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Sample records for algebraic bethe ansatz

  1. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for a singular solution

    CERN Document Server

    Nepomechie, Rafael I

    2013-01-01

    The Bethe equations for the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with N sites have a "two-string" solution i/2, -i/2 that is singular: both the corresponding energy and algebraic Bethe ansatz vector are divergent. We show that this solution must be carefully regularized in order to obtain the correct eigenvector. This regularization involves a parameter that can be determined using a generalization of the Bethe equations. It follows that this solution must be excluded for odd N.

  2. How algebraic Bethe ansatz works for integrable model

    CERN Document Server

    Fadeev, L

    1996-01-01

    I study the technique of Algebraic Bethe Ansatz for solving integrable models and show how it works in detail on the simplest example of spin 1/2 XXX magnetic chain. Several other models are treated more superficially, only the specific details are given. Several parameters, appearing in these generalizations: spin s, anisotropy parameter \\ga, shift \\om in the alternating chain, allow to include in our treatment most known examples of soliton theory, including relativistic model of Quantum Field Theory.

  3. Integrability in three dimensions: Algebraic Bethe ansatz for anyonic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Khachatryan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We extend basic properties of two dimensional integrable models within the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach to 2+1 dimensions and formulate the sufficient conditions for the commutativity of transfer matrices of different spectral parameters, in analogy with Yang–Baxter or tetrahedron equations. The basic ingredient of our models is the R-matrix, which describes the scattering of a pair of particles over another pair of particles, the quark-anti-quark (meson scattering on another quark-anti-quark state. We show that the Kitaev model belongs to this class of models and its R-matrix fulfills well-defined equations for integrability.

  4. Algebraic Bethe Ansatz for O(2N) sigma models with integrable diagonal boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Gombor, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    The finite volume problem of O(2N) sigma models with integrable diagonal boundaries on a finite interval is investigated. The double row transfer matrix is diagonalized by Algebraic Bethe Ansatz. The boundary Bethe Yang equations for the particle rapidities and the accompanying Bethe Ansatz equations are derived.

  5. The Bethe ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor

    2016-08-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the Bethe ansatz techniques in integrable QFTs and spin chains. We first discuss and motivate the general framework of asymptotic Bethe ansatz for the spectrum of integrable QFTs in large volume, based on the exact S-matrix. Then we illustrate this method in several concrete theories. The first case we study is the SU(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model. We derive the Bethe equations via algebraic Bethe ansatz, solving in the process the Heisenberg XXX spin chain. We discuss this famous spin chain model in some detail, covering in particular the coordinate Bethe ansatz, some properties of Bethe states, and the classical scaling limit leading to finite-gap equations. Then we proceed to the more involved SU(3) chiral Gross-Neveu model and derive the Bethe equations using nested algebraic Bethe ansatz to solve the arising SU(3) spin chain. Finally we show how a method similar to the Bethe ansatz works in a completely different setting, namely for the 1D oscillator in quantum mechanics.

  6. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the Temperley–Lieb spin-1 chain

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    Rafael I. Nepomechie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We use the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the spin-1 Temperley–Lieb open quantum chain with “free” boundary conditions. We exploit the associated reflection algebra in order to prove the off-shell equation satisfied by the Bethe vectors.

  7. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the Temperley-Lieb spin-1 chain

    CERN Document Server

    Nepomechie, Rafael I

    2016-01-01

    We use the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the spin-1 Temperley-Lieb open quantum chain with "free" boundary conditions. We exploit the associated reflection algebra in order to prove the off-shell equation satisfied by the Bethe vectors.

  8. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the Temperley-Lieb spin-1 chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomechie, Rafael I.; Pimenta, Rodrigo A.

    2016-09-01

    We use the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the spin-1 Temperley-Lieb open quantum chain with "free" boundary conditions. We exploit the associated reflection algebra in order to prove the off-shell equation satisfied by the Bethe vectors.

  9. Algebraic Bethe Ansatz Solution to CN Vertex Model with Open Boundary Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-Liang; SHI Kang-Jie; YUE Rui-Hong

    2005-01-01

    We present three diagonal reflecting matrices for the CN vertex model with open boundary conditions and exactly solve the model by using the algebraic Bethe ansatz. The eigenvector is constructed and the eigenvalue and the associated Bethe equations are achieved. All the unwanted terms are cancelled out by three kinds of identities.

  10. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for Q-operators: The Heisenberg spin chain

    CERN Document Server

    Frassek, Rouven

    2015-01-01

    We diagonalize Q-operators for rational homogeneous sl(2)-invariant Heisenberg spin chains using the algebraic Bethe ansatz. After deriving the fundamental commutation relations relevant for this case from the Yang-Baxter equation we demonstrate that the Q-operators act diagonally on the Bethe vectors if the Bethe equations are satisfied. In this way we provide a direct proof that the eigenvalues of the Q-operators studied here are given by Baxter's Q-functions.

  11. Modified algebraic Bethe ansatz for XXZ chain on the segment – II – general cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Belliard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectral problem of the Heisenberg XXZ spin-12 chain on the segment is investigated within a modified algebraic Bethe ansatz framework. We consider in this work the most general boundaries allowed by integrability. The eigenvalues and the eigenvectors are obtained. They are characterised by a set of Bethe roots with cardinality equal to N, the length of the chain, and which satisfies a set of Bethe equations with an additional term.

  12. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX chain with triangular boundaries and Gaudin model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirilo António, N., E-mail: nantonio@math.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Análise Funcional e Aplicações, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Manojlović, N., E-mail: nmanoj@ualg.pt [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, PT-1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Matemática, F.C.T., Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, PT-8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Salom, I., E-mail: isalom@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-12-15

    We implement fully the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX Heisenberg spin chain in the case when both boundary matrices can be brought to the upper-triangular form. We define the Bethe vectors which yield the strikingly simple expression for the off shell action of the transfer matrix, deriving the spectrum and the relevant Bethe equations. We explore further these results by obtaining the off shell action of the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians on the corresponding Bethe vectors through the so-called quasi-classical limit. Moreover, this action is as simple as it could possibly be, yielding the spectrum and the Bethe equations of the Gaudin model.

  13. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX chain with triangular boundaries and Gaudin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilo António, N.; Manojlović, N.; Salom, I.

    2014-12-01

    We implement fully the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX Heisenberg spin chain in the case when both boundary matrices can be brought to the upper-triangular form. We define the Bethe vectors which yield the strikingly simple expression for the off shell action of the transfer matrix, deriving the spectrum and the relevant Bethe equations. We explore further these results by obtaining the off shell action of the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians on the corresponding Bethe vectors through the so-called quasi-classical limit. Moreover, this action is as simple as it could possibly be, yielding the spectrum and the Bethe equations of the Gaudin model.

  14. Heisenberg XXX model with general boundaries: Eigenvectors from Algebraic Bethe ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Belliard, S

    2013-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvectors of the Heisenberg spin chain with general boundaries associated to the eigenvalues and the Bethe equations found recently by Cao et al. The ansatz takes the usual form of a product of operators acting on a particular vector except that the number of operators is equal to the length of the chain. We prove this result for the chains with small length. We obtain also an off-shell equation (i.e. satisfied without the Bethe equations) formally similar to the ones obtained in the periodic case or with diagonal boundaries.

  15. Heisenberg XXX Model with General Boundaries: Eigenvectors from Algebraic Bethe Ansatz

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    Samuel Belliard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvectors of the Heisenberg spin chain with general boundaries associated to the eigenvalues and the Bethe equations found recently by Cao et al. The ansatz takes the usual form of a product of operators acting on a particular vector except that the number of operators is equal to the length of the chain. We prove this result for the chains with small length. We obtain also an off-shell equation (i.e. satisfied without the Bethe equations formally similar to the ones obtained in the periodic case or with diagonal boundaries.

  16. Heisenberg XXX Model with General Boundaries: Eigenvectors from Algebraic Bethe Ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliard, Samuel; Crampé, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    We propose a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvectors of the Heisenberg spin chain with general boundaries associated to the eigenvalues and the Bethe equations found recently by Cao et al. The ansatz takes the usual form of a product of operators acting on a particular vector except that the number of operators is equal to the length of the chain. We prove this result for the chains with small length. We obtain also an off-shell equation (i.e. satisfied without the Bethe equations) formally similar to the ones obtained in the periodic case or with diagonal boundaries.

  17. Modified algebraic Bethe ansatz for XXZ chain on the segment – I: Triangular cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Belliard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The modified algebraic Bethe ansatz, introduced by Crampé and the author [8], is used to characterize the spectral problem of the Heisenberg XXZ spin-12 chain on the segment with lower and upper triangular boundaries. The eigenvalues and the eigenvectors are conjectured. They are characterized by a set of Bethe roots with cardinality equal to N the length of the chain and which satisfies a set of Bethe equations with an additional term. The conjecture follows from exact results for small chains. We also present a factorized formula for the Bethe vectors of the Heisenberg XXZ spin-12 chain on the segment with two upper triangular boundaries.

  18. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX chain with triangular boundaries and Gaudin model

    CERN Document Server

    António, N Cirilo; Salom, I

    2014-01-01

    We implement fully the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX Heisenberg spin chain in the case when both boundary matrices can be brought to the upper-triangular form. We define the Bethe vectors which yield the strikingly simple expression for the off shell action of the transfer matrix, deriving the spectrum and the corresponding Bethe equations. We explore further these results by obtaining the off shell action of the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians on the Bethe vectors through the so-called quasi-classical limit.

  19. Lectures on the Bethe Ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor

    2016-01-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the Bethe ansatz techniques in integrable QFTs and spin chains. We first discuss and motivate the general framework of asymptotic Bethe ansatz for the spectrum of integrable QFTs in large volume, based on the exact S-matrix. Then we illustrate this method in several concrete theories. The first case we study is the SU(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model. We derive the Bethe equations via algebraic Bethe ansatz, solving in the process the Heisenberg XXX spin chain. We discuss this famous spin chain model in some detail, covering in particular the coordinate Bethe ansatz, some properties of Bethe states, and the classical scaling limit leading to finite-gap equations. Then we proceed to the more involved SU(3) chiral Gross-Neveu model and derive the Bethe equations using nested algebraic Bethe ansatz to solve the arising SU(3) spin chain. Finally we show how a method similar to the Bethe ansatz works in a completley different setting, namely for the 1d oscillator in quantum mechani...

  20. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the sl(2) Gaudin model with boundary

    CERN Document Server

    António, N Cirilo; Ragoucy, E; Salom, I

    2015-01-01

    Following Sklyanin's proposal in the periodic case, we derive the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians with boundary terms. Our derivation is based on the quasi-classical expansion of the linear combination of the transfer matrix of the XXX Heisenberg spin chain and the central element, the so-called Sklyanin determinant. The corresponding Gaudin Hamiltonians with boundary terms are obtained as the residues of the generating function. By defining the appropriate Bethe vectors which yield strikingly simple off shell action of the generating function, we fully implement the algebraic Bethe ansatz, obtaining the spectrum of the generating function and the corresponding Bethe equations.

  1. The algebraic Bethe ansatz for rational braid-monoid lattice models

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, M J

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we study isotropic integrable systems based on the braid-monoid algebra. These systems constitute a large family of rational multistate vertex models and are realized in terms of the B_n, C_n and D_n Lie algebra and by the superalgebra Osp(n|2m). We present a unified formulation of the quantum inverse scattering method for many of these lattice models. The appropriate fundamental commutation rules are found, allowing us to construct the eigenvectors and the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix associated to the B_n, C_n, D_n, Osp(2n-1|2), Osp(2|2n-2), Osp(2n-2|2) and Osp(1|2n) models. The corresponding Bethe Ansatz equations can be formulated in terms of the root structure of the underlying algebra.

  2. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the quantum group invariant open XXZ chain at roots of unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainutdinov, Azat M.; Nepomechie, Rafael I.

    2016-08-01

    For generic values of q, all the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix of the Uq sl (2)-invariant open spin-1/2 XXZ chain with finite length N can be constructed using the algebraic Bethe ansatz (ABA) formalism of Sklyanin. However, when q is a root of unity (q =e iπ / p with integer p ≥ 2), the Bethe equations acquire continuous solutions, and the transfer matrix develops Jordan cells. Hence, there appear eigenvectors of two new types: eigenvectors corresponding to continuous solutions (exact complete p-strings), and generalized eigenvectors. We propose general ABA constructions for these two new types of eigenvectors. We present many explicit examples, and we construct complete sets of (generalized) eigenvectors for various values of p and N.

  3. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the quantum group invariant open XXZ chain at roots of unity

    CERN Document Server

    Gainutdinov, Azat M

    2016-01-01

    For generic values of q, all the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix of the U_q sl(2)-invariant open spin-1/2 XXZ chain with finite length N can be constructed using the algebraic Bethe ansatz (ABA) formalism of Sklyanin. However, when q is a root of unity (q=exp(i pi/p) with integer p>1), the Bethe equations acquire continuous solutions, and the transfer matrix develops Jordan cells. Hence, there appear eigenvectors of two new types: eigenvectors corresponding to continuous solutions (exact complete p-strings), and generalized eigenvectors. We propose general ABA constructions for these two new types of eigenvectors. We present many explicit examples, and we construct complete sets of (generalized) eigenvectors for various values of p and N.

  4. "Generalized" algebraic Bethe ansatz, Gaudin-type models and Zp-graded classical r-matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnyk, T.

    2016-12-01

    We consider quantum integrable systems associated with reductive Lie algebra gl (n) and Cartan-invariant non-skew-symmetric classical r-matrices. We show that under certain restrictions on the form of classical r-matrices "nested" or "hierarchical" Bethe ansatz usually based on a chain of subalgebras gl (n) ⊃ gl (n - 1) ⊃ . . . ⊃ gl (1) is generalized onto the other chains or "hierarchies" of subalgebras. We show that among the r-matrices satisfying such the restrictions there are "twisted" or Zp-graded non-skew-symmetric classical r-matrices. We consider in detail example of the generalized Gaudin models with and without external magnetic field associated with Zp-graded non-skew-symmetric classical r-matrices and find the spectrum of the corresponding Gaudin-type hamiltonians using nested Bethe ansatz scheme and a chain of subalgebras gl (n) ⊃ gl (n -n1) ⊃ gl (n -n1 -n2) ⊃ gl (n - (n1 + . . . +np-1)), where n1 +n2 + . . . +np = n.

  5. Bethe Ansatz and the Spectral Theory of affine Lie algebra--valued connections. The non simply--laced case

    CERN Document Server

    Masoero, Davide; Valeri, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    We assess the ODE/IM correspondence for the quantum $\\mathfrak{g}$-KdV model, for a non-simply laced Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{g}$. This is done by studying a meromorphic connection with values in the Langlands dual algebra of the affine Lie algebra ${\\mathfrak{g}}^{(1)}$, and constructing the relevant $\\Psi$-system among subdominant solutions. We then use the $\\Psi$-system to prove that the generalized spectral determinants satisfy the Bethe Ansatz equations of the quantum $\\mathfrak{g}$-KdV model. We also consider generalized Airy functions for twisted Kac--Moody algebras and we construct new explicit solutions to the Bethe Ansatz equations. The paper is a continuation of our previous work on the ODE/IM correspondence for simply-laced Lie algebras.

  6. Bethe Ansatz and the Spectral Theory of Affine Lie algebra-Valued Connections II: The Non Simply-Laced Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoero, Davide; Raimondo, Andrea; Valeri, Daniele

    2016-09-01

    We assess the ODE/IM correspondence for the quantum g -KdV model, for a non-simply laced Lie algebra g. This is done by studying a meromorphic connection with values in the Langlands dual algebra of the affine Lie algebra g^{(1)} , and constructing the relevant {Ψ} -system among subdominant solutions. We then use the {Ψ} -system to prove that the generalized spectral determinants satisfy the Bethe Ansatz equations of the quantum g -KdV model. We also consider generalized Airy functions for twisted Kac-Moody algebras and we construct new explicit solutions to the Bethe Ansatz equations. The paper is a continuation of our previous work on the ODE/IM correspondence for simply-laced Lie algebras.

  7. Correlation functions of the spin chains. Algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach; Fonctions de correlation des chaines de spin. Approche de l'ansatz de Bethe algebrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanine, N

    2007-09-15

    Spin chains are the basic elements of integrable quantum models. These models have direct applications in condense matter theory, in statistical physics, in quantum optics, in field theory and even in string theory but they are also important because they enable us to solve, in an exact manner, non-perturbative phenomena that otherwise would stay unresolved. The method described in this work is based on the algebraic Bethe Ansatz. It is shown how this method can be used for the computation of null temperature correlation functions of the Heisenberg 1/2 spin chain. The important point of this approach is the solution of the inverse quantum problem given by the XXZ spin chain. This solution as well as a simple formulae for the scalar product of the Bethe states, have enabled us to get the most basic correlation functions under the form of multiple integrals. The formalism of multiple integrals open the way for asymptotic analysis for a few physical quantities like the probability of vacuum formation. It is worth noticing that this formalism can give exact results for two-point functions that are the most important correlation functions for applications. A relationship has been discovered between these multiple integrals and the sum of the form factors. The results have been extended to dynamical correlation functions. (A.C.)

  8. Algebraic Bethe Ansatz for the Osp(1|2) Model with Reflecting Boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Rui-Hong; XIONG Chuan-Hua

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of graded quantum inverse scattering method, we obtain the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the Osp(l|2) model with reflecting boundary conditions in FBF background. The corresponding Bathe ansatz equations are obtained.

  9. Cyclotomic Gaudin Models: Construction and Bethe Ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo, Benoît; Young, Charles

    2016-05-01

    To any finite-dimensional simple Lie algebra g and automorphism {σ: gto g we associate a cyclotomic Gaudin algebra. This is a large commutative subalgebra of {U(g)^{⊗ N}} generated by a hierarchy of cyclotomic Gaudin Hamiltonians. It reduces to the Gaudin algebra in the special case {σ =id}. We go on to construct joint eigenvectors and their eigenvalues for this hierarchy of cyclotomic Gaudin Hamiltonians, in the case of a spin chain consisting of a tensor product of Verma modules. To do so we generalize an approach to the Bethe ansatz due to Feigin, Frenkel and Reshetikhin involving vertex algebras and the Wakimoto construction. As part of this construction, we make use of a theorem concerning cyclotomic coinvariants, which we prove in a companion paper. As a byproduct, we obtain a cyclotomic generalization of the Schechtman-Varchenko formula for the weight function.

  10. Bethe ansatz matrix elements as non-relativistic limits of form factors of quantum field theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormos, M.; Mussardo, G.; Pozsgay, B.

    2010-01-01

    We show that the matrix elements of integrable models computed by the algebraic Bethe ansatz (BA) can be put in direct correspondence with the form factors of integrable relativistic field theories. This happens when the S-matrix of a Bethe ansatz model can be regarded as a suitable non-relativistic

  11. Bethe ansatz and Isomonodromic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Talalaev, D

    2008-01-01

    We study symmetries of the Bethe equations for the Gaudin model appeared naturally in the framework of the geometric Langlands correspondence under the name of Hecke operators and under the name of Schlesinger transformations in the theory of isomonodromic deformations, and particularly in the theory of Painlev\\'e transcendents.

  12. BETHE ANSATZ FOR SUPERSYMMETRIC MODEL WITH?Uq[osp( 1|2 ) ] SYMMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文力

    2001-01-01

    Using the algebraic Bethe ansatz method, we obtain the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix of the supersymmetric model with Uq[osp(1|2)] symmetry under periodic boundary and twisted boundary conditions.

  13. Introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    van Tongeren, Stijn J

    2016-01-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, a method that allows us to describe the thermodynamics of integrable models whose spectrum is found via the (asymptotic) Bethe ansatz. We set the stage by deriving the Fermi-Dirac distribution and associated free energy of free electrons, and then in a similar though technically more complicated fashion treat the thermodynamics of integrable models, focusing on the one dimensional Bose gas with delta function interaction as a clean pedagogical example, secondly the XXX spin chain as an elementary (lattice) model with prototypical complicating features in the form of bound states, and finally the SU(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model as a field theory example. Throughout this discussion we emphasize the central role of particle and hole densities, whose relations determine the model under consideration. We then discuss tricks that allow us to use the same methods to describe the exact spectra of integrable field theories on a circle, in particular ...

  14. Quantum Computing via The Bethe Ansatz

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong,

    2011-01-01

    We recognize quantum circuit model of computation as factorisable scattering model and propose that a quantum computer is associated with a quantum many-body system solved by the Bethe ansatz. As an typical example to support our perspectives on quantum computation, we study quantum computing in one-dimensional nonrelativistic system with delta-function interaction, where the two-body scattering matrix satisfies the factorisation equation (the quantum Yang--Baxter equation) and acts as a para...

  15. Bethe Ansatz in Stringy Sigma Models

    OpenAIRE

    Klose, T.; Zarembo, K.

    2006-01-01

    We compute the exact S-matrix and give the Bethe ansatz solution for three sigma-models which arise as subsectors of string theory in AdS(5)xS(5): Landau-Lifshitz model (non-relativistic sigma-model on S(2)), Alday-Arutyunov-Frolov model (fermionic sigma-model with su(1|1) symmetry), and Faddeev-Reshetikhin model (string sigma-model on S(3)xR).

  16. Bethe Ansatz Solutions of the Bose-Hubbard Dimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Links

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bose-Hubbard dimer Hamiltonian is a simple yet effective model for describing tunneling phenomena of Bose-Einstein condensates. One of the significant mathematical properties of the model is that it can be exactly solved by Bethe ansatz methods. Here we review the known exact solutions, highlighting the contributions of V.B. Kuznetsov to this field. Two of the exact solutions arise in the context of the Quantum Inverse Scattering Method, while the third solution uses a differential operator realisation of the su(2 Lie algebra.

  17. Introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-08-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, a method that allows us to describe the thermodynamics of integrable models whose spectrum is found via the (asymptotic) Bethe ansatz. We set the stage by deriving the Fermi-Dirac distribution and associated free energy of free electrons, and then in a similar though technically more complicated fashion treat the thermodynamics of integrable models, focusing first on the one-dimensional Bose gas with delta function interaction as a clean pedagogical example, secondly the XXX spin chain as an elementary (lattice) model with prototypical complicating features in the form of bound states, and finally the {SU}(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model as a field theory example. Throughout this discussion we emphasize the central role of particle and hole densities, whose relations determine the model under consideration. We then discuss tricks that allow us to use the same methods to describe the exact spectra of integrable field theories on a circle, in particular the chiral Gross-Neveu model. We moreover discuss the simplification of TBA equations to Y systems, including the transition back to integral equations given sufficient analyticity data, in simple examples.

  18. Quelques applications de l'Ansatz de Bethe (Some applications of the Bethe Ansatz)

    CERN Document Server

    Zinn-Justin, P

    1998-01-01

    The Bethe Ansatz is a method that is used in quantum integrable models in order to solve them explicitly. This method is explained here in a general framework, which applies to 1D quantum spin chains, 2D statistical lattice models (vertex models) and relativistic field theories with 1 space dimension and 1 time dimension. The connection with quantum groups is expounded. Several applications are then presented. Finite size corrections are calculated via two methods: The Non-Linear Integral Equations, which are applied to the study of the states of the affine Toda model with imaginary coupling, and their interpolation between the high energy (ultra-violet) and low energy (infra-red) regions; and the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz Equations, along with the associated Fusion Equations, which are used to determine the thermodynamic properties of the generalized multi-channel Kondo model. The latter is then studied in more detail, still using the Bethe Ansatz and quantum groups, so as to characterize the spectrum of th...

  19. G/G gauged WZW-matter model, Bethe Ansatz for q-boson model and Commutative Frobenius algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Satoshi [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University,Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Yoshida, Yutaka [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK),Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We investigate the correspondence between two dimensional topological gauge theories and quantum integrable systems discovered by Moore, Nekrasov, Shatashvili. This correspondence means that the hidden quantum integrable structure exists in the topological gauge theories. We showed the correspondence between the G/G gauged WZW model and the phase model in JHEP 11 (2012) 146 (arXiv:1209.3800). In this paper, we study a one-parameter deformation for this correspondence and show that the G/G gauged WZW model coupled to additional matters corresponds to the q-boson model. Furthermore, we investigate this correspondence from the viewpoint of the commutative Frobenius algebra, the axiom of the two dimensional topological quantum field theory.

  20. Coordinate Bethe ansatz for the string S-matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuw, M de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-11-30

    We use the coordinate Bethe ansatz approach to derive the nested Bethe equations corresponding to the recently found S-matrix for strings in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}, compatible with centrally extended su(2 vertical bar 2) symmetry.

  1. Bethe ansatz solution of triangular trimers on the triangular lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberkmoes, A.; Nienhuis, B.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, a model consisting of triangular trimers covering the triangular lattice was introduced and its exact free energy given. In this paper we present the complete calculation leading to this exact result. The solution involves a coordinate Bethe ansatz with two kinds of particles. It is simila

  2. Universal Bethe ansatz solution for the Temperley-Lieb spin chain

    CERN Document Server

    Nepomechie, Rafael I

    2016-01-01

    We consider the Temperley-Lieb (TL) open quantum spin chain with "free" boundary conditions associated with the spin-$s$ representation of quantum-deformed $sl(2)$. We construct the transfer matrix, and determine its eigenvalues and the corresponding Bethe equations using analytical Bethe ansatz. We show that the transfer matrix has quantum group symmetry, and we propose explicit formulas for the number of solutions of the Bethe equations and the degeneracies of the transfer-matrix eigenvalues. We propose an algebraic Bethe ansatz construction of the off-shell Bethe states, and we conjecture that the on-shell Bethe states are highest-weight states of the quantum group. We also propose a determinant formula for the scalar product between an off-shell Bethe state and its on-shell dual, as well as for the square of the norm. We find that all of these results, except for the degeneracies and a constant factor in the scalar product, are universal in the sense that they do not depend on the value of the spin. In an...

  3. Universal Bethe ansatz solution for the Temperley-Lieb spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomechie, Rafael I.; Pimenta, Rodrigo A.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the Temperley-Lieb (TL) open quantum spin chain with "free" boundary conditions associated with the spin-s representation of quantum-deformed sl (2). We construct the transfer matrix, and determine its eigenvalues and the corresponding Bethe equations using analytical Bethe ansatz. We show that the transfer matrix has quantum group symmetry, and we propose explicit formulas for the number of solutions of the Bethe equations and the degeneracies of the transfer-matrix eigenvalues. We propose an algebraic Bethe ansatz construction of the off-shell Bethe states, and we conjecture that the on-shell Bethe states are highest-weight states of the quantum group. We also propose a determinant formula for the scalar product between an off-shell Bethe state and its on-shell dual, as well as for the square of the norm. We find that all of these results, except for the degeneracies and a constant factor in the scalar product, are universal in the sense that they do not depend on the value of the spin. In an appendix, we briefly consider the closed TL spin chain with periodic boundary conditions, and show how a previously-proposed solution can be improved so as to obtain the complete (albeit non-universal) spectrum.

  4. Distinct solutions of infinite U Hubbard model through nested Bethe ansatz and Gutzwiller projection operator approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, A.K., E-mail: mishra@imsc.res.i [Insitituto Nacional de Pesquidas Espaciais - INPE, P.O. Box 103, CP 515, S. J. Campos, SP 12245-970 (Brazil); Kishore, R., E-mail: kishore@las.inpe.b [Insitituto Nacional de Pesquidas Espaciais - INPE, P.O. Box 103, CP 515, S. J. Campos, SP 12245-970 (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The exact nested Bethe ansatz solution for the one dimensional (1-D) U infinity Hubbard model show that the state vectors are a product of spin-less fermion and spin wavefunctions, or an appropriate superposition of such factorized wavefunctions. The spin-less fermion component of the wavefunctions ensures no double occupancy at any site. It had been demonstrated that the nested Bethe ansatz wavefunctions in the U infinity limit obey orthofermi statistics. Gutzwiller projection operator formalism is the another well known technique employed to handle U infinity Hubbard model. In general, this approach does not lead to spin-less fermion wavefunctions. Therefore, the nested Bethe ansatz and Gutzwiller projection operator approach give rise to different kinds of the wavefunctions for the U infinity limit of 1-D Hubbard Hamiltonian. To compare the consequences of this dissimilarity in the wavefunctions, we have obtained the ground state energy of a finite system consisting of three particles on a four site closed chain. It is shown that in the nested Bethe ansatz implemented through orthofermion algebra, all the permissible 2{sup 3} spin configurations are degenerate in the ground state. This eight fold degeneracy of the ground state is absent in the Gutzwiller projection operator approach. This finding becomes relevant in the context of known exact U infinity results, which require that all the energy levels are 2{sup N}-fold degenerate for an N particle system.

  5. ODE/IM correspondence and Bethe ansatz for affine Toda field equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Katsushi

    2015-01-01

    We study the linear problem associated with modified affine Toda field equation for the Langlands dual $\\hat{\\mathfrak{g}}^\\vee$, where $\\hat{\\mathfrak{g}}$ is an untwisted affine Lie algebra. The connection coefficients for the asymptotic solutions of the linear problem correspond to the Q-functions for $\\mathfrak{g}$-type quantum integrable models. The $\\psi$-system for the solutions associated with the fundamental representations of $\\mathfrak{g}$ leads to Bethe ansatz equations associated with the affine Lie algebra $\\hat{\\mathfrak{g}}$. We also study the $A^{(2)}_{2r}$ affine Toda field equation in massless limit in detail and find its Bethe ansatz equations as well as T-Q relations.

  6. ODE/IM correspondence and Bethe ansatz for affine Toda field equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsushi Ito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the linear problem associated with modified affine Toda field equation for the Langlands dual gˆ∨, where gˆ is an untwisted affine Lie algebra. The connection coefficients for the asymptotic solutions of the linear problem are found to correspond to the Q-functions for g-type quantum integrable models. The ψ-system for the solutions associated with the fundamental representations of g leads to Bethe ansatz equations associated with the affine Lie algebra gˆ. We also study the A2r(2 affine Toda field equation in massless limit in detail and find its Bethe ansatz equations as well as T–Q relations.

  7. Reflection Amplitudes of ADE Toda Theories and Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, C; Kim, C; Rim, C; Yang, B; Ahn, Changrim; Kim, Chanju; Rim, Chaiho; Yang, Bedl

    2000-01-01

    We study the ultraviolet asymptotics in affine Toda theories. These models are considered as perturbed non-affine Toda theories. We calculate the reflection amplitudes, which relate different exponential fields with the same quantum numbers. Using these amplitudes we derive the quantization condition for the vacuum wave function, describing zero-mode dynamics, and calculate the UV asymptotics of the effective central charge. These asymptotics are in a good agreement with thermodynamic Bethe ansatz results.

  8. Bethe Ansatz for Supersymmetric Model Constructed from Uq[osp(2|2)(2)] R-Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-Li; ZHEN Yi

    2001-01-01

    Using the algebraic Bethe ansatz method, we obtain the eigenvalues of transfer matrix of the supersymmetric model constructed from the R-matrix of the twisted affine superalgebra Uq[osp(2|2)(2)] in periodic boundary condition and twisted boundary condition.``

  9. Linking Chains Together: String Bits And The Bethe Ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Lübcke, M

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part we focus mainly on certain aspects of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The AdS/CFT correspondence is a proposed duality between Type IIB superstring theory on AdS5 × S5 and N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. In the BMN limit string states located in the center of AdS5 rotate quickly around the equator of the S5 and correspond, in the dual theory, to operators constructed as long chains of sub-operators. This structure of the operators can be formulated as a spin chain and by using the Bethe ansatz their properties can be obtained by solving a set of Bethe equations. Having infinitely many sub-operators, there are methods for solving the Bethe equations in certain sectors. In paper III finite size corrections to the anomalous dimensions in the SU(2) sector are calculated to leading order. Inspired by the chain structure of the corresponding operators, the theory of string bits treats the strings as a discrete sets of points. This theory suffers...

  10. Off-diagonal Bethe ansatz solution of the XXX spin-chain with arbitrary boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Junpeng; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2013-01-01

    With the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method proposed recently by the present authors, we exactly diagonalize the $XXX$ spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields. By constructing a functional relation between the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and the quantum determinant, the associated $T-Q$ relation and the Bethe ansatz equations are derived.

  11. Off-diagonal Bethe ansatz solution of the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junpeng; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2013-10-01

    Employing the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method proposed recently by the present authors, we exactly diagonalize the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields. By constructing a functional relation between the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and the quantum determinant, the associated T-Q relation and the Bethe ansatz equations are derived.

  12. Twist-three at five loops, Bethe Ansatz and wrapping

    CERN Document Server

    Beccaria, M; Lukowski, T; Zieme, S

    2009-01-01

    We present a formula for the five-loop anomalous dimension of N=4 SYM twist-three operators in the sl(2) sector. We obtain its asymptotic part from the Bethe Ansatz and finite volume corrections from the generalized Luescher formalism, considering scattering processes of spin chain magnons with virtual particles that travel along the cylinder. The complete result respects the expected large spin scaling properties and passes non-trivial tests including reciprocity constraints. We analyze the pole structure and find agreement with a conjectured resummation formula. In analogy with the twist-two anomalous dimension at four-loops, wrapping effects are of order log^2 M/M^2 for large values of the spin.

  13. Critical phenomena in one dimension from a Bethe ansatz perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiwen

    2014-08-01

    This article briefly reviews recent theoretical developments in quantum critical phenomena in one-dimensional (1D) integrable quantum gases of cold atoms. We present a discussion on quantum phase transitions, universal thermodynamics, scaling functions and correlations for a few prototypical exactly solved models, such as the Lieb-Liniger Bose gas, the spin-1 Bose gas with antiferromagnetic spin-spin interaction, the two-component interacting Fermi gas as well as spin-3/2 Fermi gases. We demonstrate that their corresponding Bethe ansatz solutions provide a precise way to understand quantum many-body physics, such as quantum criticality, Luttinger liquids (LLs), the Wilson ratio, Tan's Contact, etc. These theoretical developments give rise to a physical perspective using integrability for uncovering experimentally testable phenomena in systems of interacting bosonic and fermonic ultracold atoms confined to 1D.

  14. The Bethe ansatz for AdS5 × S5 bound states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, M.

    2009-01-01

    We reformulate the nested coordinate Bethe ansatz in terms of coproducts of Yangian symmetry generators. This allows us to derive the nested Bethe equations for arbitrary bound state string S-matrices. The bound state number dependence in the Bethe equations appears through the parameters x± and the

  15. Hidden Relation between Reflection Amplitudes and Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, C; Rim, C; Ahn, Changrim; Kim, Chanju; Rim, Chaiho

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we compute the scaling functions of the effective central charges for various quantum integrable models in a deep ultraviolet region $R\\to 0$ using two independent methods. One is based on the ``reflection amplitudes'' of the (super-)Liouville field theory where the scaling functions are given by the conjugate momentum to the zero-modes. The conjugate momentum is quantized for the sinh-Gordon, the Bullough-Dodd, and the super sinh-Gordon models where the quantization conditions depend on the size $R$ of the system and the reflection amplitudes. The other method is to solve the standard thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations for the integrable models in a perturbative series of $1/(const. - \\ln R)$. The constant factor which is not fixed in the lowest order computations can be identified {\\it only when} we compare the higher order corrections with the quantization conditions. Numerical TBA analysis shows a perfect match for the scaling functions obtained by the first method. Our results show ...

  16. Functional Bethe ansatz methods for the open XXX chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frahm, Holger; Grelik, Jan H; Seel, Alexander; Wirth, Tobias, E-mail: Holger.Frahm@itp.uni-hannover.d, E-mail: Jan.Grelik@itp.uni-hannover.d, E-mail: Alexander.Seel@itp.uni-hannover.d [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-01-07

    We study the spectrum of the integrable open XXX Heisenberg spin chain subject to non-diagonal boundary magnetic fields. The spectral problem for this model can be formulated in terms of functional equations obtained by separation of variables or, equivalently, from the fusion of transfer matrices. For generic boundary conditions the eigenvalues cannot be obtained from the solution of finitely many algebraic Bethe equations. Based on careful finite size studies of the analytic properties of the underlying hierarchy of transfer matrices we devise two approaches to analyze the functional equations. First we introduce a truncation method leading to Bethe-type equations determining the energy spectrum of the spin chain. In a second approach, the hierarchy of functional equations is mapped to an infinite system of nonlinear integral equations of TBA type. The two schemes have complementary ranges of applicability and facilitate an efficient numerical analysis for a wide range of boundary parameters. Some data are presented on the finite-size corrections to the energy of the state which evolves into the antiferromagnetic ground state in the limit of parallel boundary fields.

  17. Spin-12 XYZ model revisit: General solutions via off-diagonal Bethe ansatz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The spin-12 XYZ model with both periodic and anti-periodic boundary conditions is studied via the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method. The exact spectra of the Hamiltonians and the Bethe ansatz equations are derived by constructing the inhomogeneous T–Q relations, which allow us to treat both the even N (the number of lattice sites and odd N cases simultaneously in a unified approach.

  18. Small polaron with generic open boundary conditions: Exact solution via the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The small polaron, a one-dimensional lattice model of interacting spinless fermions, with generic non-diagonal boundary terms is studied by the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method. The presence of the Grassmann valued non-diagonal boundary fields gives rise to a typical U(1-symmetry-broken fermionic model. The exact spectra of the Hamiltonian and the associated Bethe ansatz equations are derived by constructing an inhomogeneous T–Q relation.

  19. Bethe ansatz solution of the $\\tau_2$-model with arbitrary boundary fields

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiaotian; Yang, Tao; Cao, Junpeng; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie

    2016-01-01

    The quantum $\\tau_2$-model with generic site-dependent inhomogeneity and arbitrary boundary fields is studied via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz method. The eigenvalues of the corresponding transfer matrix are given in terms of an inhomogeneous T-Q relation, which is based on the operator product identities among the fused transfer matrices and the asymptotic behavior of the transfer matrices. Moreover, the associated Bethe Ansatz equations are also obtained.

  20. N=6 super Chern-Simons theory S-matrix and all-loop Bethe ansatz equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Changrim

    2008-01-01

    We propose the exact S-matrix for the planar limit of the N=6 super Chern-Simons theory recently proposed by Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis, and Maldacena for the AdS_4/CFT_3 correspondence. Assuming SU(2|2) symmetry, factorizability and certain crossing-unitarity relations, we find the S-matrix including the dressing phase. We use this S-matrix to formulate the asymptotic Bethe ansatz. Our result for the Bethe-Yang equations and corresponding Bethe ansatz equations confirms the all-loop Bethe ansatz equations recently conjectured by Gromov and Vieira.

  1. Exact Bethe ansatz solution for a quantum field model of interacting scalar fields in quasi-two dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Integrable quantum field models are known to exist mostly in one space-dimension. Exploiting the concept of multi-time in integrable systems and a Lax matrix of higher scaling order, we construct a novel quantum field model in quasi-two dimensions involving interacting fields. The Yang-Baxter integrability is proved for the model by finding a new kind of commutation rule for its basic fields, representing nonstandard scalar fields along the transverse direction. In spite of a close link with the quantum Landau-Lifshitz equation, the present model differs widely from it, in its content and the result obtained. Using further the algebraic Bethe ansatz we solve exactly the eigenvalue problem of this quantum field model for all its higher conserved operators. The idea presented here should instigate the construction of a novel class of integrable field and lattice models and exploration of a new type of underlying algebras.

  2. Nested Bethe Ansatz for Spin Ladder Model with Open Boundary Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun-Fang; ZHANG Chun-Min; YUE Rui-Hong; LI Run-Ling

    2005-01-01

    The nested Bethe ansatz (BA) method is applied to find the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix for spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. Based on the reflection equation, we find the general diagonal solution, which determines the generalboundary interaction in the Hamiltonian. We introduce the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. By finding the solution K± of the reflection equation which determines the nontrivial boundary terms in the Hamiltonian, we diagonalize the transfer matrix of the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions in the framework of nested BA.

  3. Bethe Ansatz solution of the small polaron with nondiagonal boundary terms

    CERN Document Server

    Karaiskos, Nikos; Frahm, Holger

    2013-01-01

    The small polaron with generic, nondiagonal boundary terms is investigated within the framework of quantum integrability. The eigenvalues of the model are extracted by using the fusion hierarchy of the transfer matrices and the corresponding Bethe Ansatz equations are presented. For particular values of the anisotropy parameter the fusion hierarchy truncates, giving rise to a set of functional relations for the transfer matrix. Exploiting the latter ones, the same set of eigenvalues is rederived, confirming our results. Finally, we comment on the eigenvectors of the model and explicitly compute the state with all sites unoccupied for arbitrary chain lengths.

  4. The single-particle density matrix of a quantum bright soliton from the coordinate Bethe ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayet, Alex; Brand, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    We present a novel approach for computing reduced density matrices for superpositions of eigenstates of a Bethe-ansatz solvable model by direct integration of the wave function in coordinate representation. A diagrammatic approach is developed to keep track of relevant terms and identify symmetries, which helps to reduce the number of terms that have to be evaluated numerically. As a first application we compute with modest numerical resources the single-particle density matrix and its eigenvalues including the condensate fraction for a quantum bright soliton with up to N  =  10 bosons. The latter are constructed as superpositions of string-type Bethe-ansatz eigenstates of nonrelativistic bosons in one spatial dimension with attractive contact interaction. Upon delocalising the superposition in momentum space we find that the condensate fraction reaches maximum values larger than 97% with weak particle-number dependence in the range of particles studied. The presented approach is suitable for studying time-dependent problems and generalises to higher-order correlation functions.

  5. Eigenvalues of Ruijsenaars-Schneider models associated with $A_{n-1}$ root system in Bethe ansatz formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, B; Yang, W L; Hou, Boyu; Sasaki, Ryu; Yang, Wen-Li

    2004-01-01

    Ruijsenaars-Schneider models associated with $A_{n-1}$ root system with a discrete coupling constant are studied. The eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian are givein in terms of the Bethe ansatz formulas. Taking the "non-relativistic" limit, we obtain the spectrum of the corresponding Calogero-Moser systems in the third formulas of Felder et al [20].

  6. Coordinate Bethe ansatz computation for low temperature behavior of a triangular lattice of a spin-1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuaibu, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia and Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, P.M.B 2109, Kaduna (Nigeria); Rahman, M. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Nigerian Defence Academy, P.M.B 2109, Kaduna (Nigeria)

    2014-03-05

    We study the low temperature behavior of a triangular lattice quantum spin-1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with single-site anisotropy by using coordinate Bethe ansatz method. We compute the standard two-particle Hermitian Hamiltonian, and obtain the eigenfunctions and eigenvalue of the system. The obtained results show a number of advantages in comparison with many results.

  7. Bethe ansatz solution of the small polaron with nondiagonal boundary terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaiskos, Nikos; Grabinski, André M.; Frahm, Holger

    2013-07-01

    The small polaron with generic, nondiagonal boundary terms is investigated within the framework of quantum integrability. The fusion hierarchy of the transfer matrices and its truncation for particular values of the anisotropy parameter are both employed, so that the spectral problem is formulated in terms of a TQ equation. The solution of this equation for generic boundary conditions is based on a deformation of the diagonal case. The eigenvalues of the model are extracted and the corresponding Bethe ansatz equations are presented. Finally, we comment on the eigenvectors of the model and explicitly compute the eigenstate of the model which evolves into the Fock vacuum when the off-diagonal boundary terms are switched off.

  8. Reflection Amplitudes in Non-Simply Laced Toda Theories and Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, C; Fateev, V A; Kim, C; Rim, C; Ahn, Changrim; Kim, Chanju; Rim, Chaiho

    2000-01-01

    We study the ultraviolet asymptotics in non-simply laced affine Toda theoriesconsidering them as perturbed non-affine Toda theories, which possess theextended conformal symmetry. We calculate the reflection amplitudes, innon-affine Toda theories and use them to derive the quantization condition forthe vacuum wave function, describing zero-mode dynamics. The solution of thisquantization conditions for the ground state energy determines the UVasymptotics of the effective central charge. These asymptotics are in a goodagreement with Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz(TBA) results. To make the comparisonwith TBA possible, we give the exact relations between parameters of the actionand masses of particles as well as the bulk free energies for non-simply lacedaffine Toda theories.

  9. Exact Bethe ansatz solution of a nonlinear quantum field model in quasi-two dimensions linked to the Landau-Lifshitz equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anjan

    2016-12-01

    Integrable quantum field models are known to exist mostly in one space-dimension. Exploiting the concept of multi-time in integrable systems and a Lax matrix of higher scaling order, we construct a novel quantum field model in quasi-two dimensions involving interacting fields. The Yang-Baxter integrability is proved for the model by finding a new kind of commutation rule for its basic fields, representing nonstandard scalar fields along the transverse direction. In spite of a close link with the quantum Landau-Lifshitz equation, the present model differs widely from it, in its content and the result obtained. Using further the algebraic Bethe ansatz we solve exactly the eigenvalue problem of this quantum field model for all its higher conserved operators. The idea presented here should instigate the construction of a novel class of integrable field and lattice models and exploration of a new type of underlying algebras.

  10. Bethe vectors for XXX-spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdík, Čestmír; Fuksa, Jan; Isaev, Alexei

    2014-11-01

    The paper deals with algebraic Bethe ansatz for XXX-spin chain. Generators of Yang-Baxter algebra are expressed in basis of free fermions and used to calculate explicit form of Bethe vectors. Their relation to N-component models is used to prove conjecture about their form in general. Some remarks on inhomogeneous XXX-spin chain are included.

  11. Open spin chains with generic integrable boundaries: Baxter equation and Bethe ansatz completeness from SOV

    CERN Document Server

    Kitanine, N; Niccoli, G

    2014-01-01

    We solve the longstanding problem to define a functional characterization of the spectrum of the transfer matrix associated to the most general spin-1/2 representations of the 6-vertex reflection algebra for general inhomogeneous chains. The corresponding homogeneous limit reproduces the spectrum of the Hamiltonian of the spin-1/2 open XXZ and XXX quantum chains with the most general integrable boundaries. The spectrum is characterized by a second order finite difference functional equation of Baxter type with an inhomogeneous term which vanishes only for some special but yet interesting non-diagonal boundary conditions. This functional equation is shown to be equivalent to the known separation of variable (SOV) representation hence proving that it defines a complete characterization of the transfer matrix spectrum. The polynomial character of the Q-function allows us then to show that a finite system of equations of generalized Bethe type can be similarly used to describe the complete transfer matrix spectru...

  12. Yangian symmetry, S-matrices and Bethe Ansatz for the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuw, M. de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    We discuss the relation between the recently derived bound state S-matrices for the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} superstring and Yangian symmetry. We will study the relation between this Yangian symmetry and the Bethe ansatz. In particular we can use it to derive the Bethe equations for bound states. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Massless L\\"uscher Terms and the Limitations of the AdS3 Asymptotic Bethe Ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    In AdS5/CFT4 integrability the Bethe ansatz gives the spectrum of long strings, accurate up to exponentially small corrections. This is no longer true in AdS3, as we demonstrate here by studying L\\"uscher F-terms with a massless particle running in the loop. We apply this to the classic test of Hern\\'andez & L\\'opez, in which the su(2) sector Bethe equations (including one-loop dressing phase) should match the semiclassical string theory result for a circular spinning string. These calculations did not agree in AdS3xS3xT4, and we show that the sum of all massless L\\"uscher F-terms can reproduce the difference.

  14. All-loop Bethe ansatz equations for AdS3/CFT2

    CERN Document Server

    Borsato, Riccardo; Sfondrini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Using the S-matrix for the d(2,1;alpha)^2 symmetric spin-chain of AdS3/CFT2, we propose a new set of all-loop Bethe equations for the system. These equations differ from the ones previously found in the literature by the choice of relative grading between the two copies of the d(2,1;alpha) superalgebra, and involve four undetermined scalar factors that play the role of dressing phases. Imposing crossing symmetry and comparing with the near-BMN form of the S-matrix found in the literature, we find several novel features. In particular, the scalar factors must differ from the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher phase, and should couple nodes of different masses to each other. In the semiclassical limit the phases are given by a suitable generalization of Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase.

  15. All-loop Bethe ansatz equations for AdS3/CFT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Sax, Olof Ohlsson; Sfondrini, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Using the S-matrix for the {d}{{( {2, 1; α } )}^2} symmetric spin-chain of AdS3/CFT2, we propose a new set of all-loop Bethe equations for the system. These equations differ from the ones previously found in the literature by the choice of relative grading between the two copies of the {d}( {2, 1; α } ) superalgebra, and involve four undetermined scalar factors that play the role of dressing phases. Imposing crossing symmetry and comparing with the near-BMN form of the S-matrix found in the literature, we find several novel features. In particular, the scalar factors must differ from the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher phase, and should couple nodes of different masses to each other. In the semiclassical limit the phases are given by a suitable generalization of Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase.

  16. Scalar products of Bethe vectors in models with $\\mathfrak{gl}(2|1)$ symmetry 2. Determinant representation

    CERN Document Server

    Hutsalyuk, A; Pakuliak, S Z; Ragoucy, E; Slavnov, N A

    2016-01-01

    We study integrable models with $\\mathfrak{gl}(2|1)$ symmetry and solvable by nested algebraic Bethe ansatz. We obtain a determinant representation for scalar products of Bethe vectors, when the Bethe parameters obey some relations weaker than the Bethe equations. This representation allows us to find the norms of on-shell Bethe vectors and obtain determinant formulas for form factors of the diagonal entries of the monodromy matrix.

  17. Scalar products of Bethe vectors in models with \\mathfrak{g}\\mathfrak{l}(2|1) symmetry 2. Determinant representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsalyuk, A.; Liashyk, A.; Pakuliak, S. Z.; Ragoucy, E.; Slavnov, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    We study integrable models with gl(2|1) symmetry and solvable by nested algebraic Bethe ansatz. We obtain a determinant representation for scalar products of Bethe vectors, when the Bethe parameters obey some relations weaker than the Bethe equations. This representation allows us to find the norms of on-shell Bethe vectors and obtain determinant formulas for form factors of the diagonal entries of the monodromy matrix. Dedicated to the memory of Petr Petrovich Kulish.

  18. Asymptotic Bethe Ansatz on the GKP vacuum as a defect spin chain: scattering, particles and minimal area Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Fioravanti, Davide; Rossi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Moving from Beisert-Staudacher equations, the complete set of Asymptotic Bethe Ansatz equations and $S$-matrix for the excitations over the GKP vacuum is found. The resulting model on this new vacuum is an integrable spin chain of length $R=2\\ln s$ ($s=$ spin) with particle rapidities as inhomogeneities, two (purely transmitting) defects and $SU(4)$ (residual R-)symmetry. The non-trivial dynamics of ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM appears in elaborated dressing factors of the 2D two-particle scattering factors, all depending on the 'fundamental' one between two scalar excitations. From scattering factors we determine bound states. In particular, we study the strong coupling limit, in the non-perturbative, perturbative and giant hole regimes. Eventually, from these scattering data we construct the $4D$ pentagon transition amplitudes (perturbative regime). In this manner, we detail the multi-particle contributions (flux tube) to the MHV gluon scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops (OPE or BSV series) and re-sum them to the Thermo...

  19. Thermodynamic Bethe ansatz for non-equilibrium steady states: exact energy current and fluctuations in integrable QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alvaredo, Olalla; Chen, Yixiong; Doyon, Benjamin; Hoogeveen, Marianne

    2014-03-01

    We evaluate the exact energy current and scaled cumulant generating function (related to the large-deviation function) in non-equilibrium steady states with energy flow, in any integrable model of relativistic quantum field theory (IQFT) with diagonal scattering. Our derivations are based on various recent results of Bernard and Doyon. The steady states are built by connecting homogeneously two infinite halves of the system thermalized at different temperatures Tl, Tr, and waiting for a long time. We evaluate the current J(Tl, Tr) using the exact QFT density matrix describing these non-equilibrium steady states and using Zamolodchikov’s method of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA). The scaled cumulant generating function is obtained from the extended fluctuation relations which hold in integrable models. We verify our formula in particular by showing that the conformal field theory (CFT) result is obtained in the high-temperature limit. We analyze numerically our non-equilibrium steady-state TBA equations for three models: the sinh-Gordon model, the roaming trajectories model, and the sine-Gordon model at a particular reflectionless point. Based on the numerics, we conjecture that an infinite family of non-equilibrium c-functions, associated with the scaled cumulants, can be defined, which we interpret physically. We study the full scaled distribution function and find that it can be described by a set of independent Poisson processes. Finally, we show that the ‘additivity’ property of the current, which is known to hold in CFT and was proposed to hold more generally, does not hold in general IQFT—that is, J(Tl, Tr) is not of the form f(Tl) - f(Tr).

  20. Bethe states for the two-site Bose–Hubbard model: A binomial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We calculate explicitly the Bethe vectors states by the algebraic Bethe ansatz method with the gl(2-invariant R-matrix for the two-site Bose–Hubbard model. Using a binomial expansion of the n-th power of a sum of two operators we get and solve a recursion equation. We calculate the scalar product and the norm of the Bethe vectors states. The form factors of the imbalance current operator are also computed.

  1. Scalar products of Bethe vectors in models with $\\mathfrak{gl}(2|1)$ symmetry 1. Super-analog of Reshetikhin formula

    CERN Document Server

    Hutsalyuk, A; Pakuliak, S Z; Ragoucy, E; Slavnov, N A

    2016-01-01

    We study scalar products of Bethe vectors in integrable models solvable by nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and possessing $\\mathfrak{gl}(2|1)$ symmetry. Using explicit formulas of the monodromy matrix entries multiple actions onto Bethe vectors we obtain a representation for the scalar product in the most general case. This explicit representation appears to be a sum over partitions of the Bethe parameters. It can be used for the analysis of scalar products involving on-shell Bethe vectors. As a by-product, we obtain a determinant representation for the scalar products of generic Bethe vectors in integrable models with $\\mathfrak{gl}(1|1)$ symmetry.

  2. Comultiplication in ABCD algebra and scalar products of bethe wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A.

    1994-07-01

    The representation of scalar products of Bethe wave functions in terms of dual fields, proved by A. G. Izergin and V. E. Korepin in 1987, plays an important role in the theory of completely integrable models. The proof in [A. G. Izergin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 297, No. 2, 331 (1987)] and [V. E. Korepin, Commun. Math. Phys., 113, 177 190 (1978)] is based on the explicit expression for the “senior” coefficient, which was guessed in the Izergin paper and then proved to satisfy some recurrent relations, which determine it unambiguously. In this paper we present an alternative proof based on direct computation. It uses the operation of comultiplication in the ABCD-algebra.

  3. An Algebraic Approach to Form Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Niedermaier, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    An associative $*$-algebra is introduced (containing a $TTR$-algebra as a subalgebra) that implements the form factor axioms, and hence indirectly the Wightman axioms, in the following sense: Each $T$-invariant linear functional over the algebra automatically satisfies all the form factor axioms. It is argued that this answers the question (posed in the functional Bethe ansatz) how to select the dynamically correct representations of the $TTR$-algebra. Applied to the case of integrable QFTs w...

  4. Norm of Bethe Wave Function as a Determinant

    CERN Document Server

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    2009-01-01

    This is a historical note. Bethe Ansatz solvable models are considered, for example XXZ Heisenberg anti-ferromagnet and Bose gas with delta interaction. Periodic boundary conditions lead to Bethe equation. The square of the norm of Bethe wave function is equal to a determinant of linearized system of Bethe equations (determinant of matrix of second derivatives of Yang action). The proof was first published in Communications in Mathematical Physics, vol 86, page 391 in l982. Also domain wall boundary conditions for 6 vertex model were discovered in the same paper [see Appendix D]. These play an important role for algebraic combinatorics: alternating sign matrices, domino tiling and plane partition. Many publications are devoted to six vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions.

  5. Multi-Regge limit of the n-gluon bubble ansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, V.; Sprenger, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    We investigate n-gluon scattering amplitudes in the multi-Regge region of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. Through a careful analysis of the thermodynamic bubble ansatz (TBA) for surfaces in AdS{sub 5} with n-g(lu)on boundary conditions we demonstrate that the multi-Regge limit probes the large volume regime of the TBA. In reaching the multi-Regge regime we encounter wall-crossing in the TBA for all n>6. Our results imply that there exists an auxiliary system of algebraic Bethe ansatz equations which encode valuable information on the analytical structure of amplitudes at strong coupling.

  6. Scalar products of Bethe vectors in models with {\\mathfrak{gl}}(2| 1) symmetry 1. Super-analog of Reshetikhin formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsalyuk, A.; Liashyk, A.; Pakuliak, S. Z.; Ragoucy, E.; Slavnov, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    We study the scalar products of Bethe vectors in integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and possessing {gl}(2| 1) symmetry. Using explicit formulas of the monodromy matrix entries’ multiple actions onto Bethe vectors we obtain a representation for the scalar product in the most general case. This explicit representation appears to be a sum over partitions of the Bethe parameters. It can be used for the analysis of scalar products involving on-shell Bethe vectors. As a by-product, we obtain a determinant representation for the scalar products of generic Bethe vectors in integrable models with {gl}(1| 1) symmetry. Dedicated to the memory of Petr Petrovich Kulish.

  7. A braided Yang-Baxter Algebra in a Theory of two coupled Lattice Quantum KdV algebraic properties and ABA representations

    CERN Document Server

    Fioravanti, D; Fioravanti, Davide; Rossi, Marco

    2001-01-01

    A generalization of the Yang-Baxter algebra is found in quantizing the monodromy matrix of two (m)KdV equations discretized on a space lattice. This braided Yang-Baxter equation still ensures that the transfer matrix generates operators in involution which form the Cartan sub-algebra of the braided quantum group. Representations diagonalizing these operators are described through relying on an easy generalization of Algebraic Bethe Ansatz techniques. The conjecture that this monodromy matrix algebra leads, {\\it in the cylinder continuum limit}, to a Perturbed Minimal Conformal Field Theory description is analysed and supported.

  8. The Bethe wavefunction

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Michel Gaudin's book La fonction d'onde de Bethe is a uniquely influential masterpiece on exactly solvable models of quantum mechanics and statistical physics. Available in English for the first time, this translation brings his classic work to a new generation of graduate students and researchers in physics. It presents a mixture of mathematics interspersed with powerful physical intuition, retaining the author's unmistakably honest tone. The book begins with the Heisenberg spin chain, starting from the coordinate Bethe Ansatz and culminating in a discussion of its thermodynamic properties. Delta-interacting bosons (the Lieb-Liniger model) are then explored, and extended to exactly solvable models associated to a reflection group. After discussing the continuum limit of spin chains, the book covers six- and eight-vertex models in extensive detail, from their lattice definition to their thermodynamics. Later chapters examine advanced topics such as multi-component delta-interacting systems, Gaudin magnets and...

  9. Bethe's quantum numbers and rigged configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatol N. Kirillov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to determine the quantum numbers, which we call the rigged configurations, for the solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations for the spin-1/2 isotropic Heisenberg model under the periodic boundary condition. Our method is based on the observation that the sums of Bethe's quantum numbers within each string behave particularly nicely. We confirm our procedure for all solutions for length 12 chain (totally 923 solutions.

  10. Quasi-exactly solvable models derived from the quasi-Gaudin algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yuan-Harng; Links, Jon; Zhang Yaozhong, E-mail: jrl@uq.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2011-12-02

    The quasi-Gaudin algebra was introduced to construct integrable systems which are only quasi-exactly solvable. Using a suitable representation of the quasi-Gaudin algebra, we obtain a class of bosonic models which exhibit this curious property. These models have the notable feature that they do not preserve U(1) symmetry, which is typically associated with a non-conservation of particle number. An exact solution for the eigenvalues within the quasi-exactly solvable sector is obtained via the algebraic Bethe ansatz formalism. (fast track communication)

  11. Bethe subalgebras in affine Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebras and flat connections for q-KZ equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, A. P.; Kirillov, A. N.; Tarasov, V. O.

    2016-05-01

    Commutative sets of Jucys-Murphy elements for affine braid groups of {A}(1),{B}(1),{C}(1),{D}(1) types were defined. Construction of R-matrix representations of the affine braid group of type {C}(1) and its distinguished commutative subgroup generated by the {C}(1)-type Jucys-Murphy elements are given. We describe a general method to produce flat connections for the two-boundary quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations as necessary conditions for Sklyanin's type transfer matrix associated with the two-boundary multicomponent Zamolodchikov algebra to be invariant under the action of the {C}(1)-type Jucys-Murphy elements. We specify our general construction to the case of the Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebras (BMW algebras for short). As an application we suggest a baxterization of the Dunkl-Cherednik elements {Y}\\prime {{s}} in the double affine Hecke algebra of type A. Dedicated to Professor Rodney Baxter on the occasion of his 75th Birthday.

  12. The Algebraic Curve of 1-loop Planar N=4 SYM

    CERN Document Server

    Schafer-Nameki, S

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic curve for the psu (2,2|4) quantum spin chain is determined from the thermodynamic limit of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. The Hamiltonian of this spin chain has been identified with the planar 1-loop dilatation operator of N=4 SYM. In the dual AdS_5 x S^5 string theory, various properties of the data defining the curve for the gauge theory are compared to the ones obtained from semiclassical spinning-string configurations, in particular for the case of strings on AdS_5 x S^1 and the su(2,2) spin chain agreement of the curves is shown.

  13. Yangian symmetry, S-Matrices and Bethe Ansats for the Ads5 x S5 superstring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the relation between the recently derived bound state S-matrices for the AdS5× S5 superstring and Yangian symmetry. We will study the relation between this Yangian symmetry and the Bethe ansatz. In particular we can use it to derive the Bethe equations for bound states.

  14. Yang-Baxter algebras, integrable theories and quantum groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, H.J. de (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies)

    1990-12-01

    The Yang-Baxter algebras (YBA) are introduced in a general framework stressing their power to exactly solve the lattice models associated to them. The algebraic Bethe Ansatz is developed as an eigenvector construction based on the YBA. The six-vertex model solution is given explicitely. It is explained how these lattice models yield both solvable massive QFT and conformal models in appropriated scaling (continuous) limits within the lattice light-cone approach. This approach permit to define and solve rigorously massive QFT as an appropriate continuum limit of gapless vertex models. The deep links between the YBA and Lie algebras are analyzed including the quantum groups that underly the trigonometric/hyperbolic YBA. Braid and quantum groups are derived from trigonometric/hyperbolic YBA in the limit of infinite spectral parameter. To conclude, some recent developments in the domain of integrable theories are summarized. (orig.).

  15. Adapting algebraic diagrammatic construction schemes for the polarization propagator to problems with multi-reference electronic ground states exploiting the spin-flip ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancois, Daniel; Wormit, Michael; Dreuw, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    For the investigation of molecular systems with electronic ground states exhibiting multi-reference character, a spin-flip (SF) version of the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) scheme for the polarization propagator up to third order perturbation theory (SF-ADC(3)) is derived via the intermediate state representation and implemented into our existing ADC computer program adcman. The accuracy of these new SF-ADC(n) approaches is tested on typical situations, in which the ground state acquires multi-reference character, like bond breaking of H2 and HF, the torsional motion of ethylene, and the excited states of rectangular and square-planar cyclobutadiene. Overall, the results of SF-ADC(n) reveal an accurate description of these systems in comparison with standard multi-reference methods. Thus, the spin-flip versions of ADC are easy-to-use methods for the calculation of "few-reference" systems, which possess a stable single-reference triplet ground state.

  16. Kp and Toda Tau Functions in Bethe Ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Kanehisa

    2011-10-01

    Recent work of Foda and his group on a connection between classical integrable hierarchies (the KP and 2D Toda hierarchies) and some quantum integrable systems (the 6-vertex model with DWBC, the finite XXZ chain of spin 1/2, the phase model on a finite chain, etc.) is reviewed. Some additional information on this issue is also presented.

  17. KP and Toda tau functions in Bethe ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Takasaki, Kanehisa

    2010-01-01

    Recent work of Foda and his group on a connection between classical integrable hierarchies (the KP and 2D Toda hierarchies) and some quantum integrable systems (the 6-vertex model with DWBC, the finite XXZ chain of spin 1/2, the phase model on a finite chain, etc.) is reviewed. Some additional information on this issue is also presented.

  18. Adapting algebraic diagrammatic construction schemes for the polarization propagator to problems with multi-reference electronic ground states exploiting the spin-flip ansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefrancois, Daniel; Wormit, Michael; Dreuw, Andreas, E-mail: dreuw@uni-heidelberg.de [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, Ruprecht-Karls University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-09-28

    For the investigation of molecular systems with electronic ground states exhibiting multi-reference character, a spin-flip (SF) version of the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) scheme for the polarization propagator up to third order perturbation theory (SF-ADC(3)) is derived via the intermediate state representation and implemented into our existing ADC computer program adcman. The accuracy of these new SF-ADC(n) approaches is tested on typical situations, in which the ground state acquires multi-reference character, like bond breaking of H{sub 2} and HF, the torsional motion of ethylene, and the excited states of rectangular and square-planar cyclobutadiene. Overall, the results of SF-ADC(n) reveal an accurate description of these systems in comparison with standard multi-reference methods. Thus, the spin-flip versions of ADC are easy-to-use methods for the calculation of “few-reference” systems, which possess a stable single-reference triplet ground state.

  19. Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Tabak, John

    2004-01-01

    Looking closely at algebra, its historical development, and its many useful applications, Algebra examines in detail the question of why this type of math is so important that it arose in different cultures at different times. The book also discusses the relationship between algebra and geometry, shows the progress of thought throughout the centuries, and offers biographical data on the key figures. Concise and comprehensive text accompanied by many illustrations presents the ideas and historical development of algebra, showcasing the relevance and evolution of this branch of mathematics.

  20. Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Through most of Greek history, mathematicians concentrated on geometry, although Euclid considered the theory of numbers. The Greek mathematician Diophantus (3rd century),however, presented problems that had to be solved by what we would today call algebra. His book is thus the first algebra text.

  1. Analogue Magnetism: An Ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Osano, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We present an ansatz for the relationship between magnetic flux density and fluid vorticity evolution equations. We also suggest that the magnetic flux density evolution equations be compared to the evolution equation for an effective vorticity ($\\omega_{eff}$), which bears a power law relation to the ordinary vorticity.

  2. Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Harley

    1975-01-01

    Algebra presents the essentials of algebra with some applications. The emphasis is on practical skills, problem solving, and computational techniques. Topics covered range from equations and inequalities to functions and graphs, polynomial and rational functions, and exponentials and logarithms. Trigonometric functions and complex numbers are also considered, together with exponentials and logarithms.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of algebra, each topic explained, illustrated, and accompanied by an ample set of exercises. The proper use of a

  3. An interpolatory ansatz captures the physics of one-dimensional confined Fermi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Molte Emil Strange; Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.;

    2016-01-01

    beyond the Bethe ansatz and bosonisation allow us to predict the behaviour of one-dimensional confined systems with strong short-range interactions, and new experiments with cold atomic Fermi gases have already confirmed these theories. Here we demonstrate that a simple linear combination of the strongly...

  4. Integrable achiral D5-brane reflections and asymptotic Bethe equations

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Diego H; Young, Charles A S

    2011-01-01

    We study the reflection of magnons from a D5-brane in the framework of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We consider two possible orientations of the D5-brane with respect to the reference vacuum state, namely vacuum states aligned along "vertical" and "horizontal" directions. We show that the reflections are of the achiral type. We also show that the reflection matrices satisfy the boundary Yang-Baxter equations for both orientations. In the horizontal case the reflection matrix can be interpreted in terms of a bulk S-matrix, S(p, -p), and factorizability of boundary scattering therefore follows from that of bulk scattering. Finally, we solve the nested coordinate Bethe ansatz for the system in the vertical case to find the Bethe equations. In the horizontal case, the Bethe equations are of the same form as those for the closed string.

  5. Scalar product of Bethe vectors from functional equations

    OpenAIRE

    Galleas, W.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the scalar product of Bethe vectors for the six-vertex model is studied by means of functional equations. The scalar products are shown to obey a system of functional equations originated from the Yang-Baxter algebra and its solution is given as a multiple contour integral.

  6. Special issue: Hans Bethe

    CERN Multimedia

    Gottfried, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    "There are a handful of people who soar, whose accompalishments are so off-scale as to nearly defy belief. Hans Bethe (2 July 1906 - 6 March 2005) was of that caliber. As just one measure of his stature, imagine the task of copying his published opus by hand, for that is how he wrote most of it" (2 pages)

  7. The Bethe Wavefunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaudin, M.; Caux, J.-S.

    2014-01-01

    Michel Gaudin's book La fonction d'onde de Bethe is a uniquely influential masterpiece on exactly solvable models of quantum mechanics and statistical physics. Available in English for the first time, this translation brings his classic work to a new generation of graduate students and researchers i

  8. Differential-algebraic solutions of the heat equation

    OpenAIRE

    Buchstaber, Victor M.; Netay, Elena Yu.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we introduce the notion of differential-algebraic ansatz for the heat equation and explicitly construct heat equation and Burgers equation solutions given a solution of a homogeneous non-linear ordinary differential equation of a special form. The ansatz for such solutions is called the $n$-ansatz, where $n+1$ is the order of the differential equation.

  9. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijers, Ralph

    2007-12-01

    now call the "Bethe Ansatz." Soon after his acceptance of an assistant professorship at Tübingen in 1932, he had to flee Hitler's Germany because his mother was Jewish. Bethe went to the Bragg Institute in Manchester, England, where he worked again with Peierls. In 1934, Cornell University unexpectedly offered him a position as part of R. Clifton Gibbs's expansion of the physics department; he accepted and stayed there for the rest of his life. Right from the start, Bethe enjoyed America and its atmosphere very much. His first activity there was to write the "Bethe Bible": three articles in Reviews of Modern Physics to educate his colleagues in theoretical nuclear physics. Then he did the work that astrophysicists will still appreciate him most for, and which brought him the 1967 Nobel Prize. Having worked with George Gamow's student Charles Critchfield (at Gamow's suggestion) on the proton-proton chain for nuclear fusion in the Sun (published in 1938), Bethe was initially a bit discouraged with Arthur Eddington's estimates of the Solar core temperature; their calculations did not agree well with the observed solar luminosity. However, at the Washington conference in 1937, he heard of Strömgren's new estimates of the solar interior, which brought his and Critchfield's theory into much better agreement with the data. Fairly soon after the meeting, Bethe also worked out the process whereby more massive stars must accomplish hydrogen fusion, in what we now call the CNO cycle. Curiously, Bethe held up its publication briefly in order to compete for a prize for the best unpublished paper on energy production in stars. He did win, and used the money in part to bring his mother to the United States; eventually, the paper appeared in Physics Review in 1939, and founded a whole branch of astrophysics. The war brought Bethe to the Manhattan project, of which he became one of the intellectual leaders. He ploughed through problems theoretical and practical by attacking them

  10. An interpolatory ansatz captures the physics of one-dimensional confined Fermi systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M E S; Dehkharghani, A S; Volosniev, A G; Lindgren, E J; Zinner, N T

    2016-01-01

    Interacting one-dimensional quantum systems play a pivotal role in physics. Exact solutions can be obtained for the homogeneous case using the Bethe ansatz and bosonisation techniques. However, these approaches are not applicable when external confinement is present. Recent theoretical advances beyond the Bethe ansatz and bosonisation allow us to predict the behaviour of one-dimensional confined systems with strong short-range interactions, and new experiments with cold atomic Fermi gases have already confirmed these theories. Here we demonstrate that a simple linear combination of the strongly interacting solution with the well-known solution in the limit of vanishing interactions provides a simple and accurate description of the system for all values of the interaction strength. This indicates that one can indeed capture the physics of confined one-dimensional systems by knowledge of the limits using wave functions that are much easier to handle than the output of typical numerical approaches. We demonstrate our scheme for experimentally relevant systems with up to six particles. Moreover, we show that our method works also in the case of mixed systems of particles with different masses. This is an important feature because these systems are known to be non-integrable and thus not solvable by the Bethe ansatz technique.

  11. Hans Bethe's early life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2012-10-01

    In 1937, two years after he moved to the US to escape Nazi persecution, the physicist Hans Bethe sent a letter to his mother in Germany. In it, he wrote, "I think I am about the leading theoretician in America. [Eugene] Wigner is certainly better and [Robert] Oppenheimer and [Edward] Teller probably just as good. But I do more and talk more and that counts too."

  12. Non-Linear Integral Equations for complex Affine Toda associated to simply laced Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Zinn-Justin, P

    1998-01-01

    A set of coupled non-linear integral equations is derived for a class of models connected with the quantum group $U_q(\\hat g)$ ($q=e^{i\\gamma}$ and $g$ simply laced Lie algebra), which are solvable using the Bethe Ansatz; these equations describe arbitrary excited states of a system with finite spatial length $L$. They generalize the Destri-De Vega equation for the Sine-Gordon/massive Thirring model to affine Toda field theory with imaginary coupling constant. As an application, the central charge and all the conformal weights of the UV conformal field theory are extracted in a straightforward manner. The quantum group truncation for rational values of $\\gamma/\\pi$ is discussed in detail; in the UV limit we recover through this procedure the RCFTs with extended $W(g)$ conformal symmetry.

  13. Nontrivial Azumaya noncommutative schemes, morphisms therefrom, and their extension by the sheaf of algebras of differential operators: D-branes in a $B$-field background \\`a la Polchinski-Grothendieck Ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chien-Hao

    2009-01-01

    In this continuation of [L-Y1], [L-L-S-Y], [L-Y2], and [L-Y3] (arXiv:0709.1515 [math.AG], arXiv:0809.2121 [math.AG], arXiv:0901.0342 [math.AG], arXiv:0907.0268 [math.AG]), we study D-branes in a target-space with a fixed $B$-field background $(Y,\\alpha_B)$ along the line of the Polchinski-Grothendieck Ansatz, explained in [L-Y1] and further extended in the current work. We focus first on the gauge-field-twist effect of $B$-field to the Chan-Paton module on D-branes. Basic properties of the moduli space of D-branes, as morphisms from Azumaya schemes with a twisted fundamental module to $(Y,\\alpha_B)$, are given. For holomorphic D-strings, we prove a valuation-criterion property of this moduli space. The setting is then extended to take into account also the deformation-quantization-type noncommutative geometry effect of $B$-field to both the D-brane world-volume and the superstring target-space(-time) $Y$. This brings the notion of twisted ${\\cal D}$-modules that are realizable as twisted locally-free coherent...

  14. Stripe Ansatzs from Exactly Solved Models

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Using the Boltzmann weights of classical Statistical Mechanics vertex models we define a new class of Tensor Product Ansatzs for 2D quantum lattice systems, characterized by a strong anisotropy, which gives rise to stripe like structures. In the case of the six vertex model we compute exactly, in the thermodynamic limit, the norm of the ansatz and other observables. Employing this ansatz we study the phase diagram of a Hamiltonian given by the sum of XXZ Hamiltonians along the legs coupled by...

  15. S -matrix algebra of the AdS2×S2 superstring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Ben; Pittelli, Antonio; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we find the Yangian algebra responsible for the integrability of the AdS2×S2×T6 superstring in the planar limit. We demonstrate the symmetry of the corresponding exact S matrix in the massive sector, including the presence of the secret symmetry. We give two alternative presentations of the Hopf algebra. The first takes the usual canonical form, which, as the relevant representations are long, leads to a Yangian representation that is not of evaluation type. After investigating the relationship between cocommutativity, evaluation representations and the shortening condition, we find an alternative realization of the Yangian whose representation is of the evaluation type. Finally, we explore two limits of the S matrix. The first is the classical r matrix, where we rediscover the need for a secret symmetry also in this context. The second is the simplifying zero-coupling limit. In this limit, taking the S matrix as a generating R matrix for the algebraic Bethe ansatz, we obtain an effective model of free fermions on a periodic spin-chain. This limit should provide hints to the one-loop anomalous dimension of the mysterious superconformal quantum mechanics dual to the superstring theory in this geometry.

  16. Bethe-salpeter equation from many-body perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, Tobias; Starke, Ronald; Kresse, Georg [Computational Materials Physics, University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8/12, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    The Green function formalism is a powerful tool to calculate not only electronic structure within the quasi-particle (QP) picture, but it also gives access to optical absorption spectra. Starting from QP energies within the GW method, the polarizability, as central quantity, is calculated from the solution of a Bethe-Salpeter-like equation (BSE). It is usually solved within the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation (TDA) which neglects the coupling of resonant (positive frequency branch) and anti-resonant (negative frequency branch) excitations. In this work we solve the full BSE (beyond TDA) based on self-consistently calculated QP orbitals and energies for typical systems. The dielectric function is averaged over many low dimensional shifted k-meshes to obtain k-point converged results. We compare the results to recently introduced approximation to the BSE kernel. Additionally, the time-evolution ansatz is employed to calculate the polarizability, which avoids the direct solution of the BSE.

  17. Newman-Janis Ansatz in conformastatic spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Piñeres, Antonio C.; Quevedo, Hernando

    2016-11-01

    The Newman-Janis Ansatz was used first to obtain the stationary Kerr metric from the static Schwarzschild metric. Many works have been devoted to investigate the physical significance of this Ansatz, but no definite answer has been given so far. We show that this Ansatz can be applied in general to conformastatic vacuum metrics, and leads to stationary generalizations which, however, do not preserve the conformal symmetry. We investigate also the particular case when the seed solution is given by the Schwarzschild spacetime and show that the resulting rotating configuration does not correspond to a vacuum solution, even in the limiting case of slow rotation. In fact, it describes in general a relativistic fluid with anisotropic pressure and heat flux. This implies that the Newman-Janis Ansatz strongly depends on the choice of representation for the seed solution. We interpret this result as a further indication of its applicability limitations.

  18. Newman-Janis Ansatz in conformastatic spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-Piñeres, Antonio C

    2016-01-01

    The Newman-Janis Ansatz was used first to obtain the stationary Kerr metric from the static Schwarzschild metric. Many works have been devoted to investigate the physical significance of this Ansatz, but no definite answer has been given so far. We show that this Ansatz can be applied in general to conformastatic vacuum metrics, and leads to stationary generalizations which, however, do not preserve the conformal symmetry. We investigate also the particular case when the seed solution is given by the Schwarzschild spacetime and show that the resulting rotating configuration does not correspond to a vacuum solution, even in the limiting case of slow rotation. In fact, it describes in general a relativistic fluid with anisotropic pressure and heat flux. This implies that the Newman-Janis Ansatz strongly depends on the choice of representation for the seed solution. We interpret this result as as a further indication of its applicability limitations.

  19. GW and Bethe-Salpeter study of small water clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blase, Xavier; Boulanger, Paul; Bruneval, Fabien; Fernandez-Serra, Marivi; Duchemin, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We study within the GW and Bethe-Salpeter many-body perturbation theories the electronic and optical properties of small (H2O)n water clusters (n = 1-6). Comparison with high-level CCSD(T) Coupled-Cluster at the Single Double (Triple) levels and ADC(3) Green's function third order algebraic diagrammatic construction calculations indicates that the standard non-self-consistent G0W0@PBE or G0W0@PBE0 approaches significantly underestimate the ionization energy by about 1.1 eV and 0.5 eV, respectively. Consequently, the related Bethe-Salpeter lowest optical excitations are found to be located much too low in energy when building transitions from a non-self-consistent G0W0 description of the quasiparticle spectrum. Simple self-consistent schemes, with update of the eigenvalues only, are shown to provide a weak dependence on the Kohn-Sham starting point and a much better agreement with reference calculations. The present findings rationalize the theory to experiment possible discrepancies observed in previous G0W0 and Bethe-Salpeter studies of bulk water. The increase of the optical gap with increasing cluster size is consistent with the evolution from gas to dense ice or water phases and results from an enhanced screening of the electron-hole interaction.

  20. GW and Bethe-Salpeter study of small water clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blase, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.blase@neel.cnrs.fr; Boulanger, Paul [CNRS, Institut NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Bruneval, Fabien [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fernandez-Serra, Marivi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Institute for Advanced Computational Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Duchemin, Ivan [INAC, SP2M/L-Sim, CEA/UJF Cedex 09, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2016-01-21

    We study within the GW and Bethe-Salpeter many-body perturbation theories the electronic and optical properties of small (H{sub 2}O){sub n} water clusters (n = 1-6). Comparison with high-level CCSD(T) Coupled-Cluster at the Single Double (Triple) levels and ADC(3) Green’s function third order algebraic diagrammatic construction calculations indicates that the standard non-self-consistent G{sub 0}W{sub 0}@PBE or G{sub 0}W{sub 0}@PBE0 approaches significantly underestimate the ionization energy by about 1.1 eV and 0.5 eV, respectively. Consequently, the related Bethe-Salpeter lowest optical excitations are found to be located much too low in energy when building transitions from a non-self-consistent G{sub 0}W{sub 0} description of the quasiparticle spectrum. Simple self-consistent schemes, with update of the eigenvalues only, are shown to provide a weak dependence on the Kohn-Sham starting point and a much better agreement with reference calculations. The present findings rationalize the theory to experiment possible discrepancies observed in previous G{sub 0}W{sub 0} and Bethe-Salpeter studies of bulk water. The increase of the optical gap with increasing cluster size is consistent with the evolution from gas to dense ice or water phases and results from an enhanced screening of the electron-hole interaction.

  1. Transfer matrix spectrum for cyclic representations of the 6-vertex reflection algebra I

    CERN Document Server

    Maillet, J M; Pezelier, B

    2016-01-01

    We study the transfer matrix spectral problem for the cyclic representations of the trigonometric 6-vertex reflection algebra associated to the Bazhanov-Stroganov Lax operator. The results apply as well to the spectral analysis of the lattice sine-Gordon model with integrable open boundary conditions. This spectral analysis is developed by implementing the method of separation of variables (SoV). The transfer matrix spectrum (both eigenvalues and eigenstates) is completely characterized in terms of the set of solutions to a discrete system of polynomial equations in a given class of functions. Moreover, we prove an equivalent characterization as the set of solutions to a Baxter's like T-Q functional equation and rewrite the transfer matrix eigenstates in an algebraic Bethe ansatz form. In order to explain our method in a simple case, the present paper is restricted to representations containing one constraint on the boundary parameters and on the parameters of the Bazhanov-Stroganov Lax operator. In a next ar...

  2. Hans Bethe and the Global Energy Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ioffe, B L

    2005-01-01

    Bethe's view-point on the global energy problems is presented. Bethe claimed that the nuclear power is a necessity in future. Nuclear energetic must be based on breeder reactors. Bethe considered the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons as the main problem of long-range future of nuclear energetics. The solution of this problem he saw in heavy water moderated thermal breeders, using uranium-233, uranium-238 and thorium as a fuel.

  3. Scaling ansatz for the jamming transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Carl P; Liu, Andrea J; Sethna, James P

    2016-08-30

    We propose a Widom-like scaling ansatz for the critical jamming transition. Our ansatz for the elastic energy shows that the scaling of the energy, compressive strain, shear strain, system size, pressure, shear stress, bulk modulus, and shear modulus are all related to each other via scaling relations, with only three independent scaling exponents. We extract the values of these exponents from already known numerical or theoretical results, and we numerically verify the resulting predictions of the scaling theory for the energy and residual shear stress. We also derive a scaling relation between pressure and residual shear stress that yields insight into why the shear and bulk moduli scale differently. Our theory shows that the jamming transition exhibits an emergent scale invariance, setting the stage for the potential development of a renormalization group theory for jamming.

  4. Scaling ansatz for the jamming transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Carl P.; Liu, Andrea J.; Sethna, James P.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a Widom-like scaling ansatz for the critical jamming transition. Our ansatz for the elastic energy shows that the scaling of the energy, compressive strain, shear strain, system size, pressure, shear stress, bulk modulus, and shear modulus are all related to each other via scaling relations, with only three independent scaling exponents. We extract the values of these exponents from already known numerical or theoretical results, and we numerically verify the resulting predictions of the scaling theory for the energy and residual shear stress. We also derive a scaling relation between pressure and residual shear stress that yields insight into why the shear and bulk moduli scale differently. Our theory shows that the jamming transition exhibits an emergent scale invariance, setting the stage for the potential development of a renormalization group theory for jamming.

  5. Algebra V homological algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shafarevich, I

    1994-01-01

    This book, the first printing of which was published as volume 38 of the Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences, presents a modern approach to homological algebra, based on the systematic use of the terminology and ideas of derived categories and derived functors. The book contains applications of homological algebra to the theory of sheaves on topological spaces, to Hodge theory, and to the theory of modules over rings of algebraic differential operators (algebraic D-modules). The authors Gelfand and Manin explain all the main ideas of the theory of derived categories. Both authors are well-known researchers and the second, Manin, is famous for his work in algebraic geometry and mathematical physics. The book is an excellent reference for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and also for physicists who use methods from algebraic geometry and algebraic topology.

  6. Relevance of various Dirac covariants in hadronic Bethe-Salpeter wave functions in electromagnetic decays of ground state vector mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatnagar, Shashank; Mengesha, Yikdem

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have employed Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) under covariant instantaneous ansatz (CIA) to study electromagnetic decays of ground state equal mass vector mesons: $\\rho$, $\\omega$, $\\phi$, $\\psi$ and $Y$ through the process $V\\rightarrow\\gamma*\\rightarrow e^+ + e^-$. We employ the generalized structure of hadron-quark vertex function $\\Gamma$ which incorporates various Dirac structures from their complete set order-by-order in powers of inverse of meson mass. The electromagnetic decay constants for the above mesons are calculated using the leading order (LO) and the next-to-leading order (NLO) Dirac structures. The relevance of various Dirac structures in this calculation is studied.

  7. Generalized structure of hadron-quark vertex function in Bethe- Salpeter framework: Applications to leptonic decays of V-mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatnagar, S; Bhatnagar, Shashank; Li, Shi-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    We employ the framework of Bethe-Salpeter equation under Covariant Instantaneous Ansatz (CIA) to study the leptonic decays of vector mesons. The calculations of decay constants f_v for rho, phi and omega mesons have been performed adopting a generalized structure of the hadron-quark vertex function Gamma which is generalized to include various Dirac covariants (other than the leading covariant i gamma cdot epsilon) from the complete set of covariants in accordance with a naive power counting rule, which allows the incorporation of them order by order in powers of the inverse of the meson mass.

  8. Left Artinian Algebraic Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Akbari; M. Arian-Nejad

    2001-01-01

    Let R be a left artinian central F-algebra, T(R) = J(R) + [R, R],and U(R) the group of units of R. As one of our results, we show that, if R is algebraic and char F = 0, then the number of simple components of -R = R/J(R)is greater than or equal to dimF R/T(R). We show that, when char F = 0 or F is uncountable, R is algebraic over F if and only if [R, R] is algebraic over F. As another approach, we prove that R is algebraic over F if and only if the derived subgroup of U(R) is algebraic over F. Also, we present an elementary proof for a special case of an old question due to Jacobson.

  9. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Derek [Math Department, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States)

    2003-04-04

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A{sub 5} sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E{sub 8}.

  10. Holographic Dynamics from Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Victor; Tiwari, Apoorv; Ryu, Shinsei

    2016-01-01

    The Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) is a tensor network based variational ansatz that is capable of capturing many of the key physical properties of strongly correlated ground states such as criticality and topological order. MERA also shares many deep relationships with the AdS/CFT (gauge-gravity) correspondence by realizing a UV complete holographic duality within the tensor networks framework. Motivated by this, we have re-purposed the MERA tensor network as an analysis tool to study the real-time evolution of the 1D transverse Ising model in its low energy excited state sector. We performed this analysis by allowing the ancilla qubits of the MERA tensor network to acquire quantum fluctuations, which yields a unitary transform between the physical (boundary) and ancilla qubit (bulk) Hilbert spaces. This then defines a reversible quantum circuit which is used as a `holographic transform' to study excited states and their real-time dynamics from the point of the bulk ancillae. In the ga...

  11. Algebraic Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Algebraic statistics brings together ideas from algebraic geometry, commutative algebra, and combinatorics to address problems in statistics and its applications. Computer algebra provides powerful tools for the study of algorithms and software. However, these tools are rarely prepared to address statistical challenges and therefore new algebraic results need often be developed. This way of interplay between algebra and statistics fertilizes both disciplines. Algebraic statistics is a relativ...

  12. Entanglement entropy in quantum many-particle systems and their simulation via ansatz states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, Thomas

    2009-12-10

    A main topic of this thesis is the development of efficient numerical methods for the simulation of strongly correlated quantum lattice models. For one-dimensional systems, the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) is such a very successful method. The physical states of interest are approximated within a certain class of ansatz states. These ansatz states are designed in a way that the number of degrees of freedom are prevented from growing exponentially. They are the so-called matrix product states. The first part of the thesis, therefore, provides analytical and numerical analysis of the scaling of quantum nonlocality with the system size or time in different, physically relevant scenarios. For example, the scaling of Renyi entropies and their dependence on boundary conditions is derived within the 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory. Conjectures and analytical indications concerning the properties of entanglement entropy in critical fermionic and bosonic systems are confirmed numerically with high precision. For integrable models in the thermodynamic limit, general preconditions are derived under which subsystems converge to steady states. These steady states are non-thermal and retain information about the initial state. It is shown that the entanglement entropy in such steady states is extensive. For short times, the entanglement entropy grows typically linearly with time, causing an exponential increase in computation costs for the DMRG method. The second part of the thesis focuses on the development and improvement of the abovementioned numerical techniques. The time-dependent DMRG is complemented with an extrapolation technique for the evaluated observables. In this way, the problem of the entropy increase can be circumvented, allowing for a precise determination of spectral functions. The method is demonstrated using the example of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet and results are compared to Bethe-Ansatz data for T=0 and quantum Monte Carlo data

  13. Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chandrasekaran, V [MIT; Gamarmik, D [MIT; Shah, D [MIT; Sin, J [MIT

    2009-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.

  14. The Kerr-Schild ansatz revised

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Kerr, Roy P

    2014-01-01

    Kerr-Schild metrics have been introduced as a linear superposition of the flat spacetime metric and a squared null vector field, say $\\boldsymbol{k}$, multiplied by some scalar function, say $H$. The basic assumption which led to Kerr solution was that $\\boldsymbol{k}$ be both geodesic and shearfree. This condition is relaxed here and Kerr-Schild ansatz is revised by treating Kerr-Schild metrics as {\\it exact linear perturbations} of Minkowski spacetime. The scalar function $H$ is taken as the perturbing function, so that Einstein's field equations are solved order by order in powers of $H$. It turns out that the congruence must be geodesic and shearfree as a consequence of third and second order equations, leading to an alternative derivation of Kerr solution.

  15. Algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lefschetz, Solomon

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to algebraic geometry and a bridge between its analytical-topological and algebraical aspects, this text for advanced undergraduate students is particularly relevant to those more familiar with analysis than algebra. 1953 edition.

  16. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.

    2007-01-01

    One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluou

  17. Twisting singular solutions of Bethe's equations

    CERN Document Server

    Nepomechie, Rafael I

    2014-01-01

    The Bethe equations for the periodic XXX and XXZ spin chains admit singular solutions, for which the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are ill-defined. We use a twist regularization to derive conditions for such singular solutions to be physical, in which case they correspond to genuine eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian.

  18. Solutions in Bosonic String Field Theory and AdS Higher Spin Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Dimitri

    The following sections are included: * Introduction. SFT vs Vasiliev's HS EOM: The Motivation * c = 1 Model and HS Algebra in SFT Solution: A Warm-up Example * SFT Ansatz Solution: Bell Polynomials, Star Product Computation and Generating Function for Enveloping of HS Algebras * References

  19. A variational matrix product ansatz for dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Haegeman, Jutho; Weir, David J; Cirac, J Ignacio; Osborne, Tobias J; Verschelde, Henri; Verstraete, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A variational ansatz for momentum eigenstates of translation invariant quantum spin chains is formulated. The matrix product state ansatz works directly in the thermodynamic limit and allows for an efficient and stable implementation of the variational principle. Unlike previous approaches, the ansatz includes topologically non-trivial states (kinks, domain walls) for systems with symmetry breaking. The method is benchmarked using the S=1/2 XXZ antiferromagnet, the S=1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet and the S=1 XXZ antiferromagnet, and we obtain surprisingly accurate results.

  20. Bethe logarithm and QED shift for lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zong-Chao; Drake, G W F

    2003-09-12

    A novel finite basis set method is used to calculate the Bethe logarithm for the ground 2 (2)S(1/2) and excited 3 (2)S(1/2) states of lithium. The basis sets are constructed to span a huge range of distance scales within a single calculation, leading to well-converged values for the Bethe logarithm. The results are used to calculate an accurate value for the complete quantum electrodynamic energy shift up to order alpha(3) Ry. The calculated 3 (2)S(1/2)-2 (2)S(1/2) transition frequency for 7Li is 27 206.092 6(9) cm(-1), and the ionization potential for the 2 (2)S(1/2) state is 43 487.158 3(6) cm(-1). The 7Li-6Li isotope shift is also considered, and all the results compared with experiment.

  1. Computer Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelle, Richard; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes the nature and use of computer algebra and its applications to various physical sciences. Includes diagrams illustrating, among others, a computer algebra system and flow chart of operation of the Euclidean algorithm. (SK)

  2. Algebraic Topology

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The chapter provides an introduction to the basic concepts of Algebraic Topology with an emphasis on motivation from applications in the physical sciences. It finishes with a brief review of computational work in algebraic topology, including persistent homology.

  3. Spherical Hecke algebra in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile

    2014-01-01

    The Spherical Hecke central (SHc) algebra has been shown to act on the Nekrasov instanton partition functions of $\\mathcal{N}=2$ gauge theories. Its presence accounts for both integrability and AGT correspondence. On the other hand, a specific limit of the Omega background, introduced by Nekrasov and Shatashvili (NS), leads to the appearance of TBA and Bethe like equations. To unify these two points of view, we study the NS limit of the SHc algebra. We provide an expression of the instanton partition function in terms of Bethe roots, and define a set of operators that generates infinitesimal variations of the roots. These operators obey the commutation relations defining the SHc algebra at first order in the equivariant parameter $\\epsilon_2$. Furthermore, their action on the bifundamental contributions reproduces the Kanno-Matsuo-Zang transformation. We also discuss the connections with the Mayer cluster expansion approach that leads to TBA-like equations.

  4. Algebraic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lloris Ruiz, Antonio; Parrilla Roure, Luis; García Ríos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a complete and accurate study of algebraic circuits, digital circuits whose performance can be associated with any algebraic structure. The authors distinguish between basic algebraic circuits, such as Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) and cellular automata, and algebraic circuits, such as finite fields or Galois fields. The book includes a comprehensive review of representation systems, of arithmetic circuits implementing basic and more complex operations, and of the residue number systems (RNS). It presents a study of basic algebraic circuits such as LFSRs and cellular automata as well as a study of circuits related to Galois fields, including two real cryptographic applications of Galois fields.

  5. Overlaps of Partial Neel States and Bethe States

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O

    2015-01-01

    Partial Neel states are generalizations of the ordinary Neel (classical anti-ferromagnet) state that can have arbitrary integer spin. We study overlaps of these states with Bethe states. We first identify this overlap with a partial version of reflecting-boundary domain-wall partition function, and then derive various determinant representations for off-shell and on-shell Bethe states.

  6. Continuous representations of scalar products of Bethe vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Galleas, W

    2016-01-01

    We present families of single determinantal representations of on-shell scalar products of Bethe vectors. Our families of representations are parameterized by a continuous complex variable which can be fixed at convenience. Here we consider Bethe vectors in two versions of the six-vertex model: the case with boundary twists and the case with open boundaries.

  7. Centenary Birth Anniversary of E. W. Beth (1908-1964)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagni, Giorgio T.

    2008-01-01

    Evert Willem Beth (1908-1964) was a Dutch logician, mathematician and philosopher, whose work mainly concerned the foundations of mathematics. Beth was among the founders of the Commission Internationale pour l'Etude et l'Amelioration de l'Enseignement des Mathematiques and was a member of the Central Committee of the International Commission on…

  8. Obituary: Beth Brown (1969-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The astronomical community lost one of its most buoyant and caring individuals when Beth Brown died, unexpectedly, at the age of 39 from a pulmonary embolism. Beth Brown was born in Roanoke, Virginia where she developed a deep interest in astronomy, science, and science fiction (Star Trek). After graduating as the valedictorian of William Fleming High School's Class of 1987, she attended Howard University, where she graduated summa cum laude in 1991 with a bachelor's degree in astrophysics. Following a year in the graduate physics program at Howard, she entered the graduate program in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Michigan, the first African-American woman in the program. She received her PhD in 1998, working with X-ray observations of elliptical galaxies from the Röntgen Satellite (ROSAT; Joel Bregman was her advisor). She compiled and analyzed the first large complete sample of such galaxies with ROSAT and her papers in this area made an impact in the field. Following her PhD, Beth Brown held a National Academy of Science & National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Subsequently, she became a civil servant at the National Space Science Data Center at GSFC, where she was involved in data archival activities as well as education and outreach, a continuing passion in her life. In 2006, Brown became an Astrophysics Fellow at GSFC, during which time she worked as a visiting Assistant Professor at Howard University, where she taught and worked with students and faculty to improve the teaching observatory. At the time of her death, she was eagerly looking forward to a new position at GSFC as the Assistant Director for Science Communications and Higher Education. Beth Brown was a joyous individual who loved to work with people, especially in educating them about our remarkable field. Her warmth and openness was a great aid in making accessible explanations of otherwise daunting astrophysical

  9. Hopfions interaction from the viewpoint of the product ansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acus, A.; Norvaišas, E. [Vilnius University, Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Goštauto 12, Vilnius 01108 (Lithuania); Shnir, Ya. [BLTP, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2014-06-02

    We discuss the relation between the solutions of the Skyrme model of lower degrees and the corresponding axially symmetric Hopfions which is given by the projection onto the coset space SU(2)/U(1). The interaction energy of the Hopfions is evaluated directly from the product ansatz. Our results show that if the separation between the constituents is not very small, the product ansatz can be considered as a relatively good approximation to the general pattern of the charge 1 Hopfions interaction both in repulsive and attractive channels.

  10. Hopfions interaction from the viewpoint of the product ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Acus, A; Shnir, Ya

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the relation between the solutions of the Skyrme model of lower degrees and the corresponding axially symmetric Hopfions which is given by the projection onto the coset space SU(2)/U(1). The interaction energy of the Hopfions is evaluated directly from the product ansatz. Our results show that if the separation between the constituents is not very small, the product ansatz can be considered as a relatively good approximation to the general pattern of the charge one Hopfions interaction both in repulsive and attractive channel.

  11. Hom-Akivis algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Issa, A Nourou

    2010-01-01

    Non-Hom-associative algebras and Hom-Akivis algebras are introduced. The commutator-Hom-associator algebra of a non-Hom-associative algebra is a Hom-Akivis algebra. It is shown that non-Hom-associative algebras can be obtained from nonassociative algebras by twisting along algebra automorphisms while Hom-Akivis algebras can be obtained from Akivis algebras by twisting along algebra endomorphisms.

  12. Elliptic algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odesskii, A V [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-12-31

    This survey is devoted to associative Z{sub {>=}}{sub 0}-graded algebras presented by n generators and n(n-1)/2 quadratic relations and satisfying the so-called Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt condition (PBW-algebras). Examples are considered of such algebras, depending on two continuous parameters (namely, on an elliptic curve and a point on it), that are flat deformations of the polynomial ring in n variables. Diverse properties of these algebras are described, together with their relations to integrable systems, deformation quantization, moduli spaces, and other directions of modern investigations.

  13. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and ve...

  14. Kiddie Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    As educators and policymakers search for ways to prepare students for the rigors of algebra, teachers in the Helena, Montana, school system are starting early by attempting to nurture students' algebraic-reasoning ability, as well as their basic number skills, in early elementary school, rather than waiting until middle or early high school.…

  15. Two-body bound states & the Bethe-Salpeter equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichowsky, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kennedy, M. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Physics Dept.; Strickland, M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-01-18

    The Bethe-Salpeter formalism is used to study two-body bound states within a scalar theory: two scalar fields interacting via the exchange of a third massless scalar field. The Schwinger-Dyson equation is derived using functional and diagrammatic techniques, and the Bethe-Salpeter equation is obtained in an analogous way, showing it to be a two-particle generalization of the Schwinger-Dyson equation. The authors also present a numerical method for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation without three-dimensional reduction. The ground and first excited state masses and wavefunctions are computed within the ladder approximation and space-like form factors are calculated.

  16. Determinant representations for correlation functions of spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Essler, F H L; Izergin, A G; Korepin, V E

    1994-01-01

    We consider correlation functions of the spin-\\half XXX and XXZ Heisenberg chains in a magnetic field. Starting from the algebraic Bethe Ansatz we derive representations for various correlation functions in terms of determinants of Fredholm integral operators.

  17. Algebra-Geometry of Piecewise Algebraic Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Gang ZHU; Ren Hong WANG

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic variety is the most important subject in classical algebraic geometry.As the zero set of multivariate splines,the piecewise algebraic variety is a kind generalization of the classical algebraic variety.This paper studies the correspondence between spline ideals and piecewise algebraic varieties based on the knowledge of algebraic geometry and multivariate splines.

  18. Algebraic approach to form factors in the complex sinh-Gordon theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lashkevich, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study form factors of the quantum complex sinh-Gordon theory in the algebraic approach. In the case of exponential fields the form factors can be obtained from the known form factors of the $Z_N$-symmetric Ising model. The algebraic construction also provides an Ansatz for form factors of descendant operators. We obtain generating functions of such form factors and establish their main properties: the cluster factorization and reflection equations.

  19. Algebraic approach to form factors in the complex sinh-Gordon theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkevich, Michael; Pugai, Yaroslav

    2017-01-01

    We study form factors of the quantum complex sinh-Gordon theory in the algebraic approach. In the case of exponential fields the form factors can be obtained from the known form factors of the ZN-symmetric Ising model. The algebraic construction also provides an Ansatz for form factors of descendant operators. We obtain generating functions of such form factors and establish their main properties: the cluster factorization and reflection equations.

  20. Two-loop Bethe-logarithm correction in hydrogenlike atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Jentschura, Ulrich D

    2003-09-12

    We calculate the two-loop Bethe logarithm correction to atomic energy levels in hydrogenlike systems. The two-loop Bethe logarithm is a low-energy quantum electrodynamic (QED) effect involving multiple summations over virtual excited atomic states. Although much smaller in absolute magnitude than the well-known one-loop Bethe logarithm, the two-loop analog is quite significant when compared to the current experimental accuracy of the 1S-2S transition: It contributes -8.19 and -0.84 kHz for the 1S and the 2S state, respectively. The two-loop Bethe logarithm has been the largest unknown correction to the hydrogen Lamb shift to date. Together with the ongoing measurement of the proton charge radius at the Paul Scherrer Institute, its calculation will bring theoretical and experimental accuracy for the Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen to the level of 10(-7).

  1. Model of pair aggregation on the Bethe lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baillet, M.V.-P.; Pacheco, A.F.; Gómez, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a recent model of aggregation of pairs of particles, analyzing the case in which the supporting framework is a Bethe lattice. The model exhibits a critical behavior of the percolation theory type....

  2. Geometric Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Chisolm, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This is an introduction to geometric algebra, an alternative to traditional vector algebra that expands on it in two ways: 1. In addition to scalars and vectors, it defines new objects representing subspaces of any dimension. 2. It defines a product that's strongly motivated by geometry and can be taken between any two objects. For example, the product of two vectors taken in a certain way represents their common plane. This system was invented by William Clifford and is more commonly known as Clifford algebra. It's actually older than the vector algebra that we use today (due to Gibbs) and includes it as a subset. Over the years, various parts of Clifford algebra have been reinvented independently by many people who found they needed it, often not realizing that all those parts belonged in one system. This suggests that Clifford had the right idea, and that geometric algebra, not the reduced version we use today, deserves to be the standard "vector algebra." My goal in these notes is to describe geometric al...

  3. Solving Bethe-Salpeter scattering state equation in Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to directly solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space, both for bound and scattering states. It is based on a proper treatment of the singularities which appear in the kernel, propagators and Bethe-Salpeter amplitude itself. The off-mass shell scattering amplitude for spinless particles interacting by a one boson exchange is computed for the first time.

  4. College algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Kolman, Bernard

    1985-01-01

    College Algebra, Second Edition is a comprehensive presentation of the fundamental concepts and techniques of algebra. The book incorporates some improvements from the previous edition to provide a better learning experience. It provides sufficient materials for use in the study of college algebra. It contains chapters that are devoted to various mathematical concepts, such as the real number system, the theory of polynomial equations, exponential and logarithmic functions, and the geometric definition of each conic section. Progress checks, warnings, and features are inserted. Every chapter c

  5. Abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level course, Abstract Algebra provides an example-oriented, less heavily symbolic approach to abstract algebra. The text emphasizes specifics such as basic number theory, polynomials, finite fields, as well as linear and multilinear algebra. This classroom-tested, how-to manual takes a more narrative approach than the stiff formalism of many other textbooks, presenting coherent storylines to convey crucial ideas in a student-friendly, accessible manner. An unusual feature of the text is the systematic characterization of objects by universal

  6. Nuclear forces the making of the physicist Hans Bethe

    CERN Document Server

    Schweber, Silvan S

    2012-01-01

    On the fiftieth anniversary of Hiroshima, Nobel-winning physicist Hans Bethe called on his fellow scientists to stop working on weapons of mass destruction. What drove Bethe, the head of Theoretical Physics at Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project, to renounce the weaponry he had once worked so tirelessly to create? That is one of the questions answered by "Nuclear Forces", a riveting biography of Bethe's early life and development as both a scientist and a man of principle. As Silvan Schweber follows Bethe from his childhood in Germany, to laboratories in Italy and England, and on to Cornell University, he shows how these differing environments were reflected in the kind of physics Bethe produced. Many of the young quantum physicists in the 1930s, including Bethe, had Jewish roots, and Schweber considers how Liberal Judaism in Germany helps explain their remarkable contributions. A portrait emerges of a man whose strategy for staying on top of a deeply hierarchical field was to tackle only those problems h...

  7. On The Ladder Bethe-Salpeter Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Efimov, G V

    2003-01-01

    The Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation in the ladder approximation is studied within a scalar theory: two scalar fields (constituents) with mass $m$ interacting via an exchange of a scalar field (tieon) with mass $\\mu$. The BS equation is written in the form of an integral equation in the configuration Euclidean $x$-space with the kernel which for stable bound states $M<2m$ is a self-adjoint positive operator. The solution of the BS equation is formulated as a variational problem. The nonrelativistic limit of the BS equation is considered. The role of so-called abnormal states is discussed. The analytical form of test functions for which the accuracy of calculations of bound state masses is better than 1% (the comparison with available numerical calculations is done) is determined. These test functions make it possible to calculate analytically vertex functions describing the interaction of bound states with constituents. As a by-product a simple solution of the Wick-Cutkosky model for the case of massless bound...

  8. Elementary algebra

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1981-01-01

    Elementary Algebra 2e, Second Edition focuses on the basic principles, operations, and approaches involved in elementary algebra. The book first tackles the basics, linear equations and inequalities, and graphing and linear systems. Discussions focus on the substitution method, solving linear systems by graphing, solutions to linear equations in two variables, multiplication property of equality, word problems, addition property of equality, and subtraction, addition, multiplication, and division of real numbers. The manuscript then examines exponents and polynomials, factoring, and rational e

  9. Elementary algebra

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1986-01-01

    Elementary Algebra, Third Edition focuses on the basic principles, operations, and approaches involved in elementary algebra. The book first ponders on the basics, linear equations and inequalities, and graphing and linear systems. Discussions focus on the elimination method, solving linear systems by graphing, word problems, addition property of equality, solving linear equations, linear inequalities, addition and subtraction of real numbers, and properties of real numbers. The text then takes a look at exponents and polynomials, factoring, and rational expressions. Topics include reducing ra

  10. The asymmetric simple exclusion process: an integrable model for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinelli, Olivier; Mallick, Kirone

    2006-10-01

    The asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) plays the role of a paradigm in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We review exact results for the ASEP obtained by the Bethe ansatz and put emphasis on the algebraic properties of this model. The Bethe equations for the eigenvalues of the Markov matrix of the ASEP are derived from the algebraic Bethe ansatz. Using these equations we explain how to calculate the spectral gap of the model and how global spectral properties such as the existence of multiplets can be predicted. An extension of the Bethe ansatz leads to an analytic expression for the large deviation function of the current in the ASEP that satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen relation. Finally, we describe some variants of the ASEP that are also solvable by the Bethe ansatz.

  11. The asymmetric simple exclusion process: an integrable model for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golinelli, Olivier [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mallick, Kirone [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-10-13

    The asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) plays the role of a paradigm in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We review exact results for the ASEP obtained by the Bethe ansatz and put emphasis on the algebraic properties of this model. The Bethe equations for the eigenvalues of the Markov matrix of the ASEP are derived from the algebraic Bethe ansatz. Using these equations we explain how to calculate the spectral gap of the model and how global spectral properties such as the existence of multiplets can be predicted. An extension of the Bethe ansatz leads to an analytic expression for the large deviation function of the current in the ASEP that satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen relation. Finally, we describe some variants of the ASEP that are also solvable by the Bethe ansatz.

  12. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.

  13. Piecewise algebraic varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Renhong; ZHU Chungang

    2004-01-01

    The piecewise algebraic variety is a generalization of the classical algebraic variety. This paper discusses some properties of piecewise algebraic varieties and their coordinate rings based on the knowledge of algebraic geometry.

  14. Generalized exterior algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Marchuk, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    Exterior algebras and differential forms are widely used in many fields of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. In this paper we define a notion of $N$-metric exterior algebra, which depends on $N$ matrices of structure constants. The usual exterior algebra (Grassmann algebra) can be considered as 0-metric exterior algebra. Clifford algebra can be considered as 1-metric exterior algebra. $N$-metric exterior algebras for $N\\geq2$ can be considered as generalizations of the Grassmann alg...

  15. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  16. Algebraic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group......-theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology...... of homogeneous varieties, \\item representation categories and their connections to orbits and flag varieties. \\end{itemize} The first three days started with survey talks that will help to make the subject accessible to the next generation. The talks on the last day introduced to several recent advances...

  17. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  18. Boolean Algebra of C-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Rao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A C- algebra is the algebraic form of the 3-valued conditional logic, which was introduced by F. Guzman and C. C. Squier in 1990. In this paper, some equivalent conditions for a C- algebra to become a boolean algebra in terms of congruences are given. It is proved that the set of all central elements B(A is isomorphic to the Boolean algebra of all C-algebras Sa, where a B(A. It is also proved that B(A is isomorphic to the Boolean algebra of all C-algebras Aa, where a B(A.

  19. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Allenby, Reg

    1995-01-01

    As the basis of equations (and therefore problem-solving), linear algebra is the most widely taught sub-division of pure mathematics. Dr Allenby has used his experience of teaching linear algebra to write a lively book on the subject that includes historical information about the founders of the subject as well as giving a basic introduction to the mathematics undergraduate. The whole text has been written in a connected way with ideas introduced as they occur naturally. As with the other books in the series, there are many worked examples.Solutions to the exercises are available onlin

  20. Basic algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    A classic text and standard reference for a generation, this volume and its companion are the work of an expert algebraist who taught at Yale for two decades. Nathan Jacobson's books possess a conceptual and theoretical orientation, and in addition to their value as classroom texts, they serve as valuable references.Volume I explores all of the topics typically covered in undergraduate courses, including the rudiments of set theory, group theory, rings, modules, Galois theory, polynomials, linear algebra, and associative algebra. Its comprehensive treatment extends to such rigorous topics as L

  1. Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Nathan

    1979-01-01

    Lie group theory, developed by M. Sophus Lie in the 19th century, ranks among the more important developments in modern mathematics. Lie algebras comprise a significant part of Lie group theory and are being actively studied today. This book, by Professor Nathan Jacobson of Yale, is the definitive treatment of the subject and can be used as a textbook for graduate courses.Chapter I introduces basic concepts that are necessary for an understanding of structure theory, while the following three chapters present the theory itself: solvable and nilpotent Lie algebras, Carlan's criterion and its

  2. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  3. Gordon and Kerr-Schild ansatze in massive and bimetric gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baccetti, Valentina; Visser, Matt

    2012-01-01

    We develop the "generalized Gordon ansatz" for the ghost-free versions of both massive and bimetric gravity, an ansatz which is general enough to include almost all spacetimes commonly considered to be physically interesting, and restricted enough to greatly simplify calculations. The ansatz allows explicit calculation of the matrix square root gamma = sqrt{g^{-1} f} appearing as a central feature of the ghost-free analysis. In particular, this ansatz automatically allows us to write the effective stress-energy tensor as that corresponding to a perfect fluid. A qualitatively similar "generalized Kerr-Schild ansatz" can also be easily considered, now leading to an effective stress-energy tensor that corresponds to a null fluid. Cosmological implications are considered, as are consequences for black hole physics. Finally we have a few words to say concerning the null energy condition in the framework provided by these ansatze.

  4. Improved Numerical Generalization of Bethe- Weizsacker Mass Formula

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrodiev, Strachimir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is presented explicit improved numerical generalization of Bethe-Weizsacker mass formulae which describes the values of measured 2654 nuclear mass in AME2012 nuclear database with accuracy less than 2.2 MeV, starting from the number of protons Z=1 and number of neutrons N=1. In the obtained generazation of the Bethe-Weizsacker formula the influence of magic numbers and boundaries of their influence between them is defined for nine proton (2, 8, 14, 20, 28, 50, 82, 108, 124) and ten neutron (2, 8, 14, 20, 28, 50, 82, 124, 152, 202) magic numbers.

  5. Evaluations of energy coefficients of Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, D N

    2004-01-01

    A mass fit to the liquid drop model is presented. Coefficients of the volume, surface, coulomb, asymmetry and pairing energy terms of the semiemirical Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula have been determined by furnishing best fit to the observed mass excesses. Different sets of the weighting parameters for liquid drop model Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula have been obtained from minimizations of chisquare and mean square deviation. The recent exerimental and estimated mass excesses from Audi-Wapstra-Thibault atomic mass table have been used for the least square fitting procedure. Some implications of the modifications of parameters have been discussed.

  6. Quantum Waveguide Properties of Bethe Lattices with a Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhi-Ping; HOU Zhi-Lin; LIU You-Yan

    2008-01-01

    Based on waveguide theory we investigate electronic transport properties of Bethe lattices with a mesoscopic ring threaded by a magnetic flux. The generalized eigen-function method (GEM) is used to calculate the transmission and reflection coefficients up to the fifth generation of Bethe lattices. The relationships among the transmission coefficient T, magnetic flux φ and wave vector kl axe investigated in detail. The numerical results are shown by the three-dimensional plots and contour maps. Some resonant-transmission features and the symmetry of the transmission coefficient T to flux φ are observed and discussed.

  7. Algebraic Stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tomás L Gómez

    2001-02-01

    This is an expository article on the theory of algebraic stacks. After introducing the general theory, we concentrate in the example of the moduli stack of vector bundles, giving a detailed comparison with the moduli scheme obtained via geometric invariant theory.

  8. Algebraic Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Oliver, Bob; Pawałowski, Krzystof

    1991-01-01

    As part of the scientific activity in connection with the 70th birthday of the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, an international conference on algebraic topology was held. In the resulting proceedings volume, the emphasis is on substantial survey papers, some presented at the conference, some written subsequently.

  9. Novel ansatzes and scalar quantities in gravito-electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulos, A.; Kanti, P.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we focus on the theory of gravito-electromagnetism (GEM)—the theory that describes the dynamics of the gravitational field in terms of quantities met in electromagnetism—and we propose two novel forms of metric perturbations. The first one is a generalisation of the traditional GEM ansatz, and succeeds in reproducing the whole set of Maxwell's equations even for a dynamical vector potential A. The second form, the so-called alternative ansatz, goes beyond that leading to an expression for the Lorentz force that matches the one of electromagnetism and is free of additional terms even for a dynamical scalar potential Φ. In the context of the linearised theory, we then search for scalar invariant quantities in analogy to electromagnetism. We define three novel, 3rd-rank gravitational tensors, and demonstrate that the last two can be employed to construct scalar quantities that succeed in giving results very similar to those found in electromagnetism. Finally, the gauge invariance of the linearised gravitational theory is studied, and shown to lead to the gauge invariance of the GEM fields E and B for a general configuration of the arbitrary vector involved in the coordinate transformations.

  10. Novel Ansatzes and Scalar Quantities in Gravito-Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Bakopoulos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we focus on the theory of Gravito-Electromagnetism (GEM) -- the theory that describes the dynamics of the gravitational field in terms of quantities met in Electromagnetism -- and we propose two novel forms of metric perturbations. The first one is a generalisation of the traditional GEM ansatz, and succeeds in reproducing the whole set of Maxwell's equations even for a dynamical vector potential A. The second form, the so-called alternative ansatz, goes beyond that leading to an expression for the Lorentz force that matches the one of Electromagnetism and is free of additional terms even for a dynamical scalar potential \\Phi. In the context of the linearised theory, we then search for scalar invariant quantities in analogy to Electromagnetism. We define three novel, 3rd-rank gravitational tensors, and demonstrate that the last two can be employed to construct scalar quantities that succeed in giving results very similar to those found in Electromagnetism. Finally, the gauge invariance of the li...

  11. Central simple Poisson algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yucai; XU Xiaoping

    2004-01-01

    Poisson algebras are fundamental algebraic structures in physics and symplectic geometry. However, the structure theory of Poisson algebras has not been well developed. In this paper, we determine the structure of the central simple Poisson algebras related to locally finite derivations, over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.The Lie algebra structures of these Poisson algebras are in general not finitely-graded.

  12. Pionierin der Religionspsychologie: Marianne Beth (1890-1984)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the contributions to the psychology of religion made by Dr. Marianne Beth (1890-1984), an almost totally forgotten pioneer of the psychology of religion. The article especially contextualizes her initiative to turn "unbelief" into a topic for research in psychology of religio

  13. Boundary Quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov Equations and Bethe Vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reshetikhin, N.; Stokman, J.; Vlaar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Solutions to boundary quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations are constructed as bilateral sums involving "off-shell" Bethe vectors in case the reflection matrix is diagonal and only the 2-dimensional representation of Uq(slˆ2) is involved. We also consider their rational and classical degeneration

  14. Mean values of local operators in highly excited Bethe states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozsgay, B.

    2011-01-01

    We consider expectation values of local operators in (continuum) integrable models in a situation when the mean value is calculated in a single Bethe state with a large number of particles. We develop a form factor expansion for the thermodynamic limit of the mean value, which applies whenever the d

  15. Twisting singular solutions of Betheʼs equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomechie, Rafael I.; Wang, Chunguang

    2014-12-01

    The Bethe equations for the periodic XXX and XXZ spin chains admit singular solutions, for which the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are ill-defined. We use a twist regularization to derive conditions for such singular solutions to be physical, in which case they correspond to genuine eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian.

  16. Gravitational instantons of type $D_k$ and a generalization of the Gibbons-Hawking Ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Ionas, Radu A

    2016-01-01

    We describe a quaternionic-based Ansatz generalizing the Gibbons-Hawking Ansatz to a class of hyperk\\"ahler metrics with hidden symmetries. We then apply it to obtain explicit expressions for gravitational instanton metrics of type $D_k$.

  17. Nonmonotonic logics and algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAKRABORTY Mihir Kr; GHOSH Sujata

    2008-01-01

    Several nonmonotonie logic systems together with their algebraic semantics are discussed. NM-algebra is defined.An elegant construction of an NM-algebra starting from a Boolean algebra is described which gives rise to a few interesting algebraic issues.

  18. Algebraic theory of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Iachello, F

    1995-01-01

    1. The Wave Mechanics of Diatomic Molecules. 2. Summary of Elements of Algebraic Theory. 3. Mechanics of Molecules. 4. Three-Body Algebraic Theory. 5. Four-Body Algebraic Theory. 6. Classical Limit and Coordinate Representation. 8. Prologue to the Future. Appendices. Properties of Lie Algebras; Coupling of Algebras; Hamiltonian Parameters

  19. Tensor Network Renormalization Yields the Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenbly, G.; Vidal, G.

    2015-11-01

    We show how to build a multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) representation of the ground state of a many-body Hamiltonian H by applying the recently proposed tensor network renormalization [G. Evenbly and G. Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 180405 (2015)] to the Euclidean time evolution operator e-β H for infinite β . This approach bypasses the costly energy minimization of previous MERA algorithms and, when applied to finite inverse temperature β , produces a MERA representation of a thermal Gibbs state. Our construction endows tensor network renormalization with a renormalization group flow in the space of wave functions and Hamiltonians (and not merely in the more abstract space of tensors) and extends the MERA formalism to classical statistical systems.

  20. Discontinuities of BFKL amplitudes and the BDS ansatz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Fadin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We perform an examination of discontinuities of multiple production amplitudes, which are required for further development of the BFKL approach. It turns out that the discontinuities of 2→2+n amplitudes obtained in the BFKL approach contradict to the BDS ansatz for amplitudes with maximal helicity violation in N=4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory with large number of colors starting with n=2. Explicit expressions for the discontinuities of the 2→3 and 2→4 amplitudes in the invariant mass of pairs of produced gluons are obtained in the planar N=4 SYM in the next-to-leading logarithmic approximation. These expressions can be used for checking the conjectured duality between the light-like Wilson loops and the MHV amplitudes.

  1. Discontinuites of BFKL amplitudes and the BDS ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Fadin, V S

    2015-01-01

    We perform an examination of discontinuities of multiple production amplitudes, which are required for further development of the BFKL approach. It turns out that the discontinuities of 2 $\\to$ 2 + n amplitudes obtained in the BFKL approach contradict to the BDS ansatz for amplitudes with maximal helicity violation in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with large number of colours starting with n = 2. Explicit expressions for the discontinuities of the 2 $\\to$ 3 and 2 $\\to$ 4 amplitudes in the invariant mass of pairs of produced gluons are obtained in the planar N=4 SYM in the next-to-leading logarithmic approximation. These expressions can be used for checking the conjectured duality between the light-like Wilson loops and the MHV amplitudes.

  2. Discontinuities of BFKL amplitudes and the BDS ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadin, V. S.; Fiore, R.

    2015-12-01

    We perform an examination of discontinuities of multiple production amplitudes, which are required for further development of the BFKL approach. It turns out that the discontinuities of 2 → 2 + n amplitudes obtained in the BFKL approach contradict to the BDS ansatz for amplitudes with maximal helicity violation in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with large number of colors starting with n = 2. Explicit expressions for the discontinuities of the 2 → 3 and 2 → 4 amplitudes in the invariant mass of pairs of produced gluons are obtained in the planar N = 4 SYM in the next-to-leading logarithmic approximation. These expressions can be used for checking the conjectured duality between the light-like Wilson loops and the MHV amplitudes.

  3. Tensor Network Renormalization Yields the Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenbly, G; Vidal, G

    2015-11-13

    We show how to build a multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) representation of the ground state of a many-body Hamiltonian H by applying the recently proposed tensor network renormalization [G. Evenbly and G. Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 180405 (2015)] to the Euclidean time evolution operator e(-βH) for infinite β. This approach bypasses the costly energy minimization of previous MERA algorithms and, when applied to finite inverse temperature β, produces a MERA representation of a thermal Gibbs state. Our construction endows tensor network renormalization with a renormalization group flow in the space of wave functions and Hamiltonians (and not merely in the more abstract space of tensors) and extends the MERA formalism to classical statistical systems.

  4. An ansatz for solving nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, M Ali; Ali, Norhashidah Hj Mohd

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce an ansatz involving exact traveling wave solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations. To obtain wave solutions using direct method, the choice of an appropriate ansatz is of great importance. We apply this ansatz to examine new and further general traveling wave solutions to the (1+1)-dimensional modified Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation. Abundant traveling wave solutions are derived including solitons, singular solitons, periodic solutions and general solitary wave solutions. The solutions emphasize the nobility of this ansatz in providing distinct solutions to various tangible phenomena in nonlinear science and engineering. The ansatz could be more efficient tool to deal with higher dimensional nonlinear evolution equations which frequently arise in many real world physical problems.

  5. Ein Integraler Gestalt-Ansatz fuer Therapie und Beratung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gremmler-Fuhr

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung: In diesem Text stellen wir unseren Ansatz für Psychotherapie und Beratung auf dem Hintergrund des integralen Paradigmas dar. Wir erläutern zunächst kurz vier Anforderungen an ein integrales Konzept in diesem professionellen Bereich: Umgang mit Komplexität und Vielperspektivität, Berücksichtigung gerichteter, vieldimensionaler Entwicklung, Orientierungs- und Sinngebungsfunktion, Realisierung relationaler Qualitäten in der Arbeit. Nach einer Begriffsbestimmung von „Therapie“, „Beratung“ und „Bildung“ charakterisieren wir das seit vielen Jahren von uns entwickelte Konzept für den Integralen Gestalt-Ansatz unter den Fragen nach (1 den Intentionen und Aufgaben von Therapie und Beratung, (2 der Gestaltung der Kommunikation und Beziehung, (3 der Art der Problemdefinition und dem Umgang mit Diagnostik sowie (4 den Strategien und Methoden – alle unter Rückkopplung an die zuvor erläuterten Anforderungen an ein integrales Konzept. Abstract: In this text we present our approach to psychotherapy and counseling on the background of the integral paradigm. We shortly explain four major requirements for such an integral concept: handling complexity and multi-perspectivity, considering directed and multi-dimensional development, offering orientation and meaning, relational qualities. After defining the terms „psychotherapy“, „counselling“, and „education“ we present our concept for the Integral Gestalt Approach which we have developed and evaluated for many years by dealing with four questions: (1 the intentions and tasks of therapy and counselling, (2 the formation of communication and relationship, (3 the specific way of defining problems and using diagnostics, and (4 the strategies and methods – all related back to the major requirements of an integral concept.

  6. The Open Boundary Dynamical Elliptic Quantum Gaudin Model and Its Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shao-You; YUE Rui-Hong

    2001-01-01

    We construct the Hamiltonians of open elliptic quantum Gaudin model and show its relation with the open boundary elliptic quantum group. We define eigenstates of the model to be Bethe vectors with η = 0 of the boundary elliptic quantum group. Then, the Hamiltonian is exactly diagonalized by using the algebraic Bethe ansatz method.``

  7. 3D-4D Interlinkage Of qqq Wave Functions Under 3D Support For Pairwise Bethe-Salpeter Kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, A N

    1998-01-01

    Using the method of Green's functions within a Bethe-Salpeter framework characterized by a pairwise qq interaction with a Lorentz-covariant 3D support to its kernel, the 4D BS wave function for a system of 3 identical relativistic spinless quarks is reconstructed from the corresponding 3D form which satisfies a fully connected 3D BSE. This result is a 3-body generalization of a similar 2-body result found earlier under identical conditions of a 3D support to the corresponding qq-bar BS kernel under Covariant Instaneity (CIA for short). (The generalization from spinless to fermion quarks is straightforward). To set the CIA with 3D BS kernel support ansatz in the context of contemporary approaches to the qqq baryon problem, a model scalar 4D qqq BSE with pairwise contact interactions to simulate the NJL-Faddeev equations is worked out fully, and a comparison of both vertex functions shows that the CIA vertex reduces exactly to the NJL form in the limit of zero spatial range. This consistency check on the CIA ve...

  8. Real Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mahé, Louis; Roy, Marie-Françoise

    1992-01-01

    Ten years after the first Rennes international meeting on real algebraic geometry, the second one looked at the developments in the subject during the intervening decade - see the 6 survey papers listed below. Further contributions from the participants on recent research covered real algebra and geometry, topology of real algebraic varieties and 16thHilbert problem, classical algebraic geometry, techniques in real algebraic geometry, algorithms in real algebraic geometry, semialgebraic geometry, real analytic geometry. CONTENTS: Survey papers: M. Knebusch: Semialgebraic topology in the last ten years.- R. Parimala: Algebraic and topological invariants of real algebraic varieties.- Polotovskii, G.M.: On the classification of decomposing plane algebraic curves.- Scheiderer, C.: Real algebra and its applications to geometry in the last ten years: some major developments and results.- Shustin, E.L.: Topology of real plane algebraic curves.- Silhol, R.: Moduli problems in real algebraic geometry. Further contribu...

  9. Exact solution of a generalized two-sites Bose-Hubbard model

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, Gilberto N Santos

    2016-01-01

    I introduce a new parametrization of a bosonic Lax operator for the algebraic Bethe ansatz method with the $gl(2)$-invariant $R$-matrix and use it to present the exact solution of a generalized two-sites Bose-Hubbard model with asymmetric tunnelling. In the no interaction limit I show that the Bethe ansatz equations can be written as a $S^{N-1}$ sphere, where $N$ is the total number of atoms in the condensate.

  10. On the solutions of the $Z_n$-Belavin model with arbitrary number of sites

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Kun; Li, Guang-Liang; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2016-01-01

    The periodic $Z_n$-Belavin model on a lattice with an arbitrary number of sites $N$ is studied via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz method (ODBA). The eigenvalues of the corresponding transfer matrix are given in terms of an unified inhomogeneous $T-Q$ relation. In the special case of $N=nl$ with $l$ being also a positive integer, the resulting $T-Q$ relation recovers the homogeneous one previously obtained via algebraic Bethe Ansatz.

  11. Solvable quadratic Lie algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Linsheng

    2006-01-01

    A Lie algebra endowed with a nondegenerate, symmetric, invariant bilinear form is called a quadratic Lie algebra. In this paper, the author investigates the structure of solvable quadratic Lie algebras, in particular, the solvable quadratic Lie algebras whose Cartan subalgebras consist of semi-simple elements, the author presents a procedure to construct a class of quadratic Lie algebras from the point of view of cohomology and shows that all solvable quadratic Lie algebras can be obtained in this way.

  12. Symmetric Boolean Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    DÍaz, R.; Rivas, M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to study Boolean algebras in the category of vector spaces we introduce a prop whose algebras in set are Boolean algebras. A probabilistic logical interpretation for linear Boolean algebras is provided. An advantage of defining Boolean algebras in the linear category is that we are able to study its symmetric powers. We give explicit formulae for products in symmetric and cyclic Boolean algebras of various dimensions and formulate symmetric forms of the inclusion-exclusion principle.

  13. Resolution of the GL(3) - O(3) state labelling problem via O(3)-invariant Bethe subalgebra of the twisted Yangian

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, P D

    2004-01-01

    The labelling of states of irreducible representations of GL(3) in an O(3) basis is well known to require the addition of a single O(3)-invariant operator, to the standard diagonalisable set of Casimir operators in the subgroup chain GL(3) - O(3) - O(2). Moreover, this `missing label' operator must be a function of the two independent cubic and quartic invariants which can be constructed in terms of the angular momentum vector and the quadrupole tensor. It is pointed out that there is a unique (in a well-defined sense) combination of these which belongs to the O(3) invariant Bethe subalgebra of the twisted Yangian Y(GL(3);O(3)) in the enveloping algebra of GL(3).

  14. Piecewise-Koszul algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It is a small step toward the Koszul-type algebras. The piecewise-Koszul algebras are,in general, a new class of quadratic algebras but not the classical Koszul ones, simultaneously they agree with both the classical Koszul and higher Koszul algebras in special cases. We give a criteria theorem for a graded algebra A to be piecewise-Koszul in terms of its Yoneda-Ext algebra E(A), and show an A∞-structure on E(A). Relations between Koszul algebras and piecewise-Koszul algebras are discussed. In particular, our results are related to the third question of Green-Marcos.

  15. Universal algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, George

    1979-01-01

    Universal Algebra, heralded as ". . . the standard reference in a field notorious for the lack of standardization . . .," has become the most authoritative, consistently relied on text in a field with applications in other branches of algebra and other fields such as combinatorics, geometry, and computer science. Each chapter is followed by an extensive list of exercises and problems. The "state of the art" account also includes new appendices (with contributions from B. Jónsson, R. Quackenbush, W. Taylor, and G. Wenzel) and a well-selected additional bibliography of over 1250 papers and books which makes this a fine work for students, instructors, and researchers in the field. "This book will certainly be, in the years to come, the basic reference to the subject." --- The American Mathematical Monthly (First Edition) "In this reviewer's opinion [the author] has more than succeeded in his aim. The problems at the end of each chapter are well-chosen; there are more than 650 of them. The book is especially sui...

  16. Yoneda algebras of almost Koszul algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zheng Lijing

    2015-11-01

    Let be an algebraically closed field, a finite dimensional connected (, )-Koszul self-injective algebra with , ≥ 2. In this paper, we prove that the Yoneda algebra of is isomorphic to a twisted polynomial algebra $A^!$ [ ; ] in one indeterminate of degree +1 in which $A^!$ is the quadratic dual of , is an automorphism of $A^!$, and = () for each $t \\in A^!$. As a corollary, we recover Theorem 5.3 of [2].

  17. Bethe-Salpeter bound-state structure in Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, C; Frederico, T; Salmè, G; Viviani, M; Tomio, Lauro

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative investigation of the scalar Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space, within the ladder-approximation framework, is extended to include the excited states. This study has been carried out for an interacting system composed by two massive bosons exchanging a massive scalar, by adopting (i) the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, and (ii) the formally exact projection onto the null plane. Our analysis, on one hand, confirms the reliability of the method already applied to the ground state and, on the other one, extends the investigation from the valence distribution in momentum space to the corresponding quantity in the impact-parameter space, pointing out some relevant features, like (i) the equivalence between Minkowski and Euclidean transverse-momentum amplitudes, and (ii) the leading exponential fall-off of the valence wave function in the impact-parameter space.

  18. Generalized exterior algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Marchuk, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    Exterior algebras and differential forms are widely used in many fields of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. In this paper we define a notion of $N$-metric exterior algebra, which depends on $N$ matrices of structure constants. The usual exterior algebra (Grassmann algebra) can be considered as 0-metric exterior algebra. Clifford algebra can be considered as 1-metric exterior algebra. $N$-metric exterior algebras for $N\\geq2$ can be considered as generalizations of the Grassmann algebra and Clifford algebra. Specialists consider models of gravity that based on a mathematical formalism with two metric tensors. We hope that the considered in this paper 2-metric exterior algebra can be useful for development of this model in gravitation theory. Especially in description of fermions in presence of a gravity field.

  19. Instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter Kernel for the Lightest Pseudoscalar Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Lucha, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a phenomenologically successful, numerical solution of the Dyson-Schwinger equation that governs the quark propagator, we reconstruct in detail the interaction kernel that has to enter the instantaneous approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation to allow us to describe the lightest pseudoscalar mesons as quark-antiquark bound states exhibiting the (almost) masslessness necessary for them to be interpretable as the (pseudo) Goldstone bosons related to the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of quantum chromodynamics.

  20. WEAKLY ALGEBRAIC REFLEXIVITY AND STRONGLY ALGEBRAIC REFLEXIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoChangli; LuShijie; ChenPeixin

    2002-01-01

    Algebraic reflexivity introduced by Hadwin is related to linear interpolation. In this paper, the concepts of weakly algebraic reflexivity and strongly algebraic reflexivity which are also related to linear interpolation are introduced. Some properties of them are obtained and some relations between them revealed.

  1. Rigidification of algebras over essentially algebraic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Rosicky, J

    2012-01-01

    Badzioch and Bergner proved a rigidification theorem saying that each homotopy simplicial algebra is weakly equivalent to a simplicial algebra. The question is whether this result can be extended from algebraic theories to finite limit theories and from simplicial sets to more general monoidal model categories. We will present some answers to this question.

  2. Numerical Generalization of the Bethe-Weizs\\"{a}cker Mass Formula

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrodiev, S Cht

    2016-01-01

    Based on the AME2012 nuclear database and the semi-empirical mass formula of Bethe and von Weizs\\"{a}cker we formulated and solved the inverse problem for its numerical generalization in step by step way. The established parametrization describes the measured nuclear masses of 2564 isotopes with an accuracy better than 2.6 MeV, starting from the number of protons $Z=1$ and number of neutrons $N=1$. The set of parameters $\\{a_{i}\\}$, $i=1,\\dots, {N}_{\\rm{total}}$ of our fit represent the solution of an overdetermined system of algebraic equations, which represent equalities between the binding energy $E_{B}^{\\rm{Expt}}(A_{j},Z_{j})$ and its model $E_{B}^{\\rm{Th}}(A_{j},Z_{j},\\{a_{i}\\})$, where $j=1,\\dots,2564$. The solution of the overdetermined system of equations has been obtained with the help of the Aleksandrov's auto-regularization method of Gauss-Newton type for ill-posed problems (Dubna FORTRAN code REGN). The explicit form of unknown functions was discovered in a step-by-step way using the LCH procedur...

  3. The Yoneda algebra of a K_2 algebra need not be another K_2 algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, T.; Phan, Van C.; Shelton, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Yoneda algebra of a Koszul algebra or a D-Koszul algebra is Koszul. K2 algebras are a natural generalization of Koszul algebras, and one would hope that the Yoneda algebra of a K2 algebra would be another K2 algebra. We show that this is not necessarily the case by constructing a monomial K2 algebra for which the corresponding Yoneda algebra is not K2.

  4. Algebraic cobordism theory attached to algebraic equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Krishna, Amalendu

    2012-01-01

    After the algebraic cobordism theory of Levine-Morel, we develop a theory of algebraic cobordism modulo algebraic equivalence. We prove that this theory can reproduce Chow groups modulo algebraic equivalence and the zero-th semi-topological K-groups. We also show that with finite coefficients, this theory agrees with the algebraic cobordism theory. We compute our cobordism theory for some low dimensional or special types of varieties. The results on infinite generation of some Griffiths groups by Clemens and on smash-nilpotence by Voevodsky and Voisin are also lifted and reinterpreted in terms of this cobordism theory.

  5. Toward a standard model 2, via Kaluza ansatz 2

    CERN Document Server

    Batakis, Nikolaos A

    2012-01-01

    New results and perspectives precipitate from the (modified as) Kaluza ansatz 2 (KA2), whereby, instead of appending $n$ Planck-scale (${\\rm L_o}$) compact SL dimensions to ordinary 4D spacetime, one augments $n$ such dimensions by 3 large ones. By KA2, the fundamental role of gravity in the dynamics of vacuum geometry is being conceded to the remaining fundamental interactions. The ground state in KA2 is of the form $\\bar{\\cal M}^{n+4}=\\bar{\\cal C}^{n+1}\\times\\IR^3$, where the static (averaged-out over scales ${\\rm L}>>{\\rm L_o}$) $\\bar{\\cal C}^{n+1}$ carries {\\em effective torsion} as relic of the deeper vacuum dynamics at Planck scale. For the simplest non-trivial implementation of KA2, the Bianchi IX subclass of SU(2)-invariant ${\\cal B}^4_{\\rm IX}$ provides the $\\bar{\\cal C}^5=\\bar{\\cal B}^4_{\\rm M}\\times S^1$, with the $S^1$ coming from 'augmentability', a complement to compactification. The classical action involves (i) the gravitational and EW sectors in elegant {\\em hierarchy}, (ii) the {\\em higgsles...

  6. Workshop on Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Simis, Aron

    1990-01-01

    The central theme of this volume is commutative algebra, with emphasis on special graded algebras, which are increasingly of interest in problems of algebraic geometry, combinatorics and computer algebra. Most of the papers have partly survey character, but are research-oriented, aiming at classification and structural results.

  7. Probabilistic Concurrent Kleene Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle McIver

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide an extension of concurrent Kleene algebras to account for probabilistic properties. The algebra yields a unified framework containing nondeterminism, concurrency and probability and is sound with respect to the set of probabilistic automata modulo probabilistic simulation. We use the resulting algebra to generalise the algebraic formulation of a variant of Jones' rely/guarantee calculus.

  8. Generalized Quantum Current Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liu

    2001-01-01

    Two general families of new quantum-deformed current algebras are proposed and identified both as infinite Hopf family of algebras, a structure which enables one to define "tensor products" of these algebras. The standard quantum affine algebras turn out to be a very special case of the two algebra families, in which case the infinite Hopf family structure degenerates into a standard Hopf algebra. The relationship between the two algebraic families as well as thefr various special examples are discussed, and the free boson representation is also considered.

  9. The Onsager Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    El-Chaar, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, four realizations of the Onsager algebra are explored. We begin with its original definition as introduced by Lars Onsager. We then examine how the Onsager algebra can be presented as a Lie algebra with two generators and two relations. The third realization of the Onsager algebra consists of viewing it as an equivariant map algebra which then gives us the tools to classify its closed ideals. Finally, we examine the Onsager algebra as a subalgebra of the tetrahedron algebra. Using this fourth realization, we explicitly describe all its ideals.

  10. Perturbations of planar algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of {\\em weight} of a planar algebra $P$ and construct a new planar algebra referred as the {\\em perturbation of $P$} by the weight. We establish a one-to-one correspondence between pivotal structures on 2-categories and perturbations of planar algebras by weights. To each bifinite bimodule over $II_1$-factors, we associate a {\\em bimodule planar algebra} bimodule corresponds naturally with sphericality of the bimodule planar algebra. As a consequence of this, we reproduce an extension of Jones' theorem (of associating 'subfactor planar algebras' to extremal subfactors). Conversely, given a bimodule planar algebra, we construct a bifinite bimodule whose associated bimodule planar algebra is the one which we start with using perturbations and Jones-Walker-Shlyakhtenko-Kodiyalam-Sunder method of reconstructing an extremal subfactor from a subfactor planar algebra. We show that the perturbation class of a bimodule planar algebra contains a unique spherical unimodular bimodule planar algeb...

  11. Yangians and transvector algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Molev, A. I.

    1998-01-01

    Olshanski's centralizer construction provides a realization of the Yangian for the Lie algebra gl(n) as a subalgebra in the projective limit of a chain of centralizers in the universal enveloping algebras. We give a modified version of this construction based on a quantum analog of Sylvester's theorem. We then use it to get an algebra homomorphism from the Yangian to the transvector algebra associated with the general linear Lie algebras. The results are applied to identify the elementary rep...

  12. Electromagnetic form factor via Minkowski and Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Karmanov, V A; Mangin-Brinet, M

    2007-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors calculated through Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and through the light-front wave function are compared with the one found using the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in Minkowski space. The form factor expressed through the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude (both within and without static approximation) considerably differs from the Minkowski one, whereas form factor found in the light-front approach is almost indistinguishable from it.

  13. Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space with cross-ladder kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Karmanov, V A

    2006-01-01

    A new method for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation is developed. It allows to find the Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes both in Minkowski and in Euclidean spaces and, as a by product, the light-front wave function. The method is valid for any kernel given by irreducible Feynman graphs. Bethe-Salpeter and Light-Front equations for scalar particles with ladder + cross-ladder kernel are solved.

  14. Mass Ansatze for the standard model fermions from a composite perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Fariborz, Amir H; Nasri, Salah

    2016-01-01

    We consider a composite model in which the standard model fermions are bound states of elementary spin $\\frac{1}{2}$ particles, the preons, situated in the conjugate product representation of the color group. In this framework we propose and analyze two mass Ansatze one for the leptons, the other one for the quarks, based on mass formulae of the Gell-Mann Okubo type. We find that these mass Ansatze can give an adequate description of the known standard model fermion masses.

  15. Piecewise-Koszul algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-feng; Lü

    2007-01-01

    [1]Priddy S.Koszul resolutions.Trans Amer Math Soc,152:39-60 (1970)[2]Beilinson A,Ginszburg V,Soergel W.Koszul duality patterns in representation theory.J Amer Math Soc,9:473-525 (1996)[3]Aquino R M,Green E L.On modules with linear presentations over Koszul algebras.Comm Algebra,33:19-36 (2005)[4]Green E L,Martinez-Villa R.Koszul and Yoneda algebras.Representation theory of algebras (Cocoyoc,1994).In:CMS Conference Proceedings,Vol 18.Providence,RI:American Mathematical Society,1996,247-297[5]Berger R.Koszulity for nonquadratic algebras.J Algebra,239:705-734 (2001)[6]Green E L,Marcos E N,Martinez-Villa R,et al.D-Koszul algebras.J Pure Appl Algebra,193:141-162(2004)[7]He J W,Lu D M.Higher Koszul Algebras and A-infinity Algebras.J Algebra,293:335-362 (2005)[8]Green E L,Marcos E N.δ-Koszul algebras.Comm Algebra,33(6):1753-1764 (2005)[9]Keller B.Introduction to A-infinity algebras and modules.Homology Homotopy Appl,3:1-35 (2001)[10]Green E L,Martinez-Villa R,Reiten I,et al.On modules with linear presentations.J Algebra,205(2):578-604 (1998)[11]Keller B.A-infinity algebras in representation theory.Contribution to the Proceedings of ICRA Ⅸ.Beijing:Peking University Press,2000[12]Lu D M,Palmieri J H,Wu Q S,et al.A∞-algebras for ring theorists.Algebra Colloq,11:91-128 (2004)[13]Weibel C A.An Introduction to homological algebra.Cambridge Studies in Avanced Mathematics,Vol 38.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1995

  16. Uniform Frechet algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Goldmann, H

    1990-01-01

    The first part of this monograph is an elementary introduction to the theory of Fréchet algebras. Important examples of Fréchet algebras, which are among those considered, are the algebra of all holomorphic functions on a (hemicompact) reduced complex space, and the algebra of all continuous functions on a suitable topological space.The problem of finding analytic structure in the spectrum of a Fréchet algebra is the subject of the second part of the book. In particular, the author pays attention to function algebraic characterizations of certain Stein algebras (= algebras of holomorphic functions on Stein spaces) within the class of Fréchet algebras.

  17. Physics over easy Breakfasts with Beth and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Azaroff, L V

    2010-01-01

    During a sequence of meals, the author relates the principal features of physics in easy-to-understand conversations with his wife Beth. Beginning with the studies of motion by Galileo and Newton through to the revolutionary theories of relativity and quantum mechanics in the 20th century, all important aspects of electricity, energy, magnetism, gravity and the structure of matter and atoms are explained and illustrated. The second edition similarly recounts the more recent application of these theories to nanoparticles, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum entanglement and quantum computers. By

  18. Solving Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Karmanov, V A

    2005-01-01

    We develop a new method of solving Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for spinless particles. It is based on projecting the BS equation on the light-front plane and on the Nakanishi integral representation of the BS amplitude. The method is valid for any kernel given by the irreducible Feynman graphs and does not assume a transformation to the Euclidean space. For massless ladder exchange our approach reproduces analytically the Wick-Cutkosky equation. For massive ladder exchange the numerical results coincide with ones obtained by Wick rotation.

  19. Direct Bethe-Salpeter solutions in Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2016-01-01

    We review a method to directly solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space, both for bound and scattering states. It is based on a proper treatment of the many singularities which appear in the kernel and propagators. The off-mass shell scattering amplitude for spinless particles interacting by a one boson exchange was computed for the first time. Using our Minkowski space solutions for the initial (bound) and final (scattering) states, we calculate elastic and transition (bound to scattering state) electromagnetic form factors. The conservation of the transition electromagnetic current J.q=0, verified numerically, confirms the validity of our solutions.

  20. Bethe-Salpeter equation in non-commutative space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haghighat

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available  We consider Bethe-Salpeter (BS equation for the bound state of two point particles in the non-commutative space-time. We subsequently explore the BS equation for spin0-spin0, spin1/2-spin1/2 and spin0-spin1/2 bound states. we show that the lowest order spin independent correction to energy spectrum in each case is of the order θ a 4 while the spin dependent one in NC space, is started at the order θ a 6.

  1. Spectra of Free Diquark in the Bethe-Salpeter Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yan-Ming; KE Hong-Wei; DING Yi-Bing; GUO Xin-Heng; JIN Hong-Ying; LI Xue-Qian; SHEN Peng-Nian; WANG Guo-Li

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we employ the Bethe-Salpeter (B-S) equation to investigate the spectra of free diquarks and their B-S wave functions. We find that the B-S approach can be consistently applied to study the diqaurks with two heavy quarks or one heavy and one light quarks, but for two light-quark systems, the results are not reliable. There are a few free parameters in the whole scenario which can only be fixed phenomenologically. Thus, to determine them, one has to study baryons which are composed of quarks and diquarks.

  2. Algebraic theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal

  3. Linear associative algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Abian, Alexander

    1973-01-01

    Linear Associative Algebras focuses on finite dimensional linear associative algebras and the Wedderburn structure theorems.The publication first elaborates on semigroups and groups, rings and fields, direct sum and tensor product of rings, and polynomial and matrix rings. The text then ponders on vector spaces, including finite dimensional vector spaces and matrix representation of vectors. The book takes a look at linear associative algebras, as well as the idempotent and nilpotent elements of an algebra, ideals of an algebra, total matrix algebras and the canonical forms of matrices, matrix

  4. Clifford Algebra with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon-Camarasa, G; Aragon, J L; Rodriguez-Andrade, M A

    2008-01-01

    The Clifford algebra of a n-dimensional Euclidean vector space provides a general language comprising vectors, complex numbers, quaternions, Grassman algebra, Pauli and Dirac matrices. In this work, a package for Clifford algebra calculations for the computer algebra program Mathematica is introduced through a presentation of the main ideas of Clifford algebras and illustrative examples. This package can be a useful computational tool since allows the manipulation of all these mathematical objects. It also includes the possibility of visualize elements of a Clifford algebra in the 3-dimensional space.

  5. Normed BCI-algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jia-yin

    2011-01-01

    The notions of norm and distance in BCI-algebras are introduced,and some basic properties in normed BCI-algebras are given.It is obtained that the isomorphic(homomorphic)image and inverse image of a normed BCI-algebra are still normed BCI-algebras.The relations of normaled properties between BCI-algebra and Cartesian product of BCIalgebras are investigated.The limit notion of sequence of points in normed BCI-algebras is introduced,and its related properties are investigated.

  6. Lukasiewicz-Moisil algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Boicescu, V; Georgescu, G; Rudeanu, S

    1991-01-01

    The Lukasiewicz-Moisil algebras were created by Moisil as an algebraic counterpart for the many-valued logics of Lukasiewicz. The theory of LM-algebras has developed to a considerable extent both as an algebraic theory of intrinsic interest and in view of its applications to logic and switching theory.This book gives an overview of the theory, comprising both classical results and recent contributions, including those of the authors. N-valued and &THgr;-valued algebras are presented, as well as &THgr;-algebras with negation.Mathematicians interested in lattice theory or symbolic logic, and computer scientists, will find in this monograph stimulating material for further research.

  7. Hom-alternative algebras and Hom-Jordan algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Makhlouf, Abdenacer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Hom-alternative algebras and Hom-Jordan algebras. We discuss some of their properties and provide construction procedures using ordinary alternative algebras or Jordan algebras. Also, we show that a polarization of Hom-associative algebra leads to Hom-Jordan algebra.

  8. Cellularity of diagram algebras as twisted semigroup algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The Temperley-Lieb and Brauer algebras and their cyclotomic analogues, as well as the partition algebra, are all examples of twisted semigroup algebras. We prove a general theorem about the cellularity of twisted semigroup algebras of regular semigroups. This theorem, which generalises a recent result of East about semigroup algebras of inverse semigroups, allows us to easily reproduce the cellularity of these algebras.

  9. Bethe-Salpeter equation with cross-ladder kernel in Minkowski and Euclidean spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Karmanov, V A; Mangin-Brinet, M

    2007-01-01

    Some results obtained by a new method for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation are presented. The method is valid for any kernel given by irreducible Feynman graphs. The Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, both in Minkowski and in Euclidean spaces, and the binding energy for ladder + cross-ladder kernel are found. We calculate also the corresponding electromagnetic form factor.

  10. The Bethe Sum Rule and Basis Set Selection in the Calculation of Generalized Oscillator Strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, Remigio; Sabin, John R.; Oddershede, Jens;

    1999-01-01

    Fulfillment of the Bethe sum rule may be construed as a measure of basis set quality for atomic and molecular properties involving the generalized oscillator strength distribution. It is first shown that, in the case of a complete basis, the Bethe sum rule is fulfilled exactly in the random phase...

  11. In Defense of Today's Struggling Reader: What Policymakers Can Learn from Beth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Beth attends a New York City K-8, dual-language (Spanish/English) public school where 96% of the students qualify as low-income, based on participation in the federally funded lunch program. Early in Beth's 1st-grade year, she was classified as a struggling reader, based on district-wide assessments that identified academic deficits in such skill…

  12. Cylindric-like algebras and algebraic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Ferenczi, Miklós; Németi, István

    2013-01-01

    Algebraic logic is a subject in the interface between logic, algebra and geometry, it has strong connections with category theory and combinatorics. Tarski’s quest for finding structure in logic leads to cylindric-like algebras as studied in this book, they are among the main players in Tarskian algebraic logic. Cylindric algebra theory can be viewed in many ways:  as an algebraic form of definability theory, as a study of higher-dimensional relations, as an enrichment of Boolean Algebra theory, or, as logic in geometric form (“cylindric” in the name refers to geometric aspects). Cylindric-like algebras have a wide range of applications, in, e.g., natural language theory, data-base theory, stochastics, and even in relativity theory. The present volume, consisting of 18 survey papers, intends to give an overview of the main achievements and new research directions in the past 30 years, since the publication of the Henkin-Monk-Tarski monographs. It is dedicated to the memory of Leon Henkin.

  13. Lie Algebra of Noncommutative Inhomogeneous Hopf Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Lagraa, M

    1997-01-01

    We construct the vector space dual to the space of right-invariant differential forms construct from a first order differential calculus on inhomogeneous quantum group. We show that this vector space is equipped with a structure of a Hopf algebra which closes on a noncommutative Lie algebra satisfying a Jacobi identity.

  14. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  15. Algebraic statistics computational commutative algebra in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pistone, Giovanni; Wynn, Henry P

    2000-01-01

    Written by pioneers in this exciting new field, Algebraic Statistics introduces the application of polynomial algebra to experimental design, discrete probability, and statistics. It begins with an introduction to Gröbner bases and a thorough description of their applications to experimental design. A special chapter covers the binary case with new application to coherent systems in reliability and two level factorial designs. The work paves the way, in the last two chapters, for the application of computer algebra to discrete probability and statistical modelling through the important concept of an algebraic statistical model.As the first book on the subject, Algebraic Statistics presents many opportunities for spin-off research and applications and should become a landmark work welcomed by both the statistical community and its relatives in mathematics and computer science.

  16. Connecting Arithmetic to Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darley, Joy W.; Leapard, Barbara B.

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic thinking is a top priority in mathematics classrooms today. Because elementary school teachers lay the groundwork to develop students' capacity to think algebraically, it is crucial for teachers to have a conceptual understanding of the connections between arithmetic and algebra and be confident in communicating these connections. Many…

  17. Algebra of timed frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Fokkink, W.J.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Timed frames are introduced as objects that can form a basis of a model theory for discrete time process algebra. An algebraic setting for timed frames is proposed and results concerning its connection with discrete time process algebra are given. The presented theory of timed frames captures the ba

  18. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  19. REAL PIECEWISE ALGEBRAIC VARIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-hong Wang; Yi-sheng Lai

    2003-01-01

    We give definitions of real piecewise algebraic variety and its dimension. By using the techniques of real radical ideal, P-radical ideal, affine Hilbert polynomial, Bernstein-net form of polynomials on simplex, and decomposition of semi-algebraic set, etc., we deal with the dimension of the real piecewise algebraic variety and real Nullstellensatz in Cμ spline ring.

  20. Bases of Schur algebras associated to cellularly stratified diagram algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bowman, C

    2011-01-01

    We examine homomorphisms between induced modules for a certain class of cellularly stratified diagram algebras, including the BMW algebra, Temperley-Lieb algebra, Brauer algebra, and (quantum) walled Brauer algebra. We define the `permutation' modules for these algebras, these are one-sided ideals which allow us to study the diagrammatic Schur algebras of Hartmann, Henke, Koenig and Paget. We construct bases of these Schur algebras in terms of modified tableaux. On the way we prove that the (quantum) walled Brauer algebra and the Temperley-Lieb algebra are both cellularly stratified and therefore have well-defined Specht filtrations.

  1. Computer algebra and operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateman, Richard; Grossman, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The symbolic computation of operator expansions is discussed. Some of the capabilities that prove useful when performing computer algebra computations involving operators are considered. These capabilities may be broadly divided into three areas: the algebraic manipulation of expressions from the algebra generated by operators; the algebraic manipulation of the actions of the operators upon other mathematical objects; and the development of appropriate normal forms and simplification algorithms for operators and their actions. Brief descriptions are given of the computer algebra computations that arise when working with various operators and their actions.

  2. Split Malcev Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio J Calderón Martín; Manuel Forero Piulestán; José M Sánchez Delgado

    2012-05-01

    We study the structure of split Malcev algebras of arbitrary dimension over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. We show that any such algebras is of the form $M=\\mathcal{U}+\\sum_jI_j$ with $\\mathcal{U}$ a subspace of the abelian Malcev subalgebra and any $I_j$ a well described ideal of satisfying $[I_j, I_k]=0$ if ≠ . Under certain conditions, the simplicity of is characterized and it is shown that is the direct sum of a semisimple split Lie algebra and a direct sum of simple non-Lie Malcev algebras.

  3. Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dickenstein, Alicia; Sommese, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a burgeoning of activity in the design and implementation of algorithms for algebraic geometric computation. Some of these algorithms were originally designed for abstract algebraic geometry, but now are of interest for use in applications and some of these algorithms were originally designed for applications, but now are of interest for use in abstract algebraic geometry. The workshop on Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry that was held in the framework of the IMA Annual Program Year in Applications of Algebraic Geometry by the Institute for Mathematics and Its

  4. Single-Field Inflation and the Local Ansatz: Distinguishability and Consistency

    CERN Document Server

    de Putter, Roland; Green, Daniel; Meyers, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The single-field consistency conditions and the local ansatz have played separate but important roles in characterizing the non-Gaussian signatures of single- and multifield inflation respectively. We explore the precise relationship between these two approaches and their predictions. We demonstrate that the predictions of the single-field consistency conditions can never be satisfied by a general local ansatz with deviations necessarily arising at order $(n_s-1)^2$. This implies that there is, in principle, a minimum difference between single- and (fully local) multifield inflation in observables sensitive to the squeezed limit such as scale-dependent halo bias. We also explore some potential observational implications of the consistency conditions and its relationship to the local ansatz. In particular, we propose a new scheme to test the consistency relations. In analogy with delensing of the cosmic microwave background, one can deproject the coupling of the long wavelength modes with the short wavelength ...

  5. Lectures on algebraic statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Drton, Mathias; Sullivant, Seth

    2009-01-01

    How does an algebraic geometer studying secant varieties further the understanding of hypothesis tests in statistics? Why would a statistician working on factor analysis raise open problems about determinantal varieties? Connections of this type are at the heart of the new field of "algebraic statistics". In this field, mathematicians and statisticians come together to solve statistical inference problems using concepts from algebraic geometry as well as related computational and combinatorial techniques. The goal of these lectures is to introduce newcomers from the different camps to algebraic statistics. The introduction will be centered around the following three observations: many important statistical models correspond to algebraic or semi-algebraic sets of parameters; the geometry of these parameter spaces determines the behaviour of widely used statistical inference procedures; computational algebraic geometry can be used to study parameter spaces and other features of statistical models.

  6. On Some Algebraic and Combinatorial Properties of Dunkl Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, Anatol N.

    2013-06-01

    We introduce and study a certain class of nonhomogeneous quadratic algebras together with the special set of mutually commuting elements inside of each, the so-called Dunkl elements. We describe relations among the Dunkl elements. This result is a further generalization of similar results obtained in [S. Fomin and A. N. Kirillov, Quadratic algebras, Dunkl elements and Schubert calculus, in Advances in Geometry (eds. J.-S. Brylinski, V. Nistor, B. Tsygan and P. Xu), Progress in Math. Vol. 172 (Birkhäuser Boston, Boston, 1995), pp. 147-182, A. Postnikov, On a quantum version of Pieri's formula, in Advances in Geometry (eds. J.-S. Brylinski, R. Brylinski, V. Nistor, B. Tsygan and P. Xu), Progress in Math. Vol. 172 (Birkhäuser Boston, 1995), pp. 371-383 and A. N. Kirillov and T. Maenor, A Note on Quantum K-Theory of Flag Varieties, preprint]. As an application we describe explicitly the set of relations among the Gaudin elements in the group ring of the symmetric group, cf. [E. Mukhin, V. Tarasov and A. Varchenko, Bethe Subalgebras of the Group Algebra of the Symmetric Group, preprint arXiv:1004.4248]. Also we describe a few combinatorial properties of some special elements in the associative quasi-classical Yang-Baxter algebra in a connection with the values of the β-Grothendieck polynomials for some special permutations, and on the other hand, with the Ehrhart polynomial of the Chan-Robbins polytope.

  7. Solving the Bethe-Salpeter Equation in Euclidean Space

    CERN Document Server

    Dorkin, S M; Atti, C Ciofi degli; Kämpfer, B

    2010-01-01

    Different approaches to solve the spinor-spinor Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation in Euclidean space are considered. It is argued that the complete set of Dirac matrices is the most appropriate basis to define the partial amplitudes and to solve numerically the resulting system of equations with realistic interaction kernels. Other representations can be obtained by performing proper unitary transformations. A generalization of the iteration method for finding the energy spectrum of the BS equation is discussed and examples of concrete calculations are presented. Comparison of relativistic calculations with available experimental data and with corresponding non relativistic results together with an analysis of the role of Lorentz boost effects and relativistic corrections are presented. A novel method related to the use of hyperspherical harmonics is considered for a representation of the vertex functions suitable for numerical calculations.

  8. Solving the Bethe-Salpeter Equation in Euclidean Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkin, S. M.; Kaptari, L. P.; Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Kämpfer, B.

    2011-03-01

    Different approaches to solve the spinor-spinor Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation in Euclidean space are considered. It is argued that the complete set of Dirac matrices is the most appropriate basis to define the partial amplitudes and to solve numerically the resulting system of equations with realistic interaction kernels. Other representations can be obtained by performing proper unitary transformations. A generalization of the iteration method for finding the energy spectrum of the BS equation is discussed and examples of concrete calculations are presented. Comparison of relativistic calculations with available experimental data and with corresponding non relativistic results together with an analysis of the role of Lorentz boost effects and relativistic corrections are presented. A novel method related to the use of hyperspherical harmonics is considered for a representation of the vertex functions suitable for numerical calculations.

  9. Phase Diagram for Ashkin-Teller Model on Bethe Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Jian-Xin; YANG Zhan-Ru

    2005-01-01

    Using the recursion method, we study the phase transitions of the Ashkin-Teller model on the Bethe lattice,restricting ourselves to the case of ferromagnetic interactions. The isotropic Ashkin-Teller model and the anisotropic one are respectively investigated, and exact expressions for the free energy and the magnetization are obtained. It can be found that each of the three varieties of phase diagrams, for the anisotropic Ashkin-Teller model, consists of four phases, I.e., the fully disordered paramagnetic phase Para, the fully ordered ferromagnetic phase Ferro, and two partially ordered ferromagnetic phases and , while the phase diagram, for the isotropic Ashkin-Teller model,contains three phases, I.e., the fully disordered paramagnetic phase Para, the fully ordered ferromagnetic phase Baxter Phase, and the partially ordered ferromagnetic phase .

  10. Modified binary encounter Bethe model for electron-impact ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra, M; Indelicato, P; Santos, J P

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical expressions for ionization cross sections by electron impact based on the binary encounter Bethe (BEB) model, valid from ionization threshold up to relativistic energies, are proposed. The new modified BEB (MBEB) and its relativistic counterpart (MRBEB) expressions are simpler than the BEB (nonrelativistic and relativistic) expressions because they require only one atomic parameter, namely the binding energy of the electrons to be ionized, and use only one scaling term for the ionization of all sub-shells. The new models are used to calculate the K-, L- and M-shell ionization cross sections by electron impact for several atoms with Z from 6 to 83. Comparisons with all, to the best of our knowledge, available experimental data show that this model is as good or better than other models, with less complexity.

  11. Testing an Ansatz for the Leading Secular Loop Corrections from Quantum Gravity during Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, S

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that the leading secular loop corrections from quantum gravity can be subsumed into a coordinate redefinition. Hence the apparent infrared logarithm corrections to any quantity would be just the result of taking the expectation value of the tree order quantity at the transformed coordinates in the graviton vacuum. We term this the Transformation Ansatz and we compare its predictions against explicit one loop computations in Maxwell + Einstein and Dirac + Einstein on de Sitter background. In each case the ansatz fails.

  12. Testing an ansatz for the leading secular loop corrections from quantum gravity during inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Woodard, R. P.

    2016-10-01

    It is widely believed that the leading secular loop corrections from quantum gravity can be subsumed into a coordinate redefinition. Hence the apparent infrared logarithm corrections to any quantity would be just the result of taking the expectation value of the tree order quantity at the transformed coordinates in the graviton vacuum. We term this the transformation ansatz and we compare its predictions against explicit one loop computations in Maxwell + Einstein and Dirac + Einstein on de Sitter background. In each case the ansatz fails.

  13. The Boolean algebra and central Galois algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Szeto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Let B be a Galois algebra with Galois group G, Jg={b∈B∣bx=g(xb   for all   x∈B} for g∈G, and BJg=Beg for a central idempotent eg. Then a relation is given between the set of elements in the Boolean algebra (Ba,≤ generated by {0,eg∣g∈G} and a set of subgroups of G, and a central Galois algebra Be with a Galois subgroup of G is characterized for an e∈Ba.

  14. Linear algebra meets Lie algebra: the Kostant-Wallach theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shomron, Noam; Parlett, Beresford N.

    2008-01-01

    In two languages, Linear Algebra and Lie Algebra, we describe the results of Kostant and Wallach on the fibre of matrices with prescribed eigenvalues of all leading principal submatrices. In addition, we present a brief introduction to basic notions in Algebraic Geometry, Integrable Systems, and Lie Algebra aimed at specialists in Linear Algebra.

  15. The Hall Algebra of Cyclic Serial Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晋云

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, orders <1 and <2 on ((Z)+)nm are introduced and also regarded as orders on the isomorphism classes of finite modules of finite .cyclic algebra R with n simple modules and all the indecomposable projective modules have length m through a one-to-one correspondence between ((Z)+)nm and the isomorphism classes of finite R modules. Using this we prove that the Hall algebra of a cyclic serial algebra is identified with its Loewy subalgebra, and its rational extension has a basis of BPW type, and is a (((Z)+)nm, <2) filtered ring with the associated graded ring as an iterated skew polynomial ring. These results are also generalized to the Hall algebra of a tube over a finite field.

  16. Solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space and applications to electromagnetic form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for solving the two-body Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space. It is based on the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and on subsequent projection of the equation on the light-front plane. The method is valid for any kernel given by the irreducible Feynman graphs and for systems of spinless particles or fermions. The Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes in Minkowski space are obtained. The electromagnetic form factors are computed and compared to the Euclidean results.

  17. Graph Zeta Function in the Bethe Free Energy and Loopy Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the analysis of Loopy Belief Propagation (LBP) by establishing a formula that connects the Hessian of the Bethe free energy with the edge zeta function. The formula has a number of theoretical implications on LBP. It is applied to give a sufficient condition that the Hessian of the Bethe free energy is positive definite, which shows non-convexity for graphs with multiple cycles. The formula clarifies the relation between the local stability of a fixed point of LBP and local minima of the Bethe free energy. We also propose a new approach to the uniqueness of LBP fixed point, and show various conditions of uniqueness.

  18. Solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter Equation in Minkowski space: a comparative study

    CERN Document Server

    Salme`, Giovanni; Viviani, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The Bethe-Salpeter Equation for a two-scalar, S-wave bound system, interacting through a massive scalar, is investigated within the ladder approximation. By assuming a Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, one can deduce new integral equations that can be solved and quantitatively studied, overcoming the analytic difficulties of the Minkowski space. Finally, it is shown that the Light-front distributions of the valence state, directly obtained from the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, open an effective window for studying the two-body dynamics.

  19. Evolution algebras and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Jianjun Paul

    2008-01-01

    Behind genetics and Markov chains, there is an intrinsic algebraic structure. It is defined as a type of new algebra: as evolution algebra. This concept lies between algebras and dynamical systems. Algebraically, evolution algebras are non-associative Banach algebras; dynamically, they represent discrete dynamical systems. Evolution algebras have many connections with other mathematical fields including graph theory, group theory, stochastic processes, dynamical systems, knot theory, 3-manifolds, and the study of the Ihara-Selberg zeta function. In this volume the foundation of evolution algebra theory and applications in non-Mendelian genetics and Markov chains is developed, with pointers to some further research topics.

  20. Finite-dimensional (*)-serial algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Let A be a finite-dimensional associative algebra with identity over a field k. In this paper we introduce the concept of (*)-serial algebras which is a generalization of serial algebras. We investigate the properties of (*)-serial algebras, and we obtain suficient and necessary conditions for an associative algebra to be (*)-serial.

  1. On hyper BCC-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Borzooei

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study hyper BCC-algebras which are a common generalization of BCC-algebras and hyper BCK-algebras. In particular, we investigate different types of hyper BCC-ideals and describe the relationship among them. Next, we calculate all nonisomorphic 22 hyper BCC-algebras of order 3 of which only three are not hyper BCK-algebras.

  2. On hyper BCC-algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Borzooei, R. A.; Dudek, W. A.; Koohestani, N.

    2006-01-01

    We study hyper BCC-algebras which are a common generalization of BCC-algebras and hyper BCK-algebras. In particular, we investigate different types of hyper BCC-ideals and describe the relationship among them. Next, we calculate all nonisomorphic 22 hyper BCC-algebras of order 3 of which only three are not hyper BCK-algebras.

  3. On the Toroidal Leibniz Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong LIU; Lei LIN

    2008-01-01

    Toroidal Leibniz algebras are the universal central extensions of the iterated loop algebras gOC[t±11 ,...,t±v1] in the category of Leibniz algebras. In this paper, some properties and representations of toroidal Leibniz algebras are studied. Some general theories of central extensions of Leibniz algebras are also obtained.

  4. Cartesian Kerr-Schild variation on the Newman-Janis ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Nawarajan, Deloshan

    2016-01-01

    The Newman-Janis ansatz is a procedure (an "ansatz" or "trick") for obtaining the Kerr spacetime from the Schwarzschild spacetime. This 50 year old "trick" continues to generate heated discussion and debate even to this day. Most of the debate focusses on whether the Newman-Janis procedure can be upgraded to the status of an "algorithm", or if it is perhaps merely an inspired "ansatz", or possibly just a random "trick" of no deep physical significance. (That the Newman-Janis procedure very quickly led to the discovery of the Kerr-Newman spacetime is a point very much in its favour.) In the current article we will not answer these deeper questions, we shall instead present a much simpler alternative variation on the theme of the Newman-Janis ansatz that might be easier to work with. We shall present a 2-step version of the Newman-Janis trick that works directly with the Kerr-Schild "Cartesian" metric presentation of the Kerr spacetime. That is, we show how the original 4-step Newman--Janis procedure can, (usin...

  5. A self-consistent determination of the RVB and SC gaps in the YRZ ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zi-Ye; Wang, Xiao-Min; Jiang, Hong-Min

    2017-03-01

    A correct understanding of the origin of the pseudogap in high temperature (high-T c) cuprate superconductors is considered to be a peripheral breakthrough in the understanding of the microscopic mechanism of the high-T c superconductivity. Yang-Rice-Zhang (YRZ) ansatz is an important phenomenological theory to describe the phenomenon of pseudogap. However, in the framework of YRZ, the pseudogap (resonant valence bond (RVB) gap) and the superconducting (SC) gap are unable to have a self-consistent determination at different doping concentrations, and this severely limits the application of the YRZ ansatz. Based on the YRZ ansatz, this study develops a technical method to determine the RVB and SC gaps in a self-consistent manner. It is revealed that the self-consistent calculations of the doping dependence of RVB, SC gaps and spectral function are not only consistent with the empirical gap formula in the YRZ framework, but also consistent with the doping evolution of the Fermi surface observed in the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments. Our method will greatly extend the applications of the YRZ ansatz, and will deepen our understanding of the origin of pseudogap as well as the mechanism of high-T c superconductivity.

  6. Lie algebras and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iachello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This course-based primer provides an introduction to Lie algebras and some of their applications to the spectroscopy of molecules, atoms, nuclei and hadrons. In the first part, it concisely presents the basic concepts of Lie algebras, their representations and their invariants. The second part includes a description of how Lie algebras are used in practice in the treatment of bosonic and fermionic systems. Physical applications considered include rotations and vibrations of molecules (vibron model), collective modes in nuclei (interacting boson model), the atomic shell model, the nuclear shell model, and the quark model of hadrons. One of the key concepts in the application of Lie algebraic methods in physics, that of spectrum generating algebras and their associated dynamic symmetries, is also discussed. The book highlights a number of examples that help to illustrate the abstract algebraic definitions and includes a summary of many formulas of practical interest, such as the eigenvalues of Casimir operators...

  7. Developable algebraic surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dongren; WANG Guojin

    2004-01-01

    An algebraic surface can be defined by an implicit polynomial equation F(x,y,z)=0. In this paper, general characterizations of developable algebraic surfaces of arbitrary degree are presented. Using the shift operators of the subscripts of Bézier ordinates, the uniform apparent discriminants of developable algebraic surfaces to their Bézier ordinates are given directly. To degree 2 algebraic surfaces, which are widely used in computer aided geometric design and graphics, all possible developable surface types are obtained. For more conveniently applying algebraic surfaces of high degree to computer aided geometric design, the notion of ε-quasi-developable surfaces is introduced, and an example of using a quasi-developable algebraic surface of degree 3 to interpolate three curves of degree 2 is given.

  8. Algebra Automorphisms of Quantized Enveloping Algebras Uq(■)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查建国

    1994-01-01

    The algebra automorphisms of the quantized enveloping algebra Uq(g) are discussed, where q is generic. To some extent, all quantum deformations of automorphisms of the simple Lie algebra g have been determined.

  9. Cayley-Dickson and Clifford Algebras as Twisted Group Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, John W

    2011-01-01

    The effect of some properties of twisted groups on the associated algebras, particularly Cayley-Dickson and Clifford algebras. It is conjectured that the Hilbert space of square-summable sequences is a Cayley-Dickson algebra.

  10. Symmetric Extended Ockham Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.S. Blyth; Jie Fang

    2003-01-01

    The variety eO of extended Ockham algebras consists of those algealgebra with an additional endomorphism k such that the unary operations f and k commute. Here, we consider the cO-algebras which have a property of symmetry. We show that there are thirty two non-isomorphic subdirectly irreducible symmetric extended MS-algebras and give a complete description of them.2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 06D15, 06D30

  11. Lax operator algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Krichever, Igor M.; Sheinman, Oleg K.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we develop a general concept of Lax operators on algebraic curves introduced in [1]. We observe that the space of Lax operators is closed with respect to their usual multiplication as matrix-valued functions. We construct the orthogonal and symplectic analogs of Lax operators, prove that they constitute almost graded Lie algebras and construct local central extensions of those Lie algebras.

  12. Prediction of Algebraic Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretzky, Paula; King, Kristina; Hill, Nicole; Keithley, Kimberlee; Barlow, Nathaniel; Weinstein, Steven; Cromer, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A widely unexplored type of hydrodynamic instability is examined - large-time algebraic growth. Such growth occurs on the threshold of (exponentially) neutral stability. A new methodology is provided for predicting the algebraic growth rate of an initial disturbance, when applied to the governing differential equation (or dispersion relation) describing wave propagation in dispersive media. Several types of algebraic instabilities are explored in the context of both linear and nonlinear waves.

  13. Cohomology of Effect Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Roumen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We will define two ways to assign cohomology groups to effect algebras, which occur in the algebraic study of quantum logic. The first way is based on Connes' cyclic cohomology. The resulting cohomology groups are related to the state space of the effect algebra, and can be computed using variations on the Kunneth and Mayer-Vietoris sequences. The second way involves a chain complex of ordered abelian groups, and gives rise to a cohomological characterization of state extensions on effect algebras. This has applications to no-go theorems in quantum foundations, such as Bell's theorem.

  14. Algebraic extensions of fields

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Paul J

    1991-01-01

    ""...clear, unsophisticated and direct..."" - MathThis textbook is intended to prepare graduate students for the further study of fields, especially algebraic number theory and class field theory. It presumes some familiarity with topology and a solid background in abstract algebra. Chapter 1 contains the basic results concerning algebraic extensions. In addition to separable and inseparable extensions and normal extensions, there are sections on finite fields, algebraically closed fields, primitive elements, and norms and traces. Chapter 2 is devoted to Galois theory. Besides the fundamenta

  15. On coalgebras over algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Balan, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    We extend Barr's well-known characterization of the final coalgebra of a $Set$-endofunctor as the completion of its initial algebra to the Eilenberg-Moore category of algebras for a $Set$-monad $\\mathbf{M}$ for functors arising as liftings. As an application we introduce the notion of commuting pair of endofunctors with respect to the monad $\\mathbf{M}$ and show that under reasonable assumptions, the final coalgebra of one of the endofunctors involved can be obtained as the free algebra generated by the initial algebra of the other endofunctor.

  16. Lectures in general algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosh, A G; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Lectures in General Algebra is a translation from the Russian and is based on lectures on specialized courses in general algebra at Moscow University. The book starts with the basics of algebra. The text briefly describes the theory of sets, binary relations, equivalence relations, partial ordering, minimum condition, and theorems equivalent to the axiom of choice. The text gives the definition of binary algebraic operation and the concepts of groups, groupoids, and semigroups. The book examines the parallelism between the theory of groups and the theory of rings; such examinations show the

  17. Fundamentals of Hopf algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Underwood, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    This text aims to provide graduate students with a self-contained introduction to topics that are at the forefront of modern algebra, namely, coalgebras, bialgebras, and Hopf algebras.  The last chapter (Chapter 4) discusses several applications of Hopf algebras, some of which are further developed in the author’s 2011 publication, An Introduction to Hopf Algebras.  The book may be used as the main text or as a supplementary text for a graduate algebra course.  Prerequisites for this text include standard material on groups, rings, modules, algebraic extension fields, finite fields, and linearly recursive sequences. The book consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 introduces algebras and coalgebras over a field K; Chapter 2 treats bialgebras; Chapter 3 discusses Hopf algebras and Chapter 4 consists of three applications of Hopf algebras. Each chapter begins with a short overview and ends with a collection of exercises which are designed to review and reinforce the material. Exercises range from straightforw...

  18. Boolean algebra essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Boolean Algebra includes set theory, sentential calculus, fundamental ideas of Boolean algebras, lattices, rings and Boolean algebras, the structure of a Boolean algebra, and Boolean

  19. Relations Between BZMVdM-Algebra and Other Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高淑萍; 邓方安; 刘三阳

    2003-01-01

    Some properties of BZMVdM-algebra are proved, and a new operator is introduced. It is shown that the substructure of BZMVdM-algebra can produce a quasi-lattice implication algebra. The relations between BZMVdM-algebra and other algebras are discussed in detail. A pseudo-distance function is defined in linear BZMVdM-algebra, and its properties are derived.

  20. Transition electromagnetic form factor in the Minkowski space Bethe-Salpeter approach

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2013-01-01

    Using the solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space for bound and scattering states found in previous works, we calculate the transition electromagnetic form factor describing the electro-disintegration of a bound system.

  1. Scattering solutions of Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski and Euclidean spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2016-01-01

    We shortly review different methods to obtain the scattering solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space. We emphasize the possibility to obtain the zero energy observables in terms of the Euclidean scattering amplitude.

  2. Differential Hopf algebra structures on the universal enveloping algebra ofa Lie algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijligenberg, N.W. van den; Martini, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss a method to construct a De Rham complex (differential algebra) of Poincar'e-Birkhoff-Witt-type on the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra $g$. We determine the cases in which this gives rise to a differential Hopf algebra that naturally extends the Hopf algebra structure of $U(g

  3. Tubular algebras and affine Kac-Moody algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct quotient algebras L(A)1C/I(A) of complex degenerate composition Lie algebras L(A)1C by some ideals, where L(A)1C is defined via Hall algebras of tubular algebras A, and to prove that the quotient algebras L(A)1C/I(A) are isomorphic to the corresponding affine Kac-Moody algebras. Moreover, it is shown that the Lie algebra Lre(A)1C generated by A-modules with a real root coincides with the degenerate composition Lie algebra L(A)1C generated by simple A-modules.

  4. Tubular algebras and affine Kac-Moody algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-xin CHEN; Ya-nan LIN

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct quotient algebras L(A)C1/I(A) of complex degenerate composition Lie algebras L(A)C1 by some ideals, where L(A)C1 is defined via Hall algebras of tubular algebras A, and to prove that the quotient algebras L(A)C1/I(A) are isomorphic to the corresponding affine Kac-Moody algebras. Moreover, it is shown that the Lie algebra Lre(A)C1 generated by A-modules with a real root coincides with the degenerate composition Lie algebra L(A)C1 generated by simple A-modules.

  5. Fields and Forms on -Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cătălin Ciupală

    2005-02-01

    In this paper we introduce non-commutative fields and forms on a new kind of non-commutative algebras: -algebras. We also define the Frölicher–Nijenhuis bracket in the non-commutative geometry on -algebras.

  6. Automorphism groups of some algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK; Hong; Goo; LEE; Jeongsig; CHOI; Seul; Hee; NAM; Ki-Bong

    2009-01-01

    The automorphism groups of algebras are found in many papers. Using auto-invariance, we find the automorphism groups of the Laurent extension of the polynomial ring and the quantum n-plane (respectively, twisting polynomial ring) in this work. As an application of the results of this work, we can find the automorphism group of a twisting algebra. We define a generalized Weyl algebra and show that the generalized Weyl algebra is simple. We also find the automorphism group of a generalized Weyl algebra. We show that the generalized Weyl algebra Am,m+n is the universal enveloping algebra of the generalized Witt algebra W(m,m + n).

  7. Automorphism groups of some algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK Hong Goo; LEE Jeongsig; CHOI Seul Hee; CHEN XueQing; NAM Ki-Bong

    2009-01-01

    The automorphism groups of algebras are found in many papers. Using auto-invariance, we find the automorphism groups of the Laurent extension of the polynomial ring and the quantum n-plane (respectively, twisting polynomial ring) in this work. As an application of the results of this work, we can find the automorphism group of a twisting algebra. We define a generalized Weyl algebra and show that the generalized Weyl algebra is simple. We also find the automorphism group of a generalized Weyl algebra. We show that the generalized Weyl algebra Am,m+n is the universal enveloping algebra of the generalized Witt algebra W(m, m+n).

  8. Belief Propagation and Bethe approximation for Traffic Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Furtlehner, C; Lasgouttes, J M; Fortelle, Arnaud De La; Furtlehner, Cyril; Lasgouttes, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    We define and study an inference algorithm based on "belief propagation" (BP) and the Bethe approximation. The idea is to encode into a graph an a priori information composed of correlations or marginal probabilities of variables, and to use a message passing procedure to estimate the actual state from some extra real-time information. This method is originally designed for traffic prediction and is particularly suitable in settings where the only information available is floating car data. We propose a discretized traffic description, based on the Ising model of statistical physics, in order to both reconstruct and predict the traffic in real time. General properties of BP are addressed in this context. In particular, a detailed study of stability is proposed with respect to the a priori data and the graph topology. The behavior of the algorithm is illustrated by numerical studies on a simple traffic toy model. How this approach can be generalized to encode superposition of many traffic patterns is discussed...

  9. A systematic approach to sketch Bethe-Salpeter equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si-xue

    2016-03-01

    To study meson properties, one needs to solve the gap equation for the quark propagator and the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the meson wavefunction, self-consistently. The gluon propagator, the quark-gluon vertex, and the quark-anti-quark scattering kernel are key pieces to solve those equations. Predicted by lattice-QCD and Dyson-Schwinger analyses of QCD's gauge sector, gluons are non-perturbatively massive. In the matter sector, the modeled gluon propagator which can produce a veracious description of meson properties needs to possess a mass scale, accordingly. Solving the well-known longitudinal Ward-Green-Takahashi identities (WGTIs) and the less-known transverse counterparts together, one obtains a nontrivial solution which can shed light on the structure of the quark-gluon vertex. It is highlighted that the phenomenologically proposed anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) vertex originates from the QCD Lagrangian symmetries and its strength is proportional to the magnitude of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB). The color-singlet vector and axial-vector WGTIs can relate the BS kernel and the dressed quark-gluon vertex to each other. Using the relation, one can truncate the gap equation and the BS equation, systematically, without violating crucial symmetries, e.g., gauge symmetry and chiral symmetry.

  10. Hyperon stars in the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone theory

    CERN Document Server

    Baldo, Marcello; Schulze, H J

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone theory, we determine a fully microscopic equation of state for asymmetric and $\\beta$-stable nuclear matter containing $\\sim$ and $\\la$ hyperons. We use the Paris and the new Argonne $Av_{18}$ two-body nucleon interaction, whereas the nucleon-hyperon interaction is described by the Njimegen soft-core model. We stress the role played by the three-body nucleon interaction, which produces a strong repulsion at high densities. This enhances enormously the hyperon population, and produces a strong softening of the equation of state, which turns out almost independent on the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We use the new equation of state in order to calculate the structure of static neutron stars. We obtain a maximum mass configuration with $M_{\\rm max}$ = 1.26 (1.22) when the Paris ($Av_{18}$) nucleon potential is adopted. Central densities are about 10 times normal nuclear matter density. Stellar rotations, treated within a perturbative approach, increase the value ...

  11. Instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter Equation and Its Exact Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Chao-Hsi; CHEN Jiao-Kai; LI Xue-Qian; WANG Guo-Li

    2005-01-01

    We present an approach to solve Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equations exactly without any approximation if the kernel of the BS equations exactly is instantaneous, and take positronium as an example to illustrate the general features of the exact solutions. The key step for the approach is from the BS equations to derive a set of coupled and welldetermined integration equations in linear eigenvalue for the components of the BS wave functions equivalently, which may be solvable numerically under a controlled accuracy, even though there is no analytic solution. For positronium,the exact solutions precisely present corrections to those of the corresponding Schrodinger equation in order v1 (v is the relative velocity) for eigenfunctions, in order v2 for eigenvalues, and the mixing between S and D components in JPC = 1- states etc., quantitatively. Moreover, we also point out that there is a questionable step in some existent derivations for the instantaneous BS equations if one is pursuing the exact solutions. Finally, we emphasize that one should take the O(v) corrections emerging in the exact solutions into account accordingly if one is interested in the relativistic corrections for relevant problems to the bound states.

  12. A systematic approach to sketch Bethe-Salpeter equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Si-xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study meson properties, one needs to solve the gap equation for the quark propagator and the Bethe-Salpeter (BS equation for the meson wavefunction, self-consistently. The gluon propagator, the quark-gluon vertex, and the quark–anti-quark scattering kernel are key pieces to solve those equations. Predicted by lattice-QCD and Dyson-Schwinger analyses of QCD’s gauge sector, gluons are non-perturbatively massive. In the matter sector, the modeled gluon propagator which can produce a veracious description of meson properties needs to possess a mass scale, accordingly. Solving the well-known longitudinal Ward-Green-Takahashi identities (WGTIs and the less-known transverse counterparts together, one obtains a nontrivial solution which can shed light on the structure of the quark-gluon vertex. It is highlighted that the phenomenologically proposed anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM vertex originates from the QCD Lagrangian symmetries and its strength is proportional to the magnitude of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB. The color-singlet vector and axial-vector WGTIs can relate the BS kernel and the dressed quark-gluon vertex to each other. Using the relation, one can truncate the gap equation and the BS equation, systematically, without violating crucial symmetries, e.g., gauge symmetry and chiral symmetry.

  13. Efficient implementation of core-excitation Bethe Salpeter equation calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Gilmore, K; Shirley, E L; Prendergast, D; Pemmaraju, C D; Kas, J J; Vila, F D; Rehr, J J

    2016-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) method for obtaining core-level spectra including x-ray absorption (XAS), x-ray emission (XES), and both resonant and non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectra (N/RIXS). Calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT) electronic structures generated either by abinit or Quantumespresso, both plane-wave basis, pseudopotential codes. This electronic structure is improved through the inclusion of a GW self energy. The projector augmented wave technique is used to evaluate transition matrix elements between core-level and band states. Final two-particle scattering states are obtained with the NIST core-level BSE solver (NBSE). We have previously reported this implementation, which we refer to as ocean (Obtaining Core Excitations from Ab initio electronic structure and NBSE) [Phys. Rev. B 83, 115106 (2011)]. Here, we present additional efficiencies that enable us to evaluate spectra for systems ten times larger than previous...

  14. A systematic approach to sketch Bethe-Salpeter equation

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Si-xue

    2016-01-01

    To study meson properties, one needs to solve the gap equation for the quark propagator and the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the meson wavefunction, self-consistently. The gluon propagator, the quark-gluon vertex, and the quark--anti-quark scattering kernel are key pieces to solve those equations. Predicted by lattice-QCD and Dyson-Schwinger analyses of QCD's gauge sector, gluons are non-perturbatively massive. In the matter sector, the modeled gluon propagator which can produce a veracious description of meson properties needs to possess a mass scale, accordingly. Solving the well-known longitudinal Ward-Green-Takahashi identities (WGTIs) and the less-known transverse counterparts together, one obtains a nontrivial solution which can shed light on the structure of the quark-gluon vertex. It is highlighted that the phenomenologically proposed anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) vertex originates from the QCD Lagrangian symmetries and its strength is proportional to the magnitude of dynamical chiral symm...

  15. Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2013-08-01

    Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P∞ and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P∞ and S, the critical exponents βk and γk for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, βk and γk are the critical exponents for P∞ and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are β2 = 1.79(3), γ2 = 0.88(1), β3 = 1.35(5) and γ3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (β∞ = 1 and γ∞ = 1), we also find β∞ γ3 > γ2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.

  16. Derived equivalence of algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜先能

    1997-01-01

    The derived equivalence and stable equivalence of algebras RmA and RmB are studied It is proved, using the tilting complex, that RmA and RmB are derived-equivalent whenever algebras A and B are derived-equivalent

  17. Ready, Set, Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Alissa Beth

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education (CDE) has long asserted that success Algebra I by Grade 8 is the goal for all California public school students. In fact, the state's accountability system penalizes schools that do not require all of their students to take the Algebra I end-of-course examination by Grade 8 (CDE, 2009). In this dissertation,…

  18. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  19. Who Takes College Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriott, Scott R.; Dunbar, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The common understanding within the mathematics community is that the role of the college algebra course is to prepare students for calculus. Though exceptions are emerging, the curriculum of most college algebra courses and the content of most textbooks on the market both reflect that assumption. This article calls that assumption into question…

  20. Ready, Set, Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Alissa Beth

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education (CDE) has long asserted that success Algebra I by Grade 8 is the goal for all California public school students. In fact, the state's accountability system penalizes schools that do not require all of their students to take the Algebra I end-of-course examination by Grade 8 (CDE, 2009). In this…

  1. Introduction to noncommutative algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Brešar, Matej

    2014-01-01

    Providing an elementary introduction to noncommutative rings and algebras, this textbook begins with the classical theory of finite dimensional algebras. Only after this, modules, vector spaces over division rings, and tensor products are introduced and studied. This is followed by Jacobson's structure theory of rings. The final chapters treat free algebras, polynomial identities, and rings of quotients. Many of the results are not presented in their full generality. Rather, the emphasis is on clarity of exposition and simplicity of the proofs, with several being different from those in other texts on the subject. Prerequisites are kept to a minimum, and new concepts are introduced gradually and are carefully motivated. Introduction to Noncommutative Algebra is therefore accessible to a wide mathematical audience. It is, however, primarily intended for beginning graduate and advanced undergraduate students encountering noncommutative algebra for the first time.

  2. Elements of mathematics algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Bourbaki, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    This is a softcover reprint of the English translation of 1990 of the revised and expanded version of Bourbaki's, Algèbre, Chapters 4 to 7 (1981). This completes Algebra, 1 to 3, by establishing the theories of commutative fields and modules over a principal ideal domain. Chapter 4 deals with polynomials, rational fractions and power series. A section on symmetric tensors and polynomial mappings between modules, and a final one on symmetric functions, have been added. Chapter 5 was entirely rewritten. After the basic theory of extensions (prime fields, algebraic, algebraically closed, radical extension), separable algebraic extensions are investigated, giving way to a section on Galois theory. Galois theory is in turn applied to finite fields and abelian extensions. The chapter then proceeds to the study of general non-algebraic extensions which cannot usually be found in textbooks: p-bases, transcendental extensions, separability criterions, regular extensions. Chapter 6 treats ordered groups and fields and...

  3. The Planar Algebra of a Semisimple and Cosemisimple Hopf Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay Kodiyalam; V S Sunder

    2006-11-01

    To a semisimple and cosemisimple Hopf algebra over an algebraically closed field, we associate a planar algebra defined by generators and relations and show that it is a connected, irreducible, spherical, non-degenerate planar algebra with non-zero modulus and of depth two. This association is shown to yield a bijection between (the isomorphism classes, on both sides, of) such objects.

  4. Graded Lie Algebra Generating of Parastatistical Algebraic Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Si-Cong; YANG Wei-Min; LI Ping

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of graded Lie algebra (We call it Z2,2 graded Lie algebra) is introduced as a framework for formulating parasupersymmetric theories. By choosing suitable Bose subspace of the Z2,2 graded Lie algebra and using relevant generalized Jacobi identities, we generate the whole algebraic structure of parastatistics.

  5. Leibniz algebras associated with representations of filiform Lie algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayupov, Sh. A.; Camacho, L. M.; Khudoyberdiyev, A. Kh.; Omirov, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we investigate Leibniz algebras whose quotient Lie algebra is a naturally graded filiform Lie algebra nn,1. We introduce a Fock module for the algebra nn,1 and provide classification of Leibniz algebras L whose corresponding Lie algebra L / I is the algebra nn,1 with condition that the ideal I is a Fock nn,1-module, where I is the ideal generated by squares of elements from L. We also consider Leibniz algebras with corresponding Lie algebra nn,1 and such that the action I ×nn,1 → I gives rise to a minimal faithful representation of nn,1. The classification up to isomorphism of such Leibniz algebras is given for the case of n = 4.

  6. On Linear Algebra Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan AYDIN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Linear algebra is a basic course followed in mathematics, science, and engineering university departments.Generally, this course is taken in either the first or second year but there have been difficulties in teachingand learning. This type of active algebra has resulted in an increase in research by mathematics educationresearchers. But there is insufficient information on this subject in Turkish and therefore it has not beengiven any educational status. This paper aims to give a general overview of this subject in teaching andlearning. These education studies can be considered quadruple: a the history of linear algebra, b formalismobstacles of linear algebra and cognitive flexibility to improve teaching and learning, c the relation betweenlinear algebra and geometry, d using technology in the teaching and learning linear algebra.Mathematicseducation researchers cannot provide an absolute solution to overcome the teaching and learning difficultiesof linear algebra. Epistemological analyses and experimental teaching have shown the learning difficulties.Given these results, further advice and assistance can be offered locally.

  7. Linear algebraic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Springer, T A

    1998-01-01

    "[The first] ten chapters...are an efficient, accessible, and self-contained introduction to affine algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. The author includes exercises and the book is certainly usable by graduate students as a text or for self-study...the author [has a] student-friendly style… [The following] seven chapters... would also be a good introduction to rationality issues for algebraic groups. A number of results from the literature…appear for the first time in a text." –Mathematical Reviews (Review of the Second Edition) "This book is a completely new version of the first edition. The aim of the old book was to present the theory of linear algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. Reading that book, many people entered the research field of linear algebraic groups. The present book has a wider scope. Its aim is to treat the theory of linear algebraic groups over arbitrary fields. Again, the author keeps the treatment of prerequisites self-contained. The material of t...

  8. Comment on ``New ansatz for metric operator calculation in pseudo-Hermitian field theory''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M.; Benincasa, Gregorio; Jones, H. F.

    2009-12-01

    In a recent Brief Report by Shalaby, a new first-order perturbative calculation of the metric operator for an iϕ3 scalar field theory is given. It is claimed that the incorporation of derivative terms in the ansatz for the metric operator results in a local solution, in contrast to the nonlocal solution previously obtained by Bender, Brody, and Jones. Unfortunately, Shalaby’s calculation is not valid because of sign errors.

  9. On dibaric and evolution algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ladra, M; Rozikov, U A

    2011-01-01

    We find conditions on ideals of an algebra under which the algebra is dibaric. Dibaric algebras have not non-zero homomorphisms to the set of the real numbers. We introduce a concept of bq-homomorphism (which is given by two linear maps $f, g$ of the algebra to the set of the real numbers) and show that an algebra is dibaric if and only if it admits a non-zero bq-homomorphism. Using the pair $(f,g)$ we define conservative algebras and establish criteria for a dibaric algebra to be conservative. Moreover, the notions of a Bernstein algebra and an algebra induced by a linear operator are introduced and relations between these algebras are studied. For dibaric algebras we describe a dibaric algebra homomorphism and study their properties by bq-homomorphisms of the dibaric algebras. We apply the results to the (dibaric) evolution algebra of a bisexual population. For this dibaric algebra we describe all possible bq-homomorphisms and find conditions under which the algebra of a bisexual population is induced by a ...

  10. Classification of Noncommutative Domain Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Noncommutative domain algebras are noncommutative analogues of the algebras of holomorphic functions on domains of $\\C^n$ defined by holomorphic polynomials, and they generalize the noncommutative Hardy algebras. We present here a complete classification of these algebras based upon techniques inspired by multivariate complex analysis, and more specifically the classification of domains in hermitian spaces up to biholomorphic equivalence.

  11. Process algebra for Hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg [Process Algebra with Timing, Springer, Chap. 4, 2002] and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra [Theoretical Computer

  12. Process algebra for hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg (Process Algebra with Timing, Springer,Berlin, 2002, Chapter 4), and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra(Theoret. Com

  13. Brauer algebras of type B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.M.; Liu, S.

    2015-01-01

    For each n ≥ 1, we define an algebra having many properties that one might expect to hold for a Brauer algebra of type Bn. It is defined by means of a presentation by generators and relations. We show that this algebra is a subalgebra of the Brauer algebra of type Dn+1 and point out a cellular struc

  14. Symplectic algebraic dynamics algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the algebraic dynamics solution of ordinary differential equations andintegration of  ,the symplectic algebraic dynamics algorithm sn is designed,which preserves the local symplectic geometric structure of a Hamiltonian systemand possesses the same precision of the na ve algebraic dynamics algorithm n.Computer experiments for the 4th order algorithms are made for five test modelsand the numerical results are compared with the conventional symplectic geometric algorithm,indicating that sn has higher precision,the algorithm-inducedphase shift of the conventional symplectic geometric algorithm can be reduced,and the dynamical fidelity can be improved by one order of magnitude.

  15. Bundles of Banach algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kitchen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We study bundles of Banach algebras π:A→X, where each fiber Ax=π−1({x} is a Banach algebra and X is a compact Hausdorff space. In the case where all fibers are commutative, we investigate how the Gelfand representation of the section space algebra Γ(π relates to the Gelfand representation of the fibers. In the general case, we investigate how adjoining an identity to the bundle π:A→X relates to the standard adjunction of identities to the fibers.

  16. Matrices and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  17. On isomorphisms of integral table algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Yun(樊恽); SUN; Daying(孙大英)

    2002-01-01

    For integral table algebras with integral table basis T, we can consider integral R-algebra RT over a subring R of the ring of the algebraic integers. It is proved that an R-algebra isomorphism between two integral table algebras must be an integral table algebra isomorphism if it is compatible with the so-called normalizings of the integral table algebras.

  18. Introduction to algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    This Second Edition of a classic algebra text includes updated and comprehensive introductory chapters,. new material on axiom of Choice, p-groups and local rings, discussion of theory and applications, and over 300 exercises. It is an ideal introductory text for all Year 1 and 2 undergraduate students in mathematics. - ;Developed to meet the needs of modern students, this Second Edition of the classic algebra text by Peter Cameron covers all the abstract algebra an undergraduate student is likely to need. Starting with an introductory overview of numbers, sets and functions, matrices, polynomials, and modular arithmetic, the text then introduces the most important algebraic structures: groups, rings and fields, and their properties. This is followed by coverage of vector spaces and modules with. applications to abelian groups and canonical forms before returning to the construction of the number systems, including the existence of transcendental numbers. The final chapters take the reader further into the th...

  19. The Algebra of -relations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay Kodiyalam; R Srinivasan; V S Sunder

    2000-08-01

    In this paper, we study a tower $\\{A^G_n(d):n≥ 1\\}$ of finite-dimensional algebras; here, represents an arbitrary finite group, denotes a complex parameter, and the algebra $A^G_n(d)$ has a basis indexed by `-stable equivalence relations' on a set where acts freely and has 2 orbits. We show that the algebra $A^G_n(d)$ is semi-simple for all but a finite set of values of , and determine the representation theory (or, equivalently, the decomposition into simple summands) of this algebra in the `generic case'. Finally we determine the Bratteli diagram of the tower $\\{A^G_n(d): n≥ 1\\}$ (in the generic case).

  20. Weyl n-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markarian, Nikita

    2017-03-01

    We introduce Weyl n-algebras and show how their factorization complex may be used to define invariants of manifolds. In the appendix, we heuristically explain why these invariants must be perturbative Chern-Simons invariants.

  1. Linear algebra done right

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  2. Parametrizing Algebraic Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmermeyer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    We present the technique of parametrization of plane algebraic curves from a number theorist's point of view and present Kapferer's simple and beautiful (but little known) proof that nonsingular curves of degree > 2 cannot be parametrized by rational functions.

  3. Beginning algebra a textworkbook

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1985-01-01

    Beginning Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in algebra. The publication first elaborates on the basics, linear equations and inequalities, and graphing and linear systems. Discussions focus on solving linear systems by graphing, elimination method, graphing ordered pairs and straight lines, linear and compound inequalities, addition and subtraction of real numbers, and properties of real numbers. The text then examines exponents and polynomials, factoring, and rational expressions. Topics include multiplication and division

  4. Intermediate algebra a textworkbook

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in intermediate algebra. The publication first takes a look at basic properties and definitions, first-degree equations and inequalities, and exponents and polynomials. Discussions focus on properties of exponents, polynomials, sums, and differences, multiplication of polynomials, inequalities involving absolute value, word problems, first-degree inequalities, real numbers, opposites, reciprocals, and absolute value, and addition and subtraction of real numbers. The text then ex

  5. Summing Boolean Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio AIZPURU; Antonio GUTI(E)RREZ-D(A)VILA

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we will study some families and subalgebras ( ) of ( )(N) that let us characterize the unconditional convergence of series through the weak convergence of subseries ∑i∈A xi, A ∈ ( ).As a consequence, we obtain a new version of the Orlicz-Pettis theorem, for Banach spaces. We also study some relationships between algebraic properties of Boolean algebras and topological properties of the corresponding Stone spaces.

  6. Introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, W Keith

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ". . . an expository masterpiece of the highest didactic value that has gained additional attractivity through the various improvements . . ."-Zentralblatt MATH The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Abstract Algebra continues to provide an accessible approach to the basic structures of abstract algebra: groups, rings, and fields. The book's unique presentation helps readers advance to abstract theory by presenting concrete examples of induction, number theory, integers modulo n, and permutations before the abstract structures are defined. Readers can immediately be

  7. Noncommutative algebra and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    De Concini, Corrado; Vavilov, Nikolai 0

    2005-01-01

    Finite Galois Stable Subgroups of Gln. Derived Categories for Nodal Rings and Projective Configurations. Crowns in Profinite Groups and Applications. The Galois Structure of Ambiguous Ideals in Cyclic Extensions of Degree 8. An Introduction to Noncommutative Deformations of Modules. Symmetric Functions, Noncommutative Symmetric Functions and Quasisymmetric Functions II. Quotient Grothendieck Representations. On the Strong Rigidity of Solvable Lie Algebras. The Role of Bergman in Invesigating Identities in Matrix Algebras with Symplectic Involution. The Triangular Structure of Ladder Functors.

  8. Generalized braided Hopf algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-jian; FANG Xiao-li

    2009-01-01

    The concept of (f, σ)-pair (B, H)is introduced, where B and H are Hopf algebras. A braided tensor category which is a tensor subcategory of the category HM of left H-comodules through an (f, σ)-pair is constructed. In particularly, a Yang-Baxter equation is got. A Hopf algebra is constructed as well in the Yetter-Drinfel'd category HHYD by twisting the multiplication of B.

  9. Elementary linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Andrilli, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Elementary Linear Algebra develops and explains in careful detail the computational techniques and fundamental theoretical results central to a first course in linear algebra. This highly acclaimed text focuses on developing the abstract thinking essential for further mathematical study. The authors give early, intensive attention to the skills necessary to make students comfortable with mathematical proofs. The text builds a gradual and smooth transition from computational results to general theory of abstract vector spaces. It also provides flexbile coverage of practical applications, expl

  10. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  11. Form factors of the monodromy matrix entries in gl(2|1)-invariant integrable models

    CERN Document Server

    Hutsalyuk, A; Pakuliak, S Z; Ragoucy, E; Slavnov, N A

    2016-01-01

    We study integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and described by $\\mathfrak{gl}(2|1)$ or $\\mathfrak{gl}(1|2)$ superalgebras. We obtain explicit determinant representations for form factors of the monodromy matrix entries. We show that all form factors are related to each other at special limits of the Bethe parameters. Our results allow one to obtain determinant formulas for form factors of local operators in the supersymmetric t-J model.

  12. Slavnov and Gaudin-Korepin formulas for models without U (1) symmetry: the XXX chain on the segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliard, S.; Pimenta, R. A.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the isotropic spin -\\frac{1}{2} Heisenberg chain with the most general integrable boundaries. The scalar product between the on-shell Bethe vector and its off-shell dual, obtained by means of the modified algebraic Bethe ansatz, is given by a modified Slavnov formula. The corresponding Gaudin-Korepin formula, i.e., the square of the norm, is also obtained.

  13. Form factors of the monodromy matrix entries in gl (2 | 1)-invariant integrable models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsalyuk, A.; Liashyk, A.; Pakuliak, S. Z.; Ragoucy, E.; Slavnov, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    We study integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and described by gl (2 | 1) or gl (1 | 2) superalgebras. We obtain explicit determinant representations for form factors of the monodromy matrix entries. We show that all form factors are related to each other at special limits of the Bethe parameters. Our results allow one to obtain determinant formulas for form factors of local operators in the supersymmetric t- J model.

  14. Differential Hopf algebra structures on the universal enveloping algebra of a lie algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Hijligenberg, van den, N.W.; Martini, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss a method to construct a De Rham complex (differential algebra) of Poincar'e-Birkhoff-Witt-type on the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra $g$. We determine the cases in which this gives rise to a differential Hopf algebra that naturally extends the Hopf algebra structure of $U(g)$. The construction of such differential structures is interpreted in terms of colour Lie superalgebras.

  15. Topological ∗-algebras with *-enveloping Algebras II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Bhatt

    2001-02-01

    Universal *-algebras *() exist for certain topological ∗-algebras called algebras with a *-enveloping algebra. A Frechet ∗-algebra has a *-enveloping algebra if and only if every operator representation of maps into bounded operators. This is proved by showing that every unbounded operator representation , continuous in the uniform topology, of a topological ∗-algebra , which is an inverse limit of Banach ∗-algebras, is a direct sum of bounded operator representations, thereby factoring through the enveloping pro-* algebra () of . Given a *-dynamical system (, , ), any topological ∗-algebra containing (, ) as a dense ∗-subalgebra and contained in the crossed product *-algebra *(, , ) satisfies ()=*(, , ). If $G = \\mathbb{R}$, if is an -invariant dense Frechet ∗-subalgebra of such that () = , and if the action on is -tempered, smooth and by continuous ∗-automorphisms: then the smooth Schwartz crossed product $S(\\mathbb{R}, B, )$ satisfies $E(S(\\mathbb{R}, B, )) = C^*(\\mathbb{R}, A, )$. When is a Lie group, the ∞-elements ∞(), the analytic elements () as well as the entire analytic elements () carry natural topologies making them algebras with a *-enveloping algebra. Given a non-unital *-algebra , an inductive system of ideals is constructed satisfying $A = C^*-\\mathrm{ind} \\lim I_$; and the locally convex inductive limit $\\mathrm{ind}\\lim I_$ is an -convex algebra with the *-enveloping algebra and containing the Pedersen ideal of . Given generators with weakly Banach admissible relations , we construct universal topological ∗-algebra (, ) and show that it has a *-enveloping algebra if and only if (, ) is *-admissible.

  16. L-o cto-algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Hui-hui; Wang Zhi-chun

    2016-01-01

    L-octo-algebra with 8 operations as the Lie algebraic analogue of octo-algebra such that the sum of 8 operations is a Lie algebra is discussed. Any octo-algebra is an L-octo-algebra. The relationships among L-octo-algebras, L-quadri-algebras, L-dendriform algebras, pre-Lie algebras and Lie algebras are given. The close relationships between L-octo-algebras and some interesting structures like Rota-Baxter operators, classical Yang-Baxter equations and some bilinear forms satisfying certain conditions are given also.

  17. Topologically Twisted SUSY Gauge Theory, Gauge-Bethe Correspondence and Quantum Cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Hee-Joong

    2016-01-01

    We calculate partition function and correlation functions in A-twisted 2d $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ theories and topologically twisted 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ theories containing adjoint chiral multiplet with particular choices of $R$-charges and the magnetic fluxes for flavor symmetries. According to Gauge-Bethe correspondence, they correspond to Heisenberg XXX and XXZ spin chain models. We identify the partition function as the inverse of the norm of the Bethe eigenstates. Correlation functions are identified as the coefficients of the expectation value of Baxter $Q$-operators. In addition, we consider correlation functions of 2d $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)^*$ theory and their relation to equivariant quantum cohomology and equivariant integration of cotangent bundle of Grassmann manifolds. Also, we study the ring relations of supersymmetric Wilson loops in 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2^*$ theory and Bethe subalgebra of XXZ spin chain model.

  18. Universal Algebra Applied to Hom-Associative Algebras, and More

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Lars; Makhlouf, Abdenacer; Silvestrov, Sergei D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the universal algebra theory of hom-algebras. This kind of algebra involves a linear map which twists the usual identities. We focus on hom-associative algebras and hom-Lie algebras for which we review the main results. We discuss the envelopment problem, operads, and the Diamond Lemma; the usual tools have to be adapted to this new situation. Moreover we study Hilbert series for the hom-associative operad and free algebra, and describe them up to total...

  19. Axis Problem of Rough 3-Valued Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Dai; Weidong Chen; Yunhe Pan

    2006-01-01

    The collection of all the rough sets of an approximation space has been given several algebraic interpretations, including Stone algebras, regular double Stone algebras, semi-simple Nelson algebras, pre-rough algebras and 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras. A 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a Stone algebra, a regular double Stone algebra, a semi-simple Nelson algebra, a pre-rough algebra. Thus, we call the algebra constructed by the collection of rough sets of an approximation space a rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra. In this paper,the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, which are a special kind of 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, are studied. Whether the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a axled 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is examined.

  20. Modified Bethe formula for low-energy electron stopping power without fitting parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Truong, Hieu T

    2015-02-01

    We propose a modified Bethe formula for low-energy electron stopping power without fitting parameters for a wide range of elements and compounds. This formula maintains the generality of the Bethe formula and gives reasonable agreement in comparing the predicted stopping powers for 15 elements and 6 compounds with the experimental data and those calculated within dielectric theory including the exchange effect. Use of the stopping power obtained from this formula for hydrogen silsesquioxane in Monte Carlo simulation gives the energy deposition distribution in consistent with the experimental data.

  1. A Novel Approach in Solving the Spinor-Spinor Bethe-Salpeter Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Dorkin, S M; Semikh, S S; Kaptari, L P

    2008-01-01

    To solve the spinor-spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation in Euclidean space we propose a novel method related to the use of hyperspherical harmonics. We suggest an appropriate extension to form a new basis of spin-angular harmonics that is suitable for a representation of the vertex functions. We present a numerical algorithm to solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation and investigate in detail the properties of the solution for the scalar, pseudoscalar and vector meson exchange kernels including the stability of bound states. We also compare our results to the non relativistic ones and to the results given by light front dynamics.

  2. Simple algebras of Weyl type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Over a field F of arbitrary characteristic, we define the associative and the Lie algebras of Weyl type on the same vector space A[D]=A[D] from any pair of a commutative associative algebra A with an identity element and the polynomial algebra [D] of a commutative derivation subalgebra D of A. We prove that A[D], as a Lie algebra (modulo its center) or as an associative algebra, is simple if and only if A is D-simple and A[D] acts faithfully on A. Thus we obtain a lot of simple algebras.

  3. Algebra II workbook for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    To succeed in Algebra II, start practicing now Algebra II builds on your Algebra I skills to prepare you for trigonometry, calculus, and a of myriad STEM topics. Working through practice problems helps students better ingest and retain lesson content, creating a solid foundation to build on for future success. Algebra II Workbook For Dummies, 2nd Edition helps you learn Algebra II by doing Algebra II. Author and math professor Mary Jane Sterling walks you through the entire course, showing you how to approach and solve the problems you encounter in class. You'll begin by refreshing your Algebr

  4. Simple Algebras of Invariant Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaorong Shen; J.D.H. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Comtrans algebras were introduced in as algebras with two trilinear operators, a commutator [x, y, z] and a translator , which satisfy certain identities. Previously known simple comtrans algebras arise from rectangular matrices, simple Lie algebras, spaces equipped with a bilinear form having trivial radical, spaces of hermitian operators over a field with a minimum polynomial x2+1. This paper is about generalizing the hermitian case to the so-called invariant case. The main result of this paper shows that the vector space of n-dimensional invariant operators furnishes some comtrans algebra structures, which are simple provided that certain Jordan and Lie algebras are simple.

  5. Interactions Between Representation Ttheory, Algebraic Topology and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Pitsch, Wolfgang; Zarzuela, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This book includes 33 expanded abstracts of selected talks given at the two workshops "Homological Bonds Between Commutative Algebra and Representation Theory" and "Brave New Algebra: Opening Perspectives," and the conference "Opening Perspectives in Algebra, Representations, and Topology," held at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona between January and June 2015. These activities were part of the one-semester intensive research program "Interactions Between Representation Theory, Algebraic Topology and Commutative Algebra (IRTATCA)." Most of the abstracts present preliminary versions of not-yet published results and cover a large number of topics (including commutative and non commutative algebra, algebraic topology, singularity theory, triangulated categories, representation theory) overlapping with homological methods. This comprehensive book is a valuable resource for the community of researchers interested in homological algebra in a broad sense, and those curious to learn the latest dev...

  6. Exact solution of the relativistic quantum Toda chain

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xin; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2016-01-01

    The relativistic quantum Toda chain model is studied with the generalized algebraic Bethe Ansatz method. By employing a set of local gauge transformations, proper local vacuum states can be obtained for this model. The exact spectrum and eigenstates of the model are thus constructed simultaneously.

  7. Bound state transfer matrix for AdS5 × S5 superstring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutyunov, G.E.; de Leeuw, M.; Suzuki, R.; Torrielli, A.

    2009-01-01

    We apply the algebraic Bethe ansatz technique to compute the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix constructed from the general bound state S-matrix of the light-cone AdS5 × S5 superstring. This allows us to verify certain conjectures on the quantum characteristic function, and to extend them to the ge

  8. Deng-Fan Potential for Relativistic Spinless Particles -- an Ansatz Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Hassanabadi; B.H. Yazarloo; S. Zarrinkamar; H. Rahimov

    2012-01-01

    Deng-Fan potential originally appeared many years ago as an attractive proposition for molecular systems. On the contrary to the ground state of one-dimensional Schr6dinger equation, this potential fails to admit exact analytical solutions for arbitrary quantum number in both relativistic and nonrelativistic regime. Because of this complexity, there exists only few papers, which discuss this interesting problem. Here, using an elegant ansatz, we have calculated the system spectra as well as the eigenfunctions in the general case of unequal vector and scalar potentials under Klein-Gordon equation.

  9. The Generalized Coherent State ansatz: Application to quantum electron-vibrational dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Raffaele; Gelin, Maxim F.

    2016-12-01

    A new ansatz for molecular vibronic wave functions based on a superposition of time-dependent Generalized Coherent States is developed and analysed. The methodology is specifically tailored to describe the time evolution of the wave function of a system in which several interacting electronic states are coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators. The equations of motion for the wave packet parameters are obtained by using the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle. The methodology is used to describe the quantum dynamical behavior of a model polaron system and its scaling and convergence properties are discussed and compared with numerically exact results.

  10. Continuous Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz as Holographic Surface-State Correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Masamichi; Numasawa, Tokiro; Shiba, Noburo; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento

    2015-10-01

    We present how the surface-state correspondence, conjectured by Miyaji and Takayanagi, works in the setup of AdS3/CFT2 by generalizing the formulation of a continuous multiscale entanglement renormalization group ansatz. The boundary states in conformal field theories play a crucial role in our formulation and the bulk diffeomorphism is naturally taken into account. We give an identification of bulk local operators which reproduces correct scalar field solutions on AdS3 and bulk scalar propagators. We also calculate the information metric for a locally excited state and show that it reproduces the time slice of AdS3.

  11. First-principles Theory of the Momentum-dependent Local Ansatz for Correlated Electron System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sumal; Kakehashi, Yoshiro

    The momentum-dependent local-ansatz (MLA) wavefunction describes well correlated electrons in solids in both the weak and strong interaction regimes. In order to apply the theory to the realistic system, we have extended the MLA to the first-principles version using the tight-binding LDA+U Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for the paramagnetic Fe that the first-principles MLA can describe a reasonable correlation energy gain and suppression of charge fluctuations due to electron correlations. Furthermore, we show that the MLA yields a distinct momentum dependence of the momentum distribution, and thus improves the Gutzwiller wavefunction.

  12. Structure of Solvable Quadratic Lie Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lin-sheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Killing form plays a key role in the theory of semisimple Lie algebras. It is natural to extend the study to Lie algebras with a nondegenerate symmetric invariant bilinear form. Such a Lie algebra is generally called a quadratic Lie algebra which occur naturally in physics[10,12,13]. Besides semisimple Lie algebras, interesting quadratic Lie algebras include the Kac-Moody algebras and the Extended Affine Lie algebras.

  13. Algebraic orders on $K_{0}$ and approximately finite operator algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Power, S C

    1993-01-01

    This is a revised and corrected version of a preprint circulated in 1990 in which various non-self-adjoint limit algebras are classified. The principal invariant is the scaled $K_0$ group together with the algebraic order on the scale induced by partial isometries in the algebra.

  14. Approximate Preservers on Banach Algebras and C*-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burgos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to give approximate versions of Hua’s theorem and other related results for Banach algebras and C*-algebras. We also study linear maps approximately preserving the conorm between unital C*-algebras.

  15. The Planar Algebra Associated to a Kac Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay Kodiyalam; Zeph Landau; V S Sunder

    2003-02-01

    We obtain (two equivalent) presentations – in terms of generators and relations-of the planar algebra associated with the subfactor corresponding to (an outer action on a factor by) a finite-dimensional Kac algebra. One of the relations shows that the antipode of the Kac algebra agrees with the `rotation on 2-boxes'.

  16. Abstract Algebra for Algebra Teaching: Influencing School Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential for aspects of abstract algebra to be influential for the teaching of school algebra (and early algebra). Using national standards for analysis, four primary areas common in school mathematics--and their progression across elementary, middle, and secondary mathematics--where teaching may be transformed by…

  17. Derived Algebraic Geometry II: Noncommutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Lurie, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present an infinity-categorical version of the theory of monoidal categories. We show that the infinity category of spectra admits an essentially unique monoidal structure (such that the tensor product preserves colimits in each variable), and thereby recover the classical smash-product operation on spectra. We develop a general theory of algebras in a monoidal infinity category, which we use to (re)prove some basic results in the theory of associative ring spectra. We also develop an infinity-categorical theory of monads, and prove a version of the Barr-Beck theorem.

  18. Resonant algebras and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Durka, R

    2016-01-01

    We explore the $S$-expansion framework to analyze freedom in closing the multiplication tables for the abelian semigroups. Including possibility of the zero element in the resonant decomposition and relating the Lorentz generator with the semigroup identity element leads to the wide class of the expanded Lie algebras introducing interesting modifications to the gauge gravity theories. Among the results we find not only all the Maxwell algebras of type $\\mathfrak{B}_m$, $\\mathfrak{C}_m$, and recently introduced $\\mathfrak{D}_m$, but we also produce new examples. We discuss some prospects concerning further enlarging the algebras and provide all necessary constituents for constructing the gravity actions based on the obtained results.

  19. Resonant algebras and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durka, R.

    2017-04-01

    The S-expansion framework is analyzed in the context of a freedom in closing the multiplication tables for the abelian semigroups. Including the possibility of the zero element in the resonant decomposition, and associating the Lorentz generator with the semigroup identity element, leads to a wide class of the expanded Lie algebras introducing interesting modifications to the gauge gravity theories. Among the results, we find all the Maxwell algebras of type {{B}m} , {{C}m} , and the recently introduced {{D}m} . The additional new examples complete the resulting generalization of the bosonic enlargements for an arbitrary number of the Lorentz-like and translational-like generators. Some further prospects concerning enlarging the algebras are discussed, along with providing all the necessary constituents for constructing the gravity actions based on the obtained results.

  20. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  1. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J

    2004-04-09

    Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

  2. Algebraic totality, towards completeness

    CERN Document Server

    Tasson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Finiteness spaces constitute a categorical model of Linear Logic (LL) whose objects can be seen as linearly topologised spaces, (a class of topological vector spaces introduced by Lefschetz in 1942) and morphisms as continuous linear maps. First, we recall definitions of finiteness spaces and describe their basic properties deduced from the general theory of linearly topologised spaces. Then we give an interpretation of LL based on linear algebra. Second, thanks to separation properties, we can introduce an algebraic notion of totality candidate in the framework of linearly topologised spaces: a totality candidate is a closed affine subspace which does not contain 0. We show that finiteness spaces with totality candidates constitute a model of classical LL. Finally, we give a barycentric simply typed lambda-calculus, with booleans ${\\mathcal{B}}$ and a conditional operator, which can be interpreted in this model. We prove completeness at type ${\\mathcal{B}}^n\\to{\\mathcal{B}}$ for every n by an algebraic metho...

  3. Nearly projective Boolean algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Heindorf, Lutz; Shapiro, Leonid B

    1994-01-01

    The book is a fairly complete and up-to-date survey of projectivity and its generalizations in the class of Boolean algebras. Although algebra adds its own methods and questions, many of the results presented were first proved by topologists in the more general setting of (not necessarily zero-dimensional) compact spaces. An appendix demonstrates the application of advanced set-theoretic methods to the field. The intended readers are Boolean and universal algebraists. The book will also be useful for general topologists wanting to learn about kappa-metrizable spaces and related classes. The text is practically self-contained but assumes experience with the basic concepts and techniques of Boolean algebras.

  4. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Frazer

    2014-01-01

    The technical difficulties of algebraic number theory often make this subject appear difficult to beginners. This undergraduate textbook provides a welcome solution to these problems as it provides an approachable and thorough introduction to the topic. Algebraic Number Theory takes the reader from unique factorisation in the integers through to the modern-day number field sieve. The first few chapters consider the importance of arithmetic in fields larger than the rational numbers. Whilst some results generalise well, the unique factorisation of the integers in these more general number fields often fail. Algebraic number theory aims to overcome this problem. Most examples are taken from quadratic fields, for which calculations are easy to perform. The middle section considers more general theory and results for number fields, and the book concludes with some topics which are more likely to be suitable for advanced students, namely, the analytic class number formula and the number field sieve. This is the fi...

  5. ηc elastic and transition form factors: Contact interaction and algebraic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedolla, Marco A.; Raya, Khépani; Cobos-Martínez, J. J.; Bashir, Adnan

    2016-05-01

    For the flavor-singlet heavy-quark system of charmonia in the pseudoscalar [ηc(1 S ) ] channel, we calculate the elastic (EFF) and transition form factors (TFFs) [ηc(1 S )→γ γ* ] for a wide range of photon momentum transfer squared (Q2). The framework for this analysis is provided by a symmetry-preserving Schwinger-Dyson equation and Bethe-Salpeter equation treatment of a vector×vector contact interaction. We also employ an algebraic model, developed earlier to describe the light-quark systems. It correctly correlates infrared and ultraviolet dynamics of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The contact interaction results agree with the lattice data for low Q2. For Q2≥Q02 , the results start deviating from the lattice results by more than 20%. Q02≈2.5 GeV2 for the EFF, and ≈25 GeV2 for the TFF. We also present the results for the EFF, TFF, and ηc(1 S ) parton distribution amplitude for the algebraic model. Wherever the comparison is possible, these results are in excellent agreement with the lattice, perturbative QCD, results obtained through a Schwinger-Dyson equation-Bethe-Salpeter equation study, employing refined truncations, and the experimental findings of the BABAR experiment.

  6. Order Units in a *-Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil K Karn

    2003-02-01

    Order unit property of a positive element in a *-algebra is defined. It is proved that precisely projections satisfy this order theoretic property. This way, unital hereditary *-subalgebras of a *-algebra are characterized.

  7. Linear Mappings of Quaternion Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Aleks

    2011-01-01

    In the paper I considered linear and antilinear automorphisms of quaternion algebra. I proved the theorem that there is unique expansion of R-linear mapping of quaternion algebra relative to the given set of linear and antilinear automorphisms.

  8. Computer Program For Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.

  9. Algebra for Gifted Third Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenson, Henry

    1987-01-01

    Elementary school children who are exposed to a concrete, hands-on experience in algebraic linear equations will more readily develop a positive mind-set and expectation for success in later formal, algebraic studies. (CB)

  10. Numerical solution of the spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation and the Goldstein problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Suttorp

    1978-01-01

    The spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation describing bound states of a fermion-antifermion pair with massless-boson exchange reduces to a single (uncoupled) partial differential equation for special combinations of the fermion-boson couplings. For spinless bound states with positive or negative parity this

  11. Exact solutions of the spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation for tightly bound states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    Exact solutions are obtained for the spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation that describes tightly bound states of spin-/sup 1///sub 2/ fermions with massless-boson exchange. The corresponding coupling constants form a discrete spectrum that depends continuously on the parameters characterizing the type of

  12. Normalization and perturbation theory for tightly bound states of the spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Suttorp

    1976-01-01

    The normalisation integrals for the tightly-bound-state solutions of the spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation that have been derived recently are evaluated. Ghost states are found to appear when the continuous parameters characterising the type of fermion-boson interaction reach a critical value. Perturba

  13. The Spin Symmetry of Heavy Baryons in the Framework of the Bethe-Salpeter Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Jian-Ying; JIN Hong-Ying; WU Ji-Min

    2001-01-01

    We study the baryons containing a heavy quark in the framework of Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation. The most general forms of the BS wavefunctions are given. In the heavy-quark limit we simplify the BS equations and we show clearly that the spin symmetry exists in heavy baryon states.``

  14. Automorphism groups of pointed Hopf algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shilin

    2007-01-01

    The group of Hopf algebra automorphisms for a finite-dimensional semisimple cosemisimple Hopf algebra over a field k was considered by Radford and Waterhouse. In this paper, the groups of Hopf algebra automorphisms for two classes of pointed Hopf algebras are determined. Note that the Hopf algebras we consider are not semisimple Hopf algebras.

  15. Elementary algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kendig, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Designed to make learning introductory algebraic geometry as easy as possible, this text is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students who have taken a one-year course in algebra and are familiar with complex analysis. This newly updated second edition enhances the original treatment's extensive use of concrete examples and exercises with numerous figures that have been specially redrawn in Adobe Illustrator. An introductory chapter that focuses on examples of curves is followed by a more rigorous and careful look at plane curves. Subsequent chapters explore commutative ring th

  16. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  17. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  18. Recollements of extension algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Qinghua(陈清华); LIN; Yanan(林亚南)

    2003-01-01

    Let A be a finite-dimensional algebra over arbitrary base field k. We prove: if the unbounded derived module category D-(Mod-A) admits symmetric recollement relative to unbounded derived module categories of two finite-dimensional k-algebras B and C:D-(Mod- B) ( ) D-(Mod- A) ( ) D-(Mod- C),then the unbounded derived module category D-(Mod - T(A)) admits symmetric recollement relative to the unbounded derived module categories of T(B) and T(C):D-(Mod - T(B)) ( ) D-(Mod - T(A)) ( ) D-(Mod - T(C)).

  19. Handbook of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hogben, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    With a substantial amount of new material, the Handbook of Linear Algebra, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of linear algebra concepts, applications, and computational software packages in an easy-to-use format. It guides you from the very elementary aspects of the subject to the frontiers of current research. Along with revisions and updates throughout, the second edition of this bestseller includes 20 new chapters.New to the Second EditionSeparate chapters on Schur complements, additional types of canonical forms, tensors, matrix polynomials, matrix equations, special types of

  20. Advanced linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Cooperstein, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Vector SpacesFieldsThe Space FnVector Spaces over an Arbitrary Field Subspaces of Vector SpacesSpan and IndependenceBases and Finite Dimensional Vector SpacesBases and Infinite Dimensional Vector SpacesCoordinate VectorsLinear TransformationsIntroduction to Linear TransformationsThe Range and Kernel of a Linear TransformationThe Correspondence and Isomorphism TheoremsMatrix of a Linear TransformationThe Algebra of L(V, W) and Mmn(F)Invertible Transformations and MatricesPolynomialsThe Algebra of PolynomialsRoots of PolynomialsTheory of a Single Linear OperatorInvariant Subspaces of an Operator

  1. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  2. Division algebras and supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Baez, John C

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetry is deeply related to division algebras. Nonabelian Yang--Mills fields minimally coupled to massless spinors are supersymmetric if and only if the dimension of spacetime is 3, 4, 6 or 10. The same is true for the Green--Schwarz superstring. In both cases, supersymmetry relies on the vanishing of a certain trilinear expression involving a spinor field. The reason for this, in turn, is the existence of normed division algebras in dimensions 1, 2, 4 and 8: the real numbers, complex numbers, quaternions and octonions. Here we provide a self-contained account of how this works.

  3. Algebra & trigonometry super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Algebra and Trigonometry Super Review includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, equations, linear equations and systems of linear equations, inequalities, relations and functions, quadratic equations, equations of higher order, ratios, proportions, and variations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much y

  4. Algebraic Topology, Rational Homotopy

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This proceedings volume centers on new developments in rational homotopy and on their influence on algebra and algebraic topology. Most of the papers are original research papers dealing with rational homotopy and tame homotopy, cyclic homology, Moore conjectures on the exponents of the homotopy groups of a finite CW-c-complex and homology of loop spaces. Of particular interest for specialists are papers on construction of the minimal model in tame theory and computation of the Lusternik-Schnirelmann category by means articles on Moore conjectures, on tame homotopy and on the properties of Poincaré series of loop spaces.

  5. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  6. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te

  7. Helmholtz algebraic solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Materials and Physics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P, E-mail: j.christian@salford.ac.u [Departamento de Teoria de la Senal y Comunicaciones e Ingenieria Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-02-26

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first exact analytical algebraic solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic Helmholtz equation. This class of governing equation plays a key role in photonics modelling, allowing a full description of the propagation and interaction of broad scalar beams. New conservation laws are presented, and the recovery of paraxial results is discussed in detail. The stability properties of the new solitons are investigated by combining semi-analytical methods and computer simulations. In particular, new general stability regimes are reported for algebraic bright solitons.

  8. Elementary matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hohn, Franz E

    2012-01-01

    This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur

  9. Endomorphisms of graph algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Roberto; Hong, Jeong Hee; Szymanski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a systematic investigation of endomorphisms of graph C*-algebras C*(E), extending several known results on endomorphisms of the Cuntz algebras O_n. Most but not all of this study is focused on endomorphisms which permute the vertex projections and globally preserve the diagonal MASA D...... that the restriction to the diagonal MASA of an automorphism which globally preserves both D_E and the core AF-subalgebra eventually commutes with the corresponding one-sided shift. Secondly, we exhibit several properties of proper endomorphisms, investigate invertibility of localized endomorphisms both on C...

  10. Algebra & trigonometry I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry I includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, eq

  11. Quantum Inverse Scattering Method with anyonic grading

    CERN Document Server

    Batchelor, M T; Guan, X-W; Links, J; Zhou, H-Q

    2008-01-01

    We formulate the Quantum Inverse Scattering Method for the case of anyonic grading. This provides a general framework for constructing integrable models describing interacting hard-core anyons. Through this method we reconstruct the known integrable model of hard core anyons associated with the XXX model, and as a new application we construct the anyonic $t-J$ model. The energy spectrum for each model is derived by means of a generalisation of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. The grading parameters implementing the anyonic signature give rise to sector-dependent phase factors in the Bethe ansatz equations.

  12. The quantum inverse scattering method with anyonic grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, M. T.; Foerster, A.; Guan, X.-W.; Links, J.; Zhou, H.-Q.

    2008-11-01

    We formulate the quantum inverse scattering method for the case of anyonic grading. This provides a general framework for constructing integrable models describing interacting hard-core anyons. Through this method we reconstruct the known integrable model of hard core anyons associated with the XXX model, and as a new application we construct the anyonic t - J model. The energy spectrum for each model is derived by means of a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. The grading parameters implementing the anyonic signature give rise to sector-dependent phase factors in the Bethe ansatz equations.

  13. Exact solution of the trigonometric SU(3 spin chain with generic off-diagonal boundary reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Liang Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The nested off-diagonal Bethe ansatz is generalized to study the quantum spin chain associated with the SUq(3 R-matrix and generic integrable non-diagonal boundary conditions. By using the fusion technique, certain closed operator identities among the fused transfer matrices at the inhomogeneous points are derived. The corresponding asymptotic behaviors of the transfer matrices and their values at some special points are given in detail. Based on the functional analysis, a nested inhomogeneous T–Q relations and Bethe ansatz equations of the system are obtained. These results can be naturally generalized to cases related to the SUq(n algebra.

  14. Exact solution of the trigonometric SU(3) spin chain with generic off-diagonal boundary reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Liang; Cao, Junpeng; Hao, Kun; Wen, Fakai; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie

    2016-09-01

    The nested off-diagonal Bethe ansatz is generalized to study the quantum spin chain associated with the SUq (3)R-matrix and generic integrable non-diagonal boundary conditions. By using the fusion technique, certain closed operator identities among the fused transfer matrices at the inhomogeneous points are derived. The corresponding asymptotic behaviors of the transfer matrices and their values at some special points are given in detail. Based on the functional analysis, a nested inhomogeneous T-Q relations and Bethe ansatz equations of the system are obtained. These results can be naturally generalized to cases related to the SUq (n) algebra.

  15. Exact solution of the trigonometric SU(3) spin chain with generic off-diagonal boundary reflections

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guang-Liang; Hao, Kun; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie

    2016-01-01

    The nested off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz is generalized to study the quantum spin chain associated with the $SU_q(3)$ R-matrix and generic integrable non-diagonal boundary conditions. By using the fusion technique, certain closed operator identities among the fused transfer matrices at the inhomogeneous points are derived. The corresponding asymptotic behaviors of the transfer matrices and their values at some special points are given in detail. Based on the functional analysis, a nested inhomogeneous T-Q relations and Bethe Ansatz equations of the system are obtained. These results can be naturally generalized to cases related to the $SU_q(n)$ algebra.

  16. Integrable open-boundary conditions for the supersymmetric t-J model the quantum group invariant case

    CERN Document Server

    González-Ruiz, A

    1994-01-01

    We consider integrable open-boundary conditions for the supersymmetric t-J model commuting with the number operator $n$ and $S^{z}$. We find four families, each one depending on two arbitrary parameters. The associated eigenvalue problem is solved by generalizing the Nested Algebraic Bethe Ansatz of the quantum group invariant case (which is obtained as a special limit). For the quantum group invariant case the Bethe ansatz states are shown to be highest weights of $spl_{q}(2,1)$. We also discuss the relation between Sklyanin's method of constructing open boundary conditions and the one for the quantum group invariant case based on Markov traces.

  17. Derivations of generalized Weyl algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yucai(苏育才)

    2003-01-01

    A class of the associative and Lie algebras A[D] = A × F[D] of Weyl type are studied, where Ais a commutative associative algebra with an identity element over a field F of characteristic zero, and F[D] isthe polynomial algebra of a finite dimensional commutative subalgebra of locally finite derivations of A suchthat A is D-simple. The derivations of these associative and Lie algebras are precisely determined.

  18. The theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Harry

    1998-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basics of algebraic number theory, this concise, well-written volume examines Gaussian primes; polynomials over a field; algebraic number fields; and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture. 1975 edition. References. List of Symbols. Index.

  19. Optimal Algorithm for Algebraic Factoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支丽红

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents on optimized method for factoring multivariate polynomials over algebraic extension fields defined by an irreducible ascending set. The basic idea is to convert multivariate polynomials to univariate polynomials and algebraic extension fields to algebraic number fields by suitable integer substituteions.Then factorize the univariate polynomials over the algebraic number fields.Finally,construct mulativariate factors of the original polynomial by Hensel lemma and TRUEFACTOR test.Some examples with timing are included.

  20. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  1. Perturbation semigroup of matrix algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, N.; Suijlekom, W.D. van

    2016-01-01

    In this article we analyze the structure of the semigroup of inner perturbations in noncommutative geometry. This perturbation semigroup is associated to a unital associative *-algebra and extends the group of unitary elements of this *-algebra. We compute the perturbation semigroup for all matrix algebras.

  2. An algebra of reversible computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  3. Some Hopf algebras of trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, P. van der

    2001-01-01

    In the literature several Hopf algebras that can be described in terms of trees have been studied. This paper tries to answer the question whether one can understand some of these Hopf algebras in terms of a single mathematical construction. The starting point is the Hopf algebra of rooted trees as

  4. An algebra of reversible computation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules, basic reversible processes algebra (BRPA), algebra of reversible communicating processes (ARCP), recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  5. The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA

    2006-01-01

    We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.

  6. Testing Invisible Momentum Ansatze in Missing Energy Events at the LHC arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Doojin; Moortgat, Filip; Pape, Luc

    We consider SUSY-like events with two decay chains, each terminating in an invisible particle, whose true energy and momentum are not measured in the detector. Nevertheless, a useful educated guess about the invisible momenta can still be obtained by optimizing a suitable invariant mass function. We review and contrast several proposals in the literature for such ansatze: four versions of the M_T2-assisted on-shell reconstruction (MAOS), as well as several variants of the on-shell constrained M_2 variables. We compare the performance of these methods with regards to the mass determination of a new particle resonance along the decay chain from the peak of the reconstructed invariant mass distribution. For concreteness, we consider the event topology of dilepton ttbar events and study each of the three possible subsystems, in both a ttbar and a SUSY example. We find that the M_2 variables generally provide sharper peaks and therefore better ansatze for the invisible momenta. We show that the performance can be ...

  7. Observable Algebra in Field Algebra of G-spin Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋立宁

    2003-01-01

    Field algebra of G-spin models can provide the simplest examples of lattice field theory exhibiting quantum symmetry. Let D(G) be the double algebra of a finite group G and D(H), a sub-algebra of D(G) determined by subgroup H of G. This paper gives concrete generators and the structure of the observable algebra AH, which is a D(H)-invariant sub-algebra in the field algebra of G-spin models F, and shows that AH is a C*-algebra. The correspondence between H and AH is strictly monotonic. Finally, a duality between D(H) and AH is given via an irreducible vacuum C*-representation of F.

  8. On the simplicity of Lie algebras associated to Leavitt algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Gene

    2009-01-01

    For any field $K$ and integer $n\\geq 2$ we consider the Leavitt algebra $L = L_K(n)$. $L$ is an associative algebra, but we view $L$ as a Lie algebra using the bracket $[a,b]=ab-ba$ for $a,b \\in L$. We denote this Lie algebra as $L^-$, and consider its Lie subalgebra $[L^-,L^-]$. In our main result, we show that $[L^-,L^-]$ is a simple Lie algebra if and only if char$(K)$ divides $n-1$. For any positive integer $d$ we let $S = M_d(L_K(n))$ be the $d\\times d$ matrix algebra over $L_K(n)$. We give sufficient conditions for the simplicity and non-simplicity of the Lie algebra $[S^-,S^-]$.

  9. Commutative algebra with a view toward algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbud, David

    1995-01-01

    Commutative Algebra is best understood with knowledge of the geometric ideas that have played a great role in its formation, in short, with a view towards algebraic geometry. The author presents a comprehensive view of commutative algebra, from basics, such as localization and primary decomposition, through dimension theory, differentials, homological methods, free resolutions and duality, emphasizing the origins of the ideas and their connections with other parts of mathematics. Many exercises illustrate and sharpen the theory and extended exercises give the reader an active part in complementing the material presented in the text. One novel feature is a chapter devoted to a quick but thorough treatment of Grobner basis theory and the constructive methods in commutative algebra and algebraic geometry that flow from it. Applications of the theory and even suggestions for computer algebra projects are included. This book will appeal to readers from beginners to advanced students of commutative algebra or algeb...

  10. Analytic studies of the complex Langevin equation with a Gaussian ansatz and multiple solutions in the unstable region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yuya; Fukushima, Kenji

    2016-11-01

    We investigate a simple model using the numerical simulation in the complex Langevin equation (CLE) and the analytical approximation with the Gaussian ansatz. We find that the Gaussian ansatz captures the essential and even quantitative features of the CLE results quite well when they converge to the exact answer, as well as the border of the unstable region where the CLE converges to a wrong answer. The Gaussian ansatz is therefore useful for looking into this convergence problem and we find that the exact answer in the unstable region is nicely reproduced by another solution that is naively excluded from the stability condition. We consider the Gaussian probability distributions corresponding to multiple solutions along the Lefschetz thimble to discuss the stability and the locality. Our results suggest a prescription to improve the convergence of the CLE simulation to the exact answer.

  11. Analytical studies of the complex Langevin equation with a Gaussian Ansatz and multiple solutions in the unstable region

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Yuya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a simple model using the numerical simulation in the complex Langevin equation (CLE) and the analytical approximation with the Gaussian Ansatz. We find that the Gaussian Ansatz captures the essential and even quantitative features of the CLE results quite well including unwanted behavior in the unstable region where the CLE converges to a wrong answer. The Gaussian Ansatz is therefore useful for looking into this convergence problem and we find that the exact answer in the unstable region is nicely reproduced by another solution that is naively excluded from the stability condition. We consider the Gaussian probability distributions corresponding to multiple solutions along the Lefschetz thimble to discuss the stability and the locality. Our results suggest a prescription to improve the convergence of the CLE simulation to the exact answer.

  12. Static and dynamical correlation in diradical molecules by Quantum Monte Carlo using the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Zen, Andrea; Luo, Ye; Sorella, Sandro; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Diradical molecules are essential species involved in many organic and inorganic chemical reactions. The computational study of their electronic structure is often challenging, because a reliable description of the correlation, and in particular of the static one, requires multi-reference techniques. The Jastrow correlated Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) is a compact and efficient wave function ansatz, based on the valence-bond representation, which can be used within Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approaches. The AGP part can be rewritten in terms of molecular orbitals, obtaining a multi-determinant expansion with zero-seniority number. In the present work we demonstrate the capability of the JAGP ansatz to correctly describe the electronic structure of two diradical prototypes: the orthogonally twisted ethylene, C2H4, and the methylene, CH2, representing respectively a homosymmetric and heterosymmetric system. On the other hand, we show that the simple ansatz of a Jastrow correlated Single Determinant (JSD)...

  13. Simple algebras of Weyl type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yucai(

    2001-01-01

    [1] Kawamoto, N., Generalizations of Witt algebras over a field of characteristic zero, Hiroshima Math. J., 1986, 16: 417.[2] Osborn, J. M., New simple infinite-dimensional Lie algebras of characteristic 0, J. Alg., 1996, 185: 820.[3] Dokovic, D. Z., Zhao, K., Derivations, isomorphisms, and second cohomology of generalized Witt algebras, Trans. of Amer. Math. Soc., 1998, 350(2): 643.[4] Dokovic, D. Z., Zhao, K., Generalized Cartan type W Lie algebras in characteristic zero, J. Alg., 1997, 195: 170.[5] Osborn, J. M., Zhao, K., Generalized Poisson bracket and Lie algebras of type H in characteristic 0, Math. Z., 1999, 230: 107.[6] Osborn, J. M., Zhao, K., Generalized Cartan type K Lie algebras in characteristic 0, Comm. Alg., 1997, 25: 3325.[7] Zhao, K., Isomorphisms between generalized Cartan type W Lie algebras in characteristic zero, Canadian J. Math., 1998, 50: 210.[8] Passman, D. P., Simple Lie algebras of Witt type, J. Algebra, 1998, 206: 682.[9] Jordan, D. A., On the simplicity of Lie algebras of derivations of commutative algebras, J. Alg., 2000, 206: 682.[10] Xu, X., New generalized simple Lie algebras of Cartan type over a field with characteristic 0, J. Alg., 2000, 244: 23.[11] Su, Y., Xu, X., Zhang, H., Derivation-simple algebras and the structures of Lie algebras of generalized Witt type, J. Alg., 2000, 233: 642.[12] Dixmer, J., Enveloping Algebras, Amsterdam: North Holland, 1977.

  14. Quantitative Algebraic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash; Plotkin, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantitative analogue of equational reasoning which we call quantitative algebra. We define an equality relation indexed by rationals: a =ε b which we think of as saying that “a is approximately equal to b up to an error of ε”. We have 4 interesting examples where we have a quantitative...

  15. Algebraic topology and concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Raussen, Martin; Goubault, Eric

    2006-01-01

    We show in this article that some concepts from homotopy theory, in algebraic topology,are relevant for studying concurrent programs. We exhibit a natural semantics of semaphore programs, based on partially ordered topological spaces, which are studied up to “elastic deformation” or homotopy...

  16. Operation of Algebraic Fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The first step in factorizing algebraic expressions is to take out the common factors of all the terms of the expression.For example,2x~2+14x+24=2(x~2+7x+12)=2(x+3)(x+4) The three identities are also useful in factorizing some quadratic expressions:

  17. Restructuring College Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Robert

    2004-01-01

    There is a call for change in College Algebra. The traditional focus on skill development is failing, resulting in withdrawal and failure rates that are excessive. In addition, too many students who are successful do not continue on to take a successive mathematics course. The Institute for Mathematics Learning at West Virginia University has been…

  18. Algebraic Thinking through Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, William; Colgan, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of paper folding to create a rich environment for discussing algebraic concepts. Explores the effect that changing the dimensions of two-dimensional objects has on the volume of related three-dimensional objects. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  19. Lineaire algebra: deel 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pipekaru, T.

    1975-01-01

    Deze handleiding, geschreven in opdracht van het bestuur van de Afdeling der Algemene Wetenschappen van de T.H. te Delft, is bedoeld als collegedictaat Lineaire Algebra voor het eerste studiejaar van vrijwel alle technische afdelingen. Hopelijk wordt hiermee voorzien in een behoefte die is ontstaan

  20. The Green formula and heredity of algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [1]Green, J. A., Hall algebras, hereditary algebras and quantum groups, Invent. Math. 1995, 120: 361-377.[2]Ringel, C. M., Green's theorem on Hall algebras, in Representations of Algebras and Related Topics, CMS Conference Proceedings 19, Providence, 1996, 185-245.[3]Xiao J., Drinfeld double and Ringel-Green theory of Hall Algebras, J. Algebra, 1997, 190: 100-144.[4]Sevenhant, B., Van den Bergh, M., A relation between a conjecture of Kac and the structure of the Hall algebra,J. Pure Appl. Algebra, 2001, 160: 319-332.[5]Deng B., Xiao, J., On double Ringel-Hall algebras, J. Algebra, 2002, 251: 110-149.

  1. Notes on Piecewise-Koszul Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Feng L(U); Xiao Lan YU

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between piecewise-Koszul algebras and other "Koszul-type" algebras are discussed.. The Yoneda-Ext algebra and the dual algebra of a piecewise-Koszul algebra are studied, and a sufficient condition for the dual algebra A to be piecewise-Koszul is given. Finally, by studying the trivial extension algebras of the path algebras of Dynkin quivers in bipartite orientation, we give explicit constructions for piecewise-Koszul algebras with arbitrary "period" and piecewise-Koszul algebras with arbitrary "jump-degree".

  2. On ultraproducts of operator algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Weihua

    2005-01-01

    Some basic questions on ultraproducts of C*-algebras and yon Neumann algebras, including the relation to K-theory of C*-algebras are considered. More specifically,we prove that under certain conditions, the K-groups of ultraproduct of C*-algebras are isomorphic to the ultraproduct of respective K-groups of C*-algebras. We also show that the ultraproducts of factors of type Ⅱ1 are prime, i.e. not isomorphic to any non-trivial tensor product.

  3. Ockham Algebras Arising from Monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.S. Blyth; H.J. Silva; J.C. Varlet

    2001-01-01

    An Ockham algebra (L; f) is of boolean shape if its lattice reduct L is boolean and f is not the complementation. We investigate a natural construction of Ockham algebras of boolean shape from any given monoid. Of particular interest is the question of when such algebras are subdirectly irreducible. In settling this, we obtain what is probably the first example of a subdirectly irreducible Ockham algebra that does not belong to the generalized variety Kω. We also prove that every semigroup can be embedded in the monoid of endomorphisms of an Ockham algebra of boolean shape.

  4. Twisted derivations of Hopf algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    In the paper we introduce the notion of twisted derivation of a bialgebra. Twisted derivations appear as infinitesimal symmetries of the category of representations. More precisely they are infinitesimal versions of twisted automorphisms of bialgebras. Twisted derivations naturally form a Lie algebra (the tangent algebra of the group of twisted automorphisms). Moreover this Lie algebra fits into a crossed module (tangent to the crossed module of twisted automorphisms). Here we calculate this crossed module for universal enveloping algebras and for the Sweedler's Hopf algebra.

  5. $A\\mathcal{T}$-Algebras and Extensions of $AT$-Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongliang Yao

    2010-04-01

    Lin and Su classified $A\\mathcal{T}$-algebras of real rank zero. This class includes all $A\\mathbb{T}$-algebras of real rank zero as well as many *-algebras which are not stably finite. An $A\\mathcal{T}$-algebra often becomes an extension of an $A\\mathbb{T}$-algebra by an -algebra. In this paper, we show that there is an essential extension of an $A\\mathbb{T}$-algebra by an -algebra which is not an $A\\mathcal{T}$-algebra. We describe a characterization of an extension of an $A\\mathbb{T}$-algebra by an -algebra if is an $A\\mathcal{T}$-algebra.

  6. Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T. (University of New Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.

  7. Abstract algebra structure and application

    CERN Document Server

    Finston, David R

    2014-01-01

    This text seeks to generate interest in abstract algebra by introducing each new structure and topic via a real-world application. The down-to-earth presentation is accessible to a readership with no prior knowledge of abstract algebra. Students are led to algebraic concepts and questions in a natural way through their everyday experiences. Applications include: Identification numbers and modular arithmetic (linear) error-correcting codes, including cyclic codes ruler and compass constructions cryptography symmetry of patterns in the real plane Abstract Algebra: Structure and Application is suitable as a text for a first course on abstract algebra whose main purpose is to generate interest in the subject, or as a supplementary text for more advanced courses. The material paves the way to subsequent courses that further develop the theory of abstract algebra and will appeal to students of mathematics, mathematics education, computer science, and engineering interested in applications of algebraic concepts.

  8. Twin TQFTs and Frobenius Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Caprau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the category of singular 2-dimensional cobordisms and show that it admits a completely algebraic description as the free symmetric monoidal category on a twin Frobenius algebra, by providing a description of this category in terms of generators and relations. A twin Frobenius algebra (C,W,z,z∗ consists of a commutative Frobenius algebra C, a symmetric Frobenius algebra W, and an algebra homomorphism z:C→W with dual z∗:W→C, satisfying some extra conditions. We also introduce a generalized 2-dimensional Topological Quantum Field Theory defined on singular 2-dimensional cobordisms and show that it is equivalent to a twin Frobenius algebra in a symmetric monoidal category.

  9. Hopf algebras in noncommutative geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Varilly, J C

    2001-01-01

    We give an introductory survey to the use of Hopf algebras in several problems of noncommutative geometry. The main example, the Hopf algebra of rooted trees, is a graded, connected Hopf algebra arising from a universal construction. We show its relation to the algebra of transverse differential operators introduced by Connes and Moscovici in order to compute a local index formula in cyclic cohomology, and to the several Hopf algebras defined by Connes and Kreimer to simplify the combinatorics of perturbative renormalization. We explain how characteristic classes for a Hopf module algebra can be obtained from the cyclic cohomology of the Hopf algebra which acts on it. Finally, we discuss the theory of noncommutative spherical manifolds and show how they arise as homogeneous spaces of certain compact quantum groups.

  10. Constructive version of Boolean algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Ciraulo, Francesco; Toto, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The notion of overlap algebra introduced by G. Sambin provides a constructive version of complete Boolean algebra. Here we first show some properties concerning overlap algebras: we prove that the notion of overlap morphism corresponds classically to that of map preserving arbitrary joins; we provide a description of atomic set-based overlap algebras in the language of formal topology, thus giving a predicative characterization of discrete locales; we show that the power-collection of a set is the free overlap algebra join-generated from the set. Then, we generalize the concept of overlap algebra and overlap morphism in various ways to provide constructive versions of the category of Boolean algebras with maps preserving arbitrary existing joins.

  11. Mass matrix Ansatz and lepton flavor violation in the THDM-III

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cruz, J L; Rosado, A

    2004-01-01

    Predictive Higgs-fermion couplings can be obtained when a specific texture for the fermion mass matrices is included in the general two-Higgs doublet model. We derive the form of these couplings in the charged lepton sector using a Hermitian mass matrix Ansatz with four-texture zeros. The presence of unconstrained phases in the vertices phi-li-lj modifies the pattern of flavor-violating Higgs interactions. Bounds on the model parameters are obtained from present limits on rare lepton flavor violating processes, which could be extended further by the search for the decay tau -> mu mu mu and mu-e conversion at future experiments. The signal from Higgs boson decays phi -> tau mu could be searched at the large hadron collider (LHC), while e-mu transitions could produce a detectable signal at a future e mu-collider, through the reaction e mu -> h0 -> tau tau.

  12. Adiabatic electronic flux density: a Born-Oppenheimer Broken Symmetry ansatz

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Born-Oppenheimer approximation leads to the counterintuitive result of a vanishing electronic flux density upon vibrational dynamics in the electronic ground state. To circumvent this long known issue, we propose using pairwise anti-symmetrically translated vibronic densities to generate a symmetric electronic density that can be forced to satisfy the continuity equation approximately. The so-called Born-Oppenheimer broken symmetry ansatz yields all components of the flux density simultaneously while requiring only knowledge about the nuclear quantum dynamics on the electronic adiabatic ground state potential energy surface. The underlying minimization procedure is transparent and computationally inexpensive, and the solution can be computed from the standard output of any quantum chemistry program. Taylor series expansion reveals that the implicit electron dynamics originates from non-adiabatic coupling to the explicit Born-Oppenheimer nuclear dynamics. The new approach is applied to the ${\\rm H}_2^+$ mo...

  13. Gaussian variational ansatz in the problem of anomalous sea waves: Comparison with direct numerical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, V P

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of an obliquely oriented wave packet at sea surface is studied both analytically and numerically for various initial parameters of the packet, in connection with the problem of oceanic rogue waves. In the framework of Gaussian variational ansatz applied to the corresponding (1+2D) hyperbolic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation, a simplified Lagrangian system of differential equations is derived, which determines the evolution of coefficients of the real and imaginary quadratic forms appearing in the Gaussian. This model provides a semi-quantitative description for the process of nonlinear spatio-temporal focusing, which is one of the most probable mechanisms of rogue wave formation in random wave fields. The system is integrated in quadratures, which fact allows us to understand qualitative differences between the linear and nonlinear regimes of the focusing of wave packet. Comparison of the Gaussian model predictions with results of direct numerical simulation of fully nonlinear long-cres...

  14. First-Principles Momentum-Dependent Local Ansatz Wavefunction and Momentum Distribution Function Bands of Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a first-principles local ansatz wavefunction approach with momentum-dependent variational parameters on the basis of the tight-binding LDA+U Hamiltonian. The theory goes beyond the first-principles Gutzwiller approach and quantitatively describes correlated electron systems. Using the theory, we find that the momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of paramagnetic bcc Fe along high-symmetry lines show a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac function for the d electrons with eg symmetry and yield the momentum-dependent mass enhancement factors. The calculated average mass enhancement m*/m = 1.65 is consistent with low-temperature specific heat data as well as recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data.

  15. Stable Recursive Subhomogeneous Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Hutian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce stable recursive subhomogeneous algebras (SRSHAs), which is analogous to recursive subhomogeneous algebras (RSHAs) introduced by N. C. Phillips in the studies of free minimal integer actions on compact metric spaces. The difference between the stable version and the none stable version is that the irreducible representations of SRSHAs are infinite dimensional, but the irreducible representations of the RSHAs are finite dimensional. While RSHAs play an important role in the study of free minimal integer actions on compact metric spaces, SRSHAs play an analogous role in the study of free minimal actions by the group of the real numbers on compact metric spaces. In this paper, we show that simple inductive limits of SRSHAs with no dimension growth in which the connecting maps are injective and non-vanishing have topological stable rank one.

  16. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990’s. A code C  GF (r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector’s coordinates. The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs). How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem. The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS), Reed-Muller (RM), cyclic, dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes. In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions). We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  17. Real algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bochnak, Jacek; Roy, Marie-Françoise

    1998-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of real algebraic geometry, a subject that has strong interrelation with other areas of mathematics: singularity theory, differential topology, quadratic forms, commutative algebra, model theory, complexity theory etc. The careful and clearly written account covers both basic concepts and up-to-date research topics. It may be used as text for a graduate course. The present edition is a substantially revised and expanded English version of the book "Géometrie algébrique réelle" originally published in French, in 1987, as Volume 12 of ERGEBNISSE. Since the publication of the French version the theory has made advances in several directions. Many of these are included in this English version. Thus the English book may be regarded as a completely new treatment of the subject.

  18. Topological convolution algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new family of topological convolution algebras of the form $\\bigcup_{p\\in\\mathbb N} L_2(S,\\mu_p)$, where $S$ is a Borel semi-group in a locally compact group $G$, which carries an inequality of the type $\\|f*g\\|_p\\le A_{p,q}\\|f\\|_q\\|g\\|_p$ for $p > q+d$ where $d$ pre-assigned, and $A_{p,q}$ is a constant. We give a sufficient condition on the measures $\\mu_p$ for such an inequality to hold. We study the functional calculus and the spectrum of the elements of these algebras, and present two examples, one in the setting of non commutative stochastic distributions, and the other related to Dirichlet series.

  19. Structure of Chinese algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jaszunska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the algebra K[M] of the Chinese monoid M over a field K is studied. The minimal prime ideals are described. They are determined by certain homogeneous congruences on M and they are in a one to one correspondence with diagrams of certain special type. There are finitely many such ideals. It is also shown that the prime radical B(K[M]) of K[M] coincides with the Jacobson radical and the monoid M embeds into the algebra K[M]/B(K[M]). A new representation of M as a submonoid of the direct product of finitely many copies of the bicyclic monoid and finitely many copies of the infinite cyclic monoid is derived. Consequently, M satisfies a nontrivial identity.

  20. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990's.A code C (∩)GF(r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector's coordinates.The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum,Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs).How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem.The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS),Reed-Muller (RM),cyclic,dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes.In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions).We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  1. Practical Algebraic Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, P A; Steinhauser, M

    1999-01-01

    A practical approach is presented which allows the use of a non-invariant regularization scheme for the computation of quantum corrections in perturbative quantum field theory. The theoretical control of algebraic renormalization over non-invariant counterterms is translated into a practical computational method. We provide a detailed introduction into the handling of the Slavnov-Taylor and Ward-Takahashi identities in the Standard Model both in the conventional and the background gauge. Explicit examples for their practical derivation are presented. After a brief introduction into the Quantum Action Principle the conventional algebraic method which allows for the restoration of the functional identities is discussed. The main point of our approach is the optimization of this procedure which results in an enormous reduction of the calculational effort. The counterterms which have to be computed are universal in the sense that they are independent of the regularization scheme. The method is explicitly illustra...

  2. Operator product expansion algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Jan [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris-Palaiseau (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is a theoretical tool for studying the short distance behaviour of products of local quantum fields. Over the past 40 years, the OPE has not only found widespread computational application in high-energy physics, but, on a more conceptual level, it also encodes fundamental information on algebraic structures underlying quantum field theories. I review new insights into the status and properties of the OPE within Euclidean perturbation theory, addressing in particular the topics of convergence and ''factorisation'' of the expansion. Further, I present a formula for the ''deformation'' of the OPE algebra caused by a quartic interaction. This formula can be used to set up a novel iterative scheme for the perturbative computation of OPE coefficients, based solely on the zeroth order coefficients (and renormalisation conditions) as initial input.

  3. Combinatorics and commutative algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stanley, Richard P

    1996-01-01

    Some remarkable connections between commutative algebra and combinatorics have been discovered in recent years. This book provides an overview of two of the main topics in this area. The first concerns the solutions of linear equations in nonnegative integers. Applications are given to the enumeration of integer stochastic matrices (or magic squares), the volume of polytopes, combinatorial reciprocity theorems, and related results. The second topic deals with the face ring of a simplicial complex, and includes a proof of the Upper Bound Conjecture for Spheres. An introductory chapter giving background information in algebra, combinatorics and topology broadens access to this material for non-specialists. New to this edition is a chapter surveying more recent work related to face rings, focusing on applications to f-vectors. Included in this chapter is an outline of the proof of McMullen's g-conjecture for simplicial polytopes based on toric varieties, as well as a discussion of the face rings of such special ...

  4. Free energy calculations, enhanced by a Gaussian ansatz, for the "chemical work" distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulougouris, Georgios C

    2014-05-15

    The evaluation of the free energy is essential in molecular simulation because it is intimately related with the existence of multiphase equilibrium. Recently, it was demonstrated that it is possible to evaluate the Helmholtz free energy using a single statistical ensemble along an entire isotherm by accounting for the "chemical work" of transforming each molecule, from an interacting one, to an ideal gas. In this work, we show that it is possible to perform such a free energy perturbation over a liquid vapor phase transition. Furthermore, we investigate the link between a general free energy perturbation scheme and the novel nonequilibrium theories of Crook's and Jarzinsky. We find that for finite systems away from the thermodynamic limit the second law of thermodynamics will always be an inequality for isothermal free energy perturbations, resulting always to a dissipated work that may tend to zero only in the thermodynamic limit. The work, the heat, and the entropy produced during a thermodynamic free energy perturbation can be viewed in the context of the Crooks and Jarzinsky formalism, revealing that for a given value of the ensemble average of the "irreversible" work, the minimum entropy production corresponded to a Gaussian distribution for the histogram of the work. We propose the evaluation of the free energy difference in any free energy perturbation based scheme on the average irreversible "chemical work" minus the dissipated work that can be calculated from the variance of the distribution of the logarithm of the work histogram, within the Gaussian approximation. As a consequence, using the Gaussian ansatz for the distribution of the "chemical work," accurate estimates for the chemical potential and the free energy of the system can be performed using much shorter simulations and avoiding the necessity of sampling the computational costly tails of the "chemical work." For a more general free energy perturbation scheme that the Gaussian ansatz may not be

  5. Algebra, Arithmetic, and Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tschinkel, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    The two volumes of "Algebra, Arithmetic, and Geometry: In Honor of Y.I. Manin" are composed of invited expository articles and extensions detailing Manin's contributions to the subjects, and are in celebration of his 70th birthday. The well-respected and distinguished contributors include: Behrend, Berkovich, Bost, Bressler, Calaque, Carlson, Chambert-Loir, Colombo, Connes, Consani, Dabrowski, Deninger, Dolgachev, Donaldson, Ekedahl, Elsenhans, Enriques, Etingof, Fock, Friedlander, Geemen, Getzler, Goncharov, Harris, Iskovskikh, Jahnel, Kaledin, Kapranov, Katz, Kaufmann, Kollar, Kont

  6. Redesigning linear algebra algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Many of the standard algorithms in linear algebra as implemented in FORTRAN do not achieve maximum performance on today's large-scale vector computers. The author examines the problem and constructs alternative formulations of algorithms that do not lose the clarity of the original algorithm or sacrifice the FORTRAN portable environment, but do gain the performance attainable on these supercomputers. The resulting implementation not only performs well on vector computers but also increases performance on conventional sequential computers. 13 references.

  7. Redesigning linear algebra algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Many of the standard algorithms in linear algebra as implemented in FORTRAN do not achieve maximum performance on today's large-scale vector computers. In this paper we examine the problem and construct alternative formulations of algorithms that do not lose the clarity of the original algorithm or sacrifice the Fortran portable environment, but do gain the performance attainable on these supercomputers. The resulting implementation not only performs well on vector computers but also increases performance on conventional sequential computers.

  8. Fundamentals of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Rajani Ballav

    2008-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.

  9. Lie algebraic noncommutative gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip; Samanta, Saurav

    2007-06-01

    We exploit the Seiberg-Witten map technique to formulate the theory of gravity defined on a Lie algebraic noncommutative space-time. Detailed expressions of the Seiberg-Witten maps for the gauge parameters, gauge potentials, and the field strengths have been worked out. Our results demonstrate that notwithstanding the introduction of more general noncommutative structure there is no first order correction, exactly as happens for a canonical (i.e. constant) noncommutativity.

  10. Modern algebra essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Lutfiyya, Lutfi A

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Modern Algebra includes set theory, operations, relations, basic properties of the integers, group theory, and ring theory.

  11. The Algebra Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigie, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Most people who are attracted to STEM-related fields are drawn not by a desire to take mathematics tests but to create things. The opportunity to create an algebra drawing gives students a sense of ownership and adventure that taps into the same sort of energy that leads a young person to get lost in reading a good book, building with Legos®,…

  12. Algebra of Majorana doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehoon; Wilczek, Frank

    2013-11-27

    Motivated by the problem of identifying Majorana mode operators at junctions, we analyze a basic algebraic structure leading to a doubled spectrum. For general (nonlinear) interactions the emergent mode creation operator is highly nonlinear in the original effective mode operators, and therefore also in the underlying electron creation and destruction operators. This phenomenon could open up new possibilities for controlled dynamical manipulation of the modes. We briefly compare and contrast related issues in the Pfaffian quantum Hall state.

  13. Semisimple Metacyclic Group Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gurmeet K Bakshi; Shalini Gupta; Inder Bir S Passi

    2011-11-01

    Given a group of order $p_1p_2$, where $p_1,p_2$ are primes, and $\\mathbb{F}_q$, a finite field of order coprime to $p_1p_2$, the object of this paper is to compute a complete set of primitive central idempotents of the semisimple group algebra $\\mathbb{F}_q[G]$. As a consequence, we obtain the structure of $\\mathbb{F}_q[G]$ and its group of automorphisms.

  14. Algebra & trigonometry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry II includes logarithms, sequences and series, permutations, combinations and probability, vectors, matrices, determinants and systems of equations, mathematica

  15. Ext algebra of Nichols algebras of type $A_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xiaolan

    2011-01-01

    We give the full structure of the Ext algebra of a Nichols algebra of type $A_2$ by using the Hochschild-Serre spectral sequence. As an application, we show that the pointed Hopf algebras $u(\\mathcal{D}, \\lmd, \\mu)$ with Dynkin diagrams of type $A$, $D$, or $E$, except for $A_1$ and $A_1\\times A_1$ with the order $N_{J}>2$ for at least one component $J$, are wild.

  16. LOCAL AUTOMORPHISMS OF SEMISIMPLE ALGEBRAS AND GROUP ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dengyin; Guan Qi; Zhan9 Dongju

    2011-01-01

    Let F be a field of characteristic not 2,and let A be a finite-dimensional semisimple F-algebra.All local automorphisms of A are characterized when all the degrees of A are larger than 1.If F is further assumed to be an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero,K a finite group,FK the group algebra of K over F,then all local automorphisms of FK are also characterized.

  17. Stability of functional equations in Banach algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Yeol Je; Rassias, Themistocles M; Saadati, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most recent and significant results on homomorphisms and derivations in Banach algebras, quasi-Banach algebras, C*-algebras, C*-ternary algebras, non-Archimedean Banach algebras and multi-normed algebras are presented in this book. A brief introduction for functional equations and their stability is provided with historical remarks. Since the homomorphisms and derivations in Banach algebras are additive and R-linear or C-linear, the stability problems for additive functional equations and additive mappings are studied in detail. The latest results are discussed and examined in stability theory for new functional equations and functional inequalities in Banach algebras and C*-algebras, non-Archimedean Banach algebras, non-Archimedean C*-algebras, multi-Banach algebras and multi-C*-algebras. Graduate students with an understanding of operator theory, functional analysis, functional equations and analytic inequalities will find this book useful for furthering their understanding and discovering the l...

  18. Further linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite­ dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num­ ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi­ cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...

  19. The tensor hierarchy algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmkvist, Jakob, E-mail: palmkvist@ihes.fr [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, 35 Route de Chartres, FR-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-01-15

    We introduce an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra which is an extension of the U-duality Lie algebra of maximal supergravity in D dimensions, for 3 ⩽ D ⩽ 7. The level decomposition with respect to the U-duality Lie algebra gives exactly the tensor hierarchy of representations that arises in gauge deformations of the theory described by an embedding tensor, for all positive levels p. We prove that these representations are always contained in those coming from the associated Borcherds-Kac-Moody superalgebra, and we explain why some of the latter representations are not included in the tensor hierarchy. The most remarkable feature of our Lie superalgebra is that it does not admit a triangular decomposition like a (Borcherds-)Kac-Moody (super)algebra. Instead the Hodge duality relations between level p and D − 2 − p extend to negative p, relating the representations at the first two negative levels to the supersymmetry and closure constraints of the embedding tensor.

  20. Spectrum and Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes of $\\Omega$ baryons from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Jian; Chen, Ying; Chiu, Wei-Feng; Gong, Ming; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Liu, Zhaofeng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Jian-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The $\\Omega$ baryons with $J^P=3/2^\\pm, 1/2^\\pm$ are studied on the lattice in the quenched approximation. Their mass levels are ordered as $M_{3/2^+}Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes of $\\Omega(3/2^+)$ and $\\Omega(1/2^+)$ and find there is a radial node for the $\\Omega(1/2^+)$ Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, which may imply that $\\Omega(1/2^+)$ is an orbital excitation of $\\Omega$ baryons as a member of the $(D,L_N^P)=(70,0_2^+)$ supermultiplet in the $SU(6)\\bigotimes O(3)$ quark model description. Our results are helpful for identifying the quantum number of experimentally observed $\\Omega$ states.

  1. The Beer/Bethe/Uexküll paper (1899) and misinterpretations surrounding 'vitalistic behaviorism'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildenberger, Florian

    2006-01-01

    In the history of behaviorism the paper of the three physiologists Theodor Beer, Albrecht Bethe and Jakob von Uexküll from 1899 plays an important role. Many researchers were influenced by this paper and identified it as fundamental for objective psychological research. But during the period of its adoption (1900-1925) psychologists did not notice that Beer, Bethe and Uexküll had distanced themselves from their own paper, because it had been ignored in physiological and biological discussions. Moreover, one of the three (Beer) had to resign from the scientific community because of private scandal and another one (Uexküll) changed all of his views and left the base of objective science for subjective vitalism. However, this did not change his adoption of behaviorism.

  2. Transition electromagnetic form factor and current conservation in the Bethe-Salpeter approach

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2015-01-01

    The transition form factor for electrodisintegration of a two-body bound system is calculated in the Bethe-Salpeter framework. For the initial (bound) and the final (scattering) states, we use our solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space which were first obtained recently. The gauge invariance, which manifests itself in the conservation of the transition electromagnetic current Jq = 0, is studied numerically. It results from a cancellation between the plane wave and the final state interaction contributions. This cancellation takes place only if the initial bound state BS amplitude, the final scattering state and the operator of electromagnetic current are strictly consistent with each other, that is if they are found in the same dynamical framework. A reliable result for the transition form factor can be obtained in this case only.

  3. Solving Bethe-Salpeter equation for two fermions in Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2010-01-01

    The method of solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space, which we developed previously for spinless particles, is extended to a system of two fermions. The method is based on the Nakanishi integral representation of the amplitude and on projecting the equation on the light-front plane. The singularities in the projected two-fermion kernel are regularized without modifying the original Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes. The numerical solutions for the J=0 bound state with the scalar, pseudoscalar and massless vector exchange kernels are found. The stability of the scalar and positronium states without vertex form factor is discussed. Binding energies are in close agreement with the Euclidean results. Corresponding amplitudes in Minkowski space are obtained.

  4. Current conservation in electrodisintegration of a bound system in the Bethe-Salpeter approach

    CERN Document Server

    Karmanov, V A

    2014-01-01

    Using our solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation with OBE kernel in Minkowski space both for the bound and scattering states, we calculate the transition form factors for electrodisintegration of the bound system which determine the electromagnetic current J of this process. Special emphasis is put on verifying the gauge invariance which should manifest itself in the current conservation. We find that for any value of the momentum transfer q the contributions of the plane wave and the final state interaction to the quantity J.q cancel each other thus providing J.q=0. However, this cancellation is obtained only if the initial Bethe-Salpeter amplitude (bound state), the final one (scattering state) and the current operator are strictly consistent with each other. A reliable result for the transition form factor can be found only in this case.

  5. Zero-Temperature Limit of a Convergent Algorithm to Minimize the Bethe Free Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery that fixed points of loopy belief propagation coincide with stationary points of the Bethe free energy, several researchers proposed provably convergent algorithms to directly minimize the Bethe free energy. These algorithms were formulated only for non-zero temperature (thus finding fixed points of the sum-product algorithm) and their possible extension to zero temperature is not obvious. We present the zero-temperature limit of the double-loop algorithm by Heskes, which converges a max-product fixed point. The inner loop of this algorithm is max-sum diffusion. Under certain conditions, the algorithm combines the complementary advantages of the max-product belief propagation and max-sum diffusion (LP relaxation): it yields good approximation of both ground states and max-marginals.

  6. Calculation of the relativistic Bethe logarithm in the two-center problem

    CERN Document Server

    Korobov, Vladimir I; Karr, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We present a variational approach to evaluate relativistic corrections of order \\alpha^2 to the Bethe logarithm for the ground electronic state of the Coulomb two center problem. That allows to estimate the radiative contribution at m\\alpha^7 order in molecular-like three-body systems such as hydrogen molecular ions H_2^+ and HD^+, or antiprotonic helium atoms. While we get 10 significant digits for the nonrelativistic Bethe logarithm, calculation of the relativistic corrections is much more involved especially for small values of bond length R. We were able to achieve a level of 3-4 significant digits starting from R=0.2 bohr, that will allow to reach 10^{-10} relative uncertainty on transition frequencies.

  7. Calculation of the relativistic Bethe logarithm in the two-center problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobov, Vladimir I.; Hilico, L.; Karr, J.-Ph.

    2013-06-01

    We present a variational approach to evaluate relativistic corrections of order α2 to the Bethe logarithm for the ground electronic state of the Coulomb two-center problem. That allows us to estimate the radiative contribution at mα7 order in molecular-like three-body systems such as hydrogen molecular ions H2+ and HD+ or antiprotonic helium atoms. While we get ten significant digits for the nonrelativistic Bethe logarithm, calculation of the relativistic corrections is much more involved, especially for small values of bond length R. We were able to achieve a level of three to four significant digits starting from R=0.2 bohr, which will allow us to reach 10-10 relative uncertainty on transition frequencies.

  8. Quantitative studies of the homogeneous Bethe-Salpeter Equation in Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Frederico, Tobias; Viviani, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The Bethe-Salpeter Equation for a bound system, composed by two massive scalars exchanging a massive scalar, is quantitatively investigated in ladder approximation, within the Nakanishi integral representation approach. For the S-wave case, numerical solutions with a form inspired by the Nakanishi integral representation, have been calculated. The needed Nakanishi weight functions have been evaluated by solving two different eigenequations, obtained directly from the Bethe-Salpeter equation applying the Light-Front projection technique. A remarkable agreement, in particular for the eigenvalues, has been achieved, numerically confirming that the Nakanishi uniqueness theorem for the weight functions, demonstrated in the context of the perturbative analysis of the multi-leg transition amplitudes and playing a basic role in suggesting one of the two adopted eigenequations, can be extended to a non perturbative realm. The detailed, quantitative studies are completed by presenting both probabilities and Light-Front...

  9. Solving the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter Equation in Minkowski space: the zero-energy limit

    CERN Document Server

    Frederico, T; Viviani, M

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter Equation for an interacting system, composed by two massive scalars exchanging a massive scalar, is numerically investigated in ladder approximation, directly in Minkowski space, by using an approach based on the Nakanishi integral representation. In this paper, the limiting case of zero-energy states is considered, extending the approach successfully applied to bound states presented in Phys. Rev. D 89, (2014) 016010, where the Nakanishi integral representation has been exploited for solving the homogeneous Bethe-Salpeter Equation. The numerical values of scattering lengths, evaluated by using two different integral equations that stem within the Nakanishi framework, are compared with the analogous quantities recently obtained, within a totally different framework. Moreover, relevant functions, like the Nakanishi weight functions and the distorted part of the zero-energy Light-front wave functions are also presented. Interestingly, a highly non trivial iss...

  10. A new integral representation for the scalar products of Bethe states for the XXX spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Yoichi; Komatsu, Shota; Nishimura, Takuya

    2013-09-01

    Based on the method of separation of variables due to Sklyanin, we construct a new integral representation for the scalar products of the Bethe states for the SU(2) XXX spin 1/2 chain obeying the periodic boundary condition. Due to the compactness of the symmetry group, a twist matrix must be introduced at the boundary in order to extract the separated variables properly. Then by deriving the integration measure and the spectrum of the separated variables, we express the inner product of an on-shell and an off-shell Bethe states in terms of a multiple contour integral involving a product of Baxter wave functions. Its form is reminiscent of the integral over the eigenvalues of a matrix model and is expected to be useful in studying the semi-classical limit of the product.

  11. Clifford Algebras and Their Decomposition into Conjugate Fermionic Heisenberg Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Sultan; Gürcan, Yasemin; Khalfan, Amish; Kurt, Levent; Kato La, V.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss a construction scheme for Clifford numbers of arbitrary dimension. The scheme is based upon performing direct products of the Pauli spin and identity matrices. Conjugate fermionic algebras can then be formed by considering linear combinations of the Clifford numbers and the Hermitian conjugates of such combinations. Fermionic algebras are important in investigating systems that follow Fermi-Dirac statistics. We will further comment on the applications of Clifford algebras to Fueter analyticity, twistors, color algebras, M-theory and Leech lattice as well as unification of ancient and modern geometries through them.

  12. DERIVATIONS ON DIFFERENTIAL OPERATOR ALGEBRA AND WEYL ALGEBRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENCAOYU

    1996-01-01

    Let L be an n-dimensional nilpotent Lie algebra with a basis{x1…,xn),and every xi acts as a locally nilpotent derivation on algebra A. This paper shows that there exists a set of derivations{y1,…,yn}on U(L) such that (A#U(L))#k{y,1,…,yn] is ismorphic to the Weyl algebra An(A).The author also uses the de4rivations to obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for a finite dimesional Lie algebra to be nilpotent.

  13. On the cohomology of Leibniz conformal algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao

    2015-04-01

    We construct a new cohomology complex of Leibniz conformal algebras with coefficients in a representation instead of a module. The low-dimensional cohomology groups of this complex are computed. Meanwhile, we construct a Leibniz algebra from a Leibniz conformal algebra and prove that the category of Leibniz conformal algebras is equivalent to the category of equivalence classes of formal distribution Leibniz algebras.

  14. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  15. Solutions of Bethe-Salpeter and Light-Front equations with cross-ladder kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Carbonell, J

    2005-01-01

    By method developed in our previous paper we solve the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the kernel given by sum of ladder and cross-ladder exchanges. We solve also corresponding equation in light-front dynamics (LFD), where we add the time-ordered stretched boxes. Cross-ladder contribution is large and attractive, whereas the influence of stretched boxes is negligible. Both approaches -- BS and LFD -- give very close results.

  16. An exact solution on the ferromagnetic Face-Cubic spin model on a Bethe lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanyan, V. R.; Ananikyan, L. N.; Ananikian, N. S.

    2006-01-01

    The lattice spin model with $Q$--component discrete spin variables restricted to have orientations orthogonal to the faces of $Q$-dimensional hypercube is considered on the Bethe lattice, the recursive graph which contains no cycles. The partition function of the model with dipole--dipole and quadrupole--quadrupole interaction for arbitrary planar graph is presented in terms of double graph expansions. The latter is calculated exactly in case of trees. The system of two recurrent relations wh...

  17. Numerical Studies of the Zero-Energy Bethe-Salpeter Equation in Minkowski Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Michele; Frederico, Tobias; Salmè, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation describing the zero-energy scattering of a system composed by two massive scalars exchanging a massive scalar is numerically investigated in ladder approximation, directly in Minkowski space. The solution is obtained by using the Nakanishi integral representation, as performed in Frederico et al. (Phys Rev D 89:016010, 2014) where the method was successfully applied to bound states. The scattering lengths are quantitatively investigated and the results compared with the corresponding ones present in literature.

  18. Calculation of Spin Observables for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering in the Bethe-Salpeter Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kinpara, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Bethe-Salpeter equation is applied to $p$-$p$ elastic scattering. The observables of spin are calculated in the framework of the M matrix using the two-body interaction potential. The parameter of the pseudovector coupling constant is adjusted so as to reproduce the spin singlet part. It is shown that the spin rotation $R(\\theta)$ and $A(\\theta)$ are improved by the resonance effect for ${}^{\\rm 1}S_{\\rm 0}$.

  19. Duncan F. Gregory, William Walton and the development of British algebra: 'algebraical geometry', 'geometrical algebra', abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgt, Lukas M

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the period of the complex history of British algebra and geometry between the publication of George Peacock's Treatise on Algebra in 1830 and William Rowan Hamilton's paper on quaternions of 1843. During these years, Duncan Farquharson Gregory and William Walton published several contributions on 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal. These contributions enabled them not only to generalize Peacock's symbolical algebra on the basis of geometrical considerations, but also to initiate the attempts to question the status of Euclidean space as the arbiter of valid geometrical interpretations. At the same time, Gregory and Walton were bound by the limits of symbolical algebra that they themselves made explicit; their work was not and could not be the 'abstract algebra' and 'abstract geometry' of figures such as Hamilton and Cayley. The central argument of the paper is that an understanding of the contributions to 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' of the second generation of 'scientific' symbolical algebraists is essential for a satisfactory explanation of the radical transition from symbolical to abstract algebra that took place in British mathematics in the 1830s-1840s.

  20. Algebraic Quantum Mechanics and Pregeometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hiley, D J B P G D B J

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the relation between the q-number approach to quantum mechanics suggested by Dirac and the notion of "pregeometry" introduced by Wheeler. By associating the q-numbers with the elements of an algebra and regarding the primitive idempotents as "generalized points" we suggest an approach that may make it possible to dispense with an a priori given space manifold. In this approach the algebra itself would carry the symmetries of translation, rotation, etc. Our suggestion is illustrated in a preliminary way by using a particular generalized Clifford Algebra proposed originally by Weyl, which approaches the ordinary Heisenberg algebra in a suitable limit. We thus obtain a certain insight into how quantum mechanics may be regarded as a purely algebraic theory, provided that we further introduce a new set of "neighbourhood operators", which remove an important kind of arbitrariness that has thus far been present in the attempt to treat quantum mechanics solely in terms of a Heisenberg algebra.