub 4/ one has of course to look for hypercomplex numbers or, more generally, for the elements of a Clifford Algebra. The author uses the Clifford Algebras in terms of ''multivectors'', and in particular by Hestenes' language, which suits space-time quite well. He recalls that the Clifford product chiγ is the sum of the internal product chi . γ and of the wedge product chiΛγ

  19. Universal algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, George

    1979-01-01

    Universal Algebra, heralded as ". . . the standard reference in a field notorious for the lack of standardization . . .," has become the most authoritative, consistently relied on text in a field with applications in other branches of algebra and other fields such as combinatorics, geometry, and computer science. Each chapter is followed by an extensive list of exercises and problems. The "state of the art" account also includes new appendices (with contributions from B. Jónsson, R. Quackenbush, W. Taylor, and G. Wenzel) and a well-selected additional bibliography of over 1250 papers and books which makes this a fine work for students, instructors, and researchers in the field. "This book will certainly be, in the years to come, the basic reference to the subject." --- The American Mathematical Monthly (First Edition) "In this reviewer's opinion [the author] has more than succeeded in his aim. The problems at the end of each chapter are well-chosen; there are more than 650 of them. The book is especially sui...

  20. Rates of auxiliary is and are in African American English speaking children with specific language impairment following language treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shana; Bellon-Harn, Monica L

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine rates of auxiliary is and are across dialect patterns produced by African American English with specific language impairment (AAE-SLI) children following language treatment. The following research question is asked: Do AAE-SLI children exhibit rates of auxiliary is and are across dialect patterns consistent with previous reports of typically developing children and adult AAE speakers? A pre-/post-test design was used to identify patterns in which auxiliary is and are were produced at significant levels. Individual performance was included to examine variable rates of use across patterns. Group and individual results suggest children used auxiliary is and are in dialect patterns at rates consistent with typically developing child and adult AAE speakers. We conclude that rates of use may contribute to evidence-based guidelines for morphological intervention with AAE-SLI children.

  1. Yoneda algebras of almost Koszul algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Let k be an algebraically closed field, A a finite dimensional connected. (p,q)-Koszul self-injective algebra with p, q ≥ 2. In this paper, we prove that the. Yoneda algebra of A is isomorphic to a twisted polynomial algebra A![t; β] in one inde- terminate t of degree q +1 in which A! is the quadratic dual of A, β is an ...

  2. Behavior problems and social competence in Brazilian children with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leite Puglisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to investigate the behavior and social profile of Brazilian children with specific language impairment (SLI and explore whether the severity of language deficits was associated with behavioral problems and low social competence. Twenty-four children with SLI aged from 6 to 11 years who showed substantial expressive language problems and were receiving speech-language therapy were assessed through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. Children with SLI showed high rates of behavioral problems and low levels of social competence. With the exception of two subscales (“somatic” and “rule breaker”, the percentage of children with SLI at risk of behavioral problems was significantly higher than the same proportion in the general population; and almost all children with SLI (95.2 % demonstrated problems with social competence. The severity of language deficits was associated with the risk of behavioral problems according to only one criterion. No associations were found between the severity of language problems and social competence. The study provides cross-cultural evidence to support the existence of behavior problems and reduced social competence in children with SLI. Our findings point to the need of using a combination of measures to classify the severity of language problems rather than a single dimension.

  3. Open algebraic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miyanishi, Masayoshi

    2000-01-01

    Open algebraic surfaces are a synonym for algebraic surfaces that are not necessarily complete. An open algebraic surface is understood as a Zariski open set of a projective algebraic surface. There is a long history of research on projective algebraic surfaces, and there exists a beautiful Enriques-Kodaira classification of such surfaces. The research accumulated by Ramanujan, Abhyankar, Moh, and Nagata and others has established a classification theory of open algebraic surfaces comparable to the Enriques-Kodaira theory. This research provides powerful methods to study the geometry and topology of open algebraic surfaces. The theory of open algebraic surfaces is applicable not only to algebraic geometry, but also to other fields, such as commutative algebra, invariant theory, and singularities. This book contains a comprehensive account of the theory of open algebraic surfaces, as well as several applications, in particular to the study of affine surfaces. Prerequisite to understanding the text is a basic b...

  4. THE CONTRIBUTION OF COMPLEXITY, ACCURACY AND FLUENCY TO LANGUAGE FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Rausch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will outline an instructional approach that proposes a Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency (CAF paradigm as a means of providing learners with the CAF-based communication consciousness and CAF-oriented manipulative skills that are increasingly important in language use in Language for Specific Purposes. Given the complex combinations of communicative tasks, communicative formats and communicative circumstances that accompany the wide-ranging and various contexts of contemporary professional communication, communicative competence demands a combinative consciousness and informed application of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency as a communication paradigm. Viewed as a combination of its three components, a CAF paradigm constitutes a fundamental ‘information, language and communication’ triad that can guide professional language use in any communicative circumstance. Viewed as a communicative skill set, the CAF triad implies the capability to adjust specific elements and aspects of information, language and communication as needed for a communicative task, whether in oral or print communication and regardless of task category. Adjusting complexity in this context refers to both content and language complexity. Adjusting accuracy refers to the conventions that dictate appropriate or acceptable language in a given context. Finally, adjusting fluency refers to a sense of communicative fluency, that which yields either smooth and persuasive language as in a native-speaker normative view or explicit and clearly explanatory language as necessary in some communicative encounters. The need to manipulate these three components depends on circumstance variables such as objective, available time, audience characteristics and the degree of detail desired. This paper will outline this combinative CAF notion as background to a materials development project being undertaken in a Japanese university, introducing the specifics of an Extended Reading Aloud

  5. Language for Specific Purposes: A Course Design for PROGEST/CEFET-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen S. Batista Marques

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a course design based upon the language for specific purpose approach in CEFET-MG, for the Programa de Capacitação em Gestão de Obras - PROGEST (Program of Study in Engineering, Society and Technology. It is related to the subject matter Language for Professional Purposes, which provides space for discussion about the use and the importance of language and its variations. Its objective is to demonstrate the interaction between the diverse uses of the language, prioritizing the working environment of the professional pupils enrolled in the course. So, the target public profile, its work market - the Civil Construction, the demanded qualification as well as the influence of reading abilities and literacy on the social-communicational contract expected in such environment are discussed.

  6. Theory of Mind in Children With Specific Language Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kristine Kahr; de López, Kristine Jensen

    2016-01-01

    The relation between language and theory of mind (ToM) has been debated for more than two decades. In a similar vein, ToM has been examined in children with specific language impairment (SLI), albeit with inconsistent results. This meta-analysis of 17 studies with 745 children between the ages of 4 and 12 found that children with SLI had substantially lower ToM performance compared to age-matched typically developing children (d = .98). This effect size was not moderated by age and gender. By revealing that children with SLI have ToM impairments, this finding emphasizes the need for further investigation into the developmental interface between language and ToM as well as the extended consequences of atypical language development. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. An Algebraic Programming Style for Numerical Software and Its Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Dinesh

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The abstract mathematical theory of partial differential equations (PDEs is formulated in terms of manifolds, scalar fields, tensors, and the like, but these algebraic structures are hardly recognizable in actual PDE solvers. The general aim of the Sophus programming style is to bridge the gap between theory and practice in the domain of PDE solvers. Its main ingredients are a library of abstract datatypes corresponding to the algebraic structures used in the mathematical theory and an algebraic expression style similar to the expression style used in the mathematical theory. Because of its emphasis on abstract datatypes, Sophus is most naturally combined with object-oriented languages or other languages supporting abstract datatypes. The resulting source code patterns are beyond the scope of current compiler optimizations, but are sufficiently specific for a dedicated source-to-source optimizer. The limited, domain-specific, character of Sophus is the key to success here. This kind of optimization has been tested on computationally intensive Sophus style code with promising results. The general approach may be useful for other styles and in other application domains as well.

  8. Statistical word learning in children with autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2017-11-01

    Word learning is an important component of language development that influences child outcomes across multiple domains. Despite the importance of word knowledge, word-learning mechanisms are poorly understood in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined underlying mechanisms of word learning, specifically, statistical learning and fast-mapping, in school-aged children with typical and atypical development. Statistical learning was assessed through a word segmentation task and fast-mapping was examined in an object-label association task. We also examined children's ability to map meaning onto newly segmented words in a third task that combined exposure to an artificial language and a fast-mapping task. Children with SLI had poorer performance on the word segmentation and fast-mapping tasks relative to the typically developing and ASD groups, who did not differ from one another. However, when children with SLI were exposed to an artificial language with phonemes used in the subsequent fast-mapping task, they successfully learned more words than in the isolated fast-mapping task. There was some evidence that word segmentation abilities are associated with word learning in school-aged children with typical development and ASD, but not SLI. Follow-up analyses also examined performance in children with ASD who did and did not have a language impairment. Children with ASD with language impairment evidenced intact statistical learning abilities, but subtle weaknesses in fast-mapping abilities. As the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) predicts, children with SLI have impairments in statistical learning. However, children with SLI also have impairments in fast-mapping. Nonetheless, they are able to take advantage of additional phonological exposure to boost subsequent word-learning performance. In contrast to the PDH, children with ASD appear to have intact statistical learning, regardless of

  9. Q-systems as cluster algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedem, Rinat

    2008-01-01

    Q-systems first appeared in the analysis of the Bethe equations for the XXX model and generalized Heisenberg spin chains (Kirillov and Reshetikhin 1987 Zap. Nauchn. Sem. Leningr. Otd. Mat. Inst. Steklov. 160 211-21, 301). Such systems are known to exist for any simple Lie algebra and many other Kac-Moody algebras. We formulate the Q-system associated with any simple, simply-laced Lie algebras g in the language of cluster algebras (Fomin and Zelevinsky 2002 J. Am. Math. Soc. 15 497-529), and discuss the relation of the polynomiality property of the solutions of the Q-system in the initial variables, which follows from the representation-theoretical interpretation, to the Laurent phenomenon in cluster algebras (Fomin and Zelevinsky 2002 Adv. Appl. Math. 28 119-44)

  10. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  11. Is recursion language-specific? Evidence of recursive mechanisms in the structure of intentional action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Giuseppe; Adenzato, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    In their 2002 seminal paper Hauser, Chomsky and Fitch hypothesize that recursion is the only human-specific and language-specific mechanism of the faculty of language. While debate focused primarily on the meaning of recursion in the hypothesis and on the human-specific and syntax-specific character of recursion, the present work focuses on the claim that recursion is language-specific. We argue that there are recursive structures in the domain of motor intentionality by way of extending John R. Searle's analysis of intentional action. We then discuss evidence from cognitive science and neuroscience supporting the claim that motor-intentional recursion is language-independent and suggest some explanatory hypotheses: (1) linguistic recursion is embodied in sensory-motor processing; (2) linguistic and motor-intentional recursions are distinct and mutually independent mechanisms. Finally, we propose some reflections about the epistemic status of HCF as presenting an empirically falsifiable hypothesis, and on the possibility of testing recursion in different cognitive domains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Yoneda algebra of a K2 algebra need not be another K2 algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, T.; Phan, C.; Shelton, B.

    2010-01-01

    The Yoneda algebra of a Koszul algebra or a D-Koszul algebra is Koszul. K2 algebras are a natural generalization of Koszul algebras, and one would hope that the Yoneda algebra of a K2 algebra would be another K2 algebra. We show that this is not necessarily the case by constructing a monomial K2 algebra for which the corresponding Yoneda algebra is not K2.

  13. Multilingual home environment and specific language impairment: a case-control study in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Daniel Ka Leung; Wong, Virginia; Leung, Gabriel Matthew

    2005-07-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder in young children. To investigate the association between multilingual home environment and SLI, we conducted a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese children over a 4-year period in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. Consecutive medical records of all new referrals below 5 years of age were reviewed and children diagnosed with SLI (case) were compared with those referred with other developmental and behavioural problems who had been assessed as having normal language and overall development (control) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale. SLI was defined as those with a language quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean and below the general developmental quotient in children with normal general developmental quotient, but without neurological or other organic diseases. We used binary and ordinal logistic regression to assess any association between SLI and multilingual exposure at home, adjusting for age and gender of subjects, parental age, education level and occupational status, number of siblings, family history of language delay and main caregiver at home. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of covariates on the language comprehension and expression standard scores assessed by the Reynell Developmental Language Scale. A total of 326 cases and 304 controls were included. The mean ages of cases and controls were 2.56 and 2.89 years respectively. Boys predominated in both groups (cases, 75.2%; controls, 60.2%). The children were exposed to between one and four languages at home, the major ones being Cantonese Chinese followed by English. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SLI was 2.94; [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82, 4.74] for multilingual compared with monolingual exposure. A significant linear dose-response relationship was found (OR of SLI = 2.58 [1.72, 3.88] for each additional language to which the child was exposed). Male

  14. Language-specific skills in intercultural healthcare communication: Comparing perceived preparedness and skills in nurses' first and second languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorek, Jessica; van de Poel, Kris

    2018-02-01

    Interactions between people from different cultures are becoming increasingly commonplace in contemporary healthcare settings. To date, most research evaluating cross-cultural preparedness has assumed that medical professionals are speaking their first language (L1). However, as healthcare workers are increasingly mobile and patient populations are increasingly diverse, more and more interactions are likely to occur in a professional's non-native language (L2). This study assessed and compared nurses' perceived cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness in their interactions with patients from other cultures when speaking both their L1 and L2. The goal of this project was to inform the creation of a communication skills training program. Nurses reported their perceived cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness (scales adapted from Park et al., 2009) in their L1 and L2 via an online questionnaire. This questionnaire was distributed among nurses working in Vienna, Austria, through the Vienna Hospital Association (VHA). Nurses and nurses-in-training working in VHA hospitals participated. Most participants who provided demographic information were currently nurses (n=179) with an average of 16.88years (SD=11.50) of professional experience (range: 0-40); n=40 were nurses-in-training with an average of 2.13years (SD=0.88) of experience (range: 1-5). Descriptive statistics for each cross-cultural preparedness and skillfulness (in each language) are reported; comparisons between L1 and L2 responses were also conducted. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictors of preparedness and L1/L2 skillfulness. Nurses reported feeling significantly less confident in their skills when working in an L2, across a range of culture-related issues. Having had previous communication skills training predicted (better) self-reported L2 skillfulness, although it did not predict L1 skillfulness. These results indicate that there is a language-specific component to cross

  15. Conversion of the agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS into JavaScript

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sredojević, Dejan; Vidaković, Milan; Okanović, Dušan; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2016-06-01

    This paper shows generation of JavaScript code from code written in agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS. ALAS is an agent-oriented domain-specific language for writing software agents that are executed within XJAF middleware. Since the agents can be executed on various platforms, they must be converted into a language of the target platform. We also try to utilize existing tools and technologies to make the whole conversion process as simple as possible, as well as faster and more efficient. We use the Xtext framework that is compatible with Java to implement ALAS infrastructure - editor and code generator. Since Xtext supports Java, generation of Java code from ALAS code is straightforward. To generate a JavaScript code that will be executed within the target JavaScript XJAF implementation, Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is used.

  16. Novikov-Jordan algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Dzhumadil'daev, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Algebras with identity $(a\\star b)\\star (c\\star d) -(a\\star d)\\star(c\\star b)$ $=(a,b,c)\\star d-(a,d,c)\\star b$ are studied. Novikov algebras under Jordan multiplication and Leibniz dual algebras satisfy this identity. If algebra with such identity has unit, then it is associative and commutative.

  17. Introduction to relation algebras relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The first volume of a pair that charts relation algebras from novice to expert level, this text offers a comprehensive grounding for readers new to the topic. Upon completing this introduction, mathematics students may delve into areas of active research by progressing to the second volume, Advanced Topics in Relation Algebras; computer scientists, philosophers, and beyond will be equipped to apply these tools in their own field. The careful presentation establishes first the arithmetic of relation algebras, providing ample motivation and examples, then proceeds primarily on the basis of algebraic constructions: subalgebras, homomorphisms, quotient algebras, and direct products. Each chapter ends with a historical section and a substantial number of exercises. The only formal prerequisite is a background in abstract algebra and some mathematical maturity, though the reader will also benefit from familiarity with Boolean algebra and naïve set theory. The measured pace and outstanding clarity are particularly ...

  18. Wavelets and quantum algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludu, A.; Greiner, M.

    1995-09-01

    A non-linear associative algebra is realized in terms of translation and dilation operators, and a wavelet structure generating algebra is obtained. We show that this algebra is a q-deformation of the Fourier series generating algebra, and reduces to this for certain value of the deformation parameter. This algebra is also homeomorphic with the q-deformed su q (2) algebra and some of its extensions. Through this algebraic approach new methods for obtaining the wavelets are introduced. (author). 20 refs

  19. Banach Synaptic Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulis, David J.; Pulmannov, Sylvia

    2018-04-01

    Using a representation theorem of Erik Alfsen, Frederic Schultz, and Erling Størmer for special JB-algebras, we prove that a synaptic algebra is norm complete (i.e., Banach) if and only if it is isomorphic to the self-adjoint part of a Rickart C∗-algebra. Also, we give conditions on a Banach synaptic algebra that are equivalent to the condition that it is isomorphic to the self-adjoint part of an AW∗-algebra. Moreover, we study some relationships between synaptic algebras and so-called generalized Hermitian algebras.

  20. Auditory Perception and Word Recognition in Cantonese-Chinese Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy K.; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.

    2017-01-01

    Auditory processing and spoken word recognition difficulties have been observed in Specific Language Impairment (SLI), raising the possibility that auditory perceptual deficits disrupt word recognition and, in turn, phonological processing and oral language. In this study, fifty-seven kindergarten children with SLI and fifty-three language-typical…

  1. Do Children with Autism Have a Theory of Mind? A Non-Verbal Test of Autism vs. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism have delays in the development of theory of mind. However, the sub-group of children with autism who have little or no language have gone untested since false belief tests (FB) typically involve language. FB understanding has been reported to be intact in children with specific language impairment (SLI). This raises the…

  2. Procedural and Declarative Memory in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Gelgic, Celin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Background: Much evidence has accumulated to indicate memory deficits in children with specific language impairment. However, most research has focused on working memory impairments in these children. Less is known about the functioning of other memory systems in this population. Aims: This study examined procedural and declarative memory in young…

  3. Working Memory Functioning in Children with Learning Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Bockmann, Ann-Katrin; Bornemann, Galina; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of Baddeley's working memory model (1986), we examined working memory functioning in children with learning disorders with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We pursued the question whether children with learning disorders exhibit similar working memory deficits as children with additional SLI. Method: In…

  4. Graph-based specification and verification for aspect-oriented languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staijen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Aspect-oriented software development aims at improving separation of concerns at all levels in the software development life-cycle, from architecture to code implementation. In this thesis we strive to develop verification methods specifically for aspect-oriented programming languages. For this

  5. Language Delay in Severely Neglected Children: A Cumulative or Specific Effect of Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Audette; Merette, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This research sought to determine if the language delay (LD) of severely neglected children under 3 years old was better explained by a cumulative risk model or by the specificity of risk factors. The objective was also to identify the risk factors with the strongest impact on LD among various biological, psychological, and…

  6. Using domain specific languages to improve the development of a power control unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the design of a power control unit at Philips, two Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) have been used. The first DSL provides a concise and readable notation for the essential state transitions. It is used to generate both configuration files and analysis models. In addition, we also

  7. Generalized Motor Abilities and Timing Behavior in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Method: Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing…

  8. Gaining industrial confidence for the introduction of domain-specific languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, A.J.; Hooman, J.; Albers, R.

    2013-01-01

    Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) receive attention as the possible next abstraction step in programming. Despite the benefits of using DSLs, in the industry there is also some reluctance against their introduction in product development. We address a number of issues that are important to gain

  9. Using Pupillometry to Investigate Sentence Comprehension in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Youssef, George J.; Clark, Gillian M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study pupillometry was used to investigate the allocation of attentional resources associated with sentence comprehension in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eighteen children with SLI (age: M = 6.4 years) and 18 typically developing (TD) children (age: M = 6.3 years) participated in the study.…

  10. The impact of specific language impairment on working memory in children with ADHD combined subtype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S; Bouma, A; Sergeant, JA; Scherder, EJA

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of comorbid specific language impairment (SLI) on verbal and spatial working memory in children with DSM-IV combined subtype Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Participants were a clinical sample of 8 1/2- to 12 1/2-year-old

  11. The impact of specific language impairment on working memory in children with ADHD combined type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jondottir, S.; Bouma, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of comorbid specific language impairment (SLI) on verbal and spatial working memory in children with DSM-IV combined subtype Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Participants were a clinical sample of 81/2- to 121/2-year-old

  12. The impact of specific language impairment on working memory children with ADHD combined subtype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S.; Bouma, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of comorbid specific language impairment (SLI) on verbal and spatial working memory in children with DSM-IV combined subtype Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Participants were a clinical sample of 81/2- to 121/2-year-old

  13. Complex Sentence Comprehension and Working Memory in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, James W.; Evans, Julia L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the association of 2 mechanisms of working memory (phonological short-term memory [PSTM], attentional resource capacity/allocation) with the sentence comprehension of school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 2 groups of control children. Method: Twenty-four children with SLI, 18 age-matched…

  14. Sustained Selective Attention Skills of Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Separate Attentional Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the performance of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers on sustained selective attention tasks. Method: This study included 23 children diagnosed with SLI and 23 TD children matched for age, gender, and maternal education level.…

  15. Are Language Learning Websites Special? Towards a Research Agenda for Discipline-Specific Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Lesley; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    With the intention of defining an initial research agenda for discipline-specific factors in the usability of e-learning websites, this article focuses on the example of foreign language learning. First, general notions and concepts of usability are analyzed, and the term "pedagogical usability" is proposed as a means of focusing on the close…

  16. Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

  17. Universal and Language-Specific Patterns in the Acquisition of Verb Argument Structures in German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischner, Franziska N.; Weissenborn, Jürgen; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of universal and language-specific morpho-syntactic properties (i.e., flexible word order, case) on the acquisition of verb argument structures in German compared with English. To this end, 65 three- to nine-year-old German learning children and adults were asked to act out grammatical ("The sheep…

  18. Persistent grammatical difficulties in Specific Language Impairment : Deficits in knowledge or in knowledge implementation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinmeijer, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the grammatical abilities of children and adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). There were two research goals. Firstly, the persistence of grammatical problems over time was examined by comparing a younger group of children with SLI and an older group of

  19. Understanding Conservation Delays in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Task Representations Revealed in Speech and Gesture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated mental representations of Piagetian conservation tasks in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. Children with SLI have normal nonverbal intelligence; however, they exhibit difficulties in Piagetian conservation tasks. The authors tested the hypothesis that conservation…

  20. Specific features of the Galician language and implications for speech technology development

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Specific features of the Galician language and implications for speech technology development correspondence: Corresponding author. (Banga, Eduardo Rodriguez) (Banga, Eduardo Rodriguez) Dpto. Filoloxia Galega. Universidade de Santiago. Santiago de Compostela. Spain - (Gonzalez, Manuel Gonzalez) Dpto. Teoria de la Se?al y Comunicaciones. Universidad de Vigo. Vigo. Spain - (Banga, Eduardo Rodriguez) SPAIN (Banga...

  1. A Domain-Specific Language for Generic Interlocking Models and Their Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    of this work is to provide a domain-specific language for generic models and an instantiator tool taking not only configuration data but also a generic model as input instead of using a hard-coded generator for instantiating only one fixed generic model and its properties with configuration data....

  2. Perceptual Recovery from Consonant-Cluster Simplification in Korean Using Language-Specific Phonological Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, T.; McQueen, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether perceptual recovery from Korean consonant-cluster simplification is based on language-specific phonological knowledge. In tri-consonantal C1C2C3 sequences such as /lkt/ and /lpt/ in Seoul Korean, either C1 or C2 can be completely deleted. Seoul Koreans monitored for

  3. Specific Language Impairment and Executive Functioning: Parent and Teacher Ratings of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Schechtman, Calli J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The current study used the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003), a rating scale designed to investigate executive behaviors in everyday activities, to examine the executive functioning of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) relative to their…

  4. Among perinatal factors, only the Apgar score is associated with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, F.B.; de Kroon, M.L.A.; Dusseldorp, E.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of perinatal risk factors with later development of specific language impairment (SLI). Method: In a case-control study, 179 children attending special needs schools for SLI were matched with non-affected children attending mainstream

  5. Among perinatal factors, only the Apgar score is associated with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, F.B.; Kroon, M.L. De; Dusseldorp, E.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of perinatal risk factors with later development of specific language impairment (SLI). METHOD: In a case-control study, 179 children attending special needs schools for SLI were matched with non-affected children attending mainstream

  6. Among perinatal factors, only the Apgar score is associated with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, F.B.; Kroon, M.L. de; Dusseldorp, E.; Snik, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of perinatal risk factors with later development of specific language impairment (SLI). METHOD: In a case-control study, 179 children attending special needs schools for SLI were matched with non-affected children attending mainstream schools.

  7. Postschool Educational and Employment Experiences of Young People with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the postschool educational and employment experiences of young people with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Nineteen-year-olds with (n = 50) and without (n = 50) SLI were interviewed on their education and employment experiences since finishing compulsory secondary education. Results: On average,…

  8. Visual Fast Mapping in School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) demonstrate impaired visual fast mapping skills compared with unimpaired peers and to test components of visual working memory that may contribute to a visual working memory deficit. Methods: Fifty children (25 SLI) played 2 computer-based visual fast mapping games…

  9. A Domain Specific Language for Performance Evaluation of Medical Imaging Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Freek; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Turau, Volker; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Mangharam, Rahul; Weyer, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We propose iDSL, a domain specific language and toolbox for performance evaluation of Medical Imaging Systems. iDSL provides transformations to MoDeST models, which are in turn converted into UPPAAL and discrete-event MODES models. This enables automated performance evaluation by means of model

  10. Discipline-Specific Language Instruction for International Students in Introductory Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trien T. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores student perceptions of the effects of pairing discipline-specific language instruction with the traditional method of course delivery in economics. Our research involved teaching content-based English as an additional language (EAL tutorials to a small group of ten international students taking first-year introductory economics courses. These voluntary participants completed pre- and post-treatment assessments with exit interviews at the end of the project. Assessment results and interviews suggest that students perceive that discipline-specific language instruction such as our EAL tutorials assists in the development of increased content and language proficiency. They also believe that vocabulary development is one of the most critical activities to support these goals; reading skills are also important but require more time and commitment than students can afford to give. Despite the students’ interest in the project, their heavy class schedules prevented many from participating; our group was limited to ten students which precludes any assurance of statistical significance. In spite of the limitations, we believe that the project can still contribute valuable qualitative lessons to the literature of content-based language instruction in which the discipline of economics has not been well represented.

  11. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) in school-aged children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jessica; Marshall, Chloë R

    2011-01-01

    Parents play a critical role in their child's language development. Therefore, advising parents of a child with language difficulties on how to facilitate their child's language might benefit the child. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) has been developed specifically for this purpose. In PCIT, the speech-and-language therapist (SLT) works collaboratively with parents, altering interaction styles to make interaction more appropriate to their child's level of communicative needs. This study investigates the effectiveness of PCIT in 8-10-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI) in the expressive domain. It aimed to identify whether PCIT had any significant impact on the following communication parameters of the child: verbal initiations, verbal and non-verbal responses, mean length of utterance (MLU), and proportion of child-to-parent utterances. Sixteen children with SLI and their parents were randomly assigned to two groups: treated or delayed treatment (control). The treated group took part in PCIT over a 4-week block, and then returned to the clinic for a final session after a 6-week consolidation period with no input from the therapist. The treated and control group were assessed in terms of the different communication parameters at three time points: pre-therapy, post-therapy (after the 4-week block) and at the final session (after the consolidation period), through video analysis. It was hypothesized that all communication parameters would significantly increase in the treated group over time and that no significant differences would be found in the control group. All the children in the treated group made language gains during spontaneous interactions with their parents. In comparison with the control group, PCIT had a positive effect on three of the five communication parameters: verbal initiations, MLU and the proportion of child-to-parent utterances. There was a marginal effect on verbal responses, and a trend towards such an effect

  12. Quantum cluster algebras and quantum nilpotent algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodearl, Kenneth R.; Yakimov, Milen T.

    2014-01-01

    A major direction in the theory of cluster algebras is to construct (quantum) cluster algebra structures on the (quantized) coordinate rings of various families of varieties arising in Lie theory. We prove that all algebras in a very large axiomatically defined class of noncommutative algebras possess canonical quantum cluster algebra structures. Furthermore, they coincide with the corresponding upper quantum cluster algebras. We also establish analogs of these results for a large class of Poisson nilpotent algebras. Many important families of coordinate rings are subsumed in the class we are covering, which leads to a broad range of applications of the general results to the above-mentioned types of problems. As a consequence, we prove the Berenstein–Zelevinsky conjecture [Berenstein A, Zelevinsky A (2005) Adv Math 195:405–455] for the quantized coordinate rings of double Bruhat cells and construct quantum cluster algebra structures on all quantum unipotent groups, extending the theorem of Geiß et al. [Geiß C, et al. (2013) Selecta Math 19:337–397] for the case of symmetric Kac–Moody groups. Moreover, we prove that the upper cluster algebras of Berenstein et al. [Berenstein A, et al. (2005) Duke Math J 126:1–52] associated with double Bruhat cells coincide with the corresponding cluster algebras. PMID:24982197

  13. Emotional health in adolescents with and without a history of specific language impairment (SLI)

    OpenAIRE

    Conti-Ramsden, G.; Botting, N.

    2008-01-01

    Objective:  This study examined the emotional health of adolescents with and without specific language impairment (SLI).\\ud \\ud Method:  One hundred and thirty-nine adolescents with a history of SLI (15;10 years) and a peer group of 124 adolescents with normal language development (NLD) (15;11 years) participated, who were in their final year of compulsory schooling. The risk of emotional difficulties was assessed using the Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) and the Child Manifest Anxiety...

  14. Diderot: a Domain-Specific Language for Portable Parallel Scientific Visualization and Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindlmann, Gordon; Chiw, Charisee; Seltzer, Nicholas; Samuels, Lamont; Reppy, John

    2016-01-01

    Many algorithms for scientific visualization and image analysis are rooted in the world of continuous scalar, vector, and tensor fields, but are programmed in low-level languages and libraries that obscure their mathematical foundations. Diderot is a parallel domain-specific language that is designed to bridge this semantic gap by providing the programmer with a high-level, mathematical programming notation that allows direct expression of mathematical concepts in code. Furthermore, Diderot provides parallel performance that takes advantage of modern multicore processors and GPUs. The high-level notation allows a concise and natural expression of the algorithms and the parallelism allows efficient execution on real-world datasets.

  15. The structure of the super-W∞(λ) algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Wit, B. de; Vasiliev, M.

    1991-01-01

    We give a comprehensive treatment of the super-W ∞ (λ) algebra, an extension of the super-Virasoro algebra that contains generators of spin S ≥ 1/2. The parameter λ defines the embedding of the Virasoro subalgebra. We describe how to obtain the super-W ∞ (λ) algebra from the associative algebra of superspace differential operators. We discuss the structure of this associative algebra and its relation with the so-called wedge algebra, in which the generators for given spin are restricted to finite-dimensional representations of sl(2). From the super-W ∞ (λ) algebra one can obtain a variety of W ∞ algebras by consistent truncations for specific values of λ. Without truncation the algebras are formally isomorphic for different values of λ. We present a realization in terms of the currents of a supersymmetric bc system. (orig.)

  16. Atypical right hemisphere specialization for object representations in an adolescent with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy T. Brown

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with a diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI show abnormal spoken language occurring alongside normal nonverbal abilities. Behaviorally, people with SLI exhibit diverse profiles of impairment involving phonological, grammatical, syntactic, and semantic aspects of language. In this study, we used a multimodal neuroimaging technique called anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG to measure the dynamic functional brain organization of an adolescent with SLI. Using single-subject statistical maps of cortical activity, we compared this patient to a sibling and to a cohort of typically developing subjects during the performance of tasks designed to evoke semantic representations of concrete objects. Localized, real-time patterns of brain activity within the language impaired patient showed marked differences from the typical functional organization, with significant engagement of right hemisphere heteromodal cortical regions generally homotopic to the left hemisphere areas that usually show the greatest activity for such tasks. Functional neuroanatomical differences were evident at early sensoriperceptual processing stages and continued through later cognitive stages, observed specifically at latencies typically associated with semantic encoding operations. Our findings show with real-time temporal specificity evidence for an atypical right hemisphere specialization for the representation of concrete entities, independent of verbal motor demands. More broadly, our results demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of using aMEG to characterize individual patient differences in the dynamic functional organization of the brain.

  17. Space-time algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hestenes, David

    2015-01-01

    This small book started a profound revolution in the development of mathematical physics, one which has reached many working physicists already, and which stands poised to bring about far-reaching change in the future. At its heart is the use of Clifford algebra to unify otherwise disparate mathematical languages, particularly those of spinors, quaternions, tensors and differential forms. It provides a unified approach covering all these areas and thus leads to a very efficient ‘toolkit’ for use in physical problems including quantum mechanics, classical mechanics, electromagnetism and relativity (both special and general) – only one mathematical system needs to be learned and understood, and one can use it at levels which extend right through to current research topics in each of these areas. These same techniques, in the form of the ‘Geometric Algebra’, can be applied in many areas of engineering, robotics and computer science, with no changes necessary – it is the same underlying mathematics, a...

  18. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  19. Towards Python-based Domain-specific Languages for Self-reconfigurable Modular Robotics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadam, Mikael; Johan Christensen, David; Brandt, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of operating system and high-level languages in the development of software and domain-specific languages (DSLs) for self-reconfigurable robotics. We review some of the current trends in self-reconfigurable robotics and describe the development of a software system...... for ATRON II which utilizes Linux and Python to significantly improve software abstraction and portability while providing some basic features which could prove useful when using Python, either stand-alone or via a DSL, on a self-reconfigurable robot system. These features include transparent socket...... communication, module identification, easy software transfer and reliable module-to-module communication. The end result is a software platform for modular robots that where appropriate builds on existing work in operating systems, virtual machines, middleware and high-level languages....

  20. Syntactic comprehension and working memory in children with specific language impairment, autism or Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato-Tavares, Talita; Andrade, Claudia R F; Befi-Lopes, Debora; Limongi, Suelly O; Fernandes, Fernanda D M; Schwartz, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    This study examined syntactic assignment for predicates and reflexives as well as working memory effects in the sentence comprehension of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), Down syndrome (DS), high functioning Autism (HFA) and Typical Language Development (TLD). Fifty-seven children (35 boys and 22 girls) performed a computerised picture-selection sentence comprehension task. Predicate attachment and reflexive antecedent assignment (with working memory manipulations) were investigated. The results showed that SLI, HFA and DS children exhibited poorer overall performance than TLD children. Children with SLI exhibited similar performance to the DS and HFA children only when working memory demands were higher. We conclude that children with SLI, HFA and DS differ from children with TLD in their comprehension of predicate and reflexive structures where the knowledge of syntactic assignment is required. Working memory manipulation had different effects on syntactic comprehension depending on language disorder. Intelligence was not an explanatory factor for the differences observed in performance.

  1. [Specific language impairment and electroencephalogram: which recommendations in clinical practice? A cohort of 24 children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, C; Hassairi, I; Delteil, F

    2010-04-01

    Electroencephalographic recording (electroencephalogram [EEG]) is frequent in specific language impairment (SLI), whereas the relations between epileptiform activity (EA) and language disorders remain uncertain and the therapeutic approach undetermined. The aim of this prospective study was to clarify EEG indications and interpretation in SLI. We present a prospective study of cognitive (speech-language measures, psychological assessments) and electroencephalographic data on 24 children (20 males, 4 females; mean age: 4 years 5 months; range: 3 years to 4 years 8 months) with a diagnosis of SLI, defined as a pathologic score on at least 2 speech-language measures and IQ performance of at least 80 points, within epileptic seizures. All participants had an EEG after partial deprivation of sleep at night. When nonsporadic EA was found, 24-h EEG was performed. Antiepileptic treatment was prescribed depending on the frequency of discharges and the SLI profile. The follow-up lasted 2 years. All patients reached stage II sleep during their EEG. Seven children had abnormal electroencephalography results, including 5 children with EA. Two patients with mixed SLI prevailing on expression presented a left centrotemporal spike focus on EEG becoming subcontinuous during sleep. In the first case, the language progressed without antiepileptic treatment. The 2nd case was treated with ethosuximide; the EEG normalized on subsequent recordings, but the language disorder remained severe. The lexical and syntactic understanding and syntactic production scores were not different for children presented EA (5 cases) or without (19 cases) (Wilcoxon's test). Finally, the progression of the various linguistic skills was similar whether or not the children had EA (pactivity is more frequent in SLI than in normal children. It can be seen in all types of SLI but preferentially in the mixed forms. The longitudinal systematic evaluation of all the children with or without EA has never been

  2. Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

  3. Extension of specification language for soundness and completeness of service workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyasitavat, Wattana; Xu, Li Da; Bi, Zhuming; Sapsomboon, Assadaporn

    2018-05-01

    A Service Workflow is an aggregation of distributed services to fulfill specific functionalities. With ever increasing available services, the methodologies for the selections of the services against the given requirements become main research subjects in multiple disciplines. A few of researchers have contributed to the formal specification languages and the methods for model checking; however, existing methods have the difficulties to tackle with the complexity of workflow compositions. In this paper, we propose to formalize the specification language to reduce the complexity of the workflow composition. To this end, we extend a specification language with the consideration of formal logic, so that some effective theorems can be derived for the verification of syntax, semantics, and inference rules in the workflow composition. The logic-based approach automates compliance checking effectively. The Service Workflow Specification (SWSpec) has been extended and formulated, and the soundness, completeness, and consistency of SWSpec applications have been verified; note that a logic-based SWSpec is mandatory for the development of model checking. The application of the proposed SWSpec has been demonstrated by the examples with the addressed soundness, completeness, and consistency.

  4. Leavitt path algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Gene; Siles Molina, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive introduction by three of the leading experts in the field, collecting fundamental results and open problems in a single volume. Since Leavitt path algebras were first defined in 2005, interest in these algebras has grown substantially, with ring theorists as well as researchers working in graph C*-algebras, group theory and symbolic dynamics attracted to the topic. Providing a historical perspective on the subject, the authors review existing arguments, establish new results, and outline the major themes and ring-theoretic concepts, such as the ideal structure, Z-grading and the close link between Leavitt path algebras and graph C*-algebras. The book also presents key lines of current research, including the Algebraic Kirchberg Phillips Question, various additional classification questions, and connections to noncommutative algebraic geometry. Leavitt Path Algebras will appeal to graduate students and researchers working in the field and related areas, such as C*-algebras and...

  5. Psychomotor profile of a child with specific language impairment and Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Tânia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Projecting beyond the ideia of the organic and expressive body and cementing a close relationship between motor skills, cognition and language, the current practices Psychomotricity reach a new conceptual field. In this paper of qualitative nature, it was intended to draw the psychomotor profile of a 8 years old child with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and Dyslexia, by using the Vitor da Fonseca ‘s Observation Psychomotor Battery (OPB and correlate it with the linguistic and cognitive profiles. Through the triangulation of the results obtained in psychomotor, cognitive and language tests, the data in literature was corroborated, which clearly point to the existence of co-morbidity between PEL, Dyslexia and disturbances in the psychomotor’s profile, thereby demonstrating a strong correlation between psychomotricity, cognition and language. Therefore, it’s urgent, and possible, to sensitize the family, the health and education professionals for the need to a multidisciplinary approach in the areas of psychomotricity and language, both at a prophylactic or rehabilitative level.

  6. Nonword repetition--a clinical marker for specific language impairment in Swedish associated with parents' language-related problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Kalnak

    Full Text Available First, we explore the performance of nonword repetition (NWR in children with specific language impairment (SLI and typically developing children (TD in order to investigate the accuracy of NWR as a clinical marker for SLI in Swedish-speaking school-age children. Second, we examine the relationship between NWR, family aggregation, and parental level of education in children with SLI. A sample of 61 children with SLI, and 86 children with TD, aged 8-12 years, were administered an NWR test. Family aggregation, measured as the prevalence of language and/or literacy problems (LLP in parents of the children with SLI, was based on family history interviews. The sensitivity and specificity of nonword repetition was analyzed in a binary logistic regression, cut-off values were established with ROC curves, and positive and negative likelihood ratios reported. Results from the present study show that NWR distinguishes well between Swedish-speaking school-children with and without SLI. We found 90.2% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity at a cut-off level of -2 standard deviations for binary scoring of nonwords. Differences between the SLI and TD groups showed large effect sizes for the two scoring measures binary (d = 2.11 and percent correct consonants (PCC (d = 1.79. The children with SLI were split into two subgroups: those with no parents affected with LLP (n = 12, and those with one or both parents affected (n = 49. The subgroup consisting of affected parents had a significantly lower score on NWR binary (p = .037, and there was a great difference between the subgroups (d = 0.7. When compared to the TD group, the difference from the subgroup with affected parents was almost one standard deviation larger (d = 2.47 than the difference from the TD to the subgroup consisting of non-affected parents (d = 1.57. Our study calls for further exploration of the complex interaction between family aggregation, language input, and

  7. Verifying Process Algebra Proofs in Type Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellink, M.P.A.

    In this paper we study automatic verification of proofs in process algebra. Formulas of process algebra are represented by types in typed λ-calculus. Inhabitants (terms) of these types represent proofs. The specific typed λ-calculus we use is the Calculus of Inductive Constructions as implemented

  8. First Steps into Language? Examining the Specific Longitudinal Relations between Walking, Exploration and Linguistic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Volman, M Chiel J M; Leseman, Paul P M

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2) exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3) no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard) tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial language. Moreover

  9. First steps into language? Examining the specific longitudinal relations between walking, exploration and linguistic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1 the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2 exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3 no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial

  10. User interfaces for computational science: A domain specific language for OOMMF embedded in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Marijan; Pepper, Ryan A.; Fangohr, Hans

    2017-05-01

    Computer simulations are used widely across the engineering and science disciplines, including in the research and development of magnetic devices using computational micromagnetics. In this work, we identify and review different approaches to configuring simulation runs: (i) the re-compilation of source code, (ii) the use of configuration files, (iii) the graphical user interface, and (iv) embedding the simulation specification in an existing programming language to express the computational problem. We identify the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches and discuss their implications on effectiveness and reproducibility of computational studies and results. Following on from this, we design and describe a domain specific language for micromagnetics that is embedded in the Python language, and allows users to define the micromagnetic simulations they want to carry out in a flexible way. We have implemented this micromagnetic simulation description language together with a computational backend that executes the simulation task using the Object Oriented MicroMagnetic Framework (OOMMF). We illustrate the use of this Python interface for OOMMF by solving the micromagnetic standard problem 4. All the code is publicly available and is open source.

  11. User interfaces for computational science: A domain specific language for OOMMF embedded in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Beg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulations are used widely across the engineering and science disciplines, including in the research and development of magnetic devices using computational micromagnetics. In this work, we identify and review different approaches to configuring simulation runs: (i the re-compilation of source code, (ii the use of configuration files, (iii the graphical user interface, and (iv embedding the simulation specification in an existing programming language to express the computational problem. We identify the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches and discuss their implications on effectiveness and reproducibility of computational studies and results. Following on from this, we design and describe a domain specific language for micromagnetics that is embedded in the Python language, and allows users to define the micromagnetic simulations they want to carry out in a flexible way. We have implemented this micromagnetic simulation description language together with a computational backend that executes the simulation task using the Object Oriented MicroMagnetic Framework (OOMMF. We illustrate the use of this Python interface for OOMMF by solving the micromagnetic standard problem 4. All the code is publicly available and is open source.

  12. Working memory and language: skill-specific or domain-general relations to mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J; Ganley, Colleen M

    2014-06-01

    Children's early mathematics skills develop in a cumulative fashion; foundational skills form a basis for the acquisition of later skills. However, non-mathematical factors such as working memory and language skills have also been linked to mathematical development at a broad level. Unfortunately, little research has been conducted to evaluate the specific relations of these two non-mathematical factors to individual aspects of early mathematics. Thus, the focus of this study was to determine whether working memory and language were related to only individual aspects of early mathematics or related to many components of early mathematics skills. A total of 199 4- to 6-year-old preschool and kindergarten children were assessed on a battery of early mathematics tasks as well as measures of working memory and language. Results indicated that working memory has a specific relation to only a few-but critically important-early mathematics skills and language has a broad relation to nearly all early mathematics skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Language-specific stress perception by 9-month-old French and Spanish infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoruppa, Katrin; Pons, Ferran; Christophe, Anne; Bosch, Laura; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Limissuri, Rita Alves; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2009-11-01

    During the first year of life, infants begin to have difficulties perceiving non-native vowel and consonant contrasts, thus adapting their perception to the phonetic categories of the target language. In this paper, we examine the perception of a non-segmental feature, i.e. stress. Previous research with adults has shown that speakers of French (a language with fixed stress) have great difficulties in perceiving stress contrasts (Dupoux, Pallier, Sebastián & Mehler, 1997), whereas speakers of Spanish (a language with lexically contrastive stress) perceive these contrasts as accurately as segmental contrasts. We show that language-specific differences in the perception of stress likewise arise during the first year of life. Specifically, 9-month-old Spanish infants successfully distinguish between stress-initial and stress-final pseudo-words, while French infants of this age show no sign of discrimination. In a second experiment using multiple tokens of a single pseudo-word, French infants of the same age successfully discriminate between the two stress patterns, showing that they are able to perceive the acoustic correlates of stress. Their failure to discriminate stress patterns in the first experiment thus reflects an inability to process stress at an abstract, phonological level.

  14. Effective intervention for expressive grammar in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lock, Karen M; Leitao, Suze; Lambert, Lara; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment are known to struggle with expressive grammar. While some studies have shown successful intervention under laboratory conditions, there is a paucity of evidence for the effectiveness of grammar treatment in young children in community settings. To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention programme for expressive grammar in 5-year-olds with specific language impairment. Thirty-four 5-year-old children attending a specialized school for children with language impairment participated in the study. Nineteen children received treatment for expressive grammar (experimental group) and 15 children received a control treatment. Treatment consisted of weekly 1-h sessions of small group activities in a classroom setting for 8 weeks. Techniques included direct instruction, focused stimulation, recasting and imitation. Results were analysed at the group level and as a case series with each child as their own control in a single-subject design. There was a significant difference in grammatical performance pre- and post-treatment for children who received grammar treatment (Cohen's d = 1.24), but not for a group of children who received a control treatment. Further, no difference in performance was found in the equivalent time period prior to treatment, nor for an untreated target. Treatment success was more pronounced in children without articulation difficulties which interfered with their ability to produce the grammatical targets (Cohen's d = 1.66). Individual analyses indicated the treatment effect was significant for the majority of children. Individually targeted intervention delivered in small groups in a classroom setting was effective in improving production of expressive grammatical targets in 5-year-old children with specific language impairment. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  15. Algebraic theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal

  16. Lukasiewicz-Moisil algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Boicescu, V; Georgescu, G; Rudeanu, S

    1991-01-01

    The Lukasiewicz-Moisil algebras were created by Moisil as an algebraic counterpart for the many-valued logics of Lukasiewicz. The theory of LM-algebras has developed to a considerable extent both as an algebraic theory of intrinsic interest and in view of its applications to logic and switching theory.This book gives an overview of the theory, comprising both classical results and recent contributions, including those of the authors. N-valued and &THgr;-valued algebras are presented, as well as &THgr;-algebras with negation.Mathematicians interested in lattice theory or symbolic logic, and computer scientists, will find in this monograph stimulating material for further research.

  17. Introduction to quantum algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.R.

    1992-09-01

    The concept of a quantum algebra is made easy through the investigation of the prototype algebras u qp (2), su q (2) and u qp (1,1). The latter quantum algebras are introduced as deformations of the corresponding Lie algebras; this is achieved in a simple way by means of qp-bosons. The Hopf algebraic structure of u qp (2) is also discussed. The basic ingredients for the representation theory of u qp (2) are given. Finally, in connection with the quantum algebra u qp (2), the qp-analogues of the harmonic oscillator are discussed and of the (spherical and hyperbolical) angular momenta. (author) 50 refs

  18. Modality-specific processing precedes amodal linguistic processing during L2 sign language acquisition: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    The present study tracked activation pattern differences in response to sign language processing by late hearing second language learners of American Sign Language. Learners were scanned before the start of their language courses. They were scanned again after their first semester of instruction and their second, for a total of 10 months of instruction. The study aimed to characterize modality-specific to modality-general processing throughout the acquisition of sign language. Results indicated that before the acquisition of sign language, neural substrates related to modality-specific processing were present. After approximately 45 h of instruction, the learners transitioned into processing signs on a phonological basis (e.g., supramarginal gyrus, putamen). After one more semester of input, learners transitioned once more to a lexico-semantic processing stage (e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus) at which language control mechanisms (e.g., left caudate, cingulate gyrus) were activated. During these transitional steps right hemispheric recruitment was observed, with increasing left-lateralization, which is similar to other native signers and L2 learners of spoken language; however, specialization for sign language processing with activation in the inferior parietal lobule (i.e., angular gyrus), even for late learners, was observed. As such, the present study is the first to track L2 acquisition of sign language learners in order to characterize modality-independent and modality-specific mechanisms for bilingual language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Language-Independent and Language-Specific Aspects of Early Literacy: An Evaluation of the Common Underlying Proficiency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying…

  20. The Spanish Foreign language teaching for specific purposes in The Formation of Physical Culture Professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Valdés-Aragón

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of an ended research about the Spanish foreign language teaching for specific purposes, that contains a proposal of theoretic methodological model based on interactive communicative tasks for speaking skills development in the students academic discourse, who are preparing as future professionals of Physical Culture. The model is derived of the dialectical materialistic interpretations of the interaction and the communication from diverse dimensions (philosophical, psychological, sociological, pedagogic and linguistic and it constitutes a theoretical contribution. In making of this work were used procedures and research techniques like oral records that facilitated to know the students' interlanguage and it was directed to check in what measure a correct use of the language was made. The contribution to Spanish's teaching as a foreign language for professional goals in the physical culture area, reflected in this work, precise the components of the teaching learning process and the teachers' and students' functions in an interactive process. It allows the students to express their ideas with correction and property making use of the scientific style and transactional functions of the language to be able to define, to describe, to argue, to synthesize, to narrate, to debate, among others. The making of a tasks program used in Spanish's teaching as foreign language, constitutes the practical contribution of the research carried out, as well as the application of the model in other courses of foreign languages for professional goals. The work in general sense is a professional experience directed to solve educational problems, particularly those related with the abilities of the Physical Culture professional of the country and the institution in question, where its results were applied during several courses.

  1. Which are the best predictors of theory of mind delay in children with specific language impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Roqueta, Clara; Adrian, Juan E; Clemente, Rosa A; Katsos, Napoleon

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between language and theory of mind (ToM) development in participants with specific language impairment (SLI) it is far from clear due to there were differences in study design and methodologies of previous studies. This research consisted of an in-depth investigation of ToM delay in children with SLI during the typical period of acquisition, and it studied whether linguistic or information-processing variables were the best predictors of this process. It also took into account whether there were differences in ToM competence due to the degree of pragmatic impairment within the SLI group. Thirty-one children with SLI (3;5-7;5 years old) and two control groups (age matched and language matched) were assessed with False Belief (FB) tasks, a wide battery of language measures and additional information-processing measures. The members of the SLI group were less competent than their age-matched peers at solving FB tasks, but they performed similarly to the language-matched group. Regression analysis showed that overall linguistic skills of children with SLI were the best predictor of ToM performance, and especially grammar abilities. No differences between SLI subgroups were found according to their pragmatic level. A delay in ToM development in children with SLI around the critical period of acquisition is confirmed more comprehensively, and it is shown to be more strongly related to their general linguistic level than to their age and other information-processing faculties. This finding stresses the importance of early educational and clinical programmes aimed at reducing deleterious effects in later development. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Construction of the Questionnaire on Foreign Language Learning Strategies in Specific Croatian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božinović, Nikolina; Sindik, Joško

    2017-03-01

    Learning strategies are special thoughts or behaviours that individuals use to understand, learn or retain new information, according to the point of view of O’Malley & Chamot. The other view, promoted by Oxford, believes learning strategies are specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, and more transferrable to new situations of language learning and use. The use of appropriate strategies ensures greater success in language learning. The aim of the research was to establish metric characteristics of the Questionnaire on learning strategies created by the author, in line with the template of the original SILL questionnaire (Strategy Inventory for Language Learning). The research was conducted at the Rochester Institute of Technology Croatia on a sample of 201 participants who learned German, Spanish, French and Italian as a foreign language. The results have shown that one-component latent dimensions which describe the space of foreign language learning strategies according to Oxford’s classification, have metric characteristics which are low, but still satisfactory (reliability and validity). All dimensions of learning strategies appeared not to be adequately defined. Therefore, we excluded compensation strategies and merged social and affective strategies into social-affective strategies into the unique dimension. Overall, this version of Oxford’s original questionnaire, based on Oxford’s theoretical construct, applied on Croatian students, clearly shows that current version of the questionnaire has poor metric characteristics. One of the explanations of the results obtained could be positioned in multicultural context and intercultural dialogue. Namely, particular social, political and economic context in Croatia could shape even foreign language learning strategies.

  3. Using Specification and Description Language for Life Cycle Assesment in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Fonseca i Casas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a Life Cycle Assesment (LCA for a building or an urban area is a complex task due to the inherent complexity of all the elements that must be considered. Furthermore, a multidisciplinary approach is required due to the different sources of knowledge involved in this project. This multidisciplinary approach makes it necessary to use formal language to fully represent the complexity of the used models. In this paper, we explore the use of Specification and Description Language (SDL to represent the LCA of a building and residential area. We also introduce a tool that uses this idea to implement an optimization and simulation mechanism to define the optimal solution for the sustainability of a specific building or residential.

  4. Adjective production by Russian-speaking children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribushinina, Elena; Dubinkina, Elena

    2012-06-01

    Research on specific language impairment (SLI) has primarily focused on the acquisition of nouns and verbs. Less attention has been given to other content-word classes, such as adjectives and adverbs. This article investigates adjective production by 7- to 10-year-old Russian-speaking children with SLI and their typically developing (TD) peers and focuses on the production of antonymous adjectives and degree markers in an elicitation experiment. The results show that degree morphology is more impaired in SLI than antonymy. In antonym production, children with SLI were able to catch up with their TD peers by age 8. In the domain of degree, however, the SLI group lagged behind the TD controls across all ages studied. Error analysis indicates that language-impaired children have particular difficulty with agreement inflection and affixal negations. They also substitute adjectives with specific meanings by more general terms. The implications of this study for the morphological-richness hypothesis are discussed.

  5. Generalized EMV-Effect Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzooei, R. A.; Dvurečenskij, A.; Sharafi, A. H.

    2018-04-01

    Recently in Dvurečenskij and Zahiri (2017), new algebraic structures, called EMV-algebras which generalize both MV-algebras and generalized Boolean algebras, were introduced. We present equivalent conditions for EMV-algebras. In addition, we define a partial algebraic structure, called a generalized EMV-effect algebra, which is close to generalized MV-effect algebras. Finally, we show that every generalized EMV-effect algebra is either an MV-effect algebra or can be embedded into an MV-effect algebra as a maximal ideal.

  6. Time coordination of heterogeneous distance protections using a domain specific language

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Kowalski; Jan Magott

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Distance protections are widely used in protection of energy transmission lines, but their time coordination is still an important and difficult problem. Inappropriate configuration leads to a hazard event: remote circuit breaker tripping provided the local circuit breaker can be opened, which severely impairs power system operation.OBJECTIVE: To describe a method and provide software tools to alleviate the hazard in power systems.METHODS: A domain specific language (DSL) for repr...

  7. Critical analysis of algebraic collective models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshinsky, M.

    1986-01-01

    The author shall understand by algebraic collective models all those based on specific Lie algebras, whether the latter are suggested through simple shell model considerations like in the case of the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA), or have a detailed microscopic foundation like the symplectic model. To analyze these models critically, it is convenient to take a simple conceptual example of them in which all steps can be implemented analytically or through elementary numerical analysis. In this note he takes as an example the symplectic model in a two dimensional space i.e. based on a sp(4,R) Lie algebra, and show how through its complete discussion we can get a clearer understanding of the structure of algebraic collective models of nuclei. In particular he discusses the association of Hamiltonians, related to maximal subalgebras of our basic Lie algebra, with specific types of spectra, and the connections between spectra and shapes

  8. Families talen en algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Operaties op formele talen geven aanleiding tot bijbehorende operatoren op families talen. Bepaalde onderwerpen uit de algebra (universele algebra, tralies, partieel geordende monoiden) kunnen behulpzaam zijn in de studie van verzamelingen van dergelijke operatoren.

  9. Rudiments of algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Jenner, WE

    2017-01-01

    Aimed at advanced undergraduate students of mathematics, this concise text covers the basics of algebraic geometry. Topics include affine spaces, projective spaces, rational curves, algebraic sets with group structure, more. 1963 edition.

  10. Intertextuality and Sense Production in the Learning of Algebraic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojano, Teresa; Filloy, Eugenio; Puig, Luis

    2014-01-01

    In studies carried out in the 1980s the algebraic symbols and expressions are revealed through prealgebraic readers as non-independent texts, as texts that relate to other texts that in some cases belong to the reader's native language or to the arithmetic sign system. Such outcomes suggest that the act of reading algebraic texts submerges…

  11. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  12. Inflectional and derivational morphological spelling abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critten, Sarah; Connelly, Vincent; Dockrell, Julie E; Walter, Kirsty

    2014-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) are known to have difficulties with spelling but the factors that underpin these difficulties, are a matter of debate. The present study investigated the impact of oral language and literacy on the bound morpheme spelling abilities of children with SLI. Thirty-three children with SLI (9-10 years) and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language and spelling age (LA) (aged 6-8 years) were given dictated spelling tasks of 24 words containing inflectional morphemes and 18 words containing derivational morphemes. There were no significant differences between the SLI group and their LA matches in accuracy or error patterns for inflectional morphemes. By contrast when spelling derivational morphemes the SLI group was less accurate and made proportionately more omissions and phonologically implausible errors than both control groups. Spelling accuracy was associated with phonological awareness and reading; reading performance significantly predicted the ability to spell both inflectional and derivational morphemes. The particular difficulties experienced by the children with SLI for derivational morphemes are considered in relation to reading and oral language.

  13. Delay or deficit? Spelling processes in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Rebecca F; Williams, Gareth J; Blaggan, Samarita

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have explored the phonological, morphological and orthographic spellings skills of children with specific language impairment (SLI) simultaneously. Fifteen children with SLI (mean age=113.07 months, SD=8.61) completed language and spelling tasks alongside chronological-age controls and spelling-age controls. While the children with SLI showed a deficit in phonological spelling, they performed comparably to spelling-age controls on morphological spelling skills, and there were no differences between the three groups in producing orthographically legal spellings. The results also highlighted the potential importance of adequate non-word repetition skills in relation to effective spelling skills, and demonstrated that not all children with spoken language impairments show marked spelling difficulties. Findings are discussed in relation to theory, educational assessment and practice. As a result of this activity, readers will describe components of spoken language that predict children's morphological and phonological spelling performance. As a result of this activity, readers will describe how the spelling skills of children with SLI compare to age-matched and spelling age-matched control children. Readers will be able to interpret the variability in spelling performance seen in children with SLI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Emergent literacy profiles of preschool-age children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Lomax, Richard G; Justice, Laura M; Breit-Smith, Allison; Skibbe, Lori E; McGinty, Anita S

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to explore the heterogeneity of emergent literacy skills among preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) through examination of profiles of performance. Fifty-nine children with SLI were assessed on a battery of emergent literacy skills (i.e., alphabet knowledge, print concepts, emergent writing, rhyme awareness) and oral language skills (i.e., receptive/expressive vocabulary and grammar). Cluster analysis techniques identified three emergent literacy profiles: (1) Highest Emergent Literacy, Strength in Alphabet Knowledge; (2) Average Emergent Literacy, Strength in Print Concepts; and (3) Lowest Emergent Literacy across Skills. After taking into account the contribution of child age, receptive and expressive language skills made a small contribution to the prediction of profile membership. The present findings, which may be characterized as exploratory given the relatively modest sample size, suggest that preschool-age children with SLI display substantial individual differences with regard to their emergent literacy skills and that these differences cannot be fully determined by children's age or oral language performance. Replication of the present findings with a larger sample of children is needed.

  15. Individual differences in the production of word classes in eight specific language-impaired preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Normand, M T; Chevrie-Muller, C

    1991-01-01

    The production of word classes in eight 53-62-month-old specific language-impaired (SLI) children was described and compared with that of 30 normal 24-33-month-old children in the same play situation. SLI subjects and nonimpaired children were selected within specified mean length of utterance ranges (low MLU versus high MLU). Production of word classes by subjects was evaluated in order to determine (1) whether SLI children showed a similar or a different word-class profile among themselves and when compared with non-impaired children and (2) whether MLU related to word classes would be useful as a single clinical index in assessment of language acquisition. Results showed that scores of SLI children in production of word classes reflect important individual differences among subjects. In the high-MLU sample, all SLI children produced each word class relatively within the same range as the nonimpaired group. In the low-MLU sample two SLI children were very different in their word-class profile and individual differences were further confirmed by a discriminant function analysis. Correlations between MLU and word classes were significant in nonimpaired children for all variables except Questions and Onomatopoeia and were only significant in SLI children for Verbs, Prepositions, and Personal Pronouns. Such findings contribute support to the view that there is "deviant" pattern of language in SLI children and once again questions whether MLU is one of the best discriminating indicators to use in the clinical assessment of language organization.

  16. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-10-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence-WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses. The predictive value of the WPPSI with respect to TT performance was analyzed using regression analyses. SLI-children performed significantly worse on both TT and WPPSI ([Formula: see text]). The TT alone yielded an overall classification rate of 79%, the TT and the WPPSI together yielded an overall classification rate of 80%. TT performance was significantly predicted by verbal intelligence in SLI-children and nonverbal intelligence in controls whilst WPPSI subtest arithmetic was predictive in both groups. Without further research, the Token Test cannot be seen as a valid and sufficient tool for the screening of SLI in preschool children but rather as a tool for the assessment of more general intellectual capacities. SLI-children at this age already show impairments typically associated with SLI which indicates the necessity of early developmental support or training. Token Test performance is possibly an indicator for a more general developmental factor rather than an exclusive indicator for language difficulties.

  17. Semantic Differences of Definitional skills between Persian Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment and Normal Language Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Mohammadi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Linguistic and metalinguistic knowledge are the effective factors for definitional skills. This study investigated definitional skills both content and form in children with specific language impairment. Materials and Method: The participants were 32 Children in two groups of 16 SLI and 16 normal children, matched with age, sex and educational level. The SLI group was referred from Learning Difficulties Centers and Zarei Rehabilitation Center in Tehran, as well as the control group who was selected by randomized sampling from normal primary schools. The stimuli were 14 high frequency nouns from seven different categories. The reliability was calculated by interjudge agreement and the validity was assessed by content. Data was analyzed using independent T-test. Results: There were significant differences between mean scores of content and form of the definitional skills in two groups. The mean and SD scores of the content of word definition were M= 45.87, SD=12.22 in control group and M=33.18, SD= 17.60 for SLI one, out of possible 70 points (P= 0.025. The mean and SD scores of the form of word definition were M= 48.87, SD= 9.49 in control group and M= 38.18, SD= 12.85 for SLI one, out of 70 points (P= 0.012. Conclusion: Based on the results, it was concluded that, language problems of the SLI children may not let them semantic represention in order to form and present a complete process of word definition. Although this skill in children with SLI is inadequate, all the definitions given by SLI children were consistent with the categories of content and form of word definition used in this study. Therefore, an exact planning and intervention by speech and language pathologist can be effective for this skill. Linguistic intervention especially in semantic and grammatical aspects not only improves the definition of familiar words but also it might be useful for the definition of new words, consequently lead to educational and

  18. ASYS: a computer algebra package for analysis of nonlinear algebraic equations systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.; Khutornoj, N.V.

    1992-01-01

    A program package ASYS for analysis of nonlinear algebraic equations based on the Groebner basis technique is described. The package is written in REDUCE computer algebra language. It has special facilities to treat polynomial ideals of positive dimension, corresponding to algebraic systems with infinitely many solutions. Such systems can be transformed to an equivalent set of subsystems with reduced number of variables in completely automatic way. It often allows to construct the explicit form of a solution set in many problems of practical importance. Some examples and results of comparison with the standard Reduce package GROEBNER and special-purpose systems FELIX and A1PI are given. 21 refs.; 2 tabs

  19. Elementary Algebra Connections to Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Boada, Roberto; Daire, Sandra Arguelles

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the attitudes of some precalculus students to solve trigonometric and logarithmic equations and systems using the concepts of elementary algebra. With the goal of enticing the students to search for and use connections among mathematical topics, they are asked to solve equations or systems specifically designed to allow…

  20. Abstract algebra for physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, J.

    1975-06-01

    Certain recent models of composite hadrons involve concepts and theorems from abstract algebra which are unfamiliar to most theoretical physicists. The algebraic apparatus needed for an understanding of these models is summarized here. Particular emphasis is given to algebraic structures which are not assumed to be associative. (2 figures) (auth)

  1. Combinatorial commutative algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Ezra

    2005-01-01

    Offers an introduction to combinatorial commutative algebra, focusing on combinatorial techniques for multigraded polynomial rings, semigroup algebras, and determined rings. The chapters in this work cover topics ranging from homological invariants of monomial ideals and their polyhedral resolutions, to tools for studying algebraic varieties.

  2. Nonadjacent Dependency Learning in Cantonese-Speaking Children With and Without a History of Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Ng, Lai Yan; Wong, Anita Mei Yin; Lee, Oi Ting

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated nonadjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking children with and without a history of specific language impairment (SLI) in an artificial linguistic context. Sixteen Cantonese-speaking children with a history of SLI and 16 Cantonese-speaking children with typical language development (TLD) were tested with a nonadjacent dependency learning task using artificial languages that mimic Cantonese. Children with TLD performed above chance and were able to discriminate between trained and untrained nonadjacent dependencies. However, children with a history of SLI performed at chance and were not able to differentiate trained versus untrained nonadjacent dependencies. These findings, together with previous findings from English-speaking adults and adolescents with language impairments, suggest that individuals with atypical language development, regardless of age, diagnostic status, language, and culture, show difficulties in learning nonadjacent dependencies. This study provides evidence for early impairments to statistical learning in individuals with atypical language development.

  3. Fundamentals of algebraic graph transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrig, Hartmut; Prange, Ulrike; Taentzer, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Graphs are widely used to represent structural information in the form of objects and connections between them. Graph transformation is the rule-based manipulation of graphs, an increasingly important concept in computer science and related fields. This is the first textbook treatment of the algebraic approach to graph transformation, based on algebraic structures and category theory. Part I is an introduction to the classical case of graph and typed graph transformation. In Part II basic and advanced results are first shown for an abstract form of replacement systems, so-called adhesive high-level replacement systems based on category theory, and are then instantiated to several forms of graph and Petri net transformation systems. Part III develops typed attributed graph transformation, a technique of key relevance in the modeling of visual languages and in model transformation. Part IV contains a practical case study on model transformation and a presentation of the AGG (attributed graph grammar) tool envir...

  4. Do children with autism have a theory of mind? A non-verbal test of autism vs. specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline

    2007-04-01

    Children with autism have delays in the development of theory of mind. However, the sub-group of children with autism who have little or no language have gone untested since false belief tests (FB) typically involve language. FB understanding has been reported to be intact in children with specific language impairment (SLI). This raises the possibility that a non-verbal FB test would distinguish children with autism vs. children with SLI. The present study tested two predictions: (1) FB understanding is to some extent independent of language ability; and (2) Children with autism with low language levels show specific impairment in theory of mind. Results confirmed both predictions. Results are discussed in terms of the role of language in the development of mindreading.

  5. ViSlang: A system for interpreted domain-specific languages for scientific visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Rautek, Peter

    2014-12-31

    Researchers from many domains use scientific visualization in their daily practice. Existing implementations of algorithms usually come with a graphical user interface (high-level interface), or as software library or source code (low-level interface). In this paper we present a system that integrates domain-specific languages (DSLs) and facilitates the creation of new DSLs. DSLs provide an effective interface for domain scientists avoiding the difficulties involved with low-level interfaces and at the same time offering more flexibility than high-level interfaces. We describe the design and implementation of ViSlang, an interpreted language specifically tailored for scientific visualization. A major contribution of our design is the extensibility of the ViSlang language. Novel DSLs that are tailored to the problems of the domain can be created and integrated into ViSlang. We show that our approach can be added to existing user interfaces to increase the flexibility for expert users on demand, but at the same time does not interfere with the user experience of novice users. To demonstrate the flexibility of our approach we present new DSLs for volume processing, querying and visualization. We report the implementation effort for new DSLs and compare our approach with Matlab and Python implementations in terms of run-time performance.

  6. Deficits in Coordinative Bimanual Timing Precision in Children With Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Janet; Goffman, Lisa; Zelaznik, Howard N

    2017-02-01

    Our objective was to delineate components of motor performance in specific language impairment (SLI); specifically, whether deficits in timing precision in one effector (unimanual tapping) and in two effectors (bimanual clapping) are observed in young children with SLI. Twenty-seven 4- to 5-year-old children with SLI and 21 age-matched peers with typical language development participated. All children engaged in a unimanual tapping and a bimanual clapping timing task. Standard measures of language and motor performance were also obtained. No group differences in timing variability were observed in the unimanual tapping task. However, compared with typically developing peers, children with SLI were more variable in their timing precision in the bimanual clapping task. Nine of the children with SLI performed greater than 1 SD below the mean on a standardized motor assessment. The children with low motor performance showed the same profile as observed across all children with SLI, with unaffected unimanual and impaired bimanual timing precision. Although unimanual timing is unaffected, children with SLI show a deficit in timing that requires bimanual coordination. We propose that the timing deficits observed in children with SLI are associated with the increased demands inherent in bimanual performance.

  7. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as "baseline condition") followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation.

  8. What Characterizes the Algebraic Competence of Norwegian Upper Secondary School Students? Evidence from TIMSS Advanced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ida Friestad

    2015-01-01

    Algebra is the fundamental language of mathematics, and a profound understanding of school algebra is an important prerequisite for further studies in mathematical sciences. The aim of this study is to characterize the algebraic competence of the Norwegian upper secondary school students participating in Trends in International Mathematics and…

  9. The behaviour and self-esteem of children with specific speech and language difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, G; Dockrell, J

    2000-12-01

    Children with specific speech and language difficulties (SSLD) may have associated difficulties that impair their access to the curriculum, and their social relationships at home and in school. (i) To identify the range of additional problems experienced by children with SSLD in different educational contexts; (ii) to consider the relationship between these problems and the child's current language status and (iii) to consider the child's self-esteem and the extent to which self-esteem is associated with the primary language problem or other associated difficulties. Sixty-nine children (17 girls, 52 boys) aged 7-8 years (Year 3) who had been identified as having SSLD, 59 from two local education authorities and 10 from regional special schools for children with severe speech and language difficulties. The children were assessed on a range of cognitive, language and educational measures; children and teachers completed a measure of the children's self-esteem (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance); teachers and parents completed a behavioural questionnaire (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); teachers also completed a further rating scale which included a behaviour subscale (Junior Rating Scale: JRS). The children's behaviour was rated as significantly different from the norm on both the SDQ and JRS, with the parents more likely to rate the child as having problems, but also as having prosocial behaviour. Both teachers and parents tended to rate the boys as having more problems than girls on the SDQ, with significant differences for the parents' ratings occurring on the total score and the hyperactivity and conduct problems scales. The children had positive self perceptions, which were comparable to the standardisation sample, and generally significantly higher than those of the teachers. The language and educational attainment scores of the children in special and mainstream schools were generally not significantly different, but

  10. Linearizing W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivonos, S.O.; Sorin, A.S.

    1994-06-01

    We show that the Zamolodchikov's and Polyakov-Bershadsky nonlinear algebras W 3 and W (2) 3 can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear algebras with finite set of currents. Using these linear algebras we find new field realizations of W (2) 3 and W 3 which could be a starting point for constructing new versions of W-string theories. We also reveal a number of hidden relationships between W 3 and W (2) 3 . We conjecture that similar linear algebras can exist for other W-algebra as well. (author). 10 refs

  11. Algebraic topological entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudetz, T.

    1989-01-01

    As a 'by-product' of the Connes-Narnhofer-Thirring theory of dynamical entropy for (originally non-Abelian) nuclear C * -algebras, the well-known variational principle for topological entropy is eqivalently reformulated in purly algebraically defined terms for (separable) Abelian C * -algebras. This 'algebraic variational principle' should not only nicely illustrate the 'feed-back' of methods developed for quantum dynamical systems to the classical theory, but it could also be proved directly by 'algebraic' methods and could thus further simplify the original proof of the variational principle (at least 'in principle'). 23 refs. (Author)

  12. Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dickenstein, Alicia; Sommese, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a burgeoning of activity in the design and implementation of algorithms for algebraic geometric computation. Some of these algorithms were originally designed for abstract algebraic geometry, but now are of interest for use in applications and some of these algorithms were originally designed for applications, but now are of interest for use in abstract algebraic geometry. The workshop on Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry that was held in the framework of the IMA Annual Program Year in Applications of Algebraic Geometry by the Institute for Mathematics and Its

  13. Computer algebra and operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateman, Richard; Grossman, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The symbolic computation of operator expansions is discussed. Some of the capabilities that prove useful when performing computer algebra computations involving operators are considered. These capabilities may be broadly divided into three areas: the algebraic manipulation of expressions from the algebra generated by operators; the algebraic manipulation of the actions of the operators upon other mathematical objects; and the development of appropriate normal forms and simplification algorithms for operators and their actions. Brief descriptions are given of the computer algebra computations that arise when working with various operators and their actions.

  14. Working memory and novel word learning in children with hearing impairment and children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, K; Forsberg, J; Löfqvist, A; Mäki-Torkko, E; Sahlén, B

    2004-01-01

    Working memory is considered to influence a range of linguistic skills, i.e. vocabulary acquisition, sentence comprehension and reading. Several studies have pointed to limitations of working memory in children with specific language impairment. Few studies, however, have explored the role of working memory for language deficits in children with hearing impairment. The first aim was to compare children with mild-to-moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment and children with normal language development, aged 9-12 years, for language and working memory. The special focus was on the role of working memory in learning new words for primary school age children. The assessment of working memory included tests of phonological short-term memory and complex working memory. Novel word learning was assessed according to the methods of. In addition, a range of language tests was used to assess language comprehension, output phonology and reading. Children with hearing impairment performed significantly better than children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment on tasks assessing novel word learning, complex working memory, sentence comprehension and reading accuracy. No significant correlation was found between phonological short-term memory and novel word learning in any group. The best predictor of novel word learning in children with specific language impairment and in children with hearing impairment was complex working memory. Furthermore, there was a close relationship between complex working memory and language in children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment but not in children with hearing impairment. Complex working memory seems to play a significant role in vocabulary acquisition in primary school age children. The interpretation is that the results support theories suggesting a weakened influence of phonological short-term memory on novel word

  15. Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Families: A Future View of Nature Plus Nurture and New Technologies for Comprehensive Language Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L

    2016-11-01

    Future perspectives on children with language impairments are framed from what is known about children with specific language impairment (SLI). A summary of the current state of services is followed by discussion of how these children can be overlooked and misunderstood and consideration of why it is so hard for some children to acquire language when it is effortless for most children. Genetic influences are highlighted, with the suggestion that nature plus nurture should be considered in present as well as future intervention approaches. A nurture perspective highlights the family context of the likelihood of SLI for some of the children. Future models of the causal pathways may provide more specific information to guide gene-treatment decisions, in ways parallel to current personalized medicine approaches. Future treatment options can build on the potential of electronic technologies and social media to provide personalized treatment methods available at a time and place convenient for the person to use as often as desired. The speech-language pathologist could oversee a wide range of treatment options and monitor evidence provided electronically to evaluate progress and plan future treatment steps. Most importantly, future methods can provide lifelong language acquisition activities that maintain the privacy and dignity of persons with language impairment, and in so doing will in turn enhance the effectiveness of speech-language pathologists. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Lectures on algebraic statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Drton, Mathias; Sullivant, Seth

    2009-01-01

    How does an algebraic geometer studying secant varieties further the understanding of hypothesis tests in statistics? Why would a statistician working on factor analysis raise open problems about determinantal varieties? Connections of this type are at the heart of the new field of "algebraic statistics". In this field, mathematicians and statisticians come together to solve statistical inference problems using concepts from algebraic geometry as well as related computational and combinatorial techniques. The goal of these lectures is to introduce newcomers from the different camps to algebraic statistics. The introduction will be centered around the following three observations: many important statistical models correspond to algebraic or semi-algebraic sets of parameters; the geometry of these parameter spaces determines the behaviour of widely used statistical inference procedures; computational algebraic geometry can be used to study parameter spaces and other features of statistical models.

  17. Extended conformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The algebra of the group of conformal transformations in two dimensions consists of two commuting copies of the Virasoro algebra. In many mathematical and physical contexts, the representations of ν which are relevant satisfy two conditions: they are unitary and they have the ''positive energy'' property that L o is bounded below. In an irreducible unitary representation the central element c takes a fixed real value. In physical contexts, the value of c is a characteristic of a theory. If c < 1, it turns out that the conformal algebra is sufficient to ''solve'' the theory, in the sense of relating the calculation of the infinite set of physically interesting quantities to a finite subset which can be handled in principle. For c ≥ 1, this is no longer the case for the algebra alone and one needs some sort of extended conformal algebra, such as the superconformal algebra. It is these algebras that this paper aims at addressing. (author)

  18. Algebraic conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1991-11-01

    Many conformal field theory features are special versions of structures which are present in arbitrary 2-dimensional quantum field theories. So it makes sense to describe 2-dimensional conformal field theories in context of algebraic theory of superselection sectors. While most of the results of the algebraic theory are rather abstract, conformal field theories offer the possibility to work out many formulae explicitly. In particular, one can construct the full algebra A-bar of global observables and the endomorphisms of A-bar which represent the superselection sectors. Some explicit results are presented for the level 1 so(N) WZW theories; the algebra A-bar is found to be the enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra L-bar which is an extension of the chiral symmetry algebra of the WZW theory. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  19. Wn(2) algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigin, B.L.; Semikhatov, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    We construct W-algebra generalizations of the sl-circumflex(2) algebra-W algebras W n (2) generated by two currents E and F with the highest pole of order n in their OPE. The n=3 term in this series is the Bershadsky-Polyakov W 3 (2) algebra. We define these algebras as a centralizer (commutant) of the Uqs-bar (n vertical bar 1) quantum supergroup and explicitly find the generators in a factored, 'Miura-like' form. Another construction of the W n (2) algebras is in terms of the coset sl-circumflex(n vertical bar 1)/sl-circumflex(n). The relation between the two constructions involves the 'duality' (k+n-1)(k'+n-1)=1 between levels k and k' of two sl-circumflex(n) algebras

  20. Efficacy of speech therapy in children with language disorders : specific language impairment compared with language impairment in comorbidity with cognitive delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorhuis-Brouwer, SM; Knijff, WA

    2002-01-01

    Objective: this article discusses the effect of speech therapy on language comprehension, language production and non-verbal functioning in two groups of children with developmental language disorders. Design: retrospective study-a follow-up after a mean of 2 years, Materials and methods: verbal and

  1. Bicovariant quantum algebras and quantum Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schupp, P.; Watts, P.; Zumino, B.

    1993-01-01

    A bicovariant calculus of differential operators on a quantum group is constructed in a natural way, using invariant maps from Fun(G q ) to U q g, given by elements of the pure braid group. These operators - the 'reflection matrix' Y= triple bond L + SL - being a special case - generate algebras that linearly close under adjoint actions, i.e. they form generalized Lie algebras. We establish the connection between the Hopf algebra formulation of the calculus and a formulation in compact matrix form which is quite powerful for actual computations and as applications we find the quantum determinant and an orthogonality relation for Y in SO q (N). (orig.)

  2. The Boolean algebra and central Galois algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Szeto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Let B be a Galois algebra with Galois group G, Jg={b∈B∣bx=g(xb   for all   x∈B} for g∈G, and BJg=Beg for a central idempotent eg. Then a relation is given between the set of elements in the Boolean algebra (Ba,≤ generated by {0,eg∣g∈G} and a set of subgroups of G, and a central Galois algebra Be with a Galois subgroup of G is characterized for an e∈Ba.

  3. Cross-Linguistic Transfer Effects after Phonologically Based Cognate Therapy in a Case of Multilingual Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria; Michaelides, Michalis; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Clinicians globally recognize as exceptionally challenging the development of effective intervention practices for bi- or multilingual children with specific language impairment (SLI). Therapy in both or all of an impaired child's languages is rarely possible. An alternative is to develop treatment protocols that facilitate the…

  4. Health Professionals' Views of Communication: Implications for Assessing Performance on a Health-Specific English Language Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Cathie; Pill, John; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; McNamara, Tim; Manias, Elizabeth; Webb, Gillian; McColl, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    The gap between linguistic and professional criteria is a widely acknowledged but unresolved issue in the teaching and assessment of languages for specific purposes (LSP). In the teaching of professional writing, language experts and workplace professionals have been characterized as living worlds apart with respect to their views of…

  5. Specific Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents Are Associated with Prematurity after Controlling for IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the…

  6. Targeting Complex Sentences in Older School Children with Specific Language Impairment: Results from an Early-Phase Treatment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Catherine H.; Scott, Cheryl M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of a complex sentence treatment at 2 dosage levels on language performance of 30 school-age children ages 10-14 years with specific language impairment. Method: Three types of complex sentences (adverbial, object complement, relative) were taught in sequence in once or twice weekly dosage conditions.…

  7. How Do Children Ascribe Gender to Nouns? A Study of Spanish-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Raquel T.; Lockowitz, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify how Spanish-speaking preschool children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) use the various cues available for ascribing a noun's inherent gender in the language. Via an invented word task, four types of cues were isolated and presented to each child: (1) two types of noun-internal…

  8. The Relationship between Phonological Memory, Receptive Vocabulary, and Fast Mapping in Young Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Shelley

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the fast mapping performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI) across the preschool to kindergarten age span in relation to their phonological memory and vocabulary development. Method: Fifty-three children diagnosed with SLI and 53 children with normal language (NL) matched for age and gender (30…

  9. Prereferral Process with Latino English Language Learners with Specific Learning Disabilities: Perceptions of English-as-a-Second-Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlis, Emily; Xu, Yaoying

    2016-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) teachers on the prereferral process for Latino English language learners (ELLs). Using Colaizzi's (1978) phenomenological approach, qualitative data were collected through interviews with four ESL teachers. Analyses of the data indicated that the ESL teachers used research-based…

  10. Language, Cognitive Flexibility, and Explicit False Belief Understanding: Longitudinal Analysis in Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Brad M.; Maybery, Murray T.; Fletcher, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that language plays a role in theory-of-mind (ToM) development is supported by a number of lines of evidence (e.g., H. Lohmann & M. Tomasello, 2003). The current study sought to further investigate the relations between maternal language input, memory for false sentential complements, cognitive flexibility, and the development of…

  11. SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPLEMENTING THE COMBINED METHOD OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN WESTERN UKRAINE AND IN RUSSIA (1918–1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Богдана Лабінська

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the specific characteristics of implementing the combined method in teaching foreign languages in Western Ukraine and in Russia (1918–1939. Preconditions of the origin of the combined method have been ascertained. Teaching language aspects and communicative activities has been analyzed on the basis of curricula, manuals and scientific articles of those times. Comparative studies of foreign language teaching methodology in Ukraine and in Russia have been carried out. Fundamentals of the combined method of teaching foreign languages have been substantiated and peculiarities of their realization in the region under investigation have been formulated.

  12. Nonflexible Lie-admissible algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the structure of Lie-admissible algebras which are defined by nonflexible identities. These algebras largely arise from the antiflexible algebras, 2-varieties and associator dependent algebras. The nonflexible Lie-admissible algebras in our discussion are in essence byproducts of the study of nonassociative algebras defined by identities of degree 3. The main purpose is to discuss the classification of simple Lie-admissible algebras of nonflexible type

  13. Algebraic computability and enumeration models recursion theory and descriptive complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Nourani, Cyrus F

    2016-01-01

    This book, Algebraic Computability and Enumeration Models: Recursion Theory and Descriptive Complexity, presents new techniques with functorial models to address important areas on pure mathematics and computability theory from the algebraic viewpoint. The reader is first introduced to categories and functorial models, with Kleene algebra examples for languages. Functorial models for Peano arithmetic are described toward important computational complexity areas on a Hilbert program, leading to computability with initial models. Infinite language categories are also introduced to explain descriptive complexity with recursive computability with admissible sets and urelements. Algebraic and categorical realizability is staged on several levels, addressing new computability questions with omitting types realizably. Further applications to computing with ultrafilters on sets and Turing degree computability are examined. Functorial models computability is presented with algebraic trees realizing intuitionistic type...

  14. Theory of Mind deficits and social emotional functioning in preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Vissers

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI often experience emotional and social difficulties. In general, problems in social emotional functioning can be cognitively explained in terms of Theory of Mind (ToM. In this mini-review, an overview is provided of studies on social-emotional functioning and ToM in preschoolers (average age from 2.3 to 6.2 years with SLI. It is concluded that, similar to school-aged children with SLI, preschoolers with SLI have several social-emotional problems and that both cognitive and affective aspects of ToM are impaired in those children. Based hereon, three possible causal models for the interrelation between language, ToM and social emotional functioning are put forward. It is proposed that future research on the construct and measurement of early ToM, social emotional functioning and language development in preschoolers with SLI is needed to achieve early detection, tailored treatment, and ultimately insight into the pathogenesis of SLI.

  15. What do children with specific language impairment do with multiple forms of DO?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L; Blossom, Megan

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to examine the early usage patterns of multiple grammatical functions of DO in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Children's use of this plurifunctional form is informative for evaluation of theoretical accounts of the deficit in SLI. Spontaneous uses of multiple functions of DO were analyzed in language samples from 89 children: 37 children with SLI, ages 5;0-5;6 (years;months); 37 age-equivalent children; and 15 language-equivalent children, ages 2;8-4;10. Proportion correct and types of errors produced were analyzed for each function of DO. Children with SLI had significantly lower levels of proportion correct auxiliary DO use compared to both control groups, with omissions of the DO form as the primary error type. Children with SLI had near-ceiling performance on lexical DO and elliptical DO, similar to both control groups. Plurifunctionality is not problematic: Children acquire each function of DO separately. Grammatical properties of the function, rather than surface properties of the form, dictate whether children with SLI will have difficulty using the word. Overall, these results support the extended optional infinitive account of SLI and the use of auxiliary DO omissions as part of a clinical marker for SLI.

  16. Are children with Specific Language Impairment competent with the pragmatics and logic of quantification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsos, Napoleon; Roqueta, Clara Andrés; Estevan, Rosa Ana Clemente; Cummins, Chris

    2011-04-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is understood to be a disorder that predominantly affects phonology, morphosyntax and/or lexical semantics. There is little conclusive evidence on whether children with SLI are challenged with regard to Gricean pragmatic maxims and on whether children with SLI are competent with the logical meaning of quantifying expressions. We use the comprehension of statements quantified with 'all', 'none', 'some', 'some…not', 'most' and 'not all' as a paradigm to study whether Spanish-speaking children with SLI are competent with the pragmatic maxim of informativeness, as well as with the logical meaning of these expressions. Children with SLI performed more poorly than a group of age-matched typically-developing peers, and both groups performed more poorly with pragmatics than with logical meaning. Moreover, children with SLI were disproportionately challenged by pragmatic meaning compared to their age-matched peers. However, the performance of children with SLI was comparable to that of a group of younger language-matched typically-developing children. The findings document that children with SLI do face difficulties with employing the maxim of informativeness, as well as with understanding the logical meaning of quantifiers, but also that these difficulties are in keeping with their overall language difficulties rather than exceeding them. The implications of these findings for SLI, linguistic theory, and clinical practice are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The complexity of narrative interferes in the use of conjunctions in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Deborah Oliveira; Cáceres, Ana Manhani; Bento-Gaz, Ana Carolina Paiva; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2012-01-01

    To verify the use of conjunctions in narratives, and to investigate the influence of stimuli's complexity over the type of conjunctions used by children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typical language development. Participants were 40 children (20 with typical language development and 20 with SLI) with ages between 7 and 10 years, paired by age range. Fifteen stories with increasing of complexity were used to obtain the narratives; stories were classified into mechanical, behavioral and intentional, and each of them was represented by four scenes. Narratives were analyzed according to occurrence and classification of conjunctions. Both groups used more coordinative than subordinate conjunctions, with significant decrease in the use of conjunctions in the discourse of SLI children. The use of conjunctions varied according to the type of narrative: for coordinative conjunctions, both groups differed only between intentional and behavioral narratives, with higher occurrence in behavioral ones; for subordinate conjunctions, typically developing children's performance did not show differences between narratives, while SLI children presented fewer occurrences in intentional narratives, which was different from other narratives. Both groups used more coordinative than subordinate conjunctions; however, typically developing children presented more conjunctions than SLI children. The production of children with SLI was influenced by stimulus, since more complex narratives has less use of subordinate conjunctions.

  18. The Cognitive Advantages of Counting Specifically: A Representational Analysis of Verbal Numeration Systems in Oceanic Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Schlimm, Dirk; Beller, Sieghard

    2015-10-01

    The domain of numbers provides a paradigmatic case for investigating interactions of culture, language, and cognition: Numerical competencies are considered a core domain of knowledge, and yet the development of specifically human abilities presupposes cultural and linguistic input by way of counting sequences. These sequences constitute systems with distinct structural properties, the cross-linguistic variability of which has implications for number representation and processing. Such representational effects are scrutinized for two types of verbal numeration systems-general and object-specific ones-that were in parallel use in several Oceanic languages (English with its general system is included for comparison). The analysis indicates that the object-specific systems outperform the general systems with respect to counting and mental arithmetic, largely due to their regular and more compact representation. What these findings reveal on cognitive diversity, how the conjectures involved speak to more general issues in cognitive science, and how the approach taken here might help to bridge the gap between anthropology and other cognitive sciences is discussed in the conclusion. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Recoupling Lie algebra and universal ω-algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, William P.

    2004-01-01

    We formulate the algebraic version of recoupling theory suitable for commutation quantization over any gradation. This gives a generalization of graded Lie algebra. Underlying this is the new notion of an ω-algebra defined in this paper. ω-algebra is a generalization of algebra that goes beyond nonassociativity. We construct the universal enveloping ω-algebra of recoupling Lie algebras and prove a generalized Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt theorem. As an example we consider the algebras over an arbitrary recoupling of Z n graded Heisenberg Lie algebra. Finally we uncover the usual coalgebra structure of a universal envelope and substantiate its Hopf structure

  20. The impact of specific language impairment on working memory in children with ADHD combined type

    OpenAIRE

    Jondottir, S.; Bouma, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of comorbid specific language impairment (SLI) on verbal and spatial working memory in children with DSM-IV combined subtype Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Participants were a clinical sample of 81/2- to 121/2-year-old children diagnosed with ADHD-C. A group of ADHD-C with SLI was compared to a group of ADHD-C without SLI, and a group of normal children, matched on age and nonverbal intelligence. The results show that A...

  1. The impact of specific language impairment on working memory children with ADHD combined subtype

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsdottir, S.; Bouma, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of comorbid specific language impairment (SLI) on verbal and spatial working memory in children with DSM-IV combined subtype Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Participants were a clinical sample of 81/2- to 121/2-year-old children diagnosed with ADHD-C. A group of ADHD-C with SLI was compared to a group of ADHD-C without SLI, and a group of normal children, matched on age and nonverbal intelligence. The results show that A...

  2. Hurwitz Algebras and the Octonion Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdik, Čestmir; Catto, Sultan

    2018-02-01

    We explore some consequences of a theory of internal symmetries for elementary particles constructed on exceptional quantum mechanical spaces based on Jordan algebra formulation that admit exceptional groups as gauge groups.

  3. Awareness of rhythm patterns in speech and music in children with specific language impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth eCumming

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Children with specific language impairments (SLIs show impaired perception and production of language, and also show impairments in perceiving auditory cues to rhythm (amplitude rise time [ART] and sound duration and in tapping to a rhythmic beat. Here we explore potential links between language development and rhythm perception in 45 children with SLI and 50 age-matched controls. We administered three rhythmic tasks, a musical beat detection task, a tapping-to-music task, and a novel music/speech task, which varied rhythm and pitch cues independently or together in both speech and music. Via low-pass filtering, the music sounded as though it was played from a low-quality radio and the speech sounded as though it was muffled (heard behind the door. We report data for all of the SLI children (N = 45, IQ varying, as well as for two independent subgroupings with intact IQ. One subgroup, Pure SLI, had intact phonology and reading (N=16, the other, SLI PPR (N=15, had impaired phonology and reading. When IQ varied (all SLI children, we found significant group differences in all the rhythmic tasks. For the Pure SLI group, there were rhythmic impairments in the tapping task only. For children with SLI and poor phonology (SLI PPR, group differences were found in all of the filtered speech/music AXB tasks. We conclude that difficulties with rhythmic cues in both speech and music are present in children with SLIs, but that some rhythmic measures are more sensitive than others. The data are interpreted within a ‘prosodic phrasing’ hypothesis, and we discuss the potential utility of rhythmic and musical interventions in remediating speech and language difficulties in children.

  4. Extended Virasoro algebra and algebra of area preserving diffeomorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakelyan, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    The algebra of area preserving diffeomorphism plays an important role in the theory of relativistic membranes. It is pointed out that the relation between this algebra and the extended Virasoro algebra associated with the generalized Kac-Moody algebras G(T 2 ). The highest weight representation of these infinite-dimensional algebras as well as of their subalgebras is studied. 5 refs

  5. Oral language and narrative skills in children with specific language impairment with and without literacy delay: a three-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Boons, Tinne; Ghesquière, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared the development of oral language and more specifically narrative skills (storytelling and story retelling) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay. Therefore, 18 children with SLI and 18 matched controls with normal literacy were followed from the last year of kindergarten (mean age=5 years 5 months) until the beginning of grade 3 (mean age=8 years 1 month). Oral language tests measuring vocabulary, morphology, sentence and text comprehension and narrative skills were administered yearly. Based on first and third grade reading and spelling achievement, both groups were divided into a group with and a group without literacy problems. Results showed that the children with SLI and literacy delay had persistent oral language problems across all assessed language domains. The children with SLI and normal literacy skills scored also persistently low on vocabulary, morphology and story retelling skills. Only on listening comprehension and storytelling, they evolved towards the level of the control group. In conclusion, oral language skills in children with SLI and normal literacy skills remained in general poor, despite their intact literacy development during the first years of literacy instruction. Only for listening comprehension and storytelling, they improved, probably as a result of more print exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Learning trajectories for speech motor performance in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtsmeier, Peter T; Goffman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often perform below expected levels, including on tests of motor skill and in learning tasks, particularly procedural learning. In this experiment we examined the possibility that children with SLI might also have a motor learning deficit. Twelve children with SLI and thirteen children with typical development (TD) produced complex nonwords in an imitation task. Productions were collected across three blocks, with the first and second blocks on the same day and the third block one week later. Children's lip movements while producing the nonwords were recorded using an Optotrak camera system. Movements were then analyzed for production duration and stability. Movement analyses indicated that both groups of children produced shorter productions in later blocks (corroborated by an acoustic analysis), and the rate of change was comparable for the TD and SLI groups. A nonsignificant trend for more stable productions was also observed in both groups. SLI is regularly accompanied by a motor deficit, and this study does not dispute that. However, children with SLI learned to make more efficient productions at a rate similar to their peers with TD, revealing some modification of the motor deficit associated with SLI. The reader will learn about deficits commonly associated with specific language impairment (SLI) that often occur alongside the hallmark language deficit. The authors present an experiment showing that children with SLI improved speech motor performance at a similar rate compared to typically developing children. The implication is that speech motor learning is not impaired in children with SLI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Introduction to W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Masaru

    1989-01-01

    We review W-algebras which are generated by stress tensor and primary fields. Associativity plays an important role in determining the extended algebra and further implies the algebras to exist for special values of central charges. Explicitly constructing the algebras including primary fields of spin less than 4, we investigate the closure structure of the Jacobi identity of the extended algebras. (author)

  8. Representations of quantum bicrossproduct algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arratia, Oscar; Olmo, Mariano A del

    2002-01-01

    We present a method to construct induced representations of quantum algebras which have a bicrossproduct structure. We apply this procedure to some quantum kinematical algebras in (1+1) dimensions with this kind of structure: null-plane quantum Poincare algebra, non-standard quantum Galilei algebra and quantum κ-Galilei algebra

  9. On hyper BCC-algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Borzooei, R. A.; Dudek, W. A.; Koohestani, N.

    2006-01-01

    We study hyper BCC-algebras which are a common generalization of BCC-algebras and hyper BCK-algebras. In particular, we investigate different types of hyper BCC-ideals and describe the relationship among them. Next, we calculate all nonisomorphic 22 hyper BCC-algebras of order 3 of which only three are not hyper BCK-algebras.

  10. On hyper BCC-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Borzooei

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study hyper BCC-algebras which are a common generalization of BCC-algebras and hyper BCK-algebras. In particular, we investigate different types of hyper BCC-ideals and describe the relationship among them. Next, we calculate all nonisomorphic 22 hyper BCC-algebras of order 3 of which only three are not hyper BCK-algebras.

  11. Simple relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This monograph details several different methods for constructing simple relation algebras, many of which are new with this book. By drawing these seemingly different methods together, all are shown to be aspects of one general approach, for which several applications are given. These tools for constructing and analyzing relation algebras are of particular interest to mathematicians working in logic, algebraic logic, or universal algebra, but will also appeal to philosophers and theoretical computer scientists working in fields that use mathematics. The book is written with a broad audience in mind and features a careful, pedagogical approach; an appendix contains the requisite background material in relation algebras. Over 400 exercises provide ample opportunities to engage with the material, making this a monograph equally appropriate for use in a special topics course or for independent study. Readers interested in pursuing an extended background study of relation algebras will find a comprehensive treatme...

  12. Lie algebras and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iachello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This course-based primer provides an introduction to Lie algebras and some of their applications to the spectroscopy of molecules, atoms, nuclei and hadrons. In the first part, it concisely presents the basic concepts of Lie algebras, their representations and their invariants. The second part includes a description of how Lie algebras are used in practice in the treatment of bosonic and fermionic systems. Physical applications considered include rotations and vibrations of molecules (vibron model), collective modes in nuclei (interacting boson model), the atomic shell model, the nuclear shell model, and the quark model of hadrons. One of the key concepts in the application of Lie algebraic methods in physics, that of spectrum generating algebras and their associated dynamic symmetries, is also discussed. The book highlights a number of examples that help to illustrate the abstract algebraic definitions and includes a summary of many formulas of practical interest, such as the eigenvalues of Casimir operators...

  13. Twisted classical Poincare algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Ruegg, H.; Tolstoy, V.N.; Nowicki, A.

    1993-11-01

    We consider the twisting of Hopf structure for classical enveloping algebra U(g), where g is the inhomogeneous rotations algebra, with explicite formulae given for D=4 Poincare algebra (g=P 4 ). The comultiplications of twisted U F (P 4 ) are obtained by conjugating primitive classical coproducts by F element of U(c)xU(c), where c denotes any Abelian subalgebra of P 4 , and the universal R-matrices for U F (P 4 ) are triangular. As an example we show that the quantum deformation of Poincare algebra recently proposed by Chaichian and Demiczev is a twisted classical Poincare algebra. The interpretation of twisted Poincare algebra as describing relativistic symmetries with clustered 2-particle states is proposed. (orig.)

  14. Rule-based learning of regular past tense in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lock, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of children with specific language impairment was used as a means to investigate whether a single- or dual-mechanism theory best conceptualizes the acquisition of English past tense. The dual-mechanism theory proposes that regular English past-tense forms are produced via a rule-based process whereas past-tense forms of irregular verbs are stored in the lexicon. Single-mechanism theories propose that both regular and irregular past-tense verbs are stored in the lexicon. Five 5-year-olds with specific language impairment received treatment for regular past tense. The children were tested on regular past-tense production and third-person singular "s" twice before treatment and once after treatment, at eight-week intervals. Treatment consisted of one-hour play-based sessions, once weekly, for eight weeks. Crucially, treatment focused on different lexical items from those in the test. Each child demonstrated significant improvement on the untreated past-tense test items after treatment, but no improvement on the untreated third-person singular "s". Generalization to untreated past-tense verbs could not be attributed to a frequency effect or to phonological similarity of trained and tested items. It is argued that the results are consistent with a dual-mechanism theory of past-tense inflection.

  15. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  16. Later learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmottes, Lise; Meulemans, Thierry; Maillart, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the procedural memory system may contribute to the language difficulties encountered by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Most studies investigating the PDH have used the sequence learning paradigm; however these studies have principally focused on initial sequence learning in a single practice session. The present study sought to extend these investigations by assessing the consolidation stage and longer-term retention of implicit sequence-specific knowledge in 42 children with or without SLI. Both groups of children completed a serial reaction time task and were tested 24h and one week after practice. Results showed that children with SLI succeeded as well as children with typical development (TD) in the early acquisition stage of the sequence learning task. However, as training blocks progressed, only TD children improved their sequence knowledge while children with SLI did not appear to evolve any more. Moreover, children with SLI showed a lack of the consolidation gains in sequence knowledge displayed by the TD children. Overall, these results were in line with the predictions of the PDH and suggest that later learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in SLI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Language-specific dysgraphia in Korean patients with right brain stroke: influence of unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Wook; Park, Kyoung Ha; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Korean language-specific dysgraphia and unilateral spatial neglect in 31 right brain stroke patients. All patients were tested for writing errors in spontaneous writing, dictation, and copying tests. The dysgraphia was classified into visuospatial omission, visuospatial destruction, syllabic tilting, stroke omission, stroke addition, and stroke tilting. Twenty-three (77.4%) of the 31 patients made dysgraphia and 18 (58.1%) demonstrated unilateral spatial neglect. The visuospatial omission was the most common dysgraphia followed by stroke addition and omission errors. The highest number of errors was made in the copying and the least was in the spontaneous writing test. Patients with unilateral spatial neglect made a significantly higher number of dysgraphia in the copying test than those without. We identified specific dysgraphia features such as a right side space omission and a vertical stroke addition in Korean right brain stroke patients. In conclusion, unilateral spatial neglect influences copy writing system of Korean language in patients with right brain stroke.

  18. Toward robust scalable algebraic multigrid solvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisman, Haim; Schroder, Jacob; Olson, Luke; Hiriyur, Badri; Gaidamour, Jeremie; Siefert, Christopher; Hu, Jonathan Joseph; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This talk highlights some multigrid challenges that arise from several application areas including structural dynamics, fluid flow, and electromagnetics. A general framework is presented to help introduce and understand algebraic multigrid methods based on energy minimization concepts. Connections between algebraic multigrid prolongators and finite element basis functions are made to explored. It is shown how the general algebraic multigrid framework allows one to adapt multigrid ideas to a number of different situations. Examples are given corresponding to linear elasticity and specifically in the solution of linear systems associated with extended finite elements for fracture problems.

  19. Subordinate clause comprehension and tense/agreement inconsistency in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Sofía M; Leonard, Laurence B; Deevy, Patricia; Fey, Marc E; Bredin-Oja, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that the production errors of children with specific language impairment (SLI) such as The girl singing may be explained by a misinterpretation of grammatical adult input containing a similar structure (e.g., The boy hears the girl singing). Thirteen children with SLI and 13 younger typically developing children with comparable sentence comprehension test scores (TD-COMP) completed a comprehension task to assess their understanding of sentences involving a nonfinite subject-verb sequence in a subordinate clause such as The dad sees the boy running. TD-COMP children were more accurate on subordinate clause items than children with SLI despite similar performance on simple transitive (e.g., The horse sees the cow) and simple progressive (e.g., The cow is eating) items. However, no relationship was found between the SLI group's specific subordinate clause comprehension level and their specific level of auxiliary is production, casting some doubt on this type of structure as a source for inconsistent use of auxiliary is. The reader will learn that children with specific language impairment (SLI): (1) have difficulty understanding complex sentences that include nonfinite subject-verb sequences; (2) that this difficulty is apparent in comparison to younger typically developing peers who have similar scores not only on a sentence comprehension test, but also on simple sentences that correspond to the component parts of the complex sentences; and (3) that this weakness is concurrent with these children's inconsistent use of auxiliary is in production. Although novel verb studies show a clear connection between how children with SLI hear new verbs and how they use them, we do not yet have evidence that this connection is tied to a poor understanding of the input sentences that house the verbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Toward epigenetic and gene regulation models of specific language impairment: looking for links among growth, genes, and impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice Mabel L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children with specific language impairment (SLI are thought to have an inherited form of language impairment that spares other developmental domains. SLI shows strong heritability and recent linkage and association studies have replicated results for candidate genes. Regulatory regions of the genes may be involved. Behavioral growth models of language development of children with SLI reveal that the onset of language is delayed, and the growth trajectories of children with SLI parallel those of younger children without SLI. The rate of language acquisition decelerates in the pre-adolescent period, resulting in immature language levels for the children with SLI that persist into adolescence and beyond. Recent genetic and epigenetic discoveries and models relevant to language impairment are reviewed. T cell regulation of onset, acceleration, and deceleration signaling are described as potential conceptual parallels to the growth timing elements of language acquisition and impairment. A growth signaling disruption (GSD hypothesis is proposed for SLI, which posits that faulty timing mechanisms at the cellular level, intrinsic to neurocortical functioning essential for language onset and growth regulation, are at the core of the growth outcomes of SLI. The GSD highlights the need to document and account for growth patterns over childhood and suggests needed directions for future investigation.

  1. THE INFORMATION AND CONTENT SPECIFICITY OF THE TEACHING THE DISCIPLINE "MODERN UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE OF MEDIA" AT THE JOURNALISM FACULTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monakhova T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the content planning of the discipline "The Modern Ukrainian Language of Mass Media". Its importance and inscription in the general educational process at the specialty "The Journalism" in accordance with the curriculum of the specialty are substantiated, the key directions and problems that need attention of future journalists are outlined. "The Modern Ukrainian Language of Mass Media" is a course that integrates linguistic and cognitive, communicative, semiotic, and other approaches to considering the functioning of the state language in the media. Such an approach involves consideration of a number of linguistic problems, in particular spelling (the spelling debate in Ukraine, peculiarities of the transliteration of foreign language names, the types of journalistic texts compositions, longevity, tricksters, etc., cognitive problems, for example, the language game in the media, the gender aspects of the language of the media, the problem of hate-speech etc., as well as communicative approaches, in particular, the theory of communicative acts, the working with different types of information, fact cheking, the linguistic specifics of social networks, etc. The offered academic discipline is simultaneously propaedeutic for further journalistic disciplines, as well as the summary for the "language block of journalistic courses" – the disciplines "The Practical Ukrainian Language", "The Stylistics and Culture of the Ukrainian Language", etc.

  2. Cohomology of Effect Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Roumen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We will define two ways to assign cohomology groups to effect algebras, which occur in the algebraic study of quantum logic. The first way is based on Connes' cyclic cohomology. The resulting cohomology groups are related to the state space of the effect algebra, and can be computed using variations on the Kunneth and Mayer-Vietoris sequences. The second way involves a chain complex of ordered abelian groups, and gives rise to a cohomological characterization of state extensions on effect algebras. This has applications to no-go theorems in quantum foundations, such as Bell's theorem.

  3. Basic notions of algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shafarevich, Igor Rostislavovich

    2005-01-01

    This book is wholeheartedly recommended to every student or user of mathematics. Although the author modestly describes his book as 'merely an attempt to talk about' algebra, he succeeds in writing an extremely original and highly informative essay on algebra and its place in modern mathematics and science. From the fields, commutative rings and groups studied in every university math course, through Lie groups and algebras to cohomology and category theory, the author shows how the origins of each algebraic concept can be related to attempts to model phenomena in physics or in other branches

  4. Boolean algebra essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Boolean Algebra includes set theory, sentential calculus, fundamental ideas of Boolean algebras, lattices, rings and Boolean algebras, the structure of a Boolean algebra, and Boolean

  5. Quiver W-algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Pestun, Vasily

    2018-06-01

    For a quiver with weighted arrows, we define gauge-theory K-theoretic W-algebra generalizing the definition of Shiraishi et al. and Frenkel and Reshetikhin. In particular, we show that the qq-character construction of gauge theory presented by Nekrasov is isomorphic to the definition of the W-algebra in the operator formalism as a commutant of screening charges in the free field representation. Besides, we allow arbitrary quiver and expect interesting applications to representation theory of generalized Borcherds-Kac-Moody Lie algebras, their quantum affinizations and associated W-algebras.

  6. Grammar predicts procedural learning and consolidation deficits in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Bruce Tomblin, J; Ullman, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that these

  7. Grammar Predicts Procedural Learning and Consolidation Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D.; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Ullman, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining the consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically-developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that

  8. Syntax and Meaning as Sensuous, Visual, Historical Forms of Algebraic Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Luis; Puig, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Before the advent of symbolism, i.e. before the end of the 16th Century, algebraic calculations were made using natural language. Through a kind of metaphorical process, a few terms from everyday life (e.g. thing, root) acquired a technical mathematical status and constituted the specialized language of algebra. The introduction of letters and…

  9. From Rota-Baxter algebras to pre-Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Huihui; Ba, Chengming

    2008-01-01

    Rota-Baxter algebras were introduced to solve some analytic and combinatorial problems and have appeared in many fields in mathematics and mathematical physics. Rota-Baxter algebras provide a construction of pre-Lie algebras from associative algebras. In this paper, we give all Rota-Baxter operators of weight 1 on complex associative algebras in dimension ≤3 and their corresponding pre-Lie algebras

  10. Language Impairments in the Development of Sign: Do They Reside in a Specific Modality or Are They Modality-Independent Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Various theories of developmental language impairments have sought to explain these impairments in modality-specific ways--for example, that the language deficits in SLI or Down syndrome arise from impairments in auditory processing. Studies of signers with language impairments, especially those who are bilingual in a spoken language as well as a…

  11. Differential Hopf algebra structures on the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hijligenberg, N.W.; van den Hijligenberg, N.W.; Martini, Ruud

    1995-01-01

    We discuss a method to construct a De Rham complex (differential algebra) of Poincar'e-Birkhoff-Witt-type on the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra $g$. We determine the cases in which this gives rise to a differential Hopf algebra that naturally extends the Hopf algebra structure of

  12. Differential Hopf algebra structures on the universal enveloping algebra ofa Lie algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.W. van den Hijligenberg; R. Martini

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe discuss a method to construct a De Rham complex (differential algebra) of Poincar'e-Birkhoff-Witt-type on the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra $g$. We determine the cases in which this gives rise to a differential Hopf algebra that naturally extends the Hopf algebra

  13. Music Perception Influences Language Acquisition: Melodic and Rhythmic-Melodic Perception in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallat, Stephan; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Language and music share many properties, with a particularly strong overlap for prosody. Prosodic cues are generally regarded as crucial for language acquisition. Previous research has indicated that children with SLI fail to make use of these cues. As processing of prosodic information involves similar skills to those required in music perception, we compared music perception skills (melodic and rhythmic-melodic perception and melody recognition) in a group of children with SLI (N = 29, five-year-olds) to two groups of controls, either of comparable age (N = 39, five-year-olds) or of age closer to the children with SLI in their language skills and about one year younger (N = 13, four-year-olds). Children with SLI performed in most tasks below their age level, closer matching the performance level of younger controls with similar language skills. These data strengthen the view of a strong relation between language acquisition and music processing. This might open a perspective for the possible use of musical material in early diagnosis of SLI and of music in SLI therapy. PMID:26508812

  14. Music Perception Influences Language Acquisition: Melodic and Rhythmic-Melodic Perception in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallat, Stephan; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Language and music share many properties, with a particularly strong overlap for prosody. Prosodic cues are generally regarded as crucial for language acquisition. Previous research has indicated that children with SLI fail to make use of these cues. As processing of prosodic information involves similar skills to those required in music perception, we compared music perception skills (melodic and rhythmic-melodic perception and melody recognition) in a group of children with SLI (N = 29, five-year-olds) to two groups of controls, either of comparable age (N = 39, five-year-olds) or of age closer to the children with SLI in their language skills and about one year younger (N = 13, four-year-olds). Children with SLI performed in most tasks below their age level, closer matching the performance level of younger controls with similar language skills. These data strengthen the view of a strong relation between language acquisition and music processing. This might open a perspective for the possible use of musical material in early diagnosis of SLI and of music in SLI therapy.

  15. Music Perception Influences Language Acquisition: Melodic and Rhythmic-Melodic Perception in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Sallat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Language and music share many properties, with a particularly strong overlap for prosody. Prosodic cues are generally regarded as crucial for language acquisition. Previous research has indicated that children with SLI fail to make use of these cues. As processing of prosodic information involves similar skills to those required in music perception, we compared music perception skills (melodic and rhythmic-melodic perception and melody recognition in a group of children with SLI (N=29, five-year-olds to two groups of controls, either of comparable age (N=39, five-year-olds or of age closer to the children with SLI in their language skills and about one year younger (N=13, four-year-olds. Children with SLI performed in most tasks below their age level, closer matching the performance level of younger controls with similar language skills. These data strengthen the view of a strong relation between language acquisition and music processing. This might open a perspective for the possible use of musical material in early diagnosis of SLI and of music in SLI therapy.

  16. Quasi-superconformal algebras in two dimensions and hamiltonian reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romans, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In the standard quantum hamiltonian reduction, constraining the SL(3, R) WZNW model leads to a model of Zamolodchikov's W 3 -symmetry. In recent work, Polyakov and Bershadsky have considered an alternative reduction which leads to a new algebra, W 3 2 , a nonlinear extension of the Virasoro algebra by a spin-1 current and two bosonic spin-3/2 currents. Motivated by this result, we display two new infinite series of nonlinear extended conformal algebras, containing 2N bosonic spin-3/2 currents and spin-1 Kac-Moody currents for either U(N) or Sp(2 N); the W 3 2 algebra appears as the N = 1 member of the U(N) series. We discuss the relationship between these algebras and the Knizhnik-Bershadsky superconformal algebras, and provide realisations in terms of free fields coupled to Kac-Moody currents. We propose a specific procedure for obtaining the algebras for general N through hamiltonian reduction. (orig.)

  17. Analogical mapping across modalities in children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Sandrine; Maillart, Christelle; Parisse, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    Analogical mapping is a domain-general cognitive process found in language development, and more particularly in the abstraction of construction schemas. Analogical mapping is considered as the general cognitive process which consists in the alignment of two or several sequences in order to detect their common relational structure and generalize it to new items. The current study investigated analogical mapping across modalities in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Nineteen children with SLI and their age-matched peers were administered two tasks: a linguistic analogical reasoning task (composed of syllables) and a similar non-linguistic analogical reasoning task (composed of pictures). In the two tasks, the items presented were divided into two groups: items with perceptual cues and items without perceptual cues. Children had to complete a sequence sharing the same relational structure as previously presented sequences. Results showed an expected group effect with poorer performance for children with SLI compared to children with typical language development (TLD). Results corroborate hypotheses suggesting that children with SLI have difficulties with analogical mapping, which may hinder the abstraction of construction schemas. Interestingly, whereas no interaction effect between group and modality (linguistic vs. non-linguistic) was revealed, a triple interaction Group*Modality*Perceptual support was observed. In the non-linguistic task, the performance of children with SLI was the same for items with and without perceptual clues, but in the linguistic task they performed more poorly for items without perceptual cues compared to items with perceptual cues. The results and limits of the study are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman's Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI.

  19. Children's grammatical categories of verb and noun: a comparative look at children with specific language impairment (SLI) and normal language (NL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipp, Amy; Windfuhr, Kirsten L; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the development of grammatical categories (noun and verb) in young language learners. Twenty-eight children with specific language impairment (SLI) with a mean language age of 35 months and 28 children with normal language (NL) with a mean language age of 34 months were exposed to four novel verbs and four novel nouns during 10 experimental child-directed play sessions. The lexical items were modelled with four experimentally controlled argument structures. Both groups of children showed little productivity with syntactic marking of arguments in the novel verb conditions. Thus, both groups of children mostly followed the surface structure of the model presented to them, regardless of the argument they were trying to express. Therefore, there was little evidence of verb-general processes. In contrast, both groups used nouns in semantic roles that had not been modelled for them. Importantly, however, children with SLI still appeared to be more input dependent than NL children. This suggests that children with NL were working with a robust noun schema, whereas children with SLI were not. Taken together, the findings suggest that neither group of children had a grammatical category of verb, but demonstrated a general knowledge of the grammatical category of noun. These findings are discussed in relation to current theories of normal and impaired language development.

  20. Algebraic monoids, group embeddings, and algebraic combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhenheng; Steinberg, Benjamin; Wang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a collection of fifteen articles and is dedicated to the sixtieth birthdays of Lex Renner and Mohan Putcha, the pioneers of the field of algebraic monoids.   Topics presented include:   v  structure and representation theory of reductive algebraic monoids v  monoid schemes and applications of monoids v  monoids related to Lie theory v  equivariant embeddings of algebraic groups v  constructions and properties of monoids from algebraic combinatorics v  endomorphism monoids induced from vector bundles v  Hodge–Newton decompositions of reductive monoids   A portion of these articles are designed to serve as a self-contained introduction to these topics, while the remaining contributions are research articles containing previously unpublished results, which are sure to become very influential for future work. Among these, for example, the important recent work of Michel Brion and Lex Renner showing that the algebraic semigroups are strongly π-regular.   Graduate students as well a...

  1. Extending Use of the NRT to Preschool-Aged Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevy, Patricia; Weil, Lisa Wisman; Leonard, Laurence B.; Goffman, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998) in a sample of four- and five-year-olds with and without specific language impairment (SLI), and to evaluate its feasibility for use in universal screening. Method The NRT was administered to 29 children with SLI and 47 age-matched children with typical development (TD). Diagnostic accuracy was computed using alternative scoring methods, which treated out-of-inventory phonemes either as errors or as unscorable. To estimate accuracy in a universal screening context, probability of identifying a child at risk for language impairment was computed using the prevalence of SLI (7%) as the base rate. Results Diagnostic accuracy was acceptable using both scoring methods. The resulting likelihood ratios (LR+ = 22.66, 19.43; LR- = .05, .05) were similar to those reported for older children. The probability of accurate detection of children with SLI in the general population increased from 7% to 61%. However this value suggests that many false positives could be expected. Conclusions The NRT yielded results similar to those reported for older children. However, despite its strengths, the NRT is not sufficient for screening the general population of four- and five-year-olds. PMID:20421612

  2. Extending use of the NRT to preschool-age children with and without specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevy, Patricia; Weil, Lisa Wisman; Leonard, Laurence B; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998) using a sample of 4- and 5-year-olds with and without specific language impairment (SLI) and to evaluate its feasibility for use in universal screening. The NRT was administered to 29 children with SLI and 47 age-matched children with typical development. Diagnostic accuracy was computed using alternative scoring methods, which treated out-of-inventory phonemes either as errors or as unscorable. To estimate accuracy in a universal screening context, the probability of identifying a child at risk for language impairment was computed using the prevalence of SLI (7%) as the base rate. Diagnostic accuracy was acceptable using both scoring methods. The resulting likelihood ratios (LR+ = 22.66, 19.43; LR- = .05, .05) were similar to those reported for older children. The probability of accurate detection of children with SLI in the general population increased from 7% to 61%. However, this value suggests that many false positives could be expected. The NRT yielded results similar to those reported for older children. However, despite its strengths, the NRT is not sufficient for screening the general population of 4- and 5-year-olds.

  3. (Quasi-)Poisson enveloping algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan-Hong; Yao, Yuan; Ye, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra and Poisson enveloping algebra for a non-commutative Poisson algebra. We prove that for a non-commutative Poisson algebra, the category of quasi-Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra, and the category of Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its Poisson enveloping algebra.

  4. Fuzzy Graph Language Recognizability

    OpenAIRE

    Kalampakas , Antonios; Spartalis , Stefanos; Iliadis , Lazaros

    2012-01-01

    Part 5: Fuzzy Logic; International audience; Fuzzy graph language recognizability is introduced along the lines of the established theory of syntactic graph language recognizability by virtue of the algebraic structure of magmoids. The main closure properties of the corresponding class are investigated and several interesting examples of fuzzy graph languages are examined.

  5. Domain-Specific Languages and Diagram Customization for a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Bjorn; Dubos, Greg; Banazadeh, Payam; Reh, Jonathan; Case, Kelley; Wang, Yeou-Fang; Jones, Susan; Picha, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A major open question for advocates of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is the question of how system and subsystem engineers will work together. The Systems Modeling Language (SysML), like any language intended for a large audience, is in tension between the desires for simplicity and for expressiveness. In order to be more expressive, many specialized language elements may be introduced, which will unfortunately make a complete understanding of the language a more daunting task. While this may be acceptable for systems modelers, it will increase the challenge of including subsystem engineers in the modeling effort. One possible answer to this situation is the use of Domain-Specific Languages (DSL), which are fully supported by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). SysML is in fact a DSL for systems engineering. The expressive power of a DSL can be enhanced through the use of diagram customization. Various domains have already developed their own schematic vocabularies. Within the space engineering community, two excellent examples are the propulsion and telecommunication subsystems. A return to simple box-and-line diagrams (e.g., the SysML Internal Block Diagram) are in many ways a step backward. In order allow subsystem engineers to contribute directly to the model, it is necessary to make a system modeling tool at least approximate in accessibility to drawing tools like Microsoft PowerPoint and Visio. The challenge is made more extreme in a concurrent engineering environment, where designs must often be drafted in an hour or two. In the case of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Team X concurrent design team, a subsystem is specified using a combination of PowerPoint for drawing and Excel for calculation. A pilot has been undertaken in order to meld the drawing portion and the production of master equipment lists (MELs) via a SysML authoring tool, MagicDraw. Team X currently interacts with its customers in a process of sharing presentations. There are several

  6. Ready, Set, Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Alissa Beth

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education (CDE) has long asserted that success Algebra I by Grade 8 is the goal for all California public school students. In fact, the state's accountability system penalizes schools that do not require all of their students to take the Algebra I end-of-course examination by Grade 8 (CDE, 2009). In this dissertation,…

  7. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  8. Who Takes College Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriott, Scott R.; Dunbar, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The common understanding within the mathematics community is that the role of the college algebra course is to prepare students for calculus. Though exceptions are emerging, the curriculum of most college algebra courses and the content of most textbooks on the market both reflect that assumption. This article calls that assumption into question…

  9. Analytic real algebras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Joo; Kim, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we construct some real algebras by using elementary functions, and discuss some relations between several axioms and its related conditions for such functions. We obtain some conditions for real-valued functions to be a (edge) d -algebra.

  10. Pre-Algebra Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Dunstan; Cuevas, Gilberto

    The pre-algebra lexicon is a set of classroom exercises designed to teach the technical words and phrases of pre-algebra mathematics, and includes the terms most commonly found in related mathematics courses. The lexicon has three parts, each with its own introduction. The first introduces vocabulary items in three groups forming a learning…

  11. Computer algebra applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, J.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of applications based either on fundamental algorithms in computer algebra or on the use of a computer algebra system is presented. Recent work in biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics and computer science is discussed. In particular, applications in high energy physics (quantum electrodynamics), celestial mechanics and general relativity are reviewed. (Auth.)

  12. Algebraic Description of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidon, William C.

    1974-01-01

    An algebraic definition of time differentiation is presented and used to relate independent measurements of position and velocity. With this, students can grasp certain essential physical, geometric, and algebraic properties of motion and differentiation before undertaking the study of limits. (Author)

  13. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  14. Generalized motor abilities and timing behavior in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaznik, Howard N; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing tasks, including tapping and drawing circles in time with a metronome or a visual target. Fourteen children with SLI (age 6 to 8 years) and 14 age-matched peers who were typically developing participated. As expected, children with SLI showed poorer performance on a standardized test of gross and fine motor skill than did their normally developing peers. However, timing skill in the manual domain was equivalent to that seen in typically developing children. Consistent with earlier findings, relatively poor gross and fine motor performance is observed in children with SLI. Surprisingly, rhythmic timing is spared.

  15. Time coordination of heterogeneous distance protections using a domain specific language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kowalski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distance protections are widely used in protection of energy transmission lines, but their time coordination is still an important and difficult problem. Inappropriate configuration leads to a hazard event: remote circuit breaker tripping provided the local circuit breaker can be opened, which severely impairs power system operation.OBJECTIVE: To describe a method and provide software tools to alleviate the hazard in power systems.METHODS: A domain specific language (DSL for representation of a transmission line with its distance protection schema, and a translation algorithm from the DSL to probabilistic fault trees with time dependencies (PFTTDs are employed.RESULTS: The paper presents software tools that can support power protection experts in time coordination of distance protections. The tools are based upon abstract and concrete syntax of the DSL designed specifically for the purpose of the distance protection time coordination problem. In order to render creation of power line and its protection schema models easier, a DSL-dedicated editor supporting syntax and semantic aspects of the DSL has been developed. Additionally, a translator from the DSL into PFTTD language has been implemented.CONCLUSIONS: Power system experts are enabled to perform hazard probability assessment and sensitivity analysis.LIMITATIONS: Translation supports two types of distance protections, which are: single-system relays with starting elements as well as multi-system relays without starting elements. For the single-system relay, there is one timer per relay. For multi-system relays, there is one timer for each of possibly many protection zones. Other types of protections, e.g. overcurrent are not considered.

  16. Elements of mathematics algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Bourbaki, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    This is a softcover reprint of the English translation of 1990 of the revised and expanded version of Bourbaki's, Algèbre, Chapters 4 to 7 (1981). This completes Algebra, 1 to 3, by establishing the theories of commutative fields and modules over a principal ideal domain. Chapter 4 deals with polynomials, rational fractions and power series. A section on symmetric tensors and polynomial mappings between modules, and a final one on symmetric functions, have been added. Chapter 5 was entirely rewritten. After the basic theory of extensions (prime fields, algebraic, algebraically closed, radical extension), separable algebraic extensions are investigated, giving way to a section on Galois theory. Galois theory is in turn applied to finite fields and abelian extensions. The chapter then proceeds to the study of general non-algebraic extensions which cannot usually be found in textbooks: p-bases, transcendental extensions, separability criterions, regular extensions. Chapter 6 treats ordered groups and fields and...

  17. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Initial Validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…

  18. Language, gender, and sexual orientation: Gender-specific features of discursive styles of homosexual users of an internet forum

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Biljana

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether and in which way homosexual people rely on gender-specific style characteristics when communicating in the internet environment. It is assumed that the basis of differences in language practices is not some identity category (either gender or sexual), that uses these practices only as a means of expression. Instead, language is seen as a resource that allows us to respond to a variety of communication situations. The methodological framework for col...

  19. The role of verbal and nonverbal memory in the Family Pictures Subtest: Data from children with specific language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of verbal and visual memory to performance on the Family Pictures subtest of the Children's Memory Scale. This subtest purports to assess declarative memory functioning in the visual/nonverbal domain. A total of 115 nine-year-old children participated in this study. Fifty-eight had specific language impairment (SLI), whilst the remaining 57 were typically developing (TD), with no history of language difficulties. Results showed that the children with SLI, ...

  20. A methodology for the characterization and diagnosis of cognitive impairments-Application to specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Jesús; Serrano, J Ignacio; del Castillo, M Dolores; Iglesias, Angel

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis of mental disorders is in most cases very difficult because of the high heterogeneity and overlap between associated cognitive impairments. Furthermore, early and individualized diagnosis is crucial. In this paper, we propose a methodology to support the individualized characterization and diagnosis of cognitive impairments. The methodology can also be used as a test platform for existing theories on the causes of the impairments. We use computational cognitive modeling to gather information on the cognitive mechanisms underlying normal and impaired behavior. We then use this information to feed machine-learning algorithms to individually characterize the impairment and to differentiate between normal and impaired behavior. We apply the methodology to the particular case of specific language impairment (SLI) in Spanish-speaking children. The proposed methodology begins by defining a task in which normal and individuals with impairment present behavioral differences. Next we build a computational cognitive model of that task and individualize it: we build a cognitive model for each participant and optimize its parameter values to fit the behavior of each participant. Finally, we use the optimized parameter values to feed different machine learning algorithms. The methodology was applied to an existing database of 48 Spanish-speaking children (24 normal and 24 SLI children) using clustering techniques for the characterization, and different classifier techniques for the diagnosis. The characterization results show three well-differentiated groups that can be associated with the three main theories on SLI. Using a leave-one-subject-out testing methodology, all the classifiers except the DT produced sensitivity, specificity and area under curve values above 90%, reaching 100% in some cases. The results show that our methodology is able to find relevant information on the underlying cognitive mechanisms and to use it appropriately to provide better