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Sample records for algarrobo prosopis chilensis

  1. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content. PMID:24003035

  2. The Potential of Algarrobo ( Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) for Regeneration of Desertified Soils: Assessing Seed Germination Under Saline Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Claus; Gachón, Paloma; Bravo, Jaime; Navarrete, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ibáñez, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Due to their multipurpose use, leguminous trees are desirable for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. Our aim was to investigate seed germination of the leguminous tree Prosopis chilensis in response to salinity, one of the major abiotic challenges of desertified soils. Germination percentages of seed from 12 wild P. chilensis populations were studied. Treatments included four aqueous NaCl concentrations (150, 300, 450, and 600 mM). In each population, the highest germination percentage was seen using distilled water (control), followed closely by 150 mM NaCl. At 300 mM NaCl or higher salt concentration, germination was progressively inhibited attaining the lowest value at 450 mM NaCl, while at 600 mM NaCl germination remained reduced but with large variation among group of samples. These results allowed us to allocate the 12 groups from where seeds were collected into three classes. First, the seeds from Huanta-Rivadavia showed the lowest percent germination for each salt condition. The second group was composed of moderately salt-tolerant seeds with 75 % germination at 300 mM NaCl, followed by 50 % germination at 450 mM NaCl and 30 % germination at 600 mM NaCl. The third group from Maitencillo and Rapel areas was the most salt tolerant with an impressive seed germination level of 97 % at 300 mM NaCl, 82 % at 450 mM NaCl, and 42 % at 600 mM NaCl. Our results demonstrate that P. chilensis seeds from these latter localities have an increased germination capability under saline stress, confirming that P. chilensis is an appropriate species to rehabilitate desertified soils.

  3. Caracterización fisicoquímica de vainas y harinas de algarrobo (Prosopis alba y Prosopis nigra) : Aplicaciones en productos horneados y fermentados

    OpenAIRE

    Sciammaro, Leonardo Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Estado del tema. La importancia del estudio del fruto del árbol algarrobo se basa en que la República Argentina constituye el mayor centro de diversificación del género Prosopis spp. con la mayor cantidad de especies endémicas. Otro factor interesante que avala la promoción de estas especies es que las mismas poseen elevada resistencia a la sequía, temperaturas extremas y alta salinidad, a la vez que contribuyen a la mejora de suelos por medio de la fijación de nitrógeno, lo que le confiere g...

  4. Changes in the pattern of protein synthesis of prosopis chilensis induced by high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of Prosopis chilensis, a leguminous tree from semi-arid regions of Central Chile, were germinated at temperatures of 25-30-35-40-45 and 50 degree C. Germination was 100% between 25 and 40 degree C, being faster at 35 degree C. The best temperature for root growth was also 35 degree C. There was not germination at 50 degree C. However, seedlings coming from seeds germinated at 35 degree C were capable of growing at higher temperatures of 45 and 50 degree C. Pattern of protein synthesis was followed in roots incubated with 35S-methionine at increasing temperatures between 35 and 50 degree C. SDS-PAGE of the proteins followed by fluorography shows that at temperatures above 35 degree C, new protein bands appear while others become thicker. Most of the protein bands have decreased at 50 degree C, with the exception of the new bands. A band of 70 KD, that is present at 35 degree C, is more prominent at 50 degree C. These proteins may have an important role in the thermotolerance of Prosopis chilensis to stressing temperatures

  5. Desarrollo de una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de algarrobo, lupino y quinoa para la dieta de preescolares Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers

    OpenAIRE

    P. Cerezal Mezquita; E. Acosta Barrientos; G. Rojas Valdivia; N. Romero Palacios; R. Arcos Zavala

    2012-01-01

    En la presente investigación se desarrolló una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de la mezcla de los extractos líquidos de un pseudocereal, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) y de dos plantas leguminosas: algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) y lupino (Lupinus albus L.), provenientes del altiplano andino de la macrozona norte de Chile, saborizándose con pulpa de frambuesa, para contribuir en la alimentación de niños entre 2 y 5 años de estrato socio-económico bajo con deficienci...

  6. Arqueología experimental y valoración nutricional del fruto de algarrobo (Prosopis flexuosa: inferencias sobre la presencia de macrorrestos en sitios arqueológicos Experimental archaeology and nutritional assessment of the fruit of mesquite (Prosopis flexuosa: inferences about the presence of macroremains in archaeological sites

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    Carina Llano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los frutos de Prosopis spp. son una importante fuente de alimento tanto para los humanos como para los animales debido a su alto valor nutricional, cuyos componentes clave se encuentran distribuidos en el fruto. Mientras que los carbohidratos se presentan en el mesocarpo, las proteínas se encuentran en las semillas, lo que hace más difícil su extracción. Esto plantea la posibilidad de que las diferencias en los costos de procesamiento tengan que ver con el uso de la semilla del algarrobo descripto etnográficamente. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados de una serie de experimentos de recolección y molienda realizados con manos y molinos tradicionales con el fin de evaluar el aporte nutricional y los costos asociados con la intensificación en el procesamiento de vainas de algarroba. Observamos que mientras se intensifica el procesamiento obtenemos una mayor cantidad de proteínas en la harina de algarrobo debido a la incorporación de las semillas; sin embargo, las diferencias en el aporte nutricional son mínimas, el valor energético total se mantiene igual y los altos costos adicionales de procesamiento reducen la tasa de retorno energético. Estos resultados sugieren que, en la mayoría de los casos, el procesamiento del algarrobo se hace principalmente para extraer los hidratos de carbono. Asimismo, comparamos los residuos de la molienda experimental con los macrorrestos vegetales de sitios arqueológicos del sur de la provincia de Mendoza, los cuales sugieren patrones similares de procesamiento. Esto permite establecer un origen antropogénico y no natural para los restos recuperados.Mesquite fruits Prosopis spp. are an important food resource for both humans and animals due to their high nutritional value, but key dietary components are unevenly distributed within the fruit. While carbohydrates occur in the soft, outer mesocarpo, proteins are found in the much harder seeds. This raises the potential for differences in

  7. Desarrollo de una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de algarrobo, lupino y quinoa para la dieta de preescolares Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se desarrolló una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de la mezcla de los extractos líquidos de un pseudocereal, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd y de dos plantas leguminosas: algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol. Stunz y lupino (Lupinus albus L., provenientes del altiplano andino de la macrozona norte de Chile, saborizándose con pulpa de frambuesa, para contribuir en la alimentación de niños entre 2 y 5 años de estrato socio-económico bajo con deficiencias nutricionales. La formulación se definió por Programación Lineal, se determinó su composición por análisis proximal y se realizaron pruebas físicas, microbiológicas y de aceptación sensorial. Al concluir los 90 días de almacenamiento la bebida obtuvo un contenido de proteínas de 1,36%, siendo el triptófano el aminoácido limitante; por su parte, las coordenadas de cromaticidad del espacio de color CIEL*a*b* no presentaron diferencias significativas (p This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol. Stunz and lupine (Lupinus albus L., native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05 maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  8. Sucedáneo del café a partir de algarroba (prosopis alba griseb).

    OpenAIRE

    PROKOPIUK, DANTE BASILIO

    2008-01-01

    Prosopis alba Griseb (algarrobo blanco) es una leguminosa arbórea que crece naturalmente en el Chaco argentino. Los frutos o algarrobas son dulces y tienen un apreciable valor proteico, por ello son utilizadas en la alimentación humana y animal, principalmente secas y molidas o en forma de extractos acuosos. El objetivo de este trabajo de tesis doctoral fue desarrollar un sucedáneo de café a partir de la algarroba de Prosopis alba Griseb. Para ello, se tostaron las algarrobas a seis temperatu...

  9. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann; Cristina Quispe; Maria del Pilar C. Soriano; Cristina Theoduloz; Felipe Jiménez-Aspée; Maria Jorgelina Pérez; Ana Soledad Cuello; Maria Inés Isla

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest ant...

  10. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  11. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food. PMID:25898415

  12. RAPD and microsatellite transferability studies in selected species of Prosopis (section Algarobia) with emphasis on Prosopis juliflora and P. pallida

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minu Sherry; Steve Smith; Ashok Patel; Phil Harris; Paul Hand; Liz Trenchard; Janey Henderson

    2011-08-01

    The genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comprises 44 species widely distributed in arid and semi-arid zones. Prosopis pallida (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth and P. juliflora (Sw.) DC. are the two species that are truly tropical apart from P. africana, which is native to tropical Africa (Pasiecznik et al. 2004), and they have been introduced widely beyond their native ranges. However, taxonomic confusion within the genus has hampered exploitation and better management of the species. The present study focusses primarily on evaluating the genetic relationship between Prosopis species from the section Algarobia, containing most species of economic importance, though P. tamarugo from section Strombocarpa is also included for comparison. In total, 12 Prosopis species and a putative P. pallida × P. chilensis hybrid were assessed for their genetic relationships based on RAPD markers and microsatellite transferability. The results show that P. pallida and P. juliflora are not closely related despite some morphological similarity. Evidence also agrees with previous studies which suggest that the grouping of series in section Algarobia is artificial.

  13. Aristotelia chilensis, Maqui

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Maqui or Macqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Mol.] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae) is a shrub or small tree native to Chile and Argentina in South America. The plant typically grows as an e...

  14. Bibliography of prosopis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, B.O.; Grainger, A.

    1981-01-01

    References covering the years 1904-80 are listed under the following headings: cultivation and occurrence (India and Pakistan, Africa, South America, Pacific, Middle East); Taxonomy, morphology, variation and selection; Reference works and reviews; Ecology of Prosopis (General effects on surrounding soil and vegetation): Physiology (General, Roots, Growth, Hydrology, Saline tolerance); Control of mesquite: Propagation (Germination and other nursery techniques, Vegetative propagation): and Utilization (General, Chemical analyses, Food and Ethnobiology, Fodder, Wood, Charcoal, Gum, Paper). 141 references.

  15. Comportamento silvicultural de especies de Prosopis, em Petrolina-PE, regiãosemi-arida brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Paulo Cesar Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Performance e produtividades madeireira e forrageira foram avaliadas em Prosopis alba, P. chilensis e P. tamarugo introduzidas do Chile; 1'. glandulosa e P. velutina dos Estados Unidos; P. pallida do Peru e P. juliflora do Nordeste do Brasil, até a idade de 96 meses. O experimento, conduzido em Petrolina (P2), foi avaliado sob os aspectos de sobrevivência, crescimento, fenologia, produtividades madeireira e forrageira e fitossanidade. Dados das medições aos 3, 13, 24, 39, 63, 75, 87 e 96 mese...

  16. [Chemical characterization of integral flour from the prosopis spp. of Bolivia and Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Abel González; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; de Abreu, Celeste Maria Patto; Barcelos, Maria de Fatima Piccolo

    2008-09-01

    The mature fruits of three species of algarroba found in Bolivia (Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stunz, P. alba Grisebach y P. nigra (Grisebach) Hieronymus) and of one of Brazil (P. juliflora (SW) DC) were analysed for some nutritional and antinutritional factors. P. nigra showed the highest levels of crude protein (11.33 g/100 g dry matter-DM) and ashes (4.12 g/100 g DM). P. juliflora presented the lowest levels of lipids (0.79 g/100 g DM), crude protein (8.84 g/100 g DM) and dietary fiber (40.15 g/100 g DM), and the highest levels of non reducing sugar (52.51 g/100 g DM) and in vitro protein digestibility (66.45%). Trypsin inhibitors concentration (0.29 to 9.32 UTI/mg DM) was inferior to that of raw soy; P. juliflora presented the higher values. Regarding saponin, hemagglutinin and poliphenol values, the levels found are considered low. As for nitrates, the levels found were higher than those reported for peas and beans, with P. chilensis presenting the highest value (2.92 g NO3(-)/kg DM). The levels of phytate varied from 1.31 a 1.53 g/100 g. PMID:19137996

  17. Estudios termométricos de granitoides de Algarrobo del Águila, provincia de La Pampa Thermometric Studies from Algarrobo del Aguila granitoids, province of La Pampa

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    T Montenegro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Los plutones graníticos de Algarrobo del Águila, provincia de La Pampa, forman parte del Complejo Intrusivo Algarrobo del Águila y afloran en el bloque de Las Matras. Tienen edad permo-triásica y constituyen cerros de escasa altura. Los principales afloramientos son Puesto Los Cerros, Puesto Las Tinajeras y Cerro Colorado. Hacia el oeste, cerca del límite con Mendoza, se encuentra, en forma aislada, el monzogranito de Chos Malal. Las edades obtenidas por el método K/Ar sobre roca total son de 256,8 ± 5,5 Ma para Cerro Colorado y 197,9 ± 3,9 Ma para Puesto Los Cerros. Los cuerpos ígneos se caracterizan por una amplia variación textural con transición hacia términos volcánicos, indicativos de una rápida cristalización en ambientes de profundidad somera. La cristalización del cuarzo tiene lugar bajo diferentes presentaciones. A partir de 370º y hasta 260°C los megacristales de cuarzo capturaron fluidos de composición compleja H2O-NaCl-CO2, con salinidad elevada y concentración de CO2 no mayor a 0,04% molar. En las miarolas, el cuarzo cristalizó entre 335º y 235°C y en las venas entre 330º y 300°C, con salinidades de hasta 14% equivalente en peso NaCl. Los feldespatos potásicos tienen un grado de ordenamiento intermedio lo que indica un enfriamiento rápido a temperaturas inferiores a 400°C. Estas temperaturas son congruentes con la cristalización de microclino sin las maclas según leyes de Albita-Periclino. La presencia de minerales como fluorita, apatito y turmalina, sumado a todas las anteriores características, son indicativos de la cúpula de un plutón emplazado en niveles someros.The granitic stocks of Algarrobo del Aguila, in the province of La Pampa, are assembled in "Complejo Intrusivo Algarrobo del Aguila" and they crop out in Las Matras Block forming smooth and small hills. Main outcrops of these Permian-Triassic granites are Puesto Los Cerros, Puesto Las Tinajeras and Cerro Colorado. The isolated outcrops

  18. Estructura y estado de conservación de los bosques de Prosopis flexuosa D.C. (Fabaceae, subfamilia: Mimosoideae en el noreste de Mendoza (Argentina Structure and conservative condition of the Prosopis flexuosa D.C. (Fabaceae, subfamily: Mimosoideae woodlands in northeast Mendoza (Argentina

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    JUAN AGUSTÍN ALVAREZ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La recomendación de normas de manejo que regulen el uso de los recursos forestales debe estar basada en el conocimiento de la estructura y dinámica de los mismos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la estructura poblacional de las principales unidades boscosas del bosque de Prosopis flexuosa del noreste de Mendoza, sus condiciones sanitarias y su potencial productivo. Se muestrearon un total de 1.471 algarrobos en las cuatro unidades boscosas más representativas. La densidad total de algarrobos fue la siguiente: bosque semicerrado de P. flexuosa con Atriplex lampa y Lycium tenuispinosum en valles intermédanos (Bosque 1: 181 árboles ha-1, bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con Trichomaria usillo y Suaeda divaricata en ondulaciones (Bosque 2: 155 árboles ha-1, bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con T. usillo (Bosque 3: 233 árboles ha-1 y bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con A. lampa en ondulaciones suaves (Bosque 4: 215 árboles ha-1. El análisis de componentes principales de la estructura diamétrica agrupó los sitios relevados en las distintas unidades boscosas según la proporción de árboles de diámetro basal mayor a 25 cm. Los sitios del Bosque 1 (mayor proporción de árboles grandes, se separaron de los sitios con mayor proporción árboles pequeños (bosques 2 y 4. Debido al hábito de crecimiento de los algarrobos, la cantidad de productos maderables de estos bosques es baja. Además, P. flexuosa presenta en el área un porcentaje alto de individuos con más de dos fustes, la forma en muchos casos es decumbente y la altura de los fustes es menor a un metro. Por lo tanto, el potencial forestal del bosque es bajo y el posible aprovechamiento debería realizarse a escala local, considerando la inclusión de otras actividades complementarias en zonas establecidas para tal finThe recommendation of management rules that regulate the use of forest resources must be based on the knowledge of the structure and dynamics of forests. This work

  19. Le reboisement - L'Algarobeira (Prosopis juliflora)

    OpenAIRE

    Grégoire, L.

    1985-01-01

    Reforestration - Algarobeira (Prosopis juliflora). As compared with the study to the bean prices (see Tropicultura Vol. 1, n°3, pp. 86-98), the time serie of potato prices displays seasonal moves with larger amplitudes. These variations are due to differents factors : - specific rhythm of the crop cycle - low level of commercialization - storage difficulties during the harvest period. On the other hand it has been identified a long run move in potato prices, the frequence of which is badly kn...

  20. PROSOPIS CINERARIA: A GIFT OF NATURE FOR PHARMACY

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    Ashish Kumar Pareek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis cineraria is commonly known as Khejri,It is a Leguminous multipurpose tree.The tree prosopis have climatic adaptation so it can easily survive in a broad range of climatic variation.It is very useful tree and famous specially in desert area due to its spreadability and importance. It is also known as “Golden tree” or “Wonder tree” of the desert. Prosopis cineraria stem bark is useful in the treatment of Rheumatism, Cough, Common cold, Anthelmintic disorder ,dysentery, Bronchitis, Asthma, Leucoderma, piles and Tremors of the muscles. The Prosopis cineraria plays an important role in the socio-economic development of the farmers. The wood of the prosopis is the main part of the tree that have economic importance it is used for fuel, firewood and charcoal. Flowers of the prosopis are used for skin disease, as a blood purifier and producing a cooling effect. Prosopis provides safeguard in pregnancy by preventing miscarriage in pregnancy.Dry pods of the prosopis is known as sangri and it is the main part of some rajasthani dishes and also have a broader range of pharmaceutical application like in pain, High cholesterol level, Diabetes, Anaemia, Kidney & Liver disorders. The leaf of the tree is known as loom and they have high nutrient content like Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat, Minerals and Vitamins.The Leaf of the Prosopis is used in mouth ulcer and eye trouble, the leaf of prosopis have Antibacterial, Antihyperglycemic, Antihyperlipidemic,and Antioxidant activity. The following Article covers all pharmaceutical property of Prosopis cineraria with chemical constituents.

  1. Human sensitization to Prosopis Juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  2. Análisis numérico de las especies de Prosopis L. (Fabaceae de las costas de Perú y Ecuador

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    Alicia D. Burghardt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes revisiones coinciden en señalar 2 o 3 especies de Prosopis para el sur de Ecuador y norte de Perú: P. juliflora (SW DC, P. pallida (Humb. et Bonpl. ex Willd. Kunth y P. affinis Sprengel. En el presente trabajo se informa del análisis cuantitativo de caracteres foliares de especímenes del genero Prosopis, recolectados a lo largo de la costa desde Arequipa (Perú a Manta (Ecuador. Los resultados señalan tres grupos bien definidos. Del análisis comparativo de los tipos y ejemplares de herbario de todas las especies y sinónimos citados para la zona de estudio surge que los taxones existentes son: P. pallida, P. limensis Bentham, ambos de amplia distribución, y P. chilensis (Molina Stuntz emend Burkart restringido al valle del río Camaná. Estos tres taxones se corresponden con los tres grupos obtenidos del análisis numérico. Debe señalarse la exclusión del área de P. juliflora y P. affinis. Se sugiere no utilizar las numerosas variedades señaladas para P. pallida.

  3. Le reboisement - L'Algarobeira (Prosopis juliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire, L.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Reforestration - Algarobeira (Prosopis juliflora. As compared with the study to the bean prices (see Tropicultura Vol. 1, n°3, pp. 86-98, the time serie of potato prices displays seasonal moves with larger amplitudes. These variations are due to differents factors : - specific rhythm of the crop cycle - low level of commercialization - storage difficulties during the harvest period. On the other hand it has been identified a long run move in potato prices, the frequence of which is badly known. This move keeps mainly being under business cycle influence. It seems anyway that income demand elasticity of potatoes looks very high in such a way that wages moving up entail a rise in potato prices on the market of Bujumbura.

  4. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) species for biofuel production on semi-arid lands. Final report, April 1, 1978-March 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P; Cannell, G H; Clark, P R; Osborn, J F; Nash, P

    1985-01-01

    Arid adapted nitrogen fixing trees and shrubs of the genus Prosopis (mesquite) have been examined for woody biomass production on semi-arid lands of southwestern United States. A germ-plasm collection of 900 accessions from North and South America and Africa was assembled. Field studies screening for biomass production, frost tolerance, response to irrigation, pod production and heat/drought tolerance involved a total of 80 accessions. Selections made from survivors of coal/frost screening trial had more frost tolerance and biomass productivity than prostrate selections from the ranges of Arizona, New Mexico and west Texas. Thirteen Prosopis species were found to nodulate, reduce acetylene to ethylene, and grow on a nitrogen free media in greenhouse experiments. The salinity tolerance of six Prosopis species was examined on a nitrogen free media in greenhouse experiments. No reduction in growth occurred for any species tested at a salinity of 6000 mg NaC1/L which is considered too saline for normal agricultural crops. Individual trees have grown 5 to 7 cm in basal diameter, and 2.0 to 3.7 meters in height per year and have achieved 50 kg oven dry weight per tree in 2 years with 600 mm water application per year. Vegetative propagation techniques have been developed and clones of these highly productive trees have been made. Small pilots on 1.5 x 1.5 m spacing in the California Imperial Valley had a first and second season dry matter production of 11.7 and 16.9 T/ha for P. chilensis (0009), 7.1 and 6.9 T/ha for P. glandulosa var. torreyana (0001), 9.8 and 19.2 T/ha for P. alba (0039) and 7.9 and 14.5 T/ha for progency of a California ornamental (0163). The projected harvested costs of $25.00 per oven dry ton or $1.50 per million Btu's compare favorable with coal and other alternative fuel sources in South Texas.

  5. Plano Oficial de Urbanización de Algarrobo, 1950: urbanismo saludable y visión de futuro para un balneario de la antigua Provincia de Santiago (Chile / Official Plan of Private Algarrobo, 1950: healthy urban planning and vision for a resort of the old Province of Santiago (Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavez Reyes, María Isabel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el proyecto urbano para la comuna de Algarrobo (Chile, aprobado en 1950, a partir de copia matriz de plano en Archivo Histórico del departamento de Urbanismo FAU. U. de Chile. A cargo de esta planificación estuvo la Sección de Urbanismo del Departamento de Arquitectura de la D.G.O.P., dirigida por el Arqto. Luis Muñoz Maluschka./This article analyzes the project for Algarrobo approved in 1950 when Luis Muñoz M. was in charge of the plan management.

  6. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) germplasm for biomass production and nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing trees of the genus Prosopis (mesquite or algaroba) are well adapted to the semi-arid and often saline regions of the world. These trees may produce firewood or pods for livestock food, they may stabilize sand dunes and they may enrich the soil by production of leaf litter supported by nitrogen fixation. A collection of nearly 500 Prosopis accessions representing North and South American and African germplasm has been established. Seventy of these accessions representing 14 taxa are being grown under field conditions where a 30-fold range in biomass productivity among accessions has been estimated. In a greehouse experiment, 13 Prosopis taxa grew on nitrogen-free medium nodulated, and had a 10-fold difference in nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction). When Prosopis is propagated by seed the resulting trees are extremely variable in growth rate and presence or absence of thorns. Propagation of 6 Prosopis taxa by stem cuttings has been achieved with low success (1 to 10%) in field-grown plants and with higher success (50 to 100%) with young actively growing greenhouse plants.

  7. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Solidago chilensis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Schneider; Adrieli Sachett; Amanda P. Schönell; Eduarda Ibagy; Emily Fantin; Fernanda Bevilaqua; Giana Piccinin; Glaucia D. Santo; Marta Giachini; Rafael Chitolina; Silvana M. Wildner; Ricieri Mocelin; Leila Zanatta; Walter A. Roman Junior

    2015-01-01

    AbstractSolidago chilensis Meyen, Asteraceae, is traditionally used to treat inflammation. However, phytochemical and pharmacology investigations are lacking. This study evaluated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract from S. chilensis aerial parts in rats. In oral glucose tolerance tests the rats received saline (0.5 ml/100 g) in control group (C), hydroalcoholic extract (125, 250 or 500 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6) or glibenclamide (10 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6). After 30 min, ...

  8. The human allergens of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killian Sue

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A computerized statistical analysis of allergy skin test results correlating patient reactivities initiated our interest in the cross-reactive allergens of mesquite tree pollen. In-vitro testing with mesquite-sensitized rabbits and a variety of deciduous tree pollens revealed so many cross-reactivities that it became apparent there could be more allergens in mesquite than previously described in the world literature. Our purpose was to examine the allergens of mesquite tree pollen (Prosopis juliflora which elicit an IgE response in allergic humans so that future research could determine if these human allergens cross-react with various tree pollens in the same manner as did the mesquite antiserum from sensitized rabbits. Methods Proteins from commercial mesquite tree pollen were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium-dodecyl-sulphate. These mesquite proteins were subjected to Western blotting using pooled sera from ten mesquite-sensitive patients and goat anti-human IgE. The allergens were detected using an Amplified Opti-4-CN kit, scanned, and then interpreted by Gel-Pro software. Results Thirteen human allergens of mesquite pollen were detected in this study. Conclusion The number of allergens in this study of mesquite exceeded the number identified previously in the literature. With the increased exposure to mesquite through its use in "greening the desert", increased travel to desert areas and exposure to mesquite in cooking smoke, the possible clinical significance of these allergens and their suggested cross-reactivity with other tree pollens merit further study.

  9. Valores hematológicos de referencia en tortuga terrestre argentina (Chelonoidis chilensis chilensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Troiano, Juan Carlos; M.C Silva

    1998-01-01

    Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas de 150 ejemplares sanos de tortuga terrestre argentina (Chelonoidis chilensis chilensis) por medio de punción de la vena coccígea superior. Las determinaciones que se realizaron incluyeron recuentos de glóbulos rojos, leucocitos y trombocitos, hematocrito, concentración de hemoglobina, índices hematimétricos y fórmulas leucocitarias relativas, las que se compararon con otras especies de Testudinidae. No se observaron cambios estadísticamente significativos en lo...

  10. Carbon isotopes confirm the competitive advantages of Prosopis over Acacia erioloba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The landscape of the Kalahari Desert is changing as the indigenous Acacia erioloba E.Mey. is being replaced by the invasive Prosopis spp. Although both species are phreatophytic, the disproportionately large taproot of Prosopis enables it to survive extreme moisture stress. δ13C values were determined on annually resolved Prosopis and Acacia erioloba samples to investigate adaptation to changing edaphic conditions. The results confirm that the Acacia erioloba sample died during a period of water stress

  11. Anthocyanins in berries of Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Muñoz, Orlando; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2006-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of berries of Maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz] was determined by HPLC with photodiode array and MS detection. Eight pigments corresponding to the 3-glucosides, 3,5-diglucosides, 3-sambubiosides and 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin were identified, the principal anthocyanin being delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (34% of total anthocyanins). The average total anthocyanin content was 137.6 +/- 0.4mg/100g of fresh fruit (211.9 +/- 0.6 mg/100g of dry fruit). The relative high anthocyanin content and the important presence of polar polyglycosylated derivatives makes the fruits of A. chilensis an interesting source of anthocyanin extracts for food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:16454470

  12. Effects of different treatments on seed germination and breaking seed dormancy of Prosopis koelziana and Prosopis Juliflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salman Zare; Ali Tavili; Mohammad Javad Darini

    2011-01-01

    For improving seed germination of Prosopis koelziana and Prosopis juliflora, different treatments of seeds were conducted, including scarification with sulfuric acid 98% for l0 and 15 min, sandy paper,hot water for 5 and 10 min, potasium nitrate 0.1%, gibberellic acid at 250 mg.L-1 and 500 mg.L-1 and combinational treatment of scarification with gibberellic acid of 250 mg.L-1 and 500 mg.L-1. The results show that scarifications with sandy paper and sulfuric acids 98% were the most effective treatments on breaking seed dormancy and seed germination induction. Scarification with sulfuric acid 98% for 15 min was the best treatment. According to the positive effect of scarification and lack of reaction of seeds against KNO3 and gibberellic acid, the kind of seed dormancy was determined as exogenous.

  13. Bioactive Compounds of Aristotelia chilensis Stuntz and their Pharmacological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Valeria; D'Alonzo, Daniele; Guaragna, Annalisa; Di Marino, Cinzia; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelia chilensis ([Molina], Stuntz) a member of the family Eleocarpaceae, is a plant native to Chile that is distributed in tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, the Pacific Area, and South America. The juice of its berries has important medicinal properties, as an astringent, tonic, and antidiarrhoeal. Its many qualities make the maqui berry the undisputed sovereign of the family of so-called "superfruits", as well as a valuable tool to combat cellular inflammation of bones and joints. Recently, it is discovered that the leaves of the maqui berry have important antibacterial and antitumour activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, and biological activity of A. chilensis using information collected from scientific journals, books, and electronic searches. Anthocyanins, other flavonoids, alkaloids, cinnamic acid derivatives, benzoic acid derivatives, other bioactive molecules, and mineral elements are summarized. A broad range of activities of plant extracts and fractions are presented, including antioxidant activity, inhibition of visible light-induced damage of photoreceptor cells, inhibition of α-glucosidase, inhibition of pancreatic lipase, anti-diabetic effects, anti-inflammatory effects, analgesic effects, anti-diabetes, effective prevention of atherosclerosis, promotion of hair growth, anti-photo ageing of the skin, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Although some ethnobotanical uses have been supported in in vitro experiments, further studies of the individual compounds or chemical classes of compounds responsible for the pharmacological effects and the mechanisms of action are necessary. In addition, the toxicity and the side effects from the use of A. chilensis, as well as clinical trials, require attention. PMID:26778456

  14. Herbivory, foliar survival and shoot growth in fragmented populations of Aristotelia chilensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, P. A.; Grez, A. A.; Bustamante, R. O.; Simonetti, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation may modify ecological interactions such as herbivory, and these changes can impinge upon plant fitness. Through a natural experiment, we evaluated if herbivory, foliar survival and shoot growth of the evergreen tree Aristotelia chilensis differ between a continuous forest (600 ha) and small fragments (˜3 ha) of the Maulino forest. From September 2002, we monthly recorded leaf emergence, area lost to herbivores and survival in four cohorts of leaves. Although herbivory of A. chilensis was low overall (foliar area loss chilensis adults. The consequences of changes in ecological interactions triggered by forest fragmentation ought to be assessed rather than inferred from variations in patterns of resource use.

  15. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Solidago chilensis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Schneider

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSolidago chilensis Meyen, Asteraceae, is traditionally used to treat inflammation. However, phytochemical and pharmacology investigations are lacking. This study evaluated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract from S. chilensis aerial parts in rats. In oral glucose tolerance tests the rats received saline (0.5 ml/100 g in control group (C, hydroalcoholic extract (125, 250 or 500 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6 or glibenclamide (10 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6. After 30 min, glucose (4 g/kg was administered. Rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract 500 demonstrated decreased glucose levels at 180 min (-22.1%, when compared with group C, similar to glibenclamide. Moreover, treatment with hydroalcoholic extract 500 significantly increased the glycogen content in the liver and soleus muscle, and hydroalcoholic extract 250 specifically inhibited the enzyme maltase when compared with group C. Furthermore, all hyperglycemic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract (125, 250 and 500 exhibited an accentuated decrease in total cholesterol levels (-36.8%, -36.7% and -41.3%, respectively. Our results suggest that hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract could be associated with increased production and release of insulin as well as with insulinotropic and antioxidant effects.

  16. Shoreline changes in Concón and Algarrobo bays, central Chile, using an adjustment model Cambios en la línea litoral de las bahías de Algarrobo y Concón, Chile central, a través de un modelo de ajuste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martinez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjustment models for both Algarrobo and Concón bays, central Chile, are presented herein; the results show a nearly logarithmic spiral shape for the shore. Spatial-temporal variations in the shorelines of both bays were found based on aerial photographs from different years. The results indicate important variations in the relative position of the Concón Bay shoreline between 1945 and 2006, with extreme oscillations (-368 to 123.8 m only occurring in the proximal zone, where the Aconcagua Estuary is located. On the other hand, the spatial-temporal variations in the Algarrobo Bay shoreline between 1967 and 2006 are moderate (131 in the proximal and -73 in the distal zone. Whereas Concón Bay exhibits a stable state of equilibrium for the past 60 years, if the estuary zone is excluded, Algarrobo Bay presents a stable state with a tendency for growth in the proximal zone and retreat in the distal zone. The results are discussed in terms of coastal changes associated with highly urbanized shorelines and applications for coastal area management that are derived from the modelsSe presentan los resultados de la aplicación de un modelo de ajuste para las bahías de Algarrobo y Concón en Chile central, cuya forma se aproxima a una espiral logarítmica. A partir del uso de fotografías aéreas correspondientes a diferentes años, se determinaron las variaciones espacio-temporales de la línea litoral en ambas bahías. Los resultados indican que la bahía de Concón ha presentado importantes variaciones en la posición relativa de su línea litoral para el período 1945 a 2006, únicamente en su zona proximal, lugar en donde se localiza el estuario Aconcagua con oscilaciones extremas entre -368 m y 123,8 m. En la bahía de Algarrobo, las variaciones espacio-temporales de la línea litoral son de magnitud moderada para el período comprendido entre 1967 y 2006, presentando valores extremos de 131 m en la zona proximal y de -73 m en la zona distal

  17. (-)-8-Oxohobartine a New İndole Alkaloid from Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Paz; Jose Becerra; Mario Silva; Jaime Cabrera-Pardo; Viviana Burgos; Matthias Heydenreich; Bernd Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    The fruit of Aristotelia chilensis is considered a “super fruit” due to its high concentration of polyphenols displaying exceptional antioxidant capacities ORAC. From maqui berries have been reported several anthocyanins and glycosylated flavonoids, those benefits increase the attention to restudy the plant. From the leaves of A. chilensis several indole alkaloids have been reported, we in addition to aristoteline, aristone, aristoquinoline and 3-fromylindole report the spectroscopic elucidat...

  18. Shoreline changes in Concón and Algarrobo bays, central Chile, using an adjustment model Cambios en la línea litoral de las bahías de Algarrobo y Concón, Chile central, a través de un modelo de ajuste

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Martinez

    2007-01-01

    Adjustment models for both Algarrobo and Concón bays, central Chile, are presented herein; the results show a nearly logarithmic spiral shape for the shore. Spatial-temporal variations in the shorelines of both bays were found based on aerial photographs from different years. The results indicate important variations in the relative position of the Concón Bay shoreline between 1945 and 2006, with extreme oscillations (-368 to 123.8 m) only occurring in the proximal zone, where the Aconcagua E...

  19. PROSOPIS CINERARIA (L) DRUCE: A DESERT TREE TO BRACE LIVELIHOOD IN RAJASTHAN

    OpenAIRE

    BINA RANI, UPMA SINGH, RAVI SHARMA, A AYUSHI GUPTA, NIDHI GAUBA DHAWAN, AJIT KUMAR SHARMA, SURBHI SHARMA, RAAZ K MAHESHWARI

    2013-01-01

    The Prosopis cineraria (L) Druce is an important tree (Khejri- a local name in Rajasthan)for the Thar Desert withhard climatic adaptation and one of the lifeline in desert habitat as mentioned in ancient literature. This is a speciesrepresenting all five F viz., Forest, Fiber, Fuel, Fodder and Food. This tree is also mythological important in localcommunities. High value of this species recognized as a State symbol (state tree of Rajasthan). Prosopis cineraria(L.) Druce is a tree endemic to h...

  20. Economics of mixed plantation of Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica for fuel in Agra ravines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, R.; Puri, D.N.; Singh, J.P.; Sharma, K.

    1984-09-01

    Economic analysis of the mixed plantation of Acacia nilotica (60%), Prosopis juliflora (20%) and miscellaneous species (20%) in severe ravine lands along the bank of river Yamuna at Agra, was carried out. The benefit-cost ratios of the first 15 years rotation at 10% and 15% discount rates were worked out to be 1.81 and 1.09, respectively with internal rate of return (IRR) of 16.2%. Twenty percent of the area covered with Prosopis juliflora in the first rotation coppiced profusely and was retained. The remaining area was resown with Prosopis juliflora. The benefit-cost ratios of the second rotation of seven years (Prosopis juliflora - 78% and miscellaneous species - 22%) worked out to be 1.61 and 1.40 at 10% and 15% discount rates having IRR of 27%. Both the rotations gave a favourable benefit-cost ratio which establishes the economic feasibility of raising mixed plantation of Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica in ravine lands whose opportunity cost is very low.

  1. Performance of Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances in soils low in phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances were screened to determine their potential for adaptability under P limiting conditions as a strategy to exploit genotypic differences in terms of utilization and uptake efficiencies. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse at the Kenya Forestry Research Institute using soils taken from the field which are critically low in available P. The experimental treatments comprised of P application at 0 and 60 Kg P2O5/ha for 11 provenances of Acacia, 6 Prosopis and 4 Casuarina spp. Trait for adaptability to P deficiency was determined by measuring the growth performance, P uptake and utilization efficiencies at zero and moderate application of P. The results indicated considerable differences in the growth performance and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE). Acacia provenances showed the highest PUE compared with Prosopis and Casuarina spp although this was not reflected in the total dry matter yield. However, it was observed that P application resulted in an increase in shoot dry matter, height, root collar diameter and root dry matter in the case of Casuarina. Similarly, the highest total P uptake was obtained in Casuarina and Prosopis spp. The results further indicated that P application probably contributed to the reduction in root dry matter and root: shoot ratios of Acacia and Prosopis but not Casuarina spp. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Composition of epicuticular wax on Prosopis glandulosa leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epicuticular wax on leaves of field-grown honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) trees consisted of 35% esters, 32% alkanes, 25% free fatty alcohols, and 7% free fatty acids. Aldehydes were present in very low concentrations. The number of carbon atoms (Cn) of alkanes ranged from 25 to 31, with a maximum (57%) at 29. Esters consisted of fatty acids with Cn of 16, 18, and 20, with most (70%) at 18 and fatty alcohols with Cn of 24-32. The Cn of free fatty alcohols and free fatty acids also ranged from 24 to 32. Only primary alcohols were present. Immediately after exposure of glasshouse-grown seedlings to 14CO2 for 4 h, 60% of the recovered 14C was incorporated into free fatty acids; the percentage decreased progressively to 18% 8 h after exposure and remained stable thereafter. The proportion of 14C in free fatty alcohols increased from ca. 12% immediately after exposure to 14CO2 to 55% at 8 h. Little 14C was associated with other wax components over the 24-h period; 3% or less was incorporated into alkanes

  3. Hobartine: a tetracyclic indole alkaloid extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (maqui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Robles, Cristian; Badilla Vidal, Natalia; Suarez, Sebastián; Baggio, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    The natural compound hobartine {systematic name: (1R)-3-[(1S,5S)-(4,4,8-trimethylbicyclo[3.3.1]non-7-en-2-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole}, C20H26N2, (I), is an indole alkaloid isolated from Aristotelia chilensis as part of a study of secondary metabolites from Chilean flora. The colourless compound has a tetracyclic structure closely related to the strongly coloured polymorphic structures discussed in Paz et al. [Acta Cryst. (2013), C69, 1509-1512] and Watson et al. [Acta Cryst. (1989), C45, 1322-1324]. The main differences reside in the absence of a keto group in (I) compared with the previous structures, as well as an endo double bond in (I) contrasting with the exo double bond found in the previous structures. The supramolecular structure of (I) in strongly related to the twofold screw axis, around which isolated chains build up, internally linked by an N-H···N hydrogen bond which is the only significant intermolecular interaction present in the structure. PMID:25370110

  4. ECONOMICAL VIABILITY OF PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT OF Prosopis juliflora (SW D.C. WOOD SUBMITTED TO SAP DISPLACEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmoulis Wanderley de Farias Sobrinho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the economical viability of preservative treatment of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C. roundpieces treated with Osmose CCB commercial preservative applied by sap displacement method in rural property and to comparetheir costs with Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Mimosa tenuiflora and Prosopis juliflora non-treated pieces costs. The treatment of Prosopisjuliflora wood demonstrated to be economically viable when compared to alternatives using the Equivalent Annual Costs (EACs, fordiscount rates of 12; 15; and 18% and expected useful life varying from 16 to 30 years, in these situations treated Prosopis juliflorawood presented smaller EAC than Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Mimosa tenuiflora and Prosopis juliflora non-treated woods for theanalyzed situations, that justifies the employment of the Prosopis juliflora treated logs as fence posts and other similar uses.

  5. (--8-Oxohobartine a New İndole Alkaloid from Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Aristotelia chilensis is considered a “super fruit” due to its high concentration of polyphenols displaying exceptional antioxidant capacities ORAC. From maqui berries have been reported several anthocyanins and glycosylated flavonoids, those benefits increase the attention to restudy the plant. From the leaves of A. chilensis several indole alkaloids have been reported, we in addition to aristoteline, aristone, aristoquinoline and 3-fromylindole report the spectroscopic elucidation of 8-oxo-9-dehydromakomakine (1, hobartine (2 and a new alkaloid named 8-oxohobartine (3. Compound 1 to 3 did not show bactericidal activity against E. coli and S. aureus till 200 μg.

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Diversity in Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce Under Arid Agroecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neelam Verma; Jagadish Chandra Tarafdar; Krishna Kant Srivastava; Jitendra Panwar

    2008-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associated with Prosopis cineraria (Khejri) were assessed for their qualitative and quantitative distribution from eight districts of Rajasthan. A total of three species of Acaulospora, one species of Entrophospora, two species of Gigaspora, twenty-one species of Glomus, seven species of Sclerocystis and three species of Scutellospora were recorded. A high diversity of AM fungi was observed and it varied at different study sites. Among these six genera, Glomus occurred most frequently. Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus aggregatum, and Glomus mosseae were found to be the most predominant AM fungi in infecting Prosopis cineraria. Acaulospora, G. fasciculatum, Sclerocystis was found in all the fields studied, while Scutellospora species were found only in few sites. A maximum of thirty-six AM fungal species were isolated and identified from Jodhpur, whereas only thirteen species were found from Jaisalmer. Spores of Glomus fasciculatum were found to be most abundant under Prosopis cineraria.

  7. Sagitta chilensis nueva especie de quetognato en fiordos australes chilenos (Chaetognatha, Aphragmophora, Sagittidae) Sagitta chilensis a new species of chaetognath in Chilean fjords (Chaetognatha, Aphragmophora, Sagittidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Villenas; Sergio Palma

    2006-01-01

    Se describe por primera vez una nueva especie de quetognato del orden Aphragmophora, Sagitta chilensis n. sp., colectada en fiordos australes chilenos. Se analizaron 1065 ejemplares colectados entre la boca del Guafo y el canal Pulluche en noviembre de 2002. Estos ejemplares presentaron marcadas diferencias morfológicas con otras especies afines, como estructuras puntiagudas en el collarete y aletas, forma de aletas anteriores y posteriores, posición de las vesículas seminales y presencia de ...

  8. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz) leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Vidal J; Marcia Avello L; Cristina Loyola C; Jorge Campos P; Pedro Aqueveque M; Stephanie R. Dungan; Maria Galotto L; Abel Guarda M

    2013-01-01

    Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae) leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencaps...

  9. Human erythrocytes are affected in vitro by flavonoids of Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalsky, Mario; Vargas, Pedro; Avello, Marcia; Villena, Fernando; Sotomayor, Carlos P

    2008-11-01

    Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz (A. chilensis), also known as maqui, is a plant of the Elaeocarpaceae family that grows in central and southern Chile as well as southwestern Argentina. Infusions of its leaves have long been used in the traditional native herbal medicine to treat different ailments. Phytochemical studies of the plant's chemical composition of the plant indicate the presence of indolic alkaloids, flavonoids, cianidine glucosides, delfidine, malvidine, petunidine, cumarines and triterpenes. These compounds, particularly the flavonoids, have antioxidant properties. In order to evaluate the mechanisms of its toxicity and their antioxidant properties, the leaves' aqueous extracts were induced to interact with human red cells, their isolated unsealed membranes (IUM), and molecular models of the human erythrocyte membrane. These consisted of multibilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), representative of phospholipids classes located in the outer and inner monolayers of the human erythrocyte membrane, and large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of DMPC. The capacity of A. chilensis aqueous extracts to perturb the bilayer structure of DMPC and DMPE was evaluated by X-ray diffraction, DMPC LUV and IUM were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and intact human erythrocytes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of the present study indicate that aqueous extracts of A. chilensis induced an alteration of human erythrocyte morphology from the normal discoid shape to an echinocytic form, changes that are explained in terms of the extract interaction with the membrane's outer phospholipid monolayer. PMID:18687390

  10. Allometric equations for estimating biomass in naturally established Prosopis stands in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muturi, G.M.; Kariuki, J.G.; Poorter, L.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Forty five Prosopis stems of 2.5-18.0 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) were sampled at Nadapal along the Turkwel riverine forest for development of biomass and volume prediction equations for naturally established stands. Basal diameter (D30), DBH and heights were measured, felled trees and their

  11. EFFECTS OF PLANT SIZE ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER RELATIONS IN THE DESERT SHRUB PROSOPIS GLANDULOSA (FABACEAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Jornada del Muerto basin of the Chihuahuan Desert of southern New Mexico, USA, has undergone a marked transition of plant communities. Shrubs such as mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) have greatly increased or now dominate in areas that were previously dominated by perennial gra...

  12. diurnal and seasonal water relations of the desert phreatophyte prosopis-glandulosa (honey mesquite) in the Sonoran Desert of California

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, E. T.; M.R Sharifi; Rundel, P W; Jarrell, W. M.; Virginia, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Diurnal and Seasonal water relations were monitored in a population of Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana in the Sonoran Desert of southern California. Prosopis glandulosa at this research site acquired its water from a ground water source 4-6 m deep. Measurements of diurnal and seasonal cycles of aboveground environmental conditions, soil moisture, and soil water potential (to 6 m depth) were taken to ascertain environmental water availability and water stress. Leaf water potential, leaf con...

  13. SIMULACIÓN MATEMÁTICA DEL PROCESO DE SECADO DE LA GRACILARIA CHILENA (GRACILARIA CHILENSIS) MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF DRYING PROCESS OF CHILEAN GRACILARIA (GRACILARIA CHILENSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Vega Gálvez; Cristian Tello Ireland; Roberto Lemus Mondaca

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar y modelar la cinética de secado por aire caliente del alga Gracilaria (Gracilaria chilensis) utilizando un secador convectivo diseñado y construido en la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de La Serena a cinco temperaturas de bulbo seco (30, 40, 50, 60 y 70ºC) y velocidad de aire de 2.0±0.2 m.s-1. Para el modelado matemático se utilizan tres modelos empíricos (Newton, Henderson-Pabis & Page). Durante el experimento se observa solamente el periodo ...

  14. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alejandro; Olguín, Angel; Santander, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs) from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I) and aristolactam-II (AL-II) present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids. PMID:26462522

  15. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    OpenAIRE

    Diego MONTALTI et al

    2012-01-01

    Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds. Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions: culmen, bill height and width, tarsus length and middle toe claw. The fun...

  16. Elaboration and evaluation of maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) by steam drag

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Araneda; Elisa Quilamán; María Martínez; Daniza Morales

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was develop and evaluate maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz), to be potentially considered as a functional beverage of natural origin, without chemical additives and minimally processed, using the technique of steam drag of type artisanal. Fruit harvested manually was used in the Region of The Araucanía (Chile). Two juice concentrates with sugar and without sugar were produced. Analyzes such as were conducted: content of soluble solids, pH, acidity, moistur...

  17. In Vitro and in Vivo Anti-Diabetic Effects of Anthocyanins from Maqui Berry (Aristotelia chilensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo, Leonel E.; Ribnicky, David; Logendra, Sithes; Poulev, Alex; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Kuhn, Peter; Dorn, Ruth; Grace, Mary H; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    We used a murine model of type II diabetes, which reproduces the major features of the human disease, and a number of cellular models to study the antidiabetic effect of ANC, a standardised anthocyanin-rich formulation from maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis). We also isolated delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside (D3S5G), a characteristic anthocyanin from maqui berry, and studied its antidiabetic properties. We observed that oral administration of ANC improved fasting blood glucose levels a...

  18. Gluten-free bread formulated with Prosopis ruscifolia (vinal) seed and corn flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, C; Sánchez, H; Freyre, M; Osella, C

    2010-05-01

    Vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia) is a wild leguminous tree found widely in the north of Argentina. Like other Prosopis, vinal can grow under extreme temperatures, in poor soils and can tolerate high saline conditions. Taking into account the high protein and gums contents of vinal seeds, a gluten-free bread was developed including them and corn flour. A central composite design involving vinal seed flour/corn starch ratio (X1) and corn flour/corn starch ratio (X2) was used, and second-order models for specific volume (Y1) and bread score (Y2), evaluated by an expert panel, were employed to generate response surfaces. In the optimum zone of response surfaces, a product with higher protein content (5.2 g/100 g) than gluten-free breads found in local commercial markets was obtained. Also, an interesting antioxidant activity (115 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100 g) was found in optimized gluten-free bread. PMID:20109128

  19. Intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaves by lambs using different levels of activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 24-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effect of feeding four levels of activated charcoal (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of body weight) on intake of honey mesquite leaves (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) by 20 wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) that were randomly assigned to treatments. Lambs wer...

  20. Manganese speciation in Diplodon chilensis patagonicus shells: a XANES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Goettlicher, J.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    In addition to other types of climate archives, biogenic skeletons of a variety of different organisms (i.e. shells of bivalves, skeletal hard parts of corals or sponges) are increasingly used for high-resolution climate reconstructions. Bivalves are particularly suited for such analyses because they are geographically broadly distributed and have been shown to record climate and environmental information reliably and over long time intervals. Variation of environmental parameters such as food supply, substratum type, salinity, illumination, temperature, concentration of dissolved oxygen or oxygen/carbon dioxide ratio, among others, may affect growth pattern, shell structure, mineralogy, isotopic fractionation and chemistry. Thus, shell features, minor and trace element composition patterns and isotopic signals may serve as an archive of environmental history. In turn, palaeoclimatic parameters such as ambient temperature, precipitation gradients, seawater salinity and primary production can be reconstructed from the shells by means of sclerochronological and geochemical methods. However, the distribution of minor and trace elements in the biominerals is not only influenced by the environment or vital effects, but also by intrinsic biomineralisation parameters like the carbonate polymorphism and the mineral habit (Soldati et al., 2008a). Generally, it is assumed that the X2+ ions are replacing the Ca2+ ion in the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) structure, but newest findings show that amorphous (or disordered) phases may play a role in hosting some of the elements use as proxies (Meibom et al., 2008; and Finch and Allison, 2007). In this work we focused on the freshwater clam Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, a widely distributed inhabitant of lakes and rivers in southern South America. Thanks to its long life span and seasonal growth Diplodon mussels exhibit excellent characteristics to construct an accurate chronological archive, with time windows of up to around a

  1. Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae in the northern Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lycaenid caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae eating flowers of Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae in the northern Chilean Andes. The shrub Dalea pennellii var. chilensis (Fabaceae is reported for the first time as a host plant for three Neotropical Polyommatini (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Polyommatinae: Hemiargus ramon (Dognin, 1887, Leptotes trigemmatus (Butler, 1881 and Nabokovia faga (Dognin, 1895, based on two collections performed in the western slopes of the northern Chilean Andes in two consecutive summers. The relative abundance was always above 90% for N. faga while it was always less than 5% for H. ramon and L. trigemmatus. Furthermore, N. faga was not found on inflorescences of other native Fabaceae examined in the study site. This pattern suggests a close relationship between N. faga and D. pennellii var. chilensis, at least at a local scale.

  2. SIMULACIÓN MATEMÁTICA DEL PROCESO DE SECADO DE LA GRACILARIA CHILENA (GRACILARIA CHILENSIS MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF DRYING PROCESS OF CHILEAN GRACILARIA (GRACILARIA CHILENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega Gálvez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar y modelar la cinética de secado por aire caliente del alga Gracilaria (Gracilaria chilensis utilizando un secador convectivo diseñado y construido en la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad de La Serena a cinco temperaturas de bulbo seco (30, 40, 50, 60 y 70ºC y velocidad de aire de 2.0±0.2 m.s-1. Para el modelado matemático se utilizan tres modelos empíricos (Newton, Henderson-Pabis & Page. Durante el experimento se observa solamente el periodo de velocidad decreciente, por lo que se utiliza la ecuación de la segunda Ley de Fick para el cálculo de la difusividad efectiva de agua. El proceso de secado presenta humedades finales entre 0.096 g agua/g m.s y 0.061 g agua/g m.s para 30ºC y 70ºC, respectivamente. Tanto la difusividad como los parámetros cinéticos k1, k2 y k3 de los modelos propuestos presentan dependencia con la temperatura y al evaluarlos con la ecuación de Arrhenius se obtienen energías de activación de 39.92, 33.85, 33.49 y 33.83 kJ·mol-1, respectivamente. De acuerdo a los análisis estadísticos que se utilizan (r2, SSE, RMSE y X², el modelo de Page muestra la mejor calidad de ajuste sobre los datos experimentales, otorgando así una buena herramienta para el modelado de la cinética de secado industrial de la Gracilaria chilensis y el cálculo del tiempo de secado a diferentes temperaturas, con el fin de alcanzar un contenido de humedad comercial aceptable internacionalmente.The aim of this research is to study and to model the hot air drying kinetics of Gracialaria algae (Gracilaria chilensis, using a convective drier -designed and built at the Faculty of Engineering of Universidad de La Serena- at five dry bulb temperatures (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70ºC and an air velocity of 2.0 ± 0.2 m.s-1. Three empirical models are used for the mathematic modeling (Newton, Henderson-Pabis & Page. During the experiment, only a falling rate period is observed, hence the Fick's second

  3. Satellite image based quantification of invasion and patch dynamics of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) in Great Rann of Kachchh, Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Vazeed Pasha; K V Satish; C Sudhakar Reddy; P V V Prasada Rao; C S Jha

    2014-10-01

    The invasion of alien species is a significant threat to global biodiversity and the top driver of climate change. The present study was conducted in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India, which has been severely affected by invasion of Prosopis juliflora. The invasive weed infestation has been identified using multi-temporal remote sensing datasets of 1977, 1990, 1999, 2005 and 2011. Spatial analyses of the transition matrix, extent of invasive colonies, patchiness, coalescence and rate of spread were carried out. During the study period of three and half decades, almost 295 km2 of the natural land cover was converted into Prosopis cover. This study has shown an increment of 42.9% of area under Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of the Kachchh Biosphere Reserve during 1977 to 2011. Spatial analysis indicates high occupancy of Prosopis cover with most of the invasion (95.9%) occurring in the grasslands and only 4.1% in other land cover types. The process of Prosopis invasion shows high patch initiation, followed by coalescence, indicating aggressive colonization of species. The number of patches within an area of > 1 km2 increased from 1977 to 2011, indicating the formation of new Prosopis habitats by replacing the grasslands. The largest patch of Prosopis cover increased from 144 km2 in 1977 to 430 km2 in 2011. The estimated mean patch size was 7.8 km2 in 1977. The mean patch size was largest during 2011, i.e., 9 km2. The annual spread rate for Prosopis has been estimated as 2.1% during 2005–2011. The present work has investigated the long term changes in Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve. The spatial database generated will be useful in preparing strategies for the management of Prosopis juliflora.

  4. Propiedades del suelo en bosques quemados de Austrocedrus chilensis en Patagonia, Argentina Soil characteristics in burned Austrocedrus chilensis forests in Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Urretavizcaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Austrocedrus chilensis, ciprés de la cordillera, es la conífera nativa más importante de la región de los bosques andino patagónicos de Argentina, donde existen 141.000 ha de rodales fundamentalmente puros. El fuego es el principal disturbio de la dinámica de estos bosques. Este estudio tuvo por objetivo analizar posibles diferencias en propiedades químicas, físicas y biológicas del suelo entre lugares no quemados (NQ, parcialmente quemados (PQ y completamente quemados (CQ de bosques de A. chilensis. El estudio se realizó en El Bolsón (41º 59’ 02’’ S-71º 33’ 20’’ O, que había sufrido un incendio 21 meses antes del estudio, y Trevelin (43º 12’ 57’’ S-71º 31’ 15’’ O, quemado casi cinco años antes. Se midieron propiedades del suelo en los primeros 10 cm de profundidad que podrían tener más influencia sobre la recuperación del bosque: densidad aparente, pH, conductividad eléctrica (CE, carbono orgánico (C, nitrógeno total (N, potasio intercambiable (K, calcio (Ca, magnesio (Mg y nitrógeno retenido en la biomasa microbiana (N-BM. En El Bolsón los sectores PQ y CQ presentaron mayor pH y CE y menor cantidad de C, N, Mg y N-BM respecto al sector NQ, lo que podría estar relacionado con la combustión de la materia orgánica. En Trevelin no se detectaron esas diferencias, sugiriendo que el contenido de nutrientes del suelo se habría recuperado por haber transcurrido un tiempo mucho más prolongado desde la ocurrencia del fuego. Luego de un incendio es deseable que la vegetación se restablezca lo antes posible para mitigar las posibles pérdidas de nutrientes y favorecer la recuperación de las propiedades de suelo, lo que puede ser beneficiado mediante la plantación de A. chilensis.Austrocedrus chilensis is the most important natural conifer in the Patagonian Andes region of southern Argentina where there are 141,000 hectares of mainly pure stands. Fire is the main disturbance in the dynamics of these

  5. Antioxidant activity of an unusual 3-hydroxyindole derivative isolated from fruits of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Alarcon, Julio; Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2009-01-01

    3-Hydroxyindole was isolated from the EtOH extract of fruits of Aristotelia chilensis during analyses by HPLC/MS and GC/MS and identified by its mass fragmentation pattern and spectrophotometric data. Additionally, this extract showed an interesting antioxidant activity in DPPH, crocin and TBARS assays. The presence of this type of compound in this fruit species permits us to explain its strong antioxidant activity and its important part in the biosynthetic pathway of phenolic and alkaloid compounds in this plant. Therefore this compound could be useful for the development of future nutraceutical and antioxidant protective agents. PMID:19957448

  6. PROSOPIS CINERARIA (L DRUCE: A DESERT TREE TO BRACE LIVELIHOOD IN RAJASTHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BINA RANI, UPMA SINGH, RAVI SHARMA, A AYUSHI GUPTA, NIDHI GAUBA DHAWAN, AJIT KUMAR SHARMA, SURBHI SHARMA, RAAZ K MAHESHWARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Prosopis cineraria (L Druce is an important tree (Khejri- a local name in Rajasthanfor the Thar Desert withhard climatic adaptation and one of the lifeline in desert habitat as mentioned in ancient literature. This is a speciesrepresenting all five F viz., Forest, Fiber, Fuel, Fodder and Food. This tree is also mythological important in localcommunities. High value of this species recognized as a State symbol (state tree of Rajasthan. Prosopis cineraria(L. Druce is a tree endemic to hot deserts of India, belonging to the family Leguminosae. Pods locally called“Sangri” are considered as dry fruit of desert and are one of the main ingredients of quintessential Rajasthani dish -The Panchkuta. In the present article, we have attempted to review different characteristics of the pods, tounderstand its health benefits. Various phytoconstituents like tannins (gallic acid, steroids (stigmasterol,campesterol, sitosterol, etc., Flavone derivatives (prosogerin A, B, C, D, and E, alkaloids (spicigerine,prosophylline, etc. have been isolated from the sangri pods .As this plant is found in water stress (or deficient areaso antioxidant potential of pods has also been discussed. Prosopis cineraria (L Druce is one of the highly valuedplant in the Indigenous System of Medicine. P. cineraria pods provide protein, iron, vitamins A and C and othermicro minerals Unripe pods are also nutritious and are used to prepare curries and pickles. Its bark is said to be apotent drug for several ailments such as leprosy, dysentery, bronchitis, asthma, leucoderma, piles, muscular tremors,asthma, rheumatism and inflammations. Pharmacological activities like analgesic, antipyretic, antihyperglycemic,antioxidant, antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, nootropic anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral andanticancer activities have been reported from different plant extracts. In view of its medicinal importance, thepresent review is focused to delineate its chemical

  7. Ionising radiation as a quarantine treatment for controlling Brevipalpus chilensis (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae) in Thompson Seedless grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation was investigated as a possible quarantine treatment against the false red vine mite, Brevipalpus chilensis, on Thompson Seedless grapes. The most resistant stage of B. chilensis was the adult. Irradiation doses required to cause 90% mortality of adults, nymphs and eggs were 1307, 970, and 328 Gy, respectively. The viability of eggs from irradiated adults decreased as irradiation dose increased. At doses between 450 and 600 Gy, adult females laid eggs but they were not viable. In dose response tests at 250, 300 and 350 Gy using adult mites on grapes, the minimum irradiation dose that prevented adult reproduction was 300 Gy. A large-scale confirmatory study demonstrated the effectiveness of 300 Gy using 8 042 adult mites. An irradiation dose of 200 Gy combined with 15 day cold treatment (simulating commercial shipping conditions) was also shown to be sufficient to stop reproduction in the mite, and this treatment combination was later confirmed with 5088 adult mites. The organoleptic properties of Thompson Seedless grapes irradiated at 600 Gy were not affected, nor were ripeness parameters altered relative to soluble solids and acidity; no phytotoxicity was detected in either berries or the stem. (author)

  8. Remote Sensing Method for Mesquite (Prosopis spp.) Control in Coastal area of Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buho, Hoshino; Abdelaziz, Karamalla; Ruichen, Jia; Nawata, Hiroshi; Abdel, Babiker

    Sudan Mesquite (Prosopis spp.) management and control is part of the study of human subsistence ecosystem in Arab societies. This part of this research will cover measures to control invasive Spp. Mesquite (Prosopis Spp) is identified as key tree spp invading the area between the Nile and Red Sea east including Tokar Delta. These areas are known to be most affected by mesquite spread, witch interfere with people livelihood. In this study, first of all, we classification and determination of mesquite pattern and distribution as invasive plant based on multi-spectral satellite data analysis and ground measurement; Second, we estimation of soil moisture distribu-tion area of invasive species (mesquite plant) and native plants using backscattering coefficient (dB) of L-band HH/HV polarization mode of ALOS/PALSAR radar imagery. Estimation of soil moisture by inversion of SAR data can be performed in using physical or semi-empirical approaches. In this study, we using backscattering coefficient (dB)from the sensor configura-tion and ground measurement data of soil moisture parameter about semi-empirical approach. Final, we estimated mesquite biomass (DMP) using ALOS PALSAR data. The relationships between forest physical parameters and L-band radar backscatter will be investigated using ground measurement, model simulation and radar data analysis.

  9. Flour from Prosopis alba cotyledons: A natural source of nutrient and bioactive phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, F; Costamagna, M S; Zampini, I C; Sayago, J; Alberto, M R; Chamorro, V; Pazos, A; Thomas-Valdés, S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Isla, M I

    2016-10-01

    The Prosopis alba seed is a waste material in the process to produce pod flour. To suggest a potential use of these seeds it is necessary to determine the nutritional, phytochemical and functional quality of cotyledon flour from Prosopis alba. This flour showed high level of proteins (62%), low content of total carbohydrate and fat. Free polyphenol (1150±20mg GAE/100g flour) and carotenoids (10.55±0.05mg β-CE/100g flour) compounds were the dominant compounds. The main identified constituents in the polyphenolic extracts were C- glycosyl flavones, including schaftoside, isoschaftoside, vicenin II, vitexin and isovitexin. The extract enriched in polyphenolic compounds exhibited ABTS(+) reducing capacity and scavenging activity of H2O2; and was able to inhibit phospholipase, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, three pro-inflammatory enzymes. According to our results, the P. alba cotyledon flour could be considered as a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods or food supplements. PMID:27132827

  10. Effects of Particle Size on the Thermal Properties of Sawdust, Corncobs and Prosopis Africana Charcoal Briquettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokan, A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermal properties of Sawdust, Corncobs and Prosopis Africana Charcoal briquettes were studied as a function of particle size. The particle sizes were 300, 425, 600, 1180 and 2000µm. The sieved materials were compressed into briquettes and pellets. The pellets were 12.5mm diameter and 13mm in length. The properties determined were moisture content, ash content and calorific value. The calorific value for Sawdust particle were 300µm =16.04MJ/kg and 2000µm = 17.82MJ/kg which indicates an increased with increase in particle size. For Corncobs the calorific value also rises from 16.63MJ/kg to 17.51MJ/kg for 300 µm and 2000 µm respectively. In the same vain Prosopis Africana charcoal gives 24.94MJ/kg for 300µm size and 29.67MJ/kg for 2000µm. It was observed that for all the materials investigated, an increase in particle size was accompanied by higher energy output.

  11. Effects of biotic and abiotic constraints on the symbiosis between rhizobia and the tropical leguminous trees Acacia and Prosopis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Leena A; Lindström, Kristina

    2003-10-01

    N2-fixing, drought tolerant and multipurpose Acacia and Prosopis species are appropriate trees for reforestation of degraded areas in arid and semiarid regions of the tropics and subtropics. Acacia and Prosopis trees form N2-fixing nodules with a wide range of rhizobia, for example African acacias mainly with Sinorhizobium sp. and Mesorhizobium sp., and Australian acacias with Bradyrhizobium sp. Although dry and hot seasons restrict formation of N2-fixing nodules on Acacia and Prosopis spp., fully grown trees and their symbiotic partners are well adapted to survive in harsh growth conditions. This review on one hand deals with major constraints of arid and semiarid soils, i.e. drought, salinity and high soil temperature, which affect growth of trees and rhizobia, and on the other hand with adaptation mechanisms by which both organisms survive through unfavourable periods. In addition, defects in infection and nodulation processes due to various abiotic and biotic constraints are reviewed. This knowledge is important when Acacia and Prosopis seedlings are used for forestation of degraded areas in arid and semiarid tropics. PMID:15242281

  12. Fatal Envenomation of a Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) From Eastern Yellow Jacket Wasps (Vespula maculifrons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Trupkiewicz, John G

    2014-12-01

    A 37-year-old, female Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) presented with severe facial angioedema, bilateral corneal and palpebral edema, nictitating membrane paralysis, bradycardia, bradypnea, hypothermia, and numerous stingers and remnants of eastern yellow jacket wasps (Vespula maculifrons) attached to the feathers of the head, palpebrae, and conjunctiva. Evaluation of 2 complete blood cell counts and results of plasma chemical analysis and serum protein electrophoresis revealed severe increases in creatinine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, electrolyte disturbances, and moderate increases in levels of α1, α2, β1, and γ immunoglobulins when compared with reference interval values and conspecifics. Despite intensive treatment, the bird died 19 hours after presentation. Results of histologic evaluation of tissues were compatible with envenomation. Response to envenomation in avian species is not documented but should be considered in birds presenting with angioedema. PMID:25843472

  13. Molecular detection of Plasmodium in free-ranging birds and captive flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gamble, Kathryn C; Krebs, Bethany; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Frozen blood samples from 13 species of free-ranging birds (n = 65) and captive Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) (n = 46) housed outdoors in the Chicago area were screened for Plasmodium. With the use of a modified polymerase chain reaction, 20/65 (30.8%) of free-ranging birds and 26/46 (56.5%) of flamingos were classified as positive for this parasite genus. DNA sequencing of the parasite cytochrome b gene in positive samples demonstrated that eight species of free-ranging birds were infected with five different Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages, and all positive Chilean flamingos were infected with Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages most closely related to organisms in the Novyella subgenus. These results show that Chilean flamingos may harbor subclinical malaria infections more frequently than previously estimated, and that they may have increased susceptibility to some Plasmodium species. PMID:25632659

  14. Elaboration and evaluation of maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz by steam drag

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    Ximena Araneda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was develop and evaluate maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz, to be potentially considered as a functional beverage of natural origin, without chemical additives and minimally processed, using the technique of steam drag of type artisanal. Fruit harvested manually was used in the Region of The Araucanía (Chile. Two juice concentrates with sugar and without sugar were produced. Analyzes such as were conducted: content of soluble solids, pH, acidity, moisture content, dry matter (DM, total ash, total sugars (AT, crude protein (PC, total polyphenols (PFT and total carbohydrates (CHT, the polyphenol content highlighting for unsweetened juice with 993.2 mg 100 mL-1 EAG and juice with sugar 829.208 mg 100 mL-1 EAG. Therefore, the technique allows to extract juice with minimal processing machin, presenting this high concentration of polyphenols.

  15. Biosorption of Divalent ion onto Treated Prosopis juliflora Bark from Aqueous Solutions - Isothermal and Statistical Analysis

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    N. Muthulakshmi Andal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work emphasizes the utilization of Prosopis juliflora bark, an agro waste material for the adsorption of Cu(II. The raw Prosopis juliflora bark (PJB is treated using 0.1N hydrochloric acid to enhance the sorption efficiency. The characterization studies of TPJB using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller(BET and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH analyses carried out. The batch mode experimental set up is verified to assess the sorption capacity of the chosen material for the operating factors viz., particle sizes/ doses of the sorbent material upon a range of initial concentrations of Cu(II at different temperatures, agitation time and pH of the Cu(II- TPJB system. The amount of Cu(II ion adsorbed on to TPJB surface is found to be 43.11 mg/g (97.4% under optimized conditions, its efficiency 3 fold times more than the Ce values reported by other researchers. The sorption characteristic of TPJB is quantitatively estimated through column experiments based on the Ce value by batch mode. The removal is observed as 98%. Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isothermal curves at various initial concentrations are plotted for Cu(II-TPJB system wherein the straight line fit is best suited for the Freundlich isotherm model. The results show that the response of TPJB in trapping Cu(II ions are influenced by various parameters being statistically verified using SPSS software, indicative of good correlation.

  16. Mapping areas invaded by Prosopis juliflora in Somaliland on Landsat 8 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembold, Felix; Leonardi, Ugo; Ng, Wai-Tim; Gadain, Hussein; Meroni, Michele; Atzberger, Clement

    2015-10-01

    Prosopis juliflora is a fast growing tree species originating from South and Central America with a high invasion potential in semi-arid areas around the globe. It was introduced to East Africa for the stabilization of dune systems and for providing fuel wood after prolonged droughts and deforestation in the 1970s and 1980s. In many dry lands in East Africa the species has expanded rapidly and has become challenging to control. The species generally starts its colonization on deep soils with high water availability while in later stages or on poorer soils, its thorny thickets expand into drier grasslands and rangelands. Abandoned or low input farmland is also highly susceptible for invasion as P. juliflora has competitive advantages to native species and is extremely drought tolerant. In this work we describe a rapid approach to detect and map P. juliflora invasion at country level for the whole of Somaliland. Field observations were used to delineate training sites for a supervised classification of Landsat 8 imagery collected during the driest period of the year (i.e., from late February to early April). The choice of such a period allowed to maximise the spectral differences between P. juliflora and other species present in the area, as P. juliflora tends to maintain a higher vigour and canopy water content than native vegetation, when exposed to water stress. The results of our classification map the current status of invasion of Prosopis in Somaliland showing where the plant is invading natural vegetation or agricultural areas. These results have been verified for two spatial subsets of the whole study area with very high resolution (VHR) imagery, proving that Landsat 8 imagery is highly adequate to map P. juliflora. The produced map represents a baseline for understanding spatial distribution of P. juliflora across Somaliland but also for change detection and monitoring of long term dynamics in support to P. juliflora management and control activities.

  17. Leaf phenology and its associated traits in the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae) Fenología foliar y sus caracteres asociados en la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    MARÍA ANGÉLICA DAMASCOS; Carlos Henrique B. de A. Prado

    2001-01-01

    The post-summer leaf demography of the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis growing near San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, is described. Its specific leaf mass (SLM, g m-2) is compared to that of the deciduous and evergreen species of the Andean-Patagonian forests and to that of other communities abroad. The pattern of leaf emergence is intermediate, with leaf flush in spring (basal cohort, BC), followed by successive unfolding of the remaining leaves (distal cohort, DC) during summer....

  18. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to West Nile virus in flamingo chicks (Phoenicopterus chilensis and Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitchman, Eric J; Tlusty, Michael F; Murphy, Hayley W

    2007-06-01

    Passive transfer of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) was studied in a captive population of Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Caribbean flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber). Transfer of WNV antibodies from hens to chicks was documented and measured by plaque-reduction neutralization test. Hen titers were significantly correlated to chick titers. Mean half-life of maternal WNV antibodies was 13.4 days in chicks for which half-life was measurable. PMID:17679521

  19. Antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of adipogenesis and inflammation by phenolic extracts of Vaccinium floribundum and Aristotelia chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckinger, Maria Elisa; Wang, Jinzhi; Yousef, Gad; Lila, Mary Ann; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2010-08-25

    Interest in berries from South America has increased due to their potential health benefits. The objective of this study was to characterize the anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins of Vaccinium floribundum and Aristotelia chilensis , total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity and to evaluate, in vitro, the ability of their phenolic extracts to reduce adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The anti-inflammatory property of these extracts on RAW 264.7 macrophages was also investigated. Antioxidant capacity, measured as oxygen radical scavenging capacity and expressed as Trolox equivalents, was higher in the berries of A. chilensis. Phenolic extracts inhibited lipid accumulation by 4.0-10.8% when adipocytes were treated at maturity and by 5.9-37.9% when treated throughout differentiation. Furthermore, a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction from V. floribundum significantly increased Pref-1 expression in preadipocytes. Phenolic extracts decreased the production of nitric oxide (3.7-25.5%) and prostaglandin E2 (9.1-89.1%) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (9.8-61.8%) and cycloxygenase-2 (16.6-62.0%) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. V. floribundum and A. chilensis phytochemicals limit adipogenesis and inflammatory pathways in vitro, warranting further in vivo studies. PMID:23654232

  20. The role of antioxidative enzymes in copper tolerance strategy of Mimosaceace prosopis farcta growing in a copper mine

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    Masoud Mashhadi Akbar Boojar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the accumulation levels of copper in tissues and the status of antioxidant enzyme activities in Mimosa­ceace prosopis fracta against Cu-toxicity in a copper mine. We measured the level of chlorophyll and the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase by spectrometry, malondialdehyde and dityrosine by HPLC and the levels of Cu in tissues and soils by atomic absorption spectrometry. Total and available copper were at toxic levels for plants growing in contaminated soil (zone 1. However, there were no visual or conspicuous symptoms of Cu-toxicity in plant species. Excess copper was transferred into C. ambrosioides tissues. The Mimosaceace prosopis fracta accumulated Cu in roots and then in leaves, in which the leaves’ chloroplasts stored Cu to approximately two times that of vacuoles. In zone 1, the chlorophyll levels increased significantly in leaves of Mimosaceace prosopis fracta with respect to the same plant growing in uncontaminated soil (zone 2. The studied plants in zone 1 revealed a significant increase in tissue antioxidant enzyme activities in comparison with the same plants in zone 2. The levels of oxidative damage biomarkers of lipids, such as MDA and proteins such as dityrosine, were higher in tissues of Mimo­saceace prosopis fracta that were grown in zone 1 as compared to the same plant species in zone 2, though this difference was not significant. The levels of these biomarkers were higher in roots, stems and leaves, respectively, in both zones. There were significant differences between roots and leaves for these parameters. We concluded that elevation of antioxidative enzyme activities was a tolerance strategy in the studied plants that protected them against copper toxicity.

  1. Aboveground biomass in Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) H. B. K. ecosystems using Landsat 7 ETM+ images

    OpenAIRE

    Padrón, Eva; Navarro Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2007-01-01

    The significance of field work in remote sensing studies when applied to large areas has often been underestimated. The combination of specific forest inventories for the estimation of aboveground biomass in large dry tropical forest areas with remote sensor data has scarcely been explored to date. In this work, a systematic, stratified forest inventory involving 100 × 100 m square plots in an area of Peruvian Prosopis pallida dry forest, roughly one million hectares in size in th...

  2. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Boiled Prosopis africana Seed Endosperm Macerated in Various Ethanol-water Mixtures

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    James E. Obiegbuna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The processing of boiled Prosopis africana endosperm for better utilization using ethanol-water mixtures was explored. Prosopis africana seeds were boiled for 5 h to softness and the endosperm fraction separated from the kernel (cotyledon and the hull. The endosperm was divided into five equal parts which were individually macerated in absolute (Abs ethanol, 80, 60 and 40% ethanol in water prior to sun-drying (32±2°C, 3 days. The fifth sample, which served as control, was left untreated with ethanol. The samples were ground using a hand milling machine and analyzed for the proximate composition, water and oil absorption capacities, foaming capacity and foam stability, bulk density, emulsion activity and stability, colour preference, texture preference and overall acceptability. The results revealed that treatment of the endosperm significantly affected the moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents; water and oil absorption capacities, foaming capacity and foam stability; and the sensory properties. The moisture and protein contents, oil absorption capacity, foam stability, appearance, texture and overall acceptability of endosperm treated with 40% ethanol in water differed significantly (p<0.05 from that treated with absolute ethanol. There was also significant (p<0.05 differences in moisture, protein and carbohydrate contents, oil absorption capacity and foam stability of the 40% ethanol in water treated endosperm and the control. Slightly above 40% ethanol in water (50-60% should be used to macerate Prosopis africana endosperm to reduce the cost of using absolute ethanol.

  3. Characterization of root-nodulating bacteria associated to Prosopis farcta growing in the arid regions of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fterich, A; Mahdhi, M; Caviedes, M A; Pajuelo, E; Rivas, R; Rodriguez-Llorente, I D; Mars, M

    2011-06-01

    Diversity of 50 bacterial isolates recovered from root nodules of Prosopis farcta grown in different arid soils in Tunisia, was investigated. Characterization of isolates was assessed using a polyphasic approach including phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene PCR--RFLP and sequencing, nodA gene sequencing and MLSA. It was found that most of isolates are tolerant to high temperature (40°C) and salinity (3%). Genetic characterization emphasizes that isolates were assigned to the genus Ensifer (80%), Mesorhizobium (4%) and non-nodulating endophytic bacteria (16%). Forty isolates belonging to the genus Ensifer were affiliated to Ensifer meliloti, Ensifer xinjiangense/Ensifer fredii and Ensifer numidicus species. Two isolates belonged to the genus Mesorhizobium. Eight isolates failing to renodulate their host plant were endophytic bacteria and belonged to Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Acinetobacter genera. Symbiotic properties of nodulating isolates showed a diversity in their capacity to infect their host plant and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Isolate PG29 identified as Ensifer meliloti was the most effective one. Ability of Prosopis farcta to establish symbiosis with rhizobial species confers an important advantage for this species to be used in reforestation programs. This study offered the first systematic information about the diversity of microsymbionts nodulating Prosopis farcta in the arid regions of Tunisia. PMID:21359955

  4. Mesquite wood chips (Prosopis) as filter media in a biofilter system for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Hernández, D B; Vigueras-Cortés, J M; Garzón-Zúñiga, M A

    2016-01-01

    The biofiltration system over organic bed (BFOB) uses organic filter material (OFM) to treat municipal wastewater (MWW). This study evaluated the performance of a BFOB system employing mesquite wood chips (Prosopis) as OFM. It also evaluated the effect of hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) in order to achieve the operational parameters required to remove organic matter, suspended material, and pathogens, thus meeting Mexican and US regulations for reuse in irrigation. Two biofilters (BFs) connected in series were installed; the first one aerated (0.62 m(3)air m(-2)h(-1)) and the second one unaerated. The source of MWW was a treatment plant located in Durango, Mexico. For 200 days, three HLRs (0.54, 1.07, and 1.34 m(3)m(-2)d(-1)) were tested. The maximum HLR at which the system showed a high removal efficiency of pollutants and met regulatory standards for reuse in irrigation was 1.07 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), achieving removal efficiencies of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) 92%, chemical oxygen demand (COD) 78%, total suspended solids (TSS) 95%, and four log units of fecal coliforms. Electrical conductivity in the effluent ensures that it would not cause soil salinity. Therefore, mesquite wood chips can be considered an innovative material suitable as OFM for BFs treating wastewaters. PMID:27003088

  5. Mapping Distribution and Forecasting Invasion of Prosopis juliflora in Ethiopia's Afar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A. M.; Wakie, T.; Luizza, M.; Evangelista, P.

    2014-12-01

    Invasion of non-native species is among the most critical threats to natural ecosystems and economies world-wide. Mesquite (which includes some 45 species) is an invasive deciduous tree which is known to have an array of negative impacts on ecosystems and rural livelihoods in arid and semi-arid regions around the world, dominating millions of hectares of land in Asia, Africa, Australia and the Americas. In Ethiopia, Prosopis juliflora (the only reported mesquite) is the most pervasive plant invader, threatening local livelihoods and the country's unique biodiversity. Due to its rapid spread and persistence, P. juliflora has been ranked as one of the leading threats to traditional land use, exceeded only by drought and conflict. This project utilized NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) data and species distribution modeling to map current infestations of P. juliflora in the Afar region of northeastern Ethiopia, and forecast its suitable habitat across the entire country. This project provided a time and cost-effective strategy for conducting risk assessments of invasive mesquite and subsequent monitoring and mitigation efforts by land managers and local communities.

  6. Isozyme and RAPD studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. Velutina (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae

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    Bessega Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD techniques have been compared for their usefulness for genetic and taxonomic studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. velutina populations. Isozymes and RAPDs yielded similarly high estimates of genetic variability. Genetic structure and differentiation were analyzed through non-hierarchical Wright's F DT. For all populations considered, both markers produced low gene flow (Nm 1, in agreement with that expected for conspecific populations. However, in RAPD data the expected reduction in F DT and the increase in Nm were not observed. Correlation between F DT and geographical distance matrices (Mantel test for all populations was significant (P = 0.02 when based on isozymes, but not so (P = 0.33 when based on RAPDs. No significant associations among genetic and geographical or climatic variables were observed. Two isoenzyme systems (GOT and PRX enabled us to distinguish between P. glandulosa and P. velutina, but no diagnostic band for recognition of populations or species studied here were detected by RAPD. However, RAPD markers showed higher values for genetic differentiation among conspecific populations of P. glandulosa and a lower coefficient of variation than those obtained from isozymes.

  7. Pharmacological Evaluation of Prosopis cineraria (L. Druce in Gastrointestinal, Respiratory, and Vascular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hussain Janbaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a crude methanolic extract from the stem bark of Prosopis cineraria, a plant native of Pakistan, was tested for its possible presence of spasmolytic, bronchodilator, and vasodilator activities in an attempt to validate some of its folkloric uses. Moreover, attempts were made to provide plausible explanations of the observed biological activities. The extract caused relaxation of the spontaneous as well as K+ (80 mM-induced contractions at tissue bath concentrations of 3–10 mg/mL in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, probably mediated through blockade of Ca+2 channels. This finding was further confirmed by the shifting of the Ca+2 concentration response curves to the rightward in a manner similar to verapamil used as a standard Ca+2 channel blocker. The extract also exhibited nonspecific relaxant effect on carbachol (1 μM- and K+ (80 mM-induced contractions in isolated rabbit tracheal preparations. The same effect was recorded for phenylephrine (11 μM and K+ (80 mM-induced contractions in isolated rabbit aortic preparations in a manner similar to verapamil. These observations confirm that observed bronchodilator and vasodilator activities were possibly mediated through blockade of Ca+2 channels. The above-mentioned observations validate the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal ailments.

  8. Prosopis alba exudate gum as excipient for improving fish oil stability in alginate-chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Franco Emanuel; Romero, Ana María; Judis, María Alicia; Mazzobre, María Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to employ an exudate gum obtained from a South American wild tree (Prosopis alba), as wall material component to enhance the oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in alginate-chitosan beads. For this purpose, beads were vacuum-dried and stored under controlled conditions. Oxidation products, fatty acid profiles and lipid health indices were measured during storage. Alginate-chitosan interactions and the effect of gum were manifested in the FT-IR spectra. The inclusion of the gum in the gelation media allowed decreasing the oxidative damage during storage in comparison to the free oil and alginate-chitosan beads. The gum also improved wall material properties, providing higher oil retention during the drying step and subsequent storage. Fatty acids quality and lipid health indices were widely preserved in beads containing the gum. Present results showed a positive influence of the gum on oil encapsulation and stability, being the main mechanism attributed to a physical barrier effect. PMID:26213081

  9. Prosopis laevigata a potential chromium (VI) and cadmium (II) hyperaccumulator desert plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía-González, L; Orozco-Villafuerte, J; Cruz-Sosa, F; Barrera-Díaz, C E; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2010-08-01

    The bioaccumulation of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) in Prosopis laevigata and the effect of these heavy metals on plant growth were assessed. P. laevigata seeds were cultured during 50 days on modified Murashige-Skoog medium supplemented with four different concentrations of Cr(VI) (0-3.4mM) and Cd(II) (0-2.2mM), respectively. Heavy metals did not stop germination, but smaller plants with fewer leaves and secondary roots were produced. Seedlings showed an accumulation of 8176 and 21,437 mg Cd kg(-1) and of 5461 and 8090 mg Cr kg(-1) dry weight, in shoot and root, when cultured with 0.65 mM Cd(II) and 3.4mM Cr(VI), respectively. These results indicated that significant translocation from the roots unto aerial parts took place. A bioaccumulation factor greater than 100 for Cd and 24 for Cr was exhibited by the seedlings. P. laevigata can be considered as a potential hyperaccumulator of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) species and considered as a promising candidate for phytoremediation purposes. PMID:20347590

  10. Spatial variation in pollinator communities and reproductive performance of Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Sajjad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in an effort to understand the effects of spatial variations in pollinator assemblage due to habitat isolation on the reproductive performance of perennial plant species. Variations in pollinator assemblage structure (abundance, diversity and Shannon-Wiener index were studied at three widely isolated (100 to 200 km apart nature reserves of Southern Punjab, Pakistan, in order to explore its effects on reproductive performance of Prosopis juliflora. Species richness and abundance were highest in Pirowal Sanctuary followed by Chichawatni Sanctuary and Chak Katora forest reserve. The pollination system of P. juliflora was highly generalized with 77 insect visitor species in four orders among all the three sites. However, pollinator assemblage varied significantly in composition among the sites. Out of the four reproductive parameters considered, the number of pods per raceme and germination varied significantly among the three locations. The reproductive performance of P. juliflora in terms of number of pods per raceme and germination improved with abundance of pollinators.

  11. Optimization of the pretreatment of Prosopis nigra sawdust for the production of fermentable sugars

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    Eliana P. Dagnino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The black carob tree (Prosopis nigra is a particularly valued species in Chaco, Argentina on account of its hard wood. Finding a use for the sawdust, the main industrial residue of wood, could be useful within the furniture industry of any country in the tropics seeking to apply the biorefinery concept. For the conversion of wood carbohydrates to bioethanol, a pretreatment stage is necessary. The objective of this work was to find the acid pretreatment conditions that maximize the extraction of xylose with minimum degradation, while maximizing the concentration of glucans in the pretreated solid to obtain better enzymatic accessibility, using black carob tree sawdust as the raw material. The optimization was carried out by use of a central composite design (CCD with two independent variables: the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution and the heating time. Optimal enzymatic hydrolysis occurred at the mean values of the tested acid solution concentration (1.2% and after shorter heating times (10.2 min. The concentration of sugars after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated solid over a time period of 72 h was three times higher than the untreated solid.

  12. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego MONTALTI et al

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used. Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds. Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions: culmen, bill height and width, tarsus length and middle toe claw. The functions were tested on a sample of live flamingos from a zoo. The best classification for museum flamingos was given by a function using tarsus length, bill width and middle toe claw (97%. However, this function did not give the best classification for the zoo-based flamingos (81% which had the best sex assignment by a function including measurements of tarsus, culmen and bill height and width (85%. This shows that a function giving good results in the sample from which it originated may not be as good when applied to another group of animals. Our study emphasizes the need for assessing the accuracy of a function by testing it with other methods to ensure its suitability when being applied [Current Zoology 59 (6: 851–855, 2012].

  13. Seasonal Variation and Resin Composition in the Andean Tree Austrocedrus chilensis

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    Verónica Rachel Olate

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the changes in resin composition in South American gymnosperms associated with the different seasons of the year. The diterpene composition of 44 resin samples from seven Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae trees, including male and female individuals, was investigated in three different seasons of the year (February, June and November. Twelve main diterpenes were isolated by chromatographic means and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. The diterpene composition was submitted to multivariate analysis to find possible associations between chemical composition and season of the year. The principal component analysis showed a clear relation between diterpene composition and season. The most characteristic compounds in resins collected in summer were Z-communic acid (9 and 12-oxo-labda-8(17,13E-dien-19 oic acid methyl ester (10 for male trees and 8(17,12,14-labdatriene (7 for female trees. For the winter samples, a clear correlation of female trees with torulosic acid (6 was observed. In spring, E-communic acid (8 and Z-communic acid (9 were correlated with female trees and 18-hydroxy isopimar-15-ene (1 with male tree resin. A comparison between percent diterpene composition and collection time showed p < 0.05 for isopimara-8(9,15-diene (2, sandaracopimaric acid (4, compound (7 and ferruginol (11.

  14. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  15. Detailed analyses of fresh and dried maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) berries and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, J E; Buchweitz, M; Schweiggert, R M; Carle, R

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a detailed chemical characterization of nutritionally-relevant, quality-determining constituents in dried and fresh fruits as well as juices of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) is provided. A total of 8 glycosylated anthocyanins was characterized in maqui fruits, being composed of differently substituted cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives. During processing into juice, a substantial loss in total anthocyanin contents (TAC) was observed. TAC values were also reduced after drying of maqui berries. Likewise, the browning index (BI) of fresh fruits increased during processing. Being composed of flavonol glycosides and ellagic acids, 17 non-anthocyanin phenolics were characterized in all maqui samples. Besides characterizing phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, total phenolics, major sugars, non-volatile organic acids, minerals and trace elements were quantitated. Moreover, total lipid contents and the fruits' mainly unsaturated fatty acid profiles are reported. The presented results indicate the high potential of maqui as so far under-utilized but extremely pigment-rich "superfruit". PMID:26212975

  16. The reliability of morphometric discriminant functions in determining the sex of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego MONTALTI; Maricel GRA(N)A GRILLI; René E.MARAGLIANO; Guillermo CASSINI

    2012-01-01

    Monomorphic birds cannot be sexed visually and discriminant functions on the basis of external morphological variations are frequently used.Our objective was to evaluate the reliability of sex classification functions created from structural measurements of Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis museum skins for the gender assignment of live birds.Five measurements were used to develop four discriminant functions:culmen,bill height and width,tarsus length and middle toe claw.The functions were tested on a sample of live flamingos from a zoo.The best classification for museum flamingos was given by a function using tarsus length,bill width and middle toe claw (97%).However,this function did not give the best classification for the zoo-based flamingos (81%) which had the best sex assignment by a function including measurements of tarsus,culmen and bill height and width (85%).This shows that a function giving good results in the sample from which it originated may not be as good when applied to another group of animals.Our study emphasizes the need for assessing the accuracy of a function by testing it with other methods to ensure its suitability when being applied.

  17. Short-term feeding response of the mussel Mytilus chilensis exposed to diets containing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella Respuesta alimentaria inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis expuesto a dietas conteniendo el dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE M NAVARRO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The short-term feeding response of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis was measured using four diets containing different proportions of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. The diets containing the highest concentrations of the dinoflagellate showed the greatest effect on the feeding activity in the mussel, with clearance and ingestión rates significantly reduced during the first hours of exposure. After this period, M. chilensis demonstrated a capacity to acclimate to the toxic diets, with feeding parameters reaching values similar to those of untreated control organisms. It was not clear if the negative effect on the feeding behavior was caused by the presence of the paralytic toxin, or due to the larger size of the dinoflagellate cells in comparison with cells of Isochrysis galbana used in the control diet. However, parallel studies with diets containing the nontoxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium affine of similar size and shape to that of A. catenella, suggested the cell size was the main cause for impairment of feeding behavior. The capacity for acclimation to either toxin or cell size by M. chilensis makes it a good indicator species for the early detection of harmful PSP events, since its relative insensitivity to the toxin allows it to quickly recover normal feeding behavior and permits it to accumulate PSP in its tissues in a short timeLa respuesta inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis fue medida bajo cuatro dietas que contenían diferentes proporciones del dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella. Las dietas que contenían las concentraciones más altas de este dinoflagelado mostraron el mayor efecto durante las primeras horas de exposición. Después de este periodo inicial, M. chilensis demostró la capacidad para aclimatarse a estas dietas tóxicas, con parámetros de alimentación que alcanzaron valores similares a aquellos de los organismos controles. No fue claro si el efecto negativo sobre la conducta de alimentación fue

  18. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  19. Espectro trófico de Chelonoidis chilensis (Chelonii: Testudinidae en la provincia fitogeográfica del monte (Mendoza, Argentina

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    Richard, Enrique

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1983 and 1991, 83 field trips were made to the biogeographical province of Monte, in Mendoza province, Argentina, in order to study the trophic spectrum of Chelonoidis chilensis, among other ecoethological aspects. The trophic period extends from September to April. Adults are herbivorous in strict sense, but this may change according to the available resourees. Trophic spectrum is composed by 14 items (Families of vegetables. Some items have toxic or potentially toxit substances. Finally, the diet of Ch. chilensis is compared with the one of Ch. donosobarrosi and with other desert tortoises.

  20. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome and Evidence for Transcriptional Activity of the First Virus-Like Sequences Identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry)

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Villacreses; Marcelo Rojas-Herrera; Carolina Sánchez; Nicole Hewstone; Undurraga, Soledad F.; Juan F Alzate; Patricio Manque; Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho; Victor Polanco

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%–73% amino ac...

  1. Anatomía comparada del sistema digestivo de las rayas Urotrygon chilensis y Dasyatis sabina (Myliobatiformes Comparative anatomy of the digestive system of the skates, Urotrygon chilensis and Dasyatis sabina (Myliobatiformes

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    ABRAHAM KOBELKOWSKY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La organización general del sistema digestivo de la raya pinta Urotrygon chilensis y la raya de espina Dasyatis sabina corresponde al patrón morfológico general de los Myliobatiformes. La dentición de estas especies muestra un dimorfismo sexual, consistente en dientes planos en las hembras y dientes puntiagudos en los machos. Entre los músculos mandibulares, el adductor mandibulae es el más complejo. Las cavidades bucofaríngea y visceral son aplanadas dorsoventralmente. El esófago es relativamente largo, el estómago tiene forma de U, el intestino está regionalizado en duodeno, intestino valvular y recto. El mesenterio dorsal está restringido al recto y la glándula rectal. Los caracteres morfológicos más notables que diferencian el sistema digestivo de las dos especies son: la presencia de esfínter cardiaco y la forma en S del recto en U. chilensis, la presencia de escotaduras en las mandíbulas y el mayor número de vueltas de la válvula espiral en D. sabina.The general organization of the digestive system of the rays Urotrygon chilensis and Dasyatis sabina fits with the general morphological pattern of the Myliobatiformes. Dentition of both species shows sexual dimorphism, having the females flattened teeth whereas pointed teeth the males. Among the mandibular muscles, the adductor mandibulae is the most complex. Both the buccopharyngeal and the visceral cavities are dorsoventrally flattened. The esophagus is long, the stomach is U shaped, and the intestine is formed by the duodene, valvular intestine and rectum. The dorsal mesentery is restricted to the rectum and rectal gland. The main morphological characters differentiating both species are: the presence in U. chilensis of the cardiac sphincter and the S shape of the rectum, and the presence in D. sabina of mandibular notches and a higher number of coils of the valvular fold of the intestine.

  2. Anatomía comparada del sistema digestivo de las rayas Urotrygon chilensis y Dasyatis sabina (Myliobatiformes) Comparative anatomy of the digestive system of the skates, Urotrygon chilensis and Dasyatis sabina (Myliobatiformes)

    OpenAIRE

    ABRAHAM KOBELKOWSKY

    2010-01-01

    La organización general del sistema digestivo de la raya pinta Urotrygon chilensis y la raya de espina Dasyatis sabina corresponde al patrón morfológico general de los Myliobatiformes. La dentición de estas especies muestra un dimorfismo sexual, consistente en dientes planos en las hembras y dientes puntiagudos en los machos. Entre los músculos mandibulares, el adductor mandibulae es el más complejo. Las cavidades bucofaríngea y visceral son aplanadas dorsoventralmente. El esófago es relativa...

  3. Caracterização físico-química e microbiológica da farinha de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC) Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of mesquite flour (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC)

    OpenAIRE

    Celiane Gomes Maia da Silva; Artur Bibiano de Melo Filho; Edleide Freitas Pires; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford

    2007-01-01

    Algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D.C.) é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical comum no semi-árido brasileiro e desenvolve-se em lugares secos, onde dificilmente outras plantas poderiam sobreviver. Suas vagens produzem uma farinha que pode ser usada na alimentação humana, além de vários outros produtos como o mel, licor e um produto similar ao café. Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quanto à composição físico-química e microbiológica a farinha de algaroba potencialmente passível de int...

  4. Phylogenetic characterization of a novel herpesvirus found in the liver and lungs of a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdill, Christopher C; Barnes, Julie A; Garner, Michael M; Hinton, Kevin L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-05-01

    A novel herpesvirus was detected in a 17-day-old Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) with pneumonia, hepatopathy, and severe anemia that was housed in California. Postmortem examination identified a pale, enlarged liver, mildly increased fluid in the lungs, and red foci in the spleen. Histologic examination revealed marked hepatic necrosis with syncytia, splenic necrosis, and interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions within hepatocytes and in unidentified cells of the lung. Transmission electron microscopy identified virions consistent with a herpesvirus in the nucleus and cytoplasm of degenerative hepatocytes. Nested consensus PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis identified a novel herpesvirus within the genus Iltovirus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. PMID:27026105

  5. (E)-Ethyl 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate: a natural polymorph extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Cristian; Moreno, Yanko; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario; Burgos, Viviana; Freire, Eleonora; Baggio, Ricardo

    2013-07-01

    The natural title compound, C11H12O4, extracted from the Chilean native tree Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui), is a polymorph of the synthetic E form reported by Xia, Hu & Rao [Acta Cryst. (2004), E60, o913-o914]. Both rotational conformers are identical from a metrical point of view, and only differ in the orientation of the 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ring with respect to the rest of the molecule, which leads to completely different crystal structure arrangements and packing efficiencies. The reasons behind both reside in the different hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:23832039

  6. Estudo farmacognóstico para as espécies medicinais Alpinia zerumbet, Solidago chilensis e Eugenia uniflora

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Junior, Walter Antônio

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L. Burtt & R.M. Sm. (Zingiberaceae), Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae) e Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) são conhecidas popularmente como colônia, erva-lanceta e pitangueira, sendo utilizadas na medicina tradicional para o tratamento de diversas enfermidades. Este trabalho teve por finalidade, realizar para estas espécies medicinais, análises de controle de qualidade, pesquisa fitoquímica e avaliação de atividades biológicas in vitro e in vivo. Como resu...

  7. Tolerancia a la desecación de semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae

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    Marcelo Nahuel Morandini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La elevada diversidad de especies y endemismos, conjuntamente con la acelerada pérdida de biodiversidad por deforestaciones, destaca la importancia de emprender acciones combinadas de conservación in situ y ex situ. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la tolerancia a la desecación de las semillas de Prosopis ferox y Pterogyne nitens, para su conservación ex situ a largo plazo en el BGEN. El contenido de humedad (CH se determinó colocando las semillas de cada población en estufa a 103°C y pesando las muestras a intervalos regulares hasta peso constante. Se realizaron ensayos de germinación en distintos CH: semillas frescas, 10-12%, 3-5%, y en semillas mantenidas seis meses a -20ºC y a 3-5% de CH. El CH de las semillas frescas de P. ferox fue de 14.2% y el de P. nitens de 10% para las dos poblaciones estudiadas. Las semillas de P. ferox llegaron a peso constante a las 17hr y las de P. nitens a las 3hr de secado. La germinación de las semillas de P. ferox fue mayor en los tratamientos con escarificación y la diferencia aumento con la reducción del CH y el almacenamiento. Las semillas de P. nitens con el CH reducido, requieren escarificación. Se concluye que las semillas de ambas especies son probablemente ortodoxas ya que la germinación superó el 80% en las semillas desecadas al 3-5% CH y almacenadas durante seis meses a -20°C.Desiccation tolerance in seeds of Prosopis ferox and Pterogyne nitens (Fabaceae. The high number of endemisms and species diversity together with the accelerated biodiversity loss by deforestation, especially in North Western Argentina, points out the need to work on species conservation combining ex situ and in situ strategies. The aim of this work was to study the desiccation tolerance in seeds of P. ferox and P. nitens for long term ex situ conservation at the Germplasm Bank of Native Species (BGEN of the National University of Salta (Argentina. The fruits were collected from ten individuals in P

  8. Is control through utilization a cost effective Prosopis juliflora management strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Hoag, Dana; Evangelista, Paul H; Luizza, Matthew; Laituri, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    The invasive tree Prosopis juliflora is known to cause negative impacts on invaded ranges. High P. juliflora eradication costs have swayed developing countries to follow a new and less expensive approach known as control through utilization. However, the net benefits of this new approach have not been thoroughly evaluated. Our objective was to assess the economic feasibility of selected P. juliflora eradication and utilization approaches that are currently practiced in one of the severely affected developing countries, Ethiopia. The selected approaches include converting P. juliflora infested lands into irrigated farms (conversion), charcoal production, and seed flour production. We estimate the costs and revenues of the selected P. juliflora eradication and utilization approaches by interviewing 19 enterprise owners. We assess the economic feasibility of the enterprises by performing enterprise, break-even, investment, sensitivity, and risk analyses. Our results show that conversion to irrigated cotton is economically profitable, with Net Present Value (NPV) of 5234 US$/ha over 10 years and an interest rate of 10% per year. Conversion greatly reduces the spread of P. juliflora on farmlands. Managing P. juliflora infested lands for charcoal production with a four-year harvest cycle is profitable, with NPV of 805 US$/ha. However, the production process needs vigilant regulation to protect native plants from exploitation and caution should be taken to prevent charcoal production sites from becoming potential seed sources. Though flour from P. juliflora pods can reduce invasions by destroying viable seeds, flour enterprises in Ethiopia are unprofitable. Conversion and charcoal production can be undertaken with small investment costs, while flour production requires high investment costs. Introducing new changes in the production and management steps of P. juliflora flour might be considered to make the enterprise profitable. Our study shows that control

  9. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Pro J 1: A New Allergen of Prosopis Juliflora Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousti, Fatemeh; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Morakabati, Payam; Khosravi, Gholam Reza; Akbari, Bahareh

    2016-04-01

    Pollen from mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) is one of the important causes of immediate hypersensitivity reactions in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The aim of present study is to produce and purify the recombinant form of allergenic Ole e 1-like protein from the pollen of this allergenic tree. Immunological and cross-inhibition assays were performed for the evaluation of IgE-binding capacity of purified recombinant protein. For molecular cloning, the coding sequence of the mesquite Ole e 1-like protein was inserted into pTZ57R/T vector and expressed in Escherichia coli using the vector pET-21b(+). After purification of the recombinant protein, its immunoreactivity was analysed by in vitro assays using sera from twenty one patients with an allergy to mesquite pollen. The purified recombinant allergen was a member of Ole e 1-like protein family and consisted of 150 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular mass of 16.5 kDa and a calculated isoelectric point (pI) of 4.75. Twelve patients (57.14%) had significant specific IgE levels for this recombinant allergen. Immunodetection and inhibition assays indicated that the purified recombinant allergen might be the same as that in the crude extract. Herein, we introduce an important new allergen from P. juliflora pollen (Pro j 1), which is a member of the Ole e 1-like protein family and exhibits significant identity and similarity to other allergenic members of this family. PMID:27090365

  10. Structural Characterization of Prosopis africana Populations (Guill., Perrott., and Rich. Taub in Benin

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    Towanou Houètchégnon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural characterization of Prosopis africana of Benin was studied on the basis of forest inventory conducted in three different vegetation types (savannah, fallow, and field and three climate zones. The data collected in 139 plots of 1000 m2 each related to the diameter at breast (1.3 m above ground, total height, identification, and measurement of DBH related P. africana species height. Tree-ring parameters such as Blackman and Green indices, basal area, average diameter, height of Lorey, and density were calculated and interpreted. Dendrometric settings of vegetation type and climate zone (Guinea, Sudan-Guinea, and Sudan were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA. There is a significant difference in dendrometric settings according to the type of vegetation and climate zone. Basal area, density, and average diameter are, respectively, 4.47 m2/ha, 34.95 stems/ha, and 37.02 cm in the fields; 3.01 m2/ha, 34.74 stems/ha, and 33.66 cm in fallows; 3.31 m2/ha, 52.39 stems/ha, and 29.61 cm in the savannahs. The diameter distribution and height observed at the theoretical Weibull distribution show that the diameter and height of the populations of the species are present in all positively skewed distributions or asymmetric left, a characteristic of single-species stands with predominance of young individuals or small diameters or heights.

  11. Leaf phenology and its associated traits in the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae Fenología foliar y sus caracteres asociados en la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae

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    MARÍA ANGÉLICA DAMASCOS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-summer leaf demography of the wintergreen species Aristotelia chilensis growing near San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, is described. Its specific leaf mass (SLM, g m-2 is compared to that of the deciduous and evergreen species of the Andean-Patagonian forests and to that of other communities abroad. The pattern of leaf emergence is intermediate, with leaf flush in spring (basal cohort, BC, followed by successive unfolding of the remaining leaves (distal cohort, DC during summer. The senescence of the BC occurs mainly in autumn, with a loss of 11-31 % of its SLM. The DC falls synchronously in mid-spring and the SLM loss in winter is 10-13 %. The SLM of A. chilensis (103.6 ± 6.2 g m-2 is intermediate when compared to the general mean values of deciduous (73.7 ± 15.9 g m-2 and evergreen species (154.8 ± 45.8 g m-2. The SLM of deciduous and evergreen species of three different forests near San Carlos de Bariloche varied significantly at the end of the growing season while that of A. chilensis showed more constant values. The periodicity of leaf production and senescence in A. chilensis allows the maintenance of one leaf cohort throughout the year, covering the carbon demand for flowering and leaf production in spring. This differentiates the deciduous from the wintergreen species, despite their similar mean leaf life span values, while the evergreen species have a longer leaf turnover. Considering the conditions for growth in each studied forest, the leaf life span was not the only factor determining the SLM value. This variable would also depend on multiple stresses that may act during the ontogenesis and evolution of the leaves in each phenological groupSe describe la demografía foliar después del verano de la especie invierno-verde Aristotelia chilensis, creciendo cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. Se compara su peso específico foliar (SLM, g m-2 con los valores de especies deciduas y siempreverdes de los

  12. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

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    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La fragmentación que ha sufrido el bosque nativo de Chile debido a la fuerte presión antrópica ha causado, además de la grave pérdida de habitat, la modificación del microclima de los parches de bosque remanente que alguna vez constituyeron un bosque continuo de especies nativas. Estos cambios generarían respuestas morfológicas, químicas y fisiológicas en plantas capaces de adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar respuestas a nivel de las hojas ante el aumento de radiación solar y disminución de agua en el suelo que ocurre al interior de los fragmentos. Para esto utilizamos a Aristotelia chilensis, especie que crece tanto en fragmentos como en bosque continuo, y comparamos parámetros relacionados a su morfología foliar en bosque y fragmentos y medimos su repercusión en la capacidad fotosintética de A. chilensis. En términos morfológicos, se observó una disminución del área foliar y del área foliar específica en los fragmentos, siendo 1,2 veces menor que en el bosque continuo. En los fragmentos, el grosor de la epidermis y del parénquima esponjoso son más de 1,3 veces mas gruesos que en el bosque continuo. El grosor del parénquima en empalizada, en cambio, no se vio modificado. La cantidad de nitrógeno en las hojas es 1,2 veces mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, mientras que el contenido de carbono no varía. La conductancia estomática en el bosque continuo fue 1,5 veces mayor que en los fragmentos. Aristotelia chilensis responde morfológica y fisiológicamente ante los cambios abióticos generados por la fragmentación de los bosques, lo que le permite sobrevivir tanto en ambientes de baja luminosidad como el bosque continuo y en ambientes de alta luminosidad y bajo contenido hídrico como los fragmentos de bosque, manteniendo tasas fotosintéticas semejantes en ambos ambientesFragmentation of the Maulino forest implies significant habitat loss, as well as the

  13. High resolution vertical distribution of the copepod Calanus chilensis in relation to the shallow oxygen minimum zone off northern Peru using LOKI, a new plankton imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirche, H. J.; Barz, K.; Ayon, P.; Schulz, J.

    2014-06-01

    The vertical distribution of copepodite stage V and adult Calanus chilensis was studied on two transects across the Humboldt Current System off northern Peru using the LOKI system. LOKI is an optical plankton recorder, which simultaneously collects images of zooplankton and environmental data such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence. Image quality allowed determination of CV, females and males and identification of C. chilensis from 3 co-occurring Calanid copepods. C. chilensis was inhabiting the upper 250 m. Highest abundances with a maximum of ca. 44.000 Ind. m-2 were observed in a narrow band within Cold Coastal Water at stations closest to the coast, coinciding with the Poleward Undercurrent. This raises questions for the life cycle closure within the Humboldt Current system. In contrast to observations in the southern part of the Humboldt Current System, the three stages studied were most abundant in hypoxic waters at oxygen concentrations between 5 and 50 μM. Thus C. chilensis seems to be the only species of the family Calanidae where not only a resting stage can tolerate hypoxia, but also both adult stages. This impacts availability to predators, as despite a locally high biomass only part of the population is available to anchovy and other important fish species which are restricted to waters with higher oxygen concentrations.

  14. The effect of Anonchocephalus chilensis Riggenbach (Eucestoda: Bothriocephalidea) on infracommunity patterns in Genypterus maculatus Tschudi (Osteichthyes: Ophidiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, S A; George-Nascimento, M

    2008-09-01

    The use of parasite body size (i.e. body mass) is a promising proxy to improve the study of patterns in parasite infracommunities, which are usually analysed using only numerical descriptors. This study deals with the importance and effect of the presence of a large endoparasite species, the cestode Anonchocephalus chilensis in a marine fish species, Genypterus maculatus, on the structure of the parasite infracommunities. Numerical and volumetric measures of aggregated properties of parasite infracommunities were compared and their correlation examined. The highly dominant presence of A. chilensis by volume causes a dramatic change in the patterns observed, including a smaller total volume of the remaining species when this volumetrically dominant species is present. However, C-scores and V-ratios, both indices based on null models of species occurrence, do not support the idea of communities structured by interspecific competition. Analyses reveal that numerical and volumetric community descriptors are complementary ways to search for patterns and to reveal processes within these systems. PMID:18394212

  15. Differences in sperm ultrastructure between Mytilus chilensis and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Bivalvia, Mytilidae: could be used as a taxonomic trait?

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    Pablo A Oyarzún

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sperm ultrastructure has been used to solve several systematic and phylogenetic problems in marine invertebrates. The sperm ultrastructure of the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis and Mytilus galloprovincialis corresponds to the ect-aquasperm type. Sperm from both taxa measured 55-60 μm between head (acrosome + nucleus, midpiece (only 5 mitochondria and the flagellum which in its end piece has a smaller diameter tail. The differences between both taxa are clearly shown, in the structure of the acrosome and nucleus. Therefore, according to our results and those reported in the literature, we indicate that Chilean native mussel sperm is different from other species of the Mytilus complex (M. trossulus, M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis. These differences in sperm ultrastructure found in M. chilensis, are another trait that can be used to validate the taxonomic status of the species. Differences in sperm morphology are related with reproductive isolation, and probably will be useful to understand future data on speciation. Finally, we discussed the finding that Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm from Chile have an acrosome notoriously smaller than those reported for specimens from Europe and Africa, though they have a great similarity with specimens from Japan, as reported in the literature.

  16. Fast protocol for extraction of DNA from Prosopis spp leaves (plant adapted to arid environment) without liquid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel-López, C Y; González-Mendoza, D; Grimaldo-Juarez, O

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from Prosopis spp for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is complicated, owing to the presence of a high percentage of secondary metabolites that bind to or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. In the present study, we report a modified sodium dodecyl sulfate/phenol protocol that eliminates the use of liquid nitrogen in the maceration process, β-mercaptoethanol in the buffer extraction, and the ethanol precipitation step. The A₂₆₀/A₂₈₀ absorbance ratios of the isolated DNA were approximately 2.0 to 1.9, suggesting that the DNA fraction was pure and can be used for further PCR analysis. The DNA isolated by this protocol is of sufficient quality for molecular applications; this technique could be applied to other organisms that have similar substances that hinder DNA extraction. Finally, this proposal represents an alternative fast, cheap, and effective method for the isolation of genomic DNA from fresh leaves of Prosopis spp, even in low-technology laboratories. PMID:24089098

  17. Evaluación y comparación de la eficiencia de dos sistemas de incubación de huevos de Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848) Evaluation and comparison of the efficiency of two incubation systems for Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848) eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Rolando Vega; Miguel Pradenas; Juan Manuel Estrada; Diego Ramírez; Iván Valdebenito; Alfonso Mardones; Patricio Dantagnan; Denis Alfaro; Francisco Encina; Cristian Pichara

    2012-01-01

    Actualmente la tendencia de la acuicultura mundial está orientada hacia la diversificación de los cultivos, principalmente de especies nativas. El congrio colorado Genypterus chilensis es un pez nativo de alta demanda gastronómica y explotación estacional que lo proyecta como candidato para el desarrollo de su tecnología de cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficiencia de dos sistemas de incubación de masas de huevos de G. chilensis, uno con circuito cerrado de agua (SICC) y ...

  18. Nutritional value of Prosopis juliflora Pods in feeding Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feeding experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of supplemental Prosopis juliflora on growth performance, feed utilization and chemical composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry (1.36+-0.004). Six isonitrigenous (30.46g 100g-1 crude protein) and isocalorific (0.018 NJ g-1) diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control without supplementing P. juliflora), and diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were supplemented with different levels (20, 40, 60, 80and 100 g Kg-1) of P. juliflora respectively. The results revealed that harvested gain (g fish-1) was significantly higher (P0.05) for fish fed 60g Kg-1 P. juliflora, while the lowest value of harvested gain was achieved with fish fed free. P. juliflora control diet. Despite that the fish fed diet (4) obtained the highest harvesting weight, weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate, no significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in an average daily gain (g fish-1 day-1) between fish fed diet 3, 4, 5 and 6 and in specific growth rate (% day-1) when inclusion level of P. juliflora was increased from 20 to 40 g kg-1 in diets 2 and 3 and from 80 to 100g kg-1 in diets 5 and 6, respectively. Feed intake was increased significantly (P<0.05) with in increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets. No significant differences were observed between the experimental fish groups in FCR in spite of the occurrence of a slight decreasing up to 80g kg-1 and PER. Protein productive value (PPV g 100g-1) and energy utilization (EUg 100g-1) were increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing P. juliflora inclusion level in the experimental diets up to 60g kg-1 and then decreased significantly (P<0.05). Fish whole body composition of dry matter and protein were significantly (P<0.05) affected by using P. juliflora in fish diets. Fish fed diet 4 achieved the highest values of dry matter and crude protein. The results suggested that diet supplemented with 60g kg-1 P. juliflora improved

  19. Características tecnológicas da Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. e alternativas para o uso racional Technological characteristics of Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. and alternatives for its rational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juáres J. Gomes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando contribuir para maior conhecimento sobre as essências arbóreas existentes no nordeste brasileiro, buscou-se através deste trabalho determinar as características tecnológicas da algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC e indicar alternativas de uso de sua madeira para construções rurais. A caracterização da espécie foi feita conforme valores, referentes à condição padrão de umidade (12%, obtidos em ensaios realizados de acordo com a NBR 7190 da Associação Brasileira de Norma Técnicas. Foram realizados ensaios de densidades básica e aparente, teor de umidade e de resistência à compressão paralela, tração paralela e cisalhamento, paralelo às fibras. Os resultados foram analisados pela comparação dos valores obtidos com aqueles encontrados na literatura, para outras madeiras. De acordo com os resultados, conclui-se que a madeira da algaroba se equipara em resistência e rigidez, às madeiras tradicionalmente utilizadas nas construções, no Brasil.This work was carried out with the objective of increasing the knowledge on the existing wild trees species in north-eastern Brazil. The main purpose was to determine the technological characteristics of the Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC and to indicate alternative use of its wood for agricultural constructions. The procedures adapted for the characterization of the species were in agreement with the Brazilian Norm 7190 of Brasilian Association of Technical Norms referring to the standard conditions moisture content of 12%. Tests of basic and apparent densities were carried out, moisture content and parallel fibers resistance to compression, traction and shear, were measured. The results were analyzed through the comparison of the values obtained with those found in literature for other kinds of wood. In agreement with the results, it was concluded that the Prosopis juliflora's wood can be compared with other traditional kinds of wood used in Brazil.

  20. Pharmacological reports about gastroprotective effects of methanolic extract from leaves of Solidago chilensis (Brazilian arnica) and its components quercitrin and afzelin in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Mariel; Mota da Silva, Luisa; Boeing, Thaise; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Cury, Benhur Judah; de Moura Burci, Ligia; Santin, José Roberto; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Monache, Franco Delle; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir

    2016-04-01

    Solidago chilensis Meyenmost (Asteraceae), popularly known as "Brazilian arnica" or "arnica-do-campo," is widely used in the folk medicine to treat gastric disorders. Based on this, the gastroprotective activity of S. chilensis methanolic extract was investigated. Besides, a phytochemical study allowed isolation of two flavonoids (quercitrin and afzelin). The gastroprotective effects were investigated in acute gastric ulcer models, and the antisecretory activity was assessed in vivo and in vitro. The adhered mucus levels, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were quantified in ulcerated tissues. The contribution of isolated compounds in extract effects was evaluated, and its doses were calculated according to its yield. To evaluate the in vivo healing properties of S. chilensis methanolic extract, a chronic gastric ulcer was induced in mice by 10 % acetic acid. Evaluation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels was also performed at the site of the acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer. In parallel, effects on cell viability and cell proliferation of fibroblasts (L929 cells) were determined by in vitro trials. Firstly, the S. chilensis methanolic extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) reduced the ulcer area induced by ethanol/HCl in mice when compared to the vehicle group. Moreover, the S. chilensis extract (300 mg/kg) prevented the mucus depletion, the increase in MPO activity and the decrease in the GSH levels in the ulcerated gastric tissue. The S. chilensis extract also was able to decrease the indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The antisecretory effect of the extract (100 mg/kg, intraduodenal (i.d.)) was confirmed by the reduction in the volume and acidity in parallel to an increase in the pH of gastric content. In addition, quercitrin (1.38 mg/kg, but not 0.46 mg/kg) and afzelin (0.026 and 0.078 mg/kg) decreased the ethanol/HCl-induced gastric ulcer. In this model, quercitrin (1.38 mg/kg) prevented the depletion

  1. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Houlbreque, Fanny, E-mail: F.Houlbreque@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Boisson, Florence [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Mulsow, Sandor [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Oberhaensli, Francois; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco)

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from {sup 109}Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with {sup 109}Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of {sup 109}Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 {+-} 0.175 ng g{sup -1} (mean {+-} asymptotic standard error, p < 0.001) after 78 {+-} 9 days. The depuration rate for {sup 109}Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total {sup 109}Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  2. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  3. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 ± 0.175 ng g-1 (mean ± asymptotic standard error, p 109Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total 109Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  4. Aboveground and belowground biomass allocation in native Prosopis caldenia Burkart secondaries woodlands in the semi-arid Argentinean pampas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The woodlands in the south-west of the Argentinean pampas are dominated by Prosopis Caldenia Burkart (calden). The current deforestation rate of this woodlands is 0.82% per year. Different compensation initiatives have begun that recognize the role of forests as environmental service providers. The financial incentives they offer make it necessary to quantify the amount of carbon stored in the forest biomass. A model for estimating calden biomass was developed. Thirty-eight trees were selected, felled and divided into sections. An equation system was fitted using joint generalized regression to ensure the additivity property. A weighted regression was used to avoid heteroscedasticity. In these woodlands fire is the main disturbance and it can modify tree allometry, due this all models included the area of the base of the stem and tree height as independent variables since it indirectly collects this variability. Total biomass and the stem fraction had the highest R2Adj. values (0.75), while branches with a diameter less than 7 cm had the lowest (0.58). Tree biomass was also analyzed by partitioning into the basic fractions of stem, crown, roots, and the root/shoot ratio. Biomass allocation was greatest in the crown fraction and the mean root/shoot ratio was 0.58. The carbon stock of the caldenales considering only calden tree biomass is 20.2 Mg ha−1. While the overall carbon balance of the region is negative (deforestation and biomass burning, the remnant forested area has increased their calden density and in an indirect way his carbon sequestration capacity could also be increased. - Highlights: • A model for estimating aboveground and belowground Prosopis caldenia biomass was developed. • Biomass allocation into the tree and the root/shoot ratio were analyzed. • The equation systems presented had made it possible to more accurately estimate the biomass stored in calden woodlands

  5. Recruitment Dynamics of the Relict Palm, Jubaea chilensis: Intricate and Pervasive Effects of Invasive Herbivores and Nurse Shrubs in Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Fleury; Wara Marcelo; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; Luis Alberto González; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period, a total of more than 300 seedlings were exposed to of four possible scenarios produced by independently weakening the effects of nurse shrubs and...

  6. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Kai; Schön, Max E; Lutz, Matthias; Butin, Heinz; Oberwinkler, Franz; Garnica, Sigisfredo

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi) associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales. PMID:26790149

  7. On the Evolutionary History of Uleiella chilensis, a Smut Fungus Parasite of Araucaria araucana in South America: Uleiellales ord. nov. in Ustilaginomycetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Riess

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history, divergence times and phylogenetic relationships of Uleiella chilensis (Ustilaginomycotina, smut fungi associated with Araucaria araucana were analysed. DNA sequences from multiple gene regions and morphology were analysed and compared to other members of the Basidiomycota to determine the phylogenetic placement of smut fungi on gymnosperms. Divergence time estimates indicate that the majority of smut fungal orders diversified during the Triassic-Jurassic period. However, the origin and relationships of several orders remain uncertain. The most recent common ancestor between Uleiella chilensis and Violaceomyces palustris has been dated to the Lower Cretaceous. Comparisons of divergence time estimates between smut fungi and host plants lead to the hypothesis that the early Ustilaginomycotina had a saprobic lifestyle. As there are only two extant species of Araucaria in South America, each hosting a unique Uleiella species, we suggest that either coevolution or a host shift followed by allopatric speciation are the most likely explanations for the current geographic restriction of Uleiella and its low diversity. Phylogenetic and age estimation analyses, ecology, the unusual life-cycle and the peculiar combination of septal and haustorial characteristics support Uleiella chilensis as a distinct lineage among the Ustilaginomycotina. Here, we describe a new ustilaginomycetous order, the Uleiellales to accommodate Uleiella. Within the Ustilaginomycetes, Uleiellales are sister taxon to the Violaceomycetales.

  8. Desarrollo del ensilado del alga Gracilaria chilensis para la alimentación del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mardones

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el principal insumo usado como alimento para abalones son las algas Gracilaria chilensis y Macrocystis pyrifera. Estas algas experimentan una notable baja de disponibilidad en otoño e invierno, lo cual trae consigo un aumento considerable de los precios, al tener que depender del abastecimiento desde áreas cada vez más alejadas de los centros de cultivo de abalones y, eventualmente, generando impactos ecológicos indirectos en sus poblaciones. El objetivo fue elaborar y evaluar un ensilado del alga G. chilensis para la alimentación de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens, determinando la cantidad de lixiviados generados durante el proceso, el cambio en la composición proximal del alga, la preferencia y consumo del abalón rojo de ensilado de G. chilensis. Se logró un producto ensilado de buenas características físicas, químicas y de conservación, así como una buena aceptación por parte del abalón.

  9. Prosopis: a global assessment of the biogeography, benefits, impacts and management of one of the world's worst woody invasive plant taxa

    OpenAIRE

    Shackleton, Ross T.; David C. Le Maitre; Pasiecznik, Nick M.; Richardson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species cause ecological, economic and social impacts and are key drivers of global change. This is the case for the genus Prosopis (mesquite; Fabaceae) where several taxa are among the world's most damaging invasive species. Many contentious issues (‘conflicts of interest’) surround these taxa, and management interventions have not yet sustainably reduced the negative impacts. There is an urgent need to better understand the factors that drive invasions and shape management actions,...

  10. Immunochemical characterization of prosopis juliflora pollen allergens and evaluation of cross-reactivity pattern with the most allergenic pollens in tropical areas.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Allergy to Prosopis juliflora (mesquite) pollen is one of the common causes of respiratory allergy in tropical countries. Mesquite is widely used as street trees in towns and ornamental shade trees in parks and gardens throughout arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The inhalation of mesquite pollen and several species of Amaranthus/Chenopodiaceae family is the most important cause of allergic respiratory symptoms in Khuzestan province. This study was designed to evaluate IgE banding proteins o...

  11. ADSORPTION POTENTIALITES OF BIO-SORBENTS DERIVED FROM PROSOPIS CINERARIA AND HIBISCUS ROSA-SIN ENSIS IN THE REMOVAL OF METHYL ORANGE DYE FROM POLLUTED WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik Karimulla; K. Ravindhranath

    2013-01-01

    Leaves, stems and their ashes of Prosopis cineraria and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis have been explored for their surface sorption abilities towards Methyl Orange Dye using simulated waters. Various physicochemical parameters such as pH, time of equilibration and sorbent concentrations are optimized for evoking the sorption potentialities of the plant materials for the maximum extraction of the Methyl Orange Dye from waters. The surface sorption nature is found to pH sensitive and % of removal is m...

  12. Intoxicação espontânea por vagens de Prosopis juliflora (Leg. Mimosoideae em bovinos no Estado de Pernambuco Spontaneous poisoning in cattle by mesquite beans, Prosopis juliflora (Leg. Mimosoideae in Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos L. Câmara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se três surtos de intoxicação por vagens de Prosopis juliflora no Sertão e Agreste de Pernambuco, na região semi-árida, em animais pastejando áreas invadidas pela planta ou que ingeriram as vagens como alimento concentrado. Em duas fazendas nas que a doença ocorria esporadicamente foram observados casos individuais. Em outra, o surto afetou um rebanho de 1206 bovinos, dos quais adoeceram 112 (9,28% e morreram 84 (6,96%, enquanto os demais 28 (2,32% recuperaram-se e ganharam peso após a retirada das vagens da alimentação. Clinicamente observou-se, principalmente, perda de peso progressiva, atrofia da musculatura da face e masseter, mandíbula pendulosa, protrusão de língua, dificuldade de apreensão e mastigação dos alimentos, torção da cabeça para mastigar ou ruminar, salivação excessiva, disfagia e hipotonia lingual. Nos exames laboratoriais constatou-se anemia e hipoproteinemia. Na necropsia havia caquexia e diminuição de volume e coloração acinzentada dos músculos masseteres. Na histologia observou-se degeneração de neurônios do núcleo motor do trigêmeo, degeneração Walleriana do nervo trigêmeo e atrofia muscular por denervação do músculo masseter com substituição por tecido fibroso. Recomendam-se medidas para a profilaxia da intoxicação e discute-se a necessidade de desenvolver pesquisas para determinar a viabilidade econômica e sustentabilidade da utilização da algaroba como alimento animal ou humano e para produção de carvão, lenha ou madeira.Three outbreaks of poisoning by Prosopis juliflora pods are reported in the semiarid region of the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil, in cattle grazing in fields invaded by the plant or ingesting mesquite beans as a concentrate food. In two farms the disease occurred sporadically. In another, 112 (9.28% cattle out of 1206 were affected, 84 (6.96% died due to emaciation, and 28 (2.32% gained weight after the pods had been withdrawn from the

  13. Composición, riqueza de especies y abundancia de insectos defoliadores de actividad nocturna asociados a Aristotelia chilensis (maqui en el bosque maulino fragmentado Composition, species richness and abundance of nocturnal folivorous insects associated with Aristotelia chilensis (maqui in the fragmented Maulino forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XAVIERA DE LA VEGA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En el bosque maulino, la herbivoría sobre Aristotelia chilensis (maqui es negativamente afectada por la fragmentación del bosque, siendo mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, particularmente a inicios de la temporada de crecimiento. Este fenómeno puede deberse a cambios en la dinámica de las poblaciones de defoliadores, esencialmente insectos. En este trabajo se evaluó la abundancia, riqueza de especies y composición de insectos defoliadores de actividad nocturna presentes en A. chilensis en un bosque continuo (600 ha y en ocho fragmentos remanentes (0,4-20 ha. Los muéstreos se realizaron mensualmente, entre agosto de 2005 y febrero de 2006, en 32 ejemplares adultos de A. chilensis en el bosque continuo y en 32 ejemplares en los fragmentos. Los insectos fueron muestreados durante las cinco primeras horas de la noche. Se recolectaron 890 insectos defoliadores, pertenecientes a 17 familias y 77 especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Coleóptera, Orthoptera y Lepidoptera, siendo todas nativas. La abundancia total no varió según el habitat. Sin embargo, la fragmentación incrementó o disminuyó la abundancia de algunas especies. La riqueza de especies por árbol tampoco fue afectada por la fragmentación del bosque, aunque el número total de especies fue considerablemente mayor en los fragmentos que en el bosque continuo. La similitud de especies fue mayor dentro del bosque continuo que entre el bosque continuo y los fragmentos o que entre los fragmentos. A principios de la temporada de crecimiento de A. chilensis (septiembre, la abundancia de Sericoides obesa fue significativamente mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos. Al avanzar en la temporada, Sericoides viridis se hizo más abundante en los fragmentos. Por el tamaño y la voracidad de los insectos del género Sericoides ellos serían los principales responsables de los patrones de defoliación de A. chilensis en el bosque maulino.At the Maulino forest

  14. Change in size-at-maturity of the yellownose skate Dipturus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848 (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae in the SW Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paesch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3518 specimens (1607 males, 1911 females of Dipturus chilensis were sampled. Males ranged from 44.0 to 99.0 cm and females from 45.0 to 110.0 cm. Total length composition of the grouped catches differed significantly among sexes, with females being larger than males. The sex ratio favored the females. The total length at which 50% of the specimens were retained by the gear was 69.0 cm for the males and 73.0 cm for the females. A sub-sample of 124 specimens (48 males, 76 females was analyzed for reproductive assessment. For the males, size at 50% maturity was estimated at 78.5 cm, while for the females this parameter was estimated at 81.4 cm. Preliminary observations on the description of the egg capsules are also provided.Um total de 3518 espécimes (1607 machos e 1911 fêmeas de Dipturus chilensis foi amostrado. Os machos tiveram comprimentos totais entre 44.0 e 99.0 cm e as fêmeas entre 45.0 e 110.0 cm. A composição de comprimentos totais das capturas agrupadas foi significativamente diferente entre ambos os sexos, sendo as fêmeas maiores do que os machos. A razão sexual favoreceu as fêmeas. O comprimento total em que 50% dos espécimes foram retidos pelo aparelho de pesca foi de 69.0 cm nos machos e de 73.0 cm nas fêmeas. Uma sub-amostra de 124 espécimes (48 machos e 76 fêmeas foi analisada para avaliação dos parâmetros reprodutivos. Para os machos, o tamanho de 50% de maturidade resultou em 78.5 cm enquanto que para as fêmeas este parâmetro foi estimado em 81.4 cm. Observações preliminares sobre a descrição da cápsula ovígera são também fornecidas.

  15. Agregado de valor al fruto de Prosopis alba : Estudio de la composición química y nutricional para su aplicación en bocaditos dulces saludables

    OpenAIRE

    Sciammaro, Leonardo Pablo; Ferrero, Cristina; Puppo, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la calidad química y nutricional de harinas de vaina y pulpa del fruto de algarrobo y su aplicación como agente aglutinante en la formulación de bocaditos dulces a base de semillas andinas (quinua, amaranto y chía). Se realizó un diseño de mezclas manteniendo constante la proporción de semillas y en el que se variaron los tres ingredientes considerados como aglutinantes y endulzantes: harina de algarroba, azúcar y miel. El diseño fue sometido a una res...

  16. Histopathological survey of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae and the clam Gari solida (Psammobiidae from southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Cremonte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 specimens of mussels, Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae, and 56 specimens of clams, Gari solida (Psammobiidae, were collected in natural beds and culture sites of southern Chile. Juvenile mussel specimens (3 cm of maximum length were free of parasites and diseases, whilst the commercial sized populations was parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms in the digestive gland epithelium and in the gills, by ciliates in the gills, turbellarians similar to Paravortex (Rhabocoela in the intestine lumen and copepods attached to the gills. In addition, the disseminated neoplasia disease was also present although in low prevalences. In the clam, G. solida, prokariotic inclusions were found in the digestive gland epithelium and bacteria-like organisms in the gills, often encapsulated by haemocytes; oocysts containing up to 8 sporozoites similar to Nematopsis (Apicomplexa in the connective tissue, causing haemocytic infiltration when the intensity of infection was high; ciliates belonging to two different species (one of them similar to Trichodina inhabiting the gills; and a turbellarian similar to Paravortex in the lumen of digestive system without apparent host reaction. The populations of the bivalve species here studied were devoid of serious pathogens.

  17. Isolation and identification of Vibrio toranzoniae associated with diseased red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis) farmed in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Aide; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Estrada, Juan M; Romalde, Jesús L

    2015-09-30

    The present study deals with the first isolation of Vibrio toranzoniae from cultured red conger eel (Genypterus chilensis). During the summer season of 2011, mortalities were observed in young red conger eel at one aquaculture experimental rearing system in Quintay, Valparaiso, Chile. The microbiological analysis of the diseased fish resulted in the isolation of three dominant and representative isolates, designated as R.17, R.18 and R.19, which were obtained from gill, fin and external lesions from three different fish, respectively. All isolates were identified as V. toranzoniae by means of a polyphasic taxonomic approach, including phenotypic characterization, sequencing of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Inoculation of a representative strain (R18) in turbot as model fish species demonstrated the pathogenic potential for fish of the Chilean isolates. Results obtained indicate that the geographical and host distribution of V. toranzoniae is wider than expected, and that this species may have negative incidence in the culture of marine organisms. PMID:26072371

  18. Domestication and sustainable production of wild crafted plants with special reference to the Chilean Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel, Hermine

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The principle threats for sustainable production of wild collected medicinal plants are related to ecological factors, such as endemism, and botanical factors critical for survival, such as the collection of roots or barks or slow growing species. The sustainable way to produce raw material on a large scale would be species specific management of the wild resources that guarantees conservation of biodiversity, or bringing the species under cultivation. A checklist proposed by WHO, UICN and WWF (1993 indicates that domestication of any medicinal plant concerns plant selection and breeding, studies about propagation, cultivation techniques, plant protection, time of harvest, among others. The different domestication steps are illustrated for the Chilean maqui (Aristotelia chilensis, a wild tree whose fruits are demanded in increasing volumes by the international market because of its high antioxidant capacity. High yielding plants with good fruit quality have been selected from wild populations and accessions have been cultivated under different environmental conditions to select the most suitable genotypes for the establishment of commercial orchards.

  19. Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) and the constituent delphinidin glycoside inhibit photoreceptor cell death induced by visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Junji; Kadekaru, Takashi; Ogawa, Kenjirou; Hitoe, Shoketsu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2013-08-15

    The protective effects of maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) extract (MBE) and its major anthocyanins [delphinidin 3,5-O-diglucoside (D3G5G) and delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside-5-O-glucoside (D3S5G)] against light-induced murine photoreceptor cells (661W) death were evaluated. Viability of 661W after light treatment for 24 h, assessed by the tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, was improved by addition of MBE, D3G5G, and D3S5G. Intracellular radical activation in 661W, evaluated using the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), was reduced by MBE and its anthocyanins. The anti-apoptosis mechanism of MBE was evaluated by light-induced phosphorylation of p38. MBE significantly suppressed the light-induced phosphorylation of p38. These findings indicate that MBE and its anthocyanidins suppress the light-induced photoreceptor cell death by inhibiting ROS production, suggesting that the inhibition of phosphorylated-p38 may be involved in the underlying mechanism. PMID:23561088

  20. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros; Evangelista, Paul H.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species-occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries.

  1. Examination of Environmental Trends in Hawaii Based on the Trace Element Distributions in Cores of the Kiawe tree (Prosopis pallida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Y. S.; de Carlo, E. H.; Spengler, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    Annual growth rings of trees have the potential for providing a chronology of bioavailable contaminants extant in the environment in which the trees grow. Recent studies have documented a significant correlation between concentrations of metals in atmospheric particulate matter and those observed in surface and groundwater. The Kiawe (Prosopis pallida), a hardwood tree commonly found in Hawaii, represents a potential environmental tape recorder because of its life span on the order of multiple decades. Because the Kiawe is phreatophytic and has high transpiration rates, it may be ideally suited to examine past (temporal) and current (spatial) variability in the quality of groundwater where these trees grow. Because of the potential correlation between airborne and groundwater pollution we hypothesize that growth rings of Kiawe may yield clues to help unravel recent (50-100 yrs) changes in contamination patterns in Hawaii. We will present concentrations of trace elements (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sb, and Pb) in cores of Kiawe trees growing on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Oahu, the locus of more than 80 percent of the population of the State of Hawaii, is heavily urbanized, but other land uses include agriculture, conservation (rainforest), and military reservations, where live-fire military training activities over the past 60 years have raised public concern about potential contamination of natural resources. Preliminary analyses indicate that trace element concentrations in Kiawe wood range from a less than one to tens of micrograms per kilogram, depending on the element and the provenance of the tree.

  2. Evaluation of herbicides for use in transplanting leucaena leucocephala and prosopis alba on semi-arid lands without irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Smith, D.; Smith, M.; Bingham, R.L.; Reyes, I.

    1984-01-01

    Five herbicides were applied to plots at 2 rates in April 1982, and 3-month old seedlings planted 2 days later. Basal diameter was measured after 110 days and converted to dry weight using published equations. Percent weed cover was recorded 45, 75, and 105 days after planting. All herbicides increased survival over untreated controls. The greatest biomass production of both species was obtained with oryzalin treatment at 2.8 kg/ha active ingredient, which increased production 4-5X compared with control plots. Oryzalin was second to napropamide (2.24 kg/ha active ingredient) in grass control and equal to oxyfluorfen (1.12 kg/ha active ingredient) in forb control, oxyfluorfen at this rate also gave the second best biomass production. Oryzalin increased survival from 71 to 87% for Leucaena and from 81-94% for Prosopis, and is considered to be the best herbicide tested, followed by oxyfluorfen and metolachlor. Alachlor was considered to be too short-lived and napropamide too expensive.

  3. Modeling studies: Adsorption of aniline blue by using Prosopis Juliflora carbon/Ca/alginate polymer composite beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M; Tamilarasan, R

    2013-02-15

    The research article describes the experimental and modeling study for the adsorptive removal of aniline blue dye (AB dye) from aqueous matrices using a Prosopis Juliflora modified carbon/Ca/alginate polymer bead as a low cost and eco-friendly adsorbent. The rate of adsorption was investigated under various experimental parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, pH and temperature. The kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies were assessed to find out the efficiency of the adsorption process. The equilibrium uptake capacity of the adsorption process was found with Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm equations and it was evaluated by dimensionless separation factor (R(L)). The dynamics of adsorption was predicted by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order Lagergren's equation and intra particle diffusion model. Adsorption feasibility was assessed with thermodynamic parameters such as isosteric heat of adsorption (ΔH°), standard entropy (ΔS°) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) using VantHoff plot. The alginate bead was characterized with FTIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). PMID:23399273

  4. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz) during fruit development and maturation in Central Chile Contenidos de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante de maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz) durante el desarrollo y maduración de frutos en Chile Central

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Fredes; Gloria Montenegro; Juan Pablo Zoffoli; Miguel Gómez; Paz Robert

    2012-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae) is a Chilean native species which produces small berries that are mainly collected from the wild. The health benefits of maqui fruit are attributed to their high polyphenol content as well as their wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols. One of the main factors that affect the polyphenol content in fruit is the maturity stage at harvest. The objective of this study was to determine total phenol and total anthocyanin content and a...

  5. RETINAL MORPHOLOGY AND ELECTRORETINOGRAPHY IN TWO VISUALLY FORAGING CHARADRIIFORMES BIRDS WITH DIFFERENT FEEDING ACTIVITY RHYTHMS: THE DOUBLE-STRIPED THICK-KNEE (BURHINUS BISTRIATUS WAGLER, 1829 AND THE SOUTHERN LAPWING (VANELLUS CHILENSIS L., 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Figueroa R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study compares the visual function of the Double-striped Thick-knee (Burhinus bistriatus Wagler,1829, which forages primarily during dusk and at night, and the Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis L., 1758, which is known to forage during daytime and occasionally at night, analyzing morphological and electrophysiological aspects of their retina. The fact that thick-knees have large eyes and are nocturnally actives suggest that, compared with the diurnal lapwing, they should have a very sensitive retina under low light intensity. Electroretinograms (ERGs were obtained from anesthetized live birds at different light intensities in photopic and scotopic conditions, and the retinae were subsequently processed for histological analysis. The scotopic ERG b-waves of B. bistriatus, at all light intensities, were always of larger amplitude than those of V. chilensis. However, the a-waves of both species were of similar amplitude. Under photopic conditions, V. chilensis yield highest a- and b-wave amplitudes than B. bistriatus. The latter has a larger dialated pupil diameter and a greater axial length/equatorial diameter ratio than V. chilensis. Likewise, the rod density of B. bistriatus significantly exceeds that of V. chilensis. In the latter, cone density tends to be higher than in B. bistriatus while the rods:cones ratio were lower. Rod outer segments of B. bistriatus strongly exceed in length those of any other Charadriiformes species studied so far, but are thinner than those of V. chilensis. In contrast, the latter has thicker cone outer segments and outer and inner plexiform layers than B. bistriatus. Similarly, ganglion cells are more abundant per unit area in V. chilensis. Our combined results reveal a higher retinal sensitivity of B. bistriatus under low light conditions, in accordance with their crepuscular and nocturnal foraging strategies. V. chilensis, although mainly active during daylight, appears to have a moderate retinal

  6. Aboveground biomass in Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) H. B. K. ecosystems using Landsat 7 ETM+ images Biomasa aérea en ecosistemas de Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) H. B. K. usando imágenes Landsat 7 ETM+

    OpenAIRE

    EVA PADRÓN; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2007-01-01

    The significance of field work in remote sensing studies when applied to large areas has often been underestimated. The combination of specific forest inventories for the estimation of aboveground biomass in large dry tropical forest areas with remote sensor data has scarcely been explored to date. In this work, a systematic, stratified forest inventory involving 100 X 100 m square plots in an area of Peruvian Prosopis pallida dry forest, roughly one million hectares in size in the Piura prov...

  7. Potencialidad de Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamilia: Mimosoideae para estudios dendrocronológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montaña Potential of Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamily: Mimosoideae for dendrochronological studies in high-montane subtropical deserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANO S. MORALES

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la escasez de especies con anillos anuales de crecimiento, la dendrocronología de regiones áridas de montañas tropicales y subtropicales está muy poco desarrollada. En este trabajo evaluamos el potencial de la especie arbórea Prosopis ferox,"churqui", para estudios dendrocronológicos analizando las características anatómicas del leño y las relaciones entre registros climáticos y cronologías de ancho de anillos de una colección realizada a 3.500 m, en la quebrada de Humahuaca (23°13' S, 65°20' O, Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. Las observaciones microscópicas de cortes histológicos muestran que los anillos están claramente demarcados por una banda parenquimática terminal clara. Comparando la cronología estandarizada de ancho de anillos con los registros instrumentales de La Quiaca (22º06'S, 65º36'O, se observan correlaciones significativas con precipitaciones por encima de la media y temperaturas por debajo de la media durante los meses de verano (diciembre_marzo. Esto se interpreta como una relación positiva con la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo durante el período de crecimiento. Esta cronología representa no solamente el primer registro dendrocronológico desarrollado a partir de P. ferox, sino también la primera cronología de anillos de árboles en la provincia biogeográfica Prepuneña. La buena discriminación de los anillos anuales de crecimiento, la fuerte relación con variables climáticas, el amplio rango de distribución de la especie en el noroeste de Argentina y sur de Bolivia (20° a 25° S y la longevidad observada en individuos aislados (c. 500 años, hacen de P. ferox una especie muy promisoria para estudios dendroclimatológicos y dendroecológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montañaDue to the scarcity of species with annual tree rings, the use of dendrochronological techniques has received little attention in tropical and subtropical montane dry areas. In this study, we assess the

  8. Factibilidad técnica y financiera de explotación del cangrejo dorado de Juan Fernández (Chaceon chilensis Technical and financial feasibility of the commercial fishery of Juan Fernandez's golden crab (Chaceon chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Martínez González

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la factibilidad técnica y financiera que tendría el montaje de una actividad productiva en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández, basada en la explotación del cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis. Para evaluar el proyecto flota-planta, se utilizó un enfoque de tipo sistémico, que permitió estudiar y estructurar esta situación problema. Se consideró factible una producción de 14,4 ton de cangrejo trozado (pinzas y patas, cocido y congelado sin caparazón, en porciones de 1/2 y 3/4 libras; y 33,6 ton de carne de cangrejo, cocida y congelada en bloques de 1 y 2 libras. Para esta producción, la materia prima se obtendría de la actividad extractiva de 10 embarcaciones artesanales, las cuales operarían en forma complementaria o alternativa a la pesca de langosta. El proyecto es altamente sensible a los precios tanto de mercado de los productos como de playa de la materia prima. La gran proporción de la inversión se debe al capital de trabajo destinado a la compra de materia prima, en valores que permiten al sector artesanal absorber la inversión en innovaciones tecnológicas requeridas para implementar su flota. Los resultados de la evaluación financiera indican 73% de probabilidad de éxito en la inversión, Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR del 49%, Retorno sobre la Inversión (RSI de 1,73 y Valor Actual Neto (VAN de 17.538,6 UF, equivalentes a $238.963.970The technical and financial feasibility of the golden crab fishery (Chaceon chilensis in Juan Fernandez's archipelago was analyzed. To evaluate the investment project, a systemic approach was used to analyze and to structure this situation problem. It was considered feasible an annual production of 14,4 ton of pieces of crab (pincers and legs, cooked and frozen without shell, in portions of 1/2 and 3/4 pounds; and 33,6 ton of crab meat, cooked and frozen in blocks of 1 and 2 pounds. For this production, the raw material would be supply by the extractive activity of 10 artisanal

  9. Efecto fitoestrogénico del extracto metanólico de frutos de Prosopis torquata (Cav. ex Lag.) en ratas Wistar hembras púberes

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Mirta; Salinas, Adriana; ANTONIO M MANGIONE; Gil, Esteban R.

    2010-01-01

    Los fitoestrógenos, compuestos de estructura química diversa, actúan sobre la función reproductiva de los mamíferos. Se investigaron los efectos del extracto metanólico (ExM) de frutos de Prosopis torquata sobre las funciones reproductivas de la rata Wistar hembra, inyectadas en el período neonatal. Las crías fueron distribuidas al azar en cuatro grupos. Tres grupos, alimentados con dieta libre de fitoestrógenos, fueron inyectados con ExM, E (estradiol) y vehículo (Clf), respectiv...

  10. Cuantificación de biomasa y carbono en bosques nativos de Prosopis caldenia (Burkart) en la Pampa semiárida, Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Risio Allione, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Los bosques del sur-oeste de la pampa Argentina están dominados por caldén (Prosopis caldenia). En la actualidad resta el 18 % de su superficie original. Existen iniciativas que reconocen a los bosques su rol de oferentes de servicios ambientales pero para alcanzar esta recompensa económica es necesario cuantificar la cantidad de carbono almacenado en ellos. En este trabajo se desarrolló un modelo de estimación de biomasa para caldén a partir de 38 árboles apeados y seccionados. Se ajustó un ...

  11. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae, jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva García-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera are frequently found in arid and semiarid shrublands, but scarce information is available about their influence on plant community structure and soil fertility. We compared plant community structure, diversity and soil nutrients of three semiarid shrubland sites located in Mezquital Valley, Mexico. These sites differ in their dominant species: Site 1 (Bingu P. laevigata, Site 2 (González M. biuncifera, and Site 3 (Rincón with the presence of both legumes. The results showed that the plant community with P. laevigata and M. biuncifera (Site 3 had more cover, taller plants and higher plant diversity than sites with only one legume (Site 1 and Site 2. Soil organic matter (SOM, soil organic carbon (SOC, total nitrogen (TN, phosphorus-Olsen (P and C mineralization were higher in the soil under the canopy of both legumes than in bare soil. In contrast, soil cation concentrations were lower under the canopy of P. laevigata, but not for M. biuncifera. In addition, the density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores was higher within the soil under the canopy of M. biuncifera than in the soil under the canopy of P. laevigata. Thus, resource islands (RI created by P. laevigata increased the amounts of SOC, TN and P when compared with the RI of M. biuncifera. This study provided evidences about the importance of species identity in order to expand the niche availability for the establishment of other plants, and highlights that P. laevigata and M. biuncifera jointly influencing plant colonization within semiarid ecosystemsProsopis laevigata y Mimosa biuncifera coexisten en los matorrales semiáridos; sin embargo, se desconoce su influencia sobre la diversidad de la comunidad vegetal y el suelo. Este estudio evaluó el efecto de P. laevigata y M. biuncifera sobre la estructura, diversidad vegetal y nutrimentos del suelo, en tres matorrales del Valle del Mezquital, México. Los sitios difieren en la especie dominante

  12. The effect of Prosopis farcta beans extract on blood biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban, Mohsen; Sarir, Hadi; Omidi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbals in the treatment of diabetes mellitus is a well-established practice in traditional medicine. The medicinal plant Prosopis farcta has some antioxidant activity, which may be useful in diabetic patients. Since, there is no report on the antidiabetic effect of the P. farcta, this study evaluated antidiabetic activity of P. farcta bean extract (PFE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight [BW]), after which, the animals were randomly allocated into six experimental groups as follows: Group 1: Normal rats (received normal saline), Groups 2 and 3: Normal rats received PFE; (50 and 75 mg/kg BW), Group 4: Diabetic control rats, Group 5: Diabetic rats received PFE (50 mg/kg BW), Group 6: Diabetic rats received PFE (75 mg/kg BW). Three days after induction of diabetes, rats were received an extract of PFE orally for 12 days. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to determine liver enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL). Results: The administration of PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced the blood glucose levels when compared with the STZ-control group (227.2 ± 12.00 and 259.6 ± 7.03 vs. 454.6 ± 12.66, P < 0.001). PFE in diabetic groups had no significant effect on the levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, AST, and ALT compare to the STZ-control group. Conclusion: P. farcta could reduce blood glucose in diabetic rats. PMID:27512685

  13. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae, jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva García-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera are frequently found in arid and semiarid shrublands, but scarce information is available about their influence on plant community structure and soil fertility. We compared plant community structure, diversity and soil nutrients of three semiarid shrubland sites located in Mezquital Valley, Mexico. These sites differ in their dominant species: Site 1 (Bingu P. laevigata, Site 2 (González M. biuncifera, and Site 3 (Rincón with the presence of both legumes. The results showed that the plant community with P. laevigata and M. biuncifera (Site 3 had more cover, taller plants and higher plant diversity than sites with only one legume (Site 1 and Site 2. Soil organic matter (SOM, soil organic carbon (SOC, total nitrogen (TN, phosphorus-Olsen (P and C mineralization were higher in the soil under the canopy of both legumes than in bare soil. In contrast, soil cation concentrations were lower under the canopy of P. laevigata, but not for M. biuncifera. In addition, the density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores was higher within the soil under the canopy of M. biuncifera than in the soil under the canopy of P. laevigata. Thus, resource islands (RI created by P. laevigata increased the amounts of SOC, TN and P when compared with the RI of M. biuncifera. This study provided evidences about the importance of species identity in order to expand the niche availability for the establishment of other plants, and highlights that P. laevigata and M. biuncifera jointly influencing plant colonization within semiarid ecosystems

  14. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Evangelista, Paul H; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Laituri, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    We used correlative models with species occurrence points, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices, and topo-climatic predictors to map the current distribution and potential habitat of invasive Prosopis juliflora in Afar, Ethiopia. Time-series of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 250 m2 spatial resolution were selected as remote sensing predictors for mapping distributions, while WorldClim bioclimatic products and generated topographic variables from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission product (SRTM) were used to predict potential infestations. We ran Maxent models using non-correlated variables and the 143 species- occurrence points. Maxent generated probability surfaces were converted into binary maps using the 10-percentile logistic threshold values. Performances of models were evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results indicate that the extent of P. juliflora invasion is approximately 3,605 km2 in the Afar region (AUC  = 0.94), while the potential habitat for future infestations is 5,024 km2 (AUC  = 0.95). Our analyses demonstrate that time-series of MODIS vegetation indices and species occurrence points can be used with Maxent modeling software to map the current distribution of P. juliflora, while topo-climatic variables are good predictors of potential habitat in Ethiopia. Our results can quantify current and future infestations, and inform management and policy decisions for containing P. juliflora. Our methods can also be replicated for managing invasive species in other East African countries. PMID:25393396

  15. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  16. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) Using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías, Adriana; Correa, Francisco; Rojas, Pamela; Almada, Rubén; Muñoz, Carlos; Sagredo, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stunz) is a small dioecious tree native to South America with edible fruit characterized by very high antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content. To preserve maqui as a genetic resource it is essential to study its genetic diversity. However, the complete genome is unknown and only a few gene sequences are available in databases. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, which are neutral, co-dominant, reproducible and highly variable, are desirable to support genetic studies in maqui populations. By means of identification and characterization of microsatellite loci from a maqui genotype, using 454 sequencing technology, we develop a set of SSR for this species. Obtaining a total of 165,043 shotgun genome sequences, with an average read length of 387 bases, we covered 64 Mb of the maqui genome. Reads were assembled into 4,832 contigs, while 98,546 reads remained as singletons, generating a total of 103,378 consensus genomic sequences. A total of 24,494 SSR maqui markers were identified. Of them, 15,950 SSR maqui markers were classified as perfects. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (31%), followed by tetranucleotide (26%) and trinucleotide motifs (24%). The motif AG/CT (28.4%) was the most abundant, while the motif AC (89 bp) was the largest. Eleven polymorphic SSRs were selected and used to analyze a population of 40 maqui genotypes. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.117 to 0.82, with an average of 0.58. Non-significant groups were observed in the maqui population, showing a panmictic genetic structure. In addition, we also predicted 11150 putative genes and 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in maqui sequences. This results, including partial sequences of genes, some miRNAs and SSR markers from high throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) of maqui genomic DNA, constitute the first platform to undertake genetic and molecular studies of this important species. PMID:27459734

  17. Synaptic silencing and plasma membrane dyshomeostasis induced by amyloid-β peptide are prevented by Aristotelia chilensis enriched extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Jorge; Dibarrart, Andrea; Saez-Orellana, Francisco; Fuentes-Fuentes, María Cecilia; Oyanedel, Carlos N; Guzmán, José; Perez, Claudia; Becerra, José; Aguayo, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of different types of extracellular and neurotoxic aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ). Recently, bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources showing neuroprotective properties have become of interest in brain neurodegeneration. We have purified, characterized, and evaluated the protective potential of one extract enriched in polyphenols obtained from Aristotelia chilensis (MQ), a Chilean berry fruit, in neuronal models of AD induced by soluble oligomers of Aβ1-40. For example, using primary hippocampal cultures from rats (E18), we observed neuroprotection when the neurons were co-incubated with Aβ (0.5 μM) plus MQ for 24 h (Aβ = 23 ± 2%; Aβ + MQ = 3 ± 1%; n = 3). In parallel, co-incubation of Aβ with MQ recovered the frequency of Ca2+ transient oscillations when compared to neurons treated with Aβ alone (Aβ = 72 ± 3%; Aβ + MQ = 86 ± 2%; n = 5), correlating with the changes observed in spontaneous synaptic activity. Additionally, MAP-2 immunostaining showed a preservation of the dendritic tree, suggesting that the toxic effect of Aβ is prevented in the presence of MQ. A new complex mechanism is proposed by which MQ induces neuroprotective effects including antioxidant properties, modulation of cell survival pathways, and/or direct interaction with the Aβ aggregates. Our results suggest that MQ induces changes in the aggregation kinetics of Aβ producing variations in the nucleation phase (Aβ: k1 = 2.7 ± 0.4 × 10-3 s-1 MQ: k1 = 8.3 ± 0.6 × 10-3 s-1) and altering Thioflavin T insertion in β-sheets. In conclusion, MQ induces a potent neuroprotection by direct interaction with the Aβ aggregates, generating far less toxic species and in this way protecting the neuronal network. PMID:22728896

  18. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves. PMID:24589503

  19. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome and Evidence for Transcriptional Activity of the First Virus-Like Sequences Identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Villacreses

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1. High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs: ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%–73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV, Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP; ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs, AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq. Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant.

  20. Deep sequencing reveals the complete genome and evidence for transcriptional activity of the first virus-like sequences identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F; Alzate, Juan F; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%-73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant. PMID:25855242

  1. Influence of oxygenation and quality of sediment on the survival of Scolelepis chilensis (Spionidae: Polychaeta in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

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    Evelyn Machado Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of the polychaete Scolelepis chilensis to variation in oxygenation and sediment to obtain data for environmental impact studies. Individuals were collected at Flamengo Beach, Rio de Janeiro. Favorable combinations of environmental characteristics of Guanabara Bay explain the survival of the organisms, although the introduction of pollutants produces heavily degraded areas. Among the groups of benthic fauna, polychaetes especially play an important role in the functioning and structure of aquatic communities. Scolelepis chilensis is widely distributed due to its morphological characteristics, which allow it to adapt to diverse marine environments. However, this study showed that this polychaete has a high mortality rate under hypoxic conditions, meaning that this species is more sensitive to environments with low oxygen. Furthermore, the mortality rate increases considerably in situations of hypoxia associated with contaminated sediment, indicating that this species is sensitive to environments with contaminated sediment and low oxygen supply. Thus, the intense and continuous input of pollutants could lead to a future deficit of oxygen and extreme anaerobic conditions, which may cause destruction of various marine ecosystems.

  2. Priming of prosopis cineraria (L. druce and acacia tortilis (forssk seeds with fulvic acid extracted from compost to improve germination and seedling vigor

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    S. Gill

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Composting of waste plant materials and its use in agriculture and landscape sites is an environmental friendly way of reducing waste material and conserving the environment. In this perspectives a survey has been performed at the Dubai based International Center for Biosaline Agriculture to compost the plants based waste material (lawn cuttings-grass to compost. The material was inoculated with a consortium of microbes leading to form stable and mature compost with high organic matter (38%. In order to conduct seed germination tests, Fulvic acid was extracted from the compost. A pot experiment was conducted over a period of 30 days in the green house to study the effect of Fulvic acid on the seed germination, and plant growth of Prosopis cineraria (L. Druce (Ghaff and Acacia tortilis (Forssk. Hayne. Seeds of both trees were treated with Fulvic acid at 0.5% and 1% and water treatment was used as control. Generally seed germination and biomass were increased at both rates of fulvic acid. However, a pronounced increase was found in seed germination when fulvic acid was used at 1.0% (Prosopis cineraria 27%; Acacia tortilis 20% increase over control. Similarly biomass (shoot and root of A. tortilis and P. cineraria was increase 34% and 94% respectively.

  3. Effet de prétraitements des semences sur la germination de Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrot. et Rich. Taub., (Césalpiniacées

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    M'po Ifonti M'po

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Seed Treatments on the Germination of Iron Tree Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrot. et Rich. Taub. The effect of four seed treatments (i soaking in concentrate sulphuric acid for 15 mn, (ii soaking in hot water at 100 oC for 3 mm followed by in immersion into tap water for 24 hours, (iii scarification with razor blade (iv no treatment on the germination of Prosopis africana seeds was evaluated on two types of growing substrate: erosion sand and ferrallitic soil. Non treated seeds gave the highest rates of germination on the two types of growing substrate (100% on erosion sand and 89% on ferrallitic soil and by much longer duration of germination compared to treated seeds (46 days on erosion sand and 42 days on ferrallitic soil. Overall, germination is better (rates and speed on erosion sand. Treatments of the seeds in concentrate sulphuric acid are prejudicial to the survival of the embryo and yield low germination rates (30% on erosion sand and 20% on ferrallitic soil. Scarification by razor blade and soaking in hot water at 100 oC gave the highest germination rate (85%, 18 days after sowing on erosion sand and allowed to accelerate the germination. Because of their simplicity and their low cost, these two seed treatments can be recommended for planters and the use of erosion sand for the sowing.

  4. Modeling the expansion of Prosopis juliflora and determining its optimum utilization rate to control the invasion in Afar Regional State of Ethiopia

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    Surafel Luleseged Tilahun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis juliflora is as an alien invasive tree species which is expanding at an alarming rate in the Horn of Africa region. In this paper a mathematical model is developed to estimate the rate of expansion in the Afar region of Ethiopia based on the coverage obtained with GIS analysis from the year 2000 satellite image for the region. The exponential model estimates that the tree species has been expanding at a rate of 50,000 hectares per year in the last ten years in the Afar region. The model further projects, if the tree species is used for productive uses such as energy and consumed at a rate of 90,000 hectares per year, the invaded land can be restored effectively in 15 years time. Furthermore, the model proposes that after the end of the 15 year, Prosopis can be contained within 200,000 hectares and provide 26,000 hectares of wood per annum sustainably for productive uses.

  5. Examining the Spectral Separability of Prosopis glandulosa from Co-Existent Species Using Field Spectral Measurement and Guided Regularized Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyasha Mureriwa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The invasive taxa of Prosopis is rated the world’s top 100 unwanted species, and a lack of spatial data about the invasion dynamics has made the current control and monitoring methods unsuccessful. This study thus tests the use of in situ spectroscopy data with a newly-developed algorithm, guided regularized random forest (GRRF, to spectrally discriminate Prosopis from coexistent acacia species (Acacia karroo, Acacia mellifera and Ziziphus mucronata in the arid environment of South Africa. Results show that GRRF was able to reduce the high dimensionality of the spectroscopy data and select key wavelengths (n = 11 for discriminating amongst the species. These wavelengths are located at 356.3 nm, 468.5 nm, 531.1 nm, 665.2 nm, 1262.3 nm, 1354.1 nm, 1361.7 nm, 1376.9 nm, 1407.1 nm, 1410.9 nm and 1414.6 nm. The use of these selected wavelengths increases the overall classification accuracy from 79.19% and a Kappa value of 0.7201 when using all wavelengths to 88.59% and a Kappa of 0.8524 when the selected wavelengths were used. Based on our relatively high accuracies and ease of use, it is worth considering the GRRF method for reducing the high dimensionality of spectroscopy data. However, this assertion should receive considerable additional testing and comparison before it is accepted as a substitute for reliable high dimensionality reduction.

  6. Caracterização físico-química e microbiológica da farinha de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of mesquite flour (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC

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    Celiane Gomes Maia da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. D.C. é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical comum no semi-árido brasileiro e desenvolve-se em lugares secos, onde dificilmente outras plantas poderiam sobreviver. Suas vagens produzem uma farinha que pode ser usada na alimentação humana, além de vários outros produtos como o mel, licor e um produto similar ao café. Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar quanto à composição físico-química e microbiológica a farinha de algaroba potencialmente passível de introdução como matéria-prima de interesse comercial. A farinha de algaroba foi analisada quanto ao teor de umidade, cinzas, proteína, lipídios, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, fibra alimentar total e tanino. Os minerais analisados foram cálcio, fósforo, magnésio, ferro, zinco, sódio, potássio, manganês, silício, alumínio e cobre. As análises microbiológicas foram: coliformes a 45 °C.g -1, Bacillus cereus.g -1, Salmonella sp..25 g -1, e bolores e leveduras.g -1. Verificou-se que a farinha de algaroba apresenta elevados níveis de açúcares (56,5 g.100 g -1, razoável teor de proteínas (9,0 g.100 g -1 e baixo teor em lipídios (2,1 g.100 g -1. Quanto aos minerais observou-se a predominância do fósforo (749 mg.100 g -1 e do cálcio (390 mg.100 g -1. As análises microbiológicas apresentaram resultados inferiores ao limite estabelecido pela legislação, sendo considerada apropriada quanto à qualidade higiênico-sanitária. Portanto, conclui-se que esta possui uma elevada concentração de açúcares além de outros nutrientes, como minerais, importantes para o desenvolvimento humano e animal.Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. D.C. is a tropical tree legume fairly common in the semi-arid region of Brazil, which thrives in dry environments where other plants would hardly survive. Its seedpods can be made into flour, which is used in human food and other products such as honey, liqueur and a product similar to coffee. The

  7. Amino acid profile of raw and locally processed seeds of Prosopis africana and Ricinus communis: potential antidotes to protein malnutrition

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    Chidi U. Igwe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing incidence of malnutrition occasioned by high incidence of hunger,worsening food situation in the world, insufficient availability and high cost of animal protein sources, has necessitated extensive research into and use of alternative plant protein sources especially underexploited leguminous seeds.Methods: Flours from raw, boiled and fermented seeds of Prosopis africana and Ricinus communis were evaluated for crude protein and amino acid (AA profiles, and their protein qualities determined. Results: Fermentation improved the protein contents of raw seeds of P. africana and R. communis by 18.70% and 3.95% respectively. In the raw and fermented P. africana seeds, glutamate at 132.60 ± 1.30 and 182.70 ± 3.02 mg/g crude protein (mg/gcp was the most abundant amino acid (AA, while leucine (62.80 ± 0.60 and 79.50 ± 2.01 mg/gcp was the most concentrated essential amino acid (EAA. Aspartate (151.90 ± 2.01 and 170.10 ± 2.00 mg/gcp and arginine (72.80 ± 2.01 and 78.60 ± 2.00 mg/gcp were the most concentrated and abundant non-essential amino acid (NEAA and EAA in the raw and fermented samples of R. communisrespectively. The total AA concentrations (mg/gcp of raw and fermented P. africana were 733.00 and 962.60 respectively, while those of R. communis were 823.50 and 894.10 respectively. The total EAA contents (mg/gcp for P. africana were 311.00 (raw and 404.50 (fermented, and for R. communis; 401.10 (raw and 430.30 (fermented. Threonine was the limiting EAA in raw and fermented P. africana, whereas lysine was the limiting EAA in R. communis raw sample. Fermentation significantly (p<0.05 increased the individual AA compositions of P. africana and R. communis by 94% and 53% respectively, while boiling reduced these parameters significantly (p<0.05 by 47% and 82% respectively. Conclusion: P. africana and R. communis seeds are potentially important plant sources of protein and essential amino acids, and so could be of great

  8. Comparative productivity of Prosopis cineraria and Tecomella undulata based agroforestry systems in degraded lands of Indian Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Singh

    2009-01-01

    Tree-crop interactions were monitored by measuring tree growth characters of Prosopis cineraria L. And Tecomella undulata L. And yields of Vigna radiata (L) in agroforestry systems in degraded lands of Indian Desert. Potential competition for resource between the trees and associated crop was analyzed by measuring soil water contents, soil organic matters and NH4-N at different depths of soil layers i.e., 0–25 cm, 25–50 cm and 50–75 cm in the experimental plots. The plots size were 16 m - 18 m (D1), 20 m - 18 m (D2) and 32 m - 18 m (D3) with tree densities of 208, 138 and 104 trees·ha-1 after June 2002, respectively. Results showed that tree height increased by 3% to 7% during June 2002 to June 2004. Collar diameter increased by 30% and 11% in D1, 23% and 19% in D2 and 18% and 36% in D3 plots, respectively, in P. Cineraria and T. Undulata in two years period. The increase in crown diameter was 9% to 18% in P. Cineraria and 11% to 16% in T. Undulata. Tree growth was relatively greater in 2002 than in 2003. Yield of V. Radiata increased linearly from D1 to D3 plots. Lowest soil water content at 1 m distance from tree base indicated greater utilization of soil water within the tree rooting zone. Concentrations of soil organic matters and NH4-N were the highest (p<0.05) in 0–25 cm soil layer. P. Cineraria was more beneficial than T. Undulata in improving soil conditions and increasing crop yield by 11.1% and thus more suitable for its integration in agricultural land. The yield of agricultural crop increased when density of tree species was appropriate (i.e., optimum tree density), though it varied with tree size and depended upon resource availability. The result indicated bio-economic benefits of optimum density of P. Cineraria and T. Undulata over traditional practices of maintaining random trees in farming system in arid zones.

  9. Biología reproductiva de Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae en una población de Aucó (centro-norte de Chile Reproductive biology of Convolvulus chilensis (Convolvulaceae in a population of Aucó (north-central Chile

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    Lorena H. Suárez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Convolvulus chilensis es una hierba perenne, única representante endémica de la familia Convolvulaceae en Chile. Se estudió el sistema de reproducción, fenología, morfología y longevidad floral de C. chilensis en una población natural ubicada en la localidad de Aucó, dentro de la Reserva Nacional Las Chinchillas, IV Región, Chile. Se montó un experimento de polinización controlada considerando los tratamientos de polinización natural, polinización cruzada, autopolinización manual, autopolinización automática y apomixis, evaluándose su efecto sobre la formación de frutos y el número de semillas producidas por fruto. Adicionalmente, se compararon los siguientes atributos de la progenie según tipo de polinización (autopolinización o polinización cruzada: peso de semilla, germinación, altura y número de hojas de plántulas de ocho semanas en condiciones de invernadero. Se encontró que C. chilensis es una especie autocompatible, parcialmente autógama (capaz de autopolinizarse sin mediador y parcialmente apomíctica (capaz de producir semillas sin participación de gameto masculino. La longevidad floral fue estimada en 5,25 h. Durante este período, aproximadamente en 1,5 h hay disponibilidad de polen en los estambres. El período de floración se extiende por 22 semanas (agosto a enero. El tratamiento de apomixis presentó el menor porcentaje de formación de frutos y la menor cantidad de semillas por flor en comparación a los tratamientos de polinización natural, cruzada manual, autopolinización automática y autopolinización manual, los cuales no mostraron diferencias entre sí en ambos atributos. El tipo de polinización (autopolinización o polinización cruzada no afecta el desempeño de la progenie en los atributos de semilla y plántula evaluadosThe perennial herb Convolvulus chilensis is the only endemic species of the Convolvulaceae in Chile. The breeding system, phenology, morphology and floral longevity of C

  10. Evaluación y comparación de la eficiencia de dos sistemas de incubación de huevos de Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848 Evaluation and comparison of the efficiency of two incubation systems for Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot, 1848 eggs

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    Rolando Vega

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente la tendencia de la acuicultura mundial está orientada hacia la diversificación de los cultivos, principalmente de especies nativas. El congrio colorado Genypterus chilensis es un pez nativo de alta demanda gastronómica y explotación estacional que lo proyecta como candidato para el desarrollo de su tecnología de cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficiencia de dos sistemas de incubación de masas de huevos de G. chilensis, uno con circuito cerrado de agua (SICC y el otro con circuito abierto (SICA; su eficiencia fue medida por el porcentaje de eclosión de huevos. Dos ensayos fueron realizados midiendo y comparando los porcentajes de fecundación y eclosión de huevos en cuatro réplicas entre los dos sistemas, encontrándose solo diferencias significativas entre los porcentajes de fecundación del bioensayo 2. El bioensayo 1 tuvo un 81% promedio de fecundación de los huevos y el porcentaje promedio de eclosión para el SICC fue 42,9 ± 34,5% y para el SICA fue 0,0 ± 0,0%. El bioensayo 2 tuvo un porcentaje promedio de fecundación de los huevos de 87,3 ± 2,6% para el SICC y 79,8 ± 3,2% para el SICA y el porcentaje promedio de eclosión para el SICC fue 27,9 ± 33,7% y para el SICA fue 4,8 ± 5,6%. Se discuten los parámetros de incubación para obtener una máxima eclosión y se entrega una proposición para mejorar el sistema SICC. El sistema de incubación con circuito cerrado de agua generó mayores sobrevivencias en los huevos de G. chilensis.The current trend in world aquaculture is towards the diversification of cultures, mainly native species. The red cusk eel Genypterus chilensis is a native Chilean species of high gastronomic demand and seasonal exploitation that is projected as a candidate for the development of farming technology. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency of two incubation systems for G. chilensis egg masses, one with a closed water circuit (SICC and the other with an

  11. Pod mesocarp flour of North and South American species of Leguminous tree (mesquite): Composition and food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flour from the mesocarp of pods of the tree legume known as mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in North America or algarrobo in South America was one of the most important food staples for desert people. Contemporary milling techniques produces a similar flour that is about 40% sucrose, 25% dietary fiber, and...

  12. Composición, riqueza de especies y abundancia de insectos defoliadores de actividad nocturna asociados a Aristotelia chilensis (maqui) en el bosque maulino fragmentado Composition, species richness and abundance of nocturnal folivorous insects associated with Aristotelia chilensis (maqui) in the fragmented Maulino forest

    OpenAIRE

    XAVIERA DE LA VEGA; AUDREY A GREZ

    2008-01-01

    En el bosque maulino, la herbivoría sobre Aristotelia chilensis (maqui) es negativamente afectada por la fragmentación del bosque, siendo mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, particularmente a inicios de la temporada de crecimiento. Este fenómeno puede deberse a cambios en la dinámica de las poblaciones de defoliadores, esencialmente insectos. En este trabajo se evaluó la abundancia, riqueza de especies y composición de insectos defoliadores de actividad nocturna presentes en A....

  13. Cruzamientos interpoblacionales en Mytilus chilensis, un bivalvo de importancia comercial y sus efectos sobre el crecimiento en longitud de la valva durante la etapa larval Inter-population breeding in Mytilus chilensis, an economically important bivalve, and its effects on the shell length during the larval stage

    OpenAIRE

    JE Toro; AC Alcapán; RA Stead

    2008-01-01

    Dos poblaciones naturales de Mytilus chilensis aisladas geográficamente fueron utilizadas para realizar los cruzamientos experimentales en el presente trabajo. En todos los cruzamientos, utilizando un diseño factorial con réplicas, ocurrió fertilización de las ovas, no detectándose diferencias significativas entre los cruzamientos intra e interpoblacionales en cuanto al porcentaje de ovas que desarrollaron larvas al día 4 (P > 0,05). Sin embargo, el porcentaje de larvas anormales al día 4 fue...

  14. Juice and phenolic fractions of the berry Aristotelia chilensis inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and protect human endothelial cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Rottmann, Soledad; Aspillaga, Augusto A; Pérez, Druso D; Vasquez, Luis; Martinez, Alvaro L F; Leighton, Federico

    2002-12-18

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles is a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL induces oxidative stress and modifies gene expression in endothelial cells. Berries constitute a rich dietary source of phenolic antioxidants. We found that the endemic Chilean berry Aristotelia chilensis (ach) has higher phenol content and scores better for total radical-trapping potential and total antioxidant reactivity in in vitro antioxidant capacity tests, when compared to different commercial berries. The juice of ach is also effective in inhibiting copper-induced LDL oxidation. In human endothelial cell cultures, the addition of ach juice significantly protects from hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular oxidative stress and is dose-dependent. The aqueous, anthocyanin-rich fraction of ach juice accounts for most of ach's antioxidant properties. These results show that ach is a rich source of phenolics with high antioxidant capacity and suggest that it may have antiatherogenic properties. PMID:12475268

  15. Heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in native mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) from Beagle Channel coast (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Claudia A; Giarratano, Erica; Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers of pollution in native mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis from the Beagle Channel. Spatial and seasonal variations of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation in gills and digestive gland were analyzed in relation to environmental parameters, heavy metals in sediment and in tissue. Four sites with anthropogenic impact and a control site were selected and monitored during the four seasons of 2007. We found significant differences among sites in concentrations of dissolved nutrients and heavy metals in sediments, with the highest values recorded at sites with anthropogenic pressure. Different patterns were observed between concentrations of metals in tissues and in sediments suggesting differences in bioavailability. There were also significant differences in biomarker responses among sites, despite the strong seasonal variability. Our results showed relatively moderate levels of pollution in the study area as a result of urban influences. PMID:21704346

  16. The occurrence of domoic acid linked to a toxic diatom bloom in a new potential vector: the tunicate Pyura chilensis (piure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rivera, Américo; Pinto, Maricela; Insinilla, Andrea; Suárez Isla, Benjamín; Uribe, Eduardo; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose; James, Kevin J

    2009-11-01

    The tunicate Pyura chilensis (Molina, 1782); Phylum Chordata; Subphylum Urochordata; Class Ascidiacea, common local name "piure" or sea squirt; a filter-feeder (plankton and suspended particles) sessile species; may play an important role in monitoring domoic acid (DA) the principal toxic component of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). Significant DA concentrations have been determined in tunicate samples, collected during a recent ASP outbreak in Bahía Inglesa, an important scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) farming area. Several infaunal species were tested for the presence of DA, in addition to the usual scallop monitoring programme. DA was found at sub-toxic levels in filtering bivalves such as mussels (Mytilus chilensis), large mussels (Aulacomya ater) and clams (Protothaca thaca) (6.4, 5.4 and 4.7 microg DA/g tissue respectively). Of particular interest was the observation of significant accumulations of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia sp. diatoms in the internal siphon and atrium spaces of the tunicate. Toxin distribution within major tunicate organs was heterogeneous with 8.7-15.5 microg DA/g in edible tissues, 14.9-17.9 microg DA/g in the fecal material and 13.6-32.7 microg DA/g in the gut content. DA was determined by HPLC-UV and confirmed by diode-array detection and LC-MS/MS analysis. This is the first report of the presence of DA in a tunicate that is regularly consumed by coastal populations. These results confirm the need to include these organisms in sanitation programs for marine toxins. PMID:19505493

  17. Use of non-timber forest products from invasive alien Prosopis species(mesquite) and native trees in South Africa: implications for management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ross; T; Shackleton; David; C; Le; Maitre; Brian; W; van; Wilgen; David; M; Richardson

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prosopis species have been introduced to many areas outside their native range to provide benefits to local communities. Several Prosopis species and their hybrids(hereafter "mesquite") have, however, become naturalised and invasive and now generate substantial costs. Management options are limited because of the complex conflicts of interest regarding benefits and costs. Management policies and strategies must take account of such conflicts, but further insights are needed on the dimensions of uses and impacts before such information can be usefully applied. Current policy in South Africa allows for the growth and use of mesquite in one province,but not in others where its control is mandatory. We report on a study to quantify the direct use and perceptions of non-timber forest products(NTFPs) from mesquite and native trees in South Africa.Methods: Semi-structures household interviews were conducted with various stakeholder groups to identify what tree products are used, to ascertain amounts used as well as to gauge perceptions of natural resource use between different tree species and use over time.Results: The direct household use value of native trees was higher than that of mesquite, and local stakeholders attached greater value to products from native trees than from mesquite. Therefore, native trees are and will still be preferentially harvested, and mesquite is unlikely to offer protection to native species by providing an alternative source of products. Mesquite pods do, however, provide valuable additional resources(fodder and medicinal products). The use of both native trees and mesquite is decreasing as the incomes of poorer households rise and as alternative energy sources become available. The benefits and reliance on mesquite are not as high as previously assumed and the impacts from mesquite invasions create large problems for local communities.Conclusion: This study provides further evidence that the impacts of mesquite exceed the

  18. Ophiuroidea das regiões antartica e subantartica: 2. variação em Gorgonocephalus chílensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae Ophiuroidea from antarctic and subantarctic regions: 2. variation on Gorgonocephalus chilensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae

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    Ana Maria Gouveia Monteiro

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 198 exemplares de Gorgonocephalus chilensis das regiões antártica e subantartica, tendo-se em vista a variação de caracteres morfológicos externos. Foi constatada uma grande variação nas características morfológicas externas, que parece independer de localização geográfica.A revision is presented on the variability of the ornamentation and other extermal morphological aspects of Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The samples were obtained along the period of 1962 to 1972 by the R/V "Hero" and "Eltanin" (USARP and by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" from the Brazilian Navy.

  19. Relationships between Prosopis flexuosa (Fabaceae and cattle in the Monte desert: Seeds, seedlings and saplings on cattle-use site classes Interacciones entre Prosopis flexuosa (Fabaceae y el ganado en el desierto de Monte: Semillas, plántulas y renovales en los sitios de uso del ganado

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    CLAUDIA M CAMPOS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The fate of Prosopis flexuosa seeds dispersed by cattle is dependant on the spatial pattern of dung deposition and foraging movements. We hypothesised that cattle-use site classes explain the response variables related to seed input and fate of seeds, seedlings and saplings (small plants more than one year old. We defined sites with heavy cattle traffic ("trails" and "periphery of trails", sites used for resting and foraging ("under Prosopis", and sites where isolated individuals only walk ("under shrubs" and "bare soil". Considering the established cattle-use site classes, our specific goals were to quantify and compare: (1 seeds transported in cattle dung; (2 seedlings 10 months after dung deposition; (3 established saplings; and (4 germinated and remaining seeds, and seedling survival in dung immediately after dung deposition. In a grazed field at Ñacuñán (Mendoza, Argentina we worked in four similar areas, each consisting of 25-ha plots 2 km apart. Space use by cattle caused differential seed input: "under Prosopis" and in the "periphery of trails" animals deposited the largest amounts of dung and seeds. Ten months after dung deposition, the highest number of seedlings occurred on "trails", "under Prosopis" and in the "periphery of trails". In the long term, the highest number of established saplings occurred only in the "periphery of trails". The number of seeds germinated immediately after fruit production and dung deposition was very low. Survival of seedlings sprouting from dung-germinated seeds did not exceed one week. On "trails" and in the "periphery of trails" the persistence of seeds in dung was low because of dung disintegration by the action of cattle trampling. The seeds that did not remain in dung were probably the source of seeds that will germinate in the next wet season (i.e. 10 months after dung deposition. With different effects depending on cattle site activity and on the stage of the P. flexuosa plant (seed, seedling

  20. Gas exchange and leaf specific mass of different foliar cohorts of the wintergreen shrub Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) stuntz (Eleocarpaceae) fifteen days before the flowering and the fall of the old cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique B. de A. Prado; Damascos, María A.

    2001-01-01

    In the beginning of the spring Aristotelia chilensis sheds the old cohort, forms a new one and flowers. Fifteen days before the flowering and the fall we measured net photosynthesis (A), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), specific leaf mass (SLM) and area and mass of leaves per branch in old and new cohorts. Under low irradiance the old cohort exhibited higher mean values of A and WUE on area bases (P

  1. Caracterização físico-química e bioativa do Figo-da-Índia (Opuntia ficus-indica e farinha de Algaroba (Prosopis juliflora e avaliação sensorial de produtos derivados

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    Rosane Liége Alves de SOUZA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the physicochemical properties of and investigate the bioactive substances, such as phenolic compounds and betalains, and antioxidant activity in Opuntia fruit (Indian fig and Prosopis juliflora (mesquite bean-pod flour, in order to assess their potential as functional food ingredients, Material and Methods: The total phenolic content was determined by the FolinCiocalteu method, betalain pigments were measured by spectrophotometry and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH radical-scavenging method, Juice blends, made by mixing the local cajá (Spondias mombin or 'hog plum' fruit and Indian fig pulp, were subjected to sensory evaluation by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, Cereal bars prepared with and without mesquite flour were compared by a sensory discrimination method, Results: Low acidity, high sugar and considerable phenolic and betalain contents and antioxidant activity were found in the Opuntia fruits. Prosopis flour had high levels of protein, sugar and fiber. The sensory attributes that best described Opuntia-cajá blends were sweetness, acidity, yellow-orange color, body, turbidity and distinctive cajá flavor, Regarding cereal bars made with and without Prosopis flour, texture was the only sensory attribute perceived as different (p<0.05 during the sensory discrimination analysis, Conclusion: This study shows that the mixed fruit pulp and mesquite flour are satisfactory as ingredients in food formulations, The bioactive and technological potential of these semiarid underexploited species of fruit and legume flour was also demonstrated.

  2. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D. chilensis

  3. El uso de moluscos de agua dulce (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus en el sitio Angostura 1 (Departamento de General Conesa, Río Negro The use of freshwater mollusks (Diplodon Chilensis patagonicus at Angostura 1 site (General Conesa District, Río Negro province, Argentina

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    Luciano Prates

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta nota se presentan los resultados del estudio de las valvas de moluscos de agua dulce (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus recuperadas en el componente inferior del sitio arqueológico Angostura 1 (Departamento de General Conesa, provincia de Río Negro. Los atributos tenidos en cuenta para el análisis de los especímenes fueron: lateralidad de las valvas, tamaño, estado de fragmentación y presencia de periostraco; en forma secundaria se consideraron otras variables tales como evidencias de combustión y relación espacial con el resto de los materiales. A partir de estos datos y de la información contextual se propone la asociación de las valvas con el registro arqueológico del sitio (materiales líticos, cerámicos, óseos y vegetales y se discuten algunos procesos de formación vinculados con la actividad humana.This note presents the results of an analysis of freshwater mollusk shells (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus recovered from the lower cultural component of the Angostura 1 archaeological site (General Conesa District, Rio Negro Province, Argentina. Primarily, morphological features of this assemblage were analyzed, including: laterality, size, state of fracture, and the presence of periostracum. Secondarily, burning evidence and spatial relationships were considered. Site formation processes linked to human activity are discussed in light of these results and the contextual information from the site, i.e., mollusk shells associated with other archaeological remains (lithics, pottery, bones, and organic remains. It is proposed that the presence of freshwater mollusk shells in Angostura 1 site is linked to human activity.

  4. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Neil A; Pearsall, Deborah M; Benfer, Robert A

    2009-08-11

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to approximately 2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  5. Extracts of Maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and Murta ( Ugni molinae Turcz.): sources of antioxidant compounds and α-Glucosidase/α-Amylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar, Mónica; Jara, Claudio; Poo, Yohany; Acevedo, Francisca; Gutierrez, Cristian; Sineiro, Jorge; Shene, Carolina

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of crude, aqueous, and organic-aqueous extracts of maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murta ( Ugni molinae Turcz.), together with their inhibiting effect on enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Radical scavenging activity, inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in a micellar system, antihemolytic activity, and inhibition of α-amylases and α-glucosidases were analyzed. Crude extracts of maqui leaves and fruits were found to be important sources of polyphenolic compounds, showing 69.0 ± 0.9 and 45.7 ± 1.1 mg GAE/g dm, respectively. Polyphenols from maqui leaves were active as antioxidants and antihemolytic compounds (p < 0.05), showing a noncompetitive inhibiting effect on α-glucosidase. Flavan-3-ol polymers and glycosylated flavonols, such as quercetin glucoside and kaempferol glucoside, were tentatively identified in extracts. This preliminary observation provides the basis for further examination of the suitability of polyphenol-enriched extracts from maqui and murta as nutritional or medicinal supplements with potential human health benefits. PMID:21294510

  6. How do cold-sensitive species endure ice ages? Phylogeographic and paleodistribution models of postglacial range expansion of the mesothermic drought-tolerant conifer Austrocedrus chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Cintia P; Kitzberger, Thomas; Arbetman, Marina P; Premoli, Andrea C

    2015-11-01

    In view of global climate change, it is important to understand the responses of tree species to climate changes in the past. Combinations of phylogeographic analysis of genetic evidence, coupled with species distribution models (SDMs), are improving our understanding on this subject. We combined SDMs and microsatellite data from populations of the entire range of Austrocedrus chilensis, a dominant mesotherm (cold-sensitive) conifer of dryland forests of the southern Andes, to test the hypothesis of long-distance postglacial migration from northern and warmer refugia at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The SDM indicated suitable conditions for Austrocedrus in northern Chile (western) at the LGM and largely unsuitable conditions in Argentina (eastern). Population genetic diversity and effective population sizes within populations decreased southward along the Andes, consistent with the hypothesis of long-distance dispersal from a northern refugium. Results support the hypothesis of one (or a few) warmer (low latitude) refugia in Chile for Austrocedrus. On balance, the evidence suggests that in contrast to cold-tolerant tree taxa with the capacity to fast-track postglacial warming thanks to local refugia, cold-sensitive species might have undergone long-distance range expansion, lagging behind progressive climate change throughout the Holocene. PMID:26079667

  7. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness. PMID:26797948

  8. Cr-resistant rhizo- and endophytic bacteria associated with Prosopis juliflora and their potential as phytoremediation enhancing agents in metal-degraded soils

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    Muhammad Umar Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis juliflora is characterized by distinct and profuse growth even in nutritionally poor soil and environmentally stressed conditions and is believed to harbor some novel heavy metal-resistant bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere. This study was performed to isolate and characterize Cr-resistant bacteria from the rhizosphere and endosphere of P. juliflora growing on the tannery effluent contaminated soil. A total of 5 and 21 bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere and endosphere, respectively, could tolerate Cr up to 3000 mg l-1. These isolates also exhibited tolerance to other toxic heavy metals such as, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, and high concentration (174 g l-1 of NaCl. Moreover, most of the isolated bacterial strains showed one or more plant growth-promoting activities. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated a higher and wider range of population of Cr-resistant bacteria in the endosphere than rhizosphere and the predominant species included Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Aerococcus. As far as we know, this is the first report detecting rhizo- and endophytic bacterial population associated with P. juliflora growing on the tannery effluent contaminated soil. The inoculation of three isolates to ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. improved plant growth and heavy metal removal from the tannery effluent contaminated soil suggesting that these bacteria could enhance the establishment of the plant in contaminated soil and also improve the efficiency of phytoremediation of heavy metal-degraded soils.

  9. Recruitment Dynamics of the Relict Palm, Jubaea chilensis: Intricate and Pervasive Effects of Invasive Herbivores and Nurse Shrubs in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marina; Marcelo, Wara; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; González, Luis Alberto; Bustamante, Ramiro O

    2015-01-01

    Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period, a total of more than 300 seedlings were exposed to of four possible scenarios produced by independently weakening the effects of nurse shrubs and browsers. The experiment followed a two-way fully factorial design. We found consistent differences in survival between protected and unprotected seedlings (27.5% and 0.7%, respectively), and herbivory had a dramatic and overwhelmingly negative effect on seedling survival. The invasive rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is clearly creating a critical bottleneck in the regeneration process and might, therefore, partially explain the general lack of natural regeneration of wine palms under natural conditions. Apparently biotic filters mediated by ecological interactions are more relevant in the early stages of recruitment than abiotic, at least in invaded sites of central Chile. Our data reveal that plant-plant facilitation relationship may be modulated by plant-animal interactions, specifically by herbivory, a common and widespread ecological interaction in arid and semi-arid environments whose role has been frequently neglected. Treatments that protect young wine palm seedlings are mandatory to enable the seedlings to attain a height at which shoots are no longer vulnerable to browsing. Such protection is an essential first step toward the conservation and reintroduction of this emblematic and threatened species. PMID:26218100

  10. Allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. on selected native plant species in Middle Awash, Southern Afar Rift of Ethiopia

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    Samuel Getachew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of the invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. was studied on seed germination and seedling growth of Acacia nilotica(L. Willd. ex Del., Acacia tortilis (Forssk. Hayne, Cenchrus ciliaris L. and Enteropogon rupestris (J.A. Schmidt A. Chev. Vegetation sampling in different habitat types in the area was made to identify the target plant species. Comparison of canopy characteristics among P. juliflora, A. nilotica and A. tortilis was also made to observe differences if any in canopy closure. P. juliflora was recorded in all habitat types in highest density and observed affecting the plant diversity there in. Its growth characteristics and dense thicket formation restrict light to the ground flora and hence diminishes plant diversity. Leaf, bark and root aqueous extract of P. juliflora at 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1, 2 and 6% wereprepared and their effect studied on germination percentage and seedling growth of the study plant species. Germination of A. nilotica and A. tortilis was not affected by all aqueous extracts of different organ parts of P. juliflora while leaf and root extracts at higher concentrations inhibited germination of C. ciliaris and E. rupestris. Shoot and root growth of the study species were inhibited by leaf and root at higher concentrations. Seed germination of all species except A. nilotica was inhibited by soil amended with decaying plant parts and under canopy soil. The effect is species specific and annuals (grasses and herbs were affected more than perennials. Leaf seems to contain greater number/amount of inhibitors than does root and bark. Bark seems to contain the least. Heavy accumulation of toxic substances at under canopy soil of P. juliflora may be one of the reasons for its invasiveness and low plant diversity.

  11. Brevibacterium metallicus sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from roots of Prosopis laegivata grown at the edge of a mine tailing in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Ponce, Brenda; Li, Yong Hua; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Feng; Estrada-de Los Santos, Paulina; Wang, En Tao

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile strain, NM2E3(T) was identified as Brevibacterium based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and had the highest similarities to Brevibacterium jeotgali SJ5-8(T) (97.3 %). This novel bacterium was isolated from root tissue of Prosopis laegivata grown at the edge of a mine tailing in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Its cells were non-spore-forming rods, showing catalase and oxidase activities and were able to grow in LB medium added with 40 mM Cu(2+), 72 mM As(5+) and various other toxic elements. Anteiso-C15:0 (41.6 %), anteiso-C17:0 (30 %) and iso-C15:0 (9.5 %) were the major fatty acids. MK-8(H2) (88.4 %) and MK-7(H2) (11.6 %) were the major menaquinones. The DNA G + C content of the strain NM2E3(T) was 70.8 mol % (Tm). DNA-DNA hybridization showed that the strain NM2E3(T) had 39.8, 21.7 and 20.3 % relatedness with B. yomogidense JCM 17779(T), B. jeotgali JCM 18571(T) and B. salitolerans TRM 45(T), respectively. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic analyses, the strain NM2E3(T) (=CCBAU 101093(T) = HAMBI 3627(T) = LMG 8673(T)) is reported as a novel species of the genus Brevibacterium, for which the name Brevibacterium metallicus sp. nov., is proposed. PMID:26429721

  12. Aboveground biomass in Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd. H. B. K. ecosystems using Landsat 7 ETM+ images Biomasa aérea en ecosistemas de Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd. H. B. K. usando imágenes Landsat 7 ETM+

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    EVA PADRÓN

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of field work in remote sensing studies when applied to large areas has often been underestimated. The combination of specific forest inventories for the estimation of aboveground biomass in large dry tropical forest areas with remote sensor data has scarcely been explored to date. In this work, a systematic, stratified forest inventory involving 100 X 100 m square plots in an area of Peruvian Prosopis pallida dry forest, roughly one million hectares in size in the Piura province (Peru has been compiled. The inventory encompassed the principal silvicultural variables defining the ecosystem studied, which were used in allometric equations for the different species, genera and plant associations in the area in order to estimate the amount of aboveground biomass present in each plot. Field data were related to a Landsat 7 ETM+ image by using six different vegetation indices derived from an image mosaic for the area. Two regression equations (relating the amount of aboveground phytomass to the different vegetation indices provided reasonably acceptable phytomass predictions for the type of ecosystem concerned (R² between 0.72 and 0.52La importancia del trabajo de campo en estudios de teledetección radica en la necesidad de proveer una validación a los valores de reflectividad incluidos en los datos de los sensores remotos. La diversidad ecológica del medio forestal y la evaluación de grandes superficies de difícil acceso hacen de la combinación del inventario forestal y de la teledetección una herramienta compleja y útil en el análisis del medio terrestre. El presente trabajo muestra la aplicación de un inventario sistemático estratificado sobre un millón de hectáreas de bosque tropical seco de Prosopis pallida en el Departamento de Piura (Perú en la validación de diferentes tipos de clasificación realizadas sobre dicho ecosistema mediante el uso de imágenes Landsat ETM+. El inventario recoge las principales

  13. Cruzamientos interpoblacionales en Mytilus chilensis, un bivalvo de importancia comercial y sus efectos sobre el crecimiento en longitud de la valva durante la etapa larval Inter-population breeding in Mytilus chilensis, an economically important bivalve, and its effects on the shell length during the larval stage

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    JE Toro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos poblaciones naturales de Mytilus chilensis aisladas geográficamente fueron utilizadas para realizar los cruzamientos experimentales en el presente trabajo. En todos los cruzamientos, utilizando un diseño factorial con réplicas, ocurrió fertilización de las ovas, no detectándose diferencias significativas entre los cruzamientos intra e interpoblacionales en cuanto al porcentaje de ovas que desarrollaron larvas al día 4 (P > 0,05. Sin embargo, el porcentaje de larvas anormales al día 4 fue significativamente mayor en los cruzamientos interpoblacionales (P Two geographically separated natural populations of Mytilus chilensis were utilized to carry out the experimental crosses on the present study. In every crossing, using the factorial design with replication, fertilization of eggs occurred without detection of significant differences among inter and intra-population crosses in relation to percentage of eggs developed into larvae at day 4 (P > 0.05. However, the percentage of abnormal larvae at day 4, was significantly higher among inter-population crosses (P < 0.05. The larvae from each cross were placed into a 200 l fiber-glass tank containing 1 µm filtered and U.V. treated fresh sea water, at a density of 100 larvae per ml. A high cell concentration of the micro algae Isochrysis galbana was used as food. Samples for analyzing larval growth were taken from the larval cultures at 4, 10 and 20 days after fertilization. Larval samples were videotyped from a plankton decantation chamber in an inverted microscope fitted with a Pulnex video camera. Selected images were captured for subsequent processing and measurement of each larva using a Scion Image 3.0b PC Software. Significantly differences (P < 0.05 were found in the size of the larvae among the experimental crosses. The sibs from inter-population crosses showed significantly (P < 0.05 higher sizes than those produced by the intra-population crosses. These higher values in the shell

  14. Water Relations and Foliar Isotopic Composition of Prosopis tamarugo Phil., an Endemic Tree of the Atacama Desert Growing at Three Levels of Water Table Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marco; Silva, Paola; Acevedo, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    Prosopis tamarugo Phil. is a strict phreatophyte tree species endemic to the "Pampa del Tamarugal", Atacama Desert. The extraction of water for various uses has increased the depth of the water table in the Pampa aquifers threatening its conservation. This study aimed to determine the effect of the groundwater table depth on the water relations of P. tamarugo and to present thresholds of groundwater depth (GWD) that can be used in the groundwater management of the P. tamarugo ecosystem. Three levels of GWD, 11.2 ± 0.3 m, 10.3 ± 0.3 m, and 7.1 ± 0.1 m, (the last GWD being our reference) were selected and groups of four individuals per GWD were studied in the months of January and July of the years 2011 through 2014. When the water table depth exceeded 10 m, P. tamarugo had lower pre-dawn and mid-day water potential but no differences were observed in minimum leaf stomatal resistance when compared to the condition of 7.1 m GWD; the leaf tissue increased its δ(13)C and δ(18)O composition. Furthermore, a smaller green canopy fraction of the trees and increased foliage loss in winter with increasing water table depth was observed. The differences observed in the physiological behavior of P. tamarugo trees, attributable to the ground water depth; show that increasing the depth of the water table from 7 to 11 m significantly affects the water status of P. tamarugo. The results indicate that P. tamarugo has an anisohydric stomatal behavior and that given a reduction in water supply it regulates the water demand via foliage loss. The growth and leaf physiological activities are highly sensitive to GWD. The foliage loss appears to prevent the trees from reaching water potentials leading to complete loss of hydraulic functionality by cavitation. The balance achieved between water supply and demand was reflected in the low variation of the water potential and of the variables related to gas exchange over time for a given GWD. This acclimation capacity of P. tamarugo after

  15. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Neil A.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Robert A. Benfer

    2009-01-01

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to ≈2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consu...

  16. Composición y vida útil de carne cocida de cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis proveniente del archipiélago de Juan Fernández, Chile Composition and shelf life of golden crab (Chaceon chilensis cooked meat from Juan Fernandez archipelago, Chile

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    Antonio Cifuentes de la T.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la composición química, rendimiento de carne, las características sensoriales y la perecibilidad del crustáceo no explotado cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis, del archipiélago de Juan Fernández. Se determinó el contenido proteico, lípidos, cenizas, humedad, bases volátiles totales (BVT, amoníaco e indol. Cangrejos dorados se sometieron a cocción en agua potable hirviendo y posteriormente se dividieron en 2 grupos: a carne separada en forma manual y almacenada a temperatura entre 4 a 6ºC, y b cangrejos enteros almacenados a la misma temperatura de 4 a 6ºC. La evaluación sensorial se realizó a través de un grupo de panelistas semi-entrenados los cuales evaluaron las características organolépticas: olor, textura, sabor y color. De acuerdo a los resultados, la especie posee una composición proximal similar a la de jaiba común (Homalaspis plana; su rendimiento en carne total alcanza al 25,1%, correspondiendo a las pinzas, en proporción, el mayor porcentaje. La vida útil de la carne cocida y almacenada a temperatura de refrigeración fue de 3-4 días. La carne extraída desde cangrejos enteros almacenados en las mismas condiciones de temperatura tuvo una duración de 5-6 días. En ambos casos, las BVT fueron el índice químico más representativo de la variación de calidad. En conformidad a la aceptabilidad sensorial, rendimientos y perecibilidad, la especie presenta perspectivas comerciales similares a las de la especie jaiba comúnChemical composition, meat yield, and shelf-life of under utilized crustacean "golden crab" (Chaceon chilensis from Juan Fernandez archipelago were determined. Proteins, lipids, ash, moisture content, total volatile bases (TVBN, ammonia and indol were determined. Golden crab was cooked in boiling water and then divided in two groups: a In sample 1, meat was removed by hand after boiling and then stored at 4-6ºC; b In sample 2 whole cooked crab was stored at the same temperature

  17. Factores que afectan la distribución circular del muérdago sin hojas Tristerix aphyllus (Loranthaceae sobre el cacto Echinopsis chilensis Factors affecting the circular distribution of the leafless mistletoe Tristerix aphyllus (Loranthaceae on the cactus Echinopsis chilensis

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    CAREZZA BOTTO-MAHAN

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Describimos el patrón de emergencia del muérdago holoparásito Tristerix aphyllus desde su cacto hospedador Echinopsis chilensis en un ecosistema semiárido de Chile. La distribución circular de las inflorescencias del parásito difirió significativamente de una distribución uniforme basada en un proceso aleatorio. Cuantificamos la distribución circular de las semillas defecadas sobre la superficie del cacto por el mímido Mimus thenca, el único ave responsable de la dispersión del muérdago. Nuestros datos no sostuvieron la idea de una deposición de semillas direccional por parte del ave. Para someter a prueba la hipótesis que la distribución circular observada es atribuible a una sobrevivencia diferencial de las semillas debido a variación térmica entre micrositios, infectamos cactos con semillas de T. aphyllus cada 30º y evaluamos la temperatura asociada a cada ángulo. Aun cuando las semillas ubicadas en ángulos con mayor exposición solar presentaron la menor formación de disco haustorial, esta variación en mortalidad no fue suficiente para dar cuenta de la polaridad angular observada. No obstante, las inflorescencias de T. aphyllus que emergieron 17 meses después de la infección experimental, revelaron estadígrafos circulares indistinguibles de aquellos observados en la situación natural. La inspección de la estructura anatómica en dos ángulos opuestos de la cactácea reveló diferencias en la constitución de la epidermis, observándose un espesor en promedio cuatro veces mayor en las muestras orientadas hacia el norte que en las orientadas hacia el sur debido a la formación de corteza altamente lignificada. Sugerimos que la formación de corteza es probablemente el factor más importante en determinar la distribución circular sesgada de T. aphyllusWe describe the pattern of emergence of the holoparasitic mistletoe Tristerix aphyllus from its cactus host Echinopsis chilensis in a semiarid Chilean ecosystem. The

  18. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz during fruit development and maturation in Central Chile Contenidos de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante de maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz durante el desarrollo y maduración de frutos en Chile Central

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    Carolina Fredes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae is a Chilean native species which produces small berries that are mainly collected from the wild. The health benefits of maqui fruit are attributed to their high polyphenol content as well as their wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols. One of the main factors that affect the polyphenol content in fruit is the maturity stage at harvest. The objective of this study was to determine total phenol and total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (by ferric reducing ability of plasma FRAP assay of maqui fruits harvested at different fruit maturity stages from two wild populations located in Central Chile. Each maturity stage was determined by days from fruit set, berry size, and soluble solids. Total phenol content declined while total anthocyanin content increased from the green to light red stage. Nevertheless, both total phenol and anthocyanin content increased from the light red to dark purple stage. The highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity was found in the late maturity stage (dark purple. The results show that ripening in maqui fruit can be expected with 1100 growing degree-days (91 d after fruit set in Central Chile. At this moment of harvest, fruits with 18-19 °Brix have the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity (FRAP. This study constitutes the first advances in the understanding of maqui fruit ripening and corresponding antioxidant activity.El maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae es una especie nativa de Chile que produce unas bayas pequeñas que se recolectan principalmente de individuos silvestres. Los beneficios para la salud atribuidos a los frutos de maqui se deben a sus altos contenidos de polifenoles, así como a la gran variedad de antocianos y flavonoles. Uno de los principales factores que afectan el contenido de polifenoles en frutos es el estado de madurez a la cosecha. El objetivo de este estudio fue

  19. Eficiência do CCB na resistência da madeira de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. D.C. em ensaio de apodrecimento acelerado Efficiency of CCB on resistance of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. D.C. wood in accelerated laboratory test decay

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    Ildefonso Egydio Coutinho Ramos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito do preservativo "Osmose CCB" na resistência da madeira de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C. ao fungo Postia placenta, em condições de laboratório. Peças roliças de algaroba foram tratadas pelo método de substituição da seiva por transpiração radial, em soluções de 1, 2 e 3% de ingredientes ativos de CCB, durante 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias. Das peças tratadas foram retirados discos em três posições (50 cm da base, meio do comprimento e topo da peça, em que foram analisadas a penetração e retenção do CCB, bem como a resistência ao fungo Postia placenta. Observou-se melhor penetração e retenção nas peças submetidas a 2% de ingredientes ativos. A penetração e retenção do CCB, assim como a resistência conferida à madeira, de modo geral, decresceram da base para o topo das peças. O tratamento preservativo conferiu às peças de algaroba uma alta resistência ao fungo P. placenta. Isso não ocorreu apenas nas amostras provenientes do topo (submetidas a 1% de CCB e 15 dias de tratamento; 2% e 9 dias; 3% e 3, 12 e 15 dias e meio das peças (3% de CCB e 3 e 12 dias de tratamento, que foram classificadas como resistentes.The objective of research was to analyze the "Osmose CCB" preservative efficiency to improve the wood Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C. resistance to Postia placenta fungus. In order to meet the objectives proposed, round pieces of P. juliflora were treated by sap displaced method in 1; 2 and 3% of active ingredients of CCB solutions, by 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days. Wood disks were obtained at three positions (50 cm from the base, middle and top of the treated pieces. CCB penetration and retention were analyzed at these positions, as well as the resistance to P. placenta fungus (accelerated laboratory test decay It was found better penetration and retention in pieces submitted to 2% of CCB solutions. The CCB penetration and retention, as well as the resistance of treated

  20. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Nieblas, M.; Vlázquez-Moreno, L.; Robles-Burgueño, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite), Cercidium floridium (palo azul), Cercidium praecox (palo de brea), Acacia constricta (vinorama), Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui),

  1. La dieta y la fauna de parásitos metazoos del torito Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae en la costa de Chile centro-sur: variaciones geográficas y ontogenéticas Diet and metazoan parasite fauna of the thornfish Bovichthys chilensis Regan 1914 (Pisces: Bovichthydae on the coast of central-south Chile: geographical and ontogenetic variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA MUÑOZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer qué, cuánto, cuándo y dónde comen y viven los hospedadores permitiría complementar los estudios parasitarios, ya que la transmisión de los endoparásitos está estrechamente ligada a la dieta, y la de los ectoparásitos al uso del hábitat. Por esto, se describen y comparan la composición y características cuantitativas de la dieta y de las infracomunidades de parásitos metazoos del torito Bovichthys chilensis con datos obtenidos de 108 ejemplares juveniles recolectados desde la zona intermareal de cuatro localidades de la costa de Chile (entre 33º y 40º S, y de 14 adultos recolectados desde el submareal somero de una quinta localidad (36º S, y se discute los resultados a la luz de los cambios ontogenéticos en el nicho de este huésped. Cerca del 70 % de los ejemplares tenía contenido alimentario, en el que se distinguieron 25 ítems presa, de los cuales sólo uno era compartido entre juveniles y adultos. La dieta de los toritos juveniles estuvo compuesta principalmente por anfípodos y la de los adultos por crustáceos decápodos. Cerca de un 40 % de los toritos albergaba un total de 624 parásitos en los que se reconocieron 16 taxa, y sólo cuatro eran compartidos entre juveniles y adultos. En los toritos juveniles muestreados en las cuatro localidades había baja y similar intensidad total, riqueza y diversidad parasitarias, y variaciones geográficas significativas en la prevalencia total, composición de la dieta y de las infracomunidades de parásitos. La falta de una relación clara entre la composición de la dieta y del parasitismo en los toritos juveniles puede deberse a que las parasitosis son necesariamente recientes, y a que pueden haber grandes diferencias en el tiempo de residencia de presas y parásitos en el tracto digestivo. En los toritos adultos hubo mayor prevalencia, intensidad y diversidad de parásitos que en los juveniles de una localidad cercana. Se requieren más estudios, en especial en la

  2. Five Year Field Evaluation of Prosopis alba Clones on pH 9–10 Soils in Argentina Selected for Growth in the Greenhouse at Seawater Salinities (45 dS m−1

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    Mauricio Ewens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis alba seedlings, that grew at the 45 dS m−1 salinity level in a previous study of growth and survival of Argentine and Peruvian Prosopis, were propagated by rooting cuttings and established in a seed orchard/long term evaluation trial on soils with low salinity (EC 5.1–7.5 dS m−1 but high pH (8.9 to 10.2. A pH gradient occurred in the field with values ranging from pH 9.4 in block 1 to pH 10.3 in block 5. After five years growth, almost all of the clones had a mean height greater than 4 m and one clone was more than 5 m. Ten of the 21 tested clones had significantly greater biomass growth than the three seed propagated check varieties. The broad-sense (i.e., clone mean heritability was estimated to be 0.45 for biomass, 0.53 for diameter and 0.59 for height indicating that strong genetic gains should be possible by selecting and vegetatively propagating the best genotypes. In the block with the highest pH values, two clones that appear to be P. alba × P. ruscifolia hybrids (i.e., P. vinallilo had the greatest biomass. Correlations between growth during the last two months in the high salinity hydroponic greenhouse selection system and growth in the field were significant (R2 = 0.262 and positive, although the relationship was negative for putative P. vinallilo clones (R2 = 0.938. The several fold increase in biomass of some of the clones over the three check varieties, suggests that the greenhouse screen was successful in identifying superior salt tolerant clones. Apparently whether the greenhouse seedlings had lesser (~1 cm to greater (~3 cm height growth was not as important as just having a healthy live apical meristem. The observed salt tolerance of the putative P. vinalillo clones may prove useful as rootstocks for recently described high pod producing P. alba clones.

  3. Impactos da invasão de Prosopis juliflora (sw. DC. (Fabaceae sobre o estrato arbustivo-arbóreo em áreas de Caatinga no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535 Impact of the invasion of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in areas of Caatinga in the state of Paraiba, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.4535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ricardo Fabricante

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que as áreas invadidas por algaroba – Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae no semi-árido nordestino já ultrapassam um milhão de hectares. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os impactos da invasão de P. juliflora sobre a fitodiversidade e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo, em remanescentes de caatinga no Estado da Paraíba. Usando-se o método de parcelas, foram amostrados quatro ambientes, nos quais os indivíduos de todas as espécies arbustivas e arbóreas foram inventariados e medidos, estimando-se os parâmetros estruturais das comunidades. Também foi calculada a diversidade, pelo índice de Shannon-Wiener (H’ e o índice de impacto ambiental de exóticas (IIAE. No total, foram amostradas 19 famílias, 35 gêneros e 39 espécies. A invasora foi responsável por mais de 70% de toda a estrutura dos ambientes inventariados. A baixa diversidade e o elevado valor de impacto ambiental obtidos para os ambientes invadidos revelaram, conjuntamente com os dados de estrutura das populações, os graves impactos que P. juliflora provoca nas comunidades invadidas. Evidencia-se com isso a formação de sistemas monodominados pela espécie invasora, o que revela a necessidade de controle efetivo de P. juliflora para se proteger o patrimônio genético autóctone.It is estimated that invader populations of algaroba Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. (Fabaceae in the northeastern semi-arid, Brazil, cover more than one million ha. This study aimed to study the impacts of P. juliflora invasion on phytodiversity and on the structure of the shrub-tree component in caatinga fragments in Paraiba state. Four environments were sampled by plots in which all shrub-tree individuals were surveyed and measured, estimating structural parameters of the communities. Diversity was estimated by the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the index of environmental impacts of exotic species (IIAE was also calculated. A total of 19 families, 35 genera and 39

  4. Caracterização de propriedades funcionais do isolado protéico de sementes de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora(SW D.C.. modificado por acetilação Characterization of functional prorperties of acylated mesquite bean (Prosopis juliflora (SW D.C. protein isolate

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    José Barros da SILVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O isolado protéico das sementes de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (SW D.C. foi modificado com anidrido acético nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 30% (V/P, resultando, portanto, nos respectivos graus de modificação: 69,5; 83,2; 89,7 e 91,1% da lisina disponível. Caracterizou-se a funcionalidade do isolado nas formas não modificada e acetilada. O isolado não modificado apresentou alta solubilidade em pH ácido e básico, com exceção da faixa de pH 4 a 6. A acetilação deslocou o ponto isoelétrico das proteínas do pH 5 para o pH 4,5 , diminuiu em pequena extensão a solubilidade abaixo do ponto isoelétrico e aumentou a partir do pH 5, principalmente em pH 7. A capacidade de absorção de água e de óleo do isolado não modificado, que por sua vez se mostrou baixa (1,89 e 1,04g/g proteína, não melhorou satisfatoriamente após a modificação. O efeito de modificação nas propriedades espumantes foi maior com relação ao volume e a expansão da espuma formada do que na sua estabilidade. A capacidade emulsificante do isolado acetilado aumentou em grande extensão, no entanto, a atividade emulsificante e estabilidade de emulsão revelaram pequenos incrementos, em comparação com o isolado não modificado.Protein isolate from seed of mesquite bean (P. juliflora (SW D.C were modified with acetic anhydride at concentrations 5, 10, 20 and 30% (ml per 100 g of protein thus resulting 69.5; 83.2; 89.7 and 91.1% modification of available lysine. Functional characteristic of protein isolate was studied in native and acetilated form. Protein isolate in native form presented high solubility at acidic and basic pH, except in the pH range of 4 to 6. Acetilation shifted the isoelectric point of the proteins pH 5.0 to a pH 4.5; reduced the solubility at pH values below the isoelectric point and increased above pH 5.0, mainly at pH 7.0. The capacity of water and oil absorption of the native protein was small (1.89 and 1.04 g and did not improve

  5. Efecto del Compost de Biosólidos en la producción de plantines de Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera Effect of Biosolids Compost on seedling production of Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera

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    Gustavo Basil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de compost de residuos urbanos como sustrato en contenedores es una alternativa interesante a nivel económico y ambiental, dado que reduciría el uso de turba y «tierra negra» en la producción de plantines, y la disposición de residuos en vertederos. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de 0, 30 y 50% de compost de biosólidos en el crecimiento inicial (primer año de ciprés de la cordillera, y el efecto durante los dos años siguientes de un tratamiento único con 50% de compost en el crecimiento posterior y el estado nutricional de los plantines. Se determinó diámetro y altura a 18, 25 y 37 meses, biomasa aérea y radicular a 25 y 37 meses, y concentración foliar de C, N, P, K, Ca y Mg a 37 meses. A pesar de que los tres tratamientos iniciales fueron homogeneizados al año en un único tratamiento con 50% de compost, se encontraron diferencias significativas de diámetro, altura y biomasa aérea y radicular entre los tratamientos originales en todas las fechas analizadas, correspondiendo los mayores valores a los tratamientos con compost. Al finalizar el ensayo, las concentraciones foliares de nutrientes fueron muy similares en todos los plantines, excepto Mg que fue mayor en el tratamiento original con 50% de compost. Los resultados muestran la importancia de los primeros meses de crecimiento en el desarrollo posterior de los plantines de ciprés y el valor potencial de los compost de biosólidos como sustrato para la producción de esta especie en contenedores.Using composts of urban waste, including biosolids, as substrates for containerized plant production is a sound economic and environmental alternative, since it could reduce the use of peat- and «black earth»-based media, and the disposal of organic wastes in landfills. The objectives of this work were to study the effect of 0, 30 and 50% biosolids compost on the initial growth (first year of cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis D. Don, and the effect

  6. Gas exchange and leaf specific mass of different foliar cohorts of the wintergreen shrub Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. stuntz (Eleocarpaceae fifteen days before the flowering and the fall of the old cohort

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    Prado Carlos Henrique B. A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the spring Aristotelia chilensis sheds the old cohort, forms a new one and flowers. Fifteen days before the flowering and the fall we measured net photosynthesis (A, transpiration (E, water use efficiency (WUE, specific leaf mass (SLM and area and mass of leaves per branch in old and new cohorts. Under low irradiance the old cohort exhibited higher mean values of A and WUE on area bases (P<0.05. Under high irradiance A and WUE on mass bases were higher in new cohort due to its lower SLM (42.10 gm-2 in relation to old cohort (79.53 gm-2. Because old cohort showed 3.7 times more dry mass per branch it was able to counterbalance its lower performance on mass bases. It was concluded that old cohort was an important source of carbon during two powerful sink processes in the beginning of the spring: new leaves cohort construction and flowering.

  7. Community structure of the macroinfauna in the sediments below an intertidal mussel bed (Mytilus chilensis (Hupe of southern Chile Estructura comunitaria de la macroinfauna en los sedimentos bajo un banco intermareal de bivalvos (Mytilus chilensis (Hupe en el sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN DUARTE

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The mytilid mussel Mytilus chilensis (Hupe can form dense beds in sedimentary areas of the inland coast of the Nord-Patagonic archipelagos of the Chilean coast (ca. 40-43° S. During the autumn of 2002, we collected replicated samples at five intertidal stations in Panitao (Golfo de Reloncaví ordered along a transect parallel to the low tide level and extended from the center of the bank (stations one and two with 100 and ca. 25 % of mussel cover, respectively to the bare sediments of the intertidal (stations 3, 4 and 5, without mussels. The macroinfauna was numerically dominated by Polychaeta, Oligochaeta and Crustacea Peracarida. The total number of species collected was 14, being the most abundant the polychaete Perinereis vallata, oligochaetes from the family Tubificidae and the crustacean amphipod Corophium insidiosum. The number of species, Shannon-Wiener diversity and total abundance of the macroinfauna did not differ significantly among stations. However, the percent contribution of polychaetes was significantly higher at the sediments sampled outside the mussel bed (stations three, four and five, while the percentual contribution of oligochaetes was significantly higher at the sediments sampled in the mussel bed (stations one and two. No significant differences were found between the percentual contribution of peracarid crustaceans between stations sampled in the mussel bed versus that sampled on the bare intertidal. The graphic results of NMMDS show that the macroinfaunal assemblage of the stations located inside the mussel bed differed from that of stations located outside the bed. Results of SIMPER and ANOSIM showed that the macroinfaunal composition of stations one and two was significantly dissimilar (61-54 % to that of the stations located outside the mussel bed, which had similar composition. The graphic results of a NMMDS based upon sedimentological characteristics show that most replicates of station one and some of station

  8. A polymorphic form of 4,4-dimethyl-8-methylene-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-2-en-2-yl 3-indolyl ketone, an indole alkaloid extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (maqui).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Cristian; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario; Freire, Eleonora; Baggio, Ricardo

    2013-12-15

    The title compound [systematic name: (4,4-dimethyl-8-methylene-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-2-en-2-yl)(1H-indol-3-yl)methanone], C20H22N2O, (II), was obtained from mother liquors extracted from Aristotelia chilensis (commonly known as maqui), a native Chilean tree. The compound is a polymorphic form of that obtained from the same source and reported by Watson, Nagl, Silva, Cespedes & Jakupovic [Acta Cryst. (1989), C45, 1322-1324], (Ia). The molecule consists of an indolyl ketone fragment and a nested three-ring system, with both groups linked by a C-C bridge. Comparison of both forms shows that they do not differ in their gross features but in the relative orientation of the two ring systems, due to different rotations around the bridge, as measured by the O=C-C=N torsion angle [130.0 (7)° in (Ia) and 161.6 (2)° in (II)]. The resulting slight conformational differences are reflected in a number of intramolecular contacts being observed in (II) but not in (Ia). Regarding intermolecular interactions, both forms share a similar N-H···O synthon but with differing hydrogen-bonding strength, leading in both cases to C(6) catemers with different chain motifs. There are marked differences between the two forms regarding colour and the (de)localization of a double bond, which allows speculation about the possible existence of different variants of this type of molecule. PMID:24311501

  9. Diversidad de avispas parasitoides en un sistema silvopastoril orgánico de producción ganadera de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    López, L.; I. Armbrecht; J. Montoya-Lerma; E. J. Molina

    2013-01-01

    En el sistema silvopastoril de la Reserva Natural El Hatico (Rneh) en El Cerrito, Valle (Colombia), las legumbres del algarrobo (Prosopis juliflora), se utilizan como alimento para bovinos. Sin embargo, desde 2006, la polilla Eccopsis galapagana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), afecta el follaje y la producción de legumbres. Motivados por el brote poblacional de esta polilla, se propuso identificar las especies de parasitoides, su distribución, su densidad y relacionarlas con el hábitat y el daño ...

  10. Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-04-01

    Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies. PMID:19459727

  11. Diversidad de avispas parasitoides en un sistema silvopastoril orgánico de producción ganadera de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sistema silvopastoril de la Reserva Natural El Hatico (Rneh en El Cerrito, Valle (Colombia, las legumbres del algarrobo (Prosopis juliflora, se utilizan como alimento para bovinos. Sin embargo, desde 2006, la polilla Eccopsis galapagana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, afecta el follaje y la producción de legumbres. Motivados por el brote poblacional de esta polilla, se propuso identificar las especies de parasitoides, su distribución, su densidad y relacionarlas con el hábitat y el daño del insecto sobre P. juliflora. Se capturaron himenópteros, utilizando platos amarillos ubicados en 24 árboles de algarrobo escogidos al azar, en cuatro lotes dentro del sistema silvopastoril y al interior del bosque adyacente (control. Se midió el porcentaje de herbivoría, por E. galapagana; la cobertura del dosel de cada árbol muestreado, la temperatura y se determinó la composición vegetal de cada lote. De un total de 1,376 parasitoides -pertenecientes a siete superfamilias, 18 familias y 42 morfoespecies- el 71% se identificó hasta género. La superfamilia más representativa fue Chalcidoidea, y Encyrtidae la familia más abundante. Se encontró una relación positiva entre composición, cobertura vegetal y abundancia de parasitoides; pero esto no se tradujo en una disminución de los porcentajes de herbivoría por la polilla.

  12. Analytical study of tamarygo (Prosopis tamarugo) an autochthonous Chilean feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, N.; Araya, H.; Villalon, R.; Tagle, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    Fallen fruit and dry leaves of P. tamarugo could be used all the year round as the sole feed for cattle or sheep. The chemical composition and energy content of green and dried leaves and fruits were investigated. Cyanogenetic glycosides and alkaloids were not detected in any samples, saponins were found in low concentrations in green fruits and seeds and an antitryptic factor and haemagglutinins were found in seeds.

  13. Ecological impacts of Prosopis invasion in Riverine forests of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Muturi, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Drylands occupy over 41% of the global land surface, with Africa and Asia accounting for 32% of the global total each. Because of poor resource management, resource overexploitation and periodic droughts, drylands have experienced severe land degradation. Land degradation is manifested in vegetation loss or deterioration, soil erosion and salinization of soil and water. In Kenya, drylands occupy over 87% of the land surface, and support about 30% of the national population, over 70% of natio...

  14. The Effects of Salinity and Sodium Adsorption Ratio on the Water Retention and Hydraulic Conductivity Curves of Soils From The Pampa del Tamarugal, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, M. S.; Munoz, J.; Suarez, F. I.; Fierro, V.; Moreno, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Pampa del Tamarugal is located in the Atacama Desert, the most arid desert of the world. It has important reserves of groundwater, which are probably fed by infiltration coming from the Andes Mountain, with groundwater levels fluctuating between 3 and 10-70 m below the land surface. In zones where shallow groundwater exists, the capillary rise allows to have a permanently moist vadose zone, which sustain native vegetation such as the Tamarugos (Prosopis tamarugo Phil.) and Algarrobos (Prosopis alba Griseb.). The native vegetation relies on the soil moisture and on the evaporative fluxes, which are controlled by the hydrodynamic characteristics of the soils. The soils associated to the salt flats of the Pampa del Tamarugal are a mixture of sands and clays, which have high levels of sulfates, chloride, carbonates, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, with high pH and electrical conductivity, and low organic matter and cationic exchange capacity. In this research, we are interested in evaluating the impact of salinity and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the soil, i.e., water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. Soils were collected from the Pampa del Tamarugal and brought to the laboratory for characterization. The evaporation method (HYPROP, UMS) was used to determine the water retention curve and the hydraulic conductivity curve was estimated combining the evaporation method with direct measurements using a variable head permeameter (KSAT, UMS). It was found that higher sodium concentrations increase the water retention capacity and decrease the soiĺs hydraulic conductivity. These changes occur in the moist range of the hydrodynamic characteristics. The soil's hydraulic properties have significant impact on evaporation fluxes, which is the mayor component of the water balance. Thus, it is important to quantify them and incorporate salt precipitation/dissolution effect on the hydrodynamic properties to correctly

  15. TECHNICAL ANÁLISIS OF THE MESQUITE TREE (Prosopis laevigata Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. IN MEXICO

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    Elvia Nereyda Rodríguez Sauceda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesquite is developed in arid and semiarid regions of Mexico, including northern Sinaloa and it is very important because its wood is used for fuel, the construction of fences, fodder and pods as food for man; it produces resin having use in the manufacture of glues and coatings, while the flowers are important in the production of honey. By the above exposed, the aim of this work was to study and systematize the information found in the scientific literature about the mesquite tree, the methodology used was that one used by Musálem and Sánchez (2003. Mesquite is a biotic resource with a wide geographical and ecological distribution in Mexican arid zones and also a wide distribution and importance in Sudan and Australia. In this specie, a very important ecological role stands out because it is an excellent fixative soil and therefore, controlling erosion; it is nitrogen fixer, which improves soil fertility. On the other hand, under certain conditions are a source of forage for domestic livestock and wildlife. This study concluded that mesquite is a valuable species for communities of northern Sinaloa and Mexico.

  16. The human allergens of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora)

    OpenAIRE

    Killian Sue; McMichael John

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background A computerized statistical analysis of allergy skin test results correlating patient reactivities initiated our interest in the cross-reactive allergens of mesquite tree pollen. In-vitro testing with mesquite-sensitized rabbits and a variety of deciduous tree pollens revealed so many cross-reactivities that it became apparent there could be more allergens in mesquite than previously described in the world literature. Our purpose was to examine the allergens of mesquite tre...

  17. Pharmacological potentials of phenolic compounds from Prosopis spp.-a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dhananjaya Seturaman Prabha; Hans-Uwe Dahms; Prabha Malliga

    2014-01-01

    The shrub Prosopsis juliflora (Sw.) DC. revealed several medicinal properties due to its different chemical compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and phenolic compounds distributed in different parts of the plant body, such as woody parts (roots, stem, branches and bark) as well as leaves and pollen have been used for the extraction of medically active substances. Prosopsis juliflora containing a diverse group of secondary metabolites has unique and multifactorial medicinal properties. The utilization of this abundant resource provides a viable option for producing bioactive natural products that may serve as lead substances for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. This review highlights accessible bioactive sources from this plant that are of potential interest for industrial applications.

  18. Cost Optimal Joint Management of Interdependent Resources: Groundwater vs. Kiawe (Prosopis pallida)

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Burnett; James Roumasset; Christopher Wada

    2014-01-01

    Local and global changes continue to influence interactions between groundwater and terrestrial ecosystems. Changes in precipitation, surface water, and land cover can affect the water balance of a given watershed, and thus affect both the quantity and quality of freshwater entering the ground. Groundwater management frameworks often abstract from such interactions. However, in some cases, management instruments can be designed to target simultaneously both groundwater and an interdependent r...

  19. Factors affecting aggression in a captive flock of Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Gaalema, Diann E; Martin, Allison L; Dampier, Stephanie M; Maple, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    The influence of pair bond status, age and sex on aggression rates in a flock of 84 captive Chilean flamingos at Zoo Atlanta was examined. Analysis showed no difference between aggression rates of male and female flamingos, but adult flamingos had higher rates of aggression than juveniles. There were also significant differences in aggression depending on pair bond status (single, same-sex pair, male-female pair or group). Bonded birds were significantly more aggressive than single birds, which is consistent with the concept that unpaired birds are not breeding and do not need to protect pair bonds or eggs. Birds in typical pair bonds (male-female) and atypical pair bonds (same-sex pairs or groups) exhibited similar rates of aggression. These results contribute to the existing body of research on aggression in captive flamingos. PMID:20186725

  20. Caracterización del aceite de coquito de palma chilena (Jubaea chilensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torija, M. Esperanza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the seeds from Chilean palm and the detailed composition of its fat are studied starting from 4 lots of seeds from the two regions being the major producers of Chilean palm seeds. From the proximate composition of the seeds a high content of fats is deduced with a mean value of 67.3%. The contents of proteins, carbohydrates and fibre were in the range of 7-11%. A detailed analysis of the fat indicates a high content of saturated fatty acids being capric, caprilic, lauric and miristic acids the major fatty acids. For this reason the presence of a high percentage of medium-chain triglycerides are detected in the triglyceride analysis. As for tocopherols, the fat contains low amounts of α-, γ- y δ-tocopherol with a total average of 84 mg/kg. Concerning phytosterols, the total content was around 1000 mg/kg being β-sitosterol and Δ7-estigmastenol the two major sterolsSe analizan las características generales del coquito de palma chilena y se estudia con detalle la composición de su aceite. Con este objetivo, se analizan 4 lotes de coquitos procedentes de las dos regiones de Chile donde existe mayor producción. La composición proximal del coquito indica un contenido muy mayoritario de grasa, con un promedio de 67,3% mientras los contenidos de proteínas, hidratos de carbono y fibra se encuentran entre el 7 y el 11%. Un análisis detallado de la grasa muestra un contenido elevado de ácidos grasos saturados (alrededor del 85% siendo los ácidos cáprico, caprílico, láurico y mirístico los que se encuentran en mayor concentración, lo que origina un elevado porcentaje de triglicéridos de cadena media. Respecto a los tocoferoles, el aceite contiene cantidades limitadas de α-, γ- y δ-tocoferol con un valor promedio total de 84 mg/kg, no detectándose la presencia de tocotrienoles. Respecto a los fitoesteroles, el contenido total es del orden de 1000 mg/kg siendo los esteroles mayoritarios el β-sitosterol y el Δ7-estigmastenol.

  1. The glance of travellers and scientists of the 19th century about the moving "gea chilensis"

    OpenAIRE

    M Zenobio Saldivia

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the vision of Chilean nature and the impact of earthquakes on the physical body of Chile and in the national collective imagination, that were forged Chilean and foreign nineteenth-century scientists and travelers with some natural history studies as Mary Graham. And from such perceptions reflect on whether to take in to account this reality in the fields of public policy and education.

  2. Digital Native Chilensis: The Young people, of South of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Felipe Andres Nesbet Montecinos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is undeniable that the Internet has a capital importance in the contemporary society. In the new technological paradigm, known as the Information Age, the relevance of the network is equivalent to that of oil in the Industrial Age. Although we can dissent of the prediction done by Nicholas Negroponte in 1995, in its famous book “Being Digital”, with respect to which the digital divide would be translated in a subject, net, generational, expressed in the dichotomy: young person-rich versus old-poor men. However, this author (1995 guessed right in his theory of the greater facility of the young people towards the new technologies. For that reason, the Internet is dominated by young people. The appearance of Wena Naty, a video uploaded to the network (with the explicit consent of their protagonists in which a 14 year old girl practiced oral sex to a partner in a public square, is the most dramatic demonstration of the use and abuse that young Chileans make new technologies.The present article reviews data collected on the use of technologies in Chile (INJUV 2002, Godoy 2006 y PNUD 2006. As well as it analyzes collected own data from the investigations of Carcamo “Percepción del tiempo y de la motivación ante tareas de búsqueda de información y conferencias de texto (Chat mediadas por computador en estudiantes secundarios de Chile” and Nesbet (2007, “Usos de la mensajería instantánea en estudiantes secundarios de Valdivia.”

  3. ESTUDIOS ETNOGRÁFICOS, PRÁCTICAS AGRÍCOLAS Y DIETA ÓPTIMA EN EL VALLE DE AMBATO, CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA, SIGLOS VI AL XI D. C. (Ethnographic Studies, Agricultural Practices, and Optimal Diet in the Ambato Valley, Catamarca, Argentina, VIth to XIth Centuries AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dantas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se dan a conocer los estudios etnográficos llevados a cabo en el valle de Ambato, Catamarca, Argentina, los cuales estuvieron destinados a explorar diferentes aspectos de la práctica agrícola. Para ello, se indagó sobre el número de individuos involucrados en estas tareas, el rendimiento económico de los recursos vegetales cultivados y los costos y beneficios implicados en las distintas etapas de la cadena operativa. Los datos reunidos fueron sumados luego a los obtenidos a partir de trabajos similares realizados sobre recursos vegetales silvestres. Se pusieron a prueba a través de la utilización del modelo de programación lineal, tratando así de indagar sobre cuál podría haber sido la combinación óptima con la que cada uno de estos recursos habría contribuido a la dieta de los antiguos habitantes del valle. Los resultados alcanzados permitieron plantear que en estos espacios, durante los siglos VI al XI d. C., los productos derivados de la recolección, fundamentalmente el algarrobo (Prosopis sp., habrían constituido la mejor opción posible. Mientras que dentro de los productos derivados de la agricultura, el maíz (Zea mays habría sido la mejor elección. Estos datos coinciden con lo observado en el registro arqueológico del valle y con el caudal informativo que se cuenta para la región. ENGLISH: In this paper the authors report results of the ethnographic studies conducted in the Ambato Valley, Catamarca, Argentina, which were designed to explore different aspects of agricultural practice. To this end, data were collected in three areas: the number of individuals involved in these tasks, the economic performance of cultivated plant resources and the costs and benefits involved in the different stages of the operational chain. The data collected were then added to those obtained from similar works carried out on wild plant resources. They were tested using the linear programming model, thus trying to

  4. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  5. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae) a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae) to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

    OpenAIRE

    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI; CAVIERES, LOHENGRIN A.; SIMONETTI

    2007-01-01

    La fragmentación que ha sufrido el bosque nativo de Chile debido a la fuerte presión antrópica ha causado, además de la grave pérdida de habitat, la modificación del microclima de los parches de bosque remanente que alguna vez constituyeron un bosque continuo de especies nativas. Estos cambios generarían respuestas morfológicas, químicas y fisiológicas en plantas capaces de adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar respuestas a nivel de las hojas ante el...

  6. Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants

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    Meenakshi Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stem barks are the rich sources of tannins and other phenolic compounds. Tannins inhibited the growth of various fungi, yeast, bacteria and virus. Hence, ten stem barks of ethnomedicinally important plants were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogenic strains. Methods: Air-dried and powdered stem bark of each plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol, lyophilized and the dried crude extracts were used for the screening against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed according to microdilution methods by NCCLS. Results: The plants Prosopis chilensis, Pithecellobium dulce, Mangifera indica showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans with MIC of 0.08mg/ml. Pithecellobium dulce bark also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Conclusion: The bark of Pithecellobium dulce has more or less similar activity against the known antibiotic and may be considered as potent antimicrobial agent for various infectious diseases.

  7. RESPUESTA A LA DESECACIÓN Y A LA TEMPERATURA DE ALMACENAMIENTO DEL GERMOPLASMA DE PROSOPIS NIGRA (GRISEBACH HIERON. Y ZIZIPHUS MISTOL GRISEB.

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    GIAMMINOLA EUGENIA MABEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La conservación ex situ y a largo plazo de las semillas se basa en la respuesta a la desecación y a las temperaturas de almacenamiento, lo que constituye el objetivo de este trabajo. El contenido de humedad de las semillas frescas se determinó en estufa a 103°C y pesando las muestras a intervalos regulares hasta peso constante. La tolerancia a la desecación y a las temperaturas de almacenamiento se evaluaron con 5 experimentos de germinación: semillas frescas (10-12%CH; 3-5% CH; y 3-5% CH almacenadas tres meses a 25, 5 y -20ºC, con dos tratamientos: control y escarificación. El CH fue del 11% en ambas especies. En P. nigra, el porcentaje de germinación de las semillas escarificadas fue mayor al 80% en todos los experimentos realizados, mientras que el poder germinativo de las semillas del control disminuyó con la desecación y el almacenamiento. La temperatura de almacenamiento no influyó en la cantidad de semillas germinadas. El porcentaje de germinación de los  endocarpos frescos de Z. mistol fue bajo (<35%, pero aumentó con la reducción del CH. En síntesis, P. nigra y Z. mistol son tolerantes a la desecación y al almacenamiento en las temperaturas probadas, por lo que pueden considerarse como probablemente ortodoxas.

  8. Desarrollo de galletas con sustitución parcial de harina de trigo con harina de algarroba (Prosopis alba y avena para planes sociales

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    Sara Macías

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La diversificación de alimentos es una estrategia para abordar problemas nutricionales. Producir alimentos de consumo masivo incorporando harinas regionales sería una opción para obtener alimentos de valor nutritivo optimizado. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar galletas de calidad nutricional mejorada, para escolares, con mezclas de harinas de trigo, de algarroba y avena. Se determinó la composición proximal y Ca, Fe, Mg, P, K y Zn en harina de algarroba con metodología AOAC y disponibilidad potencial in vitro para Ca, Fe y Zn. Se evaluó la calidad proteica teórica de distintas mezclas por el método del Puntaje Químico, previa corrección por digestibilidad, utilizando como proteína de referencia los requerimientos del patrón FAO. Se diseñaron galletas con 3 mezclas porcentuales: harina de trigo:harina de algarroba 70:30 y 80:20, harina de trigo:harina de algarroba:avena 80:10:10 y un testigo con 100 % harina de trigo. Se determinaron composición proximal, contenido y disponibilidad potencial de Ca, Fe y Zn. Se midieron parámetros tecnológicos en masas y galletas (color y factor de expansión. Las galletas se evaluaron sensorialmente con 35 consumidores, usando escala hedónica de 9 puntos. El Puntaje Químico aumentó ≈ el 25 % en la mezcla 70:30, 19 % en la 80:20 y 28 % para la 80:10:10 respecto del aminoácido lisina en harina de trigo. La corrección por digestibilidad, posicionó con mejor calidad proteica a la mezcla 80:10:10. El diámetro de las galletas aumentó con la disminución del espesor. El balance entre criterios nutricionales y tecnológicos favoreció la elección de las galletas 80:20 y 80:10:10. Son fuente de fibra y minerales. En pruebas sensoriales, las galletas obtuvieron puntaje superior a 6, siendo la más aceptada la 80:10:10. Es tecnológicamente posible sustituir un 20 % de harina de trigo por los ingredientes propuestos obteniéndose galletas nutricionalmente mejoradas y aceptables para los consumidores.

  9. A new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the red cusk-eel Genypterus chilensis (Osteichthyes: Ophidiidae) off Chile

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Chávez, R. A.; Oliva, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2011), s. 227-232. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometra * Genypterus * Chile Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2011

  10. The intake of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry extract normalizes H2O2 and IL-6 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate from healthy smokers - an explorative study

    OpenAIRE

    VERGARA, DANIELA; Ávila, Daniela; Escobar, Elizabeth; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Sánchez, Andrés; Gotteland, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory diseases are associated with pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. Though studies in animal models suggest that dietary polyphenols improve lung injury, no intervention studies were carried out in humans. The aim of this study was to determine whether the intake of an anthocyanin-rich maqui extract improved H2O2 and IL-6 concentrations in exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) from asymptomatic smokers. Findings 15 asymptomatic smokers with mild cigarette sm...

  11. Efecto del Compost de Biosólidos en la producción de plantines de Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera) Effect of Biosolids Compost on seedling production of Austrocedrus Chilensis (ciprés de la cordillera)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Basil; María Julia Mazzarino; Lucía Roselli; Federico Letourneau

    2009-01-01

    La utilización de compost de residuos urbanos como sustrato en contenedores es una alternativa interesante a nivel económico y ambiental, dado que reduciría el uso de turba y «tierra negra» en la producción de plantines, y la disposición de residuos en vertederos. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de 0, 30 y 50% de compost de biosólidos en el crecimiento inicial (primer año) de ciprés de la cordillera, y el efecto durante los dos años siguientes de un tratamiento único con 50% de co...

  12. Studies into the Stability of 3-O-Glycosylated and 3,5-O-Diglycosylated Anthocyanins in Differently Purified Liquid and Dried Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) Preparations during Storage and Thermal Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, Johanna E; Kroner, Mareike; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-10-01

    Anthocyanin stabilities in diluted and differently purified maqui preparations were assessed during storage and thermal treatment at different pH values. By sequentially depleting the matrix, the influence of polar low-molecular-weight matrix constituents and non-anthocyanin phenolics was shown to be negligible. In contrast, pH substantially affected thermal stabilities of differently glycosylated cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives. At pH 3.6, half-lives of 3-O-glycosides were substantially shorter than those of respective 3,5-O-diglycosides. However, at pH 2.2, an inverse stability behavior was observed. Findings were corroborated using isolated pigments. Upon heating, cyanidin derivatives were more stable than their respective delphinidins, but their stability was similar during storage. Anthocyanins in liquid samples were more stable when stored at 4 °C as compared to 20 °C, whereas those in dried powders revealed maximum stability throughout storage. The study contains a detailed discussion and mechanistic hypothesis for the above-mentioned findings, providing insights relevant for food applications of maqui anthocyanins. PMID:26338479

  13. Vegetation maps and classification in seasonal ecosystems: a quantitative analysis of the Piura dry forests

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    María de los Ángeles La Torre Cuadros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied data from 65 0.1-hectare floristic inventories from the seasonal lowland vegetation in coastal Piura by using multivariate methods and analyses of floristic composition. We identified six vegetation groups, five of which greatly coincide with vegetation types already described 100 years ago by August Weberbauer. In contrast, we were not able to accurately identify any of the eight dry forest categories recently defined by the Proyecto Algarrobo for the study area using numerical methods. We conclude that the maps and data generated by Weberbauer are more accurate and better reveal the floristic relationships of the seasonally dry vegetation in Piura. Therefore, we suggest a more widespread use of the descriptions made by Weberbauer in the region, parallel to those of the Proyecto Algarrobo

  14. Selección y evaluación de un estabilizante integrado de gomas sobre las propiedades de calidad y reológicas en mezcla para helado

    OpenAIRE

    Posada David, Liliana Rigey

    2009-01-01

    El mercado actual, demanda helados con excelentes características en cuanto a textura y cuerpo, las cuales en conjunto con el sabor, determinan, en gran medida, la aceptabilidad de éstos. En dicha industria es marcada la tendencia hacia el uso de estabilizantes integrados, que potencializan sinergismos entre componentes, obteniendo productos finales de mejor calidad. El objetivo de la presente tesis fue evaluar el efecto de una mezcla de gomas algarrobo, karaya y guar como agentes espesantes,...

  15. Review of Cyrtomyia Bigot (Diptera, BomByliidae, Ecliminae) with a key to the Neotropical genera of Ecliminae and Cyrtomyia species

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Paula Fernanda Motta Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    The Neotropical genus Cyrtomyia Bigot has a distribution restricted to the Andean region of South America, with records only in Argentina and Chile. The genus is composed by two species, which are reviewed and redescribed herein: C. chilensis Paramonov, 1931 and C. pictipennis (Bigot, 1857). The main characters of the external morphology of adults are photographed. Illustrations of the male and female terminalia of C. chilensis are also included. An identification key to species is presented,...

  16. Revision of the Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera described by J. Macquart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Rafael

    Full Text Available Four Chilean species of Empididae (Diptera are revised: Aplomera pachymera (Macquart, 1838, A. gayi Macquart, 1838, Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 and E. polita Macquart, 1838. Aplomera chilensis (Bezzi, 1909 was also studied and it is being considered junior synonym of A. pachymera. Empis nudipes Macquart, 1838 is confirmed to be a junior synonym of A. gayi Macquart, 1838. Lectotype is being designated for A. pachymera, A. chilensis and E. polita. Illustration of terminalia and photomicrographs of wings are also included.

  17. BASELINE STATUS FOR FLORA AND FAUNA WITH AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY IN DAHEJ AREA, DISTRICT BHARUCH GUJARAT

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar; Manoj Eledath

    2015-01-01

    Floristic and Faunistic pattern of the area was studied based on inquiries from the local population, personal observation and forest officials. The study area falls under Dahej, Bharuch District of Gujarat state. Western part of the study area is occupied by the mud flats and Saltpans. There is almost plain without much undulation, a fallow land; hence not mush vegetation cover, except scattered Prosopis juliflora shrubs and few trees of Prosopis cineraria. Total 41 species of trees belong t...

  18. Survey and documentation of the potential and actual invasive alien plant species and other biological threats to biodiversity in Awash National Park, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Demissew, Sebsebe; Awas, Tesfaye; Tamene YOHANNES , and

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted at the Awash National Park (ANP) Ethiopia, todocument Invasive Alien Species (IAS) and to assess the spread of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. A total of 64 sample plots were laid systematically along the altitudinal gradient of 750 to 1916 m.Potential IAS were recorded. IAS which may threaten biodiversity of the park includes species such as Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus L., Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R. Br., Parkinsonia aculeata L., Senna occidenta...

  19. Prevalencia y distribución de los principales agentes etiológicos que afectan los langostinos silvestres en Tumbes, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Alfaro Aguilera; Mervin Guevara Torres; Isaías Gonzales Chávez

    2011-01-01

    Se determinó la prevalencia y distribución de diferentes agentes patógenos en langostinos silvestres, en la zona de esteros de la Región Tumbes - Perú, entre marzo y diciembre de 2009. Los canales de marea considerados en este estudio fueron: Boca del Río Tumbes, El Alcalde, Jelí, El Bendito, Envidia, Soledad y Algarrobo. Se colectó un total de 1926 langostinos entre juveniles y pre-adultos de las especies Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris y Farfantepenaeus californiensis. Utilizando la t...

  20. Percepción y condiciones de trabajo de personas que tuvieron malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Sanabria R; Adrián V. Hernández; Andrés Villafuerte P; Percy Erazo G

    2004-01-01

    Objetivos: Describir percepciones y condiciones de trabajo de personas que tuvieron malaria. Materiales y métodos: El estudio se realizó entre febrero de 1999 y enero del año 2000 en los caseríos El Algarrobo y Casa Grande (Piura), Iquitos, Huamba (Huarmey) y Cieneguilla (Lima). La muestra estuvo conformada por 67 personas, a cada una de las cuales se le aplicó una entrevista en profundidad; 44 fueron casos diagnosticados en Piura y Huarmey, siendo el resto de Iquitos y Cieneguilla. Resultado...

  1. Efecto de la Adición de Hidrocoloides sobre las Características Reológicas de Salmueras para Elaboración de Jamón Cocido / Effect of Addition of Hydrocolloids on Rheological Properties of the Brines Used to Prepare Cooked Ham

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda Cossio Cesar Augusto; Restrepo Molina Diego Alonso; Ciro Velásquez Héctor José

    2013-01-01

    Resumen. Con el fin de determinar el efecto de la inclusión de goma de algarrobo (GA), carragenina kappa (CK) y carragenina iota (CI) en salmueras para inyección de jamones cocidos, sobre algunas propiedades reológicas tales como viscosidad, módulo elástico (G´) y tangente de pérdida (tangente δ), se planteó un experimento por diseño de mezclas en el que se empleó una formulación para jamón comercial (1% de hidrocoloides), en el cual se utilizaron hidrocoloides individuales o mezclas binarias...

  2. Estudi de la contaminacio atmosferica de la plana del camp de Tarragona (Catalunya) prenent els liquens com a bioindicadors

    OpenAIRE

    Giralt Esteve, Mireia

    1997-01-01

    Se evalua la contaminación atmosférica de la llanura litoral del Camp de Tarragona (Cataluña) tomando como bioindicadores los líquens epífitos del algarrobo (Ceratonia Siliqua). Se caracterizan ochenta y cinco estaciones según diversos parámetros: índice de pureza atmosférica (IPA), recubrimiento medio global (RMG) y nombres de especies. La combinación de los datos obtenidos permite dividir el área estudiada en seis zonas de isocontaminación. Por otra parte, se clasifican 15 especies de líque...

  3. The species of membracids described by C. Berg and M. Spinola classified in Sundarion Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Membracidae As espécies de membracídeos descritas por C. Berg e M. Spinola classificadas em Sundarion Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyranthe acaciae Berg, 1883 and Hemiptycha chilensis Spinola, 1852 are reinstated in Sundarion Kirkaldy, 1904 (formerly in synonymy of Callicentrus bonasia (Fabricius, 1775 (Centrotinae, Nessorhinini. Pyranthe frustratoria Berg, 1883 (also formerly considered as synonym of Callicentrus bonasia becomes a new synonym of Sundarion flavomarginatum (Fairmaire, 1846.Pyranthe acaciae Berg, 1883 e Hemiptycha chilensis Spinola, 1852 são revalidadas em Sundarion Kirkaldy, 1904 (anteriormente colocadas em sinonímia de Callicentrus bonasia (Fabricius, 1775 (Centrotinae, Nessorhinini. Pyranthe frustratoria Berg, 1883 (também considerada anteriormente como sinônimo de Callicentrus bonasia torna-se um novo sinônimo de Sundarion flavomarginatum (Fairmaire, 1846.

  4. Review of Cyrtomyia Bigot (Diptera, BomByliidae, Ecliminae with a key to the Neotropical genera of Ecliminae and Cyrtomyia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Cyrtomyia Bigot has a distribution restricted to the Andean region of South America, with records only in Argentina and Chile. The genus is composed by two species, which are reviewed and redescribed herein: C. chilensis Paramonov, 1931 and C. pictipennis (Bigot, 1857. The main characters of the external morphology of adults are photographed. Illustrations of the male and female terminalia of C. chilensis are also included. An identification key to species is presented, and the species distribution is briefly discussed.

  5. Ophiuroidea das regiões antártica e subantártica: 1. sobre três espécies de Gorgonocephalidae e Ophiacanthidae Ophiuroidea from antarctic and subantarctic regions: 1. on three species of Gorgonocephalidae and Ophiacanthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gouveia Monteiro

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available É estudada a distribuição geográfica e a variação de caracteres morfológicos de três espécies de ofiuroides (OpiLacantha antartica, Astrotoma agassizzi e Gorgonecephalus chilensis das regiões Antártica e Subantãrtica. São também apresentadas observações sobre biologia reprodutiva.The geographical distribution and the variation of morphological characters of three (Gorgonecephalus chilensis, Astroma agassizii, Ophiacantha antartica from the Antarctic and Subantarctic regions are studied. Observations on reproductive biology are presented.

  6. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production from unexplored sugar substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de biopolímeros a escala industrial es restringida por los elevados costos de producción, en comparación con aquellos asociados a polímeros sintéticos (no biodegradables y no biocompatibles. En este estudio evaluamos por primera vez dos sustratos de carbono de bajo costo (i.e. pulpa de algarrobo y jugo de fique para la producción a escala de laboratorio de polyhydroxyalcanoato (PHA con Bacillus megaterium. La detección e identificación de PHA se hizo mediante cromatografía de gases con detector selectivo de masas operado en el modo de Monitoreo de Ion Selectivo (GC-MS/SIM. Los resultados sugieren que la producción de PHA a partir de pulpa de algarrobo (de Hymenaea courbaril puede ser tan alta como con melaza de caña. Más aún, puede servir para la síntesis del tipo de PHA más comercializado (i.e. polihidroxibutirato; PHB y/o de otras variedades (e.g. polihidroxi-butirato-co-valerato; PHBV con diferentes propiedades y posibles aplicaciones.

  7. Species type controls root strength and influences slope stability in coastal Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, E.; Wray, M. E.; Knappe, E.; Ogasawara, T.; Tholt, A.; Cliffe, B.; Oshun, J.

    2014-12-01

    Tree roots, particular those of old growth trees, provide significant cohesive strength that can prevent shallow landslides. Little is known about the root strength of trees growing in dry tropical forests. In 1997, Bahía de Caráquez, Ecuador experienced a large landslide, which may have been precipitated by massive deforestation along the Ecuadorian coast. We used a tensile spring apparatus combined with root maps to caclulate the cohesive strength of different native species of trees. Whereas the results show the previously reported power law relationship between root diameter and tensile strength, our data also reveals new contributions. First, we find that trees have far stronger and more abundant roots than neighboring bushes, and thus add far more cohesive strength to the hillslope. Furthermore, there is a wide range of tensile strength among the native trees measured, with algarrobo having the strongest roots, and ceibo gernally being weak rooted. Finally, we use a slope stability model to predict failure conditions considering the strength added to a hillslope if vegetation is predominantly composed of bushes, algarrobo, or ceibo. Our results, which are the first of their kind for the Ecuadorian dry tropical forest, will be used to guide the ongoing native reforestation efforts of Global Student Embassy. Our unique partnership with Global Student Embassy connects our field study to practical land use decisions that will lead to increased slope and decreased human danger along coastal Ecuador's dry tropical forest.

  8. Invasive alien woody plants of the northern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 31% (90/286 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 23 species of which the most prominent invaders were Prosopis spp. The most prominent remaining species were: Opuntia ficus-indica, Nicotiana glauca and Melia azedarach. The greatest abundance and diversity of alien invader plants were recorded near human settlements. More than half of the total recorded species have invaded perennial riverbanks. The episodic Molopo and Kuruman Rivers have been invaded almost exclusively by  Prosopis spp., which in places have formed extensive stands.

  9. Some hepatic neoplasms in non-domesticated birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, P F; Majeed, S K; Brancker, W M; Jones, D M

    1978-10-01

    A metastasising hepatocellular carcinoma in a Lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor), a metastasising bile duct carcinoma in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis) and a liver cell adenoma in a Luzon hornbill (Buceros hydrocerox hydrocerox) are described. Hepatic neoplasia in birds is discussed. PMID:18770409

  10. Review of Cyrtomyia Bigot (Diptera, BomByliidae, Ecliminae with a key to the Neotropical genera of Ecliminae and Cyrtomyia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Cyrtomyia Bigot has a distribution restricted to the Andean region of South America, with records only in Argentina and Chile. The genus is composed by two species, which are reviewed and redescribed herein: C. chilensis Paramonov, 1931 and C. pictipennis (Bigot, 1857. The main characters of the external morphology of adults are photographed. Illustrations of the male and female terminalia of C. chilensis are also included. An identification key to species is presented, and the species distribution is briefly discussed.O gênero Neotropical Cyrtomyia Bigot tem uma distribuição restrita à região Andina da América do Sul, com registros assinalados apenas para a Argentina e Chile. O gênero é composto por duas espécies, que são aqui revisadas e redescritas: C. chilensis Paramonov, 1931 e C. pictipennis (Bigot, 1857. Os principais caracteres da morfologia externa dos adultos estão fotografados. Ilustrações das terminálias de machos e de fêmeas de C. chilensis também são incluídas. Uma chave de identificação para as espécies é apresentada e a distribuição das espécies é brevemente discutida.

  11. Disjoint geographical distribution of intertidal and nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Southern Hemisphere Distribuciones geográficas disyuntas de invertebrados bentónicos intermareales y del submareal somero en el Hemisferio Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla, Juan C.; RICARDO GUIÑEZ

    2000-01-01

    Biogeographical explanations for the extant and paleo disjoint geographical distribution in the southern hemisphere of five species of nearshore marine benthic invertebrates: Gaimardia trapesina, Ostrea chilensis, Pyura stolonifera taxonomic complex, Aulacomya ater and Concholepas concholepas, showing distinctive reproductive strategies and early life history characteristics are reviewed and analyzed. Through the use of published and new information we contrasted the following hypotheses: a) ...

  12. Studies in Moraceae II. The genus Clarisia Ruiz et Pavon and its synonyms, with a discussion of the generic name

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, J.

    1936-01-01

    The Moraceous genus Clarisia was described by Ruiz et Pavon in 1794 in ”Florae Peruvianae, et Chilensis Prodromus” p. 128. This generic name must be rejected, if it is not placed on the list of Nomina Generica Conservanda, as in 1792 there had already been published a genus of this name by Pedro Aba

  13. Redescription of Oulactis concinnata (Drayton in Dana, 1846) (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniidae), an actiniid sea anemone from Chile and Perú with special fighting tentacles; with a preliminary revision of the genera with a “frond-like” marginal ruff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Häussermann, V.

    2003-01-01

    Two species of sea anemones with a conspicuous marginal ruff of frond-like structures encompassing the tentacular crown occur on the Chilean coast. Oulactis concinnata (= Isoulactis chilensis) (Drayton in Dana, 1846) is re-described in detail and further information is provided for Oulactis coliumen

  14. Interannual variability in the skate assemblage on the South Patagonian shelf and slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A; Pompert, J; Arkhipkin, A; Brewin, P E

    2015-12-01

    Observer data from the commercial fishery on the Patagonian shelf and slope around the Falkland Islands (home to an assemblage of >16 skate species (Rajiformes), for which commercial catches have been recorded since 1987), as well as survey data from an area closed to skate target fishing after exploitation, were summarized by species to examine changes in the population status of individual skate species. Total skate catch per unit effort increased significantly in the target fishery since 1994, and four species have made up >85% of all skate catch. Bathyraja brachyurops and Zearaja chilensis increased significantly in catch proportions and abundance from 1994 to 2013. Bathyraja albomaculata and Bathyraja griseocauda decreased significantly before rebounding with trends of increasing abundance. Concurrently, B. brachyurops and Z. chilensis showed decreasing trends in size at 50% maturity in areas where skates continue to be targeted commercially. The increasing abundances and concomitant reductions in size at maturity of B. brachyurops and Z. chilensis suggest either plasticity in life-history traits or a density-dependent growth response to fishing pressure. Bathyraja griseocauda decreased in size at 50% maturity in the area that was closed to skate target fishing, where it was initially larger, but only decreased to the same average size as in the commercially targeted areas. Bathyraja albomaculata and Z. chilensis are IUCN-listed as vulnerable and B. griseocauda is listed as endangered, but their abundance trends since 1994 indicate that these populations are not declining in Falkland waters. PMID:26709216

  15. New synonyms and deletions for the moss floras of Colombia and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Churchill, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Several new synonyms are recognized for Colombian taxa: Aongstroemia maculata = A. julacea, Callicostella acutifolia and C. plicatula = Thamniopsis diffusa, Dicranella mayorii and D. peruviana = D. hilariana, Glyphomitrium lobuliferum = Ptychomitrium lindigii, Trichostomum novo-granatense = T. brachydontium; and for Ecuadorean taxa: Grimmia cinerea = G. longirostris, Grimmia benoistii = G. trichophylla, Neckera benoistii = N. chilensis, Orthostichopsis incertus = Porotrichendron superbum, and...

  16. Identidad y distribución geográfica de Stemodia durantifolia (Plantaginaceae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de las Mercedes Sosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stemodia durantifolia es una especie con dos variedades que crece desde California hasta Chile. La variedad típica se ha citado en trabajos previos para la Argentina y la otra variedad, chilensis fue mencionada hasta el momento para Chile. En este trabajo se descarta la presencia de la variedad típica en el país, se da a conocer su área de distribución y se cita por primera vez a la variedad chilensis para la Argentina. Se describen e ilustran las dos variedades, se incluye un mapa de distribución y una clave para separarla de las restantes especies que crecen en Argentina.Identity and geographical distribution of Stemodia durantifolia (Plantaginaceae in Argentina. The typical variety has been cited in previous studies for Argentina, and the other variety, chilensis, was mentioned so far in Chile. This work rules out the typical variety in the country, describes its geographical distribution and cites for the first time the var. chilensis for Argentina. A description, illustration and a map of distribution of the species with these two varieties are provided, as well as a key to distinguish the other Argentinean species.

  17. HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES REVEAL RATE AND PATTERN OF SHRUB ENCROACHMENT OVER SIX DECADES IN NEW MEXICO, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encroachment of the shrub Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite) into semiarid grasslands is a serious concern in the southwestern United States, yet little is known about the long-term dynamics of the invasion process. We used 10 high-resolution aerial and satellite images taken from 1936 to 1996 to...

  18. Nitrogen trace gas fluxes from a semiarid subtropical savanna under woody legume encroachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Fiona M.; Boutton, Thomas W.; Groffman, Peter M.; Sparks, Jed P.

    2016-05-01

    Savanna ecosystems are a major source of nitrogen (N) trace gases that influence air quality and climate. These systems are experiencing widespread encroachment by woody plants, frequently associated with large increases in soil N, with no consensus on implications for trace gas emissions. We investigated the impact of encroachment by N-fixing tree Prosopis glandulosa on total reactive N gas flux (Nt = NO + N2O + NOy + NH3) from south Texas savanna soils over 2 years. Contrary to expectations, upland Prosopis groves did not have greater Nt fluxes than adjacent unencroached grasslands. However, abiotic conditions (temperature, rainfall, and topography) were strong drivers. Emissions from moist, low-lying Prosopis playas were up to 3 times higher than from Prosopis uplands. Though NO dominated emissions, NH3 and NOy (non-NO oxidized N) comprised 12-16% of the total summer N flux (up to 7.9 µg N m-2 h-1). Flux responses to soil wetting were temperature dependent for NO, NH3, and NOy: a 15 mm rainfall event increased flux 3-fold to 22-fold after 24 h in summer but had no effect in winter. Repeated soil wetting reduced N flux responses, indicating substrate depletion as a likely control. Rapid (abiotic chemodenitrification contributes to pulse emissions. We conclude that temperature and wetting dynamics, rather than encroachment, are primary drivers of N flux from these upland savannas, with implications for future emission patterns under altered precipitation regimes.

  19. Mimosa tenuiflora as a Cause of Malformations in Ruminants in the Northeastern Brazilian Semiarid Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniofacial anomalies, eye malformations, and permanent flexures of the forelimbs are common malformations seen in ruminants grazing semiarid rangelands of Northeastern Brazil. To investigate the cause of these malformations, we fed 2 suspected plants, Mimosa tenuiflora or Prosopis juliflora, to gr...

  20. Assessing water stress of desert Tamarugo trees using in situ data and very high spatial resolution remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chávez Oyanadel, R.O.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Herold, M.; Acevedo, E.; Ortiz, M.

    2013-01-01

    The hyper-arid Atacama Desert is one of the most extreme environments for life and only few species have evolved to survive its aridness. One such species is the tree Prosopis tamarugo Phil. Because Tamarugo completely depends on groundwater, it is being threatened by the high water demand from the

  1. Object-based analysis of 8-bands Worldview2 imagery for assessing health condition of desert trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chávez Oyanadel, R.O.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    2012-01-01

    High spatial resolution panchromatic and multispectral WorldView2 images were used to assess the health condition of Tamarugo (Prosopis tamarugo Phil.) trees in the hyperarid Atacama desert in Northern Chile. Tamarugo is a very valuable species for biodiversity conservation due to its endemic charac

  2. Decontamination of mesquite pod flour, naturally contaminated with Bacillus cereus and formation of furan by ionizing irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquite pod flour produced from nitrogen-fixing trees of Prosopis species has a unique aroma and flavor which is preferred by some consumers. Due to the presence of wildlife, grazing domestic animals and insects, the pods have a high potential of being contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria su...

  3. Screening Togolese medicinal plants for few pharmacological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Karou, Simplice D.; Tchadjobo Tchacondo; Micheline Agassounon Djikpo Tchibozo; Kokou Anani; Lassina Ouattara; Jacques Simpore; Comlan de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants. Mate...

  4. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R.; Bank, van der, M.; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A. M.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Roux, J.; Madrid, H.; Damm, U.; Wood, A. R.; Shuttleworth, L.A.; Hodges, C.S.; Munster, M.

    2013-01-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusico...

  5. Cartografía de usos del suelo por teledetección: la cuenca del Carraixet

    OpenAIRE

    Ruescas Orient, Ana Belén

    1999-01-01

    La cartografía de usos del suelo mediante imágenes de satélite constituye una alternativa a la usual confección de mapas de ocupación del suelo. La cuenca de drenaje del barranco del Carraixet, con una extensión de 311 km×, comprende una variada y compleja topografía y se caracteriza por una densa ocupación del suelo, destacando los cultivos de regadío (huerta, cítricos y otros frutales), y secano (algarrobos, olivos y almendros), así como las zonas urbanizadas, áreas industriales y un área ...

  6. Palinología arqueológica: su implicancia en el estudio del prehispánico tardío de las sierras de Córdoba (Argentina Archaeological Palynology: Its Impact On The Study Of The Late Prehispanic Period Of The Sierras De Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías E. Medina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuatro sitios arqueológicos correspondientes al Periodo prehispánico tardío de las sierras de Córdoba (ca. 1000-300 AP: Los Algarrobos 1, Puesto La Esquina 1 (Pampa de Olaen, C.Pun.39 y Las Chacras 2 (valle de Punilla, fueron estudiados en base a su contenido palinológico. Los sitios Los Algarrobos 1 y Puesto La Esquina 1 registraron, como consecuencia de sesgos tafonómicos, insuficiente contenido polínico. En cambio, las asociaciones polínicas de C.Pun.39 y Las Chacras 2 permitieron inferir paleo-comunidades vegetales dominadas por Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae y Brassicaceae (C.Pun. 39 y por el primer taxón (Las Chacras 2. Las dos familias vegetales tienen baja representación en la lluvia polínica actual. Se postula la posibilidad de que las significativas proporciones de Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae podrían estar sugiriendo la presencia de cultivos prehispánicos de Chenopodium quinoa y Amaranthus caudatus en los alrededores de los sitios. Otras evidencias de macro y microrrestos ligadas a cultivos sustentan dicha hipótesis. Las importantes proporciones tanto de Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae como de Brassicaceae registradas en C.Pun.39 son también analizadas como indicativas de sucesivos abandonos y reocupaciones de los sitios, coherentes con un patrón de alta movilidad residencial entre los grupos prehispánicos tardíos. Ambientes perturbados por actividad antrópica habrían contribuido al desarrollo de tales plantas.Four archaeological sites dating from the Late Prehispanic Period of the Sierras de Córdoba (ca. 1000-300 BP are studied by means of palynological analysis. These sites are Los Algarrobos 1, Puesto La Esquina 1 (Pampa de Olaen, C.Pun.39 and Las Chacras 2 (Punilla valley. Los Algarrobos 1 and Puesto La Esquina 1 sites present scarce pollinic grains as a consequence of taphonomic bias. However, from the pollinic spectrum from C.Pun.39 and Las Chacras 2 sites it was possible to infer vegetational paleo

  7. Prevalencia y distribución de los principales agentes etiológicos que afectan los langostinos silvestres en Tumbes, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Alfaro Aguilera

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la prevalencia y distribución de diferentes agentes patógenos en langostinos silvestres, en la zona de esteros de la Región Tumbes - Perú, entre marzo y diciembre de 2009. Los canales de marea considerados en este estudio fueron: Boca del Río Tumbes, El Alcalde, Jelí, El Bendito, Envidia, Soledad y Algarrobo. Se colectó un total de 1926 langostinos entre juveniles y pre-adultos de las especies Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris y Farfantepenaeus californiensis. Utilizando la técnica de la PCR, se detectó la presencia de los patógenos NHPB (0,62%, IHHNV (0,31%, BP (1,61% y WSV (2,75%; no se encontró infección por TSV. Las tres especies en estudio fueron positivas a WSV y BP, presentándose la mayor prevalencia de infección por WSV (2,98% en la especie L. stylirostris y por BP (2,66% en L. vannamei. La NHPB fue detectada en las especies L. vannamei y L. stylirostris con 0,77% y 0,43% de prevalencia respectivamente. Se obtuvo una prevalencia de 0,52% para IHHNV en L. vannamei. Las más altas prevalencias de las infecciones por WSV, BP, NHPB e IHHNV se registraron en los canales de marea El Alcalde (10,79%, Algarrobo (4,51%, Envidia (2,26% y Jelí (5,05%. Los datos señalan la presencia constante de diversos patógenos virales y bacterianos en diferentes especies de peneidos y su amplia distribución a lo largo del litoral tumbesino, lo que constituye un riesgo potencial para el desarrollo de la acuicultura en la región, y podría afectar las poblaciones naturales de langostinos.

  8. Genetic composition of Mytilus species in mussel populations from southern Chile Composición genética de especies de Mytilus en poblaciones de mejillón del sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Larraín

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mussels are one of the most cultivated and commercialized bivalves worldwide and in southern Chile its culture represent an important economic activity. The species identification within the Mytilus genera, by morphological features, is unreliable, so we used a polymorphism RFLP in the gene encoding the polyphenolic adhesive protein as a species-specific genetic marker to describe Mytilus species diversity in southern Chile, and evaluate possible applications in traceability, food quality and safety. Using Me 15-16 marker most mussels were M. chilensis, finding no other pure individuals; however, putative hybrids of M. chilensis x M. trossulus and M. chilensis x M. galloprovincialis were detected. There was no evidence of M. edulis. The presence of the M. trossulus allele, faraway from its distribution area, demands further analysis with different genetic markers to allow a better understanding of its origin. In addition, the correspondence between markers that distinguishes northern from southern hemisphere M. galloprovincialis, with those who discriminates between M. chilensis and M. galloprovincialis would contribute to the taxonomic status of Chilean blue mussels. In Chile, the genetic composition of Mytilus indicates that geographical origin of mussels and its traceability cannot be established merely from the identification of the species. The use of other markers would be required.Los mejillones son una de las especies de bivalvos más cultivadas y comercializadas, en el sur de Chile donde su cultivo representa una actividad económica importante. La identificación de la especie dentro del género Mytilus, basada en las características morfológicas no es confiable por lo que se utilizó un polimorfismo RFLP en el gen que codifica la proteína adhesiva polifenólica como marcador genético específico de la especie para describir la diversidad de especies Mytilus en el sur de Chile, y evaluar posibles aplicaciones en trazabilidad

  9. Zooplankton characterisation of Pampean saline shallow lakes, habitat of the Andean flamingoes

    OpenAIRE

    Yamila S. Battauz; Susana B. José de Paggi; Juan C. Paggi; Marcelo Romano; Ignacio Barberis

    2013-01-01

    The lowland saline shallow lakes in the Pampa de las Lagunas (Argentina), constitute an important habitat for flamingoes Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina and Phoenicoparrus andinus (Philippii). Little is known about the zooplankton communities of these systems, and their relationships with the temporal and spatial distribution of flamingoes. Ten shallow lakes in the Pampean region were studied in 2009 and 2010 winters, and in 2010 summer in order to assess the abundance, size and biomass of zo...

  10. Antimicrobial evaluation of Huilliche plant medicine used to treat wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Per; Holler, Jes Gitz; Asar, Betül;

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevanceThe traditional use of 40 plant species used for treatment of wounds and associated infections by the Huilliche people of Chile was evaluated against bacterial and fungal human pathogens, especially including wound pathogens. Materials and methodsThe extracts were......). ResultsThirteen of the plant species have interesting antimicrobial activities, with that of Acaena argentea, Aristotelia chilensis, Blechnum chilense, Francoa appendiculta, Gevuina avellana and Laureliopsis philippiana being the most noteworthy. ConclusionsThe findings in the manuscript support the...

  11. Fijacion primaria y variaciones morfologicas, durante la metamorfosis de algunos bivalvos chilenos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Uribe Barichivith; Daniel López Stefoni

    1980-01-01

    The larval primary settlement and the changes originated during the metamorphosis of some species of Chilean bivalves, are comparatively studied, being described, the larval and post - larval stages from the veliconcha to late plantigrade. By observing in ropes "anchovetera" nets and plankton samples, in the mitiliculture of Codihué (41º 46'S; 73º 24'W), it was verified for Mytilus chilensis Hupé, 1854 and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782), primary settlement on the filamentous algae of genera En...

  12. Chilean Native Fruit Extracts Inhibit Inflammation Linked to the Pathogenic Interaction Between Adipocytes and Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflam...

  13. Lectotypification of Ruiz and Pavón's names in Solanum (Solanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Lectotypes or neotypes are confirmed or designated here for the 41 names coined by Hipólito Ruiz and José Pavón in the Flora peruviana et chilensis that were either described, or today recognised as, members of the large genus Solanum (Solanaceae): Solanum acuminatum, S. acutifolium, S. anceps, S. angulatum, S. angustifolium, S. asperolanatum, S. biformifolium, S. calygnaphalum, S. conicum, S. crispum, S. cymosum, S. dichotomum, S. diffusum, S. filiforme, S. foetidum, S. glandulosum, S. grand...

  14. Seasonal and vertical distribution of medusae in Aysén region, southern Chile Distribución estacional y vertical de medusas en la región de Aysén, sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Bravo; Sergio Palma; Nelson Silva

    2011-01-01

    Medusae collected in winter and spring 2007 were analyzed in a longitudinal transect made between the Boca de Guafo and Elefantes Fjord, southern Chile. A total of 30 species were identified, Hydromedusae (29) and Scyphozoa (1), where Bougainvillia macloviana, Hybocodon chilensis, Hydractinia tenuis, Laodicea pulcra, L. undulada, Modeeria rotunda and Chrysaora plocamia represent new records for the area. A significant increase in the jellyfish abundance was higher in spring than in winter (fo...

  15. BRIOFITAS SOBRE CARPOFOROS DE HONGOS BRYOPHYTES ON CARPOPHORES OF FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Ardiles Huerta; Felipe Osorio-Zúñiga; Elizabeth Barrera Moscoso

    2009-01-01

    Se registra el desarrollo de briófitas sobre carpóforos de hongos de estructura coriácea, leñosa y perenne. Los resultados revelan la presencia de siete especies de hepáticas fo liosas: Bazzania peruviana, Heteroscyphus integrifolius, Leiomitria elegans, Lepidozia chordulifem, Plagiochila bispinosa, Porella chilensis, Telaranea blepharostoma y dos musgos: Dicranoloma robustum e Hypnum chrysogaster. Se propone que los hongos de estas características son un apropiado sustrato para el desarrollo...

  16. Reactividad inmunoquímica de sueros anti- Caiman yacare y Caiman latirostris frente a sueros de diferentes especies

    OpenAIRE

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió la reactividad inmunoquímica entre los sueros de distintas especies de reptiles frente a sueros hiperinmunes experimentales anti-suero de Caiman yacare y anti-suero de Caiman latirostris. Los sueros que se probaron fueron los homólogos de Caiman yacare, Caiman latirostris y los heterólogos de Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidenta...

  17. Reactividad inmunoquímica de sueros anti Caiman yacare y Caiman latirostris frente a sueros de diferentes especies

    OpenAIRE

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió la reactividad inmunoquímica entre los sueros de distintas especies de reptiles frente a sueros hiperinmunes experimentales anti-suero de Caiman yacare y anti-suero de Caiman latirostris. Los sueros que se probaron fueron los homólogos de Caiman yacare, Caiman latirostris y los heterólogos de Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidenta...

  18. Observations on the Biology and Anatomy of Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Membracoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Rakitov

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson), from the poorly known family Myerslopiidae, were collected from the litter horizon of temperate forests and shrub bogs in southern Chile. The species apparently feeds on roots and creeping stems of angiosperms. Salivary sheaths of captive specimens terminated in vascular bundles. Indirect evidence suggests feeding on phloem sap. Both nymphs and adults are strong jumpers and both actively disperse, as evidenced by their capture in pan traps. T...

  19. First karyotype data on the family Myerslopiidae ( Hemiptera , Auchenorrhyncha , Cicadomorpha )

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Golub; Valentina Kuznetsova; Roman Rakitov

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the first cytogenetic study of the recently proposed family Myerslopiidae the male karyotype of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, 1996) was analyzed using conventional chromosome staining, AgNOR- and C-bandings, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG) n telomeric probes. A karyotype of 2n = 16 + XY, NOR on a medium-sized pair of autosomes, subterminal location of C-heterochromatin, and presence of (TTAGG) n telomeric sequence were determined. Additionall...

  20. Mitogenomics of southern hemisphere blue mussels (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia): Insights into the evolutionary characteristics of the Mytilus edulis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F; Mesas, Andres; D'Elía, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Marine blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) are widespread species that exhibit an antitropical distribution with five species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere (M. trossulus, M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. californianus and M. coruscus) and three in the Southern Hemisphere (M. galloprovincialis, M. chilensis and M. platensis). Species limits in this group remain controversial, in particular for those forms that live in South America. Here we investigated structural characteristics of marine mussels mitogenomes, based on published F mtDNA sequences of Northern Hemisphere species and two newly sequenced South American genomes, one from the Atlantic M. platensis and another from the Pacific M. chilensis. These mitogenomes exhibited similar architecture to those of other genomes of Mytilus, including the presence of the Atp8 gene, which is missing in most of the other bivalves. Our evolutionary analysis of mitochondrial genes indicates that purifying selection is the predominant force shaping the evolution of the coding genes. Results of our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Pteriomorphia and fully resolved the phylogenetic relationships among its five orders. Finally, the low genetic divergence of specimens assigned to M. chilensis and M. platensis suggests that these South American marine mussels represent conspecific variants rather than distinct species. PMID:27241855

  1. EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LOCAL FLORA OF BUNDELKHAND REGION OF JHANSI- INDIA AGAINST PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazada Siddiqui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty plants namely Acacia nilotica (L. Willd.ex delil, Ageratum conyzoides Linn, Boerhaavia diffusa Linn., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, Cleome viscosa L, Datura stramonium Linn, Euphorbia hirta Linn, Ficus benghalensis Linn, Hyptis suaveolens (Linn poit, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn, Jatropha gossypifolia Linn, Phyllanthus niruri webster, Prosopis juliflora, Polyalthia longifolia, Sida cordifolia, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn. Pers, Tridax procumbens Linn, Zizyphus jujube Linn, Solanum nigrum Linn, were collected from different localities and screened for their antibacterial activity against phytopathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Among all the tested species, nine plant species viz Acacia nilotica, Ageratum conyzoied, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cleome viscose, Datura stramonium, Euphorbia hirta, Hyptis suaveolens, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Prosopis juliflora and Tridex procumbens showed medium to light antibacterial activity against the selected pathogens. Significant antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous extracts of Prosopsis juliflora, Hyptis suaveolens, Euphorbia hirta and Acacia nilotica

  2. Una nueva especie de Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae del extremo norte de Chile A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae from northernmost Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉCTOR A. VARGAS

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción de una nueva especie de Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae. Su distribución comprende dos valles del extremo norte de Chile: Azapa, Chaca y Camarones. Se describen e ilustran los adultos, incluyendo la genitalia de ambos sexos, y el segmento terminal de la pupa de la hembra. Las larvas se alimentan de inflorescencias de Acacia macracantha y Prosopis tamarugo (FabaceaeThe description of a new Eupithecia species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is presented. Its distribution comprises two valleys in northernmost Chile: Azapa, Chaca and Camarones. The habitus of adult, the genitalia of both sexes, and the last segment of the female pupa are described and illustrated. Larvae feed on inflorescence of Acacia macracantha and Prosopis tamarugo (Fabaceae

  3. Acute toxicity bioassay with native plants to evaluate an oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Pentreath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant bioassays are excellent tools for the evaluation of environmental risks. In particular the use of seeds of vascular plants is recommended due to their higher sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of native plants in order for them to be used as biological indicators of environmental oil pollution in relation to a standardized bioindicator. We analyzed the germination index (GI of Lactuca sativa L., Atriplex lampa (Moq. D.Dietri. and Prosopis denudans in thirty soil samples taken from an oil field to detect phytotoxic effects. GI, is a cheap, fast and reproducible biological method for determining the toxicity of the soil, thus helping to characterize areas with contaminated soils. The results show that, after germination, Atriplex lampa (Moq. D.Dietri. and Prosopis denudans are more resistant in the contaminated soils of an oil field than the reference bioindicator (Lactuca sativa L..

  4. Variation of Clonal, Mesquite-Associated Rhizobial and Bradyrhizobial Populations from Surface and Deep Soils by Symbiotic Gene Region Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Plasmid Profile Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, P. M.; Golly, K F; Zyskind, J W; Virginia, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic characteristics of 14 Rhizobium and 9 Bradyrhizobium mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa)-nodulating strains isolated from surface (0- to 0.5-m) and deep (4- to 6-m) rooting zones were determined in order to examine the hypothesis that surface- and deep-soil symbiont populations were related but had become genetically distinct during adaptation to contrasting soil conditions. To examine genetic diversity, Southern blots of PstI-digested genomic DNA were sequentially hybridized with the nodD...

  5. Cloning of nod gene regions from mesquite rhizobia and bradyrhizobia and nucleotide sequence of the nodD gene from mesquite rhizobia.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, P. M.; Golly, K F; Virginia, R. A.; Zyskind, J W

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between bacteria and the tree legume mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is important for the maintenance of many desert ecosystems. Genes essential for nodulation and for extending the host range to mesquite were isolated from cosmid libraries of Rhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW17b and Bradyrhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW10h and were shown to be closely linked. All of the cosmid clones of rhizobia that extended the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. strain NGR...

  6. Greenhouse evaluation of rhizobia as biocontrol agent of root-infecting fungi in okra

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, I. A.; S. Ehteshamul-Haque; Zaki, M. J.; Ghaffar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Nine rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of Cicer arietinum, Vigna radiata, V. mungo, Samania saman, Sesbania sesban, Leucinia sp., Prosopis cineraria and Medicago sativa were used to study their effects on root-infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. In dual culture plate assay, strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti were found to inhibit radial growth of M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani producing zones of inhibition. ...

  7. Impact of rhizobial populations and their host legumes on microbial activity in soils of arid regions in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fterich, A.; Mahdhi, M.; Mars, M.

    2009-07-01

    Nitrogen fixing legumes and their microsymbionts are a fundamental contributor to soil fertility and prevent their degradation in arid and semi arid ecosystems. In Tunisia, few data are available on the contribution of these legumes in microbial activity in the arid soil. In this objective, a study was undertaken on five leguminous species from different arid regions to evaluate their ability to regenerate microbiological processes of the soil: Genista saharea, Genista microcephala, Acacia tortilis sspr raddiana, Retama raetam and Prosopis stephaniana. (Author)

  8. The genus Paraplonobia Wainstein and Neopetrobia Wainstein (Acari, Trombidiformes, Tetranychidae) from Saudi Arabia: new species, new records and key to the world species of Paraplonobia

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran, Muhammad; Mirza, Jawwad Hassan; Alatawi,Fahad Jabr

    2016-01-01

    The two tetranychid genera Paraplonobia Wainstein and Neopetrobia Wainstein (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) are reported for the first time from Saudi Arabia. Three new species Paraplonobia (Anaplonobia) arabica Mirza & Alatawi, sp. n., P. (A.) haloxylonia Alatawi & Mirza, sp. n. and P. (A.) tabukensis Kamran & Alatawi, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on adult females, collected from Prosopis juliflora (SW.) Dc. (Fabaceae) and Haloxylon salicornicum Bunge (Amaranthaceae...

  9. Índices de oxidación en aceites de algunas leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez-Moreno, L.; Robles-Burgueño, M. R.; Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    2001-01-01

    The oxidation process of crude and refined oils from wild leguminous seeds: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite), Mimosa grahamii (gatuña), Acacia constricta, (vinorama) Olneya tesota, (palo fierro) Cercidium praecox (palo de brea) and Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde) were evaluated during storage for 122 days, using corn and soybean oils as controls. Peroxide, Iodine, Acid and p-Anisidine values were determinated during 122 days of storage at room temperature. The wild leguminous raw oils sho...

  10. Notes on Erysiphales (Ascomycetes) from Patagonia, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Havrylenko, Maria; Takamatsu, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen Erysiphaceous taxa found on 20 host plant species in Patagonia are documented. A new species Oidium maculatae (type host: Viola maculata) is described. Berberis linearifolia, Buddleja globosa, Prosopis alpataco and Viola maculata, are new host plants for Erysiphales.Three new combinations on fungi and host plant species were founded: Erysiphe howeana – Fuchsia magellanica; E.patagoniaca – Nothofagus pumilio and N. antarctica. The genus Sawadaea and the species S. bicornis on Acer negu...

  11. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.K.; A. Pancholy; Jindal, S. K.; R.Pathak

    2013-01-01

    Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from...

  12. Acute toxicity bioassay with native plants to evaluate an oil spill

    OpenAIRE

    Vivien Pentreath; Elena González; Mercedes Barquín; Stella Maris Ríos; Susana Perales

    2015-01-01

    Plant bioassays are excellent tools for the evaluation of environmental risks. In particular the use of seeds of vascular plants is recommended due to their higher sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of native plants in order for them to be used as biological indicators of environmental oil pollution in relation to a standardized bioindicator. We analyzed the germination index (GI) of Lactuca sativa L., Atriplex lampa (Moq.) D.Dietri. and Prosopis denudans in thirt...

  13. ARBOREAL VEGETATION ASPECTS ON A SEASONAL STEPPE SAVANNA REMAINING, IN BARRA DO QUARAÍ, RS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Farinha Watzlawick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813320The purpose of this study was to evaluate the floristic composition, the horizontal and vertical structures, as well as the spatial distribution patterns of the tree component in a Steppe Savanna Park located at ‘Parque do Espinilho’, in Barra do Quaraí, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Floristic composition and phyto-sociological analysis were carried out in a four (04 ha permanent plot (40 000 m², where all individuals which circumference (C was ≥ 15.7 cm, measured 30 cm from the ground, were sampled and had their circumference and total height measured. A mean of 145 individuals/ha was found, distributed in 11 species, 10 genera and eight (08 families, with basal area of 4.06 m²/ha. The Shannon Diversity Index (H’ for the tree vegetation was 1.86, and the species with the highest importance values were Prosopis nigra (25.86%, Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco (24.57%, Prosopis affinis (24.30% and Vachellia caven (10.51%, representing 85.26% of the total. The tree vegetation has two strata, the lower one with 93.3% of the trees and the upper one with only 6.7% of total. The species Aspidosperma quebrachoblancodominated with 70.0% of trees in this stratum. Regarding the spatial distribution pattern of thespecies, Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco presented a grouped tendency, whereas the other ones weregrouped. The savannah steppe park studied is mainly characterized by the occurrence of Aspidospermaquebracho-blanco, Prosopis nigra, Prosopis affinis and Vachellia caven, constituting a unique combinationof species in Brazil, presenting question of rarity in terms of species composition and structure.

  14. Studies on the rhizosphere mycoflora of certain trees

    OpenAIRE

    Inder J. Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Two soil types, one supporting Prosopis juliflora and another supporting Dalbergia sissoo were selected to study the mycoflora associated with soil, rhizosphere and rhizoplane during winter and rainy seasons. Variations in the fungal population and variety of soil, rhizosphere and rhizoplane in relation to the nature of the plant and season were studied. Similarities between the soil, rhizosphere and rhizoplane fungeal flora in relation to plant species and season were studied. Differences in...

  15. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Rishi; Kumar Sanjay; Gomes James; Kuhad Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydroly...

  16. Impact of rhizobial populations and their host legumes on microbial activity in soils of arid regions in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen fixing legumes and their microsymbionts are a fundamental contributor to soil fertility and prevent their degradation in arid and semi arid ecosystems. In Tunisia, few data are available on the contribution of these legumes in microbial activity in the arid soil. In this objective, a study was undertaken on five leguminous species from different arid regions to evaluate their ability to regenerate microbiological processes of the soil: Genista saharea, Genista microcephala, Acacia tortilis sspr raddiana, Retama raetam and Prosopis stephaniana. (Author)

  17. Digestibility of agro-industrial byproducts in 200 and 300-g Nile tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula de Souza Ramos; Luís Gustavo Tavares Braga; João Sérgio Oliveira Carvalho; Sérgio José Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and gross energy (GE) of the following agro-industrial byproducts: cassava leaf (Manihot esculenta), mesquite bean (Prosopis juliflora), cotton (Gossypium species), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), soursop (Annona squamata) and African oil palm cake (Elaeis guineensis) for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish from two weight classes (200±11 and 300±32 g) were stocked...

  18. Breeding season habitat selection by ferruginous pygmy owls glaucidium brasilianum in central Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Campioni, Letizia; Sarasola, José Hernán; Santillán, M.; Reyes, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule The presence of Ferruginous Pygmy Owls Glaucidium brasilianum breeding in the xerophytic forest of Caldén Prosopis caldenia in central Argentina was slightly affected by forest maturity but neither by the structure of vegetation strata at the micro-habitat scale, nor by forest composition (mosaic of forest-grassland or shrubland) or proximity of water bodies at the macro-habitat scale. Aims To assess the habitat characteristics selected by Ferruginous Pygmy Owls during the breeding se...

  19. Wood Volume Production and Use of 10 Woody Species in Semiarid Zones of Northeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Luisa Cardenas; Rahim Foroughbakhch; Alejandra Rocha Estrada; Marco Antonio Alvarado Vázquez; Jorge Luis Hernández Piñero; Artemio Carrillo Parra

    2012-01-01

    A research strategy was established to analyze the structure of timber trees in terms of forest productivity (volume and wood density) of 10 species. The native species Acacia farnesiana, Acacia schaffneri, Bumelia celastrina, Cercidium macrun, Condalia hookeri, Ebenopsis ebano, Helietta parvifolia, and Prosopis laevigata and the exotic species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Leucaena leucocephala were chosen due to their ecological and economic importance to the rural villages of northeastern M...

  20. Methods for acquisition, storage, and evaluation of leguminous tree germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Simple methods for establishing, maintaining, and planting of a small scale tree legume (Prosopis) germplasm collection by one or two people are described. Suggestions are included for: developing an understanding of the worldwide distribution of genus; becoming acquainted with basic and applied scientists working on the taxa; devising seed cleaning, fumigation, cataloging, and storage techniques; requesting seed from international seed collections; collecting seed from native populations; and for field designs for planting the germplasm collection.

  1. Investigating patterns of symbiotic nitrogen fixation during vegetation change from grassland to woodland using fine scale δ(15) N measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Fiona M; Boutton, Thomas W; Sparks, Jed P

    2015-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in woody plants is often investigated using foliar measurements of δ(15) N and is of particular interest in ecosystems experiencing increases in BNF due to woody plant encroachment. We sampled δ(15) N along the entire N uptake pathway including soil solution, xylem sap and foliage to (1) test assumptions inherent to the use of foliar δ(15) N as a proxy for BNF; (2) determine whether seasonal divergences occur between δ(15) Nxylem sap and δ(15) Nsoil inorganic N that could be used to infer variation in BNF; and (3) assess patterns of δ(15) N with tree age as indicators of shifting BNF or N cycling. Measurements of woody N-fixing Prosopis glandulosa and paired reference non-fixing Zanthoxylum fagara at three seasonal time points showed that δ(15) Nsoil inorganic N varied temporally and spatially between species. Fractionation between xylem and foliar δ(15) N was consistently opposite in direction between species and varied on average by 2.4‰. Accounting for these sources of variation caused percent nitrogen derived from fixation values for Prosopis to vary by up to ∼70%. Soil-xylem δ(15) N separation varied temporally and increased with Prosopis age, suggesting seasonal variation in N cycling and BNF and potential long-term increases in BNF not apparent through foliar sampling alone. PMID:24890575

  2. Broad Protein Spectrum in Stored Pollen of Three Stingless Bees from the Chaco Dry Forest in South America (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini and Its Ecological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favio Gerardo Vossler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein content of pollen stored by three meliponine species was variable from 9.78% (less than half the value considered as optimal to brood development in Apis mellifera in type Capparis tweediana-C. speciosa to more than 26% in type Maytenus vitis-idaea and some Prosopis samples. This pollen of low protein value was occasionally foraged (only six out of 75 masses analyzed of G. argentina, but none in 86 masses of T. fiebrigi or in ten of M. orbignyi. However, it is likely that amino acid deficiencies of certain pollens are compensated by randomly foraging on a broad spectrum of pollen plants. The large amounts of pollen stored in their nests might also be important in compensating these deficiencies. The only sample studied for M. orbignyi showed a protein value greater than the one required for A. mellifera and was dominated by types Acacia praecox and Prosopis. As this species also prefers Solanum and other protein-rich pollen, more samples would need to be analyzed to establish whether protein requirements are high for this Melipona species. Pollen showing the highest protein content (>26% belonged to highly nectariferous plants well represented in meliponine and Apis honey such as Prosopis, Maytenus, and Ziziphus.

  3. Soil moisture redistribution as a mechanism of facilitation in savanna tree-shrub clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C B; Barnes, P W; Archer, S; McMurtry, C R

    2005-08-01

    Plant-soil water relations were examined in the context of a selective removal study conducted in tree-shrub communities occupying different but contiguous soil types (small discrete clusters on shallow, duplex soils versus larger, extensive groves on deep, sandy soils) in a subtropical savanna parkland. We (1) tested for the occurrence of soil moisture redistribution by hydraulic lift (HL), (2) determined the influence of edaphic factors on HL, and (3) evaluated the significance of HL for overstory tree-understory shrub interactions. Diel cycling and nocturnal increases in soil water potential (Psisoil), characteristic signatures of HL, occurred intermittently throughout an annual growth cycle in both communities over a range of moisture levels (Psisoil=-0.5 to -6.0 MPa) but only when soils were distinctly stratified with depth (dry surface/wet deep soil layers). The magnitude of mean (+/-SE) diel fluctuations in Psisoil (0.19+/-0.01 MPa) did not differ on the two community types, though HL occurred more frequently in groves (deep soils) than clusters (shallow soils). Selective removal of either Prosopis glandulosa overstory or mixed-species shrub understory reduced the frequency of HL, indicating that Prosopis and at least one other woody species was conducting HL. For Zanthoxylum fagara, a shallow-rooted understory shrub, Prosopis removal from clusters decreased leaf water potential (Psileaf) and net CO2 exchange (A) during periods of HL. In contrast, overstory removal had neutral to positive effects on more deeply-rooted shrub species (Berberis trifoliolata and Condalia hookeri). Removal of the shrub understory in groves increased A in the overstory Prosopis. Results indicate the following: (a) HL is common but temporally dynamic in these savanna tree-shrub communities; (b) edaphic factors influencing the degree of overstory/understory development, rooting patterns and soil moisture distribution influence HL; (c) net interactions between overstory and

  4. Acclimatization of Phalaenopsis and Cattleya obtained by micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Primitiva Díaz

    2010-10-01

    (1962, por rangos de crecimiento e implantadas en musgo, viruta de algarrobo y perlita (1:1:1, en cámara húmeda. De siembras de Cattleya en medio de Knudson C (1951 se multiplicaron protocormos en MS; se seleccionaron plantas regeneradas de 1-2 cm, e implantadas en cámara húmeda en los sustratos: musgo, carbón y perlita (1:1:1 MCP; viruta de algarrobo, carbón y perlita (1:1:1 ACP; musgo y perlita (1:1 MP; viruta de algarrobo y perlita (1:1 AP. Se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados: en Phalaenopsis: a Supervivencia: para R0 de 44% y RI y RII del 100%; b número de hojas: RI generó en promedio 1 hoja más que el rango 0; c número y longitud de raíces: RI y RII generaron en promedio dos raíces más que R0, no detectándose diferencias significativas en longitud; d altura: RII presentó mayor crecimiento que RI y R0 En Cattleya: a La supervivencia en MCP fue 0%, MP 16%, ACP 32% y AP 80%; b La altura en MP resultó significativamente superior que en ACP y AP. Ambos géneros necesitan alcanzar un crecimiento de 2 a 4 cm in vitro para tolerar las condiciones de invernáculo. El mejor sustrato fue MAP en Phalaenopsis, y la mezcla musgo-perlita en Cattleya. Palabras clave: Orchidaceae, sustratos, cultivo in vitro.

  5. Pyruvate Oxidoreductases Involved in Glycolytic Anaerobic Metabolism of Polychaetes from the Continental Shelf off Central-South Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2000-10-01

    The presence of low oxygen conditions in extensive areas of the continental shelf off central-south Chile has important effects on the biochemical adaptations of the organisms living in this ecosystem. Polychaetes assemblages cohabit on the shelf with an extensively distributed prokaryotic community made up of giant filamentous sulfur bacteria (mainly Thioploca sp.). The aim of this research was to characterize the pyruvate oxidoreductases enzymes involved in the biochemical adaptation of these benthic polychaetes. Nine polychaete species ( Paraprionospio pinnata, Nephtys ferruginea, Glycera americana, Haploscoloplos sp., Lumbrineris composita, Sigambra bassi, Aricidea pigmentata , Cossura chilensis, and Pectinaria chilensis) were assayed for lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), octopine dehydrogenase (OPDH), strombine dehydrogenase (STRDH) and alanopine dehydrogenase (ALPDH). Each species had a characteristic number of the pyruvate oxidoreductases assayed ranging from 4 in Paraprionospio pinnata to 1 in Pectinaria chilensis . The pyruvate saturation curves obtained for the enzymes from all species analysed, except L. composita, suggest that NADH can be oxidized at different rates depending on the amino acid used in the reaction with pyruvate. Our results indicate that organisms having more that one pyruvate oxidoreductase present a greater metabolic capacity to cope with functional and environmental hypoxia because these enzymes would better regulate the pyruvate consumption rate during the transition period. Thus, the dominance of Paraprionospio pinnata in the study area and its worldwide distribution is consistent with its higher number of pyruvate oxidoreductases with different pyruvate consumption rates involved in anaerobic metabolism. Finally, a positive allometric relationship was found between body size and the specific activity of ALPDH, STRDH, and maximum pyruvate oxidoreductase specific activity. This latter result suggests a positive scaling of the specific

  6. Las Pteridophyta y el paleoambiente de la parte media de la Formación La Ternera (Triásico Superior, en Quebrada La Cachivarita, III Región, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Herbst

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se describen e ilustran diez especies de Pteridophyta procedentes de estratos de la parte media de la Formación La Ternera (Triásico Superior, aflorantes en la quebrada La Cachivarita, afluente norte de la quebrada Paipote, Provincia de Copiapó, III Región, Chile. Se trata de Rienitsia ternerae, Todites chilensis, Todites sp., Neocalamites carrerei, Asterotheca rigbyana, Asterotheca fuchsi, Cladophlebis mendozaensis, Cladophlebis kurtzi, Gleichenites cachivaritensis y Dictyophyllum (D. tenuifolium, de las cuales las dos primeras son nuevas. El conjunto paleoflorístico confirma la edad triásica superior asignada con anterioridad a la Formación La Ternera. El estudio sedimentológico de la sección que incluye tales estratos permitió distinguir cinco facies diferentes que, en conjunto, son interpretadas como depósitos en un lago que progresivamente se torna más somero.ABSTRACT The Pteridophyta and the paleoenvironment of the middle part of the La Ternera Formation (Upper Triassic at Quebrada La Cachivarita, Atacama Region, Chile. Ten species of Pteridophyta from the middle part of the La Ternera Formation (Upper Triassic, in quebrada La Cachivarita, Copiapó Province, northern Chile, are described and figured. They include Rienitsia chilensis, Todites chilensis, Todites sp., Neocalamites carrerei, Asterotheca rigbyana, Asterotheca fuchsi, Cladophlebis mendozaensis, Cladophlebis kurtzi, Gleichenites cachivaritensis and Dictyophyllum (D. tenuifolium, being the first two, new ones. This assemblage agrees with an Upper Triassic age for the La Ternera Formation as formerly proposed. A sedimentological analysis of the section which includes the fossiliferous strata, recognizes five different facies which are interpreted as deposits in a lake becoming progressively shallower.

  7. Holocene climate variability and environmental history at the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone: Lago Mosquito (lat. 42.50°S, long. 71.40°W) and Laguna del Cóndor (lat. 42.20°S, long. 71.17°W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.; Bianchi, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Along the eastern Andes, a sharp ecotone separates steppe from North Patagonian forest dominated by Nothofagus spp. and Austrocedrus chilensis. The elevational position of the ecotone is determined by effective moisture, which in turn is governed by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Westerlies. As a result, past changes in ecotone position and composition, and fire activity provide an opportunity to examine past climate variations. Holocene environmental history at two sites in close proximity along a west-to-east moisture gradient is inferred from magnetic susceptibility, pollen and high-resolution charcoal data. Comparison of the two records enhanced the spatial resolution of the reconstruction. Pollen data suggest that, prior to 9 ka, vegetation resembled a modern steppe, in accordance with the widespread aridity characteristic of the period. Fires were infrequent, likely as a consequence of fuel discontinuity associated with low vegetation cover. At 9 ka, forest taxa expanded into the steppe. This change in community composition was reflected in the fire regime: fires became more frequent and biomass burning increased. This fire-vegetation linkage suggests that summers were arid enough to support fires but moisture was sufficient for Nothofagus forest to expand. Based on a westward displacement of the forest-steppe ecotone, drier-than-before conditions are inferred for the 5.5-3.7 ka period. A shift from crown to surface fires at the westernmost site, and lengthening fire return intervals towards the east accompanied this vegetation change. Between 3.7 and 2.4 ka, both sites registered an A. chilensis expansion, suggesting an increase in effective moisture. The last 2400 years are characterized by uninterrupted advances of Nothofagus forest. Ecotonal trees and shrubs, such as A. chilensis, Maytenus boaria and Rhamnaceae, have become less abundant, suggesting a recent trend towards cooler and/or wetter conditions.

  8. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species. PMID:17679507

  9. Sequence conservation of an avian centromeric repeated DNA component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C S; Brooks, J E; de Kloet, E; de Kloet, S R

    1994-06-01

    The approximately 190-bp centromeric repeat monomers of the spur-winged lapwing (Vanellus spinosus, Charadriidae), the Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis, Phoenicopteridae), the sarus crane (Grus antigone, Gruidae), parrots (Psittacidae), waterfowl (Anatidae), and the merlin (Falco columbarius, Falconidae) contain elements that are interspecifically highly variable, as well as elements (trinucleotides and higher order oligonucleotides) that are highly conserved in sequence and relative location within the repeat. Such conservation suggests that the centromeric repeats of these avian species have evolved from a common ancestral sequence that may date from very early stages of avian radiation. PMID:8034177

  10. Use of thermography and fluorescein angiography in the management of a Chilean flamingo with avascular necrosis of the wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley-Sanders, Jennifer L; Bowman, Karl F; Wolfe, Barbara A; Nutter, Felicia B; Sladky, Kurt K; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2012-12-01

    A Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) was presented to the veterinary clinic at the North Carolina Zoological Park for evaluation of acute weakness of the right wing. Results of a physical examination revealed a lack of a palpable pulse in the radial artery, which suggested occlusion or obstruction of the vessel. Radiography, thermography, and fluorescein angiography confirmed right wing injury and vascular compromise. Based on the poor prognosis for return to function associated with irreversible vascular damage, the wing was amputated. After a period of observation and treatment, the bird was returned to public exhibit. PMID:23409438

  11. Paleoambientes litorales durante el inicio de la trasgresión marina holocena en bahía Lapataia, canal Beagle, parque nacional Tierra del Fuego Littoral paleoenvironments during the beginning of the Holocene marine transgression in Lapataia Bay, Beagle Channel, National Park of Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rabassa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sitios Aserradero Lapataia 1 y 2 presentan depósitos limo-arcillosos portadores de valvas de moluscos: Mulinia edulis, Mytilus chilensis, Aulacomya atra y Yoldia sp. Además predominan los quistes de dinoflagelados, revestimientos de foraminíferos bentónicos y huevos de copépodos. Valvas de Mulinia edulis fueron datadas radiocarbónicamente en 8.094 ± 43 (AA74047 y 8.167 ± 43 (AA74048 a A.P. En Arroyo Baliza depósitos limo-arcillosos son portadores de Venus antiqua, Aulacomya atra, Mytilus chilensis, entre otros. La microflora está dominada por dinoquistes protoperidinioideos, acritarcos y restos de copépodos. Se sugiere ambientes marino-marginales, con baja a moderada salinidad, y altas concentraciones de nutrientes en las aguas superficiales. La datación radiocarbónica sobre Venus antiqua en Arroyo Baliza indica 2.844 ± 34 a A.P. (AA74046. Aserradero Lapataia confirma las edades más antiguas conocidas para la fase estuárica de la transgresión holocena en el canal Beagle. Arroyo Baliza aporta nueva evidencia de la fase regresiva en este canal durante el Holoceno tardío.The Aserradero Lapataia 1 and 2 sites present clayey silty sediments including mollusk shell; Mulinia edulis, Mytilus chilensis, Aulacomya atra and Yoldia sp. Besides, dinoflagelate cysts, covers of benthonic foraminifera and copepod eggs are dominant. The microflora is represented by sporomorphs and fresh to salty water microplancton. Radiocarbon dates on Mulinia edulis shells yielded ages of 8094 ± 43 (AA74047 and 8167 ± 43 (AA74048 yr B.P. At Arroyo Baliza, clayey silts were found including Venus antiqua, Aulacomya atra, Mytilus chilensis, among others, accompanied by acritarchs and remnants of copepods. This association suggests marginal marine environments, with low to moderate salinity, and high nutrient concentration in the surface waters. Radiocarbon dating on Venus antiqua shells yielded 2844 ± 34 yr B.P. (AA74046. Marine deposits of the Aserradero

  12. Antarctic sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae of the South Shetland Islands and vicinity: part I. Spirophorida, Astrophorida, Hadromerida, Halichondrida and Haplosclerida Esponjas Antárticas (Porifera, Demospongiae das Ilhas Shetland do Sul e áreas próximas: parte I. Spirophorida, Astrophorida, Hadromerida, Halichondrida e Haplosclerida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to redescribe 11 species of sponges collected through the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR, at the South Shetland Islands and vicinity. New information is provided on the Antarctic sponge fauna, in regard to species richness and the geographical and bathymetric distributions of identified species. The following species were identified and are here illustrated and fully described: Cinachyra antarctica (Carter, 1872, Cinachyra barbata Sollas, 1886, Craniella leptoderma (Sollas, 1886, Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Polymastia invaginata Kirkpatrick, 1907, Homaxinella balfourensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886, Suberites montiniger Carter, 1880, Halichondria (Eumastia attenuata (Topsent, 1915, Haliclona (Soestella chilensis (Thiele, 1905, Hemigellius bidens (Topsent, 1901 and Calyx arcuarius (Topsent, 1913. Two new records are given for the Antarctic continent: Halichondria (Eumastia attenuata (Topsent, 1915 and Haliclona (Soestella chilensis (Thiele, 1905. Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Suberites montiniger Carter, 1880 and Hemigellius bidens (Topsent, 1901 represent the first records for this sector of the continent. Bathymetric data are extended for T. longispinum and H. attenuata.O objetivo deste trabalho é redescrever 11 espécies de esponjas coletadas através do Programa Antártico Brasileiro (PROANTAR, nas Is. Shetland do Sul e áreas próximas. Nnovas informações são fornecidas acerca do conhecimento da fauna de poríferos da Antártica, tanto para a riqueza específica como para os dados referentes às distribuições geográfica e batimétrica das espécies identificadas. As seguintes espécies foram identificadas e são aqui ilustradas e amplamente descritas: Cinachyra antarctica (Carter, 1872, Cinachyra barbata Sollas, 1886, Craniella leptoderma (Sollas, 1886, Tethyopsis longispinum (Lendenfeld, 1907, Polymastia invaginata Kirkpatrick, 1907, Homaxinella balfourensis (Ridley & Dendy, 1886

  13. Capacidad de alimentación y análisis endoscópico en bivalvos filtradores de la infauna y epifauna de la Bahía de Yaldad, Chiloé, Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    González Ovando, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    Mytilus chilensis, Venus antiqua, Mulinia edulis y Tagelus dombeii son moluscos bivalvos filtradores que habitan diferentes niveles de la planicie mareal de la bahía de Yaldad, Sur de Chile. El primero es un organismo de la epifauna mientras que las demás especies pertenecen a la infauna. Estas especies adoptan diferentes estrategias, como ser el desarrollo de sistemas de filtración y estructuras de selección de partículas, las que son usadas para aprovechar al máximo el alimento disponible e...

  14. Application of chemometric studies to metal concentrations in molluscs from the Strait of Magellan (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2007-05-01

    Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd concentrations were determined in 126 mollusc samples belonging to five different species (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47; Nacella deaurata, n = 65; Aulacomya ater, n = 4; Fissurella picta, n = 4; Acanthina monodon, n = 6) collected from the coasts of the Strait of Magellan. The metals analysed presented significant differences between the mean concentrations for the mollusc species considered. Factor and discriminant analyses made possible the differentiation of the mollusc species. In addition, when discriminant analysis was used, good classifications were obtained according to sampling zone and weight-to-length ratio of the organisms. PMID:17375348

  15. In vitro polymerization of mussel polyphenolic proteins catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzio, L A; Burzio, V A; Pardo, J; Burzio, L O

    2000-07-01

    The in vitro enzymatic polymerization of the polyphenolic protein purified from the mussels Aulacomya ater, Mytilus edulis chilensis and Choromytilus chorus was studied. Mushroom tyrosinase was used to oxidize the dopa residues present in these proteins, and polymerization was monitored by acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein from A. ater polymerized at a faster rate than the other two. Amino acid analysis of the crosslinked protein showed a notable decrease in the content of dopa, but no significant change of other amino acids. This suggests that crosslink formation may be limited to the oxidized dopa derivatives of the protein molecules. PMID:11007180

  16. Aspectos generales de la pesca del bonito (Sarda sarda)en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Basic aspects of the fising of Bonito in Argentina such as: catch statistics, fleet and gears, season and fishing grounds, and catch per unit effort (CPUE)are analized. FAO World Catch Statistics show that none of the different populations of Sarda sarda or other species of the Genus may support a highly productive fishery Exceptions are Sarda chilensis and S.sarda from the Black Sea, which us exploited by Turkey. On the basis of available information it may be inferred that the Bonito of Arg...

  17. Producción local de cuentas de valva en el bosque del noroeste de Patagonia : Una aproximación desde la arqueología experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardt, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    En numerosos sitios tardíos del noroeste de Patagonia es frecuente el registro de cuentas y restos de valvas, principalmente del molusco de agua dulce Diplodon chilensis. Estos últimos suelen interpretarse como resultado de su consumo alimenticio. En este trabajo se evalúa la posibilidad de que estos restos sean evidencia de la producción local de cuentas. A partir del desarrollo de un programa de arqueología experimental se define un patrón de desechos de manufactura esperables en contextos ...

  18. Contribución al conocimiento de los hemeróbidos de Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Insecta, Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Monserrat, Víctor J.

    2003-01-01

    New data on the biology and distribution of 10 species of brown-lacewings collected in 48 localities of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego are given. Larvae of Hemerobius bolivari Banks, 1910, Hemerobius chilensis Nakahara, 1965, Hemerobius stenopterus Monserrat, 1996, Sympherobius gayi Navás, 1910, Nomerobius cuspidatus Oswald, 1990 and Gayomyia falcata (Blanchard in Gay, 1851) are d...

  19. Interaction between Tephritidae (Insecta, Diptera and plants of the family Asteraceae: new host and distribution records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcoandre Savaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty species of Tephritidae (Diptera are recorded in association with capitula of plants in the family Asteraceae. The Tephritidae genus Tetreuaresta is registered for Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Five species of Tephritidae are newly recorded for Rio Grande do Sul, and new hosts are recorded for the following fly species: Dioxyna chilensis (Macquart, Plaumannimyia dolores (Hering, Plaumannimyia imitatrix (Hering, Plaumannimyia miseta (Hering, Plaumannimyia pallens Hering, Tomoplagia incompleta (Williston, Tomoplagia matzenbacheri Prado, Norrbom & Lewinsohn, Tomoplagia reimoseri Hendel, Xanthaciura biocellata (Thomson and Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson.

  20. First karyotype data on the family Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Golub

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the first cytogenetic study of the recently proposed family Myerslopiidae the male karyotype of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, 1996 was analyzed using conventional chromosome staining, AgNOR- and C-bandings, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with 18S rDNA and (TTAGGn telomeric probes. A karyotype of 2n = 16 + XY, NOR on a medium-sized pair of autosomes, subterminal location of C-heterochromatin, and presence of (TTAGGn telomeric sequence were determined. Additionally, the male internal reproductive system was studied.

  1. BASELINE STATUS FOR FLORA AND FAUNA WITH AQUATIC BIODIVERSITY IN DAHEJ AREA, DISTRICT BHARUCH GUJARAT

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    Ashok Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Floristic and Faunistic pattern of the area was studied based on inquiries from the local population, personal observation and forest officials. The study area falls under Dahej, Bharuch District of Gujarat state. Western part of the study area is occupied by the mud flats and Saltpans. There is almost plain without much undulation, a fallow land; hence not mush vegetation cover, except scattered Prosopis juliflora shrubs and few trees of Prosopis cineraria. Total 41 species of trees belong to 20 families are enumerated from the study area. Shrubs encountered during the present survey are 27 shrub species belong to 18 families are enumerated from the study area. The dominant shrub community in this area was represented by Prosopis Juliflora (Gando baval, Calotropis procera, C. gigantea (Akado, Ipomoea fistulosa (Nasarmo, Lawsonia inermis (Mendhi, Abutilon indicum (Khapat and Lantana camara (Ganthai. Painted stork (Mycteria leucocephala was observed which is grouped under near threatened birds by IUCN. Among the birds in the study area, Pea fowl (Pavo cristatus, is included in schedule I of Wild life protection Act (1972, while many other birds are included in schedule IV. Among the reptiles, Indian Cobra (Naja naja, and Common rat snake (Ptyas mucosus were provided protection as per Schedule-II of Wild life protection act, (1972. Among mammals, Common Mongoose (Herpestes edwardsi, Jackal (Canis aureus (Linnaeus and Jungle cat (Felis Chaus are schedule–II animals. Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus is protected as Schedule-III animal and Hares and five stripped squirrels are included in schedule IV of Wild Life Protection act 1972.

  2. Characterisation of bio-aerosols during dust storm period in N-NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sudesh; Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam

    Bio-investigations for pollen and spores were performed on dry free-fall dust and PM 10 aerosol samples, collected from three different locations separated by a distance of 600 km, situated in dust storm hit region of N-NW India. Presence of pollen of trees namely Prosopis ( Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis cinearia), Acacia, Syzygium, Pinus, Cedrus, Holoptelea and shrubs namely Ziziphus, Ricinus, Ephedra and members of Fabaceae, Oleaceae families was recorded but with varying proportions in the samples of different locations. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Brassicaceae and Cyperaceae (sedges) were some of the herb pollen identified in the samples. Among the fungal spores Nigrospora was seen in almost all samples. Nigrospora is a well known allergen and causes health problems. The concentration of trees and shrubs increases in the windward direction just as the climate changes from hot arid to semiarid. The higher frequency of grasses (Poaceae) or herbs could either be a result of the presence of these herbs in the sampling area and hence the higher production of pollen/spores or due to the resuspension from the exposed surface by the high-intensity winds. But we cannot ascertain the exact process at this stage. The overall similarity in the pollen and spore assemblage in our dust samples indicates a common connection or source(s) to the dust in this region. Presence of the pollen of the species of Himalayan origin in our entire samples strongly point towards a Himalayan connection, could be direct or indirect, to the bioaerosols and hence dust in N-NW India. In order to understand the transport path and processes involved therein, present study needs further extension with more number of samples and with reference to meteorological parameters.

  3. Structure, composition and diversity of the vegetation of hub dam catchment area, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of vegetation structure, composition and diversity of Hub-dam catchment area was conducted. A total of 106 species were recorded of which 57 were annuals while 49 were perennials. The vegetation was dominated by small trees and shrubs. Spatial patterns within-community of plant populations using variance/mean ratio and Morisita's index was also investigated. Of the 14 perennial species investigated seven (Barleria acanthoides, Grewia tenax, Indigofera oblongifolia, Aerva persica, Rhazya stricta, Iphiona grantioides and Cymbopogon jwarancusa) predominately exhibited aggregated pattern. Four species (Acacia senegal, Prosopis juliflora, Salvadora oleoides and Calotropis procera) usually exhibited random distribution but infrequently aggregated pattern. Three species (Senna holosericea, Zizyphus nummularia and Vernonia cinerescens) showed aggregated pattern or random distribution more or less equally often. The distribution pattern of vegetation composition and the underlying environmental gradients, correspondence analysis (CA) ordination and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were employed. Group structure inherent in the vegetation was disclosed using Ward's agglomerative cluster analysis. Species diversity was measured and diversity was averaged for each group. Diversity of group I (Acacia senegal and Prosopis juliflora community type) was highest because this community included a number of mid-succession species, while diversity was lowest for group 4 (Prosopis juliflora and Capparis decidua community type) as this community was highly disturbed. In the climax community (group 3), the diversity level slightly decreased, suggesting the monopolization of resources by this community. Four major community types were recognized by Ward's cluster analysis, each of which was associated with particular topographic-edaphic factors, while one was mainly governed by anthropogenic disturbance. Biological spectrum constructed for the flora showed dominance of

  4. Management of multilingualism and indigene teaching for an intercultural bilingual education in Argentina

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    Virginia Unamuno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Current paper presents the first outcome of an ongoing sociolinguistic research on bilingual intercultural education (EIB in Argentina. The aim of this study is to identify some elements for an account of the role of language in the social process that involves native people by highlighting the manner in which language usage participate in the struggle for material resources and how social representations and linguistic ideologies are involved in the unequal distribution of resources among indigene groups and in the maintenance of social inequalities. The case of a population that called El Algarrobo has been analyzed. Native young people are trained as teachers and gradually incorporated in schools of the region. In such a process the educational institutions define the roles for native teachers and the place of languages. Results show that the management of languages is linked to the process of social struggle where languages have a key role. The conception of bilingualism, the assessments of native teachers with a competence of Spanish and classroom language practices evidence the distance between meanings in official discourses on EIB in Argentina and the meaning EIB has in day-to-day practice in the classroom and in the school.

  5. VALORACIÓN ECONÓMICA DE BIENES AMBIENTALES POR BENEFICIARIOS CIRCUNDANTES Y NO CIRCUNDANTES

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    Mauricio G Villena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La pregunta básica de investigación detrás de este trabajo es cómo difiere la valoración económica de un bien ambiental considerando beneficiarios circundantes (quienes viven cerca del bien en cuestión y no circundantes (quienes habitando el país donde se encuentra el bien, viven en poblaciones distantes y por tanto disfrutan esporádicamente de los beneficios provistos por el bien ambiental. En particular, en este documento se valora económicamente el Bosque de Algarrobos de la comunidad de Tiataco (Bolivia, realizando un análisis comparativo entre beneficiarios circundantes (familias residentes en la comunidad de Tiataco y beneficiarios no circundantes (familias residentes en la ciudad de Cochabamba, a 35 Km de Tiataco, a través del Método de Valoración Contingente con formato binario. Se estimaron medidas de cambio en el bienestar para ambos grupos, empleando estimaciones paramétricas y no paramétricas. Posteriormente, estas medidas se compararon estadísticamente por medio de la construcción de intervalos de confianza (entre estimaciones paramétricas y no paramétricas de cada población y entre ambas poblaciones. Por último, se identificaron los componentes del valor económico total que los beneficiarios tanto circundantes como no circundantes asignaron al bosque.

  6. Análisis litoestratigráfico de la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior en la provincia de La Pampa

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    Graciela Visconti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La Formación Cerro Azul fue definida en 1980 para incluir a las sedimentitas continentales pliocenas (limolitas arenosas y areniscas limosas que afloran de manera discontinua en casi todo el ámbito de la provincia de La Pampa. No obstante, varias investigaciones paleontológicas realizadas a partir de la segunda mitad de la década del 80' han permitido ubicar geocronológicamente a la unidad en el intervalo 10 Ma a 5,8-5,7 Ma. El objetivo del trabajo es realizar un análisis de las características litoestratigráficas de la Formación Cerro Azul de acuerdo al Código Argentino de Estratigrafía. Se propone un lectoestratotipo para la unidad, consistente en el perfil de Algarrobo del Águila y un perfil auxiliar en cerro El Morro. También se establecieron las relaciones estratigráficas con otras formaciones. Se interpreta un paleoambiente depositacional de llanura, donde alternan depósitos de loess con numerosos paleosuelos, detectándose escasos depósitos lacustres en la base y pocos cursos fluviales.

  7. Recolección, procesamiento y consumo de frutos silvestres en el noroeste semiárido argentino. Casos actuales con implicancias arqueológicas

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    Germán G. Figueroa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación aborda etnográficamente el estudio inherente a la recolección, procesamiento y consumo de frutos de algarrobo y chañar, en las provincias de Santiago del Estero y Catamarca (Argentina. El propósito fue obtener una serie de datos, sobre un tema que se caracteriza por su escaso tratamiento en la literatura arqueológica, que permitan, en un futuro, ser usados de manera confiable a la hora de aplicar modelos como los de programación lineal o amplitud de dieta. Los interrogantes se centraron en temas tales como la inversión temporal de las distintas etapas del proceso productivo, el rendimiento promedio de cada recurso y los artefactos involucrados en las tareas, entre otros. Los resultados alcanzados posibilitaron establecer que la confección de alimentos en base a estos frutos posee las siguientes cualidades: (1 un elevado valor nutricional, (2 una baja inversión temporal en su elaboración, (3 un considerable rendimiento, (4 una escasa complejidad en lo que respecta al instrumental empleado para su producción y (5 un gran espectro de comidas a preparar. Estas particularidades convierten a esta actividad en una indiscutible alternativa alimenticia, que no debe ser relegada al momento de efectuarse estudios arqueológicos de índole económica.

  8. Leguminosas leñosas de rápido crecimiento como cultivos energéticos en el Suroeste de la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Tapias Martín, Raúl; Fernández Martínez, Manuel; Alaejos Gutiérrez, Joaquín; Salvador Nemoz, María Laura; Alesso, Patricia; González Duque, José Antonio; Alfaro Martínez, Ascensión; López Baldovín, Francisco; Díaz Blanco, Manuel Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Este estudio pretende evaluar las posibilidades del empleo de leguminosas leñosas de rápido crecimiento como cultivos destinados a la producción de biomasa como fuente de energía. El ensayo consistió en el cultivo de 14 especies / procedencias de los géneros Leucaena (L. leucocephala, L. salvadorensis, L. diversifolia, L. collinsi), Prosopis (P. alba y P. julyflora), Sesbania (S. sesban), Chamaecytisus (C. proliferus var palmensis) y Retama (R. monosperma). Las plan...

  9. A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller, 1852 is reported for the first time from Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens reared from larvae collected on native Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean desert. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, previously known only from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, is recorded for the first time from continental South America. Larvae of the latter were collected in northern Chile feeding on Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.

  10. Reproducción y alimentación de Phytotoma raimondii, cortarrama peruana en El Gramadal, Ancash

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Rosina; Mónica Romo

    2012-01-01

    Se confirma la existencia de un buen hábitat con buena disponibilidad de alimento y de sitios para reproducción de la cortarrama peruana en El Gramadal (Huarmey). Las dos especies más importantes para su alimentación “algarrobo” (Prosopis pallida) y “palo negro” (Grabowskia boerhaviifolia), se encuentran en suficiente cantidad en el lugar. Esta última planta también es crucial para la reproducción, ya que todos los nidos hallados fueron construidos en esta especie. Hasta el momento se han enc...

  11. Resistência natural de nove madeiras do semiárido brasileiro a fungos xilófagos em simulares de campo Natural resistance of nine woods from the Brazilian semi-arid region to wood-destroying fungi in field simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez Benigno Paes; Verlândia de Medeiros Morais; Carlos Roberto de Lima; Gilvan José Campelo dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram avaliar a resistência de nove madeiras de ocorrência no semiárido brasileiro a fungos xilófagos em simuladores de campo e relacionar a resistência natural com a densidade e teor de substâncias extraídas em água quente. As madeiras estudadas foram algaroba (Prosopis juliflora), angico-vermelho (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil), aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva), braúna (Schinopsis brasiliensis), cássia (Senna siamea), craibeira (Tabebuia aurea), cumaru (Ambu...

  12. Evaluación oxidativa de las mezclas de aceites de leguminosas del Desierto de Sonora con aceites de maíz y soja durante su almacenamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez-Moreno, L.; Robles-Burgueño, M. R.; Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    2001-01-01

    During storage, oils from seeds of wild legumes of the Sonoran Desert have shown greater stability than oils derived from conventional sources. In this work, oxidation process was evaluated during the storage (122 day) of mixtures of oils: Mezquite Prosopis juliflora, Gatuña Mimosa grahamii, Palo fierro Olneya tesota, Vino rama Acacia constricta, Palo de brea Cercidium praecox and Palo verde Parkinsonia aculeata with oils from soy and maize. Ratios were 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. Evaluated parame...

  13. Conhecimento e uso da carnaúba e da algaroba em comunidades do Sertão do Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Laís Costa Rodrigues; Aryêcha Arruda da Silva; Raquel Barbosa da Silva; Antonio Fernando Morais de Oliveira; Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Em comunidades rurais do Vale do Açu, sertão do Rio Grande do Norte, investigaram-se o conhecimento e uso de Copernicia prunifera (carnaúba), palmeira nativa do Nordeste do Brasil; e de Prosopis juliflora (algaroba), leguminosa originária do Peru, intencionalmente introduzida na mesma região na década de 1940. Foram entrevistados 74 moradores de quatro comunidades estabelecidas no Município de Carnaubais, que citaram o uso de 142 espécies vegetais, nativas e introduzidas. Os dados foram anali...

  14. Broad Protein Spectrum in Stored Pollen of Three Stingless Bees from the Chaco Dry Forest in South America (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) and Its Ecological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Favio Gerardo Vossler

    2015-01-01

    Protein content of pollen stored by three meliponine species was variable from 9.78% (less than half the value considered as optimal to brood development in Apis mellifera) in type Capparis tweediana-C. speciosa to more than 26% in type Maytenus vitis-idaea and some Prosopis samples. This pollen of low protein value was occasionally foraged (only six out of 75 masses analyzed of G. argentina, but none in 86 masses of T. fiebrigi or in ten of M. orbignyi). However, it is likely that amino acid...

  15. Habitat use by the Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps (Gruiformes: Otididae in breeding and non-breeding seasons in Kachchh, Gujarat, India

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    S.B. Munjpara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps, a threatened and endemic species of the Indian subcontinent, is declining in its natural habitats. The Great Indian Bustard is a bird of open land and was observed using the grasslands habitat (73%, followed by areas covered with Prosopis (11%. In the grasslands, the communities dominated with Cymbopogon martinii were utilized the highest, while those dominated by Aristida adenemsoidis were least utilized. As Cymbopogon martinii is non-palatable, we infer that it does not attract livestock and herdsmen resulting in minimum movement and trampling that favors the Great Indian Bustard.

  16. Los Mezquites Mexicanos: Biodiversidad y Distribución Geográfica Mexican mesquites: Biodiversity and geographical distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón A. Palacios

    2006-01-01

    En el presente estudio sobre la biodiversidad y distribución de los mezquites mexicanos se describen e ilustran 11 especies, 3 de las cuales son nuevas para la ciencia. Estas 11 especies de Prosopis (Sect. Algarobia) son: 1) P. odorata (Baja California Norte, Sonora, Chihuahua, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León y Zacatecas); 2) P. glandulosa (Coahuila, Nuevo León y Tamaulipas); 3) P. velutina (Sonora); 4) P. articulata (Sonora y Baja California Sur); 5) P. tamaulipana (Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, San Luis P...

  17. Growth of seven perennial plant species adapted to the Brazilian Semi-Arid Crescimento de sete espécies vegetais perenes adaptadas ao Semi-Árido brasileiro

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    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring plant height (y and canopy diameter (x in trees may not be an easy task, but stem diameter (z can be more easily evaluated. This work's objective was two-fold: evaluate the growth of species adapted to the Brazilian Semi-Arid Region in the first two years of age, and obtain linear equations to estimate y and x from z, in those species. A random block design with four replications was employed. The values for x, z, and y were measured biannually from October/2003 to March/2005. Prosopis juliflora and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia showed the highest stem diameter and plant height values, respectively, and both showed the highest canopy diameter. In the equations to estimate plant height from the stem diameter the value of the coefficient of determination (R² ranged from 0.76 (Tamarindus indica and Leucaena leucocephala to 0.92 (Prosopis juliflora and Azadirachta indica. In the equations that allowed to estimate the crown diameter from the stem diameter the R² value ranged from 0.70 (Leucaena leucocephala to 0.92 (Azadirachta indica.A mensuração da altura da planta (y e do diâmetro da copa (x em árvores pode não ser tarefa fácil, mas o diâmetro do caule (z pode ser avaliado mais facilmente. Este trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar o crescimento de espécies adaptadas ao Semi-Árido brasileiro, nos primeiros dois anos de idade, e obter equações lineares para estimar y e x a partir de z, nessas espécies. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os valores de x, z e y foram medidos semestralmente de outubro/2003 a março/2005. Prosopis juliflora e Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia apresentaram os maiores diâmetros do caule e altura da planta, respectivamente, e ambas apresentaram o maior diâmetro da copa. Nas equações para estimar a altura da planta a partir do diâmetro do caule, o valor do coeficiente de determinação (R² variou de 0,76 (Tamarindus indica and Leucaena leucocephala a 0,92 (Prosopis

  18. Zooplankton characterisation of Pampean saline shallow lakes, habitat of the Andean flamingoes

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    Yamila S. Battauz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The lowland saline shallow lakes in the Pampa de las Lagunas (Argentina, constitute an important habitat for flamingoes Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina and Phoenicoparrus andinus (Philippii. Little is known about the zooplankton communities of these systems, and their relationships with the temporal and spatial distribution of flamingoes. Ten shallow lakes in the Pampean region were studied in 2009 and 2010 winters, and in 2010 summer in order to assess the abundance, size and biomass of zooplankton and the density of flamingoes populations. Zooplankton was represented by 28 species. Copepods and cladocerans were dominant when salinity was lower (winter and summer of 2010. Seasonal changes were recorded in composition and mean abundance of zooplankton. Significant differences were  observed in mean size of zooplankton showing a negative relationship with the abundance of P. chilensis, which can be interpreted as a consequence of the selective flamingoes zooplanktophagy feeding upon the largest members of this community. Other community parameters, such as abundance, biomass, diversity and composition, did not show an apparent direct relationship with the presence or abundance of flamingoes.

  19. Sodium, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentrations in molluscs from the Magellan Strait (Chile): their contribution to dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2005-08-01

    The concentrations of the essential metals Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined in 126 specimens of molluscs belonging to five different species: Mytilus chilensis, n=47; Nacella deaurata, n=65; Aulacomya ater, n=4; Fissurella picta, n=4; Acanthina monodon, n=6, collected from the coastline of the Magellan Strait. Significant differences were obtained among the mean metal concentrations in the mollusc species considered. The contribution to the dietary daily intake of these metals for the consumption of one serving of these molluscs was high, especially the contribution to the Fe intake for the consumption of N. deaurata. Some significant differences were observed among the mean concentrations for the studied metals according to the zone of sampling. The influence of the zone of sampling on the mean concentration of metals in N. deaurata was higher than in M. chilensis. The application of lineal discriminant analysis (LDA) made it possible to differentiate statistically between specimens according to the mollusc species. Within the each mollusc species, the LDA helped to identify specimens according to the zone of sampling and weight/length ratio. PMID:16236595

  20. Herbivory and seedling performance in a fragmented temperate forest of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Javier A.; Grez, Audrey A.; Celis-Diez, Juan L.; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2007-11-01

    Forest fragmentation alters plant-animal interactions, including herbivory. Relying manipulative experiments, we test if the reduction in insect herbivory associated with forest fragmentation translates into increased seedling growth and survival of three tree common species ( Aristotelia chilensis, Cryptocarya alba and Persea lingue) in forest fragments and continuous forests in coastal Maulino forest, central Chile. Furthermore, we test if after protecting seedlings from herbivorous insects, plant performance is increased regardless of forest fragmentation. Nursery grown seedlings were transplanted into four forest fragments and a continuous forest during 2002. Insects, important herbivores in this forest, were excluded from half the seedlings by repeated applications of insecticides. Compared to continuous forests, in forest fragments, herbivory was reduced in all three species, seedling growth was greater in A. chilensis and C. alba but not in P. lingue, and survivorship was unaffected by herbivory or fragmentation in all three species. Protecting seedlings from insects reduced herbivory in the continuous forest to similar levels attained in the forest fragments. No change in herbivory results from by protecting seedlings in forest fragments. These results confirm that insects are important herbivores in the Maulino forest and also support the hypothesis that fragmentation can have strong indirect effects on plant communities as mediated through trophic interactions.

  1. Inquiring into the causes of depressed folivory in a fragmented temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia A.; Simonetti, Javier A.

    2009-05-01

    Folivory is lower in forest fragments of the Maulino forest than in continuous stands. We experimentally assessed whether depressed folivory is related to a reduction in foliar palatability caused by the more xeric microclimate of forest fragments. We compared leaf anatomy at fragments and continuous forest for four tree species ( Aristotelia chilensis, Cryptocarya alba, Nothofagus glauca and Gevuina avellana), and evaluated consumption of leaves of the two different habitats by insect species ( Sericoides viridis and Ormiscodes rufosignata). Anatomy of leaves of fragments differs from that from continuous forest in at least one of the traits, for all the plant species. However, not all species exhibit more sclerophyllous traits in forest fragments. A. chilensis exhibits the greatest number of changes, being more sclerophyllous in fragments. In palatability trials, there were no differences in the consumption of leaves of fragments versus leaves of continuous forest. Therefore, depressed folivory levels in forest remnants of the Maulino forest do not seem to be attributable to reduced foliar palatability, suggesting that changes in the insect assemblage, and not palatability, account for reduced herbivory in fragmented forests.

  2. Pterygosomatid mites of a new species group ligare (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae: Pterygosoma) parasitizing tree iguanas (Squamata: Liolaemidae: Liolaemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfer, Monika; González Acuña, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A new species group, ligare, is established within the subgenus Pterygosoma (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae: Pterygosoma) based on an analysis of female morphology. This group includes 6 newly described species--all from Liolaemus spp. (Squamata: Liolaemidae) from Chile: P. ligare sp. nov., P. formosus sp. nov., P. ovata sp. nov., and P. levissima sp. nov. from Liolaemuspictus; P chilensis sp. nov. from L. chilensis, and P. cyanogasteri sp. nov. from L. cyanogaster. The ligare species group differs from other mites of the subgenus Pterygosoma by the presence of the movable cheliceral digit without a basal spur, solenidion Ω of the palp tarsus, anterior mid-dorsal setae, large number of setae (about 200-300 pairs) on the lateral and the posterior parts of the idiosomal dorsum and the lateral parts of the idiosomal venter, by the idiosomal hypertrichy of ventro-median setae vm, setae 3a located outside of coxal fields II, the absence of setae 4b, the presence of paired setae tc and vs on tarsi III-IV, 5 setae on tibiae II-IV, 4 or 5 setae on genua I, II, 3 setae on genua III-IV, 5 setae on femur I, 5 or 4 setae on femur II and 3 setae on femur III. A key to females of the new species group is provided. Pterygosoma patagonica Dittmar de la Cruz, Morando and Avila, 2004 insufficiently described but showing most characterisitcs of ligare group is considered as nomen dubium. PMID:26185849

  3. Paleoambientes litorales durante el inicio de la trasgresión marina holocena en bahía Lapataia, canal Beagle, parque nacional Tierra del Fuego

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    Jorge Rabassa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sitios Aserradero Lapataia 1 y 2 presentan depósitos limo-arcillosos portadores de valvas de moluscos: Mulinia edulis, Mytilus chilensis, Aulacomya atra y Yoldia sp. Además predominan los quistes de dinoflagelados, revestimientos de foraminíferos bentónicos y huevos de copépodos. Valvas de Mulinia edulis fueron datadas radiocarbónicamente en 8.094 ± 43 (AA74047 y 8.167 ± 43 (AA74048 a A.P. En Arroyo Baliza depósitos limo-arcillosos son portadores de Venus antiqua, Aulacomya atra, Mytilus chilensis, entre otros. La microflora está dominada por dinoquistes protoperidinioideos, acritarcos y restos de copépodos. Se sugiere ambientes marino-marginales, con baja a moderada salinidad, y altas concentraciones de nutrientes en las aguas superficiales. La datación radiocarbónica sobre Venus antiqua en Arroyo Baliza indica 2.844 ± 34 a A.P. (AA74046. Aserradero Lapataia confirma las edades más antiguas conocidas para la fase estuárica de la transgresión holocena en el canal Beagle. Arroyo Baliza aporta nueva evidencia de la fase regresiva en este canal durante el Holoceno tardío.

  4. Polen de las Mieles de la Patagonia Andina (Chubut-Argentina Pollen of honeys from the Andean Patagonia (Chubut-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Forcone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran mediante fotomicrografías tomadas con MO y MEB, 30 tipos polínicos, determinados en las mieles producidas en la región andina de Chubut (Patagonia Argentina. Los tipos morfológicos descriptos pertenecen a las siguientes familias: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae y Verbenaceae. La mayoría de los tipos polínicos descriptos fueron hallados en las mieles como polen de menor importancia o traza con excepción de Aristotelia chilensis y Escallonia sp., que alcanzaron la categoría de polen dominante, y de Lomatia hirsuta, hallada como polen secundario.Thirty pollen types identified in the honeys from the Andean region of Chubut are described and illustrated by means of LM and SEM photomicrographs. Pollen types belong to the following families: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae, and Verbenaceae. Most pollen types described were found in the honeys as minor important pollen or traces, except Aristotelia chilensis, Escallonia sp., which reached the category of dominant pollen, and Lomatia hirsuta, which was found as secondary pollen.

  5. TANNIN POTENCIAL EVALUATION OF SIX FOREST SPECIES OF BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID REGION

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The hide tanners of Brazil Northeast region have in Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Gris. Alts. their only source of tannins. As the activity of exploration is extractiviste without the concern of recovery of explored trees and the absence of other tannin sources, exposes the specie to exhaustion and the tanners and extractivistes family to go bankruptcy. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the tanin potential of Prosopis juliflora, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Anacardium occidentale, Mimosa tenuiflora, Mimosa arenosa and Croton sonderianus. These species, Anacardium occidentale, Mimosa arenosa and Mimosa temuiflora showed, respectively, 19.83%, 18.11% and 17.74% of tannins. The Anadenanthera colubrina showed 11.89% and was inferior them mentioned species. The Prosopis juliflora and Croton sonderianus showed 3.02% and 6.62%, respectively. The abundance of Mimosa arenosa and Mimosa tenuiflora in the Brazilian Semi-arid proposes them as potential of tannin production. However, there is need of researches to verify their technical viability for skins, as well as for other uses for tannins.

  6. A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller, 1852 is reported for the first time from Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens reared from larvae collected on native Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean desert. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, previously known only from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, is recorded for the first time from continental South America. Larvae of the latter were collected in northern Chile feeding on Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.Uma nova espécie de Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae dos valles litorais do norte do Chile, e o primeiro registro continental de E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae é registrado pela primeira vez para o Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. é descrita e ilustrada com base em espécimes criados de larvas colectadas em Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae nos vales litorais do deserto do norte do Chile. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, conhecida previamente das Ilhas Galápados, Equador, é registrada pela primeira vez para SulAmérica continental. Suas larvas foram coletadas em Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.

  7. Stress tolerance and ecophysiological ability of an invader and a native species in a seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marciel Teixeira; Matzek, Virginia; Dias Medeiros, Camila; Rivas, Rebeca; Falcão, Hiram Marinho; Santos, Mauro Guida

    2014-01-01

    Ecophysiological traits of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and a phylogenetically and ecologically similar native species, Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan, were studied to understand the invasive species' success in caatinga, a seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem of the Brazilian Northeast. To determine if the invader exhibited a superior resource-capture or a resource-conservative strategy, we measured biophysical and biochemical parameters in both species during dry and wet months over the course of two years. The results show that P. juliflora benefits from a flexible strategy in which it frequently outperforms the native species in resource capture traits under favorable conditions (e.g., photosynthesis), while also showing better stress tolerance (e.g., antioxidant activity) and water-use efficiency in unfavorable conditions. In addition, across both seasons the invasive has the advantage over the native with higher chlorophyll/carotenoids and chlorophyll a/b ratios, percent N, and leaf protein. We conclude that Prosopis juliflora utilizes light, water and nutrients more efficiently than Anadenanthera colubrina, and suffers lower intensity oxidative stress in environments with reduced water availability and high light radiation. PMID:25137048

  8. Studies on 13C isotope discrimination for identifying tree provenances efficient in water use under water deficit conditions in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening for drought resistance traits was conducted in a semi-arid site in Machakos using 11 provenances of Acacia tortilis, 6 provenances of Prosopis juliflora and 4 provenances of Casuarina equisetifolia. Tolerance to drought was assessed by the 13C isotope discrimination (Δ) technique as well as by determining the waster use efficiency (WUE). Measurements of dry matter and early growth performance were also taken as indicators of drought resistance. The results showed significant differences in the 13C Isotope discrimination, water use efficiency and dry matter yields by the different provenances tested. Generally, the results indicated that there were significant linear negative relationships between 13C discrimination with water use efficiency as well as dry matter yield. The results further showed highly significant positive relationship between dry matter yield and water use efficiency. Acacia tortilis provenances from middle East and neighbouring North Eastern Africa region appear to possess the greatest abilities for drought resistance in comparison with those from sub-saharan Africa as indicated by their 13C Isotope discrimination levels, dry matter yield and water use efficiency. However, Acacia provenance from Israel had the highest drought resistance trail. Prosopis provenance from Costa Rica and Casuarina from Dakar region in Senegal also emerged as the best provenances in terms of drought tolerance as shown by the 13C isotope discrimination and dry matter traits. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Anti-fungal activity of some medicinal plants on different pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antifungal activity of different medicinal and locally available plants extracts (leaves, fruit, seeds) which are usually found in the surrounding of fields or in the fields on some fungi were tested in lab conditions. Six different plants were selected for testing these plants were Acacia nilotica (Lamk.) Willd. Azadirachta indica (A.) Juss. Crotalaria juncea L. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Ocimum basilicum L. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) Dc. These plants showed antifungal activity against the Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. These plants crude extracts of leaves showed inhibition activity against the fungi and suppressed the myclial growth. Over all selected plants exhibited moderate type of inhibition against these above mentioned pathogens. Among these plants, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum basilicum and Crotalaria juncea showed the most effective results against the Aspergillus, Fusarium and Rhizoctonia sp. of fungal pathogens. Whereas, Acacia nilotica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Prosopis juliflora showed least potential of inhibition against all above mentioned fungal pathogens. It is investigated in present studies that Azadirachta indica, Ocimum basilicum and Crotalaria juncea can be utilized against the management of fungal diseases particularly Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. (author)

  10. EFEITOS DOS EXTRATOS AQUOSO E METANÓLICO DE ALGAROBA SOBRE CULTURAS DE LARVAS DE NEMATÓDEOS GASTRINTESTINAIS DE CAPRINOS

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    MARIA JOSÉ MOREIRA BATATINHA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves and fruits of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C., respectively, on larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. Six different concentrations of the methanol extract (724.5; 557.3; 428.7; 329.8; 253.7; 195.1mg/mL and one of the aqueous extracts (110.0mg/mL were used for thetreatment of larvae cultures, in triple assays. Destilled water and doramectin were used to treat cultures considered to be negative and positive control, respectively. The results revealed a reduction of more than 90% of the infective larvae between the concentrations of724.5 up to 253.7 mg/mL for the methanol extract and a low percentage of reduction (59.87% for the aqueous extract. Only the methanol extract of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C. was effective in the in vitro treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes of goat.

  11. Survey and documentation of the potential and actual invasive alien plant species and other biological threats to biodiversity in Awash National Park, Ethiopia

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    Sebsebe DEMISSEW

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Awash National Park (ANP Ethiopia, todocument Invasive Alien Species (IAS and to assess the spread of Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC. A total of 64 sample plots were laid systematically along the altitudinal gradient of 750 to 1916 m.Potential IAS were recorded. IAS which may threaten biodiversity of the park includes species such as Prosopis juliflora, Parthenium hysterophorus L., Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R. Br., Parkinsonia aculeata L., Senna occidentalis (L. Link, Datura ferox L. and Xanthium strumarium L. Except P. juliflora and P. hysterophorus, all others were not recorded in Ethiopia as IAS. P.juliflora was recorded in three plots with cover of 1% to 10%. P. juliflora was also found spread in different parts of the park particularly following the route of cattle movement. P. hysterophoruswas recorded in and around nine sample plots. Plot 46, 47 and 48 werehighly infested by P. hysterophorus which covered more than 60, 70 and 80% of the ground layer respectively. C. grandiflora was recorded in 11 plots with cover ranging from 1% to 35%. In view of all the natural as well as anthropogenic threats to the biodiversity of the Park, the ANP is at high risk. The rich biodiversity needsimmediate management intervention.

  12. The distal forelimb musculature in aquatic and terrestrial turtles: phylogeny or environmental constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Virginia; Manzano, Adriana S; Herrel, Anthony

    2008-08-01

    We compared the muscular anatomy of the distal front limb in terrestrial and aquatic chelonians to test whether observed differences between the two groups are associated with their divergent lifestyles and locomotor modes. Given the different use of the forelimb in the two environments (body support and propulsion on land vs. mainly propulsion in water) we expected that: (1) aquatic and terrestrial turtles would show differences in their muscular anatomy, with aquatic species having more individualized muscle bundlesto allow for the complex forearm movements observed during swimming, and (2) that terrestrial turtles would have more robust muscles to support their body weight against gravity. To address these questions, we examined the forelimb myology and associated tissues in six aquatic or semi-aquatic turtles (Phyrnops hilarii, Podocnemis unifilis, Trachemys scripta, Sacalia bealei, Cuora amboinensis and Mauremys caspica) and six terrestrial or semi-terrestrial turtles (Geochelone chilensis, Testudo graeca, Cuora galbinifrons, Glyptemys insculpta, Terrapene carolina and Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima). This paper describes the general structure of the forelimb musculature in all species, and quantifies muscle masses in those species with more than five specimens available (Ph. hilarii, Po. unifilis and Ge. chilensis). The general structure of the forelimb muscles in the strictly terrestrial species Ge. chilensis and Tes. graeca was found to be notably different from the pattern of the aquatic and semi-aquatic species examined, showing a distinct fusion of the different muscular bodies. Ter. carolina also show a distinctly terrestrial pattern, but a less extensive tendon development. R. pulcherrima and GI. insculpta were found to be morphologically intermediate; in the geoemydids the strictly terrestrial bauplan never appears. Quantitative differences in the robustness or mass of the distal forelimb muscles were also observed for the species investigated, supporting

  13. Impactos del desarrollo inmobiliario en localidades costeras del Área Metropolitana de Valparaíso, Chile./ Impact of real estate development of four coastal villages of Valparaiso Metropolitan Area.

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    Camilo Arriagada Luco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un extracto de la investigación “Impacto del Desarrollo inmobiliario y turístico de pequeñas localidades balneario del litoral central chileno: localización de departamentos y resort, gentrificación urbano costera y nuevas demografías residenciales”,cuyo objetivo fue “estudiar el impacto que tiene el crecimiento del sector turístico-inmobiliario, sus efectos en la valorización del suelo urbano y recambio socio demográfico o inmigración queoperan en dos zonas de expansión del área metropolitana de Valparaíso, su eje Norte conformado por la intercomuna desde Concón hasta Maitencillo y Zapallar y su eje sur conformado por la región de Algarrobo Norte-Mirasol. La metodología aplicada combino elprocesamiento de datos cuantitativos secundarios de CASEN, Censo y otros con el levantamiento de entrevistas a expertos urbanistas como asimismo a vecinos de las zonas observadas y el registro en terreno de efectos visibles en áreas de influencia de una serie demegaproyectos ubicados dentro de las cuatro pequeñas ciudades o casos elegidos. En este artículo se hace revisión en particular si los casos analizados muestran indicios de recambio socio económico de la población residente con base en datos del Censo y CASEN, y se elabora un análisis agregado de entrevistas a urbanistas chilenos sobre desafíos del proceso a la planificación urbana y de entrevistas a vecinos residentes y comerciantes antiguos de las localidades respecto a los impactos positivos y negativos percibidos del desarrollo inmobiliario observado./This article is part of the project results 2012 "Impact of real estate and tourism developmentof small towns Chilean central coastal resort: location of departments and resort, coastal urban gentrification and new residential demographics" awarded by the University of Chile to theProject postulated by Professor Camilo Arriagada Luco. The objective was "to study the impact of the growth in tourism

  14. C and O isotopic composition of late cretaceous-paleocene carbonate sequences in Argentina and Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many basins where the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) transition has been investigated, important environmental changes have been observed. Only in few places in South America this transition was recorded by carbonates to allow for a C, O isotope investigation, important sensors for climatic changes. Among these localities, it deserves mentioning the Pernambuco-Paraiba a coastal basin, NE Brazil, the Yacoraite and Neuquen basins, Argentina, and Navidad, Algarrobo and Magellan basins, Chile. Some C and O isotope data for K-T transition carbonates are available for the Pernambuco-Paraiba coastal basin. In this basin, Ferreira et al. (1996) observed an important incursion of δ13C from +2%oPDB to -5.5%oPDB at the K-T transition in limestones, as usually observed worldwide (e.g. Magaritz,1989) accompanied by an increase in δ18O (-6 to -3%oPDB) to 1%oPDB, suggesting an important cooling at the K-T transition. Ashrof and Stinnesbeck (1989) recognized a major climatic change in the K-T transition in north-eastern Brazil, a tropical to subtropical climate predominated during the Maastrichtian, whereas subtropical to temperate one prevailed during the Danian. Hsu and Wissert (1980) proposed, based on O isotopes, that during Late Maastrichtian, temperatures in South Atlantic ranged from 18 to 25oC, culminating with cooling immediately before the K-T transition. Huber et al. (1995) proposed a gradual cooling to values as low as 10oC, in the Late Maastrichtian, in the southern high latitudes. We examine here the behavior of C and O isotopes and chemistry (Si, Mg/Ca, Sr, Fe and Mn) in the Yacoraite Fm. (Maimara and Cabra Corral localities, NW Argentina) and in the Magellanes Province, southern Chile. One of the scopes of this study is to contrast the C and O isotope patterns from southern South America with those in NE Brazil (au)

  15. Social perception of droughts in the mass media (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T. Leon; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    In the Mediterranean environment, drought is one of the extreme phenomena that has most direct consequences and complexity. It also has a direct social impact through the mass media, whose analysis, typology and characterization should be a priority in strategies to plan and mitigate effects. The appearance of droughts is slow, their occurrence is often not recognized until human activity and the environment have already been significantly affected, and drought effects persist for a long time after the drought has ended. The spatial distribution of droughts is highly complex, and significant variation in drought conditions is common between different locations. This makes it difficult to identify similar regions, especially in areas of climate transition, where the atmospheric influences are complex. This is the situation in the Iberian Peninsula (particularly the south of the peninsula), which straddles both temperate and sub-tropical climates and in which precipitation is highly variable and spatial variability is substantial. In this study we analyzed rainfall anomalies (Standardized Precipitation Index) over the last 50 years at 4 representative meteorological stations in southern Spain, two on the coast (Málaga and Algarrobo) and two at the headwaters of river basins regulated by dams (Antequera and Periana). The aims of the study were to: i) analyze the types of drought, and their frequency and intensity; and ii) establish the dynamics and evolution of the social perception of droughts in the context of global change, brought about by the communications media. The results showed the SPI was a useful tool for identifying dry anomalies that may feature in our field of study of meteorological and hydrological drought, depending on its duration. Meteorological drought impact on the eco-geomorphological system is common and has had a particular development since the 80's. Hydrological droughts are those that have had the greatest effect on water reserves

  16. Percepción y condiciones de trabajo de personas que tuvieron malaria

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    Hernán Sanabria R

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir percepciones y condiciones de trabajo de personas que tuvieron malaria. Materiales y métodos: El estudio se realizó entre febrero de 1999 y enero del año 2000 en los caseríos El Algarrobo y Casa Grande (Piura, Iquitos, Huamba (Huarmey y Cieneguilla (Lima. La muestra estuvo conformada por 67 personas, a cada una de las cuales se le aplicó una entrevista en profundidad; 44 fueron casos diagnosticados en Piura y Huarmey, siendo el resto de Iquitos y Cieneguilla. Resultados: Se encontró que las personas que tuvieron malaria estaban dedicadas a la agricultura, particularmente sembrado de arroz, limón, algodón, plátano, yuca y maíz; no recibían vestimenta apropiada, ni materiales de trabajo e información sobre medidas preventivas contra el paludismo. El trabajo era temporal y durante casi todo el día, percibían un salario promedio de alrededor de tres dólares americanos por día. En muchos casos, como el de los madereros, el trabajo también se extendía a la noche. En general existía armonía entre los compañeros de trabajo y buenas relaciones con el jefe, patrón o capataz. En su mayoría, los pacientes atribuyeron la enfermedad a su trabajo. En Piura, Huarmey y Cieneguilla la agricultura y la artesanía fueron ocupaciones importantes, particularmente confección de esteras; en Iquitos las ocupaciones importantes fueron pescador y maderero. Conclusiones: Las percepciones y condiciones de trabajo de las personas que han tenido malaria en las zonas de estudio no son buenas, sugiriéndose dar atención al problema para mejorar sus condiciones.

  17. Análisis y edad de la sección calcárea de la Formación Las Chilcas (Chile y sus implicancias para la correlación con unidades de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa A. Tunik

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La Formación Las Chilcas es una unidad volcaniclástica que posee depósitos calcáreos en la vertiente oriental de la Cordillera de la Costa y en la depresión central de Chile. Diferentes reconstrucciones paleogeográficas la han relacionado con las Formaciones Algarrobo y Quiriquina producto de la ingresión marina maastrichtiana del Pacífico y alternativamente con la ingresión marina maastrichtiana procedente del Atlántico. Esta impresión ha sido registrada en el sector andino con los depósitos de la Formación Saldeño, unos kilómetros al este del Paso de Piúquenes cerca de los 33°30´ latitud sur. Estudios paleoambientales y paleontológicos indican que los sedimentos de la Formación Las Chilcas se desarrollaron en un ambiente marino somero con influencias mareales durante el Cretácico temprano. Los resultados de este trabajo permiten desvincular definitivamente a estos sedimentos calcáreos de los sedimentos de la Formación Saldeño y de los de la Formación Quiriquina y sus equivalentes temporales. De esta manera, queda descartada una posible comunicación entre los océanos Atlántico y Pacífico a la latitud de 33°30´ latitud sur durante el Cretácico tardío. Estos datos muestran claramente un levantamiento de los Andes para el Cretácico tardío a estas latitudes.

  18. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciotti, R S; Roehrig, J T; Deubel, V; Smith, J; Parker, M; Steele, K; Crise, B; Volpe, K E; Crabtree, M B; Scherret, J H; Hall, R A; MacKenzie, J S; Cropp, C B; Panigrahy, B; Ostlund, E; Schmitt, B; Malkinson, M; Banet, C; Weissman, J; Komar, N; Savage, H M; Stone, W; McNamara, T; Gubler, D J

    1999-12-17

    In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. Complete genome sequencing of a flavivirus isolated from the brain of a dead Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), together with partial sequence analysis of envelope glycoprotein (E-glycoprotein) genes amplified from several other species including mosquitoes and two fatal human cases, revealed that West Nile (WN) virus circulated in natural transmission cycles and was responsible for the human disease. Antigenic mapping with E-glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and E-glycoprotein phylogenetic analysis confirmed these viruses as WN. This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998. PMID:10600742

  19. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway. PMID:25920225

  20. New isotonic drinks with antioxidant and biological capacities from berries (maqui, açaí and blackthorn) and lemon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Villaño, Débora; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to design new isotonic drinks with lemon juice and berries: maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz], açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.), following on from previous research. Quality parameters - including colour (CIELab parameters), minerals, phytochemical identification and quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector, total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, the antioxidant capacity (ABTS(+), DPPH• and [Formula: see text] assays) and biological activities (in vitro alpha-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory effects) - were tested in the samples and compared to commercially available isotonic drinks. The new isotonic blends with lemon and anthocyanins-rich berries showed an attractive colour, especially in maqui samples, which is essential for consumer acceptance. Significantly higher antioxidant and biological effects were determined in the new blends, in comparison with the commercial isotonic beverages. PMID:23815554

  1. Fruit mineral contents of six wild species of the North Andean Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damascos, María A; Arribere, Maria; Svriz, Maya; Bran, Donaldo

    2008-10-01

    The fruit mineral contents (K, Ca, Ba, Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, and Sr) of four native and two exotic naturalized shrubs growing in different areas of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina were investigated. Native species Berberis darwinii, Berberis microphylla (Berberidaceae), Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae) and Ribes magellanicum (Saxifragaceae) produce small berries while the fruits of the exotic species Rosa rubiginosa and Rosa canina (Rosaceae) are aggregates of aquenes. They are used to prepare jams, tea, liquors, and ice creams. Native shrub fruits had higher content of Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and Na than those of the exotic naturalized species. Rosa species showed the highest contents of Ca and Ba in their fruits (the mean content doubled those of the native plant fruits). The fruit nutrient content found in the studied species was similar or higher than other values reported for fruits of temperate and tropical species in the world. PMID:18512032

  2. Biomarkers and heavy metal bioaccumulation in mussels transplanted to coastal waters of the Beagle Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Duarte, Claudia A; Amin, Oscar A

    2010-03-01

    Mussels coming from a mussel farm at Brown Bay (Beagle Channel) were transplanted to four sites inside Ushuaia Bay for 2 and 4 weeks. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of coastal waters of Ushuaia Bay by measuring catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, total lipid content, bioaccumulation of heavy metals and condition index in transplanted mussel Mytilus edulis chilensis. Biomarkers except condition index showed significant differences among exposure times as well as among tissues. Digestive gland presented the highest catalase activity, malondialdehyde level and total lipid content. Digestive gland also was the main target tissue of accumulation of iron and copper, while gill accumulated the highest levels of zinc. A principal component analyzes with the whole set of data allowed to separate stations based on physicochemical conditions and biochemical responses of each studied area. PMID:19913913

  3. Seasonal and pollution-induced variations in biomarkers of transplanted mussels within the Beagle Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2011-06-01

    The occurrence of biomarker variations linked to environmental factors makes it difficult to distinguish the effect of pollution. In an attempt to evaluate spatial and seasonal effects of environmental parameters on biomarker responses, mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis coming from an aquaculture farm were transplanted to several points within Ushuaia Bay (Beagle Channel) for 6 weeks in summer and winter. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and levels of lipid peroxidation were measured in gills and digestive gland. Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb concentrations were also assessed. Results indicated a significant effect of seasons on biological responses as well as in metal bioaccumulation showing the influence of natural factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and food availability. The interdependence of those environmental factors is important for the homeostasis of thermoconformers, especially regarding their oxidative metabolism and should also be taken into consideration to distinguish natural from pollution-induced variations. PMID:21550069

  4. Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Rodríguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2016-01-20

    Development of antioxidant and antimicrobial active food packaging materials based on biodegradable polymer and natural plant extracts has numerous advantages as reduction of synthetic additives into the food, reduction of plastic waste, and food protection against microorganisms and oxidation reactions. In this way, active films based on methylcellulose (MC) and maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) berry fruit extract, as a source of antioxidants agents, were studied. On the other hand, due to the high water affinity of MC, this polymer was firstly cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) at different concentrations. The results showed that the addition of GA decreased water solubility, swelling, water vapor permeability of MC films, and the release of antioxidant substances from the active materials increased with the concentration of GA. Natural extract and active cross-linked films were characterized in order to obtain the optimal formulation with the highest antioxidant activity and the best physical properties for latter active food packaging application. PMID:26572446

  5. Berries from South America: a comprehensive review on chemistry, health potential, and commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckinger, Maria Elisa; Lotton, Jennifer; Lila, Mary Ann; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2010-04-01

    Dietary intake of berry fruits has been demonstrated to positively impact human health. Interest in exploring new and exotic types of berries has grown in recent years. This article provides botanical descriptions and reviews the chemistry, biological activities, and commercialization of berry-producing plants from South America, specifically Aristotelia chilensis, Euterpe oleracea, Malpighia emarginata, Ugni molinae, Fragaria chiloensis, Rubus glaucus, Rubus adenotrichus, and Vaccinium floribundum. These species possess a rich and diversified composition of bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. The most significant health benefits have been attributed to phenolic compounds and vitamin C, potentially protective against cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although both traditional folk medicine and composition of these berries suggest significant health benefits, few studies to date have investigated these potentials. PMID:20170356

  6. Observations on the Biology and Anatomy of Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Membracoidea

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    Roman Rakitov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults and nymphs of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, from the poorly known family Myerslopiidae, were collected from the litter horizon of temperate forests and shrub bogs in southern Chile. The species apparently feeds on roots and creeping stems of angiosperms. Salivary sheaths of captive specimens terminated in vascular bundles. Indirect evidence suggests feeding on phloem sap. Both nymphs and adults are strong jumpers and both actively disperse, as evidenced by their capture in pan traps. The Malpighian tubules of this species produce no brochosomes and, unlike in most previously studied Membracoidea, comprise no specialized secretory segment. Each tubule comprises secretory cells scattered among excretory ones, a condition not previously known among Hemiptera.

  7. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Dmitry A; McKamey, Stuart H

    2013-01-01

    New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca) angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska); Empoasca (Empoasca) chilensis nom.nov. for Empoasca diversa Linnavuori & DeLong (not Vilbaste); Austroasca verdensis nom.nov. for Empoasca artemisiae Lindberg (not Lethierry); Kropka vidanoi Dworakowska for Erythroneura unipunctata Dlabola (not Cerutti); Zyginella vietnamica nom. nov. for Zyginella melichari Dworakowska (not Kirkaldy); Eupteryx (Eupteryx) dlabolai nom. nov. for Eupteryx octonotata Dlabola (not Hardy); Baaora ahmedi nom. nov. for Baaora spinosa (Ahmed) (not Beamer); Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev is synonymized with Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev), syn. nov. PMID:23794826

  8. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera

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    Dmitry Dmitriev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska; Empoasca (Empoasca chilensis nom.nov. for Empoasca diversa Linnavuori & DeLong (not Vilbaste; Austroasca verdensis nom.nov. for Empoasca artemisiae Lindberg (not Lethierry; Kropka vidanoi Dworakowska for Erythroneura unipunctata Dlabola (not Cerutti; Zyginella vietnamica nom.nov. for Zyginella melichari Dworakowska (not Kirkaldy; Eupteryx (Eupteryx dlabolai nom.nov. for Eupteryx octonotata Dlabola (not Hardy; Baaora ahmedi nom.nov. for Baaora spinosa (Ahmed (not Beamer; Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev is synonymized with Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev, syn.nov.

  9. Fijacion primaria y variaciones morfologicas, durante la metamorfosis de algunos bivalvos chilenos

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    Juan Uribe Barichivith

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The larval primary settlement and the changes originated during the metamorphosis of some species of Chilean bivalves, are comparatively studied, being described, the larval and post - larval stages from the veliconcha to late plantigrade. By observing in ropes "anchovetera" nets and plankton samples, in the mitiliculture of Codihué (41º 46'S; 73º 24'W, it was verified for Mytilus chilensis Hupé, 1854 and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782, primary settlement on the filamentous algae of genera Enteromorpha with an average size of 33º µ high, minimum average of definitive settlement, byssus positional changes, etc. Information concerning average and number of larval and post - larval attachment to different deep and inmersión period and morphological characters of larval and post - larval of: Bankia martensi Stempell, 1898 (Teredinidae, Pholas chiloensis (Molina, 1782 (Pholadidae y Chlamys patriae Doello Jurado, 1918 (Pectinidae, are also given.

  10. Wind Reduction Patterns Around Isolated Biomass for Wind-Erosion Control in a Desertified Area of Central Sudan

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    Nawal Khidir Nasr Al-Amin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of sparse vegetation, feature common in arid zone, to reduce wind force (velocity and hence protect the surface and regions downwind from drifting sand and their consequences. Respectively 4 (with heights h of 4, 3.2, 2 and 1.66 m, 2 (with h of 3 and 2.5 m and 3 (with h of 1.04, 0.9 and 0.8 m well established single biomass configurations of Leptadenia pyrotechnica trees, Prosopis juliflora trees and Panicum turgidum grass, were selected in the field. Solar powered cup anemometer wind measurements with a data logger system were taken at heights of 0.25 and 0.5 h, at distances 0.5 and 1 h, at four sides of the tree in the prevailing wind direction and perpendicular to it, and additionally at 2, 4 and 6 h windward and leeward. The protection effectiveness of the biomass was calculated as a wind reduction ratio and in terms of objects protection, which was evaluated using the dimensionless protection index (ƒ. The study showed that windward protection provided by Leptadenia and Prosopis at level 0.25h and distance 0.5 h was similar, w ith a wind reduction ratio R0.8, while Panicum showed comparably higher R-values. Even at the 0.5 h level, Panicum showed an R of 0.65 at 0.5 h distance. Leew ard, at 0.25 h level differences were small, R increasing from 0.6/0.7 to 0.8/1 with distance, Leptadenia protecting best. At higher level (0.5 h at distances 0.5 and 1 h Prosopis gave better protection than the other two at distances 0.5, 1 and 2 h. The research is an exam ple of simple experimental work under difficult environmental conditions in Africa. It was part of studies in which additional attention was paid to quantification aspects under such conditions as well as to the problems it helped solve in the African societies concerned as agrometeorological services.

  11. Survival, growth and vulnerability to drought in fire refuges: implications for the persistence of a fire-sensitive conifer in northern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesmann, Jennifer B; Gowda, Juan H; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Kitzberger, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Fire severity and extent are expected to increase in many regions worldwide due to climate change. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the relative importance of deterministic vs. stochastic factors producing remnant vegetation to understand their function in the persistence of fire-sensitive plants. Vegetation remnants (areas within the landscape that have not burned for a considerable amount of time) may occur stochastically or in more predictable locations (fire refuges) where physical conditions decrease fire severity. Our aim was to determine if remnant forests of the fire-sensitive conifer Austrocedrus chilensis are associated with biophysical attributes that allow persistence in a fire-prone Patagonian landscape. We conducted a multi-scale approach, determining attributes of forest remnants and their surroundings (matrices) through remote sensing and field-based biophysical and functional characteristics, and quantifying how tree survival probability relates to microsite conditions. Trees within remnants displayed abundant fire scars, were twofold older and had threefold larger growth rates than matrix trees. Remnants were associated with high rocky cover and elevated topographical positions. Tree survival increased in hilltops, eastern aspects, and with sparse vegetation. Trees within remnants experienced severe reductions in growth during droughts. Our results suggest that A. chilensis remnants are mainly the result of refuges, where environmental conditions increase fire survival, but also increase susceptibility to drought. A trade-off between fire survival and drought vulnerability may imply that under increasing drought and fire severity, locations that in the past have served as refuges may reduce their ability to allow the persistence of fire-sensitive taxa. PMID:26334864

  12. Disjoint geographical distribution of intertidal and nearshore benthic invertebrates in the Southern Hemisphere Distribuciones geográficas disyuntas de invertebrados bentónicos intermareales y del submareal somero en el Hemisferio Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C CASTILLA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogeographical explanations for the extant and paleo disjoint geographical distribution in the southern hemisphere of five species of nearshore marine benthic invertebrates: Gaimardia trapesina, Ostrea chilensis, Pyura stolonifera taxonomic complex, Aulacomya ater and Concholepas concholepas, showing distinctive reproductive strategies and early life history characteristics are reviewed and analyzed. Through the use of published and new information we contrasted the following hypotheses: a vicariance-historical process, b epiplanktonic larval dispersal, c juvenile/adult dispersal through rafting and d planned or accidental anthropogenic dispersal mechanisms. The juvenile/adult transoceanic dispersal hypothesis by rafting was the only one impossible to be rejected for the species analyzed. The implication and future direction for research in this area are discussedSe revisa y analiza las posibles explicaciones para la distribución geográfica disyunta, presente y pasada, en el hemisferio sur de cinco especies de invertebrados bentónicos marinos litorales: Gaimardia trapesina, Ostrea chilensis, el complejo taxonómico Pyura stolonifera, Aulacomya ater y Concholepas concholepas, con estrategias reproductivas y características de historia de vida distintas. Se discute y pone a prueba, usando información original o publicada, las siguientes hipótesis: a procesos históricos de vicarianza, b dispersión de larvas epi-planctónicas, c dispersión de juveniles o adultos por transporte pasivo y d dispersión antropogénica planificada o accidental. La hipótesis de dispersión transoceánica de juveniles o adultos fue la única imposible de rechazar para las especies analizadas. Se discute las direcciones futuras de investigación en esta área

  13. Sobre la presencia de Paraptenodytes y Palaeospheniscus (Aves: Sphenisciformes en la Formación Bahía Inglesa, Chile On the precense of Paraptenodytes y Palaeospheniscus (Aves: Sphenisciformes on the Bahia Inglesa Formation, Chile

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    MARTÍN F CHÁVEZ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente comentario fue motivado por el artículo de Acosta-Hospitaleche & Canto (2005 y de la observación directa de algunos especímenes de Spheniscidae previamente reportados para la Formación Bahía Inglesa, en la región de Atacama, Chile. La falta de caracteres morfológicos que permitan la diferenciación con el género Spheniscus y de restos diagnósticos asociados, descartan la asignación de materiales craneales a Palaeospheniscus. Igualmente no es posible corroborar la asignación de especímenes a Paraptenodytes, sugiriéndose el uso de Spheniscidae indet. aff. Paraptenodytes para un tarsometatarso aislado. Se sugiere también el uso de Spheniscus spp. para los especímenes previamente referidos a S. cf. chilensis y S. aff. humboldti. De este modo, el número de pingüinos registrados en la formación se reduce de nueve a sieteThe present comment was motivated by the article by Acosta-Hospitaleche & Canto (2005, and from the direct observation of some specimens of Sphenicidae previously reported for the Bahia Inglesa Formation, in the Atacama region, Chile. The lack of morphological characters that they allow the differentiation with the genus Spheniscus and of associate diagnostic remains discard the assignment of cranial materials to Palaeospheniscus. Equally it is not possible to corroborate the assignment of specimens to Paraptenodytes, being suggested the use of Spheniscidae indet. aff. Paraptenodytes for an isolated tarsometatarsus. It is also suggested the use of Spheniscus spp. for the specimens previously referred to S. cf. chilensis and S. aff. humboldti. This way, the number of penguins registered in the formation decreases from nine to seven

  14. Heavy metals bio indication in northern Patagonia lakes, Argentina, using native mussel Diplodon sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Native mussels Diplodon chilensis were sampled from lakes comprised in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Northern Patagonia, Argentina, and surrounding areas, in order to evaluate heavy metal distribution in the region, and to assess the contribution that this compartment of the trophic web transfers to the circulation of these elements in the food chain. Filter feeding organisms such as the hard shell Diplodon chilensis are ideal subjects for the study of bioaccumulation of contaminants in view of their feeding habits which imply that they become key link elements in the transfer of energy in the form of phyto, zooplankton and organic particulate matter from the water column into the water bodies food webs. The concentration of potential pollutants or elements that could affect human health or wildlife, namely Sb, Ag, As, Cr, Hg, and Se were determined in pooled samples of 15 similar length individuals, by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Digestive glands were analysed separately from soft tissues. Geological tracers Sc, Ta, Th, U, and Rare Earth elements, were also determined in order to discriminate the elements associated to detritical particulate matter included in mussels bodies from those incorporated by the organisms. No relevant differences were observed between elemental concentration in digestive glands and whole soft tissues except for Hg contents, that ranged from 0.7 to 12 μg.g-1 dry weight in digestive glands, and from 0.2 to 0.9 μg.g-1 dry weight in whole soft tissues. There was no correlation between Hg contents in both types of samples. Whole soft tissues were selected for long-term bio indication since the time residence of Hg in digestive gland is shorter and could not represent steady state conditions. (author)

  15. Nuevas citas de Coleoptera para la Argentina (Carabidae, Lucanidae, Scarabaeidae y Tenebrionidae New records of Coleoptera for Argentina (Carabidae, Lucanidae, Scarabeidae and Tenebrionidae

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    Sergio Roig-Juñent

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En enero de 2003, se realizó un viaje de campaña con el fin de recolectar materiales en áreas poco prospectadas de la estepa patagónica de Mendoza y Neuquén, Argentina, así como en ambientes de bosques de Nothofagus en la provincia de Neuquén. Las recolecciones se realizaron en forma manual, usando trampas con cebo y trampas de luz de mercurio. El material recolectado permite citar por primera vez para la Argentina los géneros Nothobroscus Roig-Juñent & Ball y Mimophilorizus Mateu (Carabidae, Callyntra Solier y Homocyrtus Reitter (Tenebrionidae. Además, se citan por primera vez para la Argentina las especies Cnemalobus sulciferus Philippi (Carabidae, Allidiostoma landbecki (Philippi, Macrodactylus chilensis Solier y Brachysternus marginatus (Germain (Scarabeidae y Pycnosiphorus philippii (Westwood (Lucanidae. Se provee una breve descripción de los ambientes en donde estas especies fueron encontradas.A short expedition to northern Patagonia was made in January 2003. The main goal of the trip was to survey the diversity of some families of Coleoptera in the insufficient explored steppes in Mendoza and Neuquén provinces, Argentina and Nothofagus forests of Neuquén province. The techniques included manual collection and the use of different kinds of traps, such as with bite or artificial light of mercury. The study of the material revealed four new genera records and four new species records for the country: Nothobroscus Roig-Juñent & Ball and Mimophilorizus Mateu (Carabidae, Callyntra Solier and Homocyrtus Reitter (Tenebrionidae are the new genus records. Cnemalobus sulciferus Philippi (Carabidae, Allidiostoma landbecki (Philippi, Macrodactylus chilensis Solier, and Brachysternus marginatus (Germain (Scarabeidae, and Pycnosiphorus philippii (Westwood (Lucanidae are the new species records. A brief description of the habitats where the species were collected is provided.

  16. Negative impacts of a vertebrate predator on insect pollinator visitation and seed output in Chuquiraga oppositifolia, a high Andean shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Alejandro A; Arroyo, Mary T K

    2004-01-01

    Studies on plant-pollinator interactions have largely neglected the potential negative effects of the predators of pollinators on seed output, even though anti-predatory behaviour of pollinators may affect visitation patterns, pollen transfer, and therefore potentially, plant reproductive output. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of lizards and insectivorous birds, by reducing pollinator visitation, can have significant negative effects on seed output in the insect-pollinated, genetically self-incompatible lower alpine Andean shrub, Chuquiraga oppositifolia (Asteraceae). The lower alpine belt supports a high density of territorial Liolaemus (Tropiduridae) lizards and low shrubs interspersed among rocks of varying sizes, the latter inhabited by lizards and commonly used by flycatchers Muscisaxicola (Tyrannidae) as perching sites. In a 2x2 factorial predator-exclusion experiment, visitation rates of the most frequent pollinators of C. oppositifolia (the satyrid butterfly Cosmosatyrus chilensis and the syrphid fly Scaeva melanostoma), the duration of pollinator visits, and seed output, were 2-4 times greater when lizards were excluded, while birds had no effect. In a natural experiment, visits by S. melanostoma were 9 times shorter, and pollinator visitation rates of C. chilensis and S. melanostoma, and C. oppositifolia seed output were 2-3 times lower on shrubs growing adjacent to lizard-occupied rocks compared to those growing distant from rocks. Our results, verified for additional Andean sites, suggest that lizard predators can alter the behaviour of pollinators and elicit strong top-down indirect negative effects on seed output. Such effects may be especially important in high alpine plant communities, where pollinator activity can be low and erratic, and pollen limitation has been reported. PMID:14551828

  17. Diatomeas (Bacillariophyceae de Ambientes Acuáticos de Altura de la Provincia de Catamarca, Argentina II Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from high altitude aquatic environments of Catamarca Province in Argentina. II

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    Nora I. Maidana

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En esta contribución al conocimiento de las diatomeas de humedales de altura, se analizaron 14 muestras pertenecientes a distintos cuerpos de agua de la Provincia de Catamarca (Argentina, entre los 2420 y 4240 m s. n. m. Se identificaron 208 taxones infragenéricos de los cuales 90 son nuevas citas para la Provincia de Catamarca. Se mencionan por primera vez para Argentina los géneros: Frankophila y Microcostatus y las especies: Achnanthes thermalis var. rumrichorum Lange-Bertalot; Amphora mira Krasske; Brachysira atacamae Hustedt; Frankophila similioides Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Gomphonema punae Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Haloroundia speciosa Diaz & Maidana; Luticola mollis Lange-Bertalot& Rumrich; Mastogloia atacamae Hustedt; Microcostatus andinus Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Navicula atacamana Patrick; Navicula parinacota Rumrich & Lange-Bertalot; Planothidium chilense (Hustedt Lange-Bertalot; Staurosira pseudoconstruens (Marciniak Lange-Bertalot; Surirella chilensis var constricta Hustedt y Surirella wetzellii Hustedt. Además se propone una nueva combinación: Ulnaria ulna var. constricta.In this research focusing the diatoms of high topographic wetlands, 14 samples of different freshwater bodies (between 2,420 and 4,240 m a. s. l. were studied. Two hundred and eight infrageneric taxa were identified, 90 of them are new records for the Catamarca province. The genera: Frankophila and Microcostatus and the species Achnanthes thermalis var. rumrichorum Lange-Bertalot; Amphora mira Krasske; Brachysira atacamae Hustedt; Frankophila similioides Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Gomphonema punae Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Haloroundia speciosa Diaz & Maidana; Luticola mollis Lange-Bertalot & Rumrich; Mastogloia atacamae Hustedt; Microcostatus andinus Lange-Bertalot& Rumrich; Navicula atacamana Patrick; Navicula parinacota Rumrich & Lange-Bertalot; Planothidium chilense (Hustedt Lange-Bertalot; Staurosira pseudoconstruens (Marciniak Lange-Bertalot; Surirella

  18. Abiotic alterations caused by forest fragmentation affect tree regeneration: a shade and drought tolerance gradient in the remnants of Coastal Maulino Forest Alteraciones abióticas causadas por la fragmentación del bosque afectan la regeneración arbórea: un gradiente de tolerancia a la sombra y la sequía en los remanentes del Bosque Maulino Costero

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    PABLO C GUERRERO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant regeneration is strongly determined by light and soil moisture differences between habitáis; both variables are modified by large-scale forest fragmentation. Several studies have indicated this alteration as the mechanism involved in tropical forest community change. The effects of fragmentation may be much more severe in Mediterranean and deciduous forests, because plant species in these forests show a stress tolerance tradeoff between shade and drought. Our study was performed in the deciduous fragmented Coastal Maulino Forest: Reserva Nacional Los Queules (RNLQ and surrounding small fragments. We hypothesised that Aristotelia chilensis (shade intolerant but drought tolerant should increase its regeneration in small patches as a consequence of the change in habitat suitability (i.e. luminous and drier, while Cryptocarya alba (shade tolerant but drought intolerant should have less regeneration in small fragments. We also expected that Nothofagus glauca and N. obliqua, which have shade and drought tolerances intermedíate between A. chilensis and C. alba, should respond less to forest fragmentation. We used two estimations of plant regeneration: (i seedling and sapling densities via field observations and (ii seed germination and seedling establishment via a field-based experiment. Natural regeneration patterns of C. alba indicated a depressed regeneration within small forest fragments compared to RNLQ, although experimental germination, establishment and recruitment proportions did not vary between habitáis. In contrast, A. chilensis regeneration was favored by forest fragmentation, with increased seedling and sapling densities and germination in small forest fragments. Both N. glauca and N. obliqua were less affected by forest fragmentation in their natural and experimental regeneration. This study highlights the relevance of studying changes in abiotic factors as a consequence of human activities, and considering safe sites (defined

  19. Greenhouse evaluation of rhizobia as biocontrol agent of root-infecting fungi in okra

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    I. A. Siddiqui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of Cicer arietinum, Vigna radiata, V. mungo, Samania saman, Sesbania sesban, Leucinia sp., Prosopis cineraria and Medicago sativa were used to study their effects on root-infecting fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani. In dual culture plate assay, strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti were found to inhibit radial growth of M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani producing zones of inhibition. Bradyrhizobium sp., and R. meliloti either used as seed dressing or as soil drench significantly suppressed root-rot infection caused by M. phaseolina, F. solani and R. solani in okra, a non-1eguminous crop under greenhouse conditions. Biomass of plants was also higher in the presence of rhizobia.

  20. Potential rapd markers for population studies in tree legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAPDs were quite efficient in bringing out the diversity at DNA level among non-edible legumes viz., Acacia nilotica, Adenanthera pavonina, Prosopis juliflora, Pithecolobium dulce, Clitoria ternatea and Pongamia pinnata. The RAPD primer index reveals the information content of the RAPD primer per se. Of the 82 primers tested, OPE 8, OPI 6, OPL 2, OPL 16, OPI 18, OPI 13, OPI 14, OPP 1, OPE 20 and OPI 4 with comparatively higher primer index were more informative and can be used for further DNA finger printing and population studies in tree legumes. CTAB protocol was found to be superior in isolating genomic DNA of good quality. The 260/280 ratios varied between 1.70 and 2.09. Though the genomic DNA isolated by potassium acetate method was found to be intact in 0.8% agarose gel, the yield was significantly lower than the modified CTAB method. (author)

  1. Ethnomedicine of Dharwad district in Karnataka, India--plants used in oral health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, S S; Harsha, V H; Shripathi, V; Hegde, G R

    2004-10-01

    The present ethnomedicine survey covers the Dharwad district of Karnataka in southern India. It was revealed that 35 plants belonging to 26 families are being used to treat different types of oral ailments like toothache, plaque and caries, pyorrhea and aphthae. Sixteen of these plants were new claims for the treatment of oral ailments not previously reported in the ethnomedicinal literature of India. Basella alba, Blepharis repens, Capparis sepiaria, Oxalis corniculata and Ricinus communis are used for the treatment of aphthae; Azima tetracantha, Caesalpinia coriaria, Cleome gynandra, Gossypium herbacium, Leucas aspera, Merremia chryseides, Pergularia daemia, Prosopis juliflora and Solanum nigrum are used to treat tooth ache and Cassia hirsuta and Cassia tora are used in the treatment of plaque and caries. PMID:15325728

  2. Forage selection by teddy goats versus sheep on thal ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazing behaviours of Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were studied on rangelands of ThaI. Bite count method was used to determine the dietary composition of both animal species. The overall preference of Teddy goats was higher for Khabble grass (Cynodon dactylon), which was 40.57% of the total number of bite made on different plant species during the study period (March-July). Teddy goats utilized a wide range of browsing plant species like Wan (Salvadora oleoides), Phog (Calligonum polygonoides), Babil (Acacia jacquemontii), Jandi (Prosopis spicigera) etc. Browsing species were major component (>50%) of goat diets dur- ing March through June. Whereas Thalli sheep had been consistent in their heavy use of Khabble grass (overall 89.27%). Browsing plant species were not an important component of their diets. Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were competitive for Khabble grass particularly at its vegetative growth stage. (author)

  3. Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, A; Menéndez, H; Méndez, E; Cohobón, E; Samayoa, B E; Jauregui, E; Peralta, E; Carrillo, G

    1995-10-01

    Plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of gonorrhoea were macerated in 50% alcohol and the tincture tested for in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae using strains isolated from symptomatic patients and confirmed by standard bacteriological procedures. From 46 plants investigated, 13 (28.3%) showed evident inhibition zones (> 9 mm), seven (15.2%) showed small activity (6.1-8.9 mm) and 26 (56.5%) showed no activity; nine of these plants inhibited five strains of N. gonorrhoea freshly isolated. The most active plants of American origin were: bark of Bixa orellana fruits of Parmentiera edulis, leaf of Diphysa robinioides, Eupatorium odoratum, Gliricidia sepium, Physalis angulata, Piper aduncum and Prosopis juliflora, root of Casimiroa edulis, and whole Clematis dioica. PMID:8583798

  4. A preliminaryfloristic checklist of thal desert punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The floristic survey of the Thal desert, Punjab, Pakistan was carried out during 2010 to 2013. So far, 248 species distributed across 166 genera and 38 families were identified during the report period. Besides, one species viz., Themeda triandra was recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Of them, one fern, 4 monocots and 33 dicots families were determined. The most dominating family was Poaceae that contributed 52 species (21.49%), followed by Fabaceae (34 spp., 13.05%) and Amaranthaceae and Asteraceae (17 spp., 7.02% each). The largest genera were Euphorbia (6 spp.), Cyperus, Eragrostis and Solanum (5 spp. each), Mollugo, Heliotropium and Cenchrus (4 spp. each), Acacia, Prosopis, Tephrosia, Corchorus, Boerhavia and Ziziphus (3 spp. each). This checklist consists of updated systematic families and plants names that will provide a useful starting point for further ecological and bioprospective research of the area under study. (author)

  5. Inquérito epidemiológico sobre plantas tóxicas das mesoregiões Central e Oeste do Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Antonio Geraldo Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para determinar as plantas tóxicas incriminadas como de interesse zootécnico em 35 municípios das mesorregiões Central e Oeste do estado do Rio Grande do Norte (RN. Foram entrevistados 180 produtores, 20 médicos veterinários, 12 técnicos agrícolas e 5 agrônomos. Os dados obtidos nas entrevistas foram compilados e analisados com auxílio do programa Epi Info versão 6.04. As plantas tóxicas relatadas pelos entrevistados como causadoras de diversos surtos foram Ipomoea asarifolia, Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Indigofera suffruticosa, Manihot carthaginensis subsp. glaziovii, Amorimia septentrionalis, Tephrosia cinerea, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Marsdenia megalantha, Anacardium occidentale, Cnidoscolus quercifolius, Crotalaria retusa, Froelichia humboldtiana, Ipomoea carnea, Leucaena leucocephala, Manihot esculenta, Mimosa tenuiflora, Nerium oleander, Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum halepense e Urochloa (Brachiaria decumbens.

  6. Evaluation of plant performance of Jatropha curcas L. under different agro-practices for optimizing biomass - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Soumit K.; Srivastava, Pankaj; Singh, Nandita [National Botanical Research Institute, CSIR, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, UP (India); Tripathi, Ritu; Singh, J.P. [Solar Energy Centre, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Gwalpahari, Gurgaon (India)

    2010-01-15

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose, drought resistant, perennial plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family has gained lot of importance for the production of biodiesel. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider Jatropha as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, basic agronomic properties of Jatropha are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Grey literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields. Studies were undertaken at Solar Energy Centre, Gurgaon, India to evaluate the plant performance under different agro-practices with special reference to irrigation scheduling, VAM and biofertilizers' applications, plant spacing, pruning trials for maximizing tree architecture and higher biomass. Parallel experiments were undertaken to understand the scope of J. curcas for intercropping practices in the under storey of dominating monoculture tree stands (Prosopis, Acacia and Neem). (author)

  7. Evaluation of plant performance of Jatropha curcas L. under different agro-practices for optimizing biomass - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose, drought resistant, perennial plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family has gained lot of importance for the production of biodiesel. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider Jatropha as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, basic agronomic properties of Jatropha are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Grey literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields. Studies were undertaken at Solar Energy Centre, Gurgaon, India to evaluate the plant performance under different agro-practices with special reference to irrigation scheduling, VAM and biofertilizers' applications, plant spacing, pruning trials for maximizing tree architecture and higher biomass. Parallel experiments were undertaken to understand the scope of J. curcas for intercropping practices in the under storey of dominating monoculture tree stands (Prosopis, Acacia and Neem). (author)

  8. Evaluation of plant performance of Jatropha curcas L. under different agro-practices for optimizing biomass - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose, drought resistant, perennial plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family has gained lot of importance for the production of biodiesel. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider Jatropha as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, basic agronomic properties of Jatropha are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Grey literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields. Studies were undertaken at Solar Energy Centre, Gurgaon, India to evaluate the plant performance under different agro-practices with special reference to irrigation scheduling, VAM and biofertilizers' applications, plant spacing, pruning trials for maximizing tree architecture and higher biomass. Parallel experiments were undertaken to understand the scope of J. curcas for intercropping practices in the under storey of dominating monoculture tree stands (Prosopis, Acacia and Neem).

  9. Euphorbia latex: a possible source of hydrocarbons and rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, P.; Teisseire, D.

    1975-01-01

    Illustrated descriptions are given of 36 plants of potential economic value in underdeveloped tropical countries, classified by use. The plants are either wild or cultivated on a fairly local scale. Accounts of limitations and special requirements and lists of references, research contacts and sources of germ plasm are included for each species. The following tree and shrub species are included: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, C. chayamansa and hearts of several edible palm species including Euterpe edulis (vegetables); Durio species, Garcinia mangostana, Solanum quitoense, Bactris gaspiaes, Citrus grandis, Annona muricata and Pourouma cecropiaefolia (fruits); Orbignya martiana, Caryocar species, Jessenia polycarpa and Simmondsia chinensis (oil seeds); Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum, Cassia sturtii, Atriplex species and Prosopis tamarungo (forage (browse)); Mauritia flexuosa (fruit, wood, etc.); Euphorbia antisyphilitica (wax); and Parthenium argentatum (rubber).

  10. The causes of stemflow variation in three semi-arid growing species of northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Návar, José

    1993-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the role of some plant parameters on stemflow generation. Stemflow measurements in individual shrubs of three semi-arid growing species ( Diospyrus texana, Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata) were carried out under natural and simulated rainfall conditions in northeastern Mexico. Stemflow coefficients for individual shrubs were developed. The analysis of variance showed a significant difference among the species for both natural and simulated rainfall conditions. The multiple linear models suggested that the number of branches and position on the canopy, instead of total projected branch area, controls stemflow. There were also suggestions that bark roughness, leaf and twig position may also explain some of the interspecific stemflow variation. This contribution was suggested by an introduced funnelling ratio.

  11. Effects of picloram and ethylene on leaf movement in huisache and mesquite seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, J R; Morgan, P W

    1969-06-01

    Application of 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) to roots stimulated the production of ethylene in both mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. var. glandulosa (Torr.) Cockerell] and huisache [Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.] seedlings. Herbicide levels rose in tissues before we detected increased ethylene production. Rates of ethylene production by various parts of the plant paralleled herbicide concentrations. In both species, picloram caused loss of leaf movement and epinastic curvature of leaves and stems. Only huisache was defoliated by picloram. Rates of ethylene production increased before we observed any leaf movement or defoliation responses. Fumigation of plants with levels of ethylene, calculated to approximate those in herbicide-treated plants at the initial loss of leaf movement, caused the same symptoms as picloram treatment. The time sequence of ethylene fumigation and loss of the ability for leaf movement is compatible with the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between picloram and ethylene production and loss of leaf movement. PMID:16657138

  12. Study of the in Vitro Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts of Prosopis juliflora and Punica granatum. Antileishmanial activity against L. infantum was demonstrated in Caralluma sinaica and Periploca aphylla. Amastigotes of T. cruzi were affected by the methanol extract of Albizia lebbeck pericarp, Caralluma sinaica, Periploca aphylla and Prosopius juliflora. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in Prosopis juliflora. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for Conocarpus lancifolius.

  13. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum

  14. Aeroallergens and viable microbes in sandstorm dust. Potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaasi, A A; Parhar, R S; al-Mohanna, F A; Harfi, H A; Collison, K S; al-Sedairy, S T

    1998-03-01

    Aeroallergens and antigens in sandstorm dust, extracts of which were skin prick test (SPT) positive in allergic patients, were detected by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA. Fungi and bacteria isolated by agar settle plates and soil dilution and soil washing methods were enumerated and identified. Cat dander, Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chenopodium, Cladosporium, Bermuda grass, Pithecellobium, Prosopis, Rumex, cultivated rye, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detected by both methods. Viable microbes including 1892 +/- 325 colony-forming units (cfu) of bacteria, and 869 +/- 75 cfu of fungi were isolated per gram of dust by the soil dilution method. Randomly selected microbial colonies on streaking and subculture were found to consist of between two and seven mixed colonies. Fungi including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Mucor, Mycelia sterilia, Penicillium, Pythium, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and some yeasts were isolated. Actinomyces, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and mostly coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were identified, but the bulk of unidentified bacterial isolates were mainly mixed colonies of rods, cocci, coccobacilli, and some filamentous types. Six-hour agar settle-plate counts during sandstorms were 100 and 40% higher for bacteria and fungi, respectively, than without sandstorms. The most abundant aeroallergens were those of Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bermuda grass, Cladosporium, cultivated rye, Prosopis, and cat dander. Pithecellobium dulce, Rumex crispus, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detectable for the first time in Riyadh. IgE reactivities of the dust in man were demonstrated by ELISA using sera from atopic, exposed, and normal subjects. These results indicate that sandstorm dust is a prolific source of potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments, and the methods mentioned here should be routinely used for quick sampling of the environment. PMID:9542605

  15. Natural abundances of 15N and 13C in leaves of some N2- fixing and non N2- fixing trees and shrubs in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey study was conducted on man-made plantations located at two different areas in the arid region of Syria to determine the variations in natural abundances of the 12N and 13C isotopes in leaves of several woody legume and non-legume species, and to better understand the consequence of such variations on nitrogen fixation and carbon assimilation. In the first study area (non-saline soil), the δ15N values in four legume species (Acacia cyanopylla, -1.73 %; Acacia farnesiana, -0.55%; Prosopis juliflora, -1.64%, and Medicago arborea, +1.6%) and one actinorhizal plant (Elaeagnus angustifolia, -0.46 to -2.1%) were found to be close to that of the atmospheric value pointing to a major contribution of N2 fixing in these species; whereas, δ15N values of the non-fixing plant species were highly positive.δ13C% in leaves of the C3 plants were found to be affected by plant species, ranging from a minimum of -28.67% to a maximum of -23%. However, they were relatively similar within each plant species although they were grown at different sites. In the second study area (salt affected soil) a higher carbon discrimination value (Δ3C%) was exhibited by Prosopis juliflora indicating that the latter is a salt tolerant species; however, its δ 15N was highly positive (+7.03%) suggesting a negligible contribution of the fixed N2. Hence, it was concluded that the enhancement of N2 fixation might be achieved by selection of salt-tolerant rhizobium strains. (author)

  16. Natural isotopes abundance of 15N and 13C in leaves of some N2-fixing and non N2-fixing trees and shrubs in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variability in the natural abundance isotopes of 15N and 13C in leaves of several legume and non-legume plant species grown at different sites of two areas in semi-arid regions of Syria was determined. In the first area (non-saline soil), the 15N values of a number of fixing and non-fixing reference plants ranged from -2.09 to +9.46, depending on plant species and studied site. 15N in a number of legume species including Acacia cyanopylla (-1.73), Acacia farnesiana (-0.55), Prosopis juliflora (-1.64) and Medicago arborea (+1.6) were close to the atmospheric value pointing to a major contribution of N2 fixing in these species; whereas, those of reference plants were highly positive (between +3.6 and +9.46%). In the actinorhizal tree, Elaeagnus angustifolia, the 15N abundance was far lower (-0.46 to -2.1%) strongly suggesting that the plant obtained large proportional contribution from BNF. In contrast, δ15N values in some other legumes and actinorhizal plants were relatively similar to those of reference plants, suggesting that the contribution of fixed N2 is negligible. On the other hand, δ13C% values in leaves of C3 plants were affected by plant species, ranging from a minimum of -28.67% to a maximum of -23%. However, they were the same within each plant species although they were grown at different sites. Moreover, dual stable isotope analysis in leaves of Prosopis juliflora and other non- legumes grown on a salt affected soil (second area) was also conducted. Results showed that salinity did not affect C assimilation in this woody legume since a higher carbon discrimination was obtained indicating that this plant is a salt tolerant species; whereas, N2-fixation was drastically affected (δ15N= +7.03). (Author)

  17. Intoxicações por plantas diagnosticadas em ruminantes e equinos e estimativa das perdas econômicas na Paraíba Plant poisonings diagnosed in ruminants and horses and estimation of the economical losses in Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales S. Assis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento dos surtos de intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equinos diagnosticados no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV, do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Paraíba, no período de 2000-2007. Em bovinos 7,4% dos diagnósticos realizados pelo LPV foram intoxicações por plantas. Foram diagnosticadas intoxicações por Centhraterum brachylepis (um surto, Brachiaria spp. (um surto, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Ipomoea batatas (um surto, Marsdenia sp. (um surto, gramíneas contendo nitratos e nitritos (um surto por Echinochloa polystachya e dois surtos por Pennisetum purpureum, Palicourea aeneofusca (um surto, Prosopis juliflora (três surtos, Nerium oleander (um surto e Mimosa tenuiflora (sete surtos. Na espécie ovina 13% dos diagnósticos foram intoxicações por plantas. Os surtos foram causados por Ipomoea asarifolia (quatro surtos, Brachiaria spp. (três surtos, Crotalaria retusa (dois surtos, Tephrosia cinerea (dois surtos, Panicum dichotomiflorum (um surto, Mascagnia rigida (um surto e malformações associadas à ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (20 surtos. Nos caprinos, 6,4% dos diagnósticos corresponderam à intoxicação por plantas. Sete surtos foram causados por Mimosa tenuiflora, um por Ipomoea asarifolia, um por Ipomoea carnea, um por Ipomoea riedelli, três por Prosopis juliflora, um por Arrabidaea corallina, dois por Aspidosperma pyrifolium, dois por Turbina cordata e um por Opuntia ficus-indica. Na espécie equina 14% das doenças diagnosticadas foram devidas a intoxicações por plantas, sendo 12 surtos por Crotalaria retusa e um por Turbina cordata. As perdas na Paraíba por plantas tóxicas são estimadas em 3.895 bovinos, 8.374 ovinos, 6.390 caprinos e 366 equinos, que representam uma perda econômica anual, por morte de animais, de R$ 2.733.097,00. São relatados alguns aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e patologia de surtos de

  18. Comparación de métodos analíticos para la determinación de materia orgánica en suelos de la región Andino-Patagónica: efectos de la vegetación y el tipo de suelo Comparison of analytical methods for determining soil organic matter in Patagonian Andean Region: effects of vegetation and soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila La Manna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La determinación de la materia orgánica (MO resulta fundamental para el conocimiento de la productividad agrícola y forestal de los suelos. En este estudio se evaluó la relación entre los contenidos de materia orgánica (MO determinados por pérdida por ignición (MO PI y combustión húmeda de Walkley-Black (MO CH en suelos de la Región Andino Patagónica. La relación se evaluó para suelos volcánicos con y sin aluminosilicatos amorfos y con distintos tipos de vegetación: plantaciones de Pinus ponderosa, bosques de Austrocedrus chilensis, arbustales, estepa arbustiva y estepa herbácea. Se seleccionaron 100 sitios de muestreo, donde se tomaron muestras compuestas del horizonte A para la determinación de MO CH y MO PI. Los datos fueron analizados mediante análisis de varianza y regresiones simples. MO CH fue siempre inferior a MO PI. Esto es esperable dado que MO PI incluye la MO total, mientras que MO CH discrimina las formas de carbono fuertemente condensadas. Si bien no se detectaron diferencias en la relación entre los métodos analíticos para suelos con y sin aluminosilicatos amorfos, sí existió una fuerte relación entre la presencia de estos y los contenidos absolutos de MO. La relación entre los métodos analíticos varió según el tipo de vegetación. Los suelos que sustentan vegetación de estepa herbácea y plantación de pino ponderosa presentaron las mayores diferencias entre los dos métodos analíticos. MO CH fue, en promedio, un 37% inferior a MO PI para estos tipos de vegetación, siendo significativamente superior a lo hallado en arbustales (26%. Los suelos con bosque denso de Austrocedrus chilensis y estepa arbustiva presentaron valores intermedios (30 y 35%, respectivamente. Las plantaciones de pino ponderosa (primera rotación, edad promedio 21 años fueron realizadas en áreas de estepa herbácea. Las similitudes encontradas entre ambos suelos podrían estar asociadas a características de la MO propias del

  19. Efecto de la Adición de Hidrocoloides sobre las Características Reológicas de Salmueras para Elaboración de Jamón Cocido / Effect of Addition of Hydrocolloids on Rheological Properties of the Brines Used to Prepare Cooked Ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepúlveda Cossio Cesar Augusto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Con el fin de determinar el efecto de la inclusión de goma de algarrobo (GA, carragenina kappa (CK y carragenina iota (CI en salmueras para inyección de jamones cocidos, sobre algunas propiedades reológicas tales como viscosidad, módulo elástico (G´ y tangente de pérdida (tangente δ, se planteó un experimento por diseño de mezclas en el que se empleó una formulación para jamón comercial (1% de hidrocoloides, en el cual se utilizaron hidrocoloides individuales o mezclas binarias y terciarias de GA, CK y CI, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, los resultados fueron analizados mediante la metodología de las superficies de respuesta. Los resultados indicaron que la salmuera que presentó la menor viscosidad fue la que contenía100% de CK, el gel de salmuera que presentó el mayor G´ fue la que contenía 3,8 (GA: 96,2 (CK, y el gel que presentó la menor tangente de pérdida y baja viscosidad fue el diseñado con la mezcla terciaria 10,56 (GA: 72,56 (CK: 16,88 (CI. / Abstract. In order to determine the effect on some rheological properties such as viscosity, elastic modulus (G’ and loss tangent (tan δ of the inclusion of locust bean gum (GA, kappa carrageenan (CK and iota carrageenan (CI in brines to inject in cooked ham, a statistical mixture design was established to commercial ham (1% hydrocolloids in which individual, binary and tertiary mixtures of GA, CK and CI were prepared. The results were analyzed using the response surfaces methodology. The results indicated that the brine with the lowest viscosity was to kappa carrageenan (CK=100%, the brine gel with the highest value of elastic modulus (G´ was to the binary mixture containing 3.8 (GA: 96.2 (CK, and the gel with the lowest loss tangent and viscosity was present in the tertiary mixture of 10.56(GA: 72.56 (CK: 16.88 (CI.

  20. Números cromosómicos en especies sudamericanas andinas de Lupinus (Leguminosae CHROMOSOME NUMBERS IN SOUTH AMERICAN ANDEAN SPECIES OF LUPINUS (LEGUMINOSAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Fiess Camillo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Se determinó el número cromosómico en 22 poblaciones de 16 especies del género Lupinus
    L. de la región Andina. Todos presentaron 2n=48 cromosomas con excepción de L.
    bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36. Estos son los primeros recuentos cromosómicos para L.
    arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L. chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L.
    lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P. Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus
    C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L. pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L.
    smithianus Kunth y L. tominensis Wedd. Este trabajo también confirmó recuentos
    cromosómicos para L. mutabilis Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 y L. bandelierae
    (2n=36. Los resultados claramente confirman que, citológicamente, la mayoría de los Lupinus
    andinos son más próximos de las especies norteamericanas qué a las del este de América del
    Sur
    Chromosome numbers were determined in 22 accessions of 16 Lupinus L. species from the
    Andean region. All had 2n=48 chromosomes, except L. bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36.
    These are the first chromosome countings for L. arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L.
    chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L. lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P.
    Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L.
    pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L. smithianus Kunth and L. tominensis Wedd.
    The present study also confirmed literature data on chromosome numbers of L. mutabilis
    Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 and L. bandelierae (2n=36. The results clearly
    confirm that, cytologically, the vast majority of Andean species are closer to the North
    American than to the eastern South American taxa

  1. Aridity changes in the temperate-Mediterranean transition of the Andes since ad 1346 reconstructed from tree-rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, Duncan A.; Quesne, Carlos le [Universidad Austral de Chile, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Boninsegna, Jose A.; Morales, Mariano S.; Villalba, Ricardo [Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales, IANIGLA, Departamento de Dendrocronologia e Historia Ambiental, Mendoza (Argentina); Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Stahle, David W. [University of Arkansas Fayetteville, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Department of Geosciences, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Lara, Antonio [Universidad Austral de Chile, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Austral de Chile, Forest Ecosystem Services under Climatic Fluctuations (Forecos), Valdivia (Chile); Mudelsee, Manfred [Climate Risk Analysis, Hanover (Germany); Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The Andes Cordillera acts as regional ''Water Towers'' for several countries and encompasses a wide range of ecosystems and climates. Several hydroclimatic changes have been described for portions of the Andes during recent years, including glacier retreat, negative precipitation trends, an elevation rise in the 0 isotherm, and changes in regional streamflow regimes. The Temperate-Mediterranean transition (TMT) zone of the Andes (35.5 -39.5 S) is particularly at risk to climate change because it is a biodiversity hotspot with heavy human population pressure on water resources. In this paper we utilize a new tree-ring network of Austrocedrus chilensis to reconstruct past variations in regional moisture in the TMT of the Andes by means of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). The reconstruction covers the past 657 years and captures interannual to decadal scales of variability in late spring-early summer PDSI. These changes are related to the north-south oscillations in moisture conditions between the Mediterranean and Temperate climates of the Andes as a consequence of the latitudinal position of the storm tracks forced by large-scale circulation modes. Kernel estimation of occurrence rates reveals an unprecedented increment of severe and extreme drought events during the last century in the context of the previous six centuries. Moisture conditions in our study region are linked to tropical and high-latitude ocean-atmospheric forcing, with PDSI positively related to Nino-3.4 SST during spring and strongly negatively correlated with the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) during summer. Geopotential anomaly maps at 500-hPa show that extreme dry years are tightly associated with negative height anomalies in the Ross-Amundsen Seas, in concordance with the strong negative relationship between PDSI and AAO. The twentieth century increase in extreme drought events in the TMT may not be related to ENSO but to the positive AAO trend during late-spring and

  2. Seasonal and vertical distribution of medusae in Aysén region, southern Chile Distribución estacional y vertical de medusas en la región de Aysén, sur de Chile

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    Viviana Bravo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Medusae collected in winter and spring 2007 were analyzed in a longitudinal transect made between the Boca de Guafo and Elefantes Fjord, southern Chile. A total of 30 species were identified, Hydromedusae (29 and Scyphozoa (1, where Bougainvillia macloviana, Hybocodon chilensis, Hydractinia tenuis, Laodicea pulcra, L. undulada, Modeeria rotunda and Chrysaora plocamia represent new records for the area. A significant increase in the jellyfish abundance was higher in spring than in winter (fourteen times higher, with 68% of common species in both seasons. The specific diversity was slightly higher in winter (3.4 bits than spring (3.2 bits, the species richness instead was higher in spring than in winter, with a mean of 5 and 12 species, respectively. The vertical distribution showed the presence of surface (H. borealis, deep (A. apicata, C. peregrina and R. velatum and wide bathymetric distribution (B. muscoides and B. muscus species. Results from the area were compared with previous results (2002-2003 thus proving that most species identified are common in southern Chilean fjords and channels.Se analizaron las medusas colectadas en invierno y primavera de 2007, en una transecta longitudinal efectuada entre la boca del Guafo y fiordo Elefantes, sur de Chile. Se identificó un total de 30 especies, Hydromedusae (29 y Scyphozoa (1, de las cuales Bougainvillia macloviana, Hybocodon chilensis, Hydractinia tenuis, Laodicea pulcra, L. undulada, Modeeria rotunda y Chrysaora plocamia constituyen nuevos registros para esta área. Se determinó un fuerte incremento en la abundancia de medusas en primavera respecto a invierno y (14 veces mayor, con un 68% de especies comunes en ambas estaciones. La diversidad específica fue levemente mayor en invierno (3.4 bits que primavera (3.2 bits, en cambio la riqueza de especies fue mayor en primavera que en invierno, con una media de 5 y 12 especies, respectivamente. La distribución vertical mostró en ambas

  3. Reactividad inmunoquímica de sueros anti- Caiman yacare y Caiman latirostris frente a sueros de diferentes especies

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    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la reactividad inmunoquímica entre los sueros de distintas especies de reptiles frente a sueros hiperinmunes experimentales anti-suero de Caiman yacare y anti-suero de Caiman latirostris. Los sueros que se probaron fueron los homólogos de Caiman yacare, Caiman latirostris y los heterólogos de Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops diporus, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus y Gallus gallus. La reactividad inmunoquímica se determinó mediante las técnicas de doble inmunodifusión y ELISA, mostrándose importante entre los sueros de los crocodrílidos y baja entre estos y los de las otras especies de reptiles estudiadas. Se observó mayor reactividad entre los antisueros anti-Caiman respecto a los sueros de Caiman latirostris y Caiman yacare que frente al suero de Alligator missisipiensis. Además, se encontró una fuerte reactividad entre ambos sueros anti-Caiman y el de Gallus gallus poniendo en evidencia la fuerte reactividad entre los sueros de arcosaurios. In order to study the immunochemical reactivity among sera from different species of reptiles regarding sera from Caiman, the immunoreactivity of sera from reptiles against antisera to Caiman yacare or anti-Caiman latirostris sera was studied. These hiperimmune sera were tested against sera from Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops neuwiedii, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus and Gallus gallus. The immunochemical

  4. Ticks on birds caught on the campus of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Carrapatos em aves capturadas no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Ísis Daniele Alves Costa Santolin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of parasitic infections, particularly those caused by ectoparasites, may influence the biology and ecology of wild birds. The aim of this study was to investigate occurrences and identify the species of ticks collected from wild birds caught on the campus of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro. The birds were caught using mist nets between October 2009 and December 2010. In total, 223 birds were caught, represented by 53 species and 19 families in nine orders. Nineteen birds (n = 7 species were parasitized by immature ticks (prevalence of 8.5%. Forty-four ticks were collected, of which 23 were nymphs and 21 were larvae. There were associations between parasitism by ticks and non-Passeriformes birds, and between parasitism and ground-dwelling birds, which was possibly due to the presence (or inclusion among the captured birds of Vanellus chilensis (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae. All the nymphs collected were identified as Amblyomma cajennense. In general terms, we must emphasize that wild birds in the study area may play the role of dispersers for the immature stages of A. cajennense, albeit non-preferentially.A prevalência das infecções parasitárias e em particular, aquelas causadas por ectoparasitos, pode influenciar na biologia e ecologia das aves silvestres. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a ocorrência e identificar as espécies de carrapatos coletadas em aves silvestres capturadas no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. As aves foram coletadas em rede-de-neblina durante o período de outubro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. No total foram capturadas 223 aves representadas por 53 espécies, 19 famílias em 9 ordens. Parasitismo por formas imaturas de carrapatos, foram encontradas em 19 aves (n = 7 espécies correspondendo a uma prevalência de 8,5%. Foram coletados 44 carrapatos onde 23 estavam em estágio de ninfa e 21 em estágio de larva. Houve associação entre o parasitismo por carrapatos

  5. Biomass and bio-energy production of ten multipurpose tree species planted in sodic soils of indo-gangetic plains%印度恒河平原苏打土壤种植的10个多功能树种生物量和生物能产量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.P. Singh; Gurbachan Singh; D. K. Sharma

    2010-01-01

    评价了10个多功能树种-阿江榄仁树(Terminalia arjuna)、印楝(Azadirechta indica)、牧豆树(Prosopis juliflora)、水黄皮(Pongamia pinnata)、木麻黄(Casuarina equisetifolia)、角豆树(Prosopis alba)、阿拉伯金合欢(Acacia nilotica)、细叶桉(Eucalyptus tereticornis)、牛蹄豆(Pithecellobium dulce)、铁刀木(Cassia siamea)等10年间的生物量和生物能产量,这些树种采用单种栽培的农作方式种植于印度北部恒河平原苏打土壤.该地区土壤紧密、盐碱化、透水性差、营养匮乏.10个树种中,细叶桉植株最高,牧豆树和木麻黄次之.阿拉伯金合欢林分基面积为3.04 m~2·hm~(-2),植株胸径优于其他树种,牧豆树和木麻黄植株胸径次之.10年间,牧豆树和Acacia nilotica分别产出生物量56.50和50.75 Mg·hm~(-2),而阿拉伯金合欢、水黄皮和角豆树生物量产出量较小.牧豆树的营养需隶和净生物量产出均最大,而且叶片中营养元素(N,P,K,Ca和Mg)含量较高.然而,树种间木质成分差异较小.以每吨木材营养元素产出量计算,氮素在阿拉伯金合欢中产出量最低,磷和钾分别在阿江榄仁树和牛蹄豆中产出最低,钙和镁在牧豆树中产出最低.牧豆树生物质能产量最高1267.75 GJ·hm~(-2),阿拉伯金合欢次之1206 GJ·hm~(-2),印楝最低(520.66GJ·hm~(-2)).

  6. Fuelwood availability and use in the Richtersveld National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Shackleton

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern has been voiced about the possible over-use of fuelwood from the riparian fringe by pastoralist herders in the Richtersveld National Park (RNP. This coincided with the current examination and modelling of the supply and use of ecosystem goods and services in the Gariep Basin as part of the Southern African Millennium Assessment (SAfMA. This paper reports on a study to index the current availability of deadwood within the riparian zone of RNP, its relationship with proximity to human habitation, and species preferences of the local herders. Deadwood availability was assessed per woody species and on the ground in 12 transects within the riparian fringe. Herders were interviewed regarding their species preferences, and the composition of woodpiles was examined. There was no relationship between the percentage of attached deadwood on the tree, or the percentage deadwood ground cover, and the distance from herder stockposts. Euclea pseudobenus and Tamarix usneoides were the dominant species in the riparian fringe. There was strong selection for Ziziphus mucronata as a fuelwood species and only marginal or random selection for E. pseudobenus. Tamarix usneoides and Prosopis sp. were abundant in the riparian zone, but were not used for fuelwood. There was a significant difference between species with respect to the mean proportion of the stem that was dead, the highest being Z. mucronata (± 28 % deadwood, followed by T. usneoides (± 12 %. Most of the Prosopis trees had no deadwood. Across all species, the mean percentage dead per tree was approximately 15 %. Additionally, detached deadwood covered just less than 9 % of ground area, averaged across all plots and transects. All the variables measured indicated that there seems to be little need for concern over the current fuelwood extraction activities of pastoralists within the RNP. There was no clear evidence of cutting of branches or deadwood. The abundance of both attached and detached

  7. Caracterización fisicoquímica de los aceites crudos de algunas semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sonoran desert has a great variety of nutritional native plants, mainly from the leguminous family. Although in ancient times their products were used as food by native Americans, there is little information about their potential as a food source. For this reason, oils from the following seeds were studied: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro and Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Oils were extracted from the seeds with hexane, and contents ranged from 8.5 to 23.5 %. The physicochemical studies showed mostly unsaturated oils, as demonstrated by the iodine index, (101-147 units. Indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acids were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids were separated and quantified by gas chromatography. Linoleic and oleic acids were found to predominate. All extracted crude oils were of good quality, comparable to those from soybean, com, sunflower and carthamus.

    El desierto de Sonora cuenta con una gran variedad de plantas silvestres principalmente de la familia leguminosae de las cuales se tiene poca información acerca de su potencial como fuente nutricional. Por lo que se estudiaron los aceites de las semillas: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro y Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Los aceites de cada semilla se extrajeron con hexano, obteniéndose de 8.5 a 23.5 %. Estos mostraron un alto grado de insaturación reflejado en los índices de lodo, de 101 a 147. Los índices de acidez, peróxidos y ácidos grasos libres fueron bajos y dentro de los valores aceptables. Al cuantificar los ácidos grasos por

  8. Índices de oxidación en aceites de algunas leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation process of crude and refined oils from wild leguminous seeds: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta, (vinorama Olneya tesota, (palo fierro Cercidium praecox (palo de brea and Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde were evaluated during storage for 122 days, using corn and soybean oils as controls. Peroxide, Iodine, Acid and p-Anisidine values were determinated during 122 days of storage at room temperature. The wild leguminous raw oils showed results similar to those for the corn raw oil and lower than those of soybean raw oil. This behavior was similar for refinated oils. The rancid odor was detected after 5 days of storage in soybean oil and 40 days in vinorama oil, on the contrary, mezquite, palo verde and palo of brea oils presented this odor after 62 days, and for gatuña’s oil needed 135 days. Our results indicate that legume seed of Sonoran Desert could be a good alternative as source of oil.El proceso de oxidación fue evaluado durante el almacenamiento de los aceites crudos y refinados de las semillas de leguminosas silvestres: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Olneya tesota (palo fierro, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea y Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde. Los aceites de maíz y soja fueron empleados como controles. Se determinó el índice de peróxido (I.P., de Yodo (I.I., de acidez (I.A, y valor de p-Anisidina (p-A durante 122 días de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente. Los aceites crudos de leguminosas silvestres mostraron valores de estos índices similares a los del aceite de maíz crudo y menores que los del aceite de soja crudo. Este comportamiento también fue observado para los aceites refinados. El olor a rancio se presentó en el aceite de soja a los 5 días de almacenamiento, en el de vinorama a los 40 días, en el de mezquite, palo verde y palo de brea a los 62 días y en el de gatuña a los 135 días. Los valores

  9. Spatial assessment of soil organic carbon and physicochemical properties in a horticultural orchard at arid zone of India using geostatistical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akath; Santra, Priyabrata; Kumar, Mahesh; Panwar, Navraten; Meghwal, P R

    2016-09-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a major indicator of long-term sustenance of agricultural production system. Apart from sustaining productivity, SOC plays a crucial role in context of climate change. Keeping in mind these potentials, spatial variation of SOC contents of a fruit orchard comprising several arid fruit plantations located at arid region of India is assessed in this study through geostatistical approaches. For this purpose, surface and subsurface soil samples from 175 locations from a fruit orchard spreading over 14.33 ha area were collected along with geographical coordinates. SOC content and soil physicochemical properties of collected soil samples were determined followed by geostatistical analysis for mapping purposes. Average SOC stock density of the orchard was 14.48 Mg ha(-1) for 0- to 30-cm soil layer ranging from 9.01 Mg ha(-1) in Carissa carandas to 19.52 Mg ha(-1) in Prosopis cineraria block. Range of spatial variation of SOC content was found about 100 m, while two other soil physicochemical properties, e.g., pH and electrical conductivity (EC) also showed similar spatial trend. This indicated that minimum sampling distance for future SOC mapping programme may be kept lower than 100 m for better accuracy. Ordinary kriging technique satisfactorily predicted SOC contents (in percent) at unsampled locations with root-mean-squared residual (RMSR) of 0.35-0.37. Co-kriging approach was found slightly superior (RMSR = 0.26-0.28) than ordinary kriging for spatial prediction of SOC contents because of significant correlations of SOC contents with pH and EC. Uncertainty of SOC estimation was also presented in terms of 90 % confidence interval. Spatial estimates of SOC stock through ordinary kriging or co-kriging approach were also found with low uncertainty of estimation than non-spatial estimates, e.g., arithmetic averaging approach. Among different fruit block plantations of the orchard, the block with Prosopis cineraria ('khejri') has

  10. Intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equídeos no Sertão Paraibano Plant poisonings in ruminants and equidae in the Sertão of Paraiba, Brazil

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    Tales S. Assis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento das intoxicações por plantas em 20 municípios do Sertão Paraibano, onde foram entrevistados 50 produtores e 11 médicos veterinários. De acordo com o levantamento realizado, Ipomoea asarifolia e Mascagnia rigida são as intoxicações mais importantes. Indigofera suffruticosa, as plantas cianogênicas (Sorghum vulgare, Piptadenia macrocarpa e Manihot spp., Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium e Crotalaria retusa são plantas importantes como causa de intoxicações na região. Os entrevistados relataram casos esporádicos de intoxicação por Ricinus communis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Prosopis juliflorae Brachiaria decumbens. Ziziphus joazeiro, Passiflora sp., Caesalpina ferrea e Crescentia cujete foram mencionadas como causa de abortos em ruminantes. Frutos de Crescentia cujete foram administrados a duas cabras prenhes causando mortalidade perinatal e abortos. As cascas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris e Vigna unguiculata e as folhas de Licania rigida (oiticica são associadas à sobrecarga ruminal em bovinos. As frutas de Mangifera indica (mangae Anacardium occidentale (cajú são responsabilizadas por causarem intoxicação etílica. Dalechampia sp. e Croton sp. foram citadas pelos entrevistados como possíveis plantas tóxicas, que ainda não tiveram sua toxicidade comprovada.A survey of plant poisoning in ruminants and equidae was conducted in 20 municipalities of the semiarid region of the Sertão Paraibano. Fifty farmers and 11 veterinary practitioners were interviewed. Ipomoea asarifolia and Mascagnia rigida are the most important poisonous plants in the region. Indigofera suffruticosa, the cianogenic plants (Sorghum vulgare, Piptadenia macrocarpa, and Manihot spp., Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Crotalaria retusa cause also important intoxications in the area. Sporadic outbreaks of poisonings by Ricinus communis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Prosopis juliflora and Brachiaria

  11. Resistência natural de nove madeiras do semi-árido brasileiro a fungos causadores da podridão-mole Natural resistance of nine woods of Brazilian semi-arid region to soft-rot fungi

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a resistência de nove madeiras de ocorrência no semi-árido brasileiro a fungos de podridão-mole, em condições de laboratório. As madeiras estudadas foram algaroba (Prosopis juliflora, angico (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, braúna (Schinopsis brasiliensis, cássia (Senna siamea, craibeira (Tabebuia aurea, cumaru (Amburana cearensis, pau-d'arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa e pereiro (Aspidosperma pyrifolium. De cada espécie foram retirados corpos-de-prova de 3,0 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm, com a maior dimensão no sentido das fibras, em quatro posições na direção medula-casca do tronco. As amostras permaneceram por 120 dias sob a ação da microflora natural existente em solo orgânico. A resistência ao apodrecimento da aroeira, braúna e cássia não foi afetada pela posição na direção medula-casca, não esteve relacionada à densidade das madeiras ensaiadas. As madeiras de aroeira e braúna (cerne, pereiro e pau-d'arco apresentaram melhor desempenho. A resistência natural não esteve associada à concentração de extrativos solúveis em água quente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the wood natural resistance of nine species of woods of the Brazilian semi-arid region to soft-rot fungi, under laboratory conditions. The studied woods were Prosopis juliflora, Anadenanthera colubrinavar.cebil, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Senna siamea, Tabebuia aurea, Amburana cearensis, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. Specimens measuring 3.0 x 1.5 x 0.5 cm, with the largest dimension taken in the fiber direction, were obtained from four positions from pith to bark in the trunk. The specimens were submitted to action of organic soil natural micro-flora for 120 days. The wood resistance to soft-rot of Myracrodruon urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis and Senna siameawas not affected by the pith to bark position, and was not associated to

  12. Efeito tóxico de alimentos alternativos para abelhas Apis mellifera Toxic effect of alternative feeds for honeybees Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia de Mello Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar a existência de efeito tóxico em alimentos protéicos alternativos fornecidos para abelhas Apis mellifera. Medindo-se o tempo médio de mortalidade e o índice de mortalidade de abelhas confinadas, avaliou-se a existência de efeito tóxico do: (a feno das folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta; (b feno das folhas de leucena (Leucaena leococephala; (c farinha de vagem de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora; (d farinha de vagem de bordão-de-velho (Pithecellobium cf. saman; (e farelo de babaçu (Orbygnia martiana e (f sucedâneo do leite para bezerros da marca Purina®. O tempo médio de mortalidade variou de 4,46 a 11,74 e o índice de mortalidade variou de 4,58 a 12,80. Durante o experimento, obsevou-se que as abelhas alimentadas com farinha de bordão-de-velho ficavam envoltas em uma crosta de alimento, morrendo asfixiadas posteriormente. Os resultados demonstraram que a farinha de bordão-de-velho não deve ser fornecida às abelhas. Não foi observado efeito tóxico nos demais alimentos estudados.The objective of this research was to study toxic effects of alternative feeds for honeybees Apis mellifera. The average mortality time and the mortality index of cagged honeybees were assessed to evaluate any possible toxic effect of: (a cassava hay (Manihot esculenta; (b leucaena hay (Leucaena leococephala; (c mesquite pod meal (Prosopis juliflora; (d "bordão-de-velho" pod meal (Pithecellobium cf. saman; (e babassu bran (Orbygnia martiana and (f succedaneous for calfskin from Purina®. The mortality time average varied from 4.46 to 11.74 and the mortality index varied between 4.58 and 12.80. It was obseved that honeybees fed with "bordão-de-velho" pod meal got involved by stichy layer of food and died asphyxiated. Results showed that the flour of Pithecellobium cf. saman should not be used for feeding honeybees, considering the early mortality of workers fed with this meal. The other food studied

  13. Desenvolvimento de colônias de abelhas com diferentes alimentos protéicos Development of honeybee colonies under protein diets

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    Fábia de Mello Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de produtos regionais do Nordeste na alimentação de colônias de abelhas (Apis mellifera, em um período de escassez de floradas. Foram fornecidas dietas às abelhas, contendo 20% de proteína bruta, à base de feno de mandioca (Manihot esculenta e farinha de vagem de algaroba (Prosopis juliflora, feno de mandioca e farelo de babaçu (Orbygnia martiana, farelo de babaçu e Purilac (sucedâneo para bezerros da marca Purina e pólen apícola de Palmae. As colônias foram analisadas quanto ao peso e às áreas de alimento e cria. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre os tratamentos em relação às áreas de cria. Apesar de a pasta com pólen ser a mais consumida, este alimento mostrou conversão alimentar menor do que as demais dietas fornecidas. As colônias que receberam pasta de feno de mandioca com farelo de babaçu tiveram maior peso final. Todos os alimentos mostraram-se eficientes na manutenção das colônias.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of some regional products of Brazil Northeast to feed Apis mellifera colonies. Diets with 20% of crude protein made of cassava hay (Manihot esculenta and mesquite pod meal (Prosopis juliflora, cassava hay and babassu bran (Orbygnia martiana, babassu bran and Purilac (succedaneous for calfskin from Purina and Palmae pollen were offered to the honeybees. Colonies were evaluated for weight gain, store area and brood area. There was no significant difference among the treatments in relation to the brood areas. Pollen treatment showed the highest intake but also showed the lowest food conversion. Beehives that received diet with cassava hay and babassu flour showed greater final weight gain. All diets were efficient in the maintenance of the colonies.

  14. Mesquite bean and cassava leaf bran in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia kept in water with salinity Farelos da vagem da algaroba e da folha da mandioca em rações para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo mantidos em água salobra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Sérgio Oliveira Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the inclusion of the mesquite bean (Prosopis juliflora and cassava leaf bran (Manihot esculenta in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (2.89±0.43g. 225 fish were used, distributed in 15 tanks (120L in a completely randomized design in a 2x2 factorial design, two sources and three levels of bran (10 and 20%, and a control treatment free of by-products (n=3. After 60 days, it was evaluated the growth performance (daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion and survival rate and corporal composition of fish. The performance and corporal composition, except the crude protein content, were not affected by the source or level of bran inclusion. The brans evaluated may be applicable in diets of Nile tilapia including up to 20% without decreasing performance.Avaliou-se a inclusão dos farelos da vagem da algaroba (Prosopis juliflora e folha da mandioca (Manihot esculenta em rações para tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus (2,89±0,43g. Foram utilizados 225 peixes, distribuídos em 15 tanques (120L, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2, duas fontes e dois níveis de farelo (10 e 20%, além de um tratamento controle isento dos coprodutos (n=3. Ao final de 60 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar aparente e taxa de sobrevivência e a composição corporal dos peixes. O desempenho zootécnico e a composição corporal, exceto quanto ao teor de proteína bruta, não foram afetados pela fonte ou nível de inclusão do farelo. Os farelos estudados podem ser utilizados em rações de tilápias do Nilo até 20% de inclusão, sem comprometer o desempenho zootécnico.

  15. Non conventional livestock feeds of arid zone of India: Potential need to tap effectively and efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arid region is characterized by low and erratic rainfall coupled with high temperature. Consequently, agriculture is a gamble, leaving livestock as a potential option for livelihood of marginal and poor farmers. However, availability of feedstuffs remains major challenge. Increasing demand for potential food grains for human population allows little scope for sparing required quantity of cereals and other food grains for feeding of productive animals. In such situation, exploration of non-conventional resources and their effective incorporation in regular feeding regime seems promising solution to address deficit of nutrients. Various fodder grasses viz. Sewan (Lasirus sindicus), Blue panic (Panicum antidotale), Dhaman (Cenchurus ciliaris), Karad (Dichanthium annulatum) etc. are very rich in native nutrient contents and grows in rainfall ranging from 200-400mm. Various agri-industrial by-products viz. oil cakes such as Tumba (Citrullus colocynthis), Taramira (Eruca sativa), Matira (Citrullus lanatus) etc. are abundantly available in desert region and can be utilized as non-conventional protein replacer for livestock in the region. Various shrubs and trees can serve as a potential source through their pods and leaves. Prominent among them are Babul (Acacia Arabica), Ardu (Alianthus excelsa), Siras (Albizia lebbeck), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Khejri (Prosopis cineraria) and Vilayati babool (Prosopis juliflora). Suggested futuristic model: These are futuristic potential feed resources to solve nutrient crisis, however nutrient utilization from these feed resources poses a serious problem due to presence of incriminating factors. It has been realized that in spite of good macro and micro nutrient contents, those feed resources could not find optimum place in regular livestock feeding. Various factors, importantly, socio-economic and lack of awareness are responsible for that. A strategic model has been hypothesized for organized and corporate farming in desert with

  16. Natural isotopes abundance of sup 1 sup 5 N and sup 1 sup 3 C in leaves of some N sub 2 -fixing and non N sub 2 -fixing trees and shrubs in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varability in the natural abundance isotopes of sup 1 sup 5 N and sup 1 sup 3 C in leaves of several legume and non-legume plant species grown at different sites of two areas in semi-arid regions of Syria was determined. In the first area (non-saline soil), the sup 1 sup 5 N values of a number of fixing and non-fixing reference plants ranged from -2.09 to +9.46, depending on plant species and studied site. sup 1 sup 5 N in a number of legume species including Acacia cyanopylla (-1.73), Acacia farnesiana (-0.55), Prosopis juliflora (-1.64) and Medicago arborea (+1.6) were close to the atmospheric value pointing to a major contribution of N sub 2 fixing in these species; whereas, those of reference plants were highly positive (between +3.6 and +9.46%). In the actinorhizal tree, Elaeagnus angustifolia, the sup 1 sup 5 N abundance was far lower (-0.46 to -2.1%) strongly suggesting that the plant obtained large proportional contribution from BNF. In contrast, delta sup 1 sup 5 N values in some other legumes and actinorhizal plants were relatively similar to those of reference plants, suggesting that the contribution of fixed N sub 2 is negligible. On the other hand, delta sup 1 sup 3 C% values in leaves of C3 plants were affected by plant species, ranging from a minimum of -28.67% to a maximum of -23%. However, they were the same within each plant species although they were grown at different sites. Moreover, dual stable isotope analysis in leaves of Prosopis juliflora and other non- legumes grown on a salt affected soil (second area) was also conducted. Results showed that salinity did not affect C assimilation in this woody legume since a higher carbon discrimination was obtained indicating that this plant is a salt tolerant species; whereas, N2-fixation was drastically affected (delta sup 1 sup 5 N= +7.03). (Author)

  17. The rainfall interception in the semiarid plateau of center of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Sosa, Enrique; Mastachi-Loza, Carlos Alberto; Braud, Isabelle; Guevara-Eescobar, Aurelio

    2009-04-01

    The strong pressure over natural ressources and the accelerated population growth modify natural ecosystems and decrease the canopy cover. The ecosystems of central Mexico plateau are not an exception. Although it is a natural semi-arid region induced by the continental screen effect of the Sierra mountains that regulates the humidity entrance from the Gulf and the Pacific, the semi-arid ecosystems are degraded day after day, showing a clear tendency to desertification. The aim of the study is to show the importance of rainfall interceptionby the vegetation of the semiarid of central plateau of Mexico, EI, on the annual water balance. This work was carried out during 2006 in three sites: one located in the Guanajuato state, "El Carmen", and two in the Queretaro state, "Amazcala" and "Cadereyta". The experimental sites are separated by at least 60 km. In each site two isolated trees representative of the dominant species Prosopis laevigata and Acacia farnesiana were selected. The methodology developed by Guevara Escobar et al. (J. Hydrology, 2007) was used to instrument the trees to measure EI. The data were modeled using the models described by Rutter et al. (1971), Gash (1979) and multiple linear regressions in order to better understand the interception process in the semi-arid ecosystems. Precipitation in 2006 in Carmen and Cadereyta was 770 and 732 mm respectively while Amazcala reached 451 mm of precipitation during the August-November period. On the measurement period, interception by Acacia farnesiana was 30%, 20% and 15% for Cadereyta, El Carmen and Amazcala, respectively. The figures were 27%, 21% and 14%. for Prosopis laevigata. The performance of the three models in simulated the measured data was satisfactory, with efficiencies ranging from 0,74 to 0.99 and RMSE ranging from 0,83 to 2,0 mm. The results show that the rainfall interception impact on the water balance at catchment scale would be considerable in case of a total cover by the studied

  18. Cytotaxonomy of the Ciconiiformes (Aves), with karyotypes of eight species new to cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, L E; van Brink, J M

    1982-01-01

    Somatic karyotypes of 13 species of ciconiiform birds, Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis, Phoeniconaias minor, Cochlearius cochlearius, Geronticus eremita, Threskiornis molucca, T. spinicollis, Balaeniceps rex, Ciconia ciconia, C. nigra, Euxenura maguari, Xenorhynchus asiaticus, Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis, and Leptoptilos crumeniferus are presented. The chromosomes of eight of these species are described in detail for the first time. Of special interest are a case of structural heterozygosity in a male B. rex and remarkably low diploid numbers in C. nigra (2n = ca 52) and L. crumeniferus (2n = ca 52). The karyological relationships of the ciconiiform families are discussed. The karyotypes of the Phoenicopteridae are identical to karyotypes found in various other bird orders. All members of the Ardeidae hitherto studied are characterized by a submetacentric third pair of macrochromosomes (subtelocentric in all other Ciconiiformes). All Threskiornithidae share a pair of acrocentric chromosomes resulting from a reciprocal translocation between a pair of microchromosomes and pair No. 1. Both the Ciconiidae and the Balaenicipitidae show the original structure of Nos. 1, 2 and 3, also found in the Phoenicopteridae and many other birds. In contrast to the Phoenicopteridae, however, both families share a relatively high number of medium-sized to small biarmed chromosomes with the Ardeidae and the Threskiornithidae. Several characteristics in this group of chromosomes separate Balaenicipitidae from Ciconiidae. PMID:7151490

  19. Highly repeated DNA sequences in birds: the structure and evolution of an abundant, tandemly repeated 190-bp DNA fragment in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C S; de Kloet, D H; Brooks, J E; de Kloet, S R

    1992-10-01

    Up to 6.8% of the parrot (Psittaciformes) genome consists of a tandemly repeated, 190-bp sequence (P1) located in the centromere of many if not all chromosomes. Monomer repeats from 10 different psittacine species representing four subfamilies were isolated and cloned. The intraspecific sequence variation ranged from 1.5 to 7%. The interspecific sequence variation ranged from less than 3% between two species of cockatoos to approximately 45% between cockatoos and other parrots. The monomer sequences of all 10 parrot species contained several conserved (> 90%) sequence elements at identical locations within the repeat. A comparison with tandemly repeated DNA sequences in other avian species showed that several of these conserved elements were also present at similar locations within the 184-bp repeat of the Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), suggesting a great antiquity of the repeat. One of the elements was also found in the tandemly repeated sequences of the crane (Gruidae) and falcon (Falconidae) families. The data were used for the construction of a partial most parsimonious relationship that supports a regional subdivision of the Psittaciformes. PMID:1339392

  20. Correction of angular limb deformity in two subspecies of flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) utilizing a transphyseal bridging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Tawnia J; Backues, Kay A; Burgos-Rodriguez, Armando G

    2005-12-01

    Three hand-raised American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber) chicks and one hand-raised Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis) developed valgus angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsal bone. All flamingos underwent surgical correction to unequally retard the growth plate using transphyseal bridging. Positive profile pins were placed in the proximal epiphysis and distal to the growth plate in the metaphysis on the convex side of the affected tarsometatarsus. Various banding techniques were used in each flamingo to create tension. Three of the four flamingos responded in 7-14 days with correction or slight overcorrection of the valgus limb deformity. The fourth flamingo's leg deformity did not improve for reasons thought to be related to improper implant placement. Growth plate retardation by transphyseal bridging proved successful in correcting valgus limb deformity of the proximal tarsometatarsus. This technique may be considered as an option for correction of angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsus in flamingos less than 90-120 days of age. PMID:17312728

  1. (+-Podocarpic Acid as Chiral Template in the Synthesis of Aphidicolane, Stemodane and Stemarane Diterpenoids †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela La Bella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review the synthetic work in the field of aphidicolane, stemodane and stemarane diterpenoids, in which readily available (+-podocarpic acid (4 was used as chiral template for the construction of their polycyclic structures, is described as it developed along the years. In the frame of this work (+-podocarpic acid (4 was a very useful tool in a model study leading to the syntheses of tetracyclic ketones 7 and 8, models of key intermediates 5a and 6 in the syntheses of (+-aphidicolin (1 and (+-stemodin (2a, respectively. (+-Podocarpic acid (4 was also converted into (+-2-deoxystemodinone (2d, allowing confirmation of the stemodane diterpenoids absolute configuration, into (+-aphidicol-15-ene (36 and into Stemodia chilensis tetracyclic diterpenoid (+-19-acetoxystemodan-12-ol (2f, allowing confirmation of its structure. (+-Podocarpic acid (4 was then extensively used in the work which led to the synthesis of (+-stemar-13-ene (57 and (+-18-deoxystemarin (3b. Finally, (+-4 was converted into (+-2-deoxyoryzalexin S (66, which made it possible to demonstrate that the structure of (+-66 could not be attributed to a Chilean Calceolaria isolated diterpenoid to which this structure had been assigned.

  2. (+)-Podocarpic Acid as Chiral Template in the Synthesis of Aphidicolane, Stemodane and Stemarane Diterpenoids †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Bella, Angela; Leonelli, Francesca; Migneco, Luisa Maria; Marini Bettolo, Rinaldo

    2016-01-01

    In this review the synthetic work in the field of aphidicolane, stemodane and stemarane diterpenoids, in which readily available (+)-podocarpic acid (4) was used as chiral template for the construction of their polycyclic structures, is described as it developed along the years. In the frame of this work (+)-podocarpic acid (4) was a very useful tool in a model study leading to the syntheses of tetracyclic ketones 7 and 8, models of key intermediates 5a and 6 in the syntheses of (+)-aphidicolin (1) and (+)-stemodin (2a), respectively. (+)-Podocarpic acid (4) was also converted into (+)-2-deoxystemodinone (2d), allowing confirmation of the stemodane diterpenoids absolute configuration, into (+)-aphidicol-15-ene (36) and into Stemodia chilensis tetracyclic diterpenoid (+)-19-acetoxystemodan-12-ol (2f), allowing confirmation of its structure. (+)-Podocarpic acid (4) was then extensively used in the work which led to the synthesis of (+)-stemar-13-ene (57) and (+)-18-deoxystemarin (3b). Finally, (+)-4 was converted into (+)-2-deoxyoryzalexin S (66), which made it possible to demonstrate that the structure of (+)-66 could not be attributed to a Chilean Calceolaria isolated diterpenoid to which this structure had been assigned. PMID:27617995

  3. Authentication of Punica granatum L.: Development of SCAR markers for the detection of 10 fruits potentially used in economically motivated adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marieschi, Matteo; Torelli, Anna; Beghé, Deborah; Bruni, Renato

    2016-07-01

    The large commercial success of pomegranate increase the likelihood of economically motivated adulteration (EMA), which has been gradually spotted with the undeclared addition of anthocyanin-rich plants or cheaper fruit juices used as bulking and diluting agents. A method based on Sequence-Characterized Amplified Regions (SCARs) was developed to detect the presence of Aristotelia chilensis, Aronia melanocarpa, Dioscorea alata, Euterpe oleracea, Malus×domestica, Morus nigra, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vitis vinifera as bulking agents in Punica granatum. The method enabled the unequivocal detection of up to 1% of each adulterant, allowing the preemptive rejection of suspect samples. The recourse to such method may reduce the number of samples to be subjected to further phytochemical analyses when multiple batches have to be evaluated in a short time. Vice versa, it allows the cross-check of suspect batches previously tested only for their anthocyanin profile. The dimension of the amplicons is suitable for the analysis of degraded DNA obtained from stored and processed commercial material. Proper SCAR markers may represent a fast, sensitive, reliable and low-cost screening method for the authentication of processed commercial pomegranate material. PMID:26920316

  4. Landscape Influences on Fisher Success: Adaptation Strategies in Closed and Open Access Fisheries in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Van Holt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determinants of fisher success in southern Chile's loco (Concholepas concholepas fishery are examined by comparing fisher success in exclusive access territories that vary in relationship to tree-plantation development, which can affect shellfish quality. The relative importance of fishers' experience and capture technology (traditional measures of fisher success are evaluated against environmental and geospatial characteristics. While knowledge and technology explained variation in catches, this did not translate into higher prices or profit. Fishers succeeded (gained higher prices for locos and had higher monthly incomes from their management areas when they harvested shellfish from closed (exclusive nearshore management areas where the environmental condition produced high quality locos regardless of their fishing experience, technology, and the geospatial features of management areas. Experienced fishers who worked in management areas near tree plantations that fail to produce resources of sufficient quality shifted to offshore fisheries where their experience counted. Offshore fishers working in the congrio (Genypterus chilensis fishery likely exposed themselves to more risk and benefited from their experience and available technology; environmental condition and geospatial factors played little role in their success (price. Closed management areas provided resources to harvest, but may reduce a fisher's ability to adapt to environmental change because success depends on environmental factors outside of a fisher's control. Fishers were not financially rewarded for their experience or their technology in the loco fishery.

  5. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

  6. Diplodon shells from Northwest Patagonia as continental proxy archives: Oxygen isotopic results and sclerochronological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, A. L.; Beierlein, L.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Freshwater mussels of the genus Diplodon (Bivalvia, Hyriidae) are the most abundant bivalve (today and in the past) in freshwater bodies at both sides of the South-Andean Cordillera. There are about 25 different Diplodon genera in Argentina and Chile that could be assigned almost completely to the species Diplodon chilensis (Gray, 1828) and two subspecies: D. ch. chilensis and D. ch. patagonicus; this latter species is found in Argentina between Mendoza (32˚ 52' S; 68˚ 51' W) and Chubut (45˚ 51' S; 67˚ 28' W), including the lakes and rivers of the target area, the Nahuel Huapi National Park (Castellanos, 1960). Despite their wide geographic distribution, Diplodon species have only rarely been used as climate archives in the southern hemisphere. Kaandorp et al. (2005) demonstrated for Diplodon longulus (Conrad 1874) collected from the Peruvian Amazonas that oxygen isotopic patterns in the shells could be used in order to reconstruct the precipitation regime and dry/wet seasonal of the monsoonal system in Amazonia. Although this study demonstrated the potential of Diplodon in climatological and ecological reconstructions in the southern hemisphere, as of yet, no systematic study of Diplodon as a multi-proxy archive has been undertaken for the Patagonian region. In this work we present sclerochronological analyses supported by ^18Oshell in recent mussel of Diplodon chilensis patagonicus (D'Orbigny, 1835) collected at Laguna El Trébol (42°S-71°W, Patagonia Argentina), one of the best studied water bodies in the region for paleoclimate analysis. Water temperature was measured every six hours for one year using a temperature sensor (Starmon mini®) placed at 5m depth in the lake, close to a mussel bank. Additionally, ^18Owater was measured monthly for the same time range.g^18Oshell values obtained by micro-milling at high spatial resolution in the growth increments of three Diplodon shells were compared to these records, and to air temperature and

  7. New beverages of lemon juice enriched with the exotic berries maqui, açaı́, and blackthorn: bioactive components and in vitro biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; García-Viguera, Cristina; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-01

    Following previous research on lemon juice enriched with berries, the aim of this work was to design new blends based on lemon juice mixed with different edible berries of exotic and national origin: maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaı́ ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), and blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L.). The phytochemical characterization of controls and blends was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Their antioxidant capacity against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and their potential to inhibit cholinesterases were also assessed. The profiling of the red fruits and lemon revealed a wide range of bioactive phenolics. The novel beverage based on lemon juice and maqui berry (LM) was the most interesting blend in terms of antioxidant capacity. Berry control samples displayed reduced effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, the lemon juice control being always the most active. This activity was also remarkable for lemon-blackthorn (LB) and lemon-açaı́ (LA) blends, the last being the most effective inhibitor of cholinesterases among all samples. The results suggested that lemon juice enriched with berries could be of potential interest in the design of new drinks with a nutritive related function on health for chronic diseases. PMID:22642537

  8. Novel maqui liquor using traditional pacharán processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Calín-Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Diego A; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-04-15

    Pacharán is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.), that has been historically produced in Navarra (Northern Spain). On the other hand, Chilean native maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) now under increasing study because of its potential health benefits, is not widely known. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry (MBL), characterising its bioactive and volatile composition, antioxidant capacity, sensory quality, and compare it to traditional pacharán (SBP). The results showed that MBL had attractive colour, exhibited higher anthocyanin content and retention during maceration, higher antioxidant capacity, presented similar aroma profile and showed optimal sensory characteristics. Therefore, MBL can be an acceptable new liquor, with better quality characteristics and higher anthocyanin content and retention than pacharán, as well as with great scores in sensory analysis and consumer acceptance, offering a new and tasty beverage for future liquor manufacturing. PMID:25466148

  9. Herbivores modify selection on plant functional traits in a temperate rainforest understory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2012-08-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the adaptive value of plant functional traits in contrasting light environments. It has been suggested that changes in these traits in response to light availability can increase herbivore susceptibility. We tested the adaptive value of plant functional traits linked with carbon gain in contrasting light environments and also evaluated whether herbivores can modify selection on these traits in each light environment. In a temperate rainforest, we examined phenotypic selection on functional traits in seedlings of the pioneer tree Aristotelia chilensis growing in sun (canopy gap) and shade (forest understory) and subjected to either natural herbivory or herbivore exclusion. We found differential selection on functional traits depending on light environment. In sun, there was positive directional selection on photosynthetic rate and relative growth rate (RGR), indicating that selection favors competitive ability in a high-resource environment. Seedlings with high specific leaf area (SLA) and intermediate RGR were selected in shade, suggesting that light capture and conservative resource use are favored in the understory. Herbivores reduced the strength of positive directional selection acting on SLA in shade. We provide the first demonstration that natural herbivory rates can change the strength of selection on plant ecophysiological traits, that is, attributes whose main function is resource uptake. Research addressing the evolution of shade tolerance should incorporate the selective role of herbivores. PMID:22766937

  10. Trace metal content in sediments and autochthonous intertidal organisms from two adjacent bays near Ushuaia, Beagle Channel (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Claudia Alejandra; Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this work was to monitor levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe in sediments, mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) and limpets (Nacella magellanica) from the Industrial zone (IZ); fuel dock (FD) and Ushuaia Peninsula (UP) on the Beagle Channel. In sediments, seasonal variations showed high values of Cu and Pb in spring and Zn in autumn. Comparing among sites, Cd concentration was superior in UP (2.07 μg/g); while Pb was maximum in FD (41.00 μg/g). In mussels, a higher bioaccumulation in winter was found. Mussels from UP showed the highest bioaccumulation of Cu (5.95 μg/g) and those from FD presented the highest of Zn (170.15 μg/g). A seasonal trend was not found for limpets, while differences among sites were observed for Cd being the highest at IZ (3.02 μg/g). Although pollution level found was low, anthropic activities at the studied sites could result in deterioration, further monitoring is recommended. PMID:22681905

  11. Polynuclear aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in mussels from the coastal zone of Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I; Sericano, José L

    2011-03-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) were collected from 12 coastal locations in Ushuaia Bay, Argentina, and the surrounding area in October 1999 and again in October 2003. Concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and selected chlorinated pesticides were determined to assess the impact of a fast-growing population in the area. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 2.24 to an extremely high concentration of 2,420 µg/g lipid measured in mussels collected near an oil jetty used to discharge to shore storage tanks. The composition of PAHs in these samples indicates that the source of these compounds inside Ushuaia Bay is predominantly petrogenic, with some pyrogenic background, whereas mostly pyrogenic-related PAHs were evident in areas outside the bay. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged between 12.8 and 8,210 ng/g lipid, with the highest concentration, detected inside Ushuaia harbor, representing a 10-fold increase when compared with historical data. Chlorinated pesticides were detected at comparatively lower concentrations, with 4-4'- 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene being the most common. The aggressive increase in population and related activities observed in the city of Ushuaia over the last two decades might have affected the environmental quality of the local bay. Moreover, the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions existing in Ushuaia Bay and surrounding areas may favor the accumulation and long-term presence of these organic pollutants in all compartments of this fragile environment. PMID:21128271

  12. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  13. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations. PMID:22512599

  14. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-05-26

    Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

  15. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes cf. neuquenensis and Ixodes sigelos ticks from the Patagonian region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Patrick S; Bottero, Maria Noelia Saracho; Carvalho, Luis; Mackenstedt, Ute; Lareschi, Marcela; Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in ixodid ticks from the Patagonia region in the south of Argentina. Therefore, ticks were collected on rodents in the provinces of Chubut, Río Negro and Santa Cruz. These ticks were identified as nymphs of Ixodes cf. neuquenensis and Ixodes sigelos. The B. burgdorferi s.l. infection was tested by a battery of PCR methods targeting the gene flagellin (fla) and the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region (IGS). Three pools of I. sigelos nymphs from Chubut and Santa Cruz provinces as well as one pool of I. cf. neuquenensis nymphs from Río Negro province were tested positive in the fla-PCR. The samples of I. sigelos were also positive for the IGS-PCR. Phylogenetically, the haplotypes found in the positive ticks belong to the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex, and they were closely related to Borrelia chilensis, a genospecies isolated from Ixodes stilesi in Chile. The pathogenic relevance of the Borrelia genospecies detected in both I. neuquenensis and I. sigelos is unknown. PMID:27372197

  16. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. PMID:27536526

  17. Análises morfométricas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis (Annelida: Spionidae no litoral do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Características morfológicas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis De Blainville, 1828 foram analisadas utilizando-se análise morfométrica com o ojetivo foi avaliar se essas espécies podem ser discriminadas através da utilização de dados morfométricos. Além disso, foram fornecidos novos caracteres que possam ser utilizados para uma reavaliação da taxonomia do gênero. A análise baseada nas variáveis canônicas revelou que S. chilensis, S. goodbodyi e S. squamata são mais similares entre si, quanto a forma, do que com S. acuta. Os caracteres mais significativos para a discriminação das quatro espécies foram o comprimento da brânquia, o comprimento da base do palpo até o vigésimo setígero, o comprimento e a largura do prostômio e a largura e o comprimento do setígero 5 e 20. Destes, destacam-se o formato das brânquias e do prostômio, pois vem sendo utilizados como caracteres diagnósticos em estudos taxonômicos do gênero.

  18. Diversidad de musgos en ambientes degradados sujetos a restauración en el Parque Nacional Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina Moss diversity in degraded environments under restoring in the Lago Puelo National Park (Chubut, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA E ROVERE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La restauración ecológica es una disciplina que intenta recuperar atributos perdidos en un ecosistema (diversidad de especies, estructura y función. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la diversidad de musgos y sus formas de vida en tres ambientes con diferentes niveles de degradación y los sustratos en los que estos se desarrollan. El área de estudio corresponde a un sector que se está restaurando dentro de la Reserva Nacional Lago Puelo. En ella se encuentran tres ambientes distintos: (1 área remanente de bosque maduro de Nothofagus dombeyi, (2 bosque secundario de Austrocedrus chilensis, y (3 matorral dominado por especies exóticas. Se recorrió cada uno de los ambientes, registrando los sustratos con musgos, formas de vida y géneros. Los resultados evidencian una reducción de los sustratos disponibles y de las especies presentes conforme avanza el grado de alteración, desde el área de bosque maduro de N. dombeyi (9 sustratos: 17 géneros: 7 formas de vida, al sector de bosque secundario de A. chilensis (6 sustratos: 8 géneros: 5 formas de vida, siendo menor en el matorral dominado por especies exóticas (1 sustrato: 4 géneros: 3 formas de vida. Los musgos desempeñan funciones importantes en los ecosistemas, son fundamentales en el balance hídrico, pioneros en suelos inestables controlando la erosión y colonizando sitios alterados, sirven como hábitat y alimento para invertebrados, y también constituyen sitios propicios para la germinación de plantas vasculares. Si bien algunas especies leñosas ven afectada su germinación por la presencia de musgos, estos facilitan la germinación de otras especies arbóreas de los bosques templados. Los resultados podrían ser utilizados en restauración, ya sea recreando los sustratos ausentes o realizando traslado de sustratos con musgos, a fin de favorecer la recuperación de áreas boscosas degradadas considerando la biodiversidad original.Ecological restoration is a discipline

  19. Nitrogen fixation in four dryland tree species in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from a 5-year experiment using 15N-enriched fertilizer to determine N2 fixation in four tree species on degraded soils in a Mediterranean-climate region of central Chile in which there are 5 months of drought. Species tested included three slow-growing but long-lived savannah trees native to southers South America, (acacia caven, Prosopic alba and P. chilensis; Mimosoideae), and Tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis; Papilonoideae), a fast-growing but medium-lived tree from the Canary Islands. Tagasaste produced four- to twenty-fold more biomass than the other species, but showed declining N2 fixation and biomass accumulation during the 5th year, corresponding to the juvenile-to-adult developmental transition. Nitrogen content was significantly higher in Tagasaste and Acacia caven than in the other species. The data revealed inter-specific differences in resource allocation and phenology of N2 fixation rarely detailed for woody plants in dryland regions. (author)

  20. Taxonomic review of the species of Helina R.-D. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Andean-Patagonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is the second genus of Muscidae in terms of richness. This genus includes several species collected at high altitudes and high latitudes, and is poorly studied in the Neotropical region. Only 12 species of Helina have been recorded in the southern limit of South America in the Andean-Patagonian forests. In the present work, we studied all the species known from the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of H. viola Malloch, 1934, present three new species, H. araucana sp. nov., H. dorada sp. nov., and H. ouina sp. nov., and provide the first description of the females of H. australis Carvalho & Pont, 1993 and H. rufoapicata Malloch, 1934. We also propose four new synonymies: H. nigrimana basilaris (Carvalho & Pont, 1993) and H. nigrimana grisea (Malloch, 1934) as new junior synonyms of H. nigrimana (Macquart, 1851); and H. fulvocalyptrata Malloch, 1934 and H. simplex Malloch, 1934 as new junior synonyms of H. chilensis Malloch, 1934. Finally, we provide a generic diagnosis and a new key for the Helina species of the Andean-Patagonian forests, as well as notes on the biology and distribution maps of each specimen, and discuss a preliminary contruction of groups of species. PMID:27515658

  1. Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2005-01-01

    The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

  2. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopiña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme.

  3. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Alvarado

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The species of the strictly Neotropical ophionine wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 are revised. New descriptions of all previously named species are provided, except Alophophion holosericeus (Taschenberg, 1875 for which the type series is lost and the name is herein considered a nomen dubium. The female of A. flavorufus (Brullé, 1846 is described for the first time. Four informal species groups are proposed based on the morphology of the mandibles, development of the malar space, and general proportions of the head (i.e., development of the face and gena. Whereas the genus previously included only seven named species, it is here expanded to include 49 species (not including the aforementioned nomen dubium, 43 of which are newly discovered and described and thereby increasing the diversity by over eight times. A key to the four species groups and their included taxa is provided. Alophophion is confined to cold and/or dry areas of subequatorial South America, with the exception of A. mancocapaci new species and A. pedroi new species which occur incloud forests around Cuzco, Peru. The genus is newly recorded from Bolivia and Ecuador, and more extensive and accurate distributions are summarized for A. chilensis, A. flavorufus, and A. politus. Alophophion flavorufus is newly recorded from Argentina.Traduce

  4. Cloning of nod gene regions from mesquite rhizobia and bradyrhizobia and nucleotide sequence of the nodD gene from mesquite rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P M; Golly, K F; Virginia, R A; Zyskind, J W

    1995-09-01

    Nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between bacteria and the tree legume mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is important for the maintenance of many desert ecosystems. Genes essential for nodulation and for extending the host range to mesquite were isolated from cosmid libraries of Rhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW17b and Bradyrhizobium (mesquite) sp. strain HW10h and were shown to be closely linked. All of the cosmid clones of rhizobia that extended the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. strain NGR234CS to mesquite also supported nodulation of a Sym- mesquite strain. The cosmid clones of bradyrhizobia that extended the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. strain NGR234CS to mesquite were only able to confer nodulation ability in the Sym- mesquite strain if they also contained a nodD-hybridizing region. Subclones containing just the nodD genes of either genus did not extend the host range of Rhizobium (Parasponia) sp. to mesquite, indicating that the nodD gene is insufficient for mesquite nodulation. The nodD gene region is conserved among mesquite-nodulating rhizobia regardless of the soil depth from which they were collected, indicating descent from a common ancestor. In a tree of distance relationships, the NodD amino acid sequence from mesquite rhizobia clusters with homologs from symbionts that can infect both herbaceous and tree legumes, including Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv; phaseoli, Rhizobium loti, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. PMID:7574650

  5. Peroxide-assisted microwave activation of pyrolysis char for adsorption of dyes from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vaishakh; Vinu, R

    2016-09-01

    In this study, mesoporous activated biochar with high surface area and controlled pore size was prepared from char obtained as a by-product of pyrolysis of Prosopis juliflora biomass. The activation was carried out by a simple process that involved H2O2 treatment followed by microwave pyrolysis. H2O2 impregnation time and microwave power were optimized to obtain biochar with high specific surface area and high adsorption capacity for commercial dyes such as Remazol Brilliant Blue and Methylene Blue. Adsorption parameters such as initial pH of the dye solution and adsorbent dosage were also optimized. Pore size distribution, surface morphology and elemental composition of activated biochar were thoroughly characterized. H2O2 impregnation time of 24h and microwave power of 600W produced nanostructured biochar with narrow and deep pores of 357m(2)g(-1) specific surface area. Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms described the adsorption equilibrium, while pseudo second order model described the kinetics of adsorption. PMID:27268436

  6. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Assess Estuary Health and Enhance Management of Water Resources in Coastal Texas through Land Cover and Precipitation Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepps, G.; Gonsoroski, E.; Lynn, T.; Schick, R.; Pereira da Silva, R.

    2015-12-01

    This project partnered with the National Park Service (NPS) to help analyze the correlation between mesquite trees and the salinity of the Laguna Madre of Padre Island National Seashore. The lagoon is a hypersaline estuary; however, there is historical evidence that this was not always the case. It is hypothesized that the increase in the number of honey mesquite trees (Prosopis grandulosa var. glandulosa) in the area has contributed to the Laguna Madre's increased salinity by decreasing the groundwater inflow to the lagoon. These mesquite trees have long taproots capable of extracting significant amounts of groundwater. This project utilized Earth observation data in ERDAS IMAGINE and ArcGIS software to create map time series and analyze the data. Landsat 5, 7, and 8 data were used to create land use/land cover (LULC) maps in order to analyze the change in the occurrence of mesquite trees over time. Thermal maps of the lagoon were generated using Landsat 5, 7, and 8 data to understand changes in groundwater inflow. In addition, TRMM and GRACE derived changes in root zone soil moisture content data were compared over the study period. By investigating the suspected positive correlation between the mesquite trees and the salinity of the Laguna Madre, the NPS can improve future land management practices.

  7. Breeding biology and nest-site selection of red-tailed hawks in an altered desert grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, R.J.; DeStefano, S.; Halvorson, W.L.

    2006-01-01

    Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) have expanded their range as trees have invaded formerly-open grasslands. Desert grasslands of southern Arizona have been invaded by mesquite trees (Prosopis velutina) since Anglo-American settlement and now support a large population of Red-tailed Hawks. We studied a population of Red-tailed Hawks in an altered desert grassland in southern Arizona. Our objectives were to determine what environmental characteristics influence Red-tailed Hawk habitat selection in mesquite-invaded desert grasslands and to evaluate the habitat quality of these grasslands for Red-tailed Hawks based on nesting density, nest success, and productivity. Red-tailed Hawks had 86% (95% C.I. = 73-99) nest success and 1.82 young per breeding pair (95% C.I. = 1.41-2.23). Nesting density was 0.15 (95% CI = 0.08-0.21) breeding pairs/km2 and the mean nearest-neighbor distance was 1.95 km (95% C.I. = 1.74-2.16). Red-tailed Hawks selected nest-sites with taller nest-trees and greater tree height and cover than were available at random. Mesquite trees in desert grasslands provide abundant potential nesting structures for Red-tailed Hawks. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  8. Preparation and standardization of a herbal agent for the therapeutic management of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeje, Martins; Izuka, Amaka; Isimi, Christiana; Ofoefule, Sabinus; Kunle, Olobayo

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to develop a suitable single tablet dosage form containing a mixture of hot water stem back extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Prosopis africana (AA1), suitable for use in the therapeutic management of asthma. The compaction characteristics of the oven-dried hot water extract (HWE) were studied using the Heckel equation. The mechanical properties as well as disintegration and dissolution profile of the compacts were also assessed. The results showed that AA1 exhibited high densification due to dye filling while the subsequent rearrangement of the granules did not contribute, significantly, to their densification. The granules had enhanced plasticity as shown by the low yield point, Py. The tablets produced from the extract had good mechanical properties, with hardness increasing with compression pressure while the friability decreased. Of the four disintegrants tested, tablets containing Explotab had the shortest disintegration time of 11 min while tablets containing Prosolv had the longest disintegration time of 40 min. The order of disintegrant property is Explotab > Cellactose > Emcocel > Maize starch > Prosolv. Dissolution results (t(90%)) show that tablets containing Explotab released 100% of the drug in 20 min proving to be the most suitable in acute asthma attack. The order of dissolution is Explotab > Cellactose > Maize starch > Prosolv > Emcocel. It is concluded that incorporation of Explotab (10%w/w) as a disintegrant in AA1 preparation produced tablets of suitable compressional properties and ensured adequate drug release for the management of acute asthma. PMID:20141501

  9. Harvesting and consumption of fuel and timber wood in rural area of district tank, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study revealed that 90% of the rural people with different age group of District Tank, Pakistan depended upon firewood for catering. The total annual wood consumption for fueling by brick brewers, food sellers and domestic utilization was 18371 metric tons in this remote region. The saw machines also convert 13650 metric tons of timber wood yearly into logs and boards of various grades. The total wood consumption exceeds the quantity of wood harvested by tree fellers, farmers and wood sellers. Therefore the balance of over 13000 metric tons is sourced from neighboring forest of Tehsil Kulachi and Dera Ismail Khan. The quantity of wood removed and consumed for various purposes did not show a significant difference at (0.05) among the six locations. However student t-test showed significant difference existed in the mean annual removal and consumption of wood in the area. The study also enumerated Acacia nilotica, Tamarix aphylla, and Sueda fruticosa as the best and preferred fuel species. While Acacia nilotica, Prosopis farcta and Dalbergia sisso as the frequently used timber species in the region. The criterion of firewood and lumber consumption was very conventional like durability in blaze and opposed to termite. Consequently, it is recommended scientific vegetation conservation strategies meant at improved burning of fuel wood and maximized used of timber products as a complimentary efforts to enforced tree planting for conservation of plant resources. (author)

  10. Reproducción y alimentación de Phytotoma raimondii, cortarrama peruana en El Gramadal, Ancash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rosina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se confirma la existencia de un buen hábitat con buena disponibilidad de alimento y de sitios para reproducción de la cortarrama peruana en El Gramadal (Huarmey. Las dos especies más importantes para su alimentación “algarrobo” (Prosopis pallida y “palo negro” (Grabowskia boerhaviifolia, se encuentran en suficiente cantidad en el lugar. Esta última planta también es crucial para la reproducción, ya que todos los nidos hallados fueron construidos en esta especie. Hasta el momento se han encontrado nueve nidos entre los años 2010 y 2012 entre diciembre y abril: siete nidos activos, 2 el 2010 (abril, 4 el 2011, (marzo y diciembre y uno el 2012 (enero. También se encontraron dos nidos vacíos el 2011 (marzo y junio, además de volantones e individuos juveniles desde diciembre a junio.

  11. Airway allergy and skin reactivity to aeroallergens in Riyadh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis (airway allergy) residing in Riyadh region. This is a retrospective cross sectional study based on data analysis of skin prick test results of individuals with clinical diagnosis of airway allergy. Allergy skin prick test result data of 139 Saudi nationals from Riyadh region tested at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2003 and March 2004 was analyzed retrospectively. This group comprised of 53% females and 47% males, with a mean age of 27 +/- 12 years. A set of aeroallergens extracts for both indoor and outdoor allergens including fungal spores was used to test the patients. Seventy-five percent (105) of patients reacted to one or more allergen extracts. The most frequently reacting indoor allergen was house dust mite (77.8%) followed by the cat (33.6%) and cockroach (19.2%). Among the outdoor allergens Prosopis juliflora was tested positive in 72.1%, Bermuda grass in 53.8%, Chenopodium album in 47.1%, Rye grass in 36.5% and Salsola kali in 36.5%. A significant proportion of patients were also found reacting to Moulds (18.2%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.2%) extracts. Sensitivity to one or more aeroallergens was common in patients, indicating high level of aeroallergen sensitization in patients with airway allergy residing in Riyadh region. (author)

  12. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

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    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  13. Mapping of fuelwood trees using geoinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandra, T.V. [Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Centre for Infrastructure, Sustainable Transportation and Urban Planning (CiSTUP) (India)

    2010-02-15

    Rural population of India constitutes about 70% of the total population and traditional fuels account for 75% of the rural energy needs. Depletion of woodlands coupled with the persistent dependency on fuel wood has posed a serious problem for household energy provision in many parts. This study highlights that the traditional fuels still meet 85-95% of fuel needs in rural areas of Kolar district; people prefer fuel wood for cooking and agriculture residues for water heating and other purposes. However, rapid changes in land cover and land use in recent times have affected these traditional fuels availability necessitating inventorying, mapping and monitoring of bioresources for sustainable management of bioresources. Remote sensing data (Multispectal and Panchromatic), Geographic Information System (GIS), field surveys and non-destructive sampling were used to assess spatially the availability and demand of energy. Field surveys indicate that rural household depends on species such as Prosopis juliflora, Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis to meet fuel wood requirement for domestic activities. Hence, to take stock of fuel wood availability, mapping was done at species level (with 88% accuracy) considering villages as sampling units using fused multispectral and panchromatic data. (author)

  14. Invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants in southern Africa: a sum­mary based on the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA

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    L. Henderson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this publication is to provide an overview of the species identity, invasion status, geographical extent, and abundance of alien plants in South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho, based on field records from 1979 to the end of 2000. The dataset is all the species records for the study area in the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA database during this time period. A total of 548 naturalized and casual alien plant species were catalogued and invasion was recorded almost throughout the study area. Most invasion, in terms of both species numbers and total species abundance, was recorded along the southern, southwestern and eastern coastal belts and in the adjacent interior. This area includes the whole of the Fynbos and Forest Biomes, and the moister eastern parts of the Grassland and Savanna Biomes. This study reinforces previous studies that the Fynbos Biome is the most extensively invaded vegetation type in South Africa but it also shows that parts of Savanna and Grassland are as heavily invaded as parts of the Fynbos. The Fabaceae is prominent in all biomes and Acacia with 17 listed species, accounts for a very large proportion of all invasion. Acacia mearmii was by far the most prominent invasive species in the study area, followed by A. saligna, Lantana camara, A. cyclops, Opuntia ficus-indica. Solarium mauritianum, Populus alba/xcanescens, Melia azedarach, A. dealbata and species of Prosopis.

  15. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Nosocomial Microorganisms

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    Eduardo Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm is a complex microbial community highly resistant to antimicrobials. The formation of biofilms in biotic and abiotic surfaces is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New alternatives for controlling infections have been proposed focusing on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants and their antimicrobial effects. In the present study the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of 8 methanolic plant extracts were evaluated against clinical isolated microorganisms. Preliminary screening by diffusion well assay showed the antimicrobial activity of Prosopis laevigata, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Gutierrezia microcephala. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined ranging from 0.7 to >15 mg/mL. The specific biofilm formation index (SBF was evaluated before and after the addition of plant extracts (MBC × 0.75. Opuntia ficus-indica caused the major reduction on SBF in dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic activity of plant extracts was determined using brine shrimp lethality test (Artemia salina L.. Lethal Dose concentration (LD50 values of the plant extracts was calculated. LD50 values for P. laevigata and G. microcephala were 141.6 and 323.3 µg/mL, respectively, while O. ficus-indica showed a slight lethality with 939.2 µg/mL. Phytochemical analyses reveal the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and coumarines.

  16. Nesting habitat and productivity of Swainson's Hawks in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Catherine; Boal, Clint W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Hobbs, Royden J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) in southeastern Arizona to assess the status of the local breeding population. Nest success (≥1 young fledged) was 44.4% in 1999 with an average of 1.43 ± 0.09 (SE) young produced per successful pair. Productivity was similar in 2000, with 58.2% nesting success and 1.83 ± 0.09 fledglings per successful pair. Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii) accounted for >50% of 167 nest trees. Nest trees were taller than surrounding trees and random trees, and overall there was more vegetative cover at nest sites than random sites. This apparent requirement for cover around nest sites could be important for management of the species in Arizona. However, any need for cover at nest sites must be balanced with the need for open areas for foraging. Density of nesting Swainson's Hawks was higher in agriculture than in grasslands and desert scrub. Breeding pairs had similar success in agricultural and nonagricultural areas, but the effect of rapid and widespread land-use change on breeding distribution and productivity continues to be a concern throughout the range of the species.

  17. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

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    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  18. Assessing Water Stress of Desert Tamarugo Trees Using in situ Data and Very High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing

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    Edmundo Acevedo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The hyper-arid Atacama Desert is one of the most extreme environments for life and only few species have evolved to survive its aridness. One such species is the tree Prosopis tamarugo Phil. Because Tamarugo completely depends on groundwater, it is being threatened by the high water demand from the Chilean mining industry and the human consumption. In this paper, we identified the most important biophysical variables to assess the water status of Tamarugo trees and tested the potential of WorldView2 satellite images to retrieve these variables. We propose green canopy fraction (GCF and green drip line leaf area index (DLLAIgreen as best variables and a value of 0.25 GCF as a critical threshold for Tamarugo survival. Using the WorldView2 spectral bands and an object-based image analysis, we showed that the NDVI and the Red-edge Chlorophyll Index (CIRed-edge have good potential to retrieve GCF and DLLAIgreen. The NDVI performed best for DLLAIgreen (RMSE = 0.4 while the CIRed-edge was best for GCF (RMSE = 0.1. However, both indices were affected by Tamarugo leaf movements (leaves avoid facing direct solar radiation at the hottest time of the day. Thus, monitoring systems based on these indices should consider the time of the day and the season of the year at which the satellite images are acquired.

  19. Effect of Heavy Metal Present in Cement Dust on Soil and Plants of Nokha (Bikaner

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    Dr.(Mrs.Suruchi Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Nokha(Bikaner cement industries emittes cement dust in nearby farmers fields. In these industries cement dust emitted contains traces of hexavalent chromium and lead well above permissible limit in area under investigation. However, cadmium and nickel were found below limits prescribed. To analyse heavy metals viz, Cr+6, lead, Cadmium and nickel one hundred and twenty samples were collected from four directions on surface and 20 cm depth, and analyzed on atomic absorption spectrophotometer. From the above study it is clear that in case of Sarvottam cement works only lead content was higher in all directions and depths than other two plants. At tiger and Nokha cement works contamination of lead was more over limited in the first 1 km except in east direction. Mobility of lead was relatively more on top soil than 20cm depth. Hexavalent chromium content in south western direction was more for Nokha cement. Whereas, it was more in east direction in case of tiger cement. This indicated influence of prevailing direction of wind on distribution of heavy metals present in cement dust.Heavy metal toxicity results in reduction in plant height, burning of leaf margins and tip, slow leaf growth and over all wilting of Prosopis cineraria, Pearlmillet and clusterbean plants, when this metal deposits in Human body results in genetic disorders. Electrostatic precipitator can be installed to reduce the cement dust emission.

  20. Stable isotopes of nitrogen in plants of contaminated soils and sediments by an abandoned gold mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, O. F.; Sanchez, A.; Marmolejo, A. J.; Magallanes, V. R.

    2013-05-01

    Mining industry is an economic activity which generates high ecological impact. In the mining district "El Triunfo", the concentration of potential toxic elements (PTE: As, Cd, Hg, Sb) have exceeded 50 times allowable limits. Nowadays, environmental pollution levels can be evaluated through the use of stable isotopes of N. For this, isotopic analysis of nitrogen and concentrations of metals and metalloids were considered in the area where plants are exposed (Prosopis spp., Parkinsonia spp. and Salicornia spp.) Polluted sediments were collected over 48 km of the Las Gallinas-El Hondo-El Carrizal arroyo. PTE concentrations, with a previous acidic digestion (HF, HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4) were determined by ICP-MS. As and Sb were determined by NAA. For N isotopes, obtained samples were grounded to fine powder in an agate mortar with an acetone rinse between samples then analyzed by an EA-IRMS. Results showed that plants growing on the tailings decreased their δ15N proportionally to the metal concentration in the area.

  1. Reclamation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field studies were carried out to restore the fertility and productivity of coal mine spoil using primary clarifier sludge from paper mill effluent treatment plant and use of specialised culture of biofertilizers and mycorrhizal fungi. Plants namely Tectona grandis, Delbergia sissoo, Gmelina arporea, Emblica officinalis and Cassia seamea were grown. Sludge amendment enhanced the survival rate of plants to 80% compared to 20% in unamended spoil. Plants grown on unamended spoil showed stunted growth. Growth of plants increased by 188-484% when sludge was applied at the rate of 100 tonnes per hectare. At 100 tones per hectare sludge amendment, biofertilizer and mycorrhizae treatment there were 83.7 nodules in shishum as against only 4.6 nodules in case of spoil alone. Further root length was 276% and 281% more respectively in case of shishum and teak. Inoculation of plant saplings with respective biofertilizers and mycorrhizae further increased the plant growth by 144-198%. At Durgapur coal mine, 56,000 saplings of Tectona grandis, Gmelina arporea, Delbergia sissoo, Emblica officinalis, Azadirachta indica, Acacia ariculiformis, Prosopis etc were successfully planted on spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. 10 refs., 5 tabs

  2. Isotope studies on plant productivity. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to explore this approach, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Studies for Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics was initiated in October 1989 and complete in October 1994. Almost half of the work carried out under this programme concentrated on water use efficiency and the rest on phosphate use efficiency. Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia focused on wheat; Nigeria and Sierra Leone on cowpea; Kenya, Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania on nitrogen fixing trees such as Prosopis, Acacia and Gliricidia; and Viet Nam on rice. Experiments conducted in the field showed that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among the genotypes/provenances of crop and tree species in their capacity for uptake and use of phosphorus and water from soils limited in resources. Several elite genotypes/provenances were identified which are highly efficient in water or phosphate use. In a few cases, the high water use efficiency (or the high phosphorus use efficiency) feature was seen in the same genotype where the grain yield was also high. Morphological parameters responsible for making some genotypes superior in their capacity to use phosphorus or water have also been investigated. It is our hope that the findings reported in this publication will help agricultural scientists in the Member States, particularly in Africa, in their quest of finding solutions to problems of food security. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. The sensitivity of ecosystem carbon exchange to seasonal precipitation and woody plant encroachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, D L; Huxman, T E; Scott, R L; Williams, D G; Goodrich, D C

    2006-12-01

    Ongoing, widespread increases in woody plant abundance in historical grasslands and savannas (woody encroachment) likely will interact with future precipitation variability to influence seasonal patterns of carbon cycling in water-limited regions. To characterize the effects of woody encroachment on the sensitivity of ecosystem carbon exchange to seasonal rainfall in a semi-arid riparian setting we used flux-duration analysis to compare 2003-growing season NEE data from a riparian grassland and shrubland. Though less seasonally variable than the grassland, shrubland NEE was more responsive to monsoon rains than anticipated. During the 2004-growing season we measured leaf gas exchange and collected leaf tissue for delta(13)C and nitrogen content analysis periodically among three size classes of the dominant woody-plant, Prosopis velutina and the dominant understory species, Sporobolus wrightii, a C(4) bunchgrass, present at the shrubland. We observed size-class and plant functional type independent patterns of seasonal plant performance consistent with greater-than-anticipated sensitivity of NEE in the shrubland. This research highlights the complex interaction between growing-season precipitation, plant-available alluvial groundwater and woody plant abundance governing ecosystem carbon balance in this semi-arid watershed. PMID:16955288

  4. Raptor community composition in the Texas Southern High Plains lesser prairie-chicken range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, A.C.; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Lucia, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Predation can be a factor in preventing prey population growth and sustainability when prey populations are small and fragmented, and when predator density is unrelated to the density of the single prey species. We conducted monthly raptor surveys from February 2007 to May 2009 in adjacent areas of the Texas Southern High Plains (USA) that do and do not support lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act. During the summer period corresponding to prairie-chicken nesting and brood-rearing, Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) were the most abundant raptor. During the lekking and overwintering period, the raptor community was diverse, with northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) being the most abundant species. Raptor abundance peaked during the early autumn and was lowest during the spring. Utility poles were a significant predictor of raptor density at survey points and Swainson's hawks and all raptors, pooled, were found in greater densities in non-prairie-chicken habitat dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). Avian predation risk on prairie-chickens, based on presence and abundance of raptors, appears to be greatest during winter when there is a more abundant and diverse raptor community, and in areas with utility poles.

  5. Hydrologically Driven Hierarchical Competition-Colonization Model: The Impact of Random Interannual Climate Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Illescas, C. P.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2001-05-01

    While ecologist and hydrologists hace come to recognize the fundamental importance of soil water availability in many ecosystems, much less prgress has been made in understanding the impact of the temporal variability in soil moisture on ecosystem structure. One recent advance in this regard is the analytical treatment of the vegetation-soil-climate system described by Laio et al. (2001) and Porporato et al. (2001) which characterizes the impact of growing season soil moisture variability on vegetation overall condition. Here, this ecohydrological model is linked with the hierarchical competition-colonization model of Tilman (1994) to asses the impact of interannual growing season rainfall variability on vegetation competition and ecosystem biodiversity. Based on climatic and vegetative data from the La Copita Research Area in the Rio Grande Plains of Southern Texas, 10000 year simulations of spatial competition between a herbaceous C4 Paspaleum setaceum species and a woody Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite) species are run using the above linked models. Results show that ecosystem structure is quite sensitive to the inclusion of realistic amounts of interannual rainfall fluctuations. This sensitivity exists with respect to the expected magnitude of the fluctuations as well as the degree to which successive fluctuations are correlated. It is also found that markovian models of interannual rainfall variability - which lack long-term persistence- lead to self-affine time series of species abundances which display f-{β } spectral properties. The implications of these effects on ecological modeling are discussed.

  6. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  7. Plant Functional Variability in Response to Late-Quaternary Climate Change Recorded in Ancient Packrat Middens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, C. A.; Potts, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Responses of plant functional traits to environmental variability are of enduring interest because they constrain organism performance and ecosystem function. However, most inferences regarding plant functional trait response to climatic variability have been limited to the modern period. To better understand plant functional response to long-term climate variability and how adjustments in leaf morphology may contribute to patterns of species establishment, persistence, or extirpation, we measured specific leaf area (SLA) from macrofossils preserved in ancient packrat middens collected along the Arizona/New Mexico border, USA. Our record spanned more than 32,000 years and included six woodland and Chihuahuan Desert species: Berberis cf. haematocarpa, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis, Juniperus osteosperma, Larrea tridentata, Prosopis glandulosa and Parthenium incanum. We predicted that regional climatic warming and drying since the late Pleistocene would result in intraspecific decreases in SLA. As predicted, SLA was positively correlated with midden age for three of the six species (L. tridentata, J. osteosperma, B. cf. haematocarpa). SLA was also negatively correlated with December (L. tridentata, J. cf. coahuilensis) or June (B. cf. haematocarpa, J. osteosperma) insolation. A unique record of vegetation community dynamics, plant macrofossils preserved in packrat middens also represent a rich and largely untapped source of information on long-term trends in species functional response to environmental change.

  8. NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF VARIOUS FEEDSTUFFS FOR LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION USING IN VITRO GAS METHOD

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    S. A. KHANUM, T. YAQOOB1, S. SADAF1, M. HUSSAIN, M. A. JABBAR1, H. N. HUSSAIN, R. KAUSAR AND S. REHMAN1

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional quality of some conventional and non-conventional feed resources by using in vitro gas method. Samples of various feedstuffs were analyzed chemically, as well as by in vitro gas method. The feedstuffs having different digestibilities showed significant (P<0.05 differences in the rate and amount of gas production, metabolizable energy (ME and digestibility of organic matter. Predicted metabolizable energy values were very low in feedstuffs having high fiber and low protein contents. These feedstuffs included various grasses, crop residues and wheal straw. Lowest ME value of 4.7 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM was found in wheat straw. Many of the roughages (Sorghum vulgare, Kochia indica, Leptochloa fusca studied were found to be deficient in fermentable carbohydrates, resulting in low organic matter digestibility. Concentrate feed stuffs like cotton seed meal, sunflower meal, cotton seed cakes, rice polish, rapeseed meal and Zea mays (maize grains had higher ME values (9.27 – 12.44 MJ/kg DM. The difference of ME of various feedstuffs reflects different contents of fermentable carbohydrates and available nitrogen in cereals and protein supplements. Among the non-conventional feedstuffs, Acacia ampliceps, Acacia nilotica, Sesbania aculeata, Leptochloa fusca and Prosopis juliflora were found potential fodders. Extensive use of in vitro gas method proved its potential as a tool to evaluate various ruminant feeds for energy component.

  9. Stable isotope labelling reveals that NaCl stress decreases the production of Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) arboris lipochitooligosaccharide signalling molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttinen, Petri; Räsänen, Leena A; Lortet, Gilles; Lindström, Kristina

    2013-12-01

    Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) arboris is a symbiont of salt-tolerant leguminous trees in the genera Acacia and Prosopis that are utilized in the prevention of soil erosion and desertification and in phytoremediation of salinized soil. Signalling between the plant and the rhizobia is essential for the formation of effective symbiosis that increases the success of reclaiming saline sites. We assessed the effect of salt stress on the growth and the production of lipochitooligosaccharide signalling molecules (LCOs) of S. arboris HAMBI 2361, an LCO-overproducing derivative of the S. arboris type strain HAMBI 1552. The strain tolerated NaCl up to 750 mM. To obtain both qualitative and quantitative information on the LCO production under salt stress, we devised a method where LCOs were differentially labelled by stable isotopes of nitrogen, (14)N and (15)N, and analysed by mass spectrometry. Under control conditions, the strain produced altogether 27 structural LCO variants. In 380 mM NaCl, 13 LCO variants were produced in detectable amounts, and six of these were reliably quantified, ranging from one-tenth to one-third of the non-stressed one. PMID:24256411

  10. In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of Boerhavia elegans and Solanum surattense

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    Khodakarim Nastaran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to identify new anti-malarial drug targets for both prophylaxis and chemotherapy, due to the increasing problem of drug resistance to malaria parasites. In the present study, the aim was to discover novel, effective plant-based extracts for the activity against malaria. Methods Ten plants found in Iran were selected by ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants. The crude ethanolic extracts were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum: K1 (chloroquine-resistant strain and CY27 (chloroquine-sensitive strain, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH assay. The anti-plasmodial activity of the extracts was also assessed in the 4-day suppressive anti-malarial assay in mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain. Crude ethanolic extracts showed good anti-plasmodial activity were further fractionated by partitioning in water and dichloromethane. Results Of 10 plant species assayed, three species: Boerhavia elegans (Choisy, Solanum surattense (Burm.f. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw. showed promising anti-plasmodial activity in vitro (IC50 ≤ 50 μg/ml and in vivo with no toxicity. The dichloromethane fraction of three extracts revealed stronger anti-plasmodial activity than the total extracts. Conclusion Anti-plasmodial activities of extracts of B. elegans and S. surattense are reported for the first time.

  11. Potencialidad de estudios arqueobotánicos sobre tártaro dental de cazadores recolectores de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

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    Musaubach, María G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis del tártaro dental desde una perspectiva arqueobotánica, constituye un acercamiento innovador en el estudio de la alimentación humana, la manipulación de fibras vegetales con los dientes y el uso de plantas con fines medicinales. Esto se debe a que la identificación de microfósiles de interés arqueológico que quedaron entrampados en el sarro nos permite conocer qué plantas fueron consumidas o manipuladas con los dientes. En este trabajo se analizan los microfósiles extraídos del tártaro dental de individuos del sitio Chenque I y se evalúa la técnica apropiada para recuperar y observar la mayor cantidad y tipo de micropartículas. Las principales morfologías de fitolitos registradas corresponden al tejido epidérmico de especies de Poaceae. Es notable la presencia de restos de tejidos epidérmicos de frutos de (sp. Prosopis y gramíneas presentes en los molares. El tejido entrampado en el sarro, resulta un dato de interés al momento de analizar las prácticas alimenticias y de salud bucal de los cazadores recolectores pampeanos.

  12. VOLUMETRY AND SURVIVAL OF NATIVE AND EXOTIC SPECIES IN THE GYPSUN POLE OF ARARIPE, PE

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    Bruno Coelho de Barros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial and commercial sectors of the Araripe Region in Pernambuco, Brazil, fire wood is the used in processes of dehydration and production of gypsum with different technologies. Thus, this study aimed to find alternatives to supply the demand of firewood in the Gypsun Pole of Araripe in Pernambuco through the implementation of forest with native and exotic species. The experiment was installed at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco (IPA, using nine species, both native and exotic: (Imburana - Amburana cearense (Allemão A.C. Sm.; Angico - Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan  var. cebil (Griseb. Altschul; Jurema - Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir.; Sabiá - Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth.; Acácia - Senna siamea (Lam. H.S. Irwin & Barneby; Leucena - Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. R. de Wit.; Algaroba - Prosopis juliflora (Sw. D.C.; Ipês - Tabebuia sp.1 e Tabebuia sp.2. The design was completely randomized with different numbers of replications. The following parameters were evaluated: volume in cubic meter (m³ and stereo meters (st and survival. With regard to the volume in cubic meter, Sabia had the best production. The Jurema and the Sabiá were the heaviest species. In relation to survival, the Ipê 2 and the Imburana had the highest mortalities. Thus, the Sabiá and the Jurema are the species indicated for the production of wood in homogeneous commercial plantations in the Chapada Araripe in Pernambuco.

  13. Forecasting climate change impacts to plant community composition in the Sonoran Desert region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Belnap, Jayne; Hubbard, J. Andrew; Swann, Don E.; Rutman, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Hotter and drier conditions projected for the southwestern United States can have a large impact on the abundance and composition of long-lived desert plant species. We used long-term vegetation monitoring results from 39 large plots across four protected sites in the Sonoran Desert region to determine how plant species have responded to past climate variability. This cross-site analysis identified the plant species and functional types susceptible to climate change, the magnitude of their responses, and potential climate thresholds. In the relatively mesic mesquite savanna communities, perennial grasses declined with a decrease in annual precipitation, cacti increased, and there was a reversal of the Prosopis velutina expansion experienced in the 20th century in response to increasing mean annual temperature (MAT). In the more xeric Arizona Upland communities, the dominant leguminous tree, Cercidium microphyllum, declined on hillslopes, and the shrub Fouquieria splendens decreased, especially on south- and west-facing slopes in response to increasing MAT. In the most xeric shrublands, the codominant species Larrea tridentata and its hemiparasite Krameria grayi decreased with a decrease in cool season precipitation and increased aridity, respectively. This regional-scale assessment of plant species response to recent climate variability is critical for forecasting future shifts in plant community composition, structure, and productivity.

  14. Evaluation of lesser-known feeds for ruminants to improve and sustain animal productivity during dry periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven species of tree forage (Azadirechta indica, Bahunia recemosa, Enterolobium saman, Moringa olecifera, Morus alba, Prosopis juliflora and Tithonia diversifolia) that grow in the dry and intermediate zones; and brewery waste were evaluated for their feed quality. For tree forages, the proximate composition, in vivo digestibility, nitrogen balance and order of preference were evaluated. Brewery waste was ensiled with either 0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% of molasses and 0.5% urea. Ensiling characteristics, pH, crude protein, intake and digestibility were determined. All forage species were protein-rich (>170 g/kg dry matter) and digestibility ranged from 45 to 68%. The goats fed tree forages maintained a positive nitrogen balance. The most preferred species of tree forage was Morus alba and the least Azadirecta indica. Ensiled brewery waste exhibited satisfactory ensiling characteristics, measured by pH and total and individual volatile fatty acids. Lactic acid content also indicated high quality silage. The level of molasses added influenced fermentation characteristics of the ensiled brewery waste by lowering the pH of the fermented silage and improving the crude protein, acetic acid and propionic acid production. Addition of molasses during ensiling improved the organic and dry matter digestibility by 15-20%. (author)

  15. The influence of mistletoes on birds in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuria, Iriana; Castellanos, Ignacio; Gates, J. Edward

    2014-11-01

    Mistletoes are hemiparasitic flowering plants that function as keystone resources in forests and woodlands of temperate regions, where a positive relationship between mistletoe density and avian species richness has been observed. Mistletoes have been less studied in tropical regions and the relationship between birds and mistletoes has seldom been explored in tropical agricultural systems. Therefore, we studied the presence of infected trees and infection prevalence (i.e., number of parasitized trees/total number of trees) by Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes in 23 hedgerows located in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico during the dry and rainy seasons, and investigated the relationship between bird species richness and abundance and the abundance of mistletoes. We found a mean of 74 mistletoe plants per 100-m transect of only one species, Psittacanthus calyculatus. Thirty-one percent of the trees surveyed were infected and tree species differed in infection prevalence, mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) being the most infected species with 86% of the surveyed trees infected. For both seasons, we found a positive and significant association between bird species richness and number of mistletoe plants. The same pattern was observed for total bird abundance. Many resident and Neotropical migratory birds were observed foraging on mistletoes. Our results show that mistletoes are important in promoting a higher bird species richness and abundance in tropical agricultural landscapes.

  16. Common environmental allergens causing respiratory allergy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A B; Kumar, Pawan

    2002-03-01

    Respiratory allergy affects all age groups but the children are the worst affected by the respiratory allergy. Bioparticles from different biological sources are the main cause of allergy. Pollen grains, fungal spores, insect and other materials of biological origin form the most important allergen load in the air. For the efficient diagnosis of the allergy and its effective treatment it is very important to know about the prevalence, seasonal and annual variations of aeroallergens of the area. India being the climatically diversed country, there is diversity in the flora and fauna of different parts of the country. Atmospheric surveys carried out in different parts of India reveal that, Alanus nitida, Amarantus spinosus, Argemone mexicana Cocos nucifera, Betula utilis, Borasus flabellifer, Caraica papaya, Cedrus deodara, Cassia fistula, Parthenium, Chenopodium album, Dodonaea viscosa, Malotus phillipensis, Plantago ovata, Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Holoptelea intergifolia are the allergenically important pollens of the country. Among the fungal aeroallergens, Alternaria, Candida aibieans, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus japonicus, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium roseum, Ganoderma lucidum,Neurospora sitophila Helminthosporium, Ustilago trtici, Uromyses are important allergens. Dust mites D. farinae, D.pteronyssinus are also important source of inhalant allergens particularly in the coastal areas of the country. Cockroaches, beetles, weevils, mosquitoes, house flies also contribute towards the aeroallergen load and are allergenically implicated. Avoidance of the indoor and outdoor aeroallergens is recommended for better management of respiratory allergy. PMID:12003301

  17. Water quality assessment and flora study of desert thar and nagarparkar district tharparkar, sindh Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of water samples (24) were collected from wells, water pumps, natural and artificial depressions from Naukot, Vajuto, Mithi, Islamkot, Virawah and Nagarparkar area and analyzed on the site and at the laboratories for 18 different parameters. There was a wide variation in water quality; conductivity 157 to 41400 micro S/m and total dissolved solids 100 to 26500 mg/L. The highest values were observed at Virawah area and lowest at an artificial depression of rainwater within Nagarparkar town. The higher vegetation of Thar region consists mainly of thorny or prickly shrubs and perennial herbs capable of drought resistance as Calligonum polygonoides, Aerva javanica, Salvadora oleoides, Acacia senegal, Capparis decidua, Tamarix aphylla, Prosopis spicigera, Leptadenia pyrotechnica and Zizyphus nummularia. During rainy season when dunes are covered with grasses and other herbs Salvadora oleoides, Capparis decidua, and Tamarix aphylla were found scattered in Thar area. Acacia leucophloea, Acacia senegal, Salvadora oleoides, Commiphora mukul, Barleria prionitis, Blepharis sindica, Euphorbia caudicifolia were found on dry and rocky area. Rainwater pools contain total 83 algal sp; 37 sp belonging to Cyanophyta; 23 sp Volocothyta; 10 sp Chlorophyta; 3 sp Charophyta; 10 sp Bacillarophyta; some algal species found epiphytic on aquatic plants such as Chaetophora pisiformis, Stigeoclonium subsecundum, Oedogonium sp. Spirogyra rhizobrachialis, S. fluviatilis and Gloeotrichia natans attached to Najas minor, Nymphaea stellata, and Typha domingensis. (author)

  18. Plant growth, accumulation and solute partitioning of four forest species under salt stress Crescimento, acumulação e distribuição de solutos em espécies florestais sob estresse salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Viégas

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Under NaCl-salinity Na+ and Cl- accumulation of shoot and root vary greatly among glycophyte plants; this is mostly due to genetic diversity and has been utilized to distinguish between plant responses to salinity. The current study aimed to evaluate the accumulation and Na+ and Cl- tissue partitioning and its effect on dry mass gain and K+ accumulation in one-month-old Prosopis juliflora, Leucaena leucocephala, Piptadenia macrocarpa and Mimosa hostilis seedlings grown for 30 days, in sand watered with nutrient solution loading 100 mol m-3 of NaCl, in greenhouse. The Na+ and Cl- accumulation, but not partitioning between shoot and root, depended on plant species. All the plants accumulated Cl- over Na+ both in shoot and root. The K+ content of plants did not significantly vary in shoot but decreased in root due to salinity. The ability of these plants to avoid damaging the metabolism due to salinity may result, in part, from a high shoot-K+ to Na+ ratio. Leucaena leucocephala had the higher decrease of total dry matter (60% and lower shoot-K+ to Na+ ratio (0.40, while Prosopis juliflora had lower decrease of total dry matter (15% and had K+ to Na+ ratio of shoot about 3 times more. Evidence is presented supporting a role for increased K+ to Na+ ratios in adaptation of plants to osmotic and ionic stresses.Em condições de estresse salino a acumulação de Na+ e Cl-, na parte aérea e nas raízes, difere substancialmente entre plantas glicófitas; este fato deve-se, principalmente, à diversidade genética existente e tem sido utilizado como indicador da resposta das plantas à salinidade. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a acumulação e a distribuição de Na+ e Cl-, bem como o efeito da salinidade sobre o ganho de massa seca e a distribuição de K+, na parte aérea e raízes, em plantas jovens de Prosopis juliflora, Leucaena leucocephala, Piptadenia macrocarpa e Mimosa hostilis, com um mês de idade, cultivadas durante 30 dias em areia e

  19. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils. PMID:25586575

  20. Diet of the grass lizard Microlophus thoracicus icae in the Ica river valley, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pérez Z.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The diet of grass lizard, Microlophus thoracicus icae, was evaluated in three localities of the Ica River Valley, Peru. The dietary pattern was characterized by high consumption of vegetable material, mainly Prosopis spp. leaves, and invertebrates as ants and insect larvae. No significant relationships were found between body size, number of prey eaten or volume consumed. The juvenile, male and female M. t. icae not showed significant differences regarding number of ants or insect larvae consumed, neither on the proportion consumed of plant material. However, total volume of plant material was different between males and females, compared to juveniles. Multivariate analysis showed no evident difference in the diets of juveniles, males and females. Trophic niche amplitude for M. t. icae was Bij = 6.97. The consumption of plant material and invertebrates is important for both juvenile and adult iguanas, therefore; no clear age difference in diet was observed in the individuals studied. This species would present great diet plasticity (omnivory influenced by the local variation of food resources. Possible consequences of a varied diet may include particular characteristics of its parasites, foraging strategies and efficiency, thermoregulation, morphology, among others.

  1. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA COBERTURA ARBÓREA EN UNA PASTURA DEL TRÓPICO SECO EN TOLIMA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodrigo Serrano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El obje- tivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la vegetación leñosa perenne de un potrero arbolado del Magdalena Tolimense en Colombia. El inventario forestal se realizó mediante el establecimiento de parcelas temporales de muestreo. La estimación del porcentaje de oclusión de la copa de los árboles se obtuvo mediante fotografías digitales al cenit y su análisis en el software libre Gap Light Analyzer. La radicación fotosintéticamente activa (RAFA transmitida por la copa se midió con un ceptómetro Accupar LP-80. Se encontraron 21 especies leñosas perennes en un área de muestreo de 54 ha. Con menor porcentaje de oclusión fueron: Pseudosamanea guachapele (64% y Prosopis juliflora (63%, lo que sugiere incluirlas en diseños de sistemas silvopastoriles; algunas es pecies poseen potencial maderable como ingreso adicional al ganadero. Se encontró una importante diversidad de especies leñosas para ser introducidas en pasturas, sin perjudicar la producción de materia seca comestible para el ganado.

  2. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Nosocomial Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Eduardo; Rivas Morales, Catalina; Castillo, Sandra; Leos-Rivas, Catalina; García-Becerra, Ledy; Ortiz Martínez, David Mizael

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm is a complex microbial community highly resistant to antimicrobials. The formation of biofilms in biotic and abiotic surfaces is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New alternatives for controlling infections have been proposed focusing on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants and their antimicrobial effects. In the present study the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of 8 methanolic plant extracts were evaluated against clinical isolated microorganisms. Preliminary screening by diffusion well assay showed the antimicrobial activity of Prosopis laevigata, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Gutierrezia microcephala. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined ranging from 0.7 to >15 mg/mL. The specific biofilm formation index (SBF) was evaluated before and after the addition of plant extracts (MBC × 0.75). Opuntia ficus-indica caused the major reduction on SBF in dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic activity of plant extracts was determined using brine shrimp lethality test (Artemia salina L.). Lethal Dose concentration (LD50 values) of the plant extracts was calculated. LD50 values for P. laevigata and G. microcephala were 141.6 and 323.3 µg/mL, respectively, while O. ficus-indica showed a slight lethality with 939.2 µg/mL. Phytochemical analyses reveal the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and coumarines. PMID:27429633

  3. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Nosocomial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Becerra, Ledy; Ortiz Martínez, David Mizael

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm is a complex microbial community highly resistant to antimicrobials. The formation of biofilms in biotic and abiotic surfaces is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New alternatives for controlling infections have been proposed focusing on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants and their antimicrobial effects. In the present study the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of 8 methanolic plant extracts were evaluated against clinical isolated microorganisms. Preliminary screening by diffusion well assay showed the antimicrobial activity of Prosopis laevigata, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Gutierrezia microcephala. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined ranging from 0.7 to >15 mg/mL. The specific biofilm formation index (SBF) was evaluated before and after the addition of plant extracts (MBC × 0.75). Opuntia ficus-indica caused the major reduction on SBF in dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic activity of plant extracts was determined using brine shrimp lethality test (Artemia salina L.). Lethal Dose concentration (LD50 values) of the plant extracts was calculated. LD50 values for P. laevigata and G. microcephala were 141.6 and 323.3 µg/mL, respectively, while O. ficus-indica showed a slight lethality with 939.2 µg/mL. Phytochemical analyses reveal the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and coumarines.

  4. PROSTATIC ILLNESSES: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND TREATMENT WITH MEDICINAL PLANTS AT MAROUA (CAMEROON

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    Noumi E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Three fieldworks were done at Maroua area in the Northern Cameroon to evaluate the epidemiology and the prophylaxis of prostatic illnesses, in 2008-2010. Data from the central Hospital of Maroua permitted us to appreciate the epidemiology. Interviews on 22 patients showed the risk factors for the apparition of prostatic illnesses and discussion with 27 phytotherapists indicated the treatments as done in the study area.Surgical intervention of Urogenital tumors related to prostatic illnesses occupy a preponderant place (51% in the surgery Service of the regional Hospital of Maroua. The patients prefer to go to traditional Doctors for treatment although there, the diagnoses by symptoms are approximate. Four plants are the more used by the traditional healers in the treatment of the prostatic illnesses: Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera, Sanseviera senegambica and Tamarindus indica; and 5 are new in the Cameroonian ethnobotany literature: Hyparrhenia nyassae, Hyphaene thebaica, Prosopis africana, Marsdenia sylvestri and Thelepogon elegans. The rate of monospecific recipe is lower (2/18 with respect to bispecific (12/18 or trispecific ones. The population of Maroua, both patients and phytotherapists, need some information on the feeding, the type of foods and the temperament of the prostate.

  5. Involvement of Ethylene in Picloram-induced Leaf Movement Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, P W; Baur, J R

    1970-11-01

    The relationship of root-applied 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) to ethylene production and the leaf movement response in honey mesquite (Prosopis juliflora [Swartz] DC. var. glandulosa [Torr.] Cockerell) and huisache (Acacia farnesiana [L.] Willd.) was studied in detail. The threshold and saturation levels of exogenous ethylene and root-applied picloram necessary to inhibit leaf movement were determined. Internal levels of ethylene in excess of those necessary to saturate the leaf movement inhibition response occurred in tops of treated plants before and after symptom expression. These internal levels of ethylene, while averages for the entire plant tops, probably occur at the specific site of action and thus account for the action of picloram in inhibition of leaf movement and related responses. Quantitative differences in the leaf movement response of both species to picloram and ethylene were observed. In huisache alone, a very small change in ethylene levels was necessary to produce a major blockage of the leaf movement response, suggesting that the gas may have a natural function in that species. PMID:16657525

  6. Seasonal variation of macro and trace mineral contents in 14 browse species that grow in northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R G.; Haenlein, G F.W.; Núñez-González, M A.

    2001-02-01

    Leaves and twigs from shrub species consumed by range goats: Acacia berlandieri, Acacia farnesiana, Acacia greggii, Acacia rigidula, Celtis pallida, Cercidium macrum, Condalia obovata, Cordia boissieri, Desmanthus virgathus, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucophyllum texanum, Opuntia lindehimieri, Porlieria angustifolia, Prosopis glandulosa, and Ziziphus obtusifolia were evaluated for comparative seasonal contents of Ca, P, Mg K, Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe. Plants were collected in summer (September 12, 1992), fall (November 20, 1992), winter (February 20, 1993) and spring (May 22, 1993) in Marín, County, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. During spring and summer mineral concentrations were higher in general. Only Ca, Mg, K, and Fe were in substantial amounts in all seasons to meet adult goat requirements. With the exception of spring, shrubs had extremely low P concentrations. Manganese, Cu and Zn in most plants had low marginal levels to meet adult goat requirements. Moreover, potential intake of P, Mn, Cu and Zn in shrub species by goats weighing 50kg BW consuming 2.0kg per day DM was low. However, plants such as D. virgathus, L. texanum, P. glandulosa, L. leucocephala and C. macrum can be considered prominent components in diets of range goats because of their high mineral concentrations. It appears that ration formulations for range goats in northeastern Mexico should include P, Mn, Cu and Zn in all seasons of the year. PMID:11182308

  7. Interception loss and rainfall redistribution by three semi-arid growing shrubs in northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Návar, Jose; Bryan, Rorke

    1990-07-01

    Interception loss and rainfall redistribution were measured in individual shrubs of Diospyrus texana, Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata from a semi-arid vegetal community in northeastern Mexico in the summer of 1987. In this period 230 mm of precipitation were recorded from 17 storms. Net precipitation averaged 167.6 mm, of which throughfall formed 160.5 and stemflow 7.1 mm. Interception loss was 27.2% of the total gross precipitation. Significant differences in stemflow were noted both among species and within the species D. texana. Stemflow inputs averaged 321 and 115 ml min -1 for a 40 mm h -1 simulated storm for the species D. texana and A. farnesiana-P. laevigata, respectively. The theoretical areas and distances over which stemflow spread averaged 0.320 m 2 and 0.115 m 2 and 0.30 and 0.15 m, respectively. These areas were calculated to receive 3030 and 2650 mm as annual precipitation.

  8. Immunochemical characterization of acacia pollen allergens and evaluation of cross-reactivity pattern with the common allergenic pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsbiranvand, Mohammad-Hosein; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Borsi, Seyed Hamid; Amini, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora. PMID:24949020

  9. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hosein Shamsbiranvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora.

  10. Wood Volume Production and Use of 10 Woody Species in Semiarid Zones of Northeastern Mexico

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    Rahim Foroughbakhch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A research strategy was established to analyze the structure of timber trees in terms of forest productivity (volume and wood density of 10 species. The native species Acacia farnesiana, Acacia schaffneri, Bumelia celastrina, Cercidium macrun, Condalia hookeri, Ebenopsis ebano, Helietta parvifolia, and Prosopis laevigata and the exotic species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Leucaena leucocephala were chosen due to their ecological and economic importance to the rural villages of northeastern Mexico. Measurements of different growth parameters and volume of trees were evaluated. The introduced species E. camaldulensis and L. leucocephala showed the best performance in wood volume production per tree and per hectare when compared to the native species. Likewise, among the native species, E. ebano, P. laevigata, C. hookeri, and A. farnesiana tended to show better characteristics in terms of wood volume production in comparison to H. parvifolia, A. schaffneri, C. macrum, and B. celastrina. Results showed a high diversity on the properties studied. The high biomass produced by most of the species considered in this study revealed their great energetic potential when used as wood and firewood or vegetal charcoal.

  11. El pulgón del ciprés en Chile: una revisión de la situación actual y antecedentes del control biológico The cypress aphid in Chile: A review of the current situation and preliminary data of the biological control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Montalva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El pulgón del ciprés, Cinara cupressi, es considerado una de las plagas invasoras más importantes del mundo y en Chile se encuentra presente en todo el territorio continental nacional. Afecta a las especies forestales nativas ciprés de la cordillera (Austrocedrus chilensis y alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides, como también a especies exóticas que se utilizan ornamentalmente en el área urbana. El sector forestal de Chile ha potenciado y privilegiado el uso de controladores biológicos como parte del manejo integrado de plagas. Es por esto que se ha utilizado Pauesia juniperorum para el control de C. cupressi. Sin embargo, se han detectado bajos niveles de parasitismo. En este trabajo se analizan y discuten aspectos de la biología y comportamiento de C. cupressi y de los controladores biológicos detectados en el país, así como también las medidas implementadas por el gobierno considerando que ésta fue la primera detección de una plaga exótica de importancia asociada a especies del bosque nativo. Se propone a futuro evaluar la sincronía y el nivel de parasitismo del controlador biológico P. juniperorum, con el fin de determinar si el parasitoide se ha establecido en todo el territorio nacional o es necesario complementarlo con otros agentes como Lecanicillium lecanii u otros biocontroladores como Xenostigmus bifasciatus. Este último puede ser una alternativa a evaluarse para alcanzar un mejor control, de tal manera de disminuir las poblaciones del áfido que amenaza especies forestales de gran valor para el patrimonio nacional y a especies usadas como árboles ornamentales.The cypress aphid Cinara cupressi is considered one of the most important exotic invasive species in the world and now is present in all the national continental territory, affecting native forest species like ciprés de la cordillera (Austrocedrus chilensis and alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides, as other exotic species used for ornamental trees in the urban area. The

  12. La fauna de caprélidos (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea de la costa de Coquimbo, centro-norte de Chile, con una clave taxonómica para la identificación de las especies The caprellid fauna (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea from the coast of Coquimbo, Northern-central Chile, with a taxonomic key for species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ M. GUERRA-GARCÍA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Los caprélidos son comunes y abundantes en muchos hábitats litorales del ambiente marino. Sin embargo este grupo de anfípodos no ha sido muy bien estudiado en la costa chilena. El estudio de los caprélidos se ha visto dificultado por su gran variabilidad morfológica y el hecho de que la literatura así como los especímenes de los museos son difíciles de localizar. El objetivo de este estudio fue entregar las herramientas taxonómicas para la identificación de las especies de crustáceos caprélidos comunes en el centro-norte de la costa de Chile. Se muestrearon distintos hábitats (boyas, bolones intermareales, praderas de algas y fanerógamas marinas y se encontraron seis especies distintas de caprélidos: Caprellina longicollis (Nicolet, 1849, Caprella equilibra Say, 1818, C. scaura Templeton, 1836, C. verrucosa Boeck, 1871; Deutella venenosa Mayer, 1890 y Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890. Caprella scaura, C. verrucosa y D. venenosa fueron muy abundantes sobre las algas, hidrozoos y briozoos asociados a boyas. Caprella equilibra, también presente en boyas, fue más abundante bajo piedras en zonas intermareales rocosas expuestas, donde también se encontraron ejemplares de D. venenosa y de P. pusilla. Caprella scaura también se encontró sobre algas rojas de las playas arenosas, especialmente sobre Gracilaria chilensis y sobre la fanerógama marina Heterozostera tasmanica, donde cohabitó junto a Caprellina longicollis. Paracaprella pusilla constituye una nueva cita para las costas pacíficas sudamericanas, siendo nueva para la fauna de Chile. La especie D. venenosa, que se cita por primera vez después de la descripción original de Mayer en el año 1890, es considerada una especie endémica de la costa central de ChileCaprellids are abundant in many littoral habitats of the marine environment. Nevertheless, this group of amphipods has been scarcely studied along the coast of Chile. The study of the Caprellidea is particularly

  13. Benthic survey of natural and artificial reefs off Mar del Plata, Argentina, southwestern Atlantic Estudios del bentos de arrecifes naturales y artificiales de Mar del Plata, Argentina, Atlántico sudoccidental

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    Gabriel Genzano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the macrofaunal assemblages of subtidal rocky reefs off Mar del Plata in order to compare the macro invertebrate assemblages settled on shipwrecks with those of nearby reef sand to characterize the fish fauna associated with natural (NR and artificial (AR reefs. Topographic characterizations and surveys of invertebrates and fishes were performed in November and December 2005, using SCUBA diving. A non-parametric multivariate analysis was used to analyze the environmental and biological data. The reefs were mainly distinguished by their depth and the position of the substrate. The red calcareous algae, Corallina officinalis, dominated the shallowest NR, whereas conspicuous mytilid assemblages of Mytilus platensis were present at depths over 3 m, sea anemones, Anthothoe chilensis, were more abundant between 6 and 10 m, and the soft coral, Tripalea clavaria, was found at nearly 20 m depth. No differences were found between horizontal ARs and the adjacent NRs. The greatest differences were found between the communities of vertical and horizontal substrates, both in NRs and ARs. Fifteen fish species were recorded in the analyzed area. Species having strong site fidelity, e.g., Acanthistius brasilianus and Pseudopercis semifasciata, were clearly more abundant and/or frequent in ARs (shipwrecks than in NRs. This pioneer study in the surveyed area showed that reef sallow the settlement of diverse benthic assemblages. ARs also provide refuge for fishes. As sport fishing and diving are activities being carried out in Mar del Plata, where tourism is one of the main economic resources, the protection of such areas should be considered in conservation plans.Se describió la macrofauna de los arrecifes rocosos sublitorales, frente a Mar del Plata, para comparar las asociaciones de macro-invertebrados de los pecios con las de los arrecifes aledaños y caracterizar la fauna de peces tanto en los arrecifes naturales (NR como artificiales (AR

  14. Saturación del carbonato de calcio en un área de cultivo de mitílidos en el Seno Reloncaví, Patagonia norte, Chile

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    Emilio Alarcón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron mediciones de temperatura, salinidad, alcalinidad total y carbono inorgánico disuelto del agua de mar superficial dentro de un área dedicada a la producción de semillas de mitílidos en el Seno de Reloncaví, Patagonia norte, durante el otoño (mayo 2012 y el verano austral (enero 2013. Se determinó que el estado de saturación del carbonato de calcio (ΩCaCO3 dentro del área de estudio fue bajo (Ωaragonita < 2, inclusive con aguas superficiales "corrosivas" para el CaCO3 (i.e., aguas subsaturadas, Ω < 1, cuando aguas de baja salinidad (<28 y alcalinidad total (<1.800 μmol kg-1 fueron advectadas dentro del centro de producción en mayo de 2012. En enero 2013 la baja salinidad (<25 fue asociada a aguas de baja alcalinidad total (ca. 1700 μmol kg-1 provocando bajos niveles de Ωaragonita en aguas superficiales equilibradas totalmente con la atmósfera (i.e., 400 μatm. Así, se sugiere que eventos corrosivos para el CaCO3 (i.e., aguas subsaturads Ω < 1 pueden ser una condición frecuente en esta área de producción de mitílidos en la Patagonia norte. La potencial disminución en productividad de Mytilus chilensis asociados a la acidificación del océano (AO recientemente descrita por Navarro et al. (2013 y la detección de aguas corrosivas para el carbonato de calcio encontradas, sugieren la necesidad de incluir el monitoreo regular del sistema carbonatos como una variable clave para la evaluación de la capacidad de carga de este sistema de aguas interiores.

  15. Miocene Vetigastropoda and Neritimorpha (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of central Chile

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    Nielsen, Sven N.; Frassinetti, Daniel; Bandel, Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Species of Vetigastropoda (Fissurellidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae) and one species of Neritimorpha (Neritidae) from the Navidad area, south of Valparaı´so, and the Arauco Peninsula, south of Concepción, are described. Among these, the Fissurellidae comprise Diodora fragilis n. sp., Diodora pupuyana n. sp., two additional unnamed species of Diodora, and a species resembling Fissurellidea. Turbinidae are represented by Cantrainea sp., and Trochidae include Tegula (Chlorostoma) austropacifica n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) chilena n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) matanzensis n. sp., Tegula (Agathistoma) antiqua n. sp., Bathybembix mcleani n. sp., Gibbula poeppigii [Philippi, 1887] n. comb., Diloma miocenica n. sp., Fagnastesia venefica [Philippi, 1887] n. gen. n. comb., Fagnastesia matanzana n. gen. n. sp., Calliostoma mapucherum n. sp., Calliostoma kleppi n. sp., Calliostoma covacevichi n. sp., Astele laevis [Sowerby, 1846] n. comb., and Monilea riorapelensis n. sp. The Neritidae are represented by Nerita (Heminerita) chilensis [Philippi, 1887]. The new genus Fagnastesia is introduced to represent low-spired trochoideans with a sculpture of nodes below the suture, angulated whorls, and a wide umbilicus. This Miocene Chilean fauna includes genera that have lived at the coast and in shallow, relatively warm water or deeper, much cooler water. This composition therefore suggests that many of the Miocene formations along the central Chilean coast consist of displaced sediments. A comparison with different fossil and Recent faunas from around the Pacific and South America indicates that the vetigastropod and neritid fauna from the Miocene of Chile has only minor affinities with taxa living near New Zealand, Argentina, and the tropical eastern Pacific at that time.

  16. Lipophilic toxin profiles detected in farmed and benthic mussels populations from the most relevant production zones in Southern Chile.

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    Garcia, Carlos; Rodriguez-Unda, Nelson; Contreras, Cristóbal; Barriga, Andrés; Lagos, Néstor

    2012-01-01

    Lipophilic toxins associated with diarrhoeic toxins were found in Mytilus chilensis (Blue mussels) and Aulacomya ater (Ribbed mussels). These shellfish samples were collected from Chiloe Island, Southern Chile. The samples were tested by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). After the analysis, four toxins were found: DTX-1, DTX-3, YTX and PTX. All toxins were identified by comparing their HPLC retention times with those of analytical standards and confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and dinophysistoxin-3 (DTX-3) toxins were the major components within the mussel extracts. Nevertheless, the percentages of these toxins differed depending on the area they were collected from and/or the sampling date. The levels detected in Butacheuques Island for okadaic acid (OA) was 267 ± 3.5 µg OA eq kg(-1) (p < 0.05) and for DTX-3 was 183.4 ± 7.5 µg kg(-1) in ribbed mussels. Pectenotoxin (PTX) and yessotoxin (YTX) were the toxins detected in minor proportions in the toxic profile of the bivalves. The maximum concentration of YTX detected in ribbed mussels was 85.2 ± 2.8 µg kg(-1) in Mechuque Island, whereas the PTX-2 level in ribbed mussels was 82.0 ± 2.4 µg kg(-1) in Cailin Island. Analogues of YTX and PTX-2 were not detected in any of the analysed mussels, which did not support the supposed presence of isomers of toxins as a result of the enzymatic metabolism of bivalves. This study found evidence proving co-occurrence of lipophilic toxins - like PTX and YTX - with diarrhoeic toxin in samples collected in Southern Chile, which is, to date, the more complex mix of lipophilic toxins ever found in mussels samples from Southern Chile. PMID:22424031

  17. Chilean native fruit extracts inhibit inflammation linked to the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 μg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 μM [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24 h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (-12.2%, -45.6%, and -14.7%, respectively) and calafate (-27.6%, -43.9%, and -11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development. PMID:25302660

  18. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  19. Nutraceutical and antioxidant effects of a delphinidin-rich maqui berry extract Delphinol®: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R R; Schönlau, F

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanins represent water-soluble flavonoid species, commonly found in higher plants, the richest plant source representing berries. While all anthocyanins present with antioxidant activity, the delphinidins represent the most potent antioxidant anthocyanin species owed to largest number of hydroxyl groups in the B-ring. The richest known natural source of delphinidins is the maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) from which an extract Delphinol®, standardized to 25% delphinidin, is commercially available. Delphinol® significantly reduces oxidative stress (oxidized LDL and F2-isoprostane) and blood glucose in controlled clinical trials. In human umbilical vein endothelium delphinidins concentration-dependently decrease intracellular oxygen radicals. Furthermore, delphinidins increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and decreases expression of vaso-constrictory endothelin-1. Delphinidins inhibit the expression of cell adhesion molecules ICAM and VCAM, thus counteracting vascular inflammatory situations. Furthermore, delphinidins decrease platelet activity and may contribute to thrombosis prevention. Research on delphinidins showed improved endothelial function with elevated endothelial NO generation, lowered platelet aggregability and anti-inflammatory vascular effects. Delphinidins dose-dependently inhibit NF-κB-, activator protein-1- as well as COX-2 expression in UV-exposed epidermis. Delphinidins are found to be internalized into keratinocytes and pre-clinical investigations show significant UV-photo-protective 1effects with topical application of 40 nM delphinidin, both when applied prior to UV exposure as well as after exposure. Delphinidins may counteract skin-aging due to inhibition of UV-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase in fibroblasts. In a rodent osteoporosis model delphinidin was found to inhibit differentiation of osteoclasts, resulting in an inhibited bone demineralization, while other anthocyanins were ineffective. Future

  20. The amoeba-to-flagellate transformation test is not reliable for the diagnosis of the genus Naegleria. Description of three new Naegleria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonckheere, J F; Brown, S; Dobson, P J; Robinson, B S; Pernin, P

    2001-07-01

    Trophozoites of several isolates from one location in Australia have failed consistently to transform into flagellates, although they display all other characteristics of the genus Naegleria. When changing the standard transformation test, flagellates were produced. In phylogenetic trees derived from partial small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSUrDNA) sequences, one of these strains branches close to a cluster comprising N. clarki, N. australiensis, N. italica and N. jadini. It is proposed that these Australian isolates represent a new species, named N. fultoni (strain NG885). Failing to form flagellates since their isolation, even when different transformation procedures are used, are two Naegleria strains from Chile and Indonesia. In SSUrDNA-based phylogenetic trees the Chilean strain clusters with N. pussardi and the Indonesian strain clusters with N. galeacystis, but the degree of sequence difference from these described species (3.5% and 2.2%, respectively) is sufficient to propose that both of the strains represent new species, named N. chilensis (strain NG946) and N. indonesiensis (strain NG945), respectively. The close relationships between each of the new species and the Naegleria species with which they cluster in SSUrDNA-based trees were confirmed by ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequence comparisons. In France, several non-flagellating N. fowleri strains were isolated from one location. ITS rDNA sequence comparisons indicated that they correspond to a 'type' of N. fowleri found in both Europe and the USA. A redefinition of the genus Naegleria is proposed as a consequence of these and previous findings. PMID:11545434