Sample records for algansea girard cypriniformes

  1. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

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    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available A morphological comparative analysis was performed among different populations of the cyprinid Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 from the Lerma-Chapala and Ameca River basins in central Mexico. A new species, Algansea amecae n. sp. is described from individuals collected from small tributary in the headwaters of the Ameca basin. The new species differs from Lerma-Chapala populations of A. tincella by having a lower number of transversal scales, a lower number of infraorbital pores, a prominent dark lateral stripe along the body, a black caudal spot extending onto the medial caudal inter-radial membranes, and a pigmented ("dotted" lateral line. This new species increases the high level of endemism in the freshwater ichthyofauna of the Ameca basin. It appears to be most closely related to populations in the Lerma-Chapala-Santiago system, as is the case for several other species in the Ameca basin. This pattern of relationship provides evidence for a historical connection between the 2 basins, and implies that a vicariance event led to the isolation of populations and a subsequent speciation event. Due to the limited distributional range of Algansea amecae n. sp., and the environmental deterioration of the Ameca River, we propose that this new species should be designated as a protected species under Mexican law.Se realizó un análisis morfológico comparando diferentes poblaciones del ciprínido Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 correspondientes a los sistemas hidrológicos Lerma-Chapala y cuenca del río Ameca. Con base en este análisis se describe una nueva especie, Algansea amecae n. sp. a partir de los individuos recolectados en un pequeño afluente del alto Ameca, en el centro de México. La nueva especie difiere de las poblaciones de A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago por presentar un menor número de escamas transversales, un menor número de poros infraorbitales, una franja obscura lateral muy marcada a lo largo del

  2. Transition metal complexes with Girard reagents and their hydrazones

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    Vojinović-Ješić Ljiljana S.


    Full Text Available This is the first review dealing with the coordination chemistry of metal complexes with Girard's reagents and their hydrazones. The short introduction points out to chemical properties and significance of these organic compounds. The next section briefly describes synthetic methods for preparing complexes with Girard's reagents, as well as modes of coordination of these ligands. The last two extensive sections review the preparation, stereochemistry and structural characteristics of metal complexes with Girard's hydrazones, including some newer non-hydrazonic derivatives of Girard's reagents, also.[Acknowledgments. Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172014

  3. The ends of violence. Girard and Derrida

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    Andrew J. McKenna


    Full Text Available Jacques Derrida’s critique of philosophical origins, in his essay on Plato and elsewhere, unveils a sacrificial dynamic that René Girard hypothesizes as the origin of human culture. Girard’s latest book, Achever Clausewitz (2008, applies his mimetic theory to history: the Prussian general’s analysis of increasingly violent «reciprocal action» in modern, post-revolutionary warfare exposes the mimetic principle of lethally violent doubles. This «trend to extremes» works to the dissolution of institutions – national sovereignty, international law, politics, war itself – that Derrida explores in Voyous, his book-length essay on terrorism (2003. Both authors see the world of globalized commerce and the globalized terrorism that goes with it as enmeshed in violent undifferentiation. Girard’s historically grounded work supplies a narrative line to Derrida’s structural analyses. Derrida’s call for an ever more vigorous deconstructive rationality as a solution is symptomatic of philosophy’s blindness to the interactive crescendos of human violence that is unveiled in Girard’s religious anthropology.

  4. René Girard. Kortfattet, systematisk indføring i René Girards tænkning: begærslære, antropologi og kristendomsudlægning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Lundager

    Kortfattet, systematisk indføring i René Girards tækning: begærslære, antropologi og kristendomsudlægning......Kortfattet, systematisk indføring i René Girards tækning: begærslære, antropologi og kristendomsudlægning...

  5. Embryonic development of Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850) (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Paludicola). (United States)

    Vara, D C; Leal-Zanchet, A M; Lizardo-Daudt, H m


    The embryonic development of freshwater triclads is mainly known from studies of species of Dendrocoelum, Planaria, Polycelis, and, more recently, Schmidtea. The present study characterizes the development of Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850) by means of optical microcopy using glycol methacrylate semi-thin sections. 94 cocoons were collected in the period from laying to hatching, with intervals of up to twenty-four hours. The sequence of morphological changes occurring in the embryo permitted the identification of nine embryonic stages. At the time of cocoon laying, numerous embryos were dispersed among many yolk cells, with a rigid capsule covering the entire cocoon. In the first stage (approx. up to 6 hours after cocoon laying), yolk cells and embryonic cells showed random distribution. Stage II (between 12 and 24 hours after cocoon laying) is characterized by aggregates of blastomeres, which later aggregate forming an enteroblastula. Approximately 2 days after cocoon laying (stage III), formation of the embryonic epidermis and embryonic digestive system took place, the latter degenerating during the subsequent stage. Stage V (until the fourth day) is characterized by the formation of the definitive epidermis. Between 4 and 6 days after laying, organogenesis of the definitive inner organs starts (stage VI). Approximately 14 days after laying (stage IX), formation of the nervous system is completed. At this stage, the embryo shows similar characteristics to those of newly hatched juveniles. The hatching of Girardia tigrina occurs in the period between twelve to twenty-two days after cocoon laying.

  6. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). (United States)

    Ueng, Yih-Tsong; Chen, Kun-Neng; Han, Chiao-Chuan; Cheng, Chung-Yao; Li, Yi-Min


    The complete mitochondrial genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), which has broader distribution range and diverse genetic structure than other species under the genus Zacco, was first determined in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,612 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and 1 non-coding control region. Its gene arrangement and translation direction were identical to those of other typical vertebrate. Control region (D-Loop), of 929 bp lengths long, is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand shows T 27.02%, C 26.23%, A 28.94% and G 17.82%, with a slight AT bias of 55.95%.

  7. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Microphysogobio brevirostris (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). (United States)

    Cheng, Chung-Yao; Wang, Jiang-Ping; Ho, Chuan-Wen; Cheng, Ju-Wen; Ueng, Yih-Tsong


    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Microphysogobio brevirostris (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), an endemic primary freshwater fish in Taiwan. This mitochondrial genome, consisting of 16,608 base pairs (bp), encoded 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding control region as those found in other vertebrates, with the gene synteny identical to that of typical vertebrates. Control region (D-Loop), of 929 bp lengths long, is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand shows T 26.28%, C 26.62%, A 30.26%, and G 16.85%, with a slight AT bias of 56.53%.

  8. Sorcery and publicity: the Cadière-Girard scandal of 1730-1731. (United States)

    Kuznicki, Jason T


    The Cadière-Girard trial of 1730-1731 is an early example of a sensational, nationally publicized French trial in which the major parties were private individuals. Cadière, a female penitent, accused Girard, her Jesuit confessor, of bewitching and raping her; Girard claimed that Cadière was guilty of slander. It was to be the last witchcraft trial in the francophone world. Another notable feature of the trial was its publicity, in which the contesting parties almost immediately became stand-ins for the Society of Jesus and for its Jansenist adversaries. This paper argues that certain anti-Jesuits, particularly Cadière's defence team and in the Parlement of Aix-en-Provence, acted to prolong the trial with the aim of creating as much bad publicity as possible for the Society of Jesus; it also shows how Jansenist publicists took advantage of the lengthy process, creating literature that "burned Girard in spirit," and with him, the Jesuits as a whole.

  9. Labeo rosae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in the Congo basin: a relict distribution or a historical introduction? (United States)

    Van Steenberge, M; Gajdzik, L; Chilala, A; Snoeks, J; Vreven, E


    Labeo rosae, a species with a native range in Southern Africa, was discovered in the Congo basin by re-identification of two museum specimens previously identified as Labeo mesops. The occurrence of this species in the upper Congo implies a range extension of the species of more than 1000 km. Although the species' distribution is mirrored by that of some other Cypriniformes, its occurrence in the Congo might be due to introduction by humans.

  10. Danionella dracula, an escape from the cypriniform Bauplan via developmental truncation? (United States)

    Britz, Ralf; Conway, Kevin W


    We provide a detailed account of the osteology of the miniature Asian freshwater cyprinid fish Danionella dracula. The skeleton of D. dracula shows a high degree of developmental truncation when compared to most other cyprinids, including its close relative the zebrafish Danio rerio. Sixty-one bones, parts thereof or cartilages present in most other cyprinids are missing in D. dracula. This impressive organism-wide case of progenesis renders it one of the most developmentally truncated bony fishes or even vertebrates. Danionella dracula lacks six of the eight unique synapomorphies that define the order Cypriniformes and has, thus, departed from the cypriniform Bauplan more dramatically than any other member of this group. This escape from one of the most successful Baupläne among bony fishes may have been facilitated by the organism-wide progenesis encountered in D. dracula. By returning in its skeletal structure to the early developmental condition of other cypriniforms, D. dracula may have managed to overcome the evolutionary constraints associated with this Bauplan and opened up new evolutionary avenues that enabled it to evolve a number of striking morphological novelties, including its tooth-like odontoid processes and a complex drumming apparatus.

  11. La crítica de René Girard al humanismo

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    Moreno Fernández, Agustín


    Full Text Available In René Girard’s work there are a lot of critics to the humanism and the humanists. First of all, in this article we will deal with a definition of this concept and his historiographic problem. There is a big contrast between the topics and ideals of the humanism and the mimetic theory. We study the explicit Girard’s critics to the humanists and finally we present one perspective that allows to consider himself like a humanist thinker.La obra de René Girard está salpicada de críticas al humanismo y a los humanistas. En este estudio nos preguntamos en primer lugar qué es el humanismo, haciéndonos cargo de la problemática historiográfica. Presentamos el contraste existente entre los tópicos e ideales humanistas y las ideas que se derivan de la teoría mimética. Estudiamos las críticas explícitas de Girard a los humanistas y, por último, adoptamos una perspectiva que permite calificarlo a él mismo como un humanista.

  12. The Effect of Limonium sinense (Girard Kuntze on Fatigue and Recovery after Exercise

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    Yanxia Cao


    Full Text Available To evaluate the physical and chemical properties of polysaccharides from selenium-rich tea and the effects of these polysaccharides on swimming performance and recovery from swimming-induced fatigue in mice. By setting up a 5-week endurance exercise model in mice and the mice were given by oral gavage different doses of Limonium sinense (Girard Kuntze (LSK. The swimming exhaustion time of mice was recorded and the concentrations of blood glucose, Blood Ureanitrogen (BUN, Blood Lactic Acid (BLA and the contents of hepatic glycogen and Malonaldehyde (MDA as well as the activity of Hepatic Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured immediately and at 24 h after exhaustive exercise. LSK were Se-binding glycoproteins and could prolong the swimming exhaustion time, improve the carbohydrate metabolism, significantly increase the activity of GSH-Px and reduce the content of MDA in liver tissue of mice. LSK have an anti-fatigue effect in mice and the underlying mechanism is related to regulating the carbohydrate metabolism and improving tissue lipid peroxidation caused by excessive exercise.

  13. Membranes as a possible pacemaker of metabolism in cypriniform fish: does phylogeny matter? (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alex; Pagé, Benoît; Weber, Jean-Michel


    The 'membrane pacemaker theory of metabolism' proposes that membranes set metabolic rate by modulating protein activity, and thus purports to explain membrane fatty acid allometry. This relationship has never been tested across species in ectotherms. After accounting for phylogeny, recent analyses have failed to support this theory based on correlations between muscle membrane composition and body mass across mammals. Therefore, the goal of this study was to seek phylogenetically corrected correlations between membrane composition, body mass and calcium-ATPase activity, using 12 species of closely related cypriniform fish (4-5500 g) covering a much narrower genetic scale than in previous tests. The results show that fish membrane unsaturation decreases with mass, but through different mechanisms from those in endotherms: 16:0 replacing 22:6 in muscle and 18:0 replacing 16:1, 18:1 and 18:2 in liver. This shows that allometric patterns differ between endotherms and ectotherms as well as between tissues. After accounting for phylogeny, however, almost all these relationships lose significance except for overall unsaturation. No relationship between calcium-ATPase activity and mass or phospholipid composition was detected. This study shows that membrane unsaturation of cypriniforms decreases with mass, but that genetic cues unrelated to size account for differences in the relative abundance of individual fatty acids. The membrane pacemaker concept accurately predicts general membrane properties such as unsaturation, but fails to explain finer scale allometric patterns. Future examinations of the membrane pacemaker hypothesis will have to take into account that allometric patterns vary between endotherms and ectotherms and between tissues of the same animal class.

  14. Selection and constraint underlie irreversibility of tooth loss in cypriniform fishes. (United States)

    Aigler, Sharon R; Jandzik, David; Hatta, Kohei; Uesugi, Kentaro; Stock, David W


    The apparent irreversibility of the loss of complex traits in evolution (Dollo's Law) has been explained either by constraints on generating the lost traits or the complexity of selection required for their return. Distinguishing between these explanations is challenging, however, and little is known about the specific nature of potential constraints. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the irreversibility of trait loss using reduction of dentition in cypriniform fishes, a lineage that includes the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model. Teeth were lost from the mouth and upper pharynx in this group at least 50 million y ago and retained only in the lower pharynx. We identified regional loss of expression of the Ectodysplasin (Eda) signaling ligand as a likely cause of dentition reduction. In addition, we found that overexpression of this gene in the zebrafish is sufficient to restore teeth to the upper pharynx but not to the mouth. Because both regions are competent to respond to Eda signaling with transcriptional output, the likely constraint on the reappearance of oral teeth is the alteration of multiple genetic pathways required for tooth development. The upper pharyngeal teeth are fully formed, but do not exhibit the ancestral relationship to other pharyngeal structures, suggesting that they would not be favored by selection. Our results illustrate an underlying commonality between constraint and selection as explanations for the irreversibility of trait loss; multiple genetic changes would be required to restore teeth themselves to the oral region and optimally functioning ones to the upper pharynx.

  15. Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Gobioninae Inferred from Multiple Nuclear Gene Sequences

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    Keun-Yong Kim


    Full Text Available Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1, recombination activating gene 2 (rag2, and early growth response 1 gene (egr1, from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of Ptychobarbus kaznakovi (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), and repetitive sequences in the D-loop. (United States)

    Ma, Qingzhan; Wu, Bo; Li, Jiuxuan; Song, Zhaobin


    The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Ptychobarbus kaznakovi was sequenced and characterized. The genome is 16,842 bp in length. Similar with most teleosts, it has two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and one displacement loop (D-loop) region. Conserved sequence blocks, including ETAS, CSB-B, D, E, F, and CSB1-3, were identified in the D-loop, which is similar to other species in Cypriniformes. Nevertheless, a 55 bp tandem repeat array was also identified at 3' end of the D-loop, which is the first finding in Schizothoracinae. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the species of Ptychobarbus (P. dipogon and P. kaznakovi) formed a monophyletic group and represented close relationship to the species without scales in Schizothoracinae.

  17. La filogénesis humana según la teoría mimética de René Girard


    Moreno Fernandéz, Agustín


    La teoría mimética de René Girard contiene una interpretación acerca del origen de la especie humana y el proceso de hominización. Su propuesta destaca por el afán de aunar las aportaciones de la etología animal y de la antropología cultural, en torno al mimetismo y su hipótesis del mecanismo del chivo expiatorio. Nuestro objetivo es presentar una síntesis de sus consideraciones acerca de la antropogénesis, presentes a lo largo de su obra.

  18. Phylogeny of the Labeoninae (Teleostei, Cypriniformes) based on nuclear DNA sequences and implications on character evolution and biogeography

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    Lanping ZHENG; Junxing YANG; Xiaoyong CHEN


    The Labeoninae is a subfamily of the family Cyprinidae,Order Cypriniformes.Oromandibular morphology within the Labeoninae is the greatest among cyprinid fishes.Although several phylogenetic studies about labeonines have been undertaken the results have been inconsistent and a comprehensive phylogeny is needed.Further,an incongruence between morphological and molecular phylogeny requires a systematic exploration of the significance of morphological characters on the basis of the molecular phylogeny.In this study,a total of 292 nucleotide sequences from 73 individuals (representing 24 genera and 73 species) of Labeoninae were analyzed.The results of the phylogenetic analysis indicate that there are four major clades within Labeoninae and three monophyletic lineages within the fourth clade.Results of the character evolution show that all oromandibular morphological characters are homoplastically distributed on the molecular phylogenetic tree and suggests that these characters evolved several times during the history of labeonines.In particular,the labeonine,a specific disc on the lower lip,has been acquired three times and reversed twice.These morphological characters do not have systematic significance but can be useful for taxonomy.The results of biogeography suggest that the Labeoninae originated from Southeast Asia and separately dispersed to Africa,East Asia and South Asia.

  19. Eléments pour l'identification des restes crâniens des poissons dulçaquicoles de Belgique et du Nord de la France. 2. Cypriniformes


    Libois, Roland; Hallet, Catherine


    Outline drawings of the most typical skull bones of 23 Cypriniformes species (dentary, maxillary, pharyngeal bone) are presented. The main distinctive morphological features are summarized into identification keys. Biometrical relationships also computed for eigth common species (Gudgeon, Bleak, Rudd, Roach, Common bream, Carp, Tench and the Stone loach). Peer reviewed

  20. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cypriniformes). (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohua; Zhao, Jie; Du, Qiyan; Chang, Zhongjie


    The Sox9 gene attracts a lot of attention because of its connection with gonadal development and differentiation. However, Sox8, belonging to the same subgroup SoxE, has rarely been studied. To investigate the function as well as the evolutionary origin of SOXE subgroup, we amplified the genomic DNA of Paramisgurnus dabryanu using a pair of degenerate primers. Using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE), it was discovered that P. dabryanu has two duplicates: Sox8a and Sox8b. Each has an intron of different length in the conserved HMG-box region. The overall sequence similarity of the deduced amino acid of PdSox8a and PdSox8b was 46.26%, and only two amino acids changed in the HMG-box. This is the first evidence showing that there are two distinct duplications of Sox8 genes in Cypriniformes. Southern blot analysis showed only one hybrid band, with lengths 7.4 or 9.2 kb. Both semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR assay displayed that both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are downregulated during early embryonic development. In adult tissues, the two Sox8 genes expressed ubiquitously, and expression levels are particularly high in the gonads and brain. In gonads, both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are expressed at a higher level in the tesis than in the ovary. PdSox8a and PdSox8b may have functional overlaps and are essential for the neuronal development and differentiation of gonads.

  1. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cypriniformes)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaohua Xia; Jie Zhao; Qiyan Du; Zhongjie Chang


    The Sox9 gene attracts a lot of attention because of its connection with gonadal development and differentiation. However, Sox8, belonging to the same subgroup SoxE, has rarely been studied. To investigate the function as well as the evolutionary origin of SOXE subgroup, we amplified the genomic DNA of Paramisgurnus dabryanu using a pair of degenerate primers. Using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE), it was discovered that P. dabryanu has two duplicates: Sox8a and Sox8b. Each has an intron of different length in the conserved HMG-box region. The overall sequence similarity of the deduced amino acid of PdSox8a and PdSox8b was 46.26%, and only two amino acids changed in the HMG-box. This is the first evidence showing that there are two distinct duplications of Sox8 genes in Cypriniformes. Southern blot analysis showed only one hybrid band, with lengths 7.4 or 9.2 kb. Both semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR assay displayed that both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are downregulated during early embryonic development. In adult tissues, the two Sox8 genes expressed ubiquitously, and expression levels are particularly high in the gonads and brain. In gonads, both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are expressed at a higher level in the tesis than in the ovary. PdSox8a and PdSox8b may have functional overlaps and are essential for the neuronal development and differentiation of gonads.

  2. Morphology of gastrointestinal tract of bearded stone loaches (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae in water bodies of the Republic of Kazakhstan

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    Nazym Sapargalykyzy Sapargaliyeva


    Full Text Available Loaches of the family Balitoridae (order Cypriniformes are one of the most various taxons of the fishes in water bodies of Asia. The loaches are not important commercial fishes but they often are numerous in water bodies of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Central Asia. They can play a significant role in supporting of normal function of environment therefore. Investigations of morphology of digestive system are important for understanding evolution and ecosystem services of the loaches. Morphology of gastrointestinal tract of indigenous species like spotted thicklip loach Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler, 1874, Tibetan stone loach T.stoliczkai (Steindachner, 1866, gray loach T.dorsalis (Kessler, 1872, Severtsov’s loach T.sewerzowii (G.Nikolsky, 1938, and Kuschakewitsch loach Iskandaria kuschakewitschii (Herzenstein, 1890 were investigated. Fishes for the investigation were totally fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then studied in our laboratory with conventional method. All investigated species have well developed and functionally active stomachs. Intestinal tract of Severtsov’s loach has no any loop, but has one well-marked bend in the middle part of intestine. Usually, the intestinal tracts of spotted thicklip loach and Kushakewitz’s loach have 2 loops, Tibetan stone loach has 3 loops and more, gray stone loach forms one 8-like vortex and loops. Disposition of loops of intestinal tract of Kuschakewitsch loach is similar to spotted thicklip loach, but forms O-shaped space in the body. Results of that investigation revealed that morphology of gastrointestinal tract depends on species and populations and has different length and disposition of loops.

  3. Mística y seducción: el affaire Cadière-Girard y el triunfo de la racionalidad ilustrada en Thérèse philosophe

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    Natalia Lorena Zorrilla


    Full Text Available This article aims at examining the theo-retic and literary models of sexuality offered in the libertine novel Thérèse philosophe, focusing on its representation of the Ca-dière-Girard affair. During this scandalous trial that took place in the Parliament of Aix-en-Provence in 1731, Jean-Baptiste Girard (Jesuit priest was accused by Marie-Catherine Cadière (penitent of sorcery and sexual abuse, while he claimed these charges were calumnies. We seek to show the de-velopment of a rationalist, demystifying, scientific perspective on this affair, charac-teristic of Enlightenment in the eighteenth century, which tended to neutralize and obliterate charismatic religiosity.

  4. Etude phytochimique et activités biologiques de quelques plantes médicinales end : Ammodaucus leucotrichus Coss. & Dur., Anabasis aretioides Moq. & Coss. et Limoniastrum feei (Girard) Batt


    EL-HACI, Imad Abdelhamid


    "#$! ا را ا % ھ '( ، اھ ا*+ ا , " ت ا ا - ' ف / , . ن ا اوي ر ا ا اض ط ! ت ا ا : ا Anabasis aretioides 78 ا $ ،Ammodaucus leucotrichus Coss. & Dur ,1 ا $ : ا*+ ب ا ب 1 + ط1 2 ت ط $ 343 ت 5 61 1 ا .Limoniastrum feei (Girard) Batt. دم 5 ا ;< 2 $ و Moq. & Coss. وي 1 ا - $ C ( ا D ...

  5. Length-weight and length-length relationships of seven loach species (Teleostei: Cypriniformes from five localities in northern Western Ghats, India

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    Ashwini Keskar


    Full Text Available Length-weight (LWR and length-length (LLR relationships of seven loach species (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Botia striata, Lepidocephalichthys thermalis, Paracanthocobitis mooreh, Indoreonectes evezardi, Nemacheilus anguilla, Nemachilichthys rueppelli and Schistura denisoni were studied from five localities within the Krishna River system of the Indian Western Ghats: Lonawala (Indrayani River, Paud (Mula River, Warje (Mutha River, Bhor (Nira River and Patan (Koyna River.  With the exception of L. thermalis all species are endemic to peninsular India, and to our knowledge this is the first presentation of LWR and LLR data for them.  New maximum lengths are also reported for I. evezardi, N. anguilla, N. rueppelli and S. denisoni. 

  6. Molecular phylogenetics of the family Cyprinidae (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) as evidenced by sequence variation in the first intron of S7 ribosomal protein-coding gene: further evidence from a nuclear gene of the systematic chaos in the family. (United States)

    He, Shunping; Mayden, Richard L; Wang, Xuzheng; Wang, Wei; Tang, Kevin L; Chen, Wei-Jen; Chen, Yiyu


    The family Cyprinidae is the largest freshwater fish group in the world, including over 200 genera and 2100 species. The phylogenetic relationships of major clades within this family are simply poorly understood, largely because of the overwhelming diversity of the group; however, several investigators have advanced different hypotheses of relationships that pre- and post-date the use of shared-derived characters as advocated through phylogenetic systematics. As expected, most previous investigations used morphological characters. Recently, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and combined morphological and mtDNA investigations have been used to explore and advance our understanding of species relationships and test monophyletic groupings. Limitations of these studies include limited taxon sampling and a strict reliance upon maternally inherited mtDNA variation. The present study is the first endeavor to recover the phylogenetic relationships of the 12 previously recognized monophyletic subfamilies within the Cyprinidae using newly sequenced nuclear DNA (nDNA) for over 50 species representing members of the different previously hypothesized subfamily and family groupings within the Cyprinidae and from other cypriniform families as outgroup taxa. Hypothesized phylogenetic relationships are constructed using maximum parsimony and Basyesian analyses of 1042 sites, of which 971 sites were variable and 790 were phylogenetically informative. Using other appropriate cypriniform taxa of the families Catostomidae (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), Gyrinocheilidae (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri), and Balitoridae (Nemacheilus sp. and Beaufortia kweichowensis) as outgroups, the Cyprinidae is resolved as a monophyletic group. Within the family the genera Raiamas, Barilius, Danio, and Rasbora, representing many of the tropical cyprinids, represent basal members of the family. All other species can be classified into variably supported and resolved monophyletic lineages, depending upon analysis

  7. 基于Rag1基因序列变异的鲤形目鱼类系统发育重建:采样策略对生命之树的影响%Inferring the Tree of Life of the order Cypriniformes, the earth's most diverse clade of freshwater fishes: Implications of varied taxon and character sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard L. MAYDEN; Phillip M. HARRIS; Junbing LI; Xuzhen WANG; Kenji SAITOH; Shunping HE; Huanzhang LIU; Yiyu CHEN; Mutsumi NISHIDA; Masaki MIYA; Kevin L. TANG; Robert M. WOOD; Wei-Jen CHEN; Mary K. AGNEW; Kevin W. CONWAY; Lei YANG; Andrew M. SIMONS; Henry L. BART


    The phylogenetic relationships of species are fundamental to any biological investigation, including all evolutionary studies. Accurate inferences of sister group relationships provide the researcher with an historical framework within which the attributes or geographic origin of species (or supraspecific groups) evolved. Taken out of this phylogenetic context, interpretations of evolutionary processes or origins, geographic distributions, or speciation rates and mechanisms, are subject to nothing less than a biological experiment without controls. Cypriniformes is the most diverse clade of freshwater fishes with estimates of diversity of nearly 3,500 species. These fishes display an amazing array of morphological, ecological, behavioral, and geographic diversity and offer a tremendous opportunity to enhance our understanding of the biotic and abiotic factors associated with diversification and adaptation to environments. Given the nearly global distribution of these fishes, they serve as an important model group for a plethora of biological investigations, including indicator species for future climatic changes. The occurrence of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in this order makes this clade a critical component in understanding and predicting the relationship between mutagenesis and phenotypic expressions in vertebrates, including humans. With the tremendous diversity in Cypriniformes, our understanding of their phylogenetic relationships has not proceeded at an acceptable rate, despite a plethora of morphological and more recent molecular studies. Most studies are pre-Hennigian in origin or include relatively small numbers of taxa. Given that analyses of small numbers of taxa for molecular characters can be compromised by peculiarities of long-branch attraction and nodal-density effect, it is critical that significant progress in our understanding of the relationships of these important fishes occurs with increasing sampling of species to mitigate these potential


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÖRR A. J.M.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gather more informations about the biological characteristics of Procambarus clarkii and to investigate the reasons of its rapid expansion in Lake Trasimeno. Specimens of both sexes (544 males and 624 females were collected from October 2000 to November 2001. During the sampling period physical factors such as water temperature and hydrologic level of LakeTrasimeno were recorded. The study was conducted monthly in order to assess this species’ reproductive period. 1,168 specimens were analyzed for colour, sex, weight, and length. The sexual maturation of gonads was investigated in females. The results of this study evidenced that the population is in expansion, showing that Lake Trasimeno is an optimal habitat for this species.

  9. Anoressia e mimesi secondo René Girard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sidella


    Full Text Available Anorexia and Mimesis in René Girard’s Thought - One of the basic premises of Girard’s thought is the theory of mimetic desire, for which, in all human relationships, the Other as a model is perceived as a rival. Mimesis is also found in narcissism, in love relationships and eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia, which cannot and should not be classified only in psychoanalytic terms. In fact, we should in such cases consider cultural and social contexts, which also impose prescriptions about the care and appearance of the body.

  10. Vaillantellinae, A New Subfamily Of Cobitidae (Pisces, Cypriniformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalbant, T.T.; Banarescu, P.M.


    INTRODUCTION It is generally accepted that the Eurasian freshwater fish family Cobitidae includes three main divisions, usually considered as subfamilies: Cobitinae, Botiinae and Noemacheilinae (Berg, 1940; Ramaswami, 1953; Nalbant, 1963). The two first named, in which the lateral ethmoids are movab

  11. A revision of the spirit loaches, genus Lepidocephalus (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae). (United States)

    Deein, Gridsada; Tangjitjaroen, Weerapongse; Page, Lawrence M


    Lepidocephalus has been assumed to include only two species and confined to peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia. However, based on records and collections reported herein, the genus contains five species and is most common in the Chao Phraya basin of Thailand. Large rivers seem to be the preferred habitat, and difficulty in collecting these rivers may account for the paucity of specimens in collections. The known range of these five species includes western and southern Borneo, Java, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, and central Thailand.

  12. [Description of a new species of the genus Astyanax Baird & Girard from Araguaia River basin, Brazil]. (United States)

    Garutti, V


    Astyanax argyrimarginatus sp. n. is described from the Araguaia River basin, Brazil. The new species may be diagnosed by a humeral dark spot horizontally oval, and an elongated caudal peduncle dark spot, continued to the tip of the mid caudal rays, two dark brown vertical bars on the humeral region, and a single black lateral stripe with silvered border. Forty-two to forty-six scales on lateral line; fourteen to sixteen vertical scales rows. Twenty-seven to thirty-one anal fin rays. Dentary large teeth quincuspid, inner row of pre-maxilar teeth quincuspid or hexacuspid, and one maxillary tooth. Comments on the characters which permit to recognize the new species from others with the same color pattern are made.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    来自瑞士的GP芝柏表向来以精巧、准确的机械表制造工艺著称于世,但在2007年度SIHH日内瓦高级珠宝钟表展上,这个世界顶级的手表品牌却带来了这样一款全新设计的Vintage 1945 Jackpot Tourbillon——它将一台老虎机巧妙融入到了堪称经典的Vintage 1945腕表设计中。只要拉动表壳右侧的把手,表盘上方的3个滚筒就会开始转动,滚筒上分别印有5个不同的符号图案,能够变化出125种不同组合。

  14. Distribución del cangrejo rojo Procambarus clarkii Girard, 1859 (Decapoda, Cambaridae en Extremadura

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    Cascos, G.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the distribution of red swamp crayfish in Extremadura based in samplings carried out in 407 grid cells (10 x 10 km derived from the standard UTM map. Red swamp crayfish was found in 69.77% of sites surveyed. Thus this species inhabits in practically all region except for areas higher than 750 m of altitude. Males outnumbered females for all size classes. Sex ratio was 1.41:1.En este trabajo se presenta la distribución del cangrejo rojo en Extremadura en base a los muestreos realizados en 407 cuadrículas de 10 x 10 km, habiendo sido detectado en 69.77% de las cuadrículas prospectadas, por lo que llega a ocupar la casi totalidad de la región con excepción de las zonas con altitudes superiores a 750 m. En todas las clases de talla analizadas predominan los machos sobre las hembras en una relación 1.41:1.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SPM 4.0 Catalog (Girard+, 2011) (United States)

    Girard, T. M.; van Altena, W. F.; Zacharias, N.; Vieira, K.; Casetti-Dinescu, D. I.; Castillo, D.; Herrera, D.; Lee, Y. S.; Beers, T. C.; Monet, D. G.; Lopez, C. E.


    The SPM4 Catalog contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, and B,V photometry for 103,319,647 stars and galaxies between the south celestial pole and -20 degrees declination. The catalog is roughly complete to V=17.5. It is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double-astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. The first-epoch survey, taken from 1965 to 1979, was entirely photographic. The second-epoch survey is approximately 1/3 photographic (taken from 1988 to 1998) and 2/3 CCD-based (taken from 2004 through 2008). Full details about the creation of the SPM4.0 catalog can be found in the paper, and also in the document "spm4_doc.txt" file which describes the original files, accessible from (2 data files).

  16. Micronucleus Test, Nuclear Abnormalities and Accumulation of Cu and Cd on Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853)


    Güner, Utku; Dilek, Fulya; Muranlı, Gökalp


    In the present work the induction of micronuclei (MNi) and nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in erythrocytes and Cu and Cd accumulation in whole body of Gambusia affinis were studied. Fish were exposed to two different Cu and Cd concentrations, 0.1 ppm and 1 ppm, for 1 and 2 weeks periods and to Cu-Cd combination (0.1 ppm Cu + 0.1 ppm Cd) for 2 weeks period using a semi-static renewal system. Micronucleus and nuclear abnormality analysis were carried out on peripheral blood erythrocytes. When fish...

  17. Penetration and distribution of carbon particles in a teleost fish, Poecilia formosa (Girard), the Amazon molly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.


    Data is given on the tissue distribution of carbon particles in Amazon mollies exposed for periods of 24-120 h to a 0-0.05% suspension. Very little carbon penetrated the body, either by way of the intestine or the gills. The little amount that entered appeared to pass almost exclusively through the posterior intestine. There was no anatomical specialization of the cells in this area equivalent to Peyer's patches in the intestine of mammals. We suggest that the uptake in the posterior intestine is related to its greater surface area and possibly to some enhanced mobility. After intraperitoneal (ip) injection, carbon that entered the body accumulated at three sites: the heart, the mesentery and, especially, in the head kidney. By 120 h large accumulations were seen in the intertubular areas of the kidney; there was no evidence of excretion of carbon particles from these areas. (JMT)

  18. Entire mitochondrion genome sequence of the Desert Pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius Baird & Girard, 1853. (United States)

    Camarena-Rosales, Faustino; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Ruiz-Campos, Gorgonio; García-De-León, Francisco J


    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Desert Pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius (Gene accession number KM985373) has a length of 16,940 bp, and the arrangement consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA, which are similar to other known mitogenomes for the family Cyprinodontidae.

  19. Characterization of Na+ uptake in the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius (Baird and Girard)


    Kevin V. Brix; Grosell, Martin


    This study provided an initial characterization of Na+ uptake in saline freshwater by the endangered pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius. This species occurs only in several saline water systems in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, where salinity is largely controlled by water-management practices. Consequently, understanding the osmoregulatory capacity of this species is important for their conservation. The lower acclimation limit of C. macularius in freshwater was found to be 2 mM Na+. ...

  20. Characterization of Na+ uptake in the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius (Baird and Girard) (United States)

    Brix, Kevin V.; Grosell, Martin


    This study provided an initial characterization of Na+ uptake in saline freshwater by the endangered pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius. This species occurs only in several saline water systems in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, where salinity is largely controlled by water-management practices. Consequently, understanding the osmoregulatory capacity of this species is important for their conservation. The lower acclimation limit of C. macularius in freshwater was found to be 2 mM Na+. Fish acclimated to 2 or 7 mM Na+ displayed similar Na+ uptake kinetics, with Km values of 4321 and 3672 μM and Vmax values of 4771 and 3602 nmol g−1 h−1, respectively. A series of experiments using pharmacological inhibitors indicated that Na+ uptake in C. macularius was not sensitive to bumetanide, metolazone, or phenamil. These results indicate the Na+–K+–2Cl− cotransporter, Na+–Cl− cotransporter, and the Na+ channel–H+-ATPase system are likely not to be involved in Na+ uptake at the apical membrane of fish gill ionocytes in fish acclimated to 2 or 7 mM Na+. However, Na+ uptake was sensitive to 1 × 10−3 M amiloride (not 1 × 10−4 or 1 × 10−5 M), 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA), and ethoxzolamide. These data suggest that C. macularius relies on a low-affinity Na+–H+ exchanger for apical Na+ uptake and that H+ ions generated via carbonic anhydrase-mediated CO2 hydration are important for the function of this protein. PMID:27293589

  1. Characterization of Na(+) uptake in the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius (Baird and Girard). (United States)

    Brix, Kevin V; Grosell, Martin


    This study provided an initial characterization of Na(+) uptake in saline freshwater by the endangered pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius. This species occurs only in several saline water systems in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, where salinity is largely controlled by water-management practices. Consequently, understanding the osmoregulatory capacity of this species is important for their conservation. The lower acclimation limit of C. macularius in freshwater was found to be 2 mM Na(+). Fish acclimated to 2 or 7 mM Na(+) displayed similar Na(+) uptake kinetics, with K m values of 4321 and 3672 μM and V max values of 4771 and 3602 nmol g(-1) h(-1), respectively. A series of experiments using pharmacological inhibitors indicated that Na(+) uptake in C. macularius was not sensitive to bumetanide, metolazone, or phenamil. These results indicate the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter, Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter, and the Na(+) channel-H(+)-ATPase system are likely not to be involved in Na(+) uptake at the apical membrane of fish gill ionocytes in fish acclimated to 2 or 7 mM Na(+). However, Na(+) uptake was sensitive to 1 × 10(-3) M amiloride (not 1 × 10(-4) or 1 × 10(-5) M), 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA), and ethoxzolamide. These data suggest that C. macularius relies on a low-affinity Na(+)-H(+) exchanger for apical Na(+) uptake and that H(+) ions generated via carbonic anhydrase-mediated CO2 hydration are important for the function of this protein.

  2. Molecular evolution of connective tissue growth factor in Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghui Kong; Xuzhen Wang; Xiaoni Gan; Junbing Li; Shunping He


    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays an important role in regulation ofcell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and individual development in animals. The study of sequences variation and molecular evolution of CTGF gene across various species of the cyprinid could be helpful for understanding of speciation and gene divergence in this kind of fish. In this study, 19 novel sequences of CTGF gene were obtained from the representative species of the family Cyprinidae using PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed by neighbor-joining (N J), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian method. Oryzias latipes from the family Cyprinodontidae was assigned to be the outgroup taxon. Leuciscini and Barbini were clustered into the monophyletic lineages, respectively, with the high nodal supports. The estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution (dN/dS) for the various branches indicated that there stood the different evolution rates between the Leuciscini and the Barbini. With the ratio of dN/dS of the Leuciscini being lower than that of the Barbini, species within the Barbini were demonstrated to be subjected to the relatively less selection pressure and under the relaxable evolution background. A 6 bp indel (insertion/deletion) was found at the 5' end of CTGF gene of Cyprinidae, and this 6 bp deletion only appeared in the Leuciscini, which is a typical characteristic of the Leuciscini and provides evidence for the monophylogeny of the Leuciscini. For the amino acid sequences of CTGF protein, the most variations and indels were distributed in the signal region and IGFBP region of this protein, implying that these variations were correlated with the regulation of the CTGF gene expression and protein activity.

  3. Reproductive biology of Garra regressus and Garra tana (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae from Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akewake Geremew


    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Garra regressus and Garra tana was investigated by collecting monthly samples (January to December 2006 from the southern Gulf of Lake Tana, where these species are endemic.  Garra regressus has an extended breeding time from April to October while G. tana breeds throughout the year with a peak from March to July.  The mean size at maturity in both the species was not significantly different between the sexes, but G. tana had a significantly lower mean size at maturity than G. regressus in female specimens.  Absolute fecundity estimates for G. regressus ranged from 580.8–1800, while those for G. tana ranged from 538.9–2968.  Egg size frequency distribution revealed that G. regressus is a multiple spawner, while G. tana is a single spawner.  The sex ratio in the total catch of G. regressus was found to be skewed in favour of females (Chi-square, P< 0.05, while those for G. tana was not significantly different from 1:1. The mean size at maturity was not significantly different between the sexes for G. tana. 

  4. Plate tectonics and biogeographical patterns of the Pseudophoxinus (Pisces: Cypriniformes) species complex of central Anatolia, Turkey. (United States)

    Hrbek, Tomas; Stölting, Kai N; Bardakci, Fevzi; Küçük, Fahrettin; Wildekamp, Rudolf H; Meyer, Axel


    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Pseudophoxinus (Cyprinidae: Leuciscinae) species from central Anatolia, Turkey to test the hypothesis of geographic speciation driven by early Pliocene orogenic events. We analyzed 1141 aligned base pairs of the complete cytochrome b mitochondrial gene. Phylogenetic relationships reconstructed by maximum likelihood, Bayesian likelihood, and maximum parsimony methods are identical, and generally well supported. Species and clades are restricted to geologically well-defined units, and are deeply divergent from each other. The basal diversification of central Anatolian Pseudophoxinus is estimated to have occurred approximately 15 million years ago. Our results are in agreement with a previous study of the Anatolian fish genus Aphanius that also shows a diversification pattern driven by the Pliocene orogenic events. The distribution of clades of Aphanius and Pseudophoxinus overlap, and areas of distribution comprise the same geological units. The geological history of Anatolia is likely to have had a major impact on the diversification history of many taxa occupying central Anatolia; many of these taxa are likely to be still unrecognized as distinct.

  5. Redescription of Cobitis longipectoralis Zhou, 1992 (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) from late early Miocene of East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG; Mee-Mann


    Here we revise a fossil cobitid species ■Cobitis longipectoralis Zhou, 1992, based mainly on a well-preserved specimen collected recently from the taxon’s type locality of the late early Miocene of Shanwang, Shandong Province, East China. The new specimen, along with those collected by Zhou, enables us to provide an emended diagnosis and more detailed description of the species by focusing on the characters such as the structures of the suborbital spine and the presence and shape of the lamina circularis at the base of the second pectoral fin ray in adult males, the presence of a frontoparietal fontanelle, and a quad- rate-metapterygoid fenestra, etc. The long pectoral fin, initially considered by Zhou as the most important character of the spe- cies, however, turns out to be not diagnostic for the species. ■Cobitis longipectoralis Zhou, 1992 is not only the most informative and best-preserved early cobitid fossil known thus far but also the only and earliest cobitid fossil from East Asia.

  6. On Hypopygus lepturus, a little known dwarf gymnotid fish from South America (Pisces, Cypriniformes, Gymnotoidei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.


    Hypopygus lepturus Hoedeman, 1062, was hitherto known from the holotype and one paratype only, both imported aquarium specimens. In this paper the type locality of the species is restricted. Additional distributional data from Surinam are given, together with records on the occurrence of H. lepturus

  7. Novel evolutionary lineages in Labeobarbus (Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae) based on phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences. (United States)

    Beshera, Kebede A; Harris, Phillip M; Mayden, Richard L


    Phylogenetic relationships within Labeobarbus, the large-sized hexaploid cyprinids, were examined using cytochrome b gene sequences from a broad range of geographic localities and multiple taxa. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed novel lineages from previously unsampled drainages in central (Congo River), eastern (Genale River) and southeastern (Revue and Mussapa Grande rivers) Africa. Relationships of some species of Varicorhinus in Africa (excluding 'V.' maroccanus) render Labeobarbus as paraphyletic. 'Varicorhinus' beso, 'V.' jubae, 'V.' mariae, 'V.' nelspruitensis, and 'V.' steindachneri are transferred to Labeobarbus. Bayesian estimation of time to most recent common ancestor suggested that Labeobarbus originated in the Late Miocene while lineage diversification began during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene and continued to the late Pleistocene. The relationships presented herein provide phylogenetic resolution within Labeobarbus and advances our knowledge of genetic diversity within the lineage as well as provides some interesting insight into the hydrographic and geologic history of Africa.

  8. The c-myc coding DNA sequences of cyprinids (Teleostei: Cypriniformes): Implications for phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG XiangHui; WANG XuZhen; GAN XiaoNi; HE ShunPing


    The family Cyprinidae is one of the largest fish families in the world, which is widely distributed in East Asian, with obvious difference in characteristic size among species. The phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid taxa based on the functionally important genes can help to understand the speciation and functional divergence of the Cyprinidae. The c-myc gene is an important gene regulating individual growth.In the present study, the sequence variations of the cyprinid c-myc gene and their phylogenetic significance were analyzed. The 41 complete sequences of the c-myc gene were obtained from cyprinids and outgroups through PCR amplification and clone. The coding DNA sequences of the c-myc gene were used to infer molecular phylogenetic relationships within the Cyprinidae. Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Catostomidae), Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cobitidae) and Hemimyzon sinensis (Homalopteridae)were assigned to the outgroup taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian retrieved similar topology. Within the Cyprinidae, Leuciscini and Barbini formed the monophyletic lineage respectively with high nodal supports. Leuciscini comprises Xenocyprinae, Cultrinae, East Asian species of Leuciscinae and Danioninae, Gobioninae and Acheilognathinae, and Barbini contains Schizothoracinae, Barbinae, Cyprininae and Labeoninae. Danio rerio, D.myersi and Rasbora trilineata were supposed to separate from Leuciscinae and Barbini and to form another lineage. The positions of some Danioninae species were still unresolved. Analyses of both amino acid variation with parsimony information and two high variation regions indicated that there is no correlation between variations of single amino acid or high variation regions and characteristic size of cyprinids. In addition, the species with smaller size were usually found to be basal within clades in the tree, which might be the results of the adaptation to the primitive ecology and survival pressure.

  9. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of Eastern Asian Cyprinidae (Pisces: Cypriniformes) inferred from cytochrome b sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Shunping; LIU; Huanzhang; CHEN; Yiyu; Masayuki; Kuwah


    Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences of 54 species, including 18 newly sequenced, were analyzed to infer the phylogenetic relationships within the family Cyprinidae in East Asia. Phylogenetic trees were generated using various tree-building methods, including Neighbor-joining (NJ), Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods, with Myxocyprinus asiaticus (family Catostomidae) as the designated outgroup. The results from NJ and ML methods were mostly similar, supporting some existing subfamilies within Cyprinidae as monophyletic, such as Cultrinae, Xenocyprinae and Gobioninae (including Gobiobotinae). However, genera within the subfamily "Danioninae" did not form a monophyletic group. The subfamily Leuciscinae was divided into two unrelated groups: the "Leuciscinae" in East Asia forming as a monophyletic group together with Cultrinae and Xenocyprinae, while the Leuciscinae in Europe, Siberia, and North America as another monophyletic group. The monophyly of subfamily Cyprininae sensu Howes was supported by NJ and ML trees and is basal in the tree. The position of Acheilognathinae, a widely accepted monophyletic group represented by Rhodeus sericeus, was not resolved.

  10. Description of skeletal structure and cranial myology of Cobitis keyvani (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariya Jalili


    Full Text Available Cobitis keyvani is recently described from the sourhern Caspian Sea basin. Limited information is available about morphological features of C. keyvani, therefore this study was conducted to provide osteological characteristics and cranial myology of this species. For this purpose, nine specimens of C. keyvani were collected from the Talar River. The specimens were cleared and stained with alizarin red S and alcian blue for osteological examinations. The detailed skeletal structure and cranial muscles of C. keyvani were provided. Based on the results, C. keyvani can be distinguished from other members of the genus Cobitis by a contact between sphenotic and supraoccipital and a contact between pterosphenoid, parasphenoid, prootic and sphenotic in terms of osteological features.

  11. Detection and characterization of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sobria isolated from fish Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). (United States)

    Dar, Gowhar H; Dar, Shoaib A; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, Mohammad Z; Ahmad, Fayaz


    The current study focuses on the detection and characterization of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sobria from fish silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Assessment of clinical, microbiological, pathological and biochemical characteristics of A. sobria were taken into account in order to understand the epidemiology, frequency and occurrence of this infection. Clinically the infected fish (H. molitrix) was observed for various types of symptoms. A total of 33 colonies of A. sobria strain were isolated from 20 cultured H. molitrix, collected from controlled fish pond. Microscopic examination revealed that the strains were rod-shaped, Gram negative bacteria. The revealed percent probability identification of A. sobria from the biochemical characterization in VITEK system was 93% with gram negative (GN) card. The histopathology of Gills caused by this bacterium, A. sobria indicate haemorrhagic gill epithelia and epithelial hyperplasia. Lamelar epithelial hypertrophy and hyperplasia with degenerative changes of the epithelium and hypertrophic epitheliocystis infected cells on gills of H. molitrix were observed during the present study.

  12. Paralog-specific primers for the amplification of nuclear Loci in tetraploid barbels (barbus: cypriniformes). (United States)

    Gante, Hugo F; Alves, Maria Judite; Dowling, Thomas E


    Thirty paralog-specific primers were developed, following an intron-primed exon-crossing strategy, for S7 and growth hormone genes in Barbus (subgenera Barbus and Luciobarbus). We found that paralog-specific amplification requires the use of only one paralog-specific primer, allowing their simultaneous use with universal exon-primed intron-crossing primers of broad taxonomic applicability. This hybrid annealing strategy guarantees both specificity and generality of amplification reactions and represents a step forward in the amplification of duplicated nuclear loci in polyploid organisms and members of multigene families. Assays of several representative taxa identified high levels of segregating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and nucleotide diversity within each of these subgenera. Additionally, several insertions-deletions (indels) that are diagnostic across species are found in intronic regions. Therefore, these primers provide a reliable source of valuable nuclear SNP and indel data for population and species level studies of barbels, such as applied conservation and basic evolutionary studies.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of rock carp Procypris rabaudi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and phylogenetic implications. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong; Jiang, Wanxiang; Song, Zhaobin


    Rock carp, Procypris rabaudi (Tchang), is an endemic fish species in China. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of it by high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction with conserved primers and primer walking sequencing method. The complete mitochondrial genome of rock carp is 16595 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region, with an identical order to that of most other vertebrates. The origin of L-strand replication (OL) in rock carp mitochondrion is located in a cluster of five tRNA genes (WANCY region) with 35 nucleotides in length. The control region is located between the tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe genes and is 943 bp in length. Three conserved sequence blocks (CSB), an extended termination associated sequence (ETAS), an AT-repeat microsatellite sequence and a putative promoter sequence for H-strand transcription (HSP) were identified within this region. The microsatellite sequence has a very low variation, with only one repeat alteration in 50 checked individuals (from 12 to 13 repeats). The phylogenetic analysis for rock carp was performed with Bayesian and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods based on the concatenated nucleotide sequence of 12 protein-coding genes on the heavy strand. The result suggested that traditional taxonomic barbines possibly originated more early than cyprininaes; rock carp was placed at the position between barbines and cyprininaes, while has a closer relationship with cyprininaes than barbines.

  14. Phenotypic differentiation of Barilius bendelisis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in four rivers from Central Indian Himalaya


    Iqbal Mir, Javaid; Saxena, Neha; Singh Patiyal, Rabindar; Kumari Sahoo, Prabhati


    Barilius bendelisis, commonly known as Indian Hill Trout is an upland water fish of South East Asia. It belongs to the family Cyprinidae and dwells in shallow, clear and cold water. In this study, the intraspecific variation of Barilius bendelisis, on the basis of morphometric characters, was investigated. Altogether, 402 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 12 landmarks to yield 30 distance variables that...

  15. Phenotypic differentiation of Barilius bendelisis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in four rivers from Central Indian Himalaya. (United States)

    Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Saxena, Neha; Patiyal, Rabindar Singh; Sahoo, Prabhati Kumari


    Barilius bendelisis, commonly known as Indian Hill Trout is an upland water fish of South East Asia. It belongs to the family Cyprinidae and dwells in shallow, clear and cold water. In this study, the intraspecific variation of Barilius bendelisis, on the basis of morphometric characters, was investigated. Altogether, 402 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 12 landmarks to yield 30 distance variables that were extracted from digital images of specimens using tpsDig2 and PAST software. Allometric transformed truss measurements were subjected to univariate analysis of variance, factor analysis and discriminant analysis. All variables exhibited significant differences between the populations. Altogether 88% of the specimens were classified into their original populations (81.98% under a 'leave-one-out' procedure). With factor analysis measurements of the head region, the middle portion and the caudal region had high loadings on the first and second axis. The results indicated that B. bendelisis has significant phenotypic heterogeneity between the geographically isolated regions of Central Indian Himalaya. We hypothesize that the marked interspecific variation in B. bendelisis is the result of local ecological conditions.

  16. Phenotypic variation in the Snowtrout Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray, 1832) (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from the Indian Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mir, F.A.; Mir, J.I.; Chandra, S.


    We investigated intraspecific variation of the Snowtrout, Schizothorax richardsonii on the basis of morphometric characters. Altogether, 217 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Western and Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 14 landmarks to yield

  17. Stone loaches of Choman River system, Kurdistan, Iran (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae). (United States)

    Kamangar, Barzan Bahrami; Prokofiev, Artem M; Ghaderi, Edris; Nalbant, Theodore T


    For the first time, we present data on species composition and distributions of nemacheilid loaches in the Choman River basin of Kurdistan province, Iran. Two genera and four species are recorded from the area, of which three species are new for science: Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus, O. zagrosensis, O. chomanicus spp. nov., and Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi Băn. et Nalb. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions and univariate and multivariate analysis of morphometric and meristic features are for each of these species. Forty morphometric and eleven meristic characters were used in multivariate analysis to select characters that could discriminate between the four loach species. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that sixteen morphometric measures and five meristic characters have the most variability between the loach species. The dendrograms based on cluster analysis of Mahalanobis distances of morphometrics and a combination of both characters confirmed two distinct groups: Oxynoemacheilus spp. and T. kosswigi. Within Oxynoemacheilus, O. zagrosensis and O. chomanicus are more similar to one other rather to either is to O. kurdistanicus.

  18. Phylogeny and polyploidy: resolving the classification of cyprinine fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Sado, Tetsuya; Vincent Hirt, M; Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Arunachalam, M; Li, Junbing; Wang, Xuzhen; Freyhof, Jörg; Saitoh, Kenji; Simons, Andrew M; Miya, Masaki; He, Shunping; Mayden, Richard L


    Cyprininae is the largest subfamily (>1300 species) of the family Cyprinidae and contains more polyploid species (∼400) than any other group of fishes. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the Cyprininae based on extensive taxon, geographical, and genomic sampling of the taxa, using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes to address the phylogenetic challenges posed by polyploidy. Four datasets were analyzed in this study: two mitochondrial gene datasets (465 and 791 taxa, 5604bp), a mitogenome dataset (85 taxa, 14,771bp), and a cloned nuclear RAG1 dataset (97 taxa, 1497bp). Based on resulting trees, the subfamily Cyprininae was subdivided into 11 tribes: Probarbini (new; Probarbus+Catlocarpio), Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 (Labeo & allies), Torini Karaman, 1971 (Tor, Labeobarbus & allies), Smiliogastrini Bleeker, 1863 (Puntius, Enteromius & allies), Poropuntiini (Poropuntius & allies), Cyprinini Rafinesque, 1815 (Cyprinus & allies), Acrossocheilini (new; Acrossocheilus & allies), Spinibarbini (new; Spinibarbus), Schizothoracini McClelland, 1842 (Schizothorax & allies), Schizopygopsini Mirza, 1991 (Schizopygopsis & allies), and Barbini Bleeker, 1859 (Barbus & allies). Phylogenetic relationships within each tribe were discussed. Two or three distinct RAG1 lineages were identified for each of the following tribes Torini, Cyprinini, Spinibarbini, and Barbini, indicating their hybrid origin. The hexaploid African Labeobarbus & allies and Western Asian Capoeta are likely derived from two independent hybridization events between their respective maternal tetraploid ancestors and Cyprinion.

  19. Schistura phamhringi, a new stone loach from Chindwin Basin in Manipur, India (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae). (United States)

    Shangningam, Bungdon; Lokeshwor, Yumnam; Vishwanath, Waikhom


    Schistura phamhringi, new stone loach, is described from Dutah Stream, tributary of the Yu River (Chindwin basin), near Larong Village, Chandel District, Manipur, India. It is distinguished from all its congeners by a unique combination of characters: 6-7 black saddles, each continued on both flanks forming broad diamond-shaped black bars with narrow ventral margin; bars superimposed on a grey stripe along lateral line; upper lip with numerous melanophores; black basicaudal bar arc-shaped; complete lateral line; and prominent oar-like suborbital flap on male.

  20. Plasma testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone levels of male pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Cypriniformes, Characidae

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    R. Gazola


    Full Text Available The levels of testosterone (T and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT of the South American pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus were determined by radioimmunoassay during two stages of the reproductive cycle, i.e., resting and maturation, and the gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. The highest levels of T and 11-KT were reached during the maturation stage (T = 2400 ± 56 pg/ml; 11-KT = 2300 ± 60 pg/ml and lower levels were maintained during the resting period. The rise in androgen levels occurred with the appearance of spermatozoa in the maturation stage, when GSI was highest

  1. Life history pattern of mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki (Girard, 1859) in the Tajan River (Southern Caspian Sea to Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Investigation of the ecology of introduced species in new habitats can allow determinations of the degree, direction, and rate of evolutionary change. The introduction of Gambusia holbrooki in the southern Caspian Sea presents such a situation. We evaluated the life history traits of mosquitofish in the Tajan River basin. A total of 744 G. holbrooki specimens were collected between January and December 2008. The maximum observed ages are 0+ years for males and 1+ years for females. Both sexes grew allometrically (negative for males: b=2.442 and positive for females: 6=3.232). The overall sex ratio is unbalanced and dominated by females. GSI values suggest that this population of G. holbrooki matures between February-July. The highest mean GSI value is 1.80 for males and 15.97 for females in May. Egg diameter ranges from 1.00 to 3.00 mm with a mean value of 2.098 mm. Absolute fecundity varied from 7 to 57 eggs. Both ova diameter and absolute fecundity were positively correlated to fish size (length and weight). Fecundity relative to total weight fluctuated from 34.44 to 582.64 eggs/g, and to total length from 2.33 to 12.95 eggs/cm. Both were negatively correlated with female size. The characteristics of this population are important with respect to life history of the species.

  2. sviluppo di metodiche biomolecolari per la cattura e l'eradicazione del gambero rosso della Louisiana Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852)


    Piazza, Federica


    L’obiettivo del presente progetto di dottorato consiste nello sviluppo di metodologie innovative per la gestione del Crostaceo Decapode Procambarus clarkii, il gambero rosso della Louisiana. La specie è considerata in gran parte del pianeta come aliena invasiva in quanto è in grado di diffondersi in habitat anche molto diversi da quello d’origine ed è diventata una minaccia per le specie di gamberi locali, con le quali entra in competizione, e provoca danni agli ecosistemi e all’economia. Le ...

  3. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854 (Actinopterygii, Characidae in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies

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    Doadrio Ignacio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Results Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI and a single nuclear gene (RAG1 yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations, with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Conclusion Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (~8 Mya, which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (~3.3 Mya.

  4. Morphometric variation between two morphotypes within the Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854 (Actinopterygii: Characidae) genus, from a Mexican tropical lake. (United States)

    Ornelas-García, Claudia P; Bastir, Markus; Doadrio, Ignacio


    Phenotypic variation is important for evolutionary processes because it can allow local adaptation, promote genetic segregation, and ultimately give rise to speciation. Lacustrine systems provide a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms by which sister species can co-occur by means of ecological segregation. The fish genus Astyanax is characterized by high levels of phenotypic variability, providing an excellent model for the study of local specialization. Here, we analyze the morphological specializations through geometric morphometrics of two sympatric species described as different genera: Bramocharax caballeroi endemic to Lake Catemaco, and the widely distributed Astyanax aeneus. Additionally, we assess the correlation between phenotypic and genetic structure, and the phylogenetic signal of morphological variation. We examined body size and shape variation in 196 individuals and analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences in 298 individuals. Our results confirm the striking morphological divergence among the sympatric characids. Differences between them were mainly found in the body depth and profile and orientation of the head, where B. caballeroi in contrast with the A. aeneus, presented a fusiform body and an upward mouth. Moreover, different growth trajectories were observed among morphotypes, suggesting that a heterochronic process could be involved in the diversification of our study system. Morphological differences did not correspond with the molecular differentiation, suggesting high levels of homoplasy among the lineages of B. caballeroi morphs.


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    ELIA A. C.


    Full Text Available Antioxidant parameters, such as total glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glyoxalases, catalase, and some heavy metals such as, lead, cadmium and chromium were examined in hepatopancreas of both sexes of Procambarus clarkii collected seasonally from Lake Trasimeno, from winter 2002-2003 to autumn 2003. Heavy metals content in hepatopancreas in males and females of P. clarkii was low and did not vary through the sampling periods and between sexes. On the contrary, crayfish exhibited sex-dependent differences in levels of some enzyme activities and of total glutathione, and no apparent relationship was found between contaminant burdens and antioxidant indexes in hepatopancreas. Because measured metal concentrations were low, other factors, presumably, were involved in antioxidant variations in P. clarkii and these latter seemed to be affected more by biological and environmental factors, other than those related to pollutants body burdens.

  6. Population structure of two Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 (Teleostei, Characidae species from upper Paraguaçu river

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    Alexandre Clistenes de Alcântara Santos


    Full Text Available The fishes of the family Characidae are among the main species of fresh water fishes in South America. In this work, some aspects of the population structure of two Astyanax species were assessed. The fishes were caught in Santo Antônio and São José rivers, in the Paraguaçu basin, by standardized monthly samplings adapted to the microhabitats. Astyanax sp. b (São José river presented larger size than Astyanax sp. a (Santo Antônio river. The length-weight relationship showed positive allometric growth for Astyanax sp. a, and negative for Astyanax sp. b. Both the species showed a long reproductive period, with higher activities in dry period.Os peixes da família Characidae estão entre os principais representantes de peixes de água doce da região Neotropical. Este trabalho apresenta alguns aspectos da estrutura populacional de duas espécies de Astyanax coletadas a partir de amostragens mensais padronizadas e adaptadas a diferentes microhabitats, em trechos dos rios Santo Antônio e São José, tributários do alto curso do rio Paraguaçu. Astyanax sp. b, coletada no rio São José apresentou maior tamanho que Astyanax sp. a, coletada no rio Santo Antônio. A relação peso-comprimento indicou um crescimento alométrico positivo para Astyanax sp. a e negativo para Astyanax sp. b. Ambas as espécies apresentaram um longo período reprodutivo, com maior atividade reprodutiva no período seco.

  7. Pattern of distribution of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa (Girard), after intraperitoneal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Bornbusch, A.


    The present paper describes the distribution and accumulation labelled dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in the Amazon molly after intraperitoneal injection. The study was made to see whether there was preferential accumulation of the compound in the spleen; the findings showed that this was not the case. Two hours after injection, DMBA was present throughout the body, except in the brain and the ovary. There was enhanced deposition at four sites, in the macrophages of the atrium of the heart and the peritoneum, the liver and the exocrine pancreas. DMBA was taken up by reticuloendothelial macrophages for 78 h after injection, then it was lost. The accumulation and disappearance of radioactive label seen in the liver and pancreatic cells probably represented the pattern of metabolism of the compound. By 400 h after injection there was little DMBA remaining. Label accumulated in the ameloblasts, which secrete the enamel capping of the teeth. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  8. Establishment and characterization of a fibroblast-like cell line from Anabarilius grahami (Cypriniformes:Cyprinidae)%Establishment and characterization of a fibroblast-like cell line from Anabarilius grahami (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoai WANG; Junxing YANG; Xiaoyong CHEN; Xiaofu PAN


    Though Yunnan province contains some 562 known species of fish,no cell lines from any of these have been made available to date.To protect germplasm resources and provide an effective tool in solving problems at cellular level of Anabarilius grahami,a fish endemic to Fuxian Lake,Yunnan,China,we established and characterized the major features of a continuous cell line (AGF Ⅱ) from the caudal fin tissue of A.grahami.This AGF Ⅱ cell line consists of fibroblast-like cells and has been subcultured more than 60 times over the course of a year.The cell line was maintained in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% FBS,with a cellular doubling time of 51.1 h.We continued with more experiments to optimize the culture and storage conditions,and found a variety of interesting results: cells could grow at temperature between 24 ℃ and 28 ℃,with the optimal temperature of 28 ℃.Likewise,the growth rate ofA.grahami fin cells increased when the FBS proportion increased from 5% to 20%,with the optimal growth at the concentrations of 20% FBS; cells were able to grow in L-15 and DMEM/F12 with optimal growth at L-15; DMSO is a better cryoprotectant than Glycerol,EG and MeOH for AGFⅡ cells with optimal concentration of 5% DMSO.Chromosome analysis also showed that the distribution of chromosome number varies from 38 to 52,with a modal peak at 48 chromosomes,accounting for 39.8% of all cells.Using the same primer pairs specific to mtDNA,the AGF Ⅱ cell sequences obtained by PCR were identical to those from muscle tissues ofA.grahami.Both chromosome analysis and PCR amplification confirmed the AGF Ⅱ cells were from A.grahami,also indicating that that current long-term artificial propagation ofA.grahami has been successful.Finally,we noted that when cells were transfected with pEYFP-N1 and pECFP-N1 plasmid,bright fluorescent signals were observed,suggesting that this cell line may be suitable for use in transfection and future gene expression studies.

  9. Ploidy differences represent an impassable barrier for hybridization. Is there an exception among botiid loaches (Cypriniformes: Botiidae?

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    Joerg Bohlen


    Full Text Available One of the most efficient mechanisms to keep animal lineages separate is a difference in ploidy level, since hybrid offspring from parents with different ploidy level are generally sterile. In the freshwater fish family Botiidae, ploidy difference has been held responsible for the separation of its two subfamilies, the tetraploid Botiinae and the diploid Leptobotiinae. However, the species ‘Botia’ zebra combines a number of morphological characters of a genus of Leptobotiinae with morphological characters of a genus of Botiinae, giving rise to the idea that it is the result of a hybridisation event between two species from different subfamilies. We here present a closer morphological examination, an allozyme comparison between ‘Botia’ zebra and the two potential parental species, a cytogenetic analyses as well as phylogenetic reconstructions basing on the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and on the nuclear RAG-1 gene. The results are discussed in a phylogenetic, geographic and ecologic context.

  10. Theileria electrophorin.sp., a parasite of the electric eel Electrophorus electricus (Osteichthyes: Cypriniformes: Gymnotidae from Amazonian Brazil

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    Ralph Lainson


    Full Text Available The name Theileria electrophori n.sp. is proposed for a small parasite described in the erythrocytes of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, from Amazonian Brazil. Division of the organism in the erythrocyte produces only four bacilliform daughter cells which become scattered in the host cell, without a cruciform or rosette-shaped disposition. Exoerythrocytic meronts producing a large number of merozoites were encountered in Giemsa-stained impression smears of the internal organs, principally in the liver, and are presumably the source of the intraerythrocytic forms of the parasite. This developmental pattern is characteristic of piroplasms within the family Theileriidae, where the author considers the parasite of E. electricus to most appropriately belong. It effectively distinguishes the organism from the dactylosomatid parasites Babesiosoma Jakowska and Nigrelli, 1956 and Dactylosoma Labbé, 1894 also found in fishes. This appears to be the second report of Theileria Bettencourt, Franca and Borges, 1907 in a fish.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of North American phoxinins (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) as inferred from S7 nuclear DNA sequences. (United States)

    Bufalino, Angelo P; Mayden, Richard L


    The phylogenetic systematics of North American (NA) phoxinins, and family Leuciscidae (formerly Cyprinidae, in part) in general, have had a very dynamic history marked by uncertainty regarding the validity of many taxonomic designations. Recent molecular studies, based on mitochondrial DNA sequences, of NA phoxinins have provided the first comprehensive hypotheses for the group and suggest that they are comprised of three major lineages: creek chub-plagopterin (CC-P), western, and open posterior myodome clades. A number of phylogenetic evaluations, using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, of the formerly recognized family Cyprinidae (=Cyprinoidea) have failed to support the traditional subfamily designations. This study, based on sequences from the first intron of the nuclear gene S7, supports many of the findings of the earlier molecular studies of NA phoxinins, but also suggests that European Leuciscidae evolved within the NA phoxinin lineage and are most likely descended from the common ancestor of the CC-P clade. As in some other recent phylogenetic studies of the Cyprinoidea, analyses of this study fail to support the broader subfamily designations within the formerly recognized family Cyprinidae.

  12. Molecular phylogenetics of North American phoxinins (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) based on RAG1 and S7 nuclear DNA sequence data. (United States)

    Bufalino, Angelo P; Mayden, Richard L


    Most molecular phylogenetic hypotheses for North American (NA) phoxinins are based on mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA) and the resulting hypotheses are rather variable, though there is general support for three major lineages of NA phoxinins: western, creek chub-plagopterin (CC-P), and open posterior myodome (OPM) clades. Support for a monophyletic NA phoxinin group has varied among studies. This study utilizes nuclear DNA (nDNA) sequences from the RAG1 (exon 3) and S7 (intron 1) gene regions to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships and monophyly of NA phoxinins. Results from the nDNA analyses provide overall support for the western, CC-P, and OPM clades. The CC-P clade had the best overall resolution and support in the individual and combined analyses of the nDNA data. Resolution of the western clade was fairly good, with most analyses recovering a monophyletic Gila clade. The OPM clade demonstrated the highest degree of topological variability among the analyses. The RAG1 analyses failed to recover a monophyletic NA phoxinin group by resolving the European leuciscins, inclusive Notemigonus crysoleucas, within the NA phoxinin topology. Most analyses recovered a strongly supported shiner clade though, similar to several mtDNA studies; there was a high degree of topological variability among the results.

  13. Presencia de Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853 en un humedal boscoso del Sur de Chile. Posibles implicancias sobre la fauna local de invertebrados.

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    L. Parra-Coloma


    Full Text Available Las especies invasoras son la principal causa de pérdida debiodiversidad del planeta, producto de la depredación que afecta a la faunalocal mediante competencia, hibridación, alteración del hábitat y transmisiónde enfermedades. En este estudio se describe la posible implicancia del pezmosquito sobre la fauna de invertebrados en un humedal boscoso presente en laregión de la Araucanía, Chile. Los resultados nos indican la presencia de Gambusia affinis en todos los sitios demuestreo, destacándose su gran adaptabilidad a la temperatura y pH. El roldepredador de Gambusia affinis sobremosquitos, puede favorecer al desarrollo de sus larvas, al consumirinvertebrados predadores de éstas, influyendo en la estructura trófica de lascomunidades.

  14. Presencia de Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853) en un humedal boscoso del Sur de Chile. Posibles implicancias sobre la fauna local de invertebrados.


    L. Parra-Coloma; F. Correa-Araneda


    Las especies invasoras son la principal causa de pérdida debiodiversidad del planeta, producto de la depredación que afecta a la faunalocal mediante competencia, hibridación, alteración del hábitat y transmisiónde enfermedades. En este estudio se describe la posible implicancia del pezmosquito sobre la fauna de invertebrados en un humedal boscoso presente en laregión de la Araucanía, Chile. Los resultados nos indican la presencia de Gambusia affinis en todos los sitios demuestreo, destacándos...

  15. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in soft tissues of the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) after exposure to zinc and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranhao, P.; Marques, J.C.; Madeira, V.M.C.


    Zinc and cadmium concentrations in crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) soft tissues (as edible portion) were measured after exposure to zinc and cadmium at 0, 25, 50, or 100 {micro}g/L for 96 h at 10 or 20 C, and compared to environmental standards for human consumption. Results demonstrated that no significant change occurred in the concentrations of zinc in soft tissues of crayfish under the given conditions. Net accumulation of cadmium was observed at all experimental exposures, and exceeded the maximum allowed for human consumption only for those crayfish exposed to 100 {micro}g/L at 20 C.

  16. 食蚊鱼对白纹伊蚊的捕食作用研究%Predation of Gambusia affinis (Baird et Girard) to Aedes albopictus Skuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽娟; 曹玉江; 张国权; 童晓立


    目的 了解食蚊鱼对白纹伊蚊幼虫的捕食规律性变化,以及光对食蚊鱼捕食的影响.方法 将1 d的24 h划分为8个时间段,统计每个时间段食蚊鱼的捕食量,并计算捕食速率.设计光照和黑暗处理,观察光对食蚊鱼捕食的影响.结果 食蚊鱼雌雄鱼对白纹伊蚊幼虫的平均日捕食量分别为64和22头.食蚊鱼在24 h内对白纹伊蚊幼虫的捕食行为集中在试验开始后的0 h~6 h,捕食量(Na)随着时间(t)的变化而变化,雌鱼捕食量与时间关系模型为Na=42.71/(1+e1.7602-0.2210t),雄鱼为Na=21.91/(1+e1.5437-0.2189t);捕食速率(V)与时间段(x)的关系呈负指数趋势下降;食蚊鱼雌鱼在光照情况下的捕食量明显高于无光照时的捕食量.结论 光照和自身饥饿程度均能影响食蚊鱼的捕食量,可为利用食蚊鱼灭蚊提供参考依据.

  17. Pliocene cyprinids (Cypriniformes,Teleostei) from Kunlun Pass Basin,northeastern Tibetan Plateau and their bearings on development of water system and uplift of the area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG; Mee-mann


    Here described are the cyprinid fossils from the Pliocene Lower Member of Qiangtang Formation of the Kunlun Pass Basin,northeastern Tibetan Plateau,collected at a locality 4769 m above the sea level(asl).The materials consist of numerous disarticulated and incomplete bones as well as thousands of pharyngeal teeth,fin rays,and vertebrae.The fossils were referred to the genus Gymnocypris,lineage Schizothoracini,family Cyprinidae;the lineage Schizothoracini;and the family Cyprinidae respectively.The Schizothoracini is a freshwater fish group endemic to the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding area.Previous workers on living schizothoracins regarded that Gymnocypris belongs to the highly specialized grade of the group,colonizing higher altitudes than other members of the group.Two species are so far unequivocally assigned to the genus,i.e.,G.przewalskii and G.eckloni,and they are inhabiting Qinghai Lake and the waters on both north(the Golmud River) and south(upper reach of the Yellow River) sides of the East Kunlun Mountain,respectively.The abundant fossil schizothoracins occur in the Kunlun Pass Basin on the southern slope of the East Kunlun Mountain(at 4769 m asl),close to the present Golmud River,indicating comparatively rich waters in the area and possible connections between the water systems on north and south sides of the East Kunlun Mountain during the Pliocene.This also suggests a more humid climate in the area during the Pliocene than it is today.The presence of the highly specialized schizothoracin Gymnocypris may also imply less amplitude of uplift(approximately 1000 m) in the area since the Pliocene than previously proposed.

  18. Microsatellite-based genetic variability and differentiation of hatchery and feral common carp Cyprinus carpio L. (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes populations in Croatia

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    Tomljanović Tea


    Full Text Available Common carp production has an important status in Croatian aquaculture. In addition, the sport fishing of common carp in open waters is very popular, but it is often based on stocking from fish farms. Using fifteen microsatellites, 243 individuals from 5 hatchery and 5 feral populations have been analyzed. A total number of 148 alleles were recorded. However, the mean number of alleles per locus was remarkably low. Pairwise FST values (0.026-0.130 were significant (P<0.01, demonstrating differentiation among populations. The Markov chain method test showed that all the populations deviated from HWE (P <0.05. After sequential Bonferroni correction only the Vrana lake was in HWE in all the loci but MFW20. The factors that may result in genetic divergence and significant reduction of the observed heterozygosity are discussed. AMOVA results for 10 populations indicate that the percentage of the variation among populations was 6.26%, which is lower than the variation within populations (91.04%.

  19. An identification in fish of the genus Puntius Hamilton 1822 (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) of some wetlands in northeast Thailand with the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA technique. (United States)

    Champasri, T; Rapley, R; Duangjinda, M; Suksri, A


    The experiment was carried out during the 2003 to 2006 at the Department of Fisheries, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand in collaboration with the Department of Biosciences, the University of Hertfordshire, College Land, Hatfield, Herts, UK. Molecular RAPD technique was used for the determinations of DNA patterns of the fish genus Puntius Hamilton 1822. The fish samples of 1,500 individual fish were collected from fifteen wetlands in Northeast Thailand and they were used for DNA extraction. Before the experiment was carried out the fish samples were morphologically identified and it was found that the collected fish consisted of 9 species i.e., Puntius altus, P. aurotaeniatus, P. binotatus, P. gonionotus, (e) P. leiacanthus, P. orphoides, P. partipentazona, P. schwanenfeldi and P. wetmorei. Genomic DNAs were extracted from 5 mg of muscle tissues (skeleton muscles) with the use of PUREGENE DNA Isolation Kit for Laboratory Use, Gentra Systems, USA. Eighty decamer primers from four kits were subjected to a preliminary test. It was found that only 10 decamer primers were most suited for this PCR amplification. The results showed that genetic distant values being established among and between pairs of the fishes of the 9 fish species ranged from 0.191 to 0.456 for a pair between Puntius gonionotus and Puntius altus and a pair between Puntius schwanenfeldi and Puntius leiacanthus, respectively. Similarity coefficient values within the 9 fish species ranged from 0.109 to 0.231. The results on a Dendrogram of clusters showed that there were 5 minor groups of the 9 fish species but the 9 species could not be split or shifted into other genera of the fish due to small differences found within the values of similarity coefficients.

  20. Garra waensis, a new cyprinid fish (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) from the Nan River Basin of the Chao Phraya River system, northern Thailand. (United States)

    Lothongkham, Amornchai; Arbsuwan, Sakda; Musikasinthorn, Prachya


    A new cyprinid fish, Garra waensis, is described from the Wa River, a tributary of the Nan River of the Chao Phraya River system in northern Thailand. The species is distinguishable from its congeners by the combination of the following characters: the absence of barbels; 7 branched dorsal fin rays; 31-37 lateral-line scales; 10-12 circumpeduncular scales; a small and broad head (head length [HL] 22.7-26.1% in standard length, head depth 56.1-64.9% HL, head width 74.0-85.0 % HL); a weakly developed proboscis in front of nostrils; the presence of reddish-orange spots (white or dull yellowish white in preserved specimens) on the side of the body; and a dark mid-lateral stripe running from the upper edge of the gill opening to the caudal peduncle and expanding into a large anteriorly-pointed triangular blotch at the end of the body (in preserved condition). A vomero-palatine organ of the species is also described in detail for the first time for Asian species of Garra. The genus Placocheilus is treated as a junior synonym of Garra. 

  1. Schistura megalodon species nova, a new river loach from the Irra-waddy basin in Dehong, Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae). (United States)

    Endruweit, Marco


    A new species of river loach, Schistura megalodon sp. nov., is described from the Irrawaddy basin in Yingjiang County, Dehong Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The following combination of diagnostic characters serve to distinguish it from all other congeners in the given zoogeographical region: a large processus dentiformes in the upper jaw, a short pre-anus length of 65.4%-66.3% of SL, long paired fins (pectoral: 20.8%-24.2% of SL; pelvic: 17.9%-20.6% of SL), a wide body of 9.7%-11.3% of SL at anal fin origin, an incomplete lateral line, the absence of an orbital lobe, and a oad and distinct basicaudal bar with forward extensions.

  2. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei). (United States)

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel


    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) inferred from the partial S6K1 gene sequences and implication of indel sites in intron 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The family Cyprinidae is widely distributed in East Asia, and has the important phylogenetic signifi- cance in the fish evolution. In this study, the 5′ end partial sequences (containing exon 1, exon 2 and indel 1) of S6K1 gene were obtained from 30 representative species in Cyprinidae and outgroup using PCR amplification and sequencing. The phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed with neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian meth- ods. Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Catostomidae) was assigned to the outgroup taxon. Similar phylogenetic relationships within the family Cyprinidae were achieved with the four analyses. Leuciscini and Barbini were monophyletic lineages respectively with the high nodal supports. Leuciscini comprises Hypophthalmichthyinae, Xenocyprinae, Cultrinae, Gobioninae, Acheilognathinae and East Asian species of Leuciscinae and Danioninae. Monophyly of East Asian clade was supported with high nodal support. Barbini comprises Schizothoracinae, Barbinae, Cyprininae and Labeoninae. The monophyletic lineage consisting of Danio rerio, D. myersi, and Rasbora trilineata was basal in the tree. In addition, the large fragment indels in intron 1 were analyzed to improve the understanding of Cyprinidae relationships. The results showed that the large fragment indels were correlated with the relations among species. Some conserved regions in intron 1 were thought to be involved in the functional regulation. However, no correlation was found between sequence variations and species characteristic size.

  4. Genetic variation of wild and hatchery populations of the catla Indian major carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822: Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae revealed by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Zakiur Rahman


    Full Text Available Genetic variation is a key component for improving a stock through selective breeding programs. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to assess genetic variation in three wild population of the catla carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822 in the Halda, Jamuna and Padma rivers and one hatchery population in Bangladesh. Five decamer random primers were used to amplify RAPD markers from 30 fish from each population. Thirty of the 55 scorable bands were polymorphic, indicating some degree of genetic variation in all the populations. The proportion of polymorphic loci and gene diversity values reflected a relatively higher level of genetic variation in the Halda population. Sixteen of the 30 polymorphic loci showed a significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001 departure from homogeneity and the F ST values in the different populations indicated some degree of genetic differentiation in the population pairs. Estimated genetic distances between populations were directly correlated with geographical distances. The unweighted pair group method with averages (UPGMA dendrogram showed two clusters, the Halda population forming one cluster and the other populations the second cluster. Genetic variation of C. catla is a useful trait for developing a good management strategy for maintaining genetic quality of the species.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢迎春; 赵亚辉; 李高岩; 唐文乔; 张春光


    Pale chub Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846), a kind of small cyprinid fish, widely distributes in the East Asia including east part of China, Japan and Korea Peninsula. This fish is always found in rivers and streams, especially in the swiftly running waters. In breeding season, the male will express remarkable sexual dimorphism. Numerous sharp nuptial tubercles can be found on the head (especially jaws) and fins. Recently, the populations of Zacco platypus are shrinking down in many places in China due to over-capture, environment change and pollution. Under this background, understanding the life history of Zacco platypus will be very helpful for future conservation and sustainable use. Therefore, we observed the early development of Zacco platypus collected from the Huaijiuhe River in Beijing. Fertilized eggs were obtained through dry method of artificial fertilization, 10-15 fertilized eggs in the process ofgranule development were randomly selected. The processes and characteristics of early development have been observed and documented under the microscope. The mature eggs were spherical in shape, and the average egg diameter was 1.04 mm. At average water temperature of 23.CC (17.1-28.0"C), the early development from fertilization to hatch took total 73h01m and 1682.31Ch accumulated temperature. The embryonic development took 37min to develop into blastodermic disc through discoidal cleavage; and then took another more than 30min to develop into two-cell. Mulberry occurred about 4h after fertilization, multi-layer stack such as morula blastomeres, animal pole extremely high uplift. Blastula finished at 6h22min after fertilization, and embryonic development was into gastrula about 6hl8min after late blastula. Blastopore formed around 19h after fertilization, and then myocomma appeared when blastopore closed. Eye capsule formed at 22h46min after fertilization. 25h27min after fertilization, tail bud appeared on the ventral posterior embryo. Tail fin formed around 29h after fertilization. The embryonic development took lh to develop into effect of muscle after tail fin, embryo body could be seen tic regular intermittent, spherical yolk sac cylindrical front, rear section with the further growth of the caudal fin was elongate. Heart fully formed and slowly beat at 38h35min after fertilization, average heart beat was 84 times per min. The embryonic development took around 73h from fertilized egg to hatch, and then took 6.3 days to develop into flexion larvae. The development speed was slower in larvae than that in embryonic stage. Flexion larvae died in large scales may be because limited conditions of artificial cultivation and lack of energy supply when coexistence of mixed nutrition. Comparing to 21 other cyprinid species, development time of Zacco platypus was longer than that of seven species. Total development time of Zacco platypus was slightly longer than sympatric species Opsariichthys bidens, and obviously longer than Zacco temminckii. We also found the development speed before hatch of northern population was faster than southern one, but slower after hatch.%作者对分布于北京市怀柔区怀九河的宽鳍(鱼巤)(Zacco platypus)的胚胎发育及仔鱼前期发育进行了研究,过程中采用人工干法授精获取受精卵,观察并描述了宽鳍(鱼巤)早期发育过程及其特点.结果显示,宽鳍(鱼巤)成熟卵呈圆球状,平均卵径1.04 mm,为沉性卵.在平均23.0℃(17.1-28.0℃)水温条件下,从受精卵到孵化经历了73hlmin,积温为1682.3度·时;孵化后6.5d进入弯曲期仔鱼.仔鱼前期发育速度与出膜前相比明显减慢;弯曲期仔鱼出现大量死亡可能与有限的人工培育条件、混合营养期能量供给不足等原因有关.通过比较发现,宽鳍(鱼巤)与鲤科中其他21个种相比,早期发育时间比其中7个种均长.宽鳍(鱼巤)早期发育时间比同域分布、相同发育水温的马口鱼略长,明显长于同属的纵纹(鱼巤)的发育时间.宽鳍(鱼巤)南、北方种群仔鱼发育速度存在差异,北方种群出膜前发育速度比南方种群快,但出膜后发育速度减慢.

  6. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Majtánová

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis. We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA. Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  7. Combining morphology and genetics in resolving taxonomy--a systematic revision of spined loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese hook snout carp Opsariichthys bidens (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) and an alternative pattern of mitogenomic evolution in vertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xuzhen; Wang, Jun; He, Shunping


    , and a noncoding control region. We use these data and homologous sequence data from multiple other ostariophysan fishes in a phylogenetic evaluation to test hypothesis pertaining to codon usage pattern of O. bidens mitochondrial protein genes as well as to re-examine the ostariophysan phylogeny. The mitochondrial...... and Otophysi and results in a robust estimate of the otophysan phylogeny....

  9. Antioxidant Capacity of Polyphenol Extracts from Different Parts of Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze%补血草不同部位多酚提取物的抗氧化能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炳华; 张婧; 黄慧; 陈莺莺; 李均


    采用多种体外评价体系研究了补血草不同部位多酚提取物的抗氧化能力,结果表明:在4种不同的检测体系中,补血草根、根茎、叶和花的多酚提取物表现出不同的抗氧化能力水平.还原力从大至小依次为根>根茎>叶>花;FRAP值和TEAC值大小顺序依次分别为根>根茎≈叶>花,根≈根茎≈叶>花;而对β-胡萝卜素-亚油酸漂白的抑制作用大小为花>叶>根>根茎.光谱分析显示,根、根茎和叶提取物及花提取物的主要组分分别为原花色素类和黄酮类.在不同评价体系中,补血草不同部位多酚提取物的抗氧化能力与原花色素含量(R2 =0.5450~0.9201),与黄酮含量(R2 =0.7764~0.9993)均呈显著正相关.可见,补血草多酚提取物具有很强的体外抗氧化能力,且活性强弱与其原花色素和黄酮含量的高低密切相关.%The antioxidant capacities of polyphenol extracts from different parts of Limonium sinense were evaluated by several in vitro systems of assay. The result showed that the polyphenol ex tracts from different parts had different levels of antioxidant capacity in the four systems tested. The reducing power of polyphenol extracts from different parts was in the order of root > rhizome > leaf > flower, the ranking order of the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power ( FRAP) value and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity ( TEAC) value was root > rhizome≈leaf > flower, root ≈ rhizome ≈ leaf >flower, respectively, while the β- carotene-linoleate bleaching inhibition was flower > leaf > root > rhizome. Spectrum displayed that the main constituents in polyphenol extracts from root, rhi zome and leaf, and flower was proanthocyanin and flavonoid, respectively. Linear correlation be tween antioxidant capacities of various parts in different assays and proanthocyanin content (R2 = 0. 545 0 ~ 0. 920 1) , and total flavonoid (R2 = 0. 776 4 ~ 0. 999 3) was observed. Therefore, it could be concluded that polyphenol extracts from different parts of L. sinense have strong antioxidant activity in vitro, in which, high content of proanthocyanin and total flavonoid in polyphenol extracts closely correlates with the antioxidant activity in different parts.

  10. Michigan/Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Collaborative Center in Control Science (MACCCS) (United States)


    Toronto. 34. C. Orlowski, A. Girard, and W. Shyy. Four Wing Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles: Dragonflies or X-Wings? Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance...18th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC), Milano, Italy, 2011. 4. B. Hyun, M. Faied, P. Kabamba, A. Girard...Girard, “Classification with Synergistic Teams”, 18th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC), Milano, Italy


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺怀亚; 王佳; 尤平


    采用长聚合酶链式反应(L-PCR),以L-PCR扩增产物为模板,用30对短PCR引物进行2次PCR(Sub-PCR)扩增,测定并注释了棒花鱼全线粒体基因组.结果表明:棒花鱼线粒体基因组全长16 597 bp,A+T含量55.7%,基因组成及排列顺序与其它硬骨鱼类一致,包括13个蛋白质编码基因,22个tRNA基因,2个rRNA基因和1个控制区(D-loop).L链编码1个蛋白质编码基因(ND6)和8个tRNA基因(tRNA-Gln,tRNA-A1a,tRNA-Cys,tRNA-Asn,tRNA-Tyr,tRNA-Ser,tRNA-Glu,tRNA-Pro),其余基因由H链编码.棒花鱼线粒体基因排列紧密,基因间隔12处60 bp,间隔长度1~31bp不等;基因重叠区7处24bp,重叠区碱基覆盖数在1~7 bp之间.13个蛋白质编码基因中,除COⅠ的起始密码子为GTG外,其余均为ATG;8个蛋白质编码基因的3'端为完全终止密码子TAG(ND1、ND2、ND6)和TAA(COⅠ、ATP8、ATP6、ND4L、ND5),其余5个基因均为不完全终止密码子TA (ND3、ND4)和T(COⅡ、COⅢ、Cyb).除tRNA-Ser (AGY)基因外,其余21个tRNA基因二级结构均为典型的三叶草型.控制区(D-loop)位于tRNA-Pro和tRNA-Phe基因之间,长928 bp,控制区有3个结构区:终止序列区(TASs),中央保守区(CSBs)和保守序列区(CSB-1、CSB-2、CSB-3).

  12. Remarkable phylogenetic resolution of the most complex clade of Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes): a proof of concept of homology assessment and partitioning sequence data integrated with mixed model Bayesian analyses. (United States)

    Tao, Wenjing; Mayden, Richard L; He, Shunping


    Despite many efforts to resolve evolutionary relationships among major clades of Cyprinidae, some nodes have been especially problematic and remain unresolved. In this study, we employ four nuclear gene fragments (3.3kb) to infer interrelationships of the Cyprinidae. A reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the family using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses is presented. Among the taxa within the monophyletic Cyprinidae, Rasborinae is the basal-most lineage; Cyprinine is sister to Leuciscine. The monophyly for the subfamilies Gobioninae, Leuciscinae and Acheilognathinae were resolved with high nodal support. Although our results do not completely resolve relationships within Cyprinidae, this study presents novel and significant findings having major implications for a highly diverse and enigmatic clade of East-Asian cyprinids. Within this monophyletic group five closely-related subgroups are identified. Tinca tinca, one of the most phylogenetically enigmatic genera in the family, is strongly supported as having evolutionary affinities with this East-Asian clade; an established yet remarkable association because of the natural variation in phenotypes and generalized ecological niches occupied by these taxa. Our results clearly argue that the choice of partitioning strategies has significant impacts on the phylogenetic reconstructions, especially when multiple genes are being considered. The most highly partitioned model (partitioned by codon positions within genes) extracts the strongest phylogenetic signals and performs better than any other partitioning schemes supported by the strongest 2Δln Bayes factor. Future studies should include higher levels of taxon sampling and partitioned, model-based analyses.

  13. A new loach, Oreonectes luochengensis sp.nov.(Cypriniformes: Balitoridae) from Guangxi, China%广西岭鳅属鱼类一新种——罗城岭鳅(鲤形目:爬鳅科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剑; 吴铁军; 韦日锋; 杨君兴


    2008年9月,在广西壮族自治区罗城县天河镇附近一洞穴采集到一批条鳅亚科鱼类标本.经鉴定,为岭鳅属(Oreonectes)一新种.新种与岭鳅属的其他已知种类在以下组合特征上有区别:背鳍条3,7; 臀鳍条2,5; 胸鳍条1,11~12; 腹鳍条1,7; 尾鳍分枝鳍条为14~16.头平扁; 眼正常; 下唇表面具浅皱.腹鳍起点位于背鳍起点垂线下方之前,尾柄上、下缘无明显鳍褶; 尾鳍后缘平截.体侧具不明显的细小鳞片,或鳞片隐于皮下.头部无侧线感觉系统管孔.成体粉红色,无色素,各鳍透明; 浸泡标本体呈乳黄色,不透明,通体无色斑.%A cave-dwelling loach, Oreonectes luochengensis sp. nov. has been described based on collections from a cave in Tianhe town, Luocheng, Guangxi, China in September 2008. It can be distinguished from all known Oreonectes species by the following combination of characters: dorsal-fin rays 3, 7; anal-fin rays 2, 5; pectoral-fin rays 1, 11-12;pelvic-fin rays 1, 7 and 14-16 branched caudal-fin rays; head compressed; eyes present; surface of lower lip covered with shallow longitudinal groove; dorsal-fin origin posterior to vertical line of pelvic-fin origin; caudal peduncle without caudal-adipose keels; edge of caudal fin truncation; tiny scales present under skin; no cephalic lateral-line system;body pink in living status, without pigments in adult, after fixed in formalin, body yellowish, non-transparent, no markings on body side.

  14. Exotic freshwater planarians currently known from Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluys, R.; Kawakatsu, M.; Yamamoto, K.


    Biogeographical and taxonomic information on the four non-indigenous freshwater planarians of Japan is reviewed, viz. Dugesia austroasiatica Kawakatsu, 1985, Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850), G. dorotocephala (Woodworth, 1897), and Rhodax evelinae? Marcus, 1947. The occurrence of Girardia dorotocepha

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Alström syndrome (United States)

    ... Alstrom Syndrome Girard D, Petrovsky N. Alström syndrome: insights into the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. Nat Rev ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links Copyright ...

  16. Sem betonnõh skulptur dlja Kunda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Kundasse paigaldatakse seitse betoonskulptuur-büsti tsemenditehase rajajast John Girard de Soucantonist (1826-1896). Kujud valmistasid 6 eesti ja 1 läti skulptor (nimed) Kunda betoonipäevade raames

  17. 武汉地区西部食蚊鱼的生长、死亡系数及种群补充模式%Growth, mortality and recruitment pattern of western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis Baird & Girard, 1853) in lentic wetlands of Wuhan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张登成; 熊文; 陶捐; 陈毅峰


    基于2012年4月-2013年3月在武汉地区两样点调查的西部食蚊鱼数据,运用FAO开发的长度频率数据分析软件FiSAT Ⅱ对西部食蚊鱼的生长、死亡系数以及种群补充模式进行了估算.西部食蚊鱼全长范围为8.30-44.86 mm,其中优势全长为16-26 mm,占总数的69.17%;雌雄性别为2.63∶1,与1∶1存在显著性差异;鳞片观察发现仅存在0+、1+两个年龄组;雌雄样本全长与体重的关系式分别为W=4.686× 10-6 L3.299(R2=0.953),W=1.008×10-5 L2.989(R2=0.903);von Bertalanffy生长方程各参数为:雌性样本极限全长L∞=45.20 mm,生长系数k=0.52 a-1,起始生长年龄t0=-0.47 a,雄性样本极限全长L∞=33.60 mm,生长系数k=0.53 a-1,起始生长年龄t0=-0.50 a;雌性样本和雄性样本的自然死亡系数M分别为1.64 a-1、1.81a-1,而总死亡系数Z分别为2.29 a-1、2.37 a-1;种群补充模式表明,每年4-9月份为西部食蚊鱼的主要补充期.西部食蚊野生种群表现出了寿命短、生长速度快、自然死亡率高、种群补充时间长等特征,表明该物种是一种典型的r对策物种.据此我们提出了针对性的防控措施:阻止其引入,尽早发现并根除该物种.

  18. 从文本游戏到暴力起源:论德里达与基拉尔的摹仿观念%From the Text Game to the Source of Violence : the Idea of Mimesis in Derrida and Girard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  19. Whole-body concentrations of elements in three fish species from offshore oil platforms and natural areas in the Southern California Bight, USA (United States)

    Love, Milton S.; Saiki, Michael K.; May, Thomas W.; Yee, Julie L.


    There is concern that offshore oil platforms off Southern California may be contributing to environmental contaminants accumulated by marine fishes. To examine this possibility, 18 kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus Girard, 1854), 80 kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens Jordan and Gilbert, 1880), and 98 Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus Girard, 1854) were collected from five offshore oil platforms and 10 natural areas during 2005–2006 for whole-body analysis of 63

  20. Logarithmic space and permutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Clément; Seiller, Thomas


    In a recent work, Girard proposed a new and innovative approach to computational complexity based on the proofs-as-programs correspondence. In a previous paper, the authors showed how Girard's proposal succeeds in obtaining a new characterization of co-NL languages as a set of operators acting on...... on a Hilbert Space. In this paper, we extend this work by showing that it is also possible to define a set of operators characterizing the class L of logarithmic space languages....

  1. Vaade minevikku kaljult mere ääres / Helju Koger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koger, Helju, 1943-


    Eesti Vabaõhumuuseumis asuvast Kochidele kuulunud Liberty suvemõisast (arhitekt Otto Schott, 1905), puiesteest Via Appia, Arthur Girard de Soucantoni hävinud villast (arhitekt Rudolf Knüpffer), G. de Soucantoni tütre Helene ja Eugen Von Nottbecki suvilast nr. 15, raidkividest, Etienne Girard de Soucantoni šveitsi villast (praegu muuseumi teadurite töömaja) jm. 11 ill

  2. Das Verhalten von Nannostomus beckfordi aripiragensis Meinken, mit einer Besprechung der Schwimmblasenfunktion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickler, Wolfgang


    Innerhalb der Characicae (wahrscheinlich sogar der Cypriniformes) ist die beschriebene Bewegungsform der Brustflossen für die kleine Gruppe der Nannostomidi kennzeichnend. Das Verhalten von Nannostomus beckfordi aripirangensis wird beschrieben. Auffällig ist eine besondere Kampfform der Männchen („V

  3. A correspondence between maximal abelian sub-algebras and linear logic fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    We show a correspondence between a classification of maximal abelian sub-algebras (MASAs) proposed by Jacques Dixmier (Dixmier 1954. Annals of Mathematics 59 (2) 279–286) and fragments of linear logic. We expose for this purpose a modified construction of Girard's hyperfinite geometry of interact......We show a correspondence between a classification of maximal abelian sub-algebras (MASAs) proposed by Jacques Dixmier (Dixmier 1954. Annals of Mathematics 59 (2) 279–286) and fragments of linear logic. We expose for this purpose a modified construction of Girard's hyperfinite geometry...... of interaction (Girard 2011. Theoretical Computer Science 412 (20) 1860–1883). The expressivity of the logic soundly interpreted in this model is dependent on properties of a MASA which is a parameter of the interpretation. We also unveil the essential role played by MASAs in previous geometry of interaction...

  4. Local linear logic for locality consciousness in multiset transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McEvoy, H.; Hartel, P.H.


    We use Girard's linear logic (LL) to produce a semantics for Gamma, a multiset transformation language. The semantics improves on the existing structured operational semantics (SOS) of the language by highlighting Gamma's inefficiencies, which were hidden by the SOS. We propose a new logic called lo

  5. Local Linear Logic for Locality Consciousness in Multiset Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McEvoy, H.; Hartel, P.H.


    We use Girard's linear logic (LL) to produce a semantics for Gamma, a multiset transformation language. The semantics improves on the existing structured operational semantics (SOS) of the language by highlighting Gamma's inefficiencies, which were hidden by the SOS. We propose a new logic called lo

  6. Axioms and Models of Linear Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.


    Girard's recent system of linear logic is presented in a way that avoids the two-level structure of formulae and sequents, and that minimises the number of primitive function symbols. A deduction theorem is proved concerning the classical implication as embedded in linear logic. The Hilbert-style ax

  7. Combat History Analysis Study Effort (CHASE) Data Enhancement Study (CDES). Volume 1. Introductory Materials and Bioliography. (United States)


    America. Vol. I: Quebec to Appomattox. New York, 1968. Lecuna, Vicente. Cronica Razonada de las Guerras de Bolivar. 3 vols. New York, 1950. Legrande-Girarde...zur Geschichte des Staaten Europas . Gotha, 1854. S Stanley, George F.G. The War of 1812: Land Operations. Ottawa, 1983. Steele, Matthew Forney

  8. Hvordan jøderne blev til jøder i Esters bog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund


    persere, der ikke ”bliver jøder”. Denne kamp tolkes som udtryk dels for en fællesskabsskabende effervescens (Durkheim), der bedst forstås gennem Purimfestens karnevaleske karakter, dels for mimetisk rivalisering (Girard), personificeret gennem Haman og Mordokaj. Purim og Esters Bog står således i en...

  9. A specific gas chromatographic detector for carbonyl compounds, based on polarography. (United States)

    Fleet, B; Risby, T H


    The evaluation of a specific gas Chromatographie detector for carbonyl compounds is described. This is based on the polarographic reduction of the Girard T hydrazone derivative which is formed when the carbonyl compound is absorbed in a buffered supporting electrolyte containing the carbonyl reagent. The detector was used to monitor the separation of a homologous series of alkanals.

  10. PROSPECT: Profiling of Resistance Patterns & Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancers of the Thorax and Therapeutic Target Identification (United States)


    2011. 4. Byers LA, Wang J, Diao L, Girard L, Peyton M, Coombes KR, Weinstein JN, Gandhi V, Krett N, Rosen ST, Minna JD, Heymach JV. An epithelial to...classification and regression tree ( CART ) survival analysis. Ann Surg Oncol 2007;14:34–40. 27. Kaplan ELM P. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete

  11. Ludics, dialogue and inferentialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Lecomte


    Full Text Available In this paper, we try to show that Ludics, a (pre-logical framework invented by J-Y. Girard, enables us to rethink some of the relationships between Philosophy, Semantics and Pragmatics. In particular, Ludics helps to shed light on the nature of dialogue and to articulate features of Brandom's inferentialism.

  12. "... Urged by His Wife Jezebel"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund


    The narrative 1 Kgs 18 of Elijah's battle on M. Carmel with the Baalpriests can be viewed as yet another OT story of the appointment of the scapegoat. Using R. Girard's methdology it appears that the Baalpriests are held responsible for the drougth, and are slaughtered as a kind of sacrifice. Her...

  13. An 'Oedipus pattern' in the Old Testament?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Lundager


    The Oedipus myth and a scapegoat pattern have been central issues in both Walter Burkert's and René Girard's writings about ancient Greek religion. This article proposes the existence of a comparable pattern in the Old Testament legend about the Ark (1-2 Samuel). Together with other Old Testament...

  14. Team Theory and Decentralized Resource Allocation: An Example. (United States)


    continues through Walras [1954, pp. 84-86, 90-91, 105-106, 169-172, 243-254, and 184-1951, Pareto 11927, pp. 233-2341, Barone, pp. 245-290 in von Hayek...politique (Deuxi~me edition), Marcel Girard, Paris. Walras , L. [19541, Elements of Pure Economics, ed. and tr. by W. Jaffe, George Allen and Unwin

  15. Disease: H00742 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00742 Neonatal ichthyosis-sclerosing cholangitis (NISCH) syndrome; Ichthyosis, leu...kocyte vacuoles, alopecia, and sclerosing cholangitis (ILVASC) Neonatal ichthyosis-sclerosing cholangitis (N...henne X, Gilis A, Jacquemin E, Henrion Caude A, Girard M, Gonzales E, Revencu N, Reding R, Wanty C, Smets F, Sokal EM Neonatal

  16. The Sacrificial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östman, Lars


    Med udgangspunkt i Jesus´ lidelseshistorie forsøger artiklen via den franske religionsfilosof René Girards tanker om den hellige krise at knytte an til en generel teori om en tilstand, hvor lov og ret er suspenderede. Gennem en kritisk og perspektiverende læsning af Carl Schmitt forståes denne kr...

  17. Koomiksivestern / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus


    Prantsuse näitleja Vincent Cassel mängib nimiosa prantsuse koomiksipõhises mängufilmis "Blueberry" : režissöör Jan Kounen. Koomiksi, millest filmi on jõudnud üpris vähe, lõid 1960-ndatel Jean-Michel Charlier ja Jean Girard

  18. Zrimõi sled / Lev Livshits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Лившиц, Лев, 1924-2013


    Tallinna Uue tänava hoonestuse ajaloost. Arhitekt Schotti projekti järgi ehitatud eklektilised hooned Uus t. 3 ja Girard de Soucantoni maja nr.19. Carl Engeli projekti järgi ehitatud elamu Uus t. 16 ja püssirohuait Uus t. 37

  19. Sartre: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series. (United States)

    Kern, Edith, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Edith Kern, Claude-Edmonde Magny, Henri Peyre, Kenneth Douglas, Edmund Wilson, Theophil Spoerri, Jacques Guicharnaud, Eric Bentley, Robert Champigny, Oreste F. Pucciani, Frederic Jameson, Rene Girard, Guido…

  20. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.


    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the multimoda

  1. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Mroz


    Full Text Available The present article is a modest contribution to the reconstruction and systematization of a rich and seminal conception of René Girard. The letter belongs to a group of the most influential philosophers of culture of the XX and XXI century whose theories attempt at explaining the origins of this uniflue and diverse phenomen: culture Girard produces a coherent although a controversial theory of basic, fundament motives of human behavior (e.g. jalousie and strike for excellence and emulation which set in motion a series of symbolic reactions leading to the emergence of organized society and finally social behavior. Those reactions were mainly responsible for the cultural development and progress.

  3. Jacob y el otro: una lectura desde el deseo mimético


    Navascués, J. (Javier) de


    El artículo propone el análisis del cuento de Juan Carlos Onetti “Jacob y el otro” a partir de la teoría antropológica de René Girard. Así, el universo de Onetti aparece configurado por distintos aspectos del llamado “deseo mimético”. Este concepto determina que las relaciones de deseo entre un sujeto y un objeto no se establecen de forma directa, sino a través de un juego triangular formado por un sujeto, un modelo y un objeto. Al objeto se llega a través del modelo, a quien Girard denomina ...

  4. Interaction graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiller, Thomas


    Interaction graphs were introduced as a general, uniform, construction of dynamic models of linear logic, encompassing all Geometry of Interaction (GoI) constructions introduced so far. This series of work was inspired from Girard's hyperfinite GoI, and develops a quantitative approach that should...... be understood as a dynamic version of weighted relational models. Until now, the interaction graphs framework has been shown to deal with exponentials for the constrained system ELL (Elementary Linear Logic) while keeping its quantitative aspect. Adapting older constructions by Girard, one can clearly define...... "full" exponentials, but at the cost of these quantitative features. We show here that allowing interpretations of proofs to use continuous (yet finite in a measure-theoretic sense) sets of states, as opposed to earlier Interaction Graphs constructions were these sets of states were discrete (and finite...

  5. Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (2004):The Power Age Concepts and Technologies. Improving Tactical PSYOP Video Dissemination in Media-Austere Operating Environments (United States)


    television broadcast network for dissemination, tucked into a larger body of pre-existing and continuing programS of local and regional content denied audiences is clearly seen in the model employed by the Ayatollah Khomeini, who while in exile, effectively distributed his messages to TAs...electricity, a television, and a VCR. 66 Bruce Girard, “The Potential for Community Radio in

  6. Political crimes in the transition to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn


    This article is intended as a reflection piece on the question: what could be an anthropological contribution to the question of political crimes? The reflection will consist of three interrelated parts. In the first part, I wish to address the meaning of the words we use when bespeaking “crime” ...... anthropologists and sociologists, who, although known figures, have so far remained peripheral within political anthropology: Ferdinand Tönnies, Gabriel Tarde, Marcel Mauss, Gregory Bateson, Victor Turner and René Girard....

  7. GrB-TWEAK: A Potential Novel Biologic for NSCLC Therapy (United States)


    a pattern of disease progression, and resemble stages in neurogenesis. Cancer Cell 2006; 9: 157–173. 55 Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, Weller M...Hegi ME, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, Taphoorn MJ, Janzer RC et al. Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy...520. 172 Agemy L, Friedmann-Morvinski D, Kotamraju VR, Roth L, Sugahara KN, Girard OM et al. Targeted nanoparticle enhanced proapoptotic peptide as

  8. Loglines. November-December 2014 (United States)


    Coast Guard Petty Officer 1st Class Gary Miller and Petty Officer 3rd Class Michael Franklin, both food service specialists, prepare chicken ...redeployment or disposition of thousands of vehicles is an important mission for DLA. Marine Cpl. Aaron M. Faust places chicken on a grill in, and at other sites throughout the city, like the Girard House Hotel , which became a military clothing depot during the war and could

  9. [Gout and hyperuricemia in Tananarive (Madagascar) (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Capdevielle, P; Teyssier, P; Valmary, J; Perrot, J; Delprat, J


    Review of 41 cases observed in "Girard et Robic hospital", Tananarive (35 cases of plain articular gout either acute or chronic, and 6 cases of latent hyperuricemia).--Gout and hyperuricemia are frequently observed within Malagasy high-lands Merina population.--Women and even, in exceptional cases, children may be affected. A responsible hereditary factor is probably associated with the side effects of food habits (diet rich in rice, local vegetables, zebu meat and pork; beverages are not abundant).

  10. Downstream Stockton Assessments (United States)


    under Contract No. 14-10-0232-1163. Girard, Jeffrey S. and M. D. Freeman 1984 Archaeological Survey at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes: Cedar, Dade...investigated to establish their cultural affiliation or function. Even after all the work that has been conducted at the Stockton, Truman and Pormnme de Terre ...Pomnme de Terre Valley. In Prehistoric Man and His Environments: A Case Study in the Ozark Highland, edited by W. Raymond Wood and R. Bruce McMillan

  11. Understanding Acquisition Cycle Time: Focusing the Research Problem (United States)


    including requisite skills, tools, and information) exercised could many problems be averted? Alternatively, are extreme schedule and cost growth more...internal management would be less culpable or able to address program schedule and cost impacts. One useful exercise might be to assess extreme outcomes...Leon-Girard R., and Burton E. McKenzie . Lessons Learned in USAF Weapon System Acquisition Management: A Case Study Approach. MS thesis, School of

  12. Signing Ceremony Between CAS and Schneider Electric Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ On April 9, 2008, a strategic cooperation signing ceremony between the China Association for Stan-dardization (CAS) and Schneider Electric took place at the Diao Yutai Guest Hotel in Beijing. Attending the signing ceremony were Mr Sun Xiaokang, Duty Director of SAC, Mr. Ma Lingcong, Secretary General of CAS, Mr. Noel Girard, Schneider Electric Marketing Director, Mr. Guy Dufrdi sse, Chairman of Schneider Electric (China) and more than twenty high-ranking managers from both companies.

  13. Optimization of extraction process and investigation of antioxidant effect of polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense Kuntze



    Objective: To optimize the extraction technology for polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSEP) Materials and Methods : One-singer factor and response surface methodology(RSM) were established to extract the polysaccharides from L. sinense. Then, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, hydroxyl radical(.OH), and 2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ...

  14. Material Perturbations to Enhance Performance of the Thiele Half-Width Leaky Mode Antenna (United States)


    MODE ANTENNA Jason A. Girard, BS, MS Major, USAF Approved: _______// signed //____________________ ________ Dr. Michael J. Havrilla ...would like to express my sincere appreciation to my faculty advisor, Dr. Michael Havrilla , for his guidance and support throughout the course of this...From Havrilla [12], the boundary conditions on E r H r πr that ensure at y = 0, continuity of tang 0E = r tangE r and tangH r at y = d and ,E

  15. Environmental Impact Statement-Consolidated Space Operations Center. (United States)


    Rio Grande COG Albuquerque Armed Services Advi- 505 Marquette NW sory Committee Albuq-,erque, New Mexico 87102 i P.O. Box 1516 Albuquerque, New Mexico...Ernie Pyle Branch Library 3700 San Mateo Blvd NE 900 Girard Blvd SE Alouquerque, New Mexico 87110 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87105 Esperanza Branch...Albuquerque, New Mexico 87102 Bernalillo County Assessor Middle Rio Grande Council of Governments 505 Central NW 924 Park Avenue SW Albuquerque, New

  16. Evaluation of novel derivatisation reagents for the analysis of oxysterols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, Peter J., E-mail: [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Aponte, Jennifer; Bentley, T. William [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Matthews, Ian [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Wang, Yuqin [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Griffiths, William J., E-mail: [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New derivatisation reagents for LC–MS analysis of oxysterols. • New reagents based on Girard P give high ion-currents and informative LC–MS{sup n} spectra. • Permanent charge is vital for efficient MS{sup n} fragmentation. • New reagents offer greater scope for incorporation of isotope labels. - Abstract: Oxysterols are oxidised forms of cholesterol that are intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones. They are also ligands to nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors. Analysis of oxysterols in biological systems is challenging due to their low abundance coupled with their lack of a strong chromophore and poor ionisation characteristics in mass spectrometry (MS). We have previously used enzyme-assisted derivatisation for sterol analysis (EADSA) to identify and quantitate oxysterols in biological samples. This technique relies on tagging sterols with the Girard P reagent to introduce a charged quaternary ammonium group. Here, we have compared several modified Girard-like reagents and show that the permanent charge is vital for efficient MS{sup n} fragmentation. However, we find that the reagent can be extended to include sites for potential stable isotope labels without a loss of performance.

  17. From a Philosophical point of view, can the Budism Be An Anti-Sacrificial Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Felizol Marques


    Full Text Available Both on Buddhist tradition and René Girard´s thought ignorance and desire are on the basis of suffering and violence. The Buddhist tradition puts/takes ignorance, that nothing exists in and by itself, avydia as the cause of all sufferings because it generates a chain of desire / aversion that leads us to an imprisonment where we move from desiring an object to another. Girard´s perspective founds violence´s origin on the ignorance of our mimetic desire. The subject ignores that, far from being free, autonomous and differentiated, as the "romantic lie" prays, he only desires and wants by imitating a model. Neither the subject nor the object, which the subject freely thinks to desire, exist free for themselves. While this model prevails, he will react more and more violently to the claims of the subject; and even if the subject overtakes its model, he will greedily seek another and another model, always doomed to deception. If we add to this the proximity of the two anti-sacrificial perspectives, displayed on the descriptive closeness of the samsara´s wheel and the circular and sacrificial time of a pagan society, we find between Girard and the buddhist tradition enough common points for their mutual understanding.

  18. Diet composition of post-metamorphic bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in the Zhoushan archipelago,Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Bullfrogs (Runa catesbeiana) are listed as one of the 100 worst invasive alien species in the world.They are generalist predators and thus may affect native species through predation.In previous studies,the food contents of bullfrogs were mostly examined at a single site.In the present study,the diet composition of post-metamorphic bullfrogs on eight islands (Daishan,Liuheng,Xiushan,Fodu,Taohua,Xiashi,Cezi,and Putuoshan) in the Zhoushan Archipelago,Zhejiang Province of China,were examined by using the stomach flushing method from June 30 to August 11 in 2005.A total 0f391 individual frogs were measured,including 113 adults and 278 juveniles.The analysis of the stomach contents shows that,for adult bullfrogs,the most important prey (by diet volume) overall were Decapoda,Coleoptera,Odonata,Mesogastropoda,Raniformes,and Cypriniformes.For juvenile bullfrogs,these were Decapoda,Coleoptera,Cypriniformes,Odonata,Orthoptera,Hymenoptera,Lepidoptera larvae,Mesogastropoda,and Raniformes.Moreover,the prey size and diet volume increased with the body size of both adult and juvenile bullfrogs.The diet composition of primary preys of bullfrogs was significantly different among the islands.The results indicate that bullfrogs exert different predatory influences on native fauna at different sites and that bullfrogs are generalist predators with extensive ecological impacts on native fauna.

  19. Spectacular morphological novelty in a miniature cyprinid fish, Danionella dracula n. sp. (United States)

    Britz, Ralf; Conway, Kevin W; Rüber, Lukas


    Danionella dracula is a new species of sexually dimorphic, miniature and highly developmentally truncated cyprinid fish. Compared with its close relative, the zebrafish Danio rerio, it lacks 44 bones or parts thereof and represents one of the most developmentally truncated vertebrates. Absence of the majority of bones appears to be due to developmental truncation via terminal deletion. In contrast to these larval-like features, D. dracula also shows several hyperossifications. Uniquely, among carp-like fishes, male D. dracula have a series of long, pointed odontoid processes on the jaws greatly resembling the jaw dentition of teleosts with true teeth. The anterior-most process in each jaw is extended as a canine-like fang projecting through the epithelium. True jaw teeth are absent from all 3700 species of cypriniforms and were lost at least in the Upper Eocene. It remains to be investigated, however, whether the conserved pathways to regulate tooth development in cypriniforms have been used in D. dracula to form and pattern the odontoid processes. This new species represents a remarkable example linking progenetic paedomorphosis via heterochronic change in developmental timing to the evolution of morphological novelties.

  20. Trichodina modesta: an exotic ciliate in the Neotropical region parasitizing an unusual host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Moraes Ramos Valladão

    Full Text Available In this study, an important ornamental fish, Betta splendens (Osphronemidae, from three different Brazilian states was examined for parasitic infestations. Smears with parasites were impregnated with silver nitrate or stained using Giemsa for taxonomic evaluation. A disc-shaped trichodinid with a body diameter of 39.7 ± 3.3 µm, adhesive disc diameter of 32.9 ± 3.1 µm and denticulate ring diameter of 19.5 ± 2.0 µm was found. The morphological characteristics resembled those of Trichodina modesta Lom, 1970, a species that shows clear host specificity for Cypriniformes. Until now, its occurrence was restricted to the Eurasian region. In the present study, a new host for T. modesta is reported and therefore the first occurrence of this species in the Americas. The parasite was possibly introduced into the Neotropical region through the exotic fish trade, especially of Cypriniformes used by aquarists. The distribution of this ciliate is discussed and a checklist of localities and hosts for the species is provided.

  1. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China]. (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin


    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  2. Diets, equipment, and techniques for maintaining crawfish in the laboratory (United States)

    Tarshis, I.B.; Avault, James W.


    One commercial and 4 laboratory prepared extruded, water-stable diets were fed 3 times a week in 1-g portions to juvenile male and female White River crawfish, Procambarus acutus acutus (Girard), for 10 weeks. The. binding material in the laboratory preparation was alginate (Kelgin), whereas that in the commercial preparation was starch. No statistically significant weight differences developed between the groups of crawfish at the end of the 10-week period; all 5 diets were found satisfactory for feeding and maintaining P. acutus acutus in the laboratory, and all test crawfish survived throughout the experimental period. Weight gains were highest in a diet containing 50.5% protein; intermediate in those fed a diet with 46.0% protein; and lowest in those fed diets with 31.7 or 36.3% protein. Crawfish fed the commercial preparation of one of the 46.0% protein diets showed a slightly but not significantly higher weight gain than those fed the laboratory preparation of the diet. In an evaluation of the water stability of 5 commercially prepared animal chow diets and the commercial extruded diet, 2 of the commercial diets disintegrated after one hour exposure in water and the other 3 became bloated after one hour and remained on the surface throughout the 24-hour test. The commercial extruded diet maintained its water stability for the full 24 hours. The commercial preparation of the 46.0% protein diet was successfully used under laboratory conditions for feeding and maintaining the following crawfishes: Cambarellus shufeldtii (Faxon), Cambarus acuminatus Faxon, Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque), O. virilis (Hagen), Procambarus clarkii (Girard), and P. spiculifer (Le conte). In longevity experiments Cambarus diogenes diogenes Girard and Procambarus hinei (Ortmann) now have survived for 8 months on this diet in the laboratory.

  3. Seducción e interpretación: el otro lado del espejo en el amor proustiano


    Analía Sandra Melamed


    Como se sabe En busca del tiempo perdido no es una novela de amor sino, entre otras cosas, una novela sobre las leyes del amor. Estas leyes se han entendido a menudo a partir de la dialéctica amo-esclavo. Tal es el caso, entre otros, de René Girard en Mentira romántica y verdad novelesca. Sostengo en este trabajo que la estructura amo-esclavo da cuenta de la dinámica de las relaciones sociales, pero que no resulta suficiente para comprender los amores de la novela proustiana. Propongo entonce...

  4. War and National Renewal: Civil Religion and Blood Sacrifice in American Culture

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    Agnieszka Soltysik Monnet


    Full Text Available Wars are often associated with a rhetoric of renewal or new beginnings. This essay explores this claim through the lens of civil religion and a recent book by Carolyn Marvin and David Ingle, Blood Sacrifice and the Nation, which combines Emile Durkheim with Réné Girard in proposing that modern national cohesion depends on blood sacrifice. I unpack some of the paradoxes raised by this theory of national renewal in the context of 9/11, with a special focus on the sacred status of the flag and the special attention given to uniformed serviceman in the American body politic

  5. Apocalyptic Narcissism and the Difficulty of Mourning

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    Florian Mussgnug


    Full Text Available In this article I examine how death and loss feature in recent apocalypse fiction and suggest that, in a genre mostly concerned with finitude, there appears to be paradoxically little room for expressions of mourning. I assess contemporary attitudes towards mortality through the writings of Philippe Ariès, Zygmunt Bauman, Simon Critchley and others, and propose a psychoanalytic reading of solitary survivor narrative, inspired by the work of Martin Jay. In the final part of the article, I turn to Sigmund Freud and René Girard to explore the relation between apocalyptic teleology, melancholy, and the expectation of global catastrophe.

  6. [Gustave Flaubert and his double, or the dialectic of the hemispheres in artistic creation]. (United States)

    Cambier, J


    Paul Girard was intrigued by Gustave Flaubert, author of the famous French novel Madame Bovary, because of the relationship between the author's style and his left temporal epilepsy. Gustave Flaubert led a double life; a highly appreciated guest at the best of Parisian soirées, he spent much of his life at Croisset as a hermit. He spoke little, yet he wrote in an extremely elaborate literary style. These contrasts cannot be explained solely on the grounds of an intercritical behaviour syndrome due to temporal epilepsy. For Flaubert, writing was a mean of compensating for an unbalanced hemispheric activation, his rigorous attention to style taming his overabundant imagination.

  7. Domains via Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guoqiang; CHEN Yixiang


    This paper provides a concrete and simple introduction to two pillars of domain theory: (1) solving recursive domain equations, and (2) universal and saturated domains. Our exposition combines Larsen and Winskel's idea on solving domain equations using information systems with Girard's idea of stable domain theory in the form of coherence spaces, or graphs.Detailed constructions are given for universal and even homogeneous objects in two categories of graphs: one representing binary complete, prime algebraic domains with complete primes covering the bottom; the other representing ω-algebraic, prime algebraic lattices. The backand-forth argument in model theory helps to enlighten the constructions.

  8. Classical realizability in the CPS target language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Jonas


    Motivated by considerations about Krivine's classical realizability, we introduce a term calculus for an intuitionistic logic with record types, which we call the CPS target language. We give a reformulation of the constructions of classical realizability in this language, using the categorical...... techniques of realizability triposes and toposes. We argue that the presentation of classical realizability in the CPS target language simplifies calculations in realizability toposes, in particular it admits a nice presentation of conjunction as intersection type which is inspired by Girard's ludics....

  9. Geology and paleontology of five cores from Screven and Burke counties, eastern Georgia (United States)

    Edwards, Lucy E.


    Five deep stratigraphic test holes were drilled from 1991 to 1993 in support of multidisciplinary investigations to determine the stratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments of the coastal plain in east-central Georgia. Cored sediment and geological logs from the Millhaven test hole in Screven County and the Girard and Millers Pond test holes in Burke County are the primary sources of lithologic and paleontologic information from this report. Lithologic and paleontologic information from the Thompson Oak and McBean test holes in Burke County supplements the discussion of stratigraphy and sedimentation in the updip part of the study area near the Millers Pond test hole.

  10. Sin chivo expiatorio, no hay grupo: el caso de las administraciones públicas (No scapegoat, no group: the case of public administrations

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    Josu Bingen Fernández Alcalde


    Full Text Available Con base en Girard, Bion, Tuckman, Morgan, Anzieu, o la Sociología Clínica se analiza la posición de “Chivo Expiatorio” como suceso universal en los procesos de desarrollo de grupos y equipos. Una etapa esperable y gestionable de su evolución; no un accidente a evitar ni un motivo para desmantelar los equipos laborales puestos en marcha. Sin chivo expiatorio no hay grupo, ni regeneración grupal. Toda grupalidad vive cíclicamente “el destronamiento” de una figura anterior de liderazgo con algún tipo de violencia sacrificial. Tal acontecimiento cierra una fase de conflicto importante e inaugura una renormalización grupal. Por ello, propone incluirla como fase propia en los modelos generales de desarrollo grupal.ABSTRACTBased on Girard, Bion, Tuckman, Morgan, Anzieu, or Clinical Sociology analyzes the position of "Scapegoat" as a universal event in the development processes of groups and work groups. An expected and manageable stage of its evolution, not an accident to avoid nor a reason for dismantling the set up work teams. No scapegoat no group, no regeneration group. All groups lives cyclically "the dethronement" of an earlier figure of leadership with some sort of sacrificial violence. This event closes a major conflict phase and inaugurates a renormalization group. It is therefore proposed to include itself as a phase in the generic models of group development.

  11. L'orizzonte contemporaneo della fine del mondo. Lineamenti per una dialettica apocalisse/sopravvivenza

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    Delio Salottolo


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show how important is the idea of “apocalypse” in the present age and discuss if it is possible to develop any strategies of “survival”. After discussing some elements of de Martino’s thought about the temporal, psychopathological and political meaning of “apocalypse”, we’ll analyze the sense of Lars von Trier’s Melancholia as a symptom of the contemporary situation. After that, we’ll point out the importance of 11/9, the biggest and most shocking event of our time, debating the opinions of Baudrillard and Girard. Both thinkers consider 11/9 a fundamental event in order to understand the meaning of our time, Baudrillard debating the problem of our virtual society and Girard talking about the signs of a next “apocalypse”. Finally, we’ll try to introduce the concept of a “politics of survival”, such as it has been recently discussed by Didi-Huberman in his important book, Survivance des lucioles.

  12. Rhabdochona kharani sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the fish Labeo gedrosicus Zugmayer, 1912 from Garruk, District Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan. (United States)

    Asmatullah, Kakar; Bilqees, Fatima Mujib; Kakar, Juma Khan


    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona kharani sp. nov., has been isolated from the intestine, stomach and swim bladder of the fish Labeo gedrosicus Zugmayer, 1912 (Fam. Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) from spring water at Garruk, District Kharan, Balochistan. The new species is characterized largely by the presence of eight anterior teeth in the prostom, inconspicuous deirids, by the shape and length of unequal spicules (0.08 - 0.09 and 2.9 - 3.1 mm), and by 17-18 pairs of caudal papillae including 6-7 postanal, one adanal, and 10 -11 preanal. Other characteristics include a pointed tail tip, non filamented eggs, a bulbous, voluminous, vaginal complex that is directed backward, and a vulva that is post-equatorial with a triangular large anterior lip and a smaller posterior lip.

  13. Diversity of Mesozoic semionotiform fishes and the origin of gars (Lepisosteidae) (United States)

    Cavin, Lionel


    Gars (Lepisosteidae) are ray-finned fishes with controversial relationships to other actinopterygian lineages. When fossil taxa are considered, gars are grouped with Mesozoic macrosemiids and `semionotids' in the Semionotiformes, but the intra-relationships within this order are still elusive. Here, the evolutionary history of gars is reinvestigated using a set of well-preserved extinct semionotiform taxa in a phylogenetic analysis. Results indicate that the gar lineage roots in a clade of Late Jurassic-Cretaceous semionotiform fishes. The closest relatives to gars were plant-eating and detritivorous freshwater fishes. The occurrence of semionotiform remains in Early and early Late Cretaceous continental deposits worldwide possibly reflects an important radiation of this group, comparable to the present-day diversification of cypriniforms. Other Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous semionotiform taxa are gathered in a single clade with weakly supported internal nodes, pointing out the necessity to better understand the osteology of these fishes.

  14. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens. (United States)

    Gorlick, D L


    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  15. Stable isotope labeling – Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of androgenic and progestagenic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ning; Liu, Ping; Ding, Jun; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi, E-mail:


    Steroid hormones play important roles in mammal at very low concentrations and are associated with numerous endocrinology and oncology diseases. Therefore, quantitative analysis of steroid hormones can provide crucial information for uncovering underlying mechanisms of steroid hormones related diseases. In the current study, we developed a sensitive method for the detection of steroid hormones (progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, pregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone) in body fluids by stable isotope labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. In this respect, a pair of isotopes labeling reagents, Girard reagent P (GP) and d{sub 5}-Girard reagent P (d{sub 5}-GP), were synthesized and utilized to label steroid hormones in follicular fluid samples and steroid hormone standards, respectively. The heavy labeled standards were used as internal standards for quantification to minimize quantitation deviation in MS analysis due to the matrix and ion suppression effects. The ionization efficiencies of steroid hormones were greatly improved by 4–504 folds through the introduction of a permanent charged moiety of quaternary ammonium from GP. Using the developed method, we successfully quantified steroid hormones in human follicular fluid. We found that the contents of testosterone and androstenedione exhibited significant increase while the content of pregnenolone had significant decrease in follicular fluid of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients compared with healthy controls, indicating that these steroid hormones with significant change may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Taken together, the developed stable isotope labeling coupled LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis demonstrated to be a promising method for the sensitive and accurate determination of steroid hormones, which may facilitate the in-depth investigation of steroid hormones

  16. Atividade reprodutiva de Physalaemus signifer (Anura, Leptodactylidae em ambiente temporário

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    Wogel Henrique


    Full Text Available The breeding activity of Physalaemus signifer (Girard, 1853 was monitored from July 1999 to July 2000 in a temporary pond in Palmital, Municipality of Saquarema, State of Rio de Janeiro, Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil. Males were sexually actives only in four nights, arriving at the pond on the early rainy season. Males in amplexus were larger and spent more nights in the reproductive aggregation than solitary ones. The number of nights was correlated with the mass of the males. Males adopted satellite behavior as alternative tactic for mate acquisition. Changes between calling and satellite tactics were observed in different nights. Calling males were not larger and heavier than satellite ones. Satellite behavior seemed to be related with the order of arrival on the pond. Size and mass of males did not influence the results of fights. Resident males won the majority of agonistics combats. Three types of vocalizations are described: advertisement, territorial, and encounter calls.

  17. Polarization sensitivity in the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii enhances the detection of moving transparent objects. (United States)

    Tuthill, John C; Johnsen, Sönke


    We tested the hypothesis that polarization sensitivity enhances the detection of moving, transparent objects by examining the escape response of the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii Girard) from a visual threat. A transparent, birefringent target trans-illuminated by either partially linear polarized or unpolarized light was advanced toward individual crayfish. The optical axis of the target was aligned such that it would be conspicuous to a viewer with polarization sensitivity when trans-illuminated by polarized light. Under polarized light, significantly more crayfish retreated from the target than under unpolarized light of identical intensity (Pcrayfish Pasifastacus leniusculus (Dana), our results provide the first behavioral evidence for polarization sensitivity among crayfish. The ecological function of this ability is unclear, but it may enhance the detection of fish with silvered scales, transparent zooplankton or macroinvertebrates. Because escape responses are generally more reliably induced than other behaviors, the method employed in this study may prove useful for examining sensory capabilities in other species.

  18. Considerazioni mimetiche su Il perturbante (Das Unheimliche

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    Emanuele Antonelli


    Full Text Available Si affronta una revisione della categoria psicanalitica del perturbante, con attenzione alla genesi della nozione nell’opera di Freud. Si propone quindi un’ipotesi di lettura, mediante applicazione del paradigma offerto dalla teoria mimetica di René Girard, al fine di rivedere le fondamenta antropologiche dell’esperienza codificata nel testo freudiano. Attraverso un’analisi etimologica del lemma italiano, si discute l’opportunità delle critiche rivolte alla traduzione originale, mettendo anzi in luce la complessità semantica di tale soluzione e le potenzialità esplicative che essa aggiunge alla già ampia, e nota, estensione del lemma tedesco. Con riferimento alla filosofia della storia di matrice girardiana, si mette a fuoco il ruolo della temporalità sia dal punto di vista della genesi della determinazione analitica, sia dal punto di vista delle condizioni di possibilità storiche dell’esperienza in esame.

  19. Step-Indexed Normalization for a Language with General Recursion

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    Chris Casinghino


    Full Text Available The Trellys project has produced several designs for practical dependently typed languages. These languages are broken into two fragments—a _logical_ fragment where every term normalizes and which is consistent when interpreted as a logic, and a _programmatic_ fragment with general recursion and other convenient but unsound features. In this paper, we present a small example language in this style. Our design allows the programmer to explicitly mention and pass information between the two fragments. We show that this feature substantially complicates the metatheory and present a new technique, combining the traditional Girard-Tait method with step-indexed logical relations, which we use to show normalization for the logical fragment.

  20. Figuras y significaciones del mito del doble en la literatura: teorías explicativas

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    Juan Herrero Cecilia


    Full Text Available This paper explores the mythic theme of the double in relation to the mysterious identity of the human being. Attention is paid to the figures and meanings progres-sively acquired by the double from ancient civilizations until it became a distressing and fascinating theme in the Romantic period (chiefly with the fantastic story which is still greatly drawn upon these days. The two major variations whereby the double is articulated in literary texts are thus examined, to wit, the «subjective» double and the «objective» one. We subsequently proceed to present and comment upon a number of theories which have contributed to making sense of the complex meanings of the double (Rank, Freud, Jung, Girard, Rosset, Bargalló, Herdman, etc. All in all, we mean to draw attention to the study of specific literary works where the enigmatic figure of the double comes into the picture.

  1. MONOGENEA OF EXOTIC FISHES I.DESCRIPTION OF Salsuginus bermudae FROM Gambusia affinis FOR THE FIRST TIME IN CHINA%外来鱼类单殖吸虫研究Ⅰ.食蚊鱼寄生百慕大伴盐虫Salsuginus bermudae首次在我国检出

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊向英; 丁雪娟


    This paper reports a newly recorded monogenean in China, Salsuginus bermudae Rand & Wiles, 1987, found on the gills of an exotic fish, Gambusia affinis Baird and Girard, from Guangzhou, Guangdong Province. The shape of our specimens basically agrees with the original description except for the dimensions of the whole worms, the shape of the connective bars and the number of the marginal hooks.%记录采自广东广州食蚊鱼Gambusia-affinis鳃上的1种单殖吸虫——百慕大伴盐虫Salsuginus bermudae Rand & Wiles,1987.所获标本与Rand & Wiles的原始描述基本一致,但在量度、边缘小钩数量、联结片的结构上略有差异.伴盐虫属及百慕大伴盐虫均为我国首次报道.

  2. Behavioral Differentiation Induced by Insecticide Lambda-Cyhalothrin in Mosquito Fish, Gambusia affinis

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    Utku GÜNER


    Full Text Available Test toxic material, one of most used pesticide, the Lambda cyhalothrin (LCY (TEKVANDO 5EC belongs to a group of chemicals called synthetic pyrethroids and pesticides and potential toxic pollutant contaminating aquatic ecosystems, was investigated in the present study for behavioral toxicology. Mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853 were selected for responses of Lambda cyhalothrin by Using to video-based movement analysis system. Selected 3 different doses 0.1, 0.5 and 0.75 ppm were used analyzed behavioral changes according to control group. The following behaviors were measured: total distance, travelled and average speed for treatment and control groups, maximum and average speed and time moving away from the dose applied point. This suggests that LCY contamination has the potential to significantly affect (p<0.05 the behavior of Mosquito fish, G. affinis.

  3. Whisky

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    Boris Jeanne


    Full Text Available Le clown blanc ne sourit jamais, pourtant il est drôle. On force les protagonistes de Whisky à sourire, mais on n’est jamais sûr d’avoir vraiment le droit de rire devant cette histoire simple de vies bien réglées, dérangées par un intrus, à mi-chemin entre Théorème (pour l’intrus et René Girard (pour le triangle amoureux transportés à Carrasco, petite ville d’Uruguay. Tout cela filmé façon Kaurismaki. Un cinquantenaire bourru y fabrique des chaussettes avec deux employées, et Marta son con...

  4. La idealización del amor y la mujer en La vorágine The idealization of love and woman in The Vortex

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    Carlos Daniel Ortiz Caraballo


    Full Text Available El trabajo a realizar es un análisis sociocrítico de La vorágine (1924, de José Eustasio Rivera (Neiva, 1888-Nueva York, 1928. Su objetivo es dilucidar una de las tomas de posición presente en esta obra literaria, específicamente, la toma de posición romántica en relación con sus personajes femeninos y los valores socio-económicos de la modernidad y el capitalismo, para establecer su impacto en el campo literario colombiano. El análisis textual se encuentra ordenado a partir de los conceptos de posición romántica (Girard, 1963, cronotopo (Bajtín, 1986: 269 héroe novelesco (Lukács, 1974: 161-162 y sistema de personajes como ejes fundamentales en los que se despliega buena parte de la axiología de la novelaThis essay is a sociocritic analysis of the novel La vorágine (1924, written by José Eustasio Rivera (Neiva, 1888-New York, 1928. Its objective is to elucidate one of the existent axiological position presented in this literary work, specifically, the romantic one (Girard, 1963. The reading of the text is organized in two parts: first, the idealization of love, where it is established the construction of the romantic position taken in terms of love, the socioeconomic values of modernity and capitalism, taking into account the hero of the novel and the idealization of a woman, according to the women characters and their ideological voice.

  5. Studies on the analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry using enzyme-assisted derivatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas, E-mail: [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Crick, Peter J. [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Carter, Graham D. [DEQAS, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Charing Cross Hospital, Fulham Palace Rd, London W6 8RF (United Kingdom); Makin, Hugh L. [Barts and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AD (United Kingdom); Wang, Yuqin [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Griffiths, William J., E-mail: [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • New method for the analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} exploiting Girard P derivatisation. • Method also applicable to vitamin D{sub 3}, 1α,25- and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. • By modification of the method 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} can also be analysed. - Abstract: The total serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamins D (25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} and 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 2}) is currently used as an indicator of vitamins D status. Vitamins D insufficiency is claimed to be associated with multiple diseases, thus accurate and precise reference methods for the quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamins D are needed. Here we present a novel enzyme-assisted derivatisation method for the analysis of vitamins D metabolites in adult serum utilising 25-[26,26,26,27,27,27-{sup 2}H{sub 6}]hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} as the internal standard. Extraction of 25-hydroxyvitamins D from serum is performed with acetonitrile, which is shown to be more efficient than ethanol. Cholesterol oxidase is used to oxidize the 3β-hydroxy group in the vitamins D metabolites followed by derivatisation of the newly formed 3-oxo group with Girard P reagent. 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 is shown to oxidize selectively the 3α-hydroxy group in the 3α-hydroxy epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. Quantification is achieved by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Recovery experiments for 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} performed on adult human serum give recovery of 102–106%. Furthermore in addition to 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} and other uncharacterised dihydroxy metabolites, were detected in adult human serum.


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    Seval ŞAHİN


    Full Text Available In this article is carried out Cingöz Recai against Sherlock Holmes, which is published in 1928 by Peyami Safa using penname Server Bedi by way of taking into consideration Homi Bhabba, René Girard, Fredric Jameson and Nurdan Gürbilek’s aproach on imitation and original. Cingöz Recai is brought a different approach on the relationship between imitation and original by strategy created by the author’s explanation about both the conflict of East-West and the imitation and original. Bu makalede Peyami Safa’nın Server Bedi takma adıyla yazdığı ve 1928 yılında yayımlanan Sherlock Holmes’e Karşı Cingöz Recai serileri üzerinde durulmuştur. İncelemede Homi Bhabba, René Girard, Fredric Jameson ve Nurdan Gürbilek’in taklit ve orijinal ilişkisine dair yaklaşımlarından faydalanılmıştır. Cingöz Recai, Türk edebiyatında taklit ve orijinal ilişkisine farklı bir yaklaşım getirmiştir. Bu yaklaşımda yazarın kahramanı üzerinden ortaya koyduğu strateji bir taraftan Doğu-Batı meselesini gündeme getirirken diğer taraftan taklit ve orijinal ilişkisini sorgulamaya açar.

  7. 世界自然遗产预选地施秉鱼类物种组成%Fish species composition in Shibing of Guizhou, Southwest China, a candidate World Heritage Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赟; 侯秀发; 周江


    通过对贵州省中国南方喀斯特第二批世界自然遗产提名预选地施秉县的鱼类物种组成进行调查,共采集到鱼类46种,隶属于7目15科39属,其中鲤形目(Cypriniformes) 有28种,占本次调查的61%.在物种组成上,土著鱼类是该区域河流的主体,有40种,占87%;外来鱼类有6种,约占13%.其中外来入侵物种有食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis);大银鱼(Protosalanx hyalocroaniah属于人工放养;从人工养殖地逃逸到野外的鱼类有4种,分别为草鱼(Ctenopryngodon idellus)、鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)和团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycephala).%As a karst area of southern China,the Shibing in Guizhou Province is a second-batch candidate site nominated for the list of World Heritage Sites.In this paper,a three-year survey was conducted on the fish species composition in Shibing.A total of 46 species of freshwater fishes were collected,belonging to 39 genera,15 families,and 7 orders,among which,Cypriniformes had 28 species,accounting for 61% of the total.In species composition,native fishes dominated,with 40 species and occupying 87% of the total,whereas alien species had 6 species,occupying 13% of the total,and including 1 known invasive species (Gambusia affinis) and 5 artificial feeding species (Protosalanx hyalocroaniah,Ctenopryngodon idellus,Hypophthalmichthys molitrix,Aristichthys nobilis,and Megalobrama amblycephala).

  8. 蓝太阳鱼生长激素全长cDNA的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and sequencing of full length growth hormone cDNA from Lepomis cyanellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹运长; 李文笙; 叶卫; 林浩然


    The full length cDNA encoding growth hormone of a freshwater fish, Lepomis cyanellus, (LcGH) was cloned from pituitary RNA with RT-PCR, 3' and 5' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The LcGH cDNA (Genbank No. AY530822), about 989nt (nucleotide) long, consisted of a open reading frame with 615nt long, 5'and 3'untranslated regions with 93nt and 224nt long respectively, and a 57nt poly (A) tail. The DNA sequence analysis showed that there are typical Kozak sequence and polyadenylation signal. The pregrowth hormone peptide of 204aa deduced from LcGH cDNA included a putative signal peptide (17aa) locating in its Nterminal. There exist a Asn-Cys-Thr glycosylation site at amino acid 201, and 4 cysteine residues (No. 69, 177, 194, 202) that are essential to construct two S-S bonds in this pregrowth hormone peptide. Homological comparision among LcGH and other species growth hormones showed that There is high homology (more than 85%) between growth hormone of Lepomis cyanellus and that of most perciformes fish, but low homology (less than 70%) in comparison with other species such as Siluriformes and Cypriniformes fish.

  9. Seed dispersal by fishes in tropical and temperate fresh waters: The growing evidence (United States)

    Horn, Michael H.; Correa, Sandra Bibiana; Parolin, Pia; Pollux, B. J. A.; Anderson, Jill T.; Lucas, Christine; Widmann, Peter; Tjiu, Albertus; Galetti, Mauro; Goulding, Michael


    Fruit-eating by fishes represents an ancient (perhaps Paleozoic) interaction increasingly regarded as important for seed dispersal (ichthyochory) in tropical and temperate ecosystems. Most of the more than 275 known frugivorous species belong to the mainly Neotropical Characiformes (pacus, piranhas) and Siluriformes (catfishes), but cypriniforms (carps, minnows) are more important in the Holarctic and Indomalayan regions. Frugivores are among the most abundant fishes in Neotropical floodplains where they eat the fruits of a wide variety of trees and shrubs. By consuming fruits, fishes gain access to rich sources of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins and act as either seed predators or seed dispersers. With their often high mobility, large size, and great longevity, fruit-eating fishes can play important roles as seed dispersers and exert strong influences on local plant-recruitment dynamics and regional biodiversity. Recent feeding experiments focused on seed traits after gut passage support the idea that fishes are major seed dispersers in floodplain and riparian forests. Overfishing, damming, deforestation and logging potentially diminish ichthyochory and require immediate attention to ameliorate their effects. Much exciting work remains in terms of fish and plant adaptations to ichthyochory, dispersal regimes involving fishes in different ecosystems, and increased use of nondestructive methods such as stomach lavage, stable isotopes, genetic analyses and radio transmitters to determine fish diets and movements.

  10. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and phylogeny of the East Asian bagrid catfishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene was sequenced from 8 bagrid catfishes in China. Aligned with cytochrome b sequences from 9 bagrid catfishes in Japan, Korea and Russia retrieved from GenBank, and selected Silurus meridionalis, Liobagrus anguillicauda, Liobagrus reini and Phenacogrammus interruptus as outgroups, we constructed a matrix of 21 DNA sequences. The Kimura's two-parameter distances were calculated and molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods. The results show that (i) there exist 3-bp deletions of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene compared with cypriniforms and characiforms; (ii) the molecular phylogenetic tree suggests that bagrid catfishes form a monophyletic group, and the genus Mystus is the earliest divergent in the East Asian bagrid catfishes, as well as the genus Pseudobagrus is a monophyletic group but the genus Pelteobagrus and Leiocassis are complicated; and (iii) the evolution rate of the East Asian bagrids mitochondrial cytochrome b gene is about 0.18%~0.30% sequence divergence per million years.

  11. Macroecology of North American suckers (Catostomidae): tests of Bergmann's and Rapoport's rules. (United States)

    Jacquemin, Stephen J; Doll, Jason C


    Discerning spatial macroecological patterns in freshwater fishes has broad implications for community assembly, ecosystem dynamics, management, and conservation. This study explores the potential interspecific covariation of geographic range (Rapoport's rule) and body size (Bergmann's rule) with latitude in North American sucker fishes (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae). While numerous tests of Rapoport's and Bergmann's rules are documented in the literature, comparatively few of these studies have specifically tested for these patterns, and none have incorporated information reflecting shared ancestry into analyses of North American freshwater fish through a hierarchical model. This study utilized a hierarchical modeling approach with Bayesian inference to evaluate the role that evolution has played in shaping these distributional corollaries. Rapoport's rule was supported at the tribe level but not across family and subfamily groupings. Particularly within the Catostominae subfamily, two tribes reflected strong support for Rapoport's rule while two suggested a pattern was present. Conversely, Bergmann's rule was not supported in Catostomidae. This study provides additional information regarding the pervasiveness of these "rules" by expanding inferences in freshwater fishes and specifically addressing the potential for these macroecological patterns to play a role in the distribution of the understudied group Catostomidae.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen) and Chinese catfish (S. asotus Linnaeus): Structure, phylogeny, and intraspecific variation. (United States)

    Wang, Q R; Xu, C; Xu, C R; Wang, R J


    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) and the Chinese catfish (S. asotus), was determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR) method. The mitochondrial DNA nucleotide sequences of S. meridionalis and S. asotus were compared with those of 47 other catfish species in the same order. The total length of mitochondrial DNA for S. meridionalis and S. asotus was 16,526 and 16,525 bp, respectively, and included 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. This mitochondrial gene arrangement is identical to that observed in other Siluriformes. To determine the relative phylogenetic positions of S. meridionalis and S. asotus, and to discover phylogenetic relationships among 24 families of Siluriformes, analyses were conducted, based on mitochondrial DNA, 12S ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, and 13 protein-coding gene sequence data sets. Phylogenetic analyses were congruent with a basal split of the order into Clupeiformes, Characiformes, Cypriniformes, and Siluriformes, and supported a closer relationship of the Southern catfish (family Siluridae) and the Chinese catfish (family Siluridae) to Pimelodidae than to Bagridae. We concluded that these two species are part of a molecular clade that is different from that proposed in recent studies, in which Amblycipitidae appears as a sister group. Our results showed Amblycipitidae appearing as the most basal extant, and Bagridae appearing as a sister group of Cranoglanididae and Pangasiidae. The Siluriformes showed close phylogenetic relationship to the Characiformes.

  13. Development of predictive models for predicting binding affinity of endocrine disrupting chemicals to fish sex hormone-binding globulin. (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Yang, Xianhai; Yin, Cen; Wei, Mengbi; He, Xiao


    Disturbing the transport process is a crucial pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerting disrupting endocrine function. However, this mechanism has not received enough attention compared with that of hormones receptors and synthetase. Recently, we have explored the interaction between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of human (hSHBG). In this study, interactions between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of eight fish species (fSHBG) were investigated by employing classification methods and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). In the modeling, the relative binding affinity (RBA) of a chemical with 17β-estradiol binding to fSHBG was selected as the endpoint. Classification models were developed for two fish species, while QSAR models were established for the other six fish species. Statistical results indicated that the models had satisfactory goodness of fit, robustness and predictive ability, and that application domain covered a large number of endogenous and exogenous steroidal and non-steroidal chemicals. Additionally, by comparing the log RBA values, it was found that the same chemical may have different affinities for fSHBG from different fish species, thus species diversity should be taken into account. However, the affinity of fSHBG showed a high correlation for fishes within the same Order (i.e., Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes), thus the fSHBG binding data for one fish species could be used to extrapolate other fish species in the same Order.

  14. The analysis of cytochrome b nucleotidic sequence for Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782

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    Lucian D. Gorgan


    Full Text Available The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  15. Patterns of fish community composition along a river affected by agricultural and urban disturbance in south-central Chile

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    Orrego, Rodrigo [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario; Barra, Ricardo [University of Concepcion, Eula, Chile; Chiang, Gustavo [University of Concepcion, Eula, Chile; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Gavilan, Juan F. [University of Concepcion, Eula, Chile


    Patterns of fish community composition in a south-central Chile river were investigated along the altitudinal-spatial and environmental gradient and as a function of anthropogenic factors. The spatial pattern of fish communities in different biocoenotic zones of the Chillan River is influenced by both natural factors such a hydrologic features, habitat, and feeding types, and also by water quality variables which can reduce the diversity and abundance of sensitive species. A principal component analysis incorporating both water quality parameters and biomarker responses of representative fish species was used to evaluate the status of fish communities along the spatial gradient of the stream. The abundance and diversity of the fish community changed from a low in the upper reaches where the low pollution-tolerant species such as salmonid dominated, to a reduced diversity in the lower reaches of the river where tolerant browser species such as cypriniformes dominated. Even though the spatial pattern of fish community structure is similar to that found for the Chilean Rivers, the structure of these communities is highly influenced by human disturbance, particularly along the lower reaches of the river.

  16. Ichthyofaunal Diversity and Water Quality in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal, India

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    Amalesh Bera


    Full Text Available The ichthyofauna in relation to water quality was studied on monthly basis from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal. The study revealed that physicochemical parameters of Kangsabati Reservoir were congenial for 39 fish species of commercial importance, belonging to 7 orders, 15 families, and 26 genera. The Cypriniformes were dominant with 17 species, followed by Siluriformes and Perciformes, with 7 species each, Channiformes with 3 species, Osteoglossiformes and Synbranchiformes with 2 species each, and Anguilliformes with 1 species. Regarding their conservation status, 27 species were of least concern, 1 species was vulnerable, 6 species were near threatened, 1 species was data deficient, and 4 species were not evaluated (IUCN-Version 2014.1. Economical values have also been evaluated. Water parameters such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, hardness, free CO2, salinity, total inorganic nitrogen, and phosphate were recorded and found suitable for fish production. Conductivity, transparency, and high chloride level are minor limiting factor that may needs rectification for improved fisheries management.

  17. 清水江流域天柱段鱼类资源调查%Investigation on Fish Resources in Tianzhu Section of Qingshui River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟立霞; 潘年庆; 薛明淦


    对清水江流域天柱段的鱼类资源进行了调查,结果发现:共有52种(亚种),隶属4目12科41属,其中以鲤形目种类最多,鲈形目、鲇形目次之,合鳃目最少。干流分布的鱼类种类比支流多;小型野杂鱼种类多,大中型鱼类较少。近些午来鱼类资源呈减少的趋势,主要是受过度捕捞、水利工程和水域环境污染的影响。%In Tianzhu Section of Qingshui River, freshwater fish are investigated. The results show that freshwater fish have 52 species ( subspecies ) , which belong to 4 orders, 12 families, 41genera. The Cypriniformes are the most species, Perciformes and Siluriformes are less, Symbranchir are minimal. The species in main stream are more than in tributary stream. Small wild miscellaneous fish are more than large and medium fish. In recent years the fish resources have appeared a declining trend, which mainly due to overfishing, water conservancy project and water environment pollution.

  18. Molecular variation and evolution of the tyrosine kinase domains of insulin receptor IRa and IRb genes in Cyprinidae. (United States)

    Kong, XiangHui; Wang, XuZhen; He, ShunPing


    The insulin receptor (IR) gene plays an important role in regulating cell growth, differentiation and development. In the present study, DNA sequences of insulin receptor genes, IRa and IRb, were amplified and sequenced from 37 representative species of the Cyprinidae and from five outgroup species from non-cyprinid Cypriniformes. Based on coding sequences (CDS) of tyrosine kinase regions of IRa and IRb, molecular evolution and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed to better understand the characteristics of IR gene divergence in the family Cyprinidae. IRa and IRb were clustered into one lineage in the gene tree of the IR gene family, reconstructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). IRa and IRb have evolved into distinct genes after IR gene duplication in Cyprinidae. For each gene, molecular evolution analyses showed that there was no significant difference among different groups in the reconstructed maximum parsimony (MP) tree of Cyprinidae; IRa and IRb have been subjected to similar evolutionary pressure among different lineages. Although the amino acid sequences of IRa and IRb tyrosine kinase regions were highly conserved, our analyses showed that there were clear sequence variations between the tyrosine kinase regions of IRa and IRb proteins. This indicates that IRa and IRb proteins might play different roles in the insulin signaling pathway.

  19. Excreção urinária de 17-Cetoesteroides neutros no cavalo normal e no cavalo castrado

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    Fernando Ubatuba


    Full Text Available Total urinary neutral 17-steroids were determined in normal and in castrated horses. One liter of a 15-26 hours urine collection was hydrolysed by refluxing with 10% HC1 (v/v for ten minutes and extracted with peroxyde-free ethyl ether. The extract was purified by washing with saturated NaHCO³ and KOH solutions. One half of the crude neutral fraction was fractionated with Girard's "T" reagent . The Zimmermann reaction was performed both in the ketonic and in the crude neutral extracts, using alcoholic 2.5N KOH and a 60 minutes period for the colour development in the dark. Optical density measuments were made in a grating Coleman Universal Spectrophotometer at 420 mµ and 520mµ; for the crude neutral fraction a colour correction equation was applied. The aliquot fraction used for colorimety was adjusted for keeping optical density measurements within the range 0.2 to 0.7. Androsterone (mp. 184-184.5°C with an absorption maximum at 290.5 mµ (Beckman Model DU Spectrophotometer was used as a reference standard. Table I, ilustrates the results obtained. At the 0.05 probability level there is a significant difference among castrated and normal group means (Fischer's "t" test. when were used the data obtained from the ketonic fractions; in spite of the use of a colour correction applied for inespecific chromogens, the same results could not be obtained with the crude neutral fractions, Since Girard's reagent fractionation is generaly accepted as the best method for correcting the inespecific chromogen interference in the determination of the 17-ketosteroids by the Zimmermann reaction, we emphasize the value of the results obtained with the ketonic fractions. From these results it appears, as occurs in others mammals, that castrated horses show a lower level of urinary 17-ketosteroids excretion than the normal horses. The significance of the horse testis contribution for the neutral urinary steroid metabolites is discussed. Since horse urine has a

  20. O ensino de línguas para crianças no contexto educacional brasileiro: breves reflexões e possíveis provisões The teaching of children in the Brazilian educational context: brief reflections and possible provisions

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    Cláudia Hilsdorf Rocha


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir acerca do ensino de línguas estrangeiras (LE para crianças. Respaldando-nos em princípios da teoria Sócio-cultural (Vygotsky, 1978 e do Comunicativismo (Almeida Filho, 1993, 2005, voltados para o ensino de línguas (inglês para crianças (Cameron, 2001; Brewster, Ellis & Girard, 2002; entre outros, teceremos reflexões sobre a importância da aprendizagem de línguas na infância, sobre a relevância motivação e da qualidade das interações para um ensino cujo objetivo principal recai na formação integral do aluno, como também sobre o papel da gramática, da oralidade e da língua materna no processo. Serão também feitas considerações acerca da importância da formação (contínua do professor atuante nesse contexto e de possíveis procedimentos no ensino em pauta, quando serão apresentadas breves proposições orientadas pela noção bakhtiniana de gêneros.This article aims at discussing about the foreign language teaching to young learners, taking the principles of the Sociocultural Theory (Vygotksy, 1978 and of the Communicative Approach (Almeida Filho, 1993, 2005 related to Primary English teaching (Cameron, 2001; Brewster, Ellis & Girard, 2002 as a theoretical references. Considerations about the importance of language learning in childhood will be made, as well as about the role of the grammar, oral language and mother tongue in the process. Likewise, the importance of Teacher Education will be briefly approached. This work is ended with the discussion about some possible procedures in the language teaching processes followed by a brief presentation of possible guidelines based on the bakhtinian notion of discourse genres.

  1. Multivariate postprocessing techniques for probabilistic hydrological forecasting (United States)

    Hemri, Stephan; Lisniak, Dmytro; Klein, Bastian


    Hydrologic ensemble forecasts driven by atmospheric ensemble prediction systems need statistical postprocessing in order to account for systematic errors in terms of both mean and spread. Runoff is an inherently multivariate process with typical events lasting from hours in case of floods to weeks or even months in case of droughts. This calls for multivariate postprocessing techniques that yield well calibrated forecasts in univariate terms and ensure a realistic temporal dependence structure at the same time. To this end, the univariate ensemble model output statistics (EMOS; Gneiting et al., 2005) postprocessing method is combined with two different copula approaches that ensure multivariate calibration throughout the entire forecast horizon. These approaches comprise ensemble copula coupling (ECC; Schefzik et al., 2013), which preserves the dependence structure of the raw ensemble, and a Gaussian copula approach (GCA; Pinson and Girard, 2012), which estimates the temporal correlations from training observations. Both methods are tested in a case study covering three subcatchments of the river Rhine that represent different sizes and hydrological regimes: the Upper Rhine up to the gauge Maxau, the river Moselle up to the gauge Trier, and the river Lahn up to the gauge Kalkofen. The results indicate that both ECC and GCA are suitable for modelling the temporal dependences of probabilistic hydrologic forecasts (Hemri et al., 2015). References Gneiting, T., A. E. Raftery, A. H. Westveld, and T. Goldman (2005), Calibrated probabilistic forecasting using ensemble model output statistics and minimum CRPS estimation, Monthly Weather Review, 133(5), 1098-1118, DOI: 10.1175/MWR2904.1. Hemri, S., D. Lisniak, and B. Klein, Multivariate postprocessing techniques for probabilistic hydrological forecasting, Water Resources Research, 51(9), 7436-7451, DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016473. Pinson, P., and R. Girard (2012), Evaluating the quality of scenarios of short-term wind power


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    Full Text Available Este trabajo se centra en dos procesos paulatinos, no necesariamente consecutivos cronológicamente, pero indispensablemente ligados entre sí: la condena del castigo físico como pena judicial y la privatización de la mortificación del cuerpo, o el paso de la coacción externa a la autocoacción. Ambos tópicos permiten entender la modernidad como proceso de privatización del cuerpo desde los gestos de "ennoblecimiento del cuerpo" y de "compasión por el cuerpo". Se revisan aspectos del debate sobre el castigo físico -como elemento significativo del proceso de occidentalización de América-, desde los discursos en la documentación judicial, en los textos jurídicos referidos a las penas aflictivas en el sistema colonial penal y el debate sobre la mortificación corporal en el ámbito religioso. Teórica y metodológicamente se trabaja desde la historia de las mentalidades y del cuerpo usando las propuestas teóricas de David Le Breton, Mary Douglas, Norbert Elias, René Girard y Serge GruzinskiThis work centres on two gradual processes that in spite of not being chronologically consecutive are necessarily joined: the penalty of the physical punishment like a judicial sentence and the privatization of the mortification of the body, or the step of the external constraint to the auto-constraint. Both topics allow to understand the modernity as process of privatization of the body from the gestures of "ennoblement of the body" and of "pity for the body ". For this purpose, we will check the debates on the physical punishment as significant element of the process of "occidentalización" of America, from the judicial speeches referred to distressing sentences in the colonial penal system and the debate on the corporal mortification in the religious area. The theoretical and methodological line centres on the history of the mentalities and of the body following the offers of David Le Breton, Mary Douglas, Norbert Elias, René Girard and Serge

  3. Direct and indirect effects of an invasive omnivore crayfish on leaf litter decomposition. (United States)

    Carvalho, Francisco; Pascoal, Cláudia; Cássio, Fernanda; Sousa, Ronaldo


    Invasive alien species (IAS) can disrupt important ecological functions in aquatic ecosystems; however, many of these effects are not quantified and remain speculative. In this study, we assessed the effects of the invasive crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) on leaf litter decomposition (a key ecosystem process) and associated invertebrates using laboratory and field manipulative experiments. The crayfish had significant impacts on leaf decomposition due to direct consumption of leaf litter and production of fine particulate organic matter, and indirectly due to consumption of invertebrate shredders. The invertebrate community did not appear to recognize P. clarkii as a predator, at least in the first stages after its introduction in the system; but this situation might change with time. Overall, results suggested that the omnivore invader P. clarkii has the potential to affect detritus-based food webs through consumption of basal resources (leaf litter) and/or consumers. Recognizing that this IAS is widespread in Europe, Asia and Africa, and may attain high density and biomass in aquatic ecosystems, our results are important to develop strategies for improving stream ecosystem functioning and to support management actions aiming to control the invasive omnivore P. clarkii.

  4. 《巴黎圣母院》新解:男女主人公替罪羊形象研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Dans cet article, sur la base de quatre modèles de texte de persécution et de théorie du bouc-émissaire de René Girard, nous recherchons la vraie raison de la mort des personnages principaux, Quasimodo et Esmeralda, du roman de Victor Hugo Notre-Dame de Paris, et de déceler la crise de la société humaine, cachée derrière ce texte de persécution.%本文从法国著名文学批评家勒内·吉拉尔提出的迫害文本的四个范式和替罪羊机制理论出发,分析解读雨果小说《巴黎圣母院》中男女主人公爱斯美拉达和卡西莫多之死的真正原因,证明小说属于迫害文本和男女主人公作为替罪羊而死的事实,发现替罪羊的无辜及其救赎作用,揭示集体暴力的真相,发掘隐藏在这个迫害文本背后的人类社会危机。

  5. Habitat and co-occurrence of native and invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest, USA (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome


    Biological invasions can have dramatic effects on freshwater ecosystems and introduced crayfish can be particularly impacting. We document crayfish distribution in three large hydrographic basins (Rogue, Umpqua, Willamette/Columbia) in the Pacific Northwest USA. We used occupancy analyses to investigate habitat relationships and evidence for displacement of native Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852) by two invaders. We found invasive Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852), in 51 of 283 sites and in all three hydrographic basins. We found invasive Orconectes n. neglectus (Faxon, 1885) at 68% of sites in the Rogue basin and provide first documentation of their broad distribution in the Umpqua basin. We found P. clarkii in both lentic and lotic habitats, and it was positively associated with manmade sites. P. leniusculus was positively associated with lotic habitats and negatively related to manmade sites. In the Rogue and Umpqua basins, O. n. neglectus and P. leniusculus were similar in their habitat associations. We did not find a negative relationship in site occupancy between O. n. neglectus and P. leniusculus. Our data suggest that P. clarkii has potential to locally displace P. leniusculus. There is still time for preventive measures to limit the spread of the invasive crayfish in this region.

  6. Survey of birds and lizards for ixodid ticks (Acari) and spirochetal infection in northern California. (United States)

    Manweiler, S A; Lane, R S; Block, W M; Morrison, M L


    A total of 138 birds (24 species) was captured in an oak woodland between December 1988 and June 1989 at the University of California, Sierra Foothill Range Field Station, Yuba County, Calif. Ticks were not found on 71 birds captured between December 1988 and March 1989. Five subadult Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls were removed from 3 of 67 birds caught between April and June 1989. These three birds, an orange-crowned warbler (Vermivora celata (Say], a lazuli bunting (Passerina amoena (Say], and a chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina (Bechstein], represent new host records for I. pacificus in California. Tissues from two ticks and thick blood films prepared from 126 birds tested negative for spirochetes by direct immunofluorescence (DI). A total of 172 larval and 197 nymphal I. pacificus was removed from 15 of 16 western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis Baird & Girard) caught between April and June 1989 in the same location as were birds. Thick blood films prepared from all 16 lizards and tissue smears from 334 of the ticks (143 larvae and 191 nymphs) were DI test-negative for spirochetes. One (1.1%) of 93 adult I. pacificus collected at the bird-lizard capture site in February 1989 was infected with spirochetes that resembled B. burgdorferi.

  7. June 2014 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: new therapies for IPF and EBUS for sardoidosis

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    Mathew M


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Richeldi L, du Bois RM, Raghu G, Azuma A, Brown KK, Costabel U, Cottin V, Flaherty KR, Hansell DM, Inoue Y, Kim DS, Kolb M, Nicholson AG, Noble PW, Selman M, Taniguchi H, Brun M, Le Maulf F, Girard M, Stowasser S, Schlenker-Herceg R, Disse B, Collard HR; INPULSIS Trial Investigators. Efficacy and safety of nintedanib in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(22:2071-82. Nintedanib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been shown to decrease the decline of FVC in phase 2 trials of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. This study was a phase 3 trial in which 2 replicate trials comparing nintedanib 150 mg twice daily to placebo. The trials were randomized double blind placebo controlled performed over 205 sites in 24 countries. Inclusion criteria were an age > 40, FVC > 50% and DLCO 30-79%. Patients were excluded if on prednisone > 15 mg/day or any other ...

  8. Un apocalipsis perverso: reflexiones en torno a la violencia simbólica en Eloy

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    Pablo Concha Ferreccio


    Full Text Available El artículo propone una lectura de la violencia simbólica en la novela Eloy (1960, de Carlos Droguett. Se comienza analizando el vínculo entre Eloy y las mujeres para presentar la estructura psíquica de la perversión. Luego se aborda la violencia simbólica a la luz de la teoría de René Girard sobre el motivo literario de los hermanos. Habría dos dobles de Eloy: el policía y el barbero. La relación de ambos con el bandido rural se caracteriza por su naturaleza perversa, que funciona del mismo modo: la violencia es caracterizada como violencia estatal, contenida y secular, que denuncia la existencia de un lazo social reificado entre campo y ciudad. Se termina ensayando una explicación para este doble uso de la perversión desde el contexto de producción de la novela.

  9. Characterization of oxidative carbonylation on recombinant monoclonal antibodies. (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Stella, Cinzia; Wang, Weiru; Schöneich, Christian; Gennaro, Lynn


    In the biotechnology industry, oxidative carbonylation as a post-translational modification of protein pharmaceuticals has not been studied in detail. Using Quality by Design (QbD) principles, understanding the impact of oxidative carbonylation on product quality of protein pharmaceuticals, particularly from a site-specific perspective, is critical. However, comprehensive identification of carbonylation sites has so far remained a very difficult analytical challenge for the industry. In this paper, we report for the first time the identification of specific carbonylation sites on recombinant monoclonal antibodies with a new analytical approach via derivatization with Girard's Reagent T (GRT) and subsequent peptide mapping with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Enhanced ionization efficiency and high quality MS(2) data resulted from GRT derivatization were observed as key benefits of this approach, which enabled direct identification of carbonylation sites without any fractionation or affinity enrichment steps. A simple data filtering process was also incorporated to significantly reduce false positive assignments. Sensitivity and efficiency of this approach were demonstrated by identification of carbonylation sites on both unstressed and oxidized antibody bulk drug substances. The applicability of this approach was further demonstrated by identification of 14 common carbonylation sites on three highly similar IgG1s. Our approach represents a significant improvement to the existing analytical methodologies and facilitates extended characterization of oxidative carbonylation on recombinant monoclonal antibodies and potentially other protein pharmaceuticals in the biotechnology industry.


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    Dr. Maria-Luiza Oancea (Dumitru


    Full Text Available This paper entails the sacred mytification motif, a subject hardly debated, but extremely challenging, that we can identify in several myths and episodes of the ancient Greek mythology literature (Thanatos-Sisyphus myth, Sirens-Odysseus or Sirens-Orpheus myth, Polifem-Odysseus myth, Gorgo Medusa-Perseus myth, etc.. Our essay starts from the general thesis that a direct confrontation with the Sacred is essentially impossible, making the Sacred almost always manipulated (cf. R. Caillois, R. Girard, M. Eliade. It is also the reason why, in our opinion, the Greek Sacred is defined mostly as hagios ("forbidden for people to touch it " than hieros ("inspired by divine grace". This mystification or manipulation of the Sacred manifests in the examples mentioned above as linking (paralysis or avoidance, as incantation or spell, as drinking, as replacement or blindness, but often, it involves an intermediate recognized as a sacrificed animal, in a defence element (such as shield, mirror, eye, wall, rampart, or the appearance of armor-(divine gift or armor-disguise. We believe that the tendency of handling sacred is in fact due to the natural human impulse of socializing with this unknown, scary, monstrous Sacred in the etymological sense.

  11. Investigation of antitumor potential of Ni(II) complexes with tridentate PNO acylhydrazones of 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzaldehyde and monodentate pseudohalides. (United States)

    Čobeljić, Božidar; Milenković, Milica; Pevec, Andrej; Turel, Iztok; Vujčić, Miroslava; Janović, Barbara; Gligorijević, Nevenka; Sladić, Dušan; Radulović, Siniša; Jovanović, Katarina; Anđelković, Katarina


    Square-planar azido Ni(II) complex with condensation product of 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzaldehyde and Girard's T reagent was synthesized and its crystal structure was determined. Cytotoxic activity of the azido complex and previously synthesized isothiocyanato, cyanato and chlorido Ni(II) complexes with this ligand was examined on six tumor cell lines (HeLa, A549, K562, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-361 and LS-174) and two normal cell line (MRC-5 and BEAS-2B). All the investigated nickel(II) complexes were cytotoxic against all tumor cell lines. The newly synthesized azido complex showed selectivity to HeLa and A549 tumor cell lines compared to the normal cells (for A549 IC50 was similar to that of cisplatin). Azido complex interferes with cell cycle phase distribution of A549 and HeLa cells and possesses nuclease activity towards supercoiled DNA. The observed selectivity of the azido complex for some tumor cell lines can be connected with its strong DNA damaging activity.

  12. Free choice permission as resource-sensitive reasoning

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    Chris Barker


    Full Text Available Free choice permission is a long-standing puzzle in deontic logic and in natural language semantics. It involves what appears to be a conjunctive use of "or": from "You may eat an apple or a pear", we can infer that "You may eat an apple" and that "You may eat a pear" -- though not that "You may eat an apple and a pear". Following Lokhorst (1997, I argue that because permission is a limited resource, a resource-sensitive logic such as Girard's Linear Logic is better suited to modeling permission talk than, say, classical logic. A resource-sensitive approach enables the semantics to track not only that permission has been granted and what sort of permission it is (i.e., permission to eat apples versus permission to eat pears, but also how much permission has been granted, i.e., whether there is enough permission to eat two pieces of fruit or only one. The account here is primarily semantic (as opposed to pragmatic, with no special modes of composition or special pragmatic rules. The paper includes an introduction to Linear Logic. doi:10.3765/sp.3.10 BibTeX info

  13. Redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) and description of a new species from freshwater cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Mexico. (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo


    A redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado (An Inst Biol Univ Nal Autón Méx, Ser Zool 49:35-47, 1978) is presented, based on adult specimens collected from the type host Paraneetroplus fenestratus from the type location, the Lago de Catemaco lake, Veracruz state, Mexico, and its presence is recorded in other cichlids. Detailed studies of N. (N.) golvani using light microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the size and shape of fully developed adult males and females, and the structure of the eggs. Morphological variability in N. (N.) golvani is described. Based on these data, the geographic distribution of this species is documented. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) panucensis n. sp. is described from Herichthys labridens (Pellegrin), Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther), and Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird and Girard (all of them Cichlidae), collected in the Río Atlapexco, a tributary to the upper Río Panuco basin, Hidalgo State, Mexico. This new species stand up alone because of its minute proboscis (♂ 50 × 60, ♀ 42-55 (48.5) × 48-63 (57.7)) and anterior hooks (♂ 27-30 (28.8) × 3-5 (4), ♀ 28-32 (30) × 5 (5)). A key to the species of Neoechinorhynchus recorded from freshwater fishes in Central and South America is included.

  14. Assessment of the Fishery Improvement Opportunities on the Pend Oreille River, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Michael R.; Willms, Roger A.; Scholz, Allan T.


    The purpose of this study is to assess the fishery improvement opportunities on the Box Canyon portion of the Pend Oreille River. This report contains the findings of the first year of the study. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Richardson)) were present in the Pend Oreille River prior to the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The river also contained native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson)), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus (Walbaum)) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni (Girard)). Rainbow trout were planted in the river and some grew to lengths in excess of 30 inches. With the construction of Box Canyon Dam, in 1955, the most productive section of the river was inundated. Following the construction of the dam the trout fishery declined and the populations of spiny ray fish and rough fish increased. The objectives of the first year of the study were to determine the relative abundance of each species in the river and sloughs; the population levels in fish in the river and four selected tributaries; fish growth rates; the feeding habits and abundance of preferred prey; the migration patterns; and the total fishing pressure, catch per unit effort, and total harvest by conducting a year-round creel survey. 132 refs.

  15. [From the creation of the Veterinary Schools to the evolution of the notion of contagion in the 19th and 20th centuries]. (United States)

    Pilet, Charles


    The creation of the Veterinary Schools in the 18th century would reveal a plethora of scientists, some of whom would be the precursors of Pasteur, some rivals, others followers collaborators or friends of the Master. Among the precursors let us name Chabbert, Huzard, Girard, Delafond, Renault, Toussaint, Galtier ; among the rivals: Chauveau, Arloing, Cornevin and Thomas; among the followers, collaborators or friends of Pasteur: Bouley, at first a resolute spontaneist, then the most fervent in defense of Pasteur (President of the Academy of Medicine and of the Academy of Sciences) and Nocard, Director of the School in Alfort, an important collaborator of Pasteur. Later, there was Leclainche, who created the International Office of Epizootics, and who was President of the Academy of Sciences; Guérin, who with Calmette developed the BCG vaccination; Ramon, the father of anatoxins (vaccines against diphtheria, and tetanus, combined vaccines, adjuvants to immunity). Thus, the creation of the Veterinary Schools contributed not only to the evolution of the notion of contagion, to the amelioration of animal health and the economics of agricultural production, but also to serious advances in human care, and to the protection of public health.

  16. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.


    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.

  17. Occurrence of the Toxin-Producing Aspergillus versicolor Tiraboschi in Residential Buildings

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    Marlena Piontek


    Full Text Available In an area representative of a moderate climate zone (Lubuskie Province in Poland, mycological tests in over 270 flats demonstrated the occurrence of 82 species of moulds. Aspergillus versicolor Tiraboschi was often encountered on building partitions (frequency 4: frequently. The ability to synthesize the carcinogenic sterigmatocystin (ST means that it poses a risk to humans and animals. Biotoxicological tests of biomasses of A. versicolor were conducted in the Microbiological and Toxicological Laboratory, using the planarians Dugesia tigrina (Girard. The obtained results of the tests covered a broad range of toxicity levels of isolated strains: from weakly toxic (100–1000 mg·L−3 to potently toxic (1–10 mg·L−3. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC physicochemical method confirmed the ability of A. versicolor strains to synthesize sterigmatocystin. All of the samples of the air-dry biomasses of the fungi contained ST in the range between 0.03 and 534.38 mg·kg−1. In the bio-safety level (BSL classification A. versicolor belongs to category 1. Additionally, A. versicolor is an allergenic mould.

  18. De la méconnaissance

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    Paul Dumouchel


    Full Text Available I argue that the conception of «méconnaissance» put forward by René Girard should be understood in relation to what Popper calls objective knowledge rather than to the classical idea of knowledge as true and justified belief. Objective knowledge considers knowledge as a tool which is open to many uses and abuses. It allows us to make sense of Girard’s claim that «méconnaissance» grows as our knowledge increases and shows that knowledge and «méconnaissance» should not be understood as polar opposites. This suggests a different relationship between «méconnaissance» and revelation, that revelation does not spell the end of «méconnaissance» but rather initiates a different type of relationship between knowledge and «méconnaissance». I try to illustrate this last point with the help of two examples: Ernesto De Martino’s analysis of tarantism in La terra del rimorso and John Rawls’s idea of a veil of ignorance in his A theory of justice.

  19. Real time monitoring of accelerated chemical reactions by ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hsuan; Lo, Ta-Ju; Kuo, Fang-Yin; Chen, Yu-Chie


    Ultrasonication has been used to accelerate chemical reactions. It would be ideal if ultrasonication-assisted chemical reactions could be monitored by suitable detection tools such as mass spectrometry in real time. It would be helpful to clarify reaction intermediates/products and to have a better understanding of reaction mechanism. In this work, we developed a system for ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry (UASI-MS) with an ~1.7 MHz ultrasonic transducer to monitor chemical reactions in real time. We demonstrated that simply depositing a sample solution on the MHz-based ultrasonic transducer, which was placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, the analyte signals can be readily detected by the mass spectrometer. Singly and multiply charged ions from small and large molecules, respectively, can be observed in the UASI mass spectra. Furthermore, the ultrasonic transducer used in the UASI setup accelerates the chemical reactions while being monitored via UASI-MS. The feasibility of using this approach for real-time acceleration/monitoring of chemical reactions was demonstrated. The reactions of Girard T reagent and hydroxylamine with steroids were used as the model reactions. Upon the deposition of reactant solutions on the ultrasonic transducer, the intermediate/product ions are readily generated and instantaneously monitored using MS within 1 s. Additionally, we also showed the possibility of using this reactive UASI-MS approach to assist the confirmation of trace steroids from complex urine samples by monitoring the generation of the product ions.

  20. Optimization of extraction process and investigation of antioxidant effect of polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense Kuntze

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    Xinhui Tang


    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the extraction technology for polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense (Girard Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSEP Materials and Methods : One-singer factor and response surface methodology(RSM were established to extract the polysaccharides from L. sinense. Then, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, hydroxyl radical(.OH, and 2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt free radical assays were established to measure the antioxidant capacity of the LSEP in vitro. Results: According to analysis, extraction temperature significantly affected extraction yield. The optimum extraction conditions for LSEP were as follows: extraction temperature, 95°C; ultrasonic time 50 minutes; and dosage liquor ratio, 1: 12. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude LSEP was 12.80±0.19% which was well matched with the predicted models. The antioxidant capacity data suggested that LSEP has strong antioxidant activity. Conclusion: One-singer factor and RSM were used to extract of LSEP are simple and feasible and LSEP could be developed as a nutraceutical agent for itsstrong antioxidant activity.

  1. Violencia y ética práctica

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    Fermin Roland Schramm


    Full Text Available El texto parte de la constatación de que el fenómeno de la violencia es un tema poco estudiado en bioética y se propone delinear las condiciones de posibilidad de tal estudio a partir de un doble desafío: a el epistemológico, de inteligibilidad y comprensión de la violencia como fenómeno real y "complejo"; b el normativo y ético, del control y tratamiento de este fenómeno "oscuro". Comienza con un breve análisis conceptual del término violencia, destacando las características consideradas pertinentes para la bioética. En un segundo momento, aborda su historia conceptual, distinguiendo tres momentos de la historia de la filosofía: I la fase arcaica o mitopoiética; II la fase filosófica o racional y III la fase contemporánea o híbrida, en la cual se presentan las contribuciones de René Girard, Emmanuel Lévinas y Judith Butler. Concluye señalando la necesidad de una definición adecuada de la categoría violencia para que se torne un objeto de la bioética, como son los actos humanos voluntarios de agentes morales competentes que usan una fuerza injustificada para imponer a pacientes morales sufrimientos evitables y no consentidos.

  2. First definitive record of a stygobiotic fish (Percopsiformes, Amblyopsidae, Typhlichthys from the Appalachians karst region in the eastern United States

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    Matthew L. Niemiller


    Full Text Available In the central and eastern United States, cavefishes have been known historically only from the Interior Low Plateau and Ozarks karst regions. Previously, cavefishes were unknown from the Appalachians karst region, which extends from southeastern New York southwestward into eastern Tennessee, northwestern Georgia, and northeastern Alabama. Here we report the discovery of a new population of the amblyopsid cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard, 1859 from a cave in Catoosa County, Georgia, that significantly extends the known distribution of the species. The cave is located in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province and Appalachians karst region, and represents the first definitive report of a stygobiotic fish from the Appalachians karst region. Genetic analyses of one mitochondrial and one nuclear locus from the cavefish indicate this population is closely allied with populations that occur along the western margins of Lookout and Fox mountains in Dade County, Georgia, and populations to the northwest in southern Marion County, Tennessee. It is likely that these populations are also related to those from Wills Valley, DeKalb County, Alabama. The distribution of this new population of T. subterraneus and its close allies pre-dates the emergence of a Tennessee-Coosa River drainage divide in the Pliocene. The potential exists to discover additional populations in caves within the Appalachians karst region in Catoosa County and northward into Hamilton County, Tennessee.

  3. Solar thermal power meeting - Proceedings; Les Rencontres du Solaire Thermodynamique - Actes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document summarizes the presentations and debates of the first edition of the Solar thermal power meeting. Content: 1 - Opening talk (Jean-Louis BAL, SER); 2 - Solar thermal power, European and global road-maps (Cedric Philibert, IEA; Mariangels Perez Latorre, Estela); 3 - first round-table on the international development of solar energy (Philippe Lorec, DGEC France; Said Mouline, Aderee Morocco; Obaid Amrane, Masen Morocco; Kawther Lihidheb, ANME Tunisia; Abdelaziz Boumahra, Rouiba Eclairage, Algeria; Badis Derradji, NEAL Algeria; Yao Azoumah, Lesee, 2IE Foundation Burkina Faso; Mamadou Amadou Kane, MPEM Mauritania; Jean-Charles Mulet, Bertin Technologies); 4 - Second round-table on the French solar thermal offer for export (Georgina Grenon, DGEC; Stephanie Bouzigueseschmann, DG Tresor; Armand Pineda, Alstom; Florent Brunet, Mena-Areva; Roger Pujol, CNIM; Gilles David, Enertime; Michel Wohrer, Saed; Mathieu Vrinat, Sogreah; Marc Benmarraze, Solar Euromed; 5 - Presentation of Amisole - Moroccan association of solar and wind industries (Ahmed Squalli, Amisole); 6 - Third round-table on French research at the solar industry service (Gilles Flamant, Promes Lab. CNRS; Francois Moisan, Ademe; Tahar Melliti, CGI; Andre Joffre, Derbi; Michel Wohrer, Capenergies; 7 - Fourth round table on projects financing (Vincent Girard, Loan Officer BEI; Bertrand Marchais, Miga World Bank; Philippe Meunier, CDC Climat Groupe Caisse des Depots; Christian de Gromard, AFD; Laurent Belouze, Natixis; Piotr Michalowski, Loan Officer BEI); 8 - Closing of the meeting (Roger Pujol, SER)

  4. Diary as an Instrument of Philosophic Self-research in Creative Work of J.-P. Sartre

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    Natalya S. Shurinova


    Full Text Available The article examines the features of diary genre in the works of J.-P. Sartre on the text material, demonstrating an affinity with diary prose, – the novel «Nausea» and «Diary of a strange war». We proceed from the assumption that the relevance of this form is due to Sartre’s genre traits, productive for the formulation of an existential statement. Among them are: a special stylistic organization of the text, the synchronicity of unfinished diary, as well as the possibility of introducing in the text of the indirect recipient and the similarity of the genre with the epistolary form. Each of these features enables Sartre to actualize their own philosophical principles and ideas: openness of the existential project, intentionality of consciousness and the need to examine the person in the aspect of its perception of the world, the senselessness of introspection and self-knowledge of the other. During the analysis we refer to the works of Russian (E.M. Evnin, S.L. Fokin and French Sartre-experts (J.F. Luetta, M. Comte, J. Degi, J. Simon, as well as theoretical studies of the genre (works of Y.M. Lotman, O. Yegorov, A.A. Zaliznyak, L.N. Letyagin, A. Girard, F. Lejeune.

  5. Expression of VDAC Regulated by Extracts of Limonium sinense Ktze root Against CCl4-induced Liver Damage

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    Xiaoning Zhao


    Full Text Available The expression of mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC mayunderlie the protective effects of Limonium sinense (Girard Ktze root extracts (LSE againstcarbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. Pretreatment of mice with 100 mg/kg, 200mg/kg or 400 mg/kg LSE significantly blocked the carbon tetrachloride-induced increase inboth serum aspartate aminotransferase (sAST and serum alanine aminotransferase (sALTlevels. Ultrastructural observations by electron microscope confirmed hepatoprotection,showing decreased nuclear condensation, ameliorated mitochondrial fragmentation of thecristae and less lipid deposition. Pretreatment with LSE prevented the decrease of thedisruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (15.3% observed in the liver of the carbontetrachloride-insulted mice, further demonstrating the mitochondrial protection. In addition,LSE treatment (100-400 mg/kg significantly increased both transcription and translation ofVDAC. The above data suggests that LSE mitigates the damage to liver mitochondriainduced by carbon tetrachloride, possibly through regulation of mitochondrial VDAC, one ofthe most important proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane.

  6. Phylogeny of eight snappers (Lutjanidae) in Chinese coastal waters inferred from partial mtDNA 12S rRNA Sequences%基于12S rRNA部分序列分析的中国8种笛鲷科鱼类系统发育初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐优良; 章群; 余帆洋; 周佳怡; 司丛利; 黄小彧; 马奔


    Partial sequences of 12S rRNA gene of eight snappers collected in coastal waters of china determined in the present study and two lutjanid sequences downloaded from GenBank were combined to reconstruct Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees with Siganus unimaculatus, S. fuscescens, Monotaxis grandocu/is, Lethrinus obsoletus (perciformes), Myripristis berndti, Beryx splendens, Sargocentron rubrum (Beryciformes), and Danio rerio(Cypriniformes) as outgroups. Totally 170 variable sites and 126 parsimony-informative sites existed in the 895 bp sequences, and the ts/tv ratio was 2.39. Phylogenetic trees showed that the Caesioninae were nested within the Lutjaninae, supporting the recent opinion that the Caesionidae shoud be regarded as a synonym of the Lutjanidae, but their phylogenetic relationships to other lutjanid species remained to be further studied. L. malabarius and L.sebae formed a well-supported clade, supporting the taxonomical treatment of L. malabarius and L. sebae based on morphological characters; however morphologically similar species L. johni and L. argentimaculatus were genetically quite different, indicating that morphologically similar species were not necessarily genetically closely related.%测定了中国近海8种笛鲷鱼类线粒体12s rRNA基因部分序列,结合GenBank中下载的2种笛鲷鱼类序列,以鲈形目(Perciformes)中的单列齿鲷(Monotaxis grandoculis)、黄带裸颊鲷(Lethrinus obsoletus)、尖嘴蓝子鱼(Siganus unimaculatus)、褐蓝子鱼(Siganusfuscescens)和金眼鲷目(Peryciformes)中的点鳍棘鳍鱼(Sargocentron rubrum)、大鳞锯鳞鱼(Myripristis berndti)、红金眼鲷(Beryx splendens)以及鲤形目(Cypriniformes)中的印度斑马鱼(Danio rerio)为外类群,构建最大似然树和贝叶斯推断树,发现在895bp的同源序列中,共有170个变异位点,其中简约信息位点126个,转换/颠换值为2.39;最大似然树和贝叶斯推断树显示梅鲷鱼类(Caesioninae)镶嵌在笛鲷

  7. New circumscription of freshwater fish parasites Monobothrium diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium mackiewicz, 1968 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) using morphological and molecular evidence. (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Choudhury, Anindo; Brabec, Jan; Waeschenbach, Andrea


    Two genera of caryophyllidean cestodes, Monobothrium Diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium Mackiewicz, 1968 , from cypriniform fishes (cyprinids and suckers) in the Holarctic Region, are revised using morphological and molecular evidence. Monobothrium, which includes morphologically distinct species that occur in European cyprinids (Cyprinidae) and North American suckers (Catostomidae), is separated into 3 genera. Monobothrium becomes monotypic and is represented by its type species, Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922 , which occurs in European tench, Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae). Monobothrium auriculatum Kulakovskaya, 1961 from Leuciscus danilevskii (Cyprinidae) in the Ukraine, is tentatively transferred to Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 as Caryophyllaeus auriculatus ( Kulakovskaya, 1961 ) n. comb. because it possesses morphological characteristics considered to be typical of Caryophyllaeus but which are absent in Monobothrium (shape of the scolex, presence of a seminal receptacle, short neck, and absence of a large, muscular papilla surrounding the large gonopores). The 5 remaining Monobothrium species from suckers in North America are transferred to Promonobothrium based on shared morphological features and molecular data. Species of Promonobothrium differ from M. wageneri by having an external seminal vesicle (absent in M. wageneri), the absence of postovarian vitelline follicles in North American species (present in M. wageneri), and a scolex that is digitiform papillate, loculopapillate, or loculotruncate, i.e., equipped with weak loculi and a terminal introvert (vs. claviform, bluntly ended, with 6 weak, shallow, longitudinal grooves in M. wageneri). Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes ssr- and lsrDNA placed Promonobothrium minytremi within a clade of 3 of the 5 North American Monobothrium species. The position of M. wageneri, although distinct from the remaining Monobothrium species, is unresolved within the Caryophyllidea. This study further

  8. The impact of mining upon the features of the Blue Lagoon Lake in the Aghireşu area

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    Gavril Pandi


    Full Text Available The substrate of Aghireşu area contains several resources, which in time it was exploited and processed in locality. Among them is the brown coal, the gypsum, the kaolin. The exploitations began in galleries, and then passed to phase of surface quarries. After mining was formed several lakes trough the collapse of the galleries; to them was added the artificial lakes too. The Blue Lagoon Lake is a hydrological unit, the most representative of mixed origin. The water characteristics of the lake are under the influence of mineral composition of the substrate, the activity of mining, the erosion processes, the characteristics of lakes depressions, the climate elements, etc. The water physical and chemical properties are analyzed in space and time scale variation. Sampling and analysis made afford to compare the values in horizontally and vertically plain. The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  9. Effects of temperature on auditory sensitivity in eurythermal fishes: common carp Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae versus Wels catfish Silurus glanis (family Siluridae.

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    Isabelle Pia Maiditsch

    Full Text Available In ectothermal animals such as fish, -temperature affects physiological and metabolic processes. This includes sensory organs such as the auditory system. The reported effects of temperature on hearing in eurythermal otophysines are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effect on the auditory system in species representing two different orders.Hearing sensitivity was determined using the auditory evoked potentials (AEP recording technique. Auditory sensitivity and latency in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes and the Wels catfish Silurus glanis (order Siluriformes after acclimating fish for at least three weeks to two different water temperatures (15°C, 25°C and again 15°C. Hearing sensitivity increased with temperature in both species. Best hearing was detected between 0.3 and 1 kHz at both temperatures. The maximum increase occurred at 0.8 kHz (7.8 dB in C. carpio and at 0.5 kHz (10.3 dB in S. glanis. The improvement differed between species and was in particular more pronounced in the catfish at 4 kHz. The latency in response to single clicks was measured from the onset of the sound stimulus to the most constant positive peak of the AEP. The latency decreased at the higher temperature in both species by 0.37 ms on average.The current study shows that higher temperature improves hearing (lower thresholds, shorter latencies in eurythermal species from different orders of otophysines. Differences in threshold shifts between eurythermal species seem to reflect differences in absolute sensitivity at higher frequencies and they furthermore indicate differences to stenothermal (tropical species.

  10. A histological study of testis development and ultrastructural features of spermatogenesis in cultured Acrossocheilus fasciatus. (United States)

    Fu, Su-Yan; Jiang, Jian-Hu; Yang, Wan-Xi; Zhu, Jun-Quan


    Testis development and ultrastructural features of spermatogenesis in Acrossocheilus fasciatus (Cypriniformes, Barbinae), a commercial stream fish, were studied using light and electron microscopy. The reproduction cycle in A. fasciatus testes is classified into six successive stages from Stage I to Stage VI. Based on an analysis of previous results, May to July can be confirmed as the best breeding season for A. fasciatus males. During this time, the A. fasciatus testes are in Stage V and the sperm in males is most abundant. In the first reproductive cycle, sexually mature male testes return to Stage III in October, subsequently overwintering at this stage. In the lobular-type testes of A. fasciatus, cystic type spermatogenesis occurs with restricted spermatogonia. All spermatogenic cells at different stages are distributed along the seminiferous lobules, which contain spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. At the end of spermatogenesis, spermatogenic cysts open to release spermatozoa into the lobule lumen. Ultrastructural observation of A. fasciatus spermiogenesis reveals that electron-dense substances appear at the different stages of germ cells, from primary spermatogonia to secondary spermatocytes. We have termed these dense substances as "nuage" when free in the cytoplasm or adjacent to the nuclear envelope, while those close to the mitochondria are called inter-mitochondrial cement. The spermatozoa in A. fasciatus can be classified as type I due to the presence of nuclear rotation. Although the nuclear chromatin in the head of sperm was highly condensed, no acrosome was formed. The cytoplasmic canal, a common ultrastructural feature of Teleostei spermatozoa, was also present in the midpiece. In addition, numerous fused mitochondria were observed. The distal centriole and proximal centriole constituting the centriolar complex were oriented incompletely perpendicular to each other. The flagellum showed a typical 9+2 arrangement pattern

  11. Two new species of Rhabdochona (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from freshwater fishes in Thailand. (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Yooyen, Thanapon


    Two new species ofrhabdochonid nematodes are described from the intestine of freshwater fishes in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand: Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) pseudomysti sp. n. from the catfish Pseudomystus siamensis (Regan) (Bagridae, Siluriformes) in the Fang Brook, a tributary of the Kok River (the Mekong River basin), Fang District and Rhabdochona (Globochona) thaiensis sp. n. from the cyprinid Mystacoleucus marginatus (Valenciennes) (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes) in the Ping River (the Chao Phraya River basin), Muang District. Rhabdochona pseudomysti is mainly characterized by simple, leaf-like oval deirids (a unique feature among Rhabdochona spp.), a prostom with 14 anterior teeth, the presence of basal prostomal teeth, the length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of oesophagus (1:2.1-2.6), an unusually long left spicule (1.10-1.22 mm), length ratio of spicules (1:11.5-14.7), arrangement of genital papillae, and conspicuously elevated vulval lips. Rhabdochona thaiensis differs from other representatives of the subgenus Globochona Moravec, 1972 possessing caudal projections on the tail tip in that it has only 2 claw-shaped projections located ventrally on the tail tip of both males and females; the species is mainly characterized by the presence of distinct pseudolabia, 8 anterior prostomal teeth, absence of basal teeth, bifurcated deirids, length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of oesophagus (1:11.3-11.9), conspicuously short (135-141 microm) left spicule, arrangement of genital papillae, and somewhat elevated vulval lips. Fully developed eggs of R. pseudomysti and R. thaiensis remain unknown. These are the first nominal species of Rhabdochona reported from Thailand.

  12. Composition and changes in abundance and biomass of fish assemblages along the Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River over the last decade

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    Shasha Sun


    Full Text Available The Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River, which lies near the estuary with an irregular semidiurnal tide, is the National Aquatic Germplasm Resource Reserve and plays an important role in conserving fishery resources. To clarify the composition and changes in abundance/biomass of fish assemblages of these coastal waters, investigations were carried out along the Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River in the autumns of 2002 to 2011. Results showed that 91 species, belonging to 12 orders and 23 families, were collected from surveys conducted during this period. Fish included 47 species of Cypriniformes, 17 species of Perciformes and 10 species of Siluriformes. Four were migratory species, 13 were estuarine, and 74 were freshwater fish. The average number of different fish species recorded each autumn was 47 (range = 32–61, and mean Jaccard similarity index was 53.72 (range = 38.46–69.09%. The total number of dominant and common species recorded was 42, with the annual value averaging 19. Dominant and common species were mainly small fish, such as Hemiculter bleekeri, Pseudobrama simony, Pseudobagrus nitidus etc., as well as juveniles of large or medium fish, such as Culter alburnus, Parabramis pekinensis, P. vachellii etc. The mean individual weight (MIW of the fish assemblage was 6.99 g. The abundance biomass comparison curve indicated that the first dominant species recorded in autumn in all years except 2010 were all very small-sized fish. The most dominant species in 2002–2009 were also of small-size fish, and large-size fish only contributed to the dominant species in 2010 and 2011. Our research also indicated a general increase in abundance or biomass (CPUEN、CPUEW, the MIW of the fish assemblage, and the population size of 62% of dominant and common species. This suggested that fishery resources of the waters studied are likely to improve.

  13. Fish remnants from the excavations of the Bronze Age barrow near Maryanskoe village (Dnepropetrovsk region, Ukraine

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    O. M. Kovalchuk


    Full Text Available The Bronze Age mound (2.5–2.3 kya BC is located near the Maryanskoe village (Apostolovskyi district, Dnepropetrovsk region and was excavated in 1953. The results of determination of the fish remnants, which were found during the excavation, are presented in the paper. Eleven species belonging to 9 genera, 5 families and 5 orders (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes, Perciformes were identified: russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt et Ratzeburg, 1833, stellate sturgeon A. stellatus Pallas, 1771, common ide Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758, common roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758, pontic roach R. frisii (Nordmann, 1840, common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758, common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758, european catfish Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758, northern pike Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758, and zander Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758. Most of them are quite common in the Dnieper river basin. It was found that carp fishes predominate in the number of species. Most of the bone remnants in the collection belong to zander, catfish and pike, while common roach, pontic roach and common bream are identified by the few bones. This may indicate a different role of these species in the diet of the local population. The ratio of skeletal elements in the collection is the evidence of the fish cutting on the site. Body length and weight was reconstructed for 64 fish specimens. It was found that they were mature and small-sized, except for catfish, pike and perch. Taking into account the characteristics of the funeral rituals of the Yamna culture population, fish bones from the mound near Maryanskoe can be remnants of the parting meal.

  14. Origins, Innovations, and Diversification of Suction Feeding in Vertebrates. (United States)

    Wainwright, Peter C; McGee, Matthew D; Longo, Sarah J; Hernandez, L Patricia


    We review the origins, prominent innovations, and major patterns of diversification in suction feeding by vertebrates. Non-vertebrate chordates and larval lamprey suspension-feed by capturing small particles in pharyngeal mucous. In most of these lineages the gentle flows that transport particles are generated by buccal cilia, although larval lamprey and thaliacean urochordates have independently evolved a weak buccal pump to generate an oscillating flow of water that is powered by elastic recovery of the pharynx following compression by buccal muscles. The evolution of jaws and the hyoid facilitated powerful buccal expansion and high-performance suction feeding as found today throughout aquatic vertebrates. We highlight three major innovations in suction feeding. Most vertebrate suction feeders have mechanisms that occlude the corners of the open mouth during feeding. This produces a planar opening that is often nearly circular in shape. Both features contribute to efficient flow of water into the mouth and help direct the flow to the area directly in front of the mouth's aperture. Among several functions that have been identified for protrusion of the upper jaw, is an increase in the hydrodynamic forces that suction feeders exert on their prey. Protrusion of the upper jaw has evolved five times in ray-finned fishes, including in two of the most successful teleost radiations, cypriniforms and acanthomorphs, and is found in about 60% of living teleost species. Diversification of the mechanisms of suction feeding and of feeding behavior reveals that suction feeders with high capacity for suction rarely approach their prey rapidly, while slender-bodied predators with low capacity for suction show the full range of attack speeds. We hypothesize that a dominant axis of diversification among suction feeders involves a trade-off between the forces that are exerted on prey and the volume of water that is ingested.

  15. Basal and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced expression of cytochrome P450 1A, 1B and 1C genes in the Brazilian guppy, Poecilia vivipara. (United States)

    Dorrington, Tarquin; Zanette, Juliano; Zacchi, Flávia L; Stegeman, John J; Bainy, Afonso C D


    In fish there are four cytochrome P450 (CYP1) subfamilies: CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C, and CYP1D. Here we cloned Poecilia vivipara CYP1A, with an inferred amino acid sequence 91% identical to CYP1A from the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus, another member of the Cypriniformes, and an important model in ecotoxicology. In addition, we examined the expression of CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 by qPCR in liver, gill, and intestine of adult P. vivipara injected with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) or held in clean water (control group) for 24h. All three tissues examined showed basal expression of the three CYP1 genes. CYP1A was most strongly expressed in the liver, while CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 were most strongly expressed in the gill and intestine respectively. 3-MC induced CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 significantly (20-120-fold) in the three organs, consistent with the regulation of CYP1A, CYP1B1 and CYP1C1 via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Validation of CYP1 gene biomarkers in fish collected from a contaminated urban mangrove environment was confirmed with significant induction of CYP1A and CYP1C1 in gills (10-15-fold) and CYP1B1 in liver (23-fold), relative to fish from a control site. The responsiveness of these CYP1 genes indicates P. vivipara is suitable as a model for environmental toxicology studies and environmental assessment in Brazil.

  16. Neural pathway for aggressive display in Betta splendens: midbrain and hindbrain control of gill-cover erection behavior. (United States)

    Gorlick, D L


    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used to identify parts of the presumptive neural pathway for gill cover erection, a behavioral display pattern performed by Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) during aggressive interactions. Motor, motor integration and sensory areas were identified in the medulla and mesencephalon. Motor neurons of the dilator operculi muscle, the effector muscle for gill cover erection, are located in the lateral and medial parts of the caudal trigeminal motor nucleus. Iontophoretic injections of HRP into the lateral trigeminal motor nucleus resulted in labeled cell bodies in two motor areas (medial part of the trigeminal motor nucleus, anterior part of the motor nucleus of cranial nerve IX-X), two parts of the reticular formation (medial and inferior reticular areas), and two nuclei of the octavolateralis system (nucleus medialis, magnocellular octaval nucleus). The HRP injections in the medial part of the caudal trigeminal motor nucleus resulted in labeled cells in the lateral part of the nucleus and in the medial reticular nucleus. Discrete injections of HRP into nucleus medialis revealed a strong axonal projection that terminated in the torus semicircularis. The medial reticular area and both of the octavolateralis nuclei received projections from their contralateral counterparts. Connections between motor areas, and between parts of the reticular formation, may coordinate the performance of gill cover erection with other behavioral patterns used during aggressive display. Connections with the octavolateralis system may provide information on the strength of an opponent's tail beats via the lateral-line system, as well as vestibular information about the fish's own orientation during aggressive display. The organization of inputs to the trigeminal motor nucleus in Betta, a perciform fish, was found to differ from that reported in the common carp, a cypriniform fish. These differences may underlie the different behavioral capabilities of

  17. Responses of action potential and K+ currents to temperature acclimation in fish hearts: phylogeny or thermal preferences? (United States)

    Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti


    Electrical activity of the heart is assumed to be one of the key factors that set thermal tolerance limits for ectothermic vertebrates. Therefore, we hypothesized that in thermal acclimation--the duration of cardiac action potential and the repolarizing K+ currents that regulate action potential duration (APD)--the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K+ current (I(Kr)) and the inward rectifier K+ current (I(K1)) are more plastic in eurythermal than in stenothermal fish species. The hypothesis was tested in six freshwater teleosts representing four different fish orders (Cadiformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes, Salmoniformes) acclimated at +4 degrees C (cold acclimation) or +18 degrees C (warm acclimation). In cold acclimation, a compensatory shortening of APD occurred in all species regardless of thermal tolerances, life styles, or phylogenies of the fish, suggesting that this response is a common characteristic of the teleost heart. The strength of the response did not, however, obey simple eurythermy-stenothermy gradation but differed among the phylogenetic groups. Salmoniformes fish showed the greatest acclimation capacity of cardiac electrical activity, whereas the weakest response appeared in the perch (Perciformes) heart. The underlying ionic mechanisms were also partly phylogeny dependent. Modification of the I(Kr) current was al- most ubiquitously involved in acclimation response of fish cardiac myocytes to temperature, while the ability to change the I(K1) current under chronic thermal stress was absent or showed inverse compensation in Salmoniformes species. Thus, in Salmoniformes fish, the thermal plasticity of APD is strongly based on I(Kr), while other fish groups rely on both I(Kr) and I(K1).

  18. The fish endocrine pancreas: review, new data, and future research directions in ontogeny and phylogeny. (United States)

    Youson, J H; Al-Mahrouki, A A; Amemiya, Y; Graham, L C; Montpetit, C J; Irwin, D M


    The literature on the ontogeny and phylogeny of the endocrine pancreas of ray-finned fishes is summarized since the latest review in fish [Youson, J.H., Al-Mahrouki, A.A., 1999. Review. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic development of the endocrine pancreas (islet organ) in fishes. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 116, 303-335]. A basic description and a demonstration of the diversity of the fish islet organ is provided through new immunohistochemical data on islet tissue from a basal teleost, an osteoglossomorph, and a more derived teleost, a perciforme. Unlike the previous review, the present report provides a review and discussion of the utility of sequence data of insulin, somatostatin, and NPY- and glucagon-family peptides in phylogenetic analyses of jawed and jawless fishes. The present study also provides the first comparative analysis of sequences of preprohormones of endocrine peptides from closely related basal teleost species. Some nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data for preprosomatostatins (PPSS-I and/or -II) are compared for four species of bonytongues, Osteoglossomorpha, and with PPSSs of the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, representing Cypriniformes, a more generalized teleost order. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences of the PPSSs of these species and others from databases indicates good support for the monophyly of Osteoglossomorpha and some support for the present taxonomic grouping of the osteoglossomorphs examined, and also the white sucker. However, PPSS may have limited phylogenetic utility due to the relative short sequence, particularly in resolving relationships among lineages that diverged over a short period of time. Since in the few fish species examined we have just touched the surface in describing the diversity of structure of the islet organ, and likely the nature of the products of its cells, this report promotes the continued study of this organ.

  19. Exploring the Jupiter's and Saturn's radiation belts with LOFAR (United States)

    Girard, Julien N.; Zarka, Philippe; Pater Imke, de; Hess, Sebastien; Tasse, Cyril; Courtin, Regis; Hofstadter, Mark; Santos-Costa, Daniel; Nettelmann, Nadine; lorenzato, Lise


    Since its detection in the mid-fifties, the decimeter synchrotron radiation (DIM), originating from the radiation belts of Jupiter, has been extensively observed over a wide spectrum (from >300 MHz to 22 GHz) by various radio instruments (VLA, ATCA, WSRT, Cassini...). They provided accurate flux measurements as well as resolved maps of the emission that revealed spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities. The strong magnetic field (~4.2 G at the equator) is responsible for the radio emission generated by relativistic electrons. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility configuration (fast rotating 'dipole' magnetic field, beamed radio emission) and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) (e.g. de Pater & Klein, 1989; de Pater & Dunn, 2003; Bagenal (ed.) et al., 2004; Santos-Costa, 2009, 2011). A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons populating the inner magnetosphere over a wide frequency range. The low frequencies are associated with electron of lower energies situated in weaker magnetic field regions. LOFAR, the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) (van Haarlem et al., 2012), the last generation of versatile and digital ground-based radio interferometer operates in the [30-250] MHz bandwidth. It brings very high time (~μsec), frequency (~kHz) and angular (~asec) resolutions and huge sensitivities (~mJy). In November 2011, a single 10-hour track enabled to cover an entire planetary rotation and led to image, for the first time, the radiation belts between 127-172 MHz (Girard et al. 2012, 2013). In Feb 2013, an 11-hour joint LOFAR/WSRT observing campaign seized the dyname state of the radiation belts from 45 MHz up to 5 GHz. We will present the current study of the radiation belts

  20. Influência dos fatores abióticos e da disponibilidade de presas sobre comunidade de serpentes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul Influence of abiotic factors and availability of prey on the occurrence of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Noeli Zanella


    Full Text Available A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre a disponibilidade de presas e a dieta das espécies de serpentes mais abundantes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudada em duas áreas: floresta e campo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando serpentes coletadas com os métodos: procura limitada por tempo, encontros ocasionais, armadilhas de interceptação e queda, e serpentes depositadas na coleção de répteis da Universidade de Passo Fundo. Foram registradas as guildas alimentares das seis espécies mais abundantes: anurófagas (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 e Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodentívoras (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; moluscófagas (n = 1: Tomodon dorsatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 e generalistas (n = 2: Liophis poecilogyrus (Wied-Neuwied, 1825 e Philodryas patagoniensis (Girard, 1858. Dos fatores abióticos analisados, a abundância de serpentes foi mais relacionada à temperatura máxima (R² = 0,66 e não apresentou relação significativa com a pluviosidade. A abundância de anfíbios apresentou relação positiva com a pluviosidade (R² = 0,54 e não foi significativa com a temperatura mínima. A abundância de serpentes não foi correlacionada com a abundância de anfíbios e roedores.The influence of abiotic factors on the availability of prey and on the diet of the most abundant snake species in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul was studied in two areas: forest and field. Snakes captured using time-constrained search, occasional encounters and pitfall traps and snakes deposited in the reptile collection of the University of Passo Fundo were studied. The feeding guilds of the six most abundant species were recorded: anurophagous (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 and Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodent-eating (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; molluscophagous (n = 1: Tomodon

  1. Experimental infection of the endangered bonytail chub (Gila elegans) with the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi): impacts on survival, growth, and condition (United States)

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Heisey, D.M.; Ahumada, J.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.


    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, a tapeworm known to be pathogenic to some fish species, has become established in the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha Miller, 1964) in Grand Canyon, USA, following the tapeworm's introduction into the Colorado River system. The potential impact of this tapeworm on humpback chub was studied by exposing the closely related bonytail chub (Gila elegans Baird and Girard, 1853) to the parasite under a range of conditions that included potential stressors of humpback chub in their natal waters, such as abrupt temperature change and a limited food base. Survival of infected fish under low food rations was considerably lower than that of control fish, and mortality of infected fish began 20days earlier. Growth of infected fish was significantly reduced, and negative changes in health condition indices were found. No significant negative impacts were revealed from the synergistic effects between temperature shock and infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi does present a potential threat to humpback chub in Grand Canyon and should be considered, along with conventional concerns involving altered flow regimes and predation, when management decisions are made concerning conservation of this endangered species.// Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, un ver plat connu comme pathog??ne pour certaines esp??ces de poissons, s'est associ?? au A (Gila cypha Miller, 1964), une esp??ce menac??e du Grand Canyon, ??.-U., apr??s l'introduction du ver dans le r??seau hydrographique du Colorado. Nous avons ??tudi?? l'impact potentiel de ce ver plat sur le m??n?? bossu en exposant l'esp??ce proche Gila elegans Baird et Girard, 1853 au parasite sous une gamme de conditions qui incluent les facteurs potentiels de stress des m??n??s bossus dans leurs cours d'eau d'origine, tels que les changements abrupts de temp??rature et des ressources alimentaires limit??es. La survie des poissons infect??s dans des conditions de nourriture limit

  2. El matrimonio de Tobías y la sexualidad: un estudio psicológico

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    Cristián Barría Iroumé


    Full Text Available El libro de Tobías del Antiguo Testamento es un relato novelado que trata de la vida familiar, la muerte y la sexualidad. Hay un caso de matrimonio vinculado a la muerte: una joven desespera después de haber perdido sucesivamente siete maridos en la noche de bodas. Dios se apiada y la ayudará a través de un ángel. Un joven, Tobías, con su virtud la salvará del maleficio. Este relato ha tenido un profundo impacto en la concepción de la sexualidad y del matrimonio cristiano en la historia, asociándosele con una actitud de moderación sexual inicial (las noches de Tobías. Se analiza el relato utilizando conceptos antropológicos y psicoanalíticos: los ritos de paso; la curación milagrosa; el temor de la iniciación sexual y la noción de víctima expiatoria según R. Girard. Es el relato de un pueblo antiguo que elabora religiosamente sus temores ante la muerte y el sexo. Se encuentran en el texto elementos de transición desde una concepción mítica y mágica arcaica hasta una concepción más evolucionada de religiosidad. Se contrasta su visión moralizante del sexo con la visión más libre y optimista del CantarThe book of Tobit from the Old Testament is a novelized narrative that treats of family life, death and sexuality. There is a case of matrimony linked to death: a young woman becomes desperate after having lost successively seven husbands on their wedding nights. God has pity on her, and helps her through an angel. A young man, Tobit, will virtuously save her from the curse. This story has had a profound impact on the concept of sexuality and of Christian marriage in history, associating itself with an attitude of initial sexual moderation (Tobit's nights. This narrative is analyzed in this article by utilizing anthropological and psychoanalytical concepts: the rites of passage; the miraculous healing; the fear of sexual initiation and the notion of the expiatory victim according to R. Girard. It is the story of an ancient

  3. Ergosterone-coupled Triazol molecules trigger mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and acidocalcisomal Ca2+ release in Leishmania mexicana promastigotes

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    Figarella K


    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Leishmania causes a variety of sicknesses with different clinical manifestations known as leishmaniasis. The chemotherapy currently in use is not adequate because of their side effects, resistance occurrence, and recurrences. Investigations looking for new targets or new active molecules focus mainly on the disruption of parasite specific pathways. In this sense, ergosterol biosynthesis is one of the most attractive because it does not occur in mammals. Here, we report the synthesis of ergosterone coupled molecules and the characterization of their biological activity on Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. Molecule synthesis involved three steps: ergosterone formation using Jones oxidation, synthesis of Girard reagents, and coupling reaction. All compounds were obtained in good yield and high purity. Results show that ergosterone-triazol molecules (Erg-GTr and Erg-GTr2 exhibit an antiproliferative effect in low micromolar range with a selectivity index ~10 when compared to human dermic fibroblasts. Addition of Erg-GTr or Erg-GTr2 to parasites led to a rapid [Ca2+]cyt increase and acidocalcisomes alkalinization, indicating that Ca2+ was released from this organelle. Evaluation of cell death markers revealed some apoptosis-like indicators, as phosphatidylserine exposure, DNA damage, and cytosolic vacuolization and autophagy exacerbation. Furthermore, mitochondrion hyperpolarization and superoxide production increase were detected already 6 hours after drug addition, denoting that oxidative stress is implicated in triggering the observed phenotype. Taken together our results indicate that ergosterone-triazol coupled molecules induce a regulated cell death process in the parasite and may represent starting point molecules in the search of new chemotherapeutic agents to combat leishmaniasis.

  4. A New Species of the Bay Goby Genus Eucyclogobius, Endemic to Southern California: Evolution, Conservation, and Decline (United States)

    Swift, Camm C.; Spies, Brenton; Ellingson, Ryan A.; Jacobs, David K.


    A geographically isolated set of southern localities of the formerly monotypic goby genus Eucyclogobius is known to be reciprocally monophyletic and substantially divergent in mitochondrial sequence and nuclear microsatellite-based phylogenies relative to populations to the north along the California coast. To clarify taxonomic and conservation status, we conducted a suite of analyses on a comprehensive set of morphological counts and measures from across the range of Eucyclogobius and describe the southern populations as a new species, the Southern Tidewater Goby, Eucyclogobius kristinae, now separate from the Northern Tidewater Goby Eucyclogobius newberryi (Girard 1856). In addition to molecular distinction, adults of E. kristinae are diagnosed by: 1) loss of the anterior supratemporal lateral-line canals resulting in higher neuromast counts, 2) lower pectoral and branched caudal ray counts, and 3) sets of measurements identified via discriminant analysis. These differences suggest ecological distinction of the two species. Previous studies estimated lineage separation at 2–4 million years ago, and mitochondrial sequence divergence exceeds that of other recognized fish species. Fish from Santa Monica Artesian Springs (Los Angeles County) northward belong to E. newberryi; those from Aliso Creek (Orange County) southward constitute E. kristinae. The lagoonal habitat of Eucyclogobius has been diminished or degraded, leading to special conservation status at state and federal levels beginning in 1980. Habitat of the newly described species has been impacted by a range of anthropogenic activities, including the conversion of closing lagoons to open tidal systems in the name of restoration. In the last 30 years, E. kristinae has only been observed in nine intermittently occupied lagoonal systems in northern San Diego County; it currently persists in only three sites. Thus, the new species is in imminent danger of extinction and will require ongoing active management

  5. The origin of ethics and social order in a society without state power. (United States)

    Yamamoto, K


    How ethics and social order in a society without state power had originated and developed is one of enigmas which human beings have tried to solve for a long time. Several theories on the origin of social order have been proposed since the "Social Contract" theory of Thomas Hobbes. According to Hobbes, as a society without state power is in a condition called war, a social contract among men is the origin of social order in a society where every man is against every man. Rousseau says that when human beings reach the stage in which they live in a permanent neighborhood, a property system is introduced. Then, too much ambition and avarice of man who has possessions compel him to propose the formation of a political institution, providing social order which enables him to keep his possessions. According to Nietzsche, the principle of equilibrium, that is, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth is an important concept for the oldest theory of low and morality as well as the basis of justice. The sense of superiority and nobility which a strong man brave enough to take revenge feels is the origin of the antithesis "good" and "bad". Girard says that the sacred violence wielded by the community to sacrifice a surrogate victim brings about social order in a society without state power. All the aforementioned theories seem to have failed to find out that a society without state power has its own ethics that had spontaneously developed on the pagan culture. Previously, I indicated that a society without state power or a society where state power cannot function well, such as the tribal society in northern Albania, has ethics which is based on the ancient concepts of "Guest-god", "food (commensality)" and "blood". In the present paper, I propose a new theory on the origin of ethics and social order, using the model of ethics of the Kanun.

  6. 希思克利夫的“替罪羊”形象探究——《呼啸山庄》男主人公新解%A Study of Heathcliff as a Scapegoat in Wuthering Heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    借用原型批评中的"替罪羊"原型,应用勒内.吉拉尔"替罪羊"机制分析《呼啸山庄》,研究表明《呼啸山庄》的主人公希思克利夫就是当时阶级和门第森严的社会的替罪羊。小说围绕希思克利夫给山庄和田庄两家带来的家庭危机、对恩人家庭成员的报复、因为黑肤色和弃儿身世具备成为替罪羊的优先标记、遭受精神歧视与肉体暴力四个方面的描写,便是对吉拉尔"替罪羊"机制四个范式的回应。%In light of the archetype of scapegoat and Rene Girard's four patterns of scapegoatism,the thesis argues that Heathcliff,the protagonist in Wuthering Heights,is a scapegoat of the highly hierarchical and class-conscious society.The depiction of four aspects in the novel:family crises caused by Heathcliff,his revenge towards the family members of Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange,his preferential marks as a scapegoat with his dark skin and his foundling family background,and the mental discrimination and physical violence he suffers is the reflection of the four patterns of scapegoatism of Rene Girard.

  7. Absolute GPS Time Event Generation and Capture for Remote Locations (United States)

    HIRES Collaboration

    The HiRes experiment operates fixed location and portable lasers at remote desert locations to generate calibration events. One physics goal of HiRes is to search for unusual showers. These may appear similar to upward or horizontally pointing laser tracks used for atmospheric calibration. It is therefore necessary to remove all of these calibration events from the HiRes detector data stream in a physics blind manner. A robust and convenient "tagging" method is to generate the calibration events at precisely known times. To facilitate this tagging method we have developed the GPSY (Global Positioning System YAG) module. It uses a GPS receiver, an embedded processor and additional timing logic to generate laser triggers at arbitrary programmed times and frequencies with better than 100nS accuracy. The GPSY module has two trigger outputs (one microsecond resolution) to trigger the laser flash-lamp and Q-switch and one event capture input (25nS resolution). The GPSY module can be programmed either by a front panel menu based interface or by a host computer via an RS232 serial interface. The latter also allows for computer logging of generated and captured event times. Details of the design and the implementation of these devices will be presented. 1 Motivation Air Showers represent a small fraction, much less than a percent, of the total High Resolution Fly's Eye data sample. The bulk of the sample is calibration data. Most of this calibration data is generated by two types of systems that use lasers. One type sends light directly to the detectors via optical fibers to monitor detector gains (Girard 2001). The other sends a beam of light into the sky and the scattered light that reaches the detectors is used to monitor atmospheric effects (Wiencke 1998). It is important that these calibration events be cleanly separated from the rest of the sample both to provide a complete set of monitoring information, and more

  8. Using meteorological ensembles for atmospheric dispersion modelling of the Fukushima nuclear accident (United States)

    Périllat, Raphaël; Korsakissok, Irène; Mallet, Vivien; Mathieu, Anne; Sekiyama, Thomas; Didier, Damien; Kajino, Mizuo; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Adachi, Kouji


    Dispersion models are used in response to an accidental release of radionuclides of the atmosphere, to infer mitigation actions, and complement field measurements for the assessment of short and long term environmental and sanitary impacts. However, the predictions of these models are subject to important uncertainties, especially due to input data, such as meteorological fields or source term. This is still the case more than four years after the Fukushima disaster (Korsakissok et al., 2012, Girard et al., 2014). In the framework of the SAKURA project, an MRI-IRSN collaboration, a meteorological ensemble of 20 members designed by MRI (Sekiyama et al. 2013) was used with IRSN's atmospheric dispersion models. Another ensemble, retrieved from ECMWF and comprising 50 members, was also used for comparison. The MRI ensemble is 3-hour assimilated, with a 3-kilometers resolution, designed to reduce the meteorological uncertainty in the Fukushima case. The ECMWF is a 24-hour forecast with a coarser grid, representative of the uncertainty of the data available in a crisis context. First, it was necessary to assess the quality of the ensembles for our purpose, to ensure that their spread was representative of the uncertainty of meteorological fields. Using meteorological observations allowed characterizing the ensembles' spread, with tools such as Talagrand diagrams. Then, the uncertainty was propagated through atmospheric dispersion models. The underlying question is whether the output spread is larger than the input spread, that is, whether small uncertainties in meteorological fields can produce large differences in atmospheric dispersion results. Here again, the use of field observations was crucial, in order to characterize the spread of the ensemble of atmospheric dispersion simulations. In the case of the Fukushima accident, gamma dose rates, air activities and deposition data were available. Based on these data, selection criteria for the ensemble members were

  9. Simulation of radar backscattering from snowpack at X-band and Ku-band (United States)

    Gay, Michel; Phan, Xuan-Vu; Ferro-Famil, Laurent


    This paper presents a multilayer snowpack electromagnetic backscattering model, based on Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT). This model is capable of simulating the interaction of electromagnetic wave (EMW) at X-band and Ku-band frequencies with multilayer snowpack. The air-snow interface and snow-ground backscattering components are calculated using the Integral Equation Model (IEM) by [1], whereas the volume backscattering component is calculated based on the solution of Vector Radiative Transfer (VRT) equation at order 1. Case study has been carried out using measurement data from NoSREx project [2], which include SnowScat data in X-band and Ku-band, TerraSAR-X acquisitions and snowpack stratigraphic in-situ measurements. The results of model simulations show good agreement with the radar observations, and therefore allow the DMRT model to be used in various applications, such as data assimilation [3]. [1] A.K. Fung and K.S. Chen, "An update on the iem surface backscattering model," Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 75 - 77, april 2004. [2] J. Lemmetyinen, A. Kontu, J. Pulliainen, A. Wiesmann, C. Werner, T. Nagler, H. Rott, and M. Heidinger, "Technical assistance for the deployment of an x- to ku-band scatterometer during the nosrex ii experiment," Final Report, ESA ESTEC Contract No. 22671/09/NL/JA., 2011. [3] X. V. Phan, L. Ferro-Famil, M. Gay, Y. Durand, M. Dumont, S. Morin, S. Allain, G. D'Urso, and A. Girard, "3d-var multilayer assimilation of x-band sar data into a detailed snowpack model," The Cryosphere Discussions, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 4881-4912, 2013.

  10. DA LEGITIMAÇÃO Wisnik e o futebol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dolabela Chagas


    Full Text Available Acompanha-se a operação de legitimação do futebol comoobjeto de investigação intelectual em Veneno remédio – o futebole o Brasil, de José Miguel Wisnik. Correspondências com outrostrabalhos de legitimação semelhantes, nos estudos literários ena crítica da música pop. Após uma discussão preliminar sobrea legitimação, o artigo segue três etapas: na primeira,caracteriza-se o antagonista contra o qual Wisnik legitima ofutebol mediante o cotejo de proposições de Hannah Arendt,Gilles Lipovetski e René Girard; na segunda, através deaproximações com o universo pop, discute-se a ética dalegitimação de Wisnik, que não denega os problemas levantadoscontra o futebol, absorvendo-os, mas requalificando-os, noseu trabalho de legitimação; na terceira, vê-se como Wisniksitua na análise das especificidades do futebol o caminho parauma analítica que não o soterre sob expectativas externas àsua própria lógica de acontecimento. Ao final, localiza-se emWisnik a proposição de que o futebol expressa como futebol osproblemas que o afligem, proposição aliada a uma recusa emestabilizar um padrão valorativo que retire o futebol do fluxoda cultura para congelá-lo nalguma posição hierárquicaespecífica, seja ela baixa ou elevada.

  11. Mimetic desire and scapegoat mechanism in sport

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    Jernej Pisk


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most fundamental question about sport is what is sport, what is its origin and its essence? Because sport is connected with the human being (there is no sport without human beings different anthropological visions of human being result in different understandings of sport. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to present and explain an anthropological vision of the human being and society as was developed by René Girard. In his view mimetic desire and the scapegoat mechanism have a central role in any culture, religion or other secular institutions. The explanatory power of his theory is presented when it is applied to the world of sport. METHODS: Our methodology is philosophical, involving conceptual analysis and the application of the outcomes to sport. RESULTS: In the paper we show that mimetic desire can be recognized as one of the important origins of recreational and competitive sports. When people recognize what other people are able to do or accomplish in sport this invokes the mimetic desire as a result of which motivation for sport and competiveness can arise. But mimetic rivalry leads to an unstable situation. Therefore a second element is needed: Scapegoating in sport is presented as a mean to preserve the good reputation of sport, to keep peace in sport as well as in society as a whole. Finally, the attempt to overcome mimetic desire and scapegoating in sport is presented and the question if this is worth trying at all is opened. CONCLUSIONS: The theories of mimetic desire and scapegoat mechanism have great explanatory power when they are applied to the field of sport. They could reveal us some hidden motives and forces which drive athletes and sport as a whole. Moreover, they exceed the world of sport and reveal the influence of sport on the whole of society.

  12. Morphology and molecules reveal the alien Posthodiplostomum centrarchi Hoffman, 1958 as the third species of Posthodiplostomum Dubois, 1936 (Digenea: Diplostomidae) in Europe. (United States)

    Stoyanov, Borislav; Georgieva, Simona; Pankov, Plamen; Kudlai, Olena; Kostadinova, Aneta; Georgiev, Boyko B


    Metacercariae of two species of Posthodiplostomum Dubois, 1936 (Digenea: Diplostomidae) were subjected to morphological and molecular studies: P. brevicaudatum (von Nordmann, 1832) from Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.) (Gasterosteiformes: Gasterosteidae), Bulgaria (morphology, cox1 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and Perca fluviatilis L. (Perciformes: Percidae), Czech Republic (morphology, cox1, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S); and P. centrarchi Hoffman, 1958 from Lepomis gibbosus (L.) (Perciformes: Centrarchidae), Bulgaria (morphology, cox1 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and Slovakia (cox1 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). In addition, cercariae of P. cuticola (von Nordmann, 1832) from Planorbis planorbis (L.) (Mollusca: Planorbidae), Lithuania (morphology and cox1) and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum scardinii (Schulman in Dubinin, 1952) from Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L.) (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), Czech Republic, were examined (morphology, cox1, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S). These represent the first molecular data for species of Posthodiplostomum and Ornithodiplostomum Dubois, 1936 from the Palaearctic. Phylogenetic analyses based on cox1 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, using O. scardinii as the outgroup and including the three newly-sequenced Posthodiplostomum spp. from Europe and eight published unidentified (presumably species-level) lineages of Posthodiplostomum from Canada confirmed the distinct status of the three European species (contrary to the generally accepted opinion that only P. brevicaudatum and P. cuticola occur in the Palaearctic). The subspecies Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi Hoffmann, 1958, originally described from North America, is elevated to the species level as Posthodiplostomum centrarchi Hoffman, 1958. The undescribed "Posthodiplostomum sp. 3" of Locke et al. (2010) from centrarchid fishes in Canada has identical sequences with the European isolates of P. centrarchi and is recognised as belonging to the same species. The latter parasite, occurring in the alien pumpkinseed sunfish

  13. [Ichthyofauna and its community diversity in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China]. (United States)

    Yang, Fu-Yi; Lü, Xian-Guo; Lou, Yan-Jing; Lou, Xiao-Nan; Xue, Bin; Yao, Shu-Chun; Xiao, Hai-Feng


    Based on the investigations of fish resources in Jingpo Lake and Wudalianchi Lakes in 2008-2011 and the historical data, this paper analyzed the characteristics of ichthyofauna and its community diversity in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China. The ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was consisted of 64 native species, belonging to 47 genera, 16 families, and 9 orders, among which, one species was the second class National protected wild animal, four species were Chinese endemic species, and five species were Chinese vulnerable species. In the 64 recorded species, there were 44 species of Cypriniformes order and 37 species of Cyprinidae family dominated, respectively. The ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was formed by 7 fauna complexes, among which, the eastern plain fauna complex was dominant, the common species from the South and the North occupied 53.1%, and the northern endemic species took up 46.9%. The Shannon, Fisher-alpha, Pielou, Margalef, and Simpson indices of the ichthyofauna were 2.078, 4.536, 0.575, 3.723, and 0.269, respectively, and the abundance distribution pattern of native species accorded with lognormal model. The Bray-Curtis, Morisita-Horn, Ochiai, Sørensen, and Whittaker indices between the communities of ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China and the Jingpo Lake were 0.820, 0.992, 0.870, 0.862 and 0.138, respectively, and those between the communities of ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes and the Wudalianchi Lakes were 0.210, 0.516, 0.838, 0.825, and 0.175, respectively. The ichthyofauna in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was characterized by the mutual infiltration between the South and the North, and the overlap and transition between the Palaeoarctic realm and the Oricetal realm. It was suggested that the ichthyofauna community species diversity in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was higher, the species structure was more

  14. The fate of the duplicated androgen receptor in fishes: a late neofunctionalization event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haendler Bernard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the observation of an increased number of paralogous genes in teleost fishes compared with other vertebrates and on the conserved synteny between duplicated copies, it has been shown that a whole genome duplication (WGD occurred during the evolution of Actinopterygian fish. Comparative phylogenetic dating of this duplication event suggests that it occurred early on, specifically in teleosts. It has been proposed that this event might have facilitated the evolutionary radiation and the phenotypic diversification of the teleost fish, notably by allowing the sub- or neo-functionalization of many duplicated genes. Results In this paper, we studied in a wide range of Actinopterygians the duplication and fate of the androgen receptor (AR, NR3C4, a nuclear receptor known to play a key role in sex-determination in vertebrates. The pattern of AR gene duplication is consistent with an early WGD event: it has been duplicated into two genes AR-A and AR-B after the split of the Acipenseriformes from the lineage leading to teleost fish but before the divergence of Osteoglossiformes. Genomic and syntenic analyses in addition to lack of PCR amplification show that one of the duplicated copies, AR-B, was lost in several basal Clupeocephala such as Cypriniformes (including the model species zebrafish, Siluriformes, Characiformes and Salmoniformes. Interestingly, we also found that, in basal teleost fish (Osteoglossiformes and Anguilliformes, the two copies remain very similar, whereas, specifically in Percomorphs, one of the copies, AR-B, has accumulated substitutions in both the ligand binding domain (LBD and the DNA binding domain (DBD. Conclusion The comparison of the mutations present in these divergent AR-B with those known in human to be implicated in complete, partial or mild androgen insensitivity syndrome suggests that the existence of two distinct AR duplicates may be correlated to specific functional differences that may be

  15. Cloning and characterization of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus growth hormone gene and its heterologous expression. (United States)

    Sekar, Megarajan; Singh, Shiva Dhar; Gupta, Subodh


    Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is one of the fast-growing catfish of freshwater origin, and its growth is attributed by the action of growth hormone (GH). In this study, the growth hormone gene (PhGH) of 3.0 kb was characterized, and it is composed of five exons and four introns and having characteristics of an upstream region that contains TATA, CAAT boxes, and binding sites of important transcription factors like Pit-1a, CRE, CREB, CREBP, Ap-1, SP1, and TBP. The full-length cDNA sequence of 1,069 bp was isolated using RACE technique, and it is composed of untranslated regions of 60 and 403 bp at 5' and 3', respectively, with an open reading frame of 603 bp that encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 22.57 kDa. The precursor of PhGH is composed of 22 amino acid signal peptides and 178 amino acid mature peptides. Five conserved Cys residues (Cys(71), Cys(135), Cys(173), Cys(190), and Cys(198)) and two possible sites of N-glycosylation (145th and 197th) were detected on GH polypeptide. The PhGH gene showed more than 90 % sequence similarity with other catfishes, and the phylogeny constructed revealed the close proximity of Siluriformes fishes with Cypriniformes fishes. The PhGH gene was observed to be expressed predominantly in pituitary tissues while weekly expressed in extrapituitary tissues. Further, the recombinant PhGH was expressed in Escherichia coli using His-tag expression vector pET 32(a), and the recombinant protein of ~23 kDa was confirmed by western blotting. Our findings suggest that the identified functional GH gene would provide basic information in transgenic studies aiming for faster growth rate. This recombinant growth hormone (GH) may be produced in large scale to exploit its growth-promoting function in other cultured fishes.

  16. Yttrium-90 resin microspheres as an adjunct to sorafenib in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash A


    Full Text Available Armeen Mahvash,1 Ravi Murthy,1 Bruno C Odisio,1 Kanwal Pratap Raghav,2 Lauren Girard,2 Sheree Cheung,1 Van Nguyen,3 Joe Ensor,4 Sameer Gadani,5 Khaled M Elsayes,6 Reham Abdel-Wahab,1,7 Manal Hassan,1 Ahmed S Shalaby,1 James C Yao,1 Michael J Wallace,1 Ahmed O Kaseb2 1Department of Interventional Radiology, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, 3Department of Pharmacy, 4Department of Statistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 5Department of Radiology, Saint Louis University Hospital, St Louis, MO, 6Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 7Department of Clinical Oncology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt Purpose: The safety and efficacy of the combined use of sorafenib and yttrium-90 resin microspheres (Y90 RMS to treat advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is not well established. We determined the incidence of adverse events with this combination therapy in patients with advanced HCC at our institution and analyzed the treatment and survival outcomes. Materials and methods: We reviewed the records of 19 patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer class B or C HCC who underwent treatment with Y90 RMS (for 21 sessions while receiving full or reduced doses of sorafenib between January 2008 and May 2010. Therapy response was evaluated using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. We evaluated median overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS as well as hepatic and extrahepatic disease PFS and incidence of adverse events. Results: The median patient age was 67 years, and portal or hepatic venous invasion was present in eight patients (42%. Ten patients received reduced doses of sorafenib. The median Y90 radiation activity delivered was 41.2 mCi. The partial response of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors was observed in four patients (19%. The median hepatic disease PFS was 7.82 months, extrahepatic

  17. Charging of space debris in the LEO and GEO regions (United States)

    Sen, Abhijit; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar

    .-F. Roussel, F. Rogier, G. Dufour, J.-C. Mateo-Velez, J. Forest, A. Hilgers, D. Rodgers, L. Girard, and D. Payan, “SPIS open source code: Methods, capabilities, achievements and prospects,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 2360-2368, Oct. 2008.

  18. Influencias de la densidad y podas sobre la producción de Pinus taeda L. a los 7 años de edad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Costas


    Full Text Available En un ensayo con 3 niveles de densidad y 12 tratamientos de poda, se evaluaron los efectos de la densidad, la altura de poda, el número de levantes de poda y la interacción entre la densidad y las podas sobre la producción de la masa de Pinus taeda L. a los 7 años de edad. Las variables evaluadas fueron el diámetro a la altura de pecho medio (DAP, la altura media, el volumen individual, el volumen por unidad de superficie, el área basal, el diámetro máximo sobre muñón (DMSM, el coeficiente de forma de Girard (CFG, el diámetro de ramas (DRBC y el ángulo de inserción de las ramas (ARBC en la base de la copa. En los tratamientos con mayor densidad de plantación se observaron mayores volúmenes por unidad de superficie, área basal y CFG que en los tratamientos con menor densidad. Estos produjeron mayores DAP, volúmenes individuales, DMSM, DRBC y ARBC que los tratamientos con mayores densidades. Los tratamientos con menores alturas finales de poda produjeron mayores DAP, volúmenes individuales, área basal y volúmenes por unidad de superficie que los tratamientos con mayores alturas de poda. Los menores DMSM se obtuvieron con alturas finales de poda de 3,30 m y 4,40 m realizadas a los 4 años de edad y los mayores DMSM ocurrieron al no efectuarse podas a los 5 años hasta 5,50 m y 6,60 m. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los valores medios de DRBC, ARBC y CFG producidos por los 12 tratamientos de poda. La interacción entre densidad y los tratamientos de poda no fue significativa para ninguna de las variables respuestas.

  19. Habitat selection of two gobies (Microgobius gulosus, Gobiosoma robustum): influence of structural complexity, competitive interactions and presence of a predator (United States)

    Schofield, P.J.


    Herein I compare the relative importance of preference for structurally complex habitat against avoidance of competitors and predators in two benthic fishes common in the Gulf of Mexico. The code goby Gobiosoma robustum Ginsburg and clown goby Microgobius gulosus (Girard) are common, ecologically similar fishes found throughout the Gulf of Mexico and in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean. In Florida Bay, these fishes exhibit habitat partitioning: G. robustum is most abundant in seagrass-dominated areas while M. gulosus is most abundant in sparsely vegetated habitats. In a small-scale field survey, I documented the microhabitat use of these species where their distributions overlap. In a series of laboratory experiments, I presented each species with structured (artificial seagrass) versus nonstructured (bare sand) habitats and measured their frequency of choosing either habitat type. I then examined the use of structured versus nonstructured habitats when the two species were placed together in a mixed group. Finally, I placed a predator (Opsanus beta) in the experimental aquaria to determine how its presence influenced habitat selection. In the field, G. robustum was more abundant in seagrass and M. gulosus was more abundant in bare mud. In the laboratory, both species selected grass over sand in allopatry. However, in sympatry, M. gulosus occupied sand more often when paired with G. robustum than when alone. G. robustum appears to directly influence the habitat choice of M. gulosus: It seems that M. gulosus is pushed out of the structured habitat that is the preferred habitat of G. robustum. Thus, competition appears to modify the habitat selection of these species when they occur in sympatry. Additionally, the presence of the toadfish was a sufficient stimulus to provoke both M. gulosus and G. robustum to increase their selection for sand (compared to single-species treatments). Distribution patterns of M. gulosus and G. robustum

  20. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins


    Full Text Available Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mountain range, Rio de Janeiro. Individuals of I. parva were captured in April 2005 using different sampling methods: time constrained search (transects, plots of 5 x 5 m (25 m² on the litter, and pitfall traps with drift fences. We found 240 frogs; 35 females and 205 males. Females (mean SVL = 19.1 mm were significantly larger (F1,238 = 143.016, R² = 0.375, p < 0.001 than males (13.2 mm. The species preyed mainly on arthropods, with ants and isopods being the most important items, both showing high values of importance index (Ix = 50.0 and 26.7, respectively. Ischnocnema parva is a terrestrial species whose preferential microhabitat at the Serra da Concórdia was the litter of the forest floor (78.7%. The activity was predominantly crepuscular-nocturnal and the estimated density of I. parva was 24.9 ind/100 m². For the eight ovigerous females captured, the mean number of mature oocytes per female was 25 (range: 22-30 and the oocyte mean diameter was 1.11 mm (N = 40 oocytes. Oocyte number increased with female body size (R² = 0.504, F1,6 = 6.107, p < 0.05, N = 8, indicating that as females increase in size they produce larger clutches. Some ecological aspects such as diet and microhabitat use were similar to that observed for an insular population of I. parva, whereas reproductive traits differed. Thus, long term studies are necessary to understand the extent to which these differences are explained by environmental factors.

  1. Radical scavenging activity of polyphenol extracts from Limonium sinense%中华补血草多酚提取物对自由基的清除能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炳华; 李均; 郭巧茹; 陈莺莺


    By method of ultrasonic wave assisted extraction-macroporous resin adsorption, polyphenol extracts from root, rhizome, leaf and flower of Limonium sinense (Girard ) Kuntze were obtained, and their yield and constituents were preliminarily analyzed. On this basis, scavenging activity of polyphenol extracts from different parts to DPPH · ,· OH and 02' were comparatively researched. The results show that yield of polyphenol extracts from root, rhizome, leaf and flower is 12.42% , 5. 98% , 5. 27% and 3. 98% , respectively, having significant difference. Contents of total phenols, proanthocyanidin, flavanol and total flavonoids in polyphenol extracts have a relatively great change range, that is 51.87%-61.60% , 5.62% -39.47% , 3.69% -12.46% and 2.53% -35.97% , respectively. In which, contents of total phenols, proanthocyanidin and flavanol are the highest in polyphenol extracts from root and content of total flavonoids is the highest in polyphenol extracts from flower, showing significant differences with those in other parts. With rising of concentration gradually, scavenging rate of polyphenol extracts from the four parts to three radicals increases generally. In which, the scavenging effect of polyphenol extracts from root to DPPH* is the strongest and its half scavenging concentration (pSCso) is 38.52 p,g · LT-1, that is significantly lower than those of positive controls of rutin (67. 40 ug · L-1) and BHT (74.25 jtg · L-1 ). And scavenging activity of polyphenol extracts from flower to -OH and 02' is the strongest with pSC50 53. 51 and 74. 00 p,g · L-1, respectively, those are lower than that of rutin. Generally, the order of scavenging capacity of polyphenol extracts from the four parts to DPPH · fromstrong to weak is root, rhizome, leaf, flower, and that to -OH and O2' from strong to weak is flower, root, leaf, rhizome. Therefore, it could be concluded that polyphenol extracts from different parts of L. sinense have a strong scavenging capacity to radical

  2. 勒氏笛鲷(Lutjanus russellii)肌肉生长抑制素基因的克隆与分析%Cloning and Analysis of the Myostatin (MSTN) Gene in Russell's Snapper, Lutjanus russellii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓思平; 李嘉颖; 张婉玲; 宋春杰; 李广丽; 朱春华; 吴天利


    Myostatin (MSTN) gene was isolated from Russell's snapper, Lutjanus russellii by homology cloning method with the genome DNA. The Russell's snapper MSTN was 2887 bp in length, including three exons and two introns, along with 101 bp 5-UTR (untranslated region), 385 bp exon 1, 354 bp intron 1, 370 bp exon 2, 761 bp intron 2, 381 bp exon 3 and 1 932 bp 3'-UTR. The Russell's snapper MSTN gene encodes a 378 amino acid protein, including nine conserved cysteine residues, a RVRR proteolytic cleavage domain, and a putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids. Amino acid sequence analyses show the Russell's snapper MSTN has closer affinity with type 1 MSTN than type 2 MSTN of several telests. And it has the highest identity with Perciformes, higher identity with Cypriniformes, and the least identity with that of mouse, human and chicken MSTN. Neighbor-joining method and the results also show Russell's snapper has the closest homology with morone. And it clusters with type 1 MSTN of fish. It suggests that the Russell's snapper MSTN we isolated may belong to type I MSTN.%以勒氏笛鲷(Lutjanus russellii)基因组DNA为模板,采用同源克隆的方法,获得2887bp的肌肉生长抑制素(myostatin,MSTN)基因组序列,该MSTN序列具有3个外显子和2个内含子,包括101bp的5′-UTR、385bp的外显子1、354bp的内含子1、370bp的外显子2、761bp的内含子2、381bp的外显子3和1932bp的3′-UTR.整个开放阅读框编码了378个氨基酸,前面的22个氨基酸为信号肽,具有9个保守的半胱氨基酸及一个RVRR的蛋白酶解加工位点.氨基酸序列分析发现,该基因编码的蛋白质与其他鱼类的Ⅰ型同源性较高,与其他鱼类的2型MSTN同源性较低,且与鲈形目的同源性最高,与鲤形目的同源性较低,与人、鼠和鸡的同源性最低.采用邻接法(Neighbor-Joining)构建的MSTN的系统发育树表明,勒氏笛鲷MSTN与鲈形目鱼类的狼鲈属亲缘关系较近,且与鱼类的MSTN-1聚为1支.这表明该基因属于Ⅰ型MSTN基因.

  3. Fish community structure in intertidal area of Acipenser sinensis Natural Reserve in Yangtze River estuary%长江口中华鲟自然保护区潮间带鱼类群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨刚; 洪巧巧; 张涛; 侯俊利; 智玉龙; 庄平; 章龙珍


    为深入了解鱼类对潮间带水域的利用,2010年5月、8月、11月在长江口中华鲟自然保护区潮间带水域进行了插网调查.结果表明:调查期间共出现28种鱼类,隶属于10目16科,鲤形目种类最多,其次为鲈形目;群落优势种为中国花鲈(Lateolabrax maculates)、鲅(Liza haematocheila)和窄体舌鳎(Cynoglossus gracilis);长江口中华鲟自然保护区潮间带鱼类群落可以分为河口定居鱼类、海洋偶见鱼类、降海洄游鱼类、溯河洄游鱼类、海洋洄游鱼类和淡水鱼类6种生态类群,其中河口定居鱼类和海洋洄游鱼类占据明显优势.对调查水域鱼类群落进行聚类分析,结果表明秋季和春夏季差异显著,(鲮)、中国花鲈、斑尾刺虾虎鱼(Acanthogobius ommaturus)是对季节差异贡献最大的3种鱼类.主成分分析结果表明,夏季鱼类群落主要受到海洋洄游鱼类的影响,而秋季主要受到河口定居鱼类的影响,这2种鱼类的幼鱼在不同季节利用潮间带水域索饵肥育可能是造成季节差异的主要原因.%In order to understand the utilization of intertidal water area by fishes, an investigation with fyke was conducted on the fish community structure in the intertidal area of Acipenser sinensis Natural Reserve in Yangtze River estuary in May, August and November 2010. A total of 28 fish species belonging to 16 families and 10 orders were collected, among which, Lateolabrax maculates , Liza haematocheila, and Cynoglossus gracilis were the dominant species. Cypriniformes had the largest species number, followed by Perciformes. The fish communities could be classified into 6 ecological groups, i. e. , estuarine species, marine stragglers, catadromous species, anadro-mous species, marine migrants, and freshwater species, and the estuarine species and marine migrants took up distinct advantage. Cluster analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the fish communities in autumn and in spring

  4. Characteristics of fish fauna and status of fish resources in Wu Jiao nature reserve and its adjacent%勿角自然保护区及邻近水域鱼类区系特征和资源现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾燏; 马永红; 陈建武


    2010年11月、2011年5月对四川省九寨沟勿角自然保护区及其邻近水域鱼类物种多样性进行调查,共采集到鱼类6种,共182尾,隶属于3目4科.其中,土著鱼类5种,外来种1种;鲤形目4种,占鱼类物种数的66.67%,鲇形目和鲑形目各有1种,均占鱼类物种数的16.67%.保护区鱼类主要组成为老第三纪原始类群和青藏高原类群,兼有少量的北方冷水类群.其中长江上游特有鱼类3种,占鱼类物种总数的50%;属于四川省重点保护野生动物的有2种,占鱼类物种总数的33.33%.保护区鱼类在食性和栖息习性等方面分别属于不同的生态类型.掠夺性获取,水环境破坏,以及外来种入侵是保护区鱼类资源面临的最大威胁,针对以上威胁提出了相应的保护对策.%An investigation was conducted to the fish biodiversity and fish habitats of Wu Jiao Nature Resources and its adjacent from November 2010 to May 2011. A total of 182 specimens of fish belonging to 6 species 4 families and 3 orders were recorded. Among them, 5 were endemic, 1 were exotic. There were 4 species of Cypriniformes, one specie of Siluri-formes and Salmoniformes, accounting for 66. 67% , 16. 67% of the total species, respectively. The faunal characteristic was mainly of Later Tertiary Period Primitive group and Tibetan Plateau Croup, and a spot of North Cold Water Croup. Among them, 3 species were endemic to the Yangtze River, accounting for 50% of the total and 2 species were Sichuan provincial wild animals, accounting for 33.33% of the total. The fish in the Wu Jiao Nature Reserve belonged to different ecological types in feeding and inhabitation. Devastating fishing, changes in environmental water and the invasion of alien species were the most serious threats to the local fishery resources, and some countermeasures were proposed for conservation and management of the resources.

  5. Diversity and Community Structure of the Fishes in the Headstream Region of the Dongjiang River%东江源头区域鱼类物种多样性及群落组成的特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓凤云; 张春光; 赵亚辉; 周岐海; 张洁


    生物多样性和鱼类群落结构的变化是反映人类作用及环境变化对鱼类群落影响的重要指标.2010年我们的调查结果显示,覆盖整个东江源头区的12个采样点收集和鉴定的鱼类标本共计7目18科56属74种.除陈氏新银鱼(Neosalanx tangkahkeii)、齐氏罗非鱼(Tilapia zillii)和食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)3种为外来物种外,其余71种均为土著鱼类.主要以鲤形目(77.5%)、鲇形目(9.9%)和鲈形目(8.4%)为主.优势种为宽鳍(鲼)(Zacco platypus),占14.87%,其次为马口鱼(Opsariichthys bidens)(9.93%)和侧条光唇鱼(Acrossocheilus parallens)(9.36%).本研究还以G-F指数、Shannon-Wiener指数、Pielou's均匀性指数、Margalef丰富度指数和Simpson指数评估了东江源头区域的鱼类多样性;东江源头区域鱼类群落以杂食性、定居性、中下层和底栖种类为主,源头这种鱼类群落组成结构与东江下游鱼类具有相同趋势,但相似性指数仅为0.39.拦河建坝是导致洄游性、半洄游性鱼类减少的主要原因,其次,水体污染、河道取沙、过度捕捞及有害渔具渔法的使用仍是源头区域生物多样性的主要胁迫因素.%The biodiversity and structure of fish communities is an important indicator of anthropogenic and environmental impacts. Here, we reported the results of a survey carried out in 2010, in which we sampled the fish at twelve stations throughout the headstream region of the Dongjiang River. A total of 74 species in 7 orders, 18 families and 56 genera were collected and identified. Of these 74 species, 71 species were native while only Neosalanx tangkahkeii, Tilapia zillii and Gambusia affinis were exotic species. Among all the species, order Cypriniformes was the most dominant component (77.5%), followed by order Siluriformes (9. 9% ) , order Perciformes (8. 4% ). As the results of relative abundance, the dominant species were Zacco platypus, accounted for 14. 87% , followed by

  6. Putative relationships among inseminating and externally fertilizing characids, with a description of a new genus and species of Brazilian inseminating fish bearing an anal-fin gland in males (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Stanley H. Weitzman


    Bryconadenos and Attonitus are discussed in relation to certain other inseminating characids, such as the species of Brittanichthys and Hollandichthys, that are not currently hypothesized to belong to Clade A and presumably acquired insemination independently. It is concluded that much additional data regarding the reproductive modes as well as other anatomical/physiological systems of characids currently included in and excluded from Clade A are necessary before a reasonably supported phylogeny of Clade A characids and their possible outgroup relatives can be advanced. The anal-fin gland cells of sexually active male Bryconadenos specimens are histologically indistinguishable from club cells (also called alarm substance cells found within the skin of cypriniforms, characiforms, catfishes, and other otophysan fishes. These cells occur at the skin's surface of the anal-fin gland in male Bryconadenos where they are organized into an organ. Many other adult male characids have club cells at the anal-fin's skin surface, often associated with anal-fin hooks, but were not found organized into an organ as in Bryconadenos. We hypothesize these cells to secrete a pheromone during courtship via holocrine secretion. Males of the genera Lophiobrycon , Glandulocauda, and Mimagoniates, tribe Glandulocaudini, were found to have club cells associated with their caudal-fin organ, but no specialized mucus cells were present as found in the caudal organ of males of the glandulocaudine Corynopoma riisei, tribe Stevardiini (= Corynopomini of past authors. In this species, males have hypertrophied mucus cells hypothesized to be modified for pheromone secretion. Evidence that the derived scales and fin rays of the caudal organ of males of the tribe Glandulocaudini are not homologous with that of other tribes of the Glandulocaudinae, as this subfamily was previously recognized, is discussed and it is concluded that the members of the tribe Glandulocaudini should be recognized as a separate subfamily

  7. 太湖鱼类群落结构及多样性%Community structure and diversity of fish in Lake Taihu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛志刚; 谷孝鸿; 曾庆飞; 周露洪; 王小林; 吴林坤; 曹萍; 孙明波


    In 2009-2010, bottom trawl surveys were conducted on the fish resources in Lake Taihu, aimed to understand the characteristics of fish community structure and diversity in the Lake. A total of 50 fish species were collected, belonging to 40 genera, 15 families, and 10 orders, among which, Cypriniformes had the largest species number, accounting for 68% of the total. The fish community was composed of three ecological guilds, and limnology species were most abundant (78% of the total abundance). The dominant species were of mini-type fish such as Coilia ectenes taihuensis, Hyporhamphus intermedius, and Salangichthys jordani. As compared with historical data, the fish species number in the Lake decreased, the composition of dominant species changed greater, and the mini-type fishes with body mass <30 g were absolutely dominant , with an obvious tendency of fish resources becoming smaller-scale. Due to overfishing and water pollution, the Margalef richness index D, Shannon diversity indices H'N and H'N, and Pielou evenness indices J'N and J'w in the Lake all decreased, being 1.54, 0.21, 0.46, 0.07, and 0. 14, respectively. To some extent, the differences in the fish species composition and biodiversity reflected the adaption characteristics of the fishes to the environmental variables such as nutrients and transparency in the Lake.%为了解太湖鱼类群落结构和多样性的分布特征,于2009-2010年利用拖网等网具对该水域的鱼类资源进行了调查.结果表明:本次调查共采获鱼类50种,隶属10目15科40属,其中鲤形目种类最多,占总数的68%;鱼类生态类型以湖泊定居性种类为主,群落优势种为湖鲚(Coilia ectenes taihuensis)、间下鱵(Hyporhamphus intermedius)和陈氏短吻银鱼(Salangichthys jordani)等小型鱼类;与历史资料相比,太湖鱼类的物种数量下降,优势种组成发生较大变化,鱼类群落中体质量<30 g的小型鱼类占绝对优势,渔业资源小型化趋势明显.由

  8. Ichthyofauna composition and distribution of fishes in Yunnan section of Lancang River%澜沧江云南段鱼类区系组成与分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明典; 陈大庆; 段辛斌; 王珂; 刘绍平


    Lancang River originates from alpine springs on the slopes of the Tanggula Mountain in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the species and distribution of fishes are very special in the river. To understand the present composition and distribution of fishes in this water system, a comprehensive survey was carried out in Yunnan section of Lancang River and its affiliated lake, Erhai Lake. Fifty two sampling sites were set up based on the different elevation and multiple habitatation. In the 4 787 fish samples collected, five orders, 14 families, 80 species of aboriginal fishes were identified, with another 59 species recorded in references. All the fishes,consisting of six orders, 18 families, are composed of fishes from two regions: Xikang-Tibetan Sub-region belonging to West China Region and Nukiang-Lancang Subregion belonging to South China Region. In addition,21 species of exotic fishes were collected. The differences in horizontal and vertical distribution of aboriginal fish are obvious. The horizontal distribution shows an obvious diversity and regional variety. The distribution of fish in Lancang River was influenced by altitude and climate. Many groups of fish have a certain distribution range. The Tetraodontiformes, the Perciformes and some species of the Cypriniformes are limited to low elevation regions in the tropics. The distribution of the Cyprinidaes and the Siluriformes which take up a large proportion in Lancang River shows a gradual replacement of different groups with the rise of altitude. Compared with the historical data,the current species number of aboriginal fish in some sections of Lancang River has decreased obviously.Environmental stress caused by river construction, over-fishing, pollution and exotic fish is external impact factors for fishes in Lancang River. Relevant departments should adopt various measures to tackle the problem such as establishing nature reserves, promoting artificial enhancement and releasing, setting up eco


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段鹏翔; 杨志; 唐会元; 肖琼; 龚云; 肖调义; 刘小燕


    Culter oxycephaloides (Kreyenberg et Pappenheim), which belongs to genusCulter, subfamilyCultrinae, familyCyprinidae, order Cypriniformes. They are a unique species in China and mainly live in the rivers and lakes of the Yangtze River Basin. Due to the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the ecosystem of the upper Yangtze River basin especially the tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir has been profoundly changed. The Xiao River is an important tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, and the habitat of a variety of organisms especially fishes. According to the data collected in 2013, some sections of the Xiao River have become major spawning grounds ofCulter oxycephaloides. Hence it is critical to investigate the age structure and the growth characteristics ofCulter oxycephaloides, in order to better manage and protect this fish resource. In April-July and October-December of 2013, we collected 1741 individuals from the Xiao River of the Three Gorges Reservoir and conducted the fish biology and ecology study. Our 245 samples could be divided into 5 age groups, and 2—3 year-old individuals accounted for 78.75% of the total samples. The relationship between the body length (L) and the body weight (W) could be fitted asW = 0.000007L3.10 (R2=0.9,N=789). The Von Bertalanffy growth function wasLt=519.63[1–e–0.22(t+0.12)],Wt=1806.08 [1–e–0.22(t+0.12)]3.10. The growth inflexion point of the body weight was 5.02 years, and the corresponding body length was 348 mm and the body weight was 558.8 g. The absolute fecundities ranged between 20382 and 88430 eggs per fish, and the relative fecundities were between 54 and 161 eggs/g. The eggs of mature females were 0.03—0.14 cm in diameter, with an average of 0.11 cm. Based on the frequency distribution plot of egg diameters, we deduced that the development of oocytes in the ovaries ofCulter oxycephaloides was in a successive process and the female could spawn twice within a reproductive period. We compared

  10. The role of glacial and tectonic genesis in forming of the Antarctic Peninsula's shelf topography (United States)

    Greku, Rudolf; Greku, Tatyana


    The influence of endogenous and exogenous factors on the topography of the West Antarctic shelf is shown. 1. The gravity tomography models [Atlas…] show that the non-geotectonic depressions about 300 m of depth extends to the south from the Bransfield Rift along the western and eastern shelves of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) up to 69 °S. This is due to the glacial tectonic, which was caused by lithostatic pressure of ice mass and the corresponding deviatoric stress (as а horizontal stretching) in a period of an intense glaciation. Ice mass increases towards the south, therefore the deviatoric stretch and the width of the shelves increases also. 2. Besides such external factors, deep tomography data were taken into account. Results of tomographic modelling show the structure of the AP along its crest and along several cross sections. The AP body, as a single structure, is submerged into the lithospheres of the Pacific Ocean and the Weddell Sea to the depth of 150 km. Some layers of its deepened part are displaced concerning the AP's crest axis. The largest of these shifts are observed up to 50 km from the axis to the east at the latitude of 63°S at the depths of 6-7 km, then a shift up to 100 km to the west at 66°S at the depth of 9 km and at 67°S to the east up to 150 km at the depth of 13 km. 3. After breakup of the ice shelf to the west of the AP, the outflow of ice weight from the main ice board on the Peninsula increased. The consumption of the ice is evaluated now by the discharge of glaciers. Informative data for that are the satellite radar altimetry and interferometry. Several pairs of the ERS1/2 images of 1995-2008 were processed for the area of the Vernadsky Ukrainian Antarctic Station. These 100km x 100km images show 4 glaciers (Deloncle, Girard, Waddington and Collins) along transverse faults. The Collins glacier is the most active one. It starts at the crest of the Bruce Plateau АР at the height of 1450 m. Three smaller glaciers provide an

  11. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV


    Caribbean, 1624-1783 (Bonham C. Richardson Michaeline A. Crichlow; Negotiating Caribbean Freedom: Peasants and the State in Development (Christine Chivallon Peta Gay Jensen; The Last Colonials: The Story of Two European Families in Jamaica (Karl Watson Marc Tardieu; Les Antillais à Paris: D’hier à aujourd’hui (David Beriss Rhonda D. Frederick; “Colón Man a Come”: Mythographies of Panamá Canal Migration (Michael L. Conniff James Robertson; Gone is the Ancient Glory: Spanish Town, Jamaica, 1534-2000 (Philip D. Morgan Philippe R. Girard; Paradise Lost: Haiti’s Tumultuous Journey from Pearl of the Caribbean to Third World Hotspot (Carolle Charles Michael Deibert; Notes from the Last Testament: The Struggle for Haiti (Carolle Charles Ellen de Vries; Suriname na de binnenlandse oorlog (Aspha E. Bijnaar In: New West Indian Guide/ Nieuwe West-Indische Gids no. 82 (2008, no: 1-2, Leiden

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Baal


    fig. - S. Kooijman, P.K. Neuhaus, Beiträge zur Ethnographie der Pala, Mittel Neu Irland (aus dem Nachlass bearbeitet von P.C. Laufer, MSC und Carl A. Schmitz. Kölner Ethnologische Mitteilungen, Köln 1962. 452 S., 28 Abb. - J. van Baal, Peter Matthiessen, De Zonen van Nopoe; Een Kroniek uit het Steentijdperk. Vertaald uit het Engels door Beb Vuyk. J.A. Boom en Zoon, Meppel. - J. Prins, Robert R. Jay, Religion and politics in rural central Java. Cultural Report Series no. 12, Southeast Asia Studies - Yale University. VIII en 107 pagina’s, en een bibliografie. - L. Sluimers, G.I. Lewinson, Philippiny mezjdu perwoj i wtoroj mirowymi wojnami. Moskwa, Izdateljstwo wostotsjnoj literatury, 1958. (G.I. Lewinson, De Philippijnen tussen de Eerste en de tweede Wereldoorlog. Moskou, Uitgeverij voor Oosterse Literatuur, 1958. 288 blz., krt. - R.T. Zuidema, Rafael Girard, Los Mayas Eternos XIV, 493 blz., 250 foto’s en vele tekeningen, schema en 5 kaarten. Antigua Librería Robredo, Mexico D.F. 1962. - R.T. Zuidema, Bodo Spranz, Göttergestalten in den Mexikanischen Bilderhandschriften der Codex Borgia-Gruppe. Eine ikonographische Untersuchung. Acta Humboldtiana, Series Geographica et Ethnographica Nr. 4. Franz Steiner Verlag GmbH. Wiesbaden, 1964. 435 blz., 1791 fig., 32 afb., 2 tabellen.

  13. Apresentação do Dossiê

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    Margarida Fatima de Souza Ribeiro


    Full Text Available In 2011, the Brazilian Methodist Church celebrates 40 years of the approval of the admission of women as elders of or pastor in the Church. Among the many fruits resulting from this opening, exists today at the Theology Seminary of the Methodist Church the Otilia-Chaves-Center, a space for training, sharing and reflection on issues concerning gender church and society. Within this context of the celebrations of these 40 years, the Otilia-Chaves-Center was also challenged to contribute by organizing a Dossier uniting articles written by Methodist women. The theological journal Caminhando presents in this edition the results of this initiative, containing articles of pastors and theologians of the Methodist Church, working in various areas within church and society. The proposal is to share what these women are producing in their field of knowledge. In this journal, you find mainly reflections focusing on the three major areas of theological knowledge: biblical, systematic and pastoral theology. On the subject of the Bible, Suely dos Santos Xavier, elder of the Methodist Church and professor for the Old Testament, presents in dialogue with Marcel Mauss, Henri Hubert and Rene Girard,an anthropological reading of sacrifice interpreting Leviticus 6:17-23, in order to understand a little more about societies where sacrifice is a central part of its religion.In the area of ​​Theology / History, Margarida Ribeiro, elder of the Methodist Church and historian, points out the trajectory of Methodist women from England to Brazil, and how these women made a difference in their time. After this, Elena Silva, elder of the Methodist Church and educator, emphasizes the role of the first Methodist woman preachers, especially those who exercised their ministries based on what she calls their “social charisma”. In a similar direction, Vera Silva elder of the Methodist Church and educator presents the possibility of Christian education in everyday life

  14. Preparation, characterization, and safety evaluation of poly(lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for protein delivery into macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedj AS


    Full Text Available Anne-Sophie Guedj,1 Arnold J Kell,2 Michael Barnes,2 Sandra Stals,1 David Gonçalves,3 Denis Girard,3 Carole Lavigne11National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, 2National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON, 3Laboratoire de recherche en inflammation et physiologie des granulocytes, Université du Québec, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, QC, CanadaAbstract: Following infection, HIV establishes reservoirs within tissues that are inaccessible to optimal levels of antiviral drugs or within cells where HIV lies latent, thus escaping the action of anti-HIV drugs. Macrophages are a persistent reservoir for HIV and may contribute to the rebound viremia observed after antiretroviral treatment is stopped. In this study, we further investigate the potential of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-based nanocarriers as a new strategy to enhance penetration of therapeutic molecules into macrophages. We have prepared stable PLGA nanoparticles (NPs and evaluated their capacity to transport an active molecule into the human monocyte/macrophage cell line THP-1 using bovine serum albumin (BSA as a proof-of-concept compound. Intracellular localization of fluorescent BSA molecules encapsulated into PLGA NPs was monitored in live cells using confocal microscopy, and cellular uptake was quantified by flow cytometry. In vitro and in vivo toxicological studies were performed to further determine the safety profile of PLGA NPs including inflammatory effects. The size of the PLGA NPs carrying BSA (PLGA-BSA in culture medium containing 10% serum was ~126 nm in diameter, and they were negatively charged at their surface (zeta potential =-5.6 mV. Our confocal microscopy studies and flow cytometry data showed that these PLGA-BSA NPs are rapidly and efficiently taken up by THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs at low doses. We found that PLGA-BSA NPs increased cellular uptake and internalization of the protein in vitro. PLGA

  15. Integrating top-down and bottom-up approaches to design a cost-effective and equitable programme of measures for adaptation of a river basin to global change (United States)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel


    the implementation of cooperative game theory to define cost allocation scenarios. These results are compared with cost allocation rules based on social justice principles to provide contrasted insights into a negotiation process. The interdisciplinary framework developed in this research combines economics and water resources engineering methods, establishing a promising means of bridging the gap between bottom-up and top-down approaches and supporting the creation of cost-effective and equitable adaptation plans at the local level. The approach has been applied to the Orb river basin in Southern France. Acknowledgements The study has been partially supported by the IMPADAPT project /CGL2013-48424-C2-1-R) from the Spanish ministry MINECO (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad) and European FEDER funds. Corentin Girard is supported by a grant from the University Lecturer Training Program (FPU12/03803) of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports of Spain.

  16. Towards an equitable allocation of the cost of a global change adaptation plan at the river basin scale: going beyond the perfect cooperation assumption (United States)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Pulido-Velázquez, Manuel


    of the adaptation plan, different allocation scenarios are considered. The LCRBOM allows defining a solution space based on economic rationality concepts from cooperative game theory (the core of the game), and then, to define equitable allocation of the cost of the programme of measures (the Shapley value and the nucleolus). Moreover, alternative allocation scenarios have been considered based on axiomatic principles of social justice, such as "utilitarian", "prior rights" or "strict equality", applied in the case study area. The comparison of the cost allocation scenarios brings insight to inform the decision making process at the river basin scale and potentially reap the efficiency gains from cooperation in the design of adaptation plan. The study has been partially supported by the IMPADAPT project /CGL2013-48424-C2-1-R) from the Spanish ministry MINECO (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad) and European FEDER funds. Corentin Girard is supported by a grant from the University Lecturer Training Program (FPU12/03803) of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports of Spain.

  17. Bound states and critical behavior of the Yukawa potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yongyao


    [1]Yukawa,H.,On the interaction of elementary particles,Proc.Phys.Math Soc.Jap.,1935,17:48-57.[2]Sachs,R.,Goeppert-Mayer,M.,Calculations on a new neutron-proton interaction potential,Phys.Rev.,1938,53:991-993.[3]Harris,G.,Attractive two-body interactions in partially ionized plasmas,Phys.Rev.,1962,125:1131-1140.[4]Schey,H.,Schwartz,J.,Counting the bound states in short-range central potentials,Phys.Rev.B,1965,139:1428-1432.[5]Rogers,J.,Graboske,H.,Harwood,E.,Bound eigenstates of the static screened Coulomb poten-tial,Phys.Rev.A,1970,1:1577-1586.[6]McEnnan,J.,Kissel,L.,Pratt,R.,Analytic perturbation theory for screened Coulomb potentials:non-relativistic case,Phys.Rev.A,1976,13:532-559.[7]Gerry,C.,Estimates of the ground states of the Yukawa potential from the Bogoliubov inequality,J.Phys.A,1984,17:L313-L315.[8]Kr(o)ger,H.,Girard,R.,Dufour,G.,Direct calculation of the S matrix in coordinate space,Phys.Rev.C,1988,37:486-496.[9]Girard,R.,Kr(o)ger,H.,Labelle, al.,Computation of a long time evolution in a Schr(o)dinger system,Phys.Rev.A,1988,37:3195-3200.[10]Garavelli,S.,Oliveira,F.,Analytical solution for a Yukawa-type potential,Phys.Rev.Lett.,1991,66:1310-1313.[11]Gomes,O.,Chacham,H.,Mohallem,J.,Variational calculations for the bound-unbound transition of the Yukawa potential,Phys.Rev.A,1994,50:228-231.[12]Yukalov,V.,Yukalova,E.,Oliveira,F.,Renormalization-group solutions for Yukawa potential,J.Phys.A,1998,31:4337-4348.[13]Brau,F.,Necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of bound states in a central potential,J.Phys.A,2003,36:9907-9913.[14]Bertini,L.,Mella,M.,Bressanini, al.,Borromean binding in H-2 with Yukawa potential:a nonadiabatic quantum Monte Carlo study,Phys.Rev.A,2004,69:042504.[15]Dean,D.,Drummond,I.,Horgan,R.,Effective diffusion constant in a two-dimensional medium of charged point scatterers,J.Phys.A,2004,37:2039-2046.[16]De-Leo,S.,Rotelli,P.,Amplification of coupling for Yukawa potentials,Phys.Rev.D,2004,69:034006.[17]Khrapak


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐东坡; 刘凯; 张敏莹; 段金荣; 张敏; 施炜纲


    2009年3月-2010年2月,利用密目插网对长江常熟江段小型鱼类进行了连续监测,首次对该江段的小型鱼类群落组成、优势种组成及生物多样性进行了剖析。结果表明:该江段共有小型鱼类24种,隶属于5目7科,其中鲤形目最多。根据IRI指数分析,贝氏鳖、刀鲚、窄体舌鳎、蛇蛔和光泽黄颡鱼为优势种,共占总数量的83.44%,占总重量的82.02%;贝氏鳖和窄体舌鳎在各个季节中均为优势种,刀鲚在春、夏、秋3季为优势种。基于渔获数量的分析结果显示,常熟江段各月多样性特征值范围为:Shannon-Wiener指数(H’)1.18-1.76,Margalef指数(R)0.87-2.07,Pielou指数(J’)0.48-0.83,McNaughton指数(Dn)0.57-0.86。Margalef指数和Mc-Naughton指数春季最高,冬季最低;Shannon-Wiener指数和Pielou指数冬季最高,夏季最低。最后探讨了影响该江段小型鱼类群落结构的各种因素,提出了合理开发和保护小型渔业资源的建议。%Based on the fishery survey by setting net from March 9,009 to February 2010,the community structure, dominant species composition and biodiversity of small-sized fishes have been analyzed. 24 species of small-sized fishes were collected,which belongs to 5 orders, 7 families,and most of the species were be- long to Cypriniformes. The dominant species were Hemiculter bleekeri, Coilia nasus, Cynoglossus trigram- mus ,Saurogobio dabryi and Pelteobaggrus nitidus ,which occupied 83.44~ of the total catch in number, and 82.02O/6o of the total weight. Herniculter bleekeri and Cynoglossus trigrammus were the dominant spe- cies in each season,and Coilia nasus in spring, summer and autumn. Four diversity indexes, Shannon-Wie- nerds index (H') ,Margalef's index(R') ,Pilou' s index(J') ,McNaughton's index(Dn) ,were calculated by catch in number to analyze the characteristics of species diversity of

  19. Putative relationships among inseminating and externally fertilizing characids, with a description of a new genus and species of Brazilian inseminating fish bearing an anal-fin gland in males (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley H. Weitzman

    Bryconadenos and Attonitus are discussed in relation to certain other inseminating characids, such as the species of Brittanichthys and Hollandichthys, that are not currently hypothesized to belong to Clade A and presumably acquired insemination independently. It is concluded that much additional data regarding the reproductive modes as well as other anatomical/physiological systems of characids currently included in and excluded from Clade A are necessary before a reasonably supported phylogeny of Clade A characids and their possible outgroup relatives can be advanced. The anal-fin gland cells of sexually active male Bryconadenos specimens are histologically indistinguishable from club cells (also called alarm substance cells found within the skin of cypriniforms, characiforms, catfishes, and other otophysan fishes. These cells occur at the skin's surface of the anal-fin gland in male Bryconadenos where they are organized into an organ. Many other adult male characids have club cells at the anal-fin's skin surface, often associated with anal-fin hooks, but were not found organized into an organ as in Bryconadenos. We hypothesize these cells to secrete a pheromone during courtship via holocrine secretion. Males of the genera Lophiobrycon , Glandulocauda, and Mimagoniates, tribe Glandulocaudini, were found to have club cells associated with their caudal-fin organ, but no specialized mucus cells were present as found in the caudal organ of males of the glandulocaudine Corynopoma riisei, tribe Stevardiini (= Corynopomini of past authors. In this species, males have hypertrophied mucus cells hypothesized to be modified for pheromone secretion. Evidence that the derived scales and fin rays of the caudal organ of males of the tribe Glandulocaudini are not homologous with that of other tribes of the Glandulocaudinae, as this subfamily was previously recognized, is discussed and it is concluded that the members of the tribe Glandulocaudini should be recognized as a separate subfamily

  20. 基于生态修复的青海湖沙柳河鱼道建设与维护%Construction and management of fish passage on Shaliu River adjacent to Qinghai Lake based on ecological restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓春; 史建全


    为减少水坝对青海湖裸鲤溯河洄游的阻隔,在入湖的沙柳河上先后建设了导壁式、简易模块式和阶梯型鱼道。通过对青海湖鱼道建设案例分析,得出鱼道设计需要关注的问题:鱼道进鱼口设计要安排在鱼类洄游通路并采取集鱼措施,鱼道设计要依据鱼类洄游能力,鱼道运行要注意改进和维护,鱼道设计需要多学科专家共同参与。结合国内外鱼道设计、建设和运行情况,提出基于生态修复的鱼道建设维护对策:确立生态系统功能价值的鱼道设计目标,确立从鱼的角度出发,系统性的鱼道设计理念、建设和管护方式。%Gymnocypris przewalskii belongs to subfamily of Schizothoracinae, family of Cyprinidae and order of Cypriniformes, and it is an endemic species only distributed in the Qinghai Lake and its adjacent rivers and lakes. It possesses migration characteristics, and goes upstream from the lake to surrounding rivers in the reproduction season. However, several dams built on the rivers flowing into the lake with the agricultural development in the Qinghai Lake region since 1970s, severely blocked its migration passages, leading to obviously decreasing of resources of Gymnocypris przewalskii in recent years. To protect Gymnocypris przewalskii, three kinds of fish passages on the dams of rivers flowing into the Qinghai Lake were introduced, which were types of guide wall, simple steel modular and ladder slope, respectively. 1) The guide wall type fish passage was separately constructed on the dams in the Shaliu River, Quanji River and Haergai River in 2006, which were built along river side, but it had several defects because of the lack of experience. 2) The simple steel modular type fish passage was designed and constructed on the dam of the Shaliu River in 2008, Based on biological characteristics of Gymnocypris przewalskii and the basic situation of the dam and environmental conditions of the Shaliu

  1. 广东省恩平市锦江河上游野生鱼类资源群落生态特征调查%A preliminary study on the structure of wild fish community in the upstream of Jinjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭乾开; 黎华寿; 崔科; 贺鸿志


    Zuiew), Silurus asotus Linnaeus, Ophicephalus argus, Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky), Siniperca scherzeri Steindacho, Micropterus salmoides, Misgurnus anguillieaudatu and so forth which take a percentage of 30.61% of the captured fishes are economical ; other 8 species, including Carassius auratus (Linnaeus), Tilapia nilotica, Xenocypris argentea, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Hypophthalmmichthy-srnolitrix, Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson), Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cirrhinus molitorella and so on which take a percentage of 16. 32% are common economical; the else taking 53.06%, including 26 species and 2 known ones are non-economical. Among the Cypriniformes, Cyprinus carpio and Pseudolaubuca sinensis are dominant species (IRIS500) while Carassius auratus, Pseudoperilampus lighti Wu, P. engraulis, Squaliobarbus curriculus, Hemiculter bleekeri and Pseudoperilarnpus lighti are common ones ; as for the Perciforrnes, Oreochromis and Ctenogobius giurinus are dominant (IRI≥500) while Channa asiatica, Ophicephalus argus, Micropterus salmoides , Macropodus opercuiaris , Rhinogobius duospilus , Mugilogoblus myxodermus and Hypseleotris swinhonis are commone; and for the Cyprinodontirormes, Gambusra affinis and Clarias batrachus are dominant (IRI≥ 500) while Ymbranchiformes monopterusalba, Plecostous Punctatus and Silurus asotus are common. We expect that our surveys and analysis would provide scientific proof for the protection and the implementation of the fish resources in Jinjiang River in Enping.

  2. A Massive Parallel Variational Multiscale FEM Scheme Applied to Nonhydrostatic Atmospheric Dynamics (United States)

    Vazquez, Mariano; Marras, Simone; Moragues, Margarida; Jorba, Oriol; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Aubry, Romain


    , 1992-1999 [5] N. Ahmad and J. Lindeman (2007), "Euler solutions using flux-based wave decomposition" Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 54, 47-72 [6] A. Robert (1993), "Bubble convection experiments with a semi-implicit formulation of the Euler equations" J. Atmosph. Sci. 50, 1865-1873 [7] R. B. Smith (2002), "Stratified flow over topography" In Environmental stratified flows, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Ed. Grimshaw R., 119-159 [8] L. Bonaventura (2000), "A semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian scheme using the height coordinate for a nonhydrostatic and fully elastic model of atmospheric flows" J. Comp. Phys. 158, 186-213 [9] G. J. Mayr and A. Gohm (2000), 2D airflow over a double bell-shaped mountain Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 72, 13-27 [10] C. Schär and D. Leuenberger and O. Fuhrer and D. Luthic and C. Girard (2002), "A new terrain-following vertical coordinate formulation for atmospheric prediction models" Mon. Weather Rev. 130, 2459-2480

  3. Clinopyroxene application in petrogenesis identification of volcanic rocks associated with salt domes from Shurab (Southeast Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Falahaty


    Isfahan for its financial supports. Reference Adams, G.E. and Bishop, F.C., 1986. The olivine- clinopyroxene geobar- ometer: experimental results in the CaO- FeO- MgO- SiO2 system. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 94(2: 230-237. Droop, G.T.R., 1987. A general equation for estimating Fe3+ in ferromagnesian silicates and oxides from microprobe analysis, using stoichiometric criteria. Mineralogical Magazine, 51(361: 431-437. Helz, R.T., 1973. Phase relations of basalts in their melting range at PH2O= 5 kb as a function of oxygen fugacity. Journal of Petrolology, 17(2: 139-193. Kretz, R., 1994. Metamorphic Crystallization. Chichester and New York, New York, 530 pp. Kushiro, I., 1960. Si- AI relation in clinopyroxenes from igneous rocks. American Journal of Science, 258(5: 548-554. Lebas, N.J., 1962. The role of aluminous in igneous clinopyroxenes with relation to their parentage. American Journal of Science, 260(4: 267-88. Leterrier, J., Maury, R.C., Thonon, P., Girard, D. and Marchal, M., 1982. Clinopyroxene composition as a method of identification of the magmatic affinities of paleo- volcanic series. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 59(1: 139-154. Morimoto, N., 1988. Nomenclature of pyroxenes. Fortschr mineral, 66: 237-252. Nisbet, E.G. and Pearce, J.A., 1977. Clinopyroxene composition of mafic lavas from different tectonic settings. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 63(2: 161-173. Schweitzer, E.L., Papike, J.J. and bence, A. E., 1979. Statitical analysis of clinopyroxenes from deep sea basalts. American Mineralogist, 642: 501-513. Soesoo, A., 1997. A multivariate statistical analysis of clinopyroxene composition: empirical coordinates for the crystallisation PT-estimations. Geological Society of Sweden (Geologiska Föreningen, 119(1: 55-60. Verhooge, J., 1962. Distribution of titanium between silicates and oxydes in igneous rocks. American Journal of Science, 260(2: 211-220.

  4. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV


    Full Text Available The African Diaspora: A History Through Culture, by Patrick Manning (reviewed by Joseph C. Miller Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, by David Eltis & David Richardson (reviewed by Ted Maris-Wolf Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery, by Seymour Drescher (reviewed by Gregory E. O’Malley Paths to Freedom: Manumission in the Atlantic World, edited by Rosemary Brana-Shute & Randy J. Sparks (reviewed by Matthew Mason You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery, by Jeremy D. Popkin (reviewed by Philippe R. Girard Fighting for Honor: The History of African Martial Arts in the Atlantic World, by T .J. Desch Obi (reviewed by Flávio Gomes & Antonio Liberac Cardoso Simões Pires Working the Diaspora: The Impact of African Labor on the Anglo-American World, 1650-1850, by Frederick C. Knight (reviewed by Walter Hawthorne The Akan Diaspora in the Americas, by Kwasi Konadu (reviewed by Ray Kea Tradition and the Black Atlantic: Critical Theory in the African Diaspora, by Henry Louis Gates Jr. (reviewed by Deborah A. Thomas From Africa to Jamaica: The Making of an Atlantic Slave Society, 1775-1807, by Audra A. Diptee (reviewed by D.A. Dunkley Elections, Violence and the Democratic Process in Jamaica 1944-2007, by Amanda Sives (reviewed by Douglas Midgett Caciques and Cemi Idols: The Web Spun by Taino Rulers between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, by José R. Oliver (reviewed by Brian D. Bates The Latin American Identity and the African Diaspora: Ethnogenesis in Context, by Antonio Olliz Boyd (reviewed by Dawn F. Stinchcomb Reconstructing Racial Identity and the African Past in the Dominican Republic, by Kimberly Eison Simmons (reviewed by Ginetta E.B. Candelario Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora in the Wider Caribbean, edited by Philippe Zacaïr (reviewed by Catherine Benoît Duvalier’s Ghosts: Race, Diaspora, and U.S. Imperialism in Haitian Literatures, by Jana

  5. Multi-isotope tracing of CO2 leakage and water-rock interaction in a natural CCS analogue. (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Gemeni, Vasiliki; Lions, Julie; Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Humez, Pauline; Vasilatos, Charalampos; Millot, Romain; Pauwels, Hélène


    interaction with carbonates and silicates. Both δ11B and δ7Li show a very large range of variation and fairly good correlation, between -29.7 o and +24o vs. NBS951 for boron and -11o and +20.4o vs. L-SVEC for lithium. The negative δ11B and δ7Li values are among the lowest reported in literature for groundwaters, comparable only to values observed for boron in case of geothermal fluids interaction with clay minerals (Pennisi et al., 2009) or in some amphiboles (e.g. Gillis et al., 2003) or lithium in ultramafic rocks (Nishio et al., 2004). Those variations reflect water-rock interaction with the silicate fraction of the highly heterogeneous graben filling but no clear indication of enhanced reactions due to CO2 intrusion has been found. The δ13C values of TDIC are also strongly variable (-10.5 to +15 o vs. PDB), reflecting biogenic inputs (e.g. from lignite layers), dissolution of carbonates and, potentially, methanogenesis through CO2 reduction. D' Alessandro W., Bellomo S., Brusca L., Karakazanis S., Kyriakopoulos K., and Liotta M. (2011) The impact on water quality of the high carbon dioxide contents of the groundwater in the area of Florina (N. Greece), Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment. Springer. Gillis K. M., Coogan L. A., and Chaussidon M. (2003) Volatile element (B, Cl, F) behaviour in the roof of an axial magma chamber from the East Pacific Rise. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 213, 447-462. Hatziyannis G. and Arvanitits A. (2011) Natural analogues of CO2 leakage in Florina area, N. Greece., 2nd CGS Europe Knowledge Sharing Workshop Natural Analogues, Maria Laach, Germany, October 17-19, 2011, pp. Humez P., Negrel P., Lagneau V., Lions J., Kloppmann W., Gal F., Millot R., Guerrot C., Flehoc C., Widory D., and Girard J. F. (2014) CO2-water-mineral reactions during CO2 leakage: Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of a CO2 injection field test. Chem. Geol. 368, 11-30. Lions J., Humez P., Pauwels H., Kloppmann W., and Czernichowski-Lauriol I. (2014

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS (United States)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco


    , Zhengtong Liu, Hsiao-Kuan Yuan, Rasmus H Pedersen, Alexandra Boltasseva, Jiji Chen, Joseph Irudayaraj, Alexander V Kildishev and Vladimir M Shalaev Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes R F Oulton, G Bartal, D F P Pile and X Zhang Theory on the scattering of light and surface plasmon polaritons by arrays of holes and dimples in a metal film F de León-Pérez, G Brucoli, F J García-Vidal and L Martín-Moreno Shaping and manipulation of light fields with bottom-up plasmonic structures C Girard, E Dujardin, G Baffou and R Quidant Gold nanorods and nanospheroids for enhancing spontaneous emission A Mohammadi, V Sandoghdar and M Agio Generation of surface plasmons at single subwavelength slits: from slit to ridge plasmon J-Y Laluet, A Drezet, C Genet and T W Ebbesen Mode mapping of plasmonic stars using TPL microscopy P Ghenuche, S Cherukulappurath and R Quidant Controlling optical transmission through magneto-plasmonic crystals with an external magnetic field G A Wurtz, W Hendren, R Pollard, R Atkinson, L Le Guyader, A Kirilyuk, Th Rasing, I I Smolyaninov and A V Zayats Nanoplasmonic renormalization and enhancement of Coulomb interactions M Durach, A Rusina, V I Klimov and M I Stockman Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides Pierre Berini Mapping plasmons in nanoantennas via cathodoluminescence R Gómez-Medina, N Yamamoto, M Nakano and F J García de Abajo Theoretical analysis of gold nano-strip gap plasmon resonators T Søndergaard, J Jung, S I Bozhevolnyi and G Della Valle Surface plasmon polariton-mediated enhancement of the emission of dye molecules on metallic gratings J Gómez Rivas, G Vecchi and V Giannini Nanoshells to nanoeggs to nanocups: optical properties of reduced symmetry core-shell nanoparticles beyond the quasistatic limit Mark W Knight and Naomi J Halas Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency T H Taminiau, F D Stefani and N F van Hulst Green

  7. Frequency, Causes, and Findings of Brain CT Scans of Neonatal Seizure at Besat Hospital, Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme EGHBALIAN*


    . Brain Res Dev Brain Res 2004; 152:137-42.Cornejo BJ, Mesches MH, Coultrap S, Browning MD, Benke TA. A single episode of neonatal seizures permanently alters glutamatergic synapses. Ann Neurol 2007; 61:411-26.Sanchez RM, Dai W, Levada RE, Lippman JJ, Jensen FE. AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated downregulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission by calcineurin after seizures in the developing rat brain. J Neurosci 2005; 25:3442-51.Huang L, Cilio MR, Silveira DC, et al. Long-term effects of neonatal seizures: a behavioral, electrophysiological, and histological study. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 1999; 118:99-107.Sayin U, Sutula TP, Stafstrom CE. Seizures in the developing brain cause adverse long-term effects on spatial learning and anxiety. Epilepsia 2004; 45:1539-48.Fanaroff AA, Martin RJ. Neonatal prenatal medicine. 7th ed. New York: Mosby. 2002.P.887-899.Bluvstein E, Judith B, Moshe B, Soloman N. Current management in child neurology. 2nd ed. Lernard Maria. 2002. P.123-128.Scafer B, Bodensteiner JB. Radiological findings in development delay. Semin Pediatr Neurol 1998 Mar: 37-8.Barkovick AJ. Pediatric neuroimaging. 3rd ed. New York: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2000: 162-205.Volpe A. Neurology of the newborn. 4th ed. Philadelphia: W.B Saunders. 2000. P.172-202.Swaiman KF, Ashwal S. Pediatric neurology. Principles and practice. 3rd ed. New York: Mosby. 1999.P. 183-188.Haaga JR, Lanzieri CF. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the whole body. Third ed. New York: Mosby, 1994.Girard N, Raybaud C. Neonates with Seizures: What to Consider, How to Image. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America 2011 Nov;19(4; 685-708.Christopher P. Hess, A. James Barkovich. Seizures: Emergency Neuroimaging. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 2010 Nov;20(4:619-637.Memon S, Memon MH. Spectrum and immediate outcome of seizures in neonates. JCPSP 2006; 16(11:717-20.Denizmen A, Filizy Y. Our cases of seizures in neonatal unit. J Pediatr 1997; 6(1:33-6.Park W, Kim DY