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Sample records for algansea girard cypriniformes

  1. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

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    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A morphological comparative analysis was performed among different populations of the cyprinid Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 from the Lerma-Chapala and Ameca River basins in central Mexico. A new species, Algansea amecae n. sp. is described from individuals collected from small tributary in the headwaters of the Ameca basin. The new species differs from Lerma-Chapala populations of A. tincella by having a lower number of transversal scales, a lower number of infraorbital pores, a prominent dark lateral stripe along the body, a black caudal spot extending onto the medial caudal inter-radial membranes, and a pigmented ("dotted" lateral line. This new species increases the high level of endemism in the freshwater ichthyofauna of the Ameca basin. It appears to be most closely related to populations in the Lerma-Chapala-Santiago system, as is the case for several other species in the Ameca basin. This pattern of relationship provides evidence for a historical connection between the 2 basins, and implies that a vicariance event led to the isolation of populations and a subsequent speciation event. Due to the limited distributional range of Algansea amecae n. sp., and the environmental deterioration of the Ameca River, we propose that this new species should be designated as a protected species under Mexican law.Se realizó un análisis morfológico comparando diferentes poblaciones del ciprínido Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 correspondientes a los sistemas hidrológicos Lerma-Chapala y cuenca del río Ameca. Con base en este análisis se describe una nueva especie, Algansea amecae n. sp. a partir de los individuos recolectados en un pequeño afluente del alto Ameca, en el centro de México. La nueva especie difiere de las poblaciones de A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago por presentar un menor número de escamas transversales, un menor número de poros infraorbitales, una franja obscura lateral muy marcada a lo largo del

  2. The ends of violence. Girard and Derrida

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    Andrew J. McKenna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Jacques Derrida’s critique of philosophical origins, in his essay on Plato and elsewhere, unveils a sacrificial dynamic that René Girard hypothesizes as the origin of human culture. Girard’s latest book, Achever Clausewitz (2008, applies his mimetic theory to history: the Prussian general’s analysis of increasingly violent «reciprocal action» in modern, post-revolutionary warfare exposes the mimetic principle of lethally violent doubles. This «trend to extremes» works to the dissolution of institutions – national sovereignty, international law, politics, war itself – that Derrida explores in Voyous, his book-length essay on terrorism (2003. Both authors see the world of globalized commerce and the globalized terrorism that goes with it as enmeshed in violent undifferentiation. Girard’s historically grounded work supplies a narrative line to Derrida’s structural analyses. Derrida’s call for an ever more vigorous deconstructive rationality as a solution is symptomatic of philosophy’s blindness to the interactive crescendos of human violence that is unveiled in Girard’s religious anthropology.

  3. Evolutionary trends of the pharyngeal dentition in Cypriniformes (Actinopterygii: Ostariophysi.

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    Emmanuel Pasco-Viel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fish order Cypriniformes is one of the most diverse ray-finned fish groups in the world with more than 3000 recognized species. Cypriniformes are characterized by a striking distribution of their dentition: namely the absence of oral teeth and presence of pharyngeal teeth on the last gill arch (fifth ceratobranchial. Despite this limited localisation, the diversity of tooth patterns in Cypriniformes is astonishing. Here we provide a further description of this diversity using X-ray microtomography and we map the resulting dental characters on a phylogenetic tree to explore evolutionary trends. RESULTS: We performed a pilot survey of dental formulae and individual tooth shapes in 34 adult species of Cypriniformes by X-ray microtomography (using either conventional X-ray machine, or synchrotron microtomography when necessary or by dissecting. By mapping morphological results in a phylogenetic tree, it emerges that the two super-families Cobitoidea and Cyprinoidea have followed two distinct evolutionary pathways. Furthermore, our analysis supports the hypothesis of a three-row dentition as ancestral for Cyprinoidea and a general trend in tooth row reduction in most derived lineages. Yet, this general scheme must be considered with caution as several events of tooth row gain and loss have occurred during evolutionary history of Cyprinoidea. SIGNIFICANCE: Dentition diversity in Cypriniformes constitutes an excellent model to study the evolution of complex morphological structures. This morphological survey clearly advocates for extending the use of X-ray microtomography to study tooth morphology in Cypriniformes. Yet, our survey also underlines that improved knowledge of Cypriniformes life traits, such as feeding habits, is required as current knowledge is not sufficient to conclude on the link between diet and dental morphology.

  4. Sorcery and publicity: the Cadière-Girard scandal of 1730-1731.

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    Kuznicki, Jason T

    2007-01-01

    The Cadière-Girard trial of 1730-1731 is an early example of a sensational, nationally publicized French trial in which the major parties were private individuals. Cadière, a female penitent, accused Girard, her Jesuit confessor, of bewitching and raping her; Girard claimed that Cadière was guilty of slander. It was to be the last witchcraft trial in the francophone world. Another notable feature of the trial was its publicity, in which the contesting parties almost immediately became stand-ins for the Society of Jesus and for its Jansenist adversaries. This paper argues that certain anti-Jesuits, particularly Cadière's defence team and in the Parlement of Aix-en-Provence, acted to prolong the trial with the aim of creating as much bad publicity as possible for the Society of Jesus; it also shows how Jansenist publicists took advantage of the lengthy process, creating literature that "burned Girard in spirit," and with him, the Jesuits as a whole.

  5. Girards Job-læsning 20 år efter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Lundager

    2007-01-01

      Abstract: Rereading René Girard's book "Job - the Victim of his People" 20 years after its initial appearance in French, the reader encounters not only the interesting phenomenon of an approach to a central Biblical book from "outside" traditional scholarly Bible exegesis which none the less...

  6. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

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    Ueng, Yih-Tsong; Chen, Kun-Neng; Han, Chiao-Chuan; Cheng, Chung-Yao; Li, Yi-Min

    2015-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), which has broader distribution range and diverse genetic structure than other species under the genus Zacco, was first determined in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,612 base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and 1 non-coding control region. Its gene arrangement and translation direction were identical to those of other typical vertebrate. Control region (D-Loop), of 929 bp lengths long, is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand shows T 27.02%, C 26.23%, A 28.94% and G 17.82%, with a slight AT bias of 55.95%.

  7. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Microphysogobio brevirostris (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

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    Cheng, Chung-Yao; Wang, Jiang-Ping; Ho, Chuan-Wen; Cheng, Ju-Wen; Ueng, Yih-Tsong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Microphysogobio brevirostris (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae), an endemic primary freshwater fish in Taiwan. This mitochondrial genome, consisting of 16,608 base pairs (bp), encoded 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding control region as those found in other vertebrates, with the gene synteny identical to that of typical vertebrates. Control region (D-Loop), of 929 bp lengths long, is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand shows T 26.28%, C 26.62%, A 30.26%, and G 16.85%, with a slight AT bias of 56.53%.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

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    Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Yangyang; He, Dekui

    2016-09-01

    The Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) is an ecological important fish in East Asia. In this study, we firstly sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of R. oxycephalus. The mitogenome is 16,606 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and two non-coding regions (origin of light-strand replication and control region). The gene content and order is in accord with the common vertebrate form. The nucleotide base composition of H-strand is 28.4% A, 27.2% T, 26.4% C and 18.0% G. The complete mitochondrial genome data would be useful for further studies of genetics, conservation biology and adaptive evolution of R. oxycephalus. PMID:25799350

  9. Reduction of Zygomatic Fractures Using the Carroll-Girard T-bar Screw

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    Ji Eun Baek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Zygomatic fractures are the second most common facial bone fractures encountered andtreated by plastic surgeons. Stable fixation of fractured fragments after adequate exposureis critical for ensuring three-dimensional anatomic reduction. Between January 2008 andDecember 2010, 17 patients with zygomatic fractures were admitted to our hospital; therewere 15 male and 2 female patients. The average age of the patients was 41 years (range, 19to 75 years. We exposed the inferior orbital rim and zygomatic complex through a lateralbrow, intraoral, and subciliary incisions, which allowed for visualization of the bone, andthen the fractured parts were corrected using the Carroll-Girard T-bar screw. Postoperativecomplications such as malar asymmetry, diplopia, enophthalmos, and postoperative infectionwere not observed. Lower eyelid retraction and temporary ectropion occurred in 1 of the 17patients. Functional and cosmetic results were excellent in nearly all of the cases. In this report,we describe using the Carroll-Girard T-bar screw for the reduction of zygomatic fractures.Because this instrument is easy to use and can rotate to any direction and vector, it can beused to correct displaced zygomatic bone more accurately and safely than other devices,without leaving facial scars.

  10. La crítica de René Girard al humanismo

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    Moreno Fernández, Agustín

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In René Girard’s work there are a lot of critics to the humanism and the humanists. First of all, in this article we will deal with a definition of this concept and his historiographic problem. There is a big contrast between the topics and ideals of the humanism and the mimetic theory. We study the explicit Girard’s critics to the humanists and finally we present one perspective that allows to consider himself like a humanist thinker.La obra de René Girard está salpicada de críticas al humanismo y a los humanistas. En este estudio nos preguntamos en primer lugar qué es el humanismo, haciéndonos cargo de la problemática historiográfica. Presentamos el contraste existente entre los tópicos e ideales humanistas y las ideas que se derivan de la teoría mimética. Estudiamos las críticas explícitas de Girard a los humanistas y, por último, adoptamos una perspectiva que permite calificarlo a él mismo como un humanista.

  11. 78 FR 25066 - Girard Gurgick; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and/or...

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    2013-04-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Girard Gurgick; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments... Commission and is available for public inspection: a. Application Type: Declaration of Intention. b. Docket... Dominion Virginia Power through its power grid. When a Declaration of Intention is filed with the...

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Cypriniformes, Catostomidae).

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    Chen, I-Shiung

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Cypriniformes, Catostomidae) has been amplified and sequenced by employing long polymerase chain reaction method. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,636 base pairs (bp), had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes, and a noncoding control region (CR). CR of 944 bp length is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of M. asiaticus is 28.62% for A, 27.90% for C, 24.8% for T, and 18.70% for G, with a slight AT bias of 53.40%. The complete mitogenome may provide important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic analyses for higher taxa of teleost fishes especially for the members of Cypriniformes. PMID:23544832

  13. Labeo rosae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in the Congo basin: a relict distribution or a historical introduction?

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    Van Steenberge, M; Gajdzik, L; Chilala, A; Snoeks, J; Vreven, E

    2014-11-01

    Labeo rosae, a species with a native range in Southern Africa, was discovered in the Congo basin by re-identification of two museum specimens previously identified as Labeo mesops. The occurrence of this species in the upper Congo implies a range extension of the species of more than 1000 km. Although the species' distribution is mirrored by that of some other Cypriniformes, its occurrence in the Congo might be due to introduction by humans.

  14. Danionella dracula, an escape from the cypriniform Bauplan via developmental truncation?

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    Britz, Ralf; Conway, Kevin W

    2016-02-01

    We provide a detailed account of the osteology of the miniature Asian freshwater cyprinid fish Danionella dracula. The skeleton of D. dracula shows a high degree of developmental truncation when compared to most other cyprinids, including its close relative the zebrafish Danio rerio. Sixty-one bones, parts thereof or cartilages present in most other cyprinids are missing in D. dracula. This impressive organism-wide case of progenesis renders it one of the most developmentally truncated bony fishes or even vertebrates. Danionella dracula lacks six of the eight unique synapomorphies that define the order Cypriniformes and has, thus, departed from the cypriniform Bauplan more dramatically than any other member of this group. This escape from one of the most successful Baupläne among bony fishes may have been facilitated by the organism-wide progenesis encountered in D. dracula. By returning in its skeletal structure to the early developmental condition of other cypriniforms, D. dracula may have managed to overcome the evolutionary constraints associated with this Bauplan and opened up new evolutionary avenues that enabled it to evolve a number of striking morphological novelties, including its tooth-like odontoid processes and a complex drumming apparatus.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean endemic species Microphysogobio yaluensis (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

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    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Kgu-Hwan; Park, Hee Cheon; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean endemic species Microphysogobio yaluensis (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae). The mitogenome, consisted of 16 601 base pairs (bp), encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and 2 non-coding regions. The overall base composition of M. yaluensis was G + C: 43.8%, A + T: 56.2%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Phylogenetic analysis showed that M. yaluensis was close to Hemibarbus mylodon. PMID:26260172

  16. Análise das atividades biológicas dos venenos de Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein) e P. patagoniensis (Girard) (Serpentes, Colubridae) Analysis of biological activities from Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein) and P. patagoniensis (Girard) venoms (Serpents, Colubridae)

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    Marisa M. T. da Rocha; Maria de F. D. Furtado

    2007-01-01

    Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823) e P.patagonienis (Girard, 1857) são serpentes colubrídeas da série opistóglifa, restritas à América do Sul. Vários acidentes ocasionados por estas serpentes têm sido relatados, caracterizando-se por ação local importante: dor, edema e hemorragia. É um acidente muito semelhante àquele causado por serpentes do gênero Bothrops Wagler, 1824 e muitas vezes os pacientes são tratados com soro antibotrópico. Poucos estudos tratam da caracterização destes venen...

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diptychus maculatus Steindachner (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

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    He, Dekui; Liang, Yangyang; Li, Chunhua; Wei, Chaojun; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-09-01

    Diptychus maculatus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), the sole species of genus Diptychus, is an economically important freshwater fish widely distributed in Asia. In this study, we first sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of D. maculatus. The genome is 16,835 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes as well as 2 non-coding regions: origin of light-strand replication (OL) and control region (D-loop). The gene composition and order are identical with most bony fishes. The overall nucleotide composition of the heavy strand is 27.7% A, 26.7% T, 26.5% C and 19.1% G. The mitogenome data would be useful for further genetics studies, phylogenetic analysis, and resource protection of D. maculatus and phylogenetic analysis of Schizothoracine fishes. PMID:25774947

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Pseudogastromyzon jiulongjiangensis Chen (Cypriniformes, Homalopteridae) and phylogenetic analysis of the Cyprinoidei.

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    Lv, Yaoping; Zhang, Kaibo; Liu, Ziming; Hu, Zehui; Wang, Kaiwei; Zhou, Haidong

    2016-07-01

    The Pseudogastromyzon jiulongjiangensis Chen (Cypriniformes, Homalopteridae) is a promising ornamental and commercial candidate in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of P. jiulongjiangensis was first determined. It is 16,571 bp length and consists of 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and a control region. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. jiulongjiangensis, Formosania lacustris, and other seven fish first clustered into the Homalopteridae clade. Then, the Homalopteridae and Cobitidae formed the sister group. The Catostomoidae and Cyprinidae constituted the sister branch, which is inconsistent with the previous phenotypic report. It is suggested that the taxonomic research might lose some significant evolutionary characters. This study will contribute to phylogenetic analysis of the Homalopteridae and the natural resources conservation of P. jiulongjiangensis. PMID:27158787

  19. Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Gobioninae Inferred from Multiple Nuclear Gene Sequences

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    Keun-Yong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1, recombination activating gene 2 (rag2, and early growth response 1 gene (egr1, from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia.

  20. [Study of profile analysis on urinary free steroids using high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric scanning by photodiode array--application of Girard reagent T for sample preparation].

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    Toya, K

    1988-04-20

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been useful for profile analysis of steroids. However, the conventional extraction of urinary free steroids using urine specimens has some disadvantages because of lots of interfering substances simultaneously extracted from the urine. These substances were usually detected on the chromatogram at the range of relatively short retention time within which some urinary free steroids were heavily contaminated. Therefore it seemed unsuitable for profile analysis of urinary free steroids by HPLC. In this study, we developed a relatively simple and reproducible method for removing the interfering substances by Girard reagent T. In addition, the purity of each extracted free steroids were confirmed by Photodiode Array continuous scanning system, together with 3-dimensional chromatogram as well as contour map analyzed by the attached computer. The extraction procedure was as follows: (1) 10% volume of 24-h specimens of urine included 1 microgram internal standard was charged to Sep-pack C18 cartridge. The cartridge was eluted with 20 micromilligram ethyl acetate and the eluate was evaporated. (2) 10 mg Girard reagent T dissolved in 0.5 micromilligram acetic acid and 0.5 micromilligram ethanol was added to the residue, then left at room temperature for 2 hours. During this time, ketosteroids formed by the action of Girard reagent T turned to be water-soluble hydrazone complex. (3) After the addition of 10 micromilligram cold water, it was adjusted to pH 8 with NaOH and NaHCO3, then washed with 5 volumes of ethyl acetate (non-ketotic fraction). (4) The lower layer were hydrolyzed by adding 0.5 micromilligram concentrated hydrogen chloride and left for an hour at room temperature, then the liberated steroids were extracted with ethyl acetate (ketotic fraction). (5) Ethyl acetate extract was evaporated and redissolved in the mobile phase, then injected to HPLC. To determine the effect of Girard's separation non-ketotic fraction

  1. Análise das atividades biológicas dos venenos de Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein e P. patagoniensis (Girard (Serpentes, Colubridae Analysis of biological activities from Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein and P. patagoniensis (Girard venoms (Serpents, Colubridae

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    Marisa M. T. da Rocha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823 e P.patagonienis (Girard, 1857 são serpentes colubrídeas da série opistóglifa, restritas à América do Sul. Vários acidentes ocasionados por estas serpentes têm sido relatados, caracterizando-se por ação local importante: dor, edema e hemorragia. É um acidente muito semelhante àquele causado por serpentes do gênero Bothrops Wagler, 1824 e muitas vezes os pacientes são tratados com soro antibotrópico. Poucos estudos tratam da caracterização destes venenos, assim tivemos como objetivo de trabalho o estudo dos venenos de P.olfersii e P.patagonienis. Os venenos apresentaram teor de proteínas entre 75 e 90%. A atividade desfibrinante não foi detectada quando testada em camundongos. O quadro de dor causado pelo envenenamento experimental, em camundongos, mostrou que os venenos de P.olfersii e P.patagoniensis causaram intensa reatividade, sendo que o veneno de P.patagoniensis foi o mais ativo. Ambos os venenos apresentaram dose mínima edematogênica em torno de 1 µg/camundongo com ação máxima em 30 minutos.A ação hemorrágica se instalou rapidamente, com doses mínimas semelhantes. As atividades tóxicas foram semelhantes, com valores em torno de 60,0 µg/camundongo, comparáveis aos venenos botrópicos.Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823 and P. patagoniesis (Girard, 1857 are species of colubrid snakes of the opisthoglyphous series restricted to South America. Several accidents caused by these snakes have been reported and they are mainly characterized by marked effects at the site of bite, such as pain, swelling and hemorrhage. Such accidents are similar to those caused by snakes of the genus Bothrops, and thereby patients bitten by Philodryas sp. are frequently treated with Bothrops antivenom. Since few studies have dealt with the characterization of these venoms, our aim was to study the venoms of P.olfersii and P.patagoniensis. They presented protein contents between 75 and 90

  2. La filogénesis humana según la teoría mimética de René Girard

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    Moreno Fernandéz, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    La teoría mimética de René Girard contiene una interpretación acerca del origen de la especie humana y el proceso de hominización. Su propuesta destaca por el afán de aunar las aportaciones de la etología animal y de la antropología cultural, en torno al mimetismo y su hipótesis del mecanismo del chivo expiatorio. Nuestro objetivo es presentar una síntesis de sus consideraciones acerca de la antropogénesis, presentes a lo largo de su obra.

  3. Phylogeny of the Labeoninae (Teleostei, Cypriniformes) based on nuclear DNA sequences and implications on character evolution and biogeography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanping ZHENG; Junxing YANG; Xiaoyong CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The Labeoninae is a subfamily of the family Cyprinidae,Order Cypriniformes.Oromandibular morphology within the Labeoninae is the greatest among cyprinid fishes.Although several phylogenetic studies about labeonines have been undertaken the results have been inconsistent and a comprehensive phylogeny is needed.Further,an incongruence between morphological and molecular phylogeny requires a systematic exploration of the significance of morphological characters on the basis of the molecular phylogeny.In this study,a total of 292 nucleotide sequences from 73 individuals (representing 24 genera and 73 species) of Labeoninae were analyzed.The results of the phylogenetic analysis indicate that there are four major clades within Labeoninae and three monophyletic lineages within the fourth clade.Results of the character evolution show that all oromandibular morphological characters are homoplastically distributed on the molecular phylogenetic tree and suggests that these characters evolved several times during the history of labeonines.In particular,the labeonine,a specific disc on the lower lip,has been acquired three times and reversed twice.These morphological characters do not have systematic significance but can be useful for taxonomy.The results of biogeography suggest that the Labeoninae originated from Southeast Asia and separately dispersed to Africa,East Asia and South Asia.

  4. The complete mtDNA genome of Triplophysa dorsalis (Cypriniformes, Balitoridae, Cobitoidea): genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dujuan; Conteh Kanu, Unisa; Zhao, Guang; Xie, Peng; Yuan, Hao; Li, Yu; Niu, Jiangong; Ma, Xufa

    2016-09-01

    Based upon the morphological characters, the genus Triplophysa (plateau Loach) is a highly diverse group in the family Balitoridae (or Cypriniformes, Cobitoidea) with 133 valid species. Therefore, the taxonomic relationship of this species at the genetic level remains ambiguous. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Triplophysa dorsalis. In order to understand its position and genetic background at the gene level, the characteristics of mitochondrial DNA sequences and phylogenetic relationship were examined. The mitochondrial genome of T. dorsalis is similar to those of the typical vertebrates, 16 572 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region (D-loop). All genes were encoded on the heavy strand except for ND6 and 8 tRNA genes. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was 28.16%, 28.41%, 25.62% and 17.82% for A, T, C and G, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the seven Triplophysa species clustered together with T. dorsalis to form a sister group with Triplophysa strauchii, T. bleekeri, T. stoliczkai and T. bombifrons. The two genera Triplophysa and Barbatula formed a sister-group relationship, the species Homatula potanini located in the intermediate position, and the genus Leptobotia elongata was in the basal position in the subfamily Nemacheilidae. Further investigations with more Triplophysa species need to be performed for better understanding of the evolutionary history of this fascinating genus. PMID:26457606

  5. Mística y seducción: el affaire Cadière-Girard y el triunfo de la racionalidad ilustrada en Thérèse philosophe

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    Natalia Lorena Zorrilla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at examining the theo-retic and literary models of sexuality offered in the libertine novel Thérèse philosophe, focusing on its representation of the Ca-dière-Girard affair. During this scandalous trial that took place in the Parliament of Aix-en-Provence in 1731, Jean-Baptiste Girard (Jesuit priest was accused by Marie-Catherine Cadière (penitent of sorcery and sexual abuse, while he claimed these charges were calumnies. We seek to show the de-velopment of a rationalist, demystifying, scientific perspective on this affair, charac-teristic of Enlightenment in the eighteenth century, which tended to neutralize and obliterate charismatic religiosity.

  6. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cypriniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohua; Zhao, Jie; Du, Qiyan; Chang, Zhongjie

    2010-08-01

    The Sox9 gene attracts a lot of attention because of its connection with gonadal development and differentiation. However, Sox8, belonging to the same subgroup SoxE, has rarely been studied. To investigate the function as well as the evolutionary origin of SOXE subgroup, we amplified the genomic DNA of Paramisgurnus dabryanu using a pair of degenerate primers. Using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE), it was discovered that P. dabryanu has two duplicates: Sox8a and Sox8b. Each has an intron of different length in the conserved HMG-box region. The overall sequence similarity of the deduced amino acid of PdSox8a and PdSox8b was 46.26%, and only two amino acids changed in the HMG-box. This is the first evidence showing that there are two distinct duplications of Sox8 genes in Cypriniformes. Southern blot analysis showed only one hybrid band, with lengths 7.4 or 9.2 kb. Both semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR assay displayed that both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are downregulated during early embryonic development. In adult tissues, the two Sox8 genes expressed ubiquitously, and expression levels are particularly high in the gonads and brain. In gonads, both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are expressed at a higher level in the tesis than in the ovary. PdSox8a and PdSox8b may have functional overlaps and are essential for the neuronal development and differentiation of gonads. PMID:20861569

  7. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cypriniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohua; Zhao, Jie; Du, Qiyan; Chang, Zhongjie

    2010-08-01

    The Sox9 gene attracts a lot of attention because of its connection with gonadal development and differentiation. However, Sox8, belonging to the same subgroup SoxE, has rarely been studied. To investigate the function as well as the evolutionary origin of SOXE subgroup, we amplified the genomic DNA of Paramisgurnus dabryanu using a pair of degenerate primers. Using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE), it was discovered that P. dabryanu has two duplicates: Sox8a and Sox8b. Each has an intron of different length in the conserved HMG-box region. The overall sequence similarity of the deduced amino acid of PdSox8a and PdSox8b was 46.26%, and only two amino acids changed in the HMG-box. This is the first evidence showing that there are two distinct duplications of Sox8 genes in Cypriniformes. Southern blot analysis showed only one hybrid band, with lengths 7.4 or 9.2 kb. Both semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR assay displayed that both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are downregulated during early embryonic development. In adult tissues, the two Sox8 genes expressed ubiquitously, and expression levels are particularly high in the gonads and brain. In gonads, both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are expressed at a higher level in the tesis than in the ovary. PdSox8a and PdSox8b may have functional overlaps and are essential for the neuronal development and differentiation of gonads.

  8. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cypriniformes)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaohua Xia; Jie Zhao; Qiyan Du; Zhongjie Chang

    2010-08-01

    The Sox9 gene attracts a lot of attention because of its connection with gonadal development and differentiation. However, Sox8, belonging to the same subgroup SoxE, has rarely been studied. To investigate the function as well as the evolutionary origin of SOXE subgroup, we amplified the genomic DNA of Paramisgurnus dabryanu using a pair of degenerate primers. Using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE), it was discovered that P. dabryanu has two duplicates: Sox8a and Sox8b. Each has an intron of different length in the conserved HMG-box region. The overall sequence similarity of the deduced amino acid of PdSox8a and PdSox8b was 46.26%, and only two amino acids changed in the HMG-box. This is the first evidence showing that there are two distinct duplications of Sox8 genes in Cypriniformes. Southern blot analysis showed only one hybrid band, with lengths 7.4 or 9.2 kb. Both semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR assay displayed that both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are downregulated during early embryonic development. In adult tissues, the two Sox8 genes expressed ubiquitously, and expression levels are particularly high in the gonads and brain. In gonads, both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are expressed at a higher level in the tesis than in the ovary. PdSox8a and PdSox8b may have functional overlaps and are essential for the neuronal development and differentiation of gonads.

  9. Predation and control efficacies of Misgurnus mizolepis (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) toward Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae) and fish toxicity of temephos in laboratory and septic tank conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Seong Chun; Kwon, Young Hyun; Min, Kyung Il; Kim, Hyung Soo; Kim, Nam-Jin; Kim, Jun-Ran; Son, Bong Gi; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-07-01

    Culex pipiens molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae) is the dominant mosquito species in septic tanks in South Korea. An assessment was made of the biological control potential of mud loaches, Misgurnus mizolepis Günther (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae), toward Cx. p. molestus larvae in laboratory and septic tanks. Results were compared with those of temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate. In laboratory tests, all mud loaches survived on sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of aerobic septic tanks (ASTs), whereas all mud loaches died within 3-12 h after introduction into sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of anaerobic septic tanks, Gill hyperplasia and hemorrhages at the bases of pectoral fins were detected in all dead mud loaches. These appeared to have been caused by bacterial disease, rather than the physical and chemical characteristics of the septic tank water. A mud loach consumed an average range of 1,072-1,058 larvae of Cx. p. molestus in the AST water at 24 h. At the manufacturer's recommended rate (10 ml/ton) in the AST water, the temephos formulation did not cause fish mortality. In the AST experiment, predation of mosquito larvae by mud loaches at a release rate of one fish per 900 mosquito larvae resulted in complete mosquito control from the third day after treatment throughout the 18-wk survey period, compared with temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate-treated AST water (reduction rate, 40% at 28 days after treatment). Reasonable mosquito control in aerobic septic tanks can be achieved by mosquito breeding season stocking of a rate of one mud loach per 900 mosquito larvae. PMID:25118414

  10. Using the whole body as a sucker: combining respiration and feeding with an attached lifestyle in hill stream loaches (Balitoridae, Cypriniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Jens; Geerinckx, Tom

    2014-09-01

    Small fishes living in fast-flowing rivers face a harsh environment as they can easily be swept away by the rapid currents. To survive such circumstances, teleosts evolved a wide variety of attachment mechanisms, based on friction, negative pressure or both. Balitorinae (Balitoridae, Cypriniformes) are exceptional in using their whole body as an adhesive apparatus. We investigated the morphological adaptations of Balitorinae by studying the osteology and myology of four species (Beaufortia leveretti, Sewellia lineolata, Pseudogastromyzon myersi, and Gastromyzon punctulatus) using clearing and staining, serial cross-sections and CT-scanning. A kinematic analysis was performed to study the respiration and feeding mechanisms and to identify key structures in these mechanisms. Our research showed that the whole body of Balitorinae acts as a suction disc, with friction-enhancing structures (unculi) on the thickened anterior rays of the paired fins. The abruptly rising head profile, supported by the extremely enlarged lacrimal bone and the flat ventral body surface facilitate effective substrate attachment. During attachment, the pelvic girdle is pulled anterodorsally, suggesting the formation of a negative pressure underneath the body. Detachment by water inflow underneath the body is prevented by three mechanisms. 1) Barbels control the water inflow by detachment and reattachment to the substrate. 2) Most water present underneath the body is removed during inspiration. 3) Excess water is regularly removed by movements of the posterior pectoral fin rays. The balitorine body is thus modified as such that it allows effective attachment, while not impairing respiration. Comparison with other teleosts living in similar environments shows that most species use more locally concentrated modifications of the paired fins and/or the mouth for attachment. The high diversity in teleostean adhesive apparatuses and associated myological modifications suggest a substantial functional

  11. Acanthocercodes n. g. (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae) for species parasitising threadfins (Perciformes: Polynemidae), with description of Acanthocercodes bullardi n. sp. from the Atlantic threadfin Polydactylus octonemus (Girard) and reassignment of three species of Diplectanum Monticelli, 1903 from the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Diggles, Ben K

    2015-07-01

    Acanthocercodes n. g. (Diplectanidae) is proposed for Acanthocercodes bullardi n. sp. and three previously described species of Diplectanum all parasites of the gill lamellae of threadfins (Perciformes: Polynemidae). The new genus is characterised by species having peduncular spines composed of an anteriorly directed point and a flattened base from which an anterior root arises. Members of the genus lack auxiliary spinous or sucker-like structures in the haptor. Acanthocercodes bullardi n. sp. is described from the Atlantic threadfin, Polydactylus octonemus (Girard), in the Gulf of Mexico off Louisiana, USA. Diplectanum polynemus Tripathi, 1957 is redescribed and transferred to Acanthocercodes as A. polynemus (Tripathi, 1957) n. comb. based on specimens collected from the fourfinger threadfin, Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw), from the mouth of the River Adelaide, Northern Territory, Australia. Diplectanum spinosum (Maillard & Vala, 1980) (=Pseudodiplectanum spinosum Maillard & Vala, 1980) and Diplectanum megacirrus (Maillard & Vala, 1980) (=Pseudodiplectanum megacirrus Maillard & Vala, 1980) from the lesser African threadfin, Galeoides decadactylus (Bloch), are transferred to Acanthocercodes as A. spinosum (Maillard & Vala, 1980) n. comb. and A. megacirrus (Maillard & Vala, 1980) n. comb., respectively. PMID:26063297

  12. Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. and Myxobolus minutus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae) from the gills of the smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Thomas G; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Alberson, Neely R; Woodyard, Ethan T; Mischke, Charles C; Greenway, Terrence E; Wise, David J; Pote, Linda M

    2016-07-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Catostomidae) is native to North American waterways and occasionally grown in pond aquaculture. Species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 have been reported from the gills, integument, and intestinal tract of buffalo fish, although there is ambiguity in some host records. In the summer of 2013, thirteen adult smallmouth buffalo were seined from a 0.1-acre (0.04-hectare) experimental research pond at the Thad Cochran National Warmwater Aquaculture Center in Stoneville, Mississippi, USA, and examined for the presence of parasitic infection. Two previously unknown species of Myxobolus were observed parasitising the gills. Plasmodia of the two species differed from each other in both size and shape. Morphologically the two species were distinct from one another and from other Myxobolus spp. previously reported from buffalo fish. Myxospores of Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. were spherical and measured 12.7-14.5 (13.9 ± 0.4) µm in length and 10.7-13.6 (12.5 ± 0.7) µm in width with a thickness of 10.3-14.8 (12.6 ± 2.3) µm. Polar capsules measured 5.6-7.4 (6.6 ± 0.4) µm in length and 3.7-4.9 (4.5 ± 0.8) µm in width and each contained a coiled polar filament with 5-6 turns. Myxospores of Myxobolus minutus n. sp. were circular in shape and measured 7.4-9.6 (8.6 ± 0.7) µm in length and 7.5-9.9 (8.8 ± 0.7) µm in width with a thickness of 6.5-7.3 (6.7 ± 0.3) µm. Polar capsules measured 3.6-4.9 (4.3 ± 0.3) µm in length and 2.8-3.8 (3.3 ± 0.3) µm and each contained a coiled polar filament with 5-6 turns. Supplemental 18S rRNA gene sequencing identified unique sequences for each isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences demonstrated a strong clustering of both isolates with other species of Myxobolus from cypriniform fish. PMID:27307169

  13. Molecular phylogenetics of the family Cyprinidae (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) as evidenced by sequence variation in the first intron of S7 ribosomal protein-coding gene: further evidence from a nuclear gene of the systematic chaos in the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shunping; Mayden, Richard L; Wang, Xuzheng; Wang, Wei; Tang, Kevin L; Chen, Wei-Jen; Chen, Yiyu

    2008-03-01

    The family Cyprinidae is the largest freshwater fish group in the world, including over 200 genera and 2100 species. The phylogenetic relationships of major clades within this family are simply poorly understood, largely because of the overwhelming diversity of the group; however, several investigators have advanced different hypotheses of relationships that pre- and post-date the use of shared-derived characters as advocated through phylogenetic systematics. As expected, most previous investigations used morphological characters. Recently, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and combined morphological and mtDNA investigations have been used to explore and advance our understanding of species relationships and test monophyletic groupings. Limitations of these studies include limited taxon sampling and a strict reliance upon maternally inherited mtDNA variation. The present study is the first endeavor to recover the phylogenetic relationships of the 12 previously recognized monophyletic subfamilies within the Cyprinidae using newly sequenced nuclear DNA (nDNA) for over 50 species representing members of the different previously hypothesized subfamily and family groupings within the Cyprinidae and from other cypriniform families as outgroup taxa. Hypothesized phylogenetic relationships are constructed using maximum parsimony and Basyesian analyses of 1042 sites, of which 971 sites were variable and 790 were phylogenetically informative. Using other appropriate cypriniform taxa of the families Catostomidae (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), Gyrinocheilidae (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri), and Balitoridae (Nemacheilus sp. and Beaufortia kweichowensis) as outgroups, the Cyprinidae is resolved as a monophyletic group. Within the family the genera Raiamas, Barilius, Danio, and Rasbora, representing many of the tropical cyprinids, represent basal members of the family. All other species can be classified into variably supported and resolved monophyletic lineages, depending upon analysis

  14. René Girard's apocalyptic modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines how René Girard’s most recent book, Achever Clausewitz (2007), expands on Girard’s theory of the sacred to include a more specific and concrete notion of the apocalypse as a historically conditioned concept. In particular, I argue that the idea of “total war” (the kind of war engendered by mass conscription) is crucial to Girard’s critique of Clausewitz, which consists in pointing out the irreconcilability between Clausewitz’s famous formula “war is politics by other means...

  15. 基于Rag1基因序列变异的鲤形目鱼类系统发育重建:采样策略对生命之树的影响%Inferring the Tree of Life of the order Cypriniformes, the earth's most diverse clade of freshwater fishes: Implications of varied taxon and character sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard L. MAYDEN; Phillip M. HARRIS; Junbing LI; Xuzhen WANG; Kenji SAITOH; Shunping HE; Huanzhang LIU; Yiyu CHEN; Mutsumi NISHIDA; Masaki MIYA; Kevin L. TANG; Robert M. WOOD; Wei-Jen CHEN; Mary K. AGNEW; Kevin W. CONWAY; Lei YANG; Andrew M. SIMONS; Henry L. BART

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of species are fundamental to any biological investigation, including all evolutionary studies. Accurate inferences of sister group relationships provide the researcher with an historical framework within which the attributes or geographic origin of species (or supraspecific groups) evolved. Taken out of this phylogenetic context, interpretations of evolutionary processes or origins, geographic distributions, or speciation rates and mechanisms, are subject to nothing less than a biological experiment without controls. Cypriniformes is the most diverse clade of freshwater fishes with estimates of diversity of nearly 3,500 species. These fishes display an amazing array of morphological, ecological, behavioral, and geographic diversity and offer a tremendous opportunity to enhance our understanding of the biotic and abiotic factors associated with diversification and adaptation to environments. Given the nearly global distribution of these fishes, they serve as an important model group for a plethora of biological investigations, including indicator species for future climatic changes. The occurrence of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in this order makes this clade a critical component in understanding and predicting the relationship between mutagenesis and phenotypic expressions in vertebrates, including humans. With the tremendous diversity in Cypriniformes, our understanding of their phylogenetic relationships has not proceeded at an acceptable rate, despite a plethora of morphological and more recent molecular studies. Most studies are pre-Hennigian in origin or include relatively small numbers of taxa. Given that analyses of small numbers of taxa for molecular characters can be compromised by peculiarities of long-branch attraction and nodal-density effect, it is critical that significant progress in our understanding of the relationships of these important fishes occurs with increasing sampling of species to mitigate these potential

  16. BIOLOGY OF PROCAMBARUS CLARKII (GIRARD, 1852 IN LAKE TRASIMENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÖRR A. J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gather more informations about the biological characteristics of Procambarus clarkii and to investigate the reasons of its rapid expansion in Lake Trasimeno. Specimens of both sexes (544 males and 624 females were collected from October 2000 to November 2001. During the sampling period physical factors such as water temperature and hydrologic level of LakeTrasimeno were recorded. The study was conducted monthly in order to assess this species’ reproductive period. 1,168 specimens were analyzed for colour, sex, weight, and length. The sexual maturation of gonads was investigated in females. The results of this study evidenced that the population is in expansion, showing that Lake Trasimeno is an optimal habitat for this species.

  17. Anoressia e mimesi secondo René Girard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sidella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia and Mimesis in René Girard’s Thought - One of the basic premises of Girard’s thought is the theory of mimetic desire, for which, in all human relationships, the Other as a model is perceived as a rival. Mimesis is also found in narcissism, in love relationships and eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia, which cannot and should not be classified only in psychoanalytic terms. In fact, we should in such cases consider cultural and social contexts, which also impose prescriptions about the care and appearance of the body.

  18. Anoressia e mimesi secondo René Girard

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Sidella

    2011-01-01

    Anorexia and Mimesis in René Girard’s Thought - One of the basic premises of Girard’s thought is the theory of mimetic desire, for which, in all human relationships, the Other as a model is perceived as a rival. Mimesis is also found in narcissism, in love relationships and eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia, which cannot and should not be classified only in psychoanalytic terms. In fact, we should in such cases consider cultural and social contexts, which also impose prescription...

  19. “CULTIVO EXPERIMENTAL DE LA ACÚMARA DEL LAGO DE PÁTZCUARO (Algansea lacustris STEINDACHNER, 1895. PISCES: CYPRINIDAE) EN ESTANQUES RÚSTICOS”

    OpenAIRE

    FABIÁN REGALADO, JOSÉ MANUEL

    2012-01-01

    La acuacultura se define como una actividad productiva orientada hacia el cultivo de los organismos acuáticos incluyendo peces, moluscos, crustáceos y plantas acuáticas. La actividad de cultivo implica necesariamente alguna forma de intervención del ser humano en el proceso de crianza para incrementar la producción, así como el manejo de un lote de organismos de talla regular, su alimentación, la protección de depredadores o el incremento en la sobrevivencia. También implica la...

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of Rhodeus ocellatus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Juan; Chen, Yibin; Zhao, Huihong; Yang, Huirong; Liu, Li

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Rhodeus ocellatus (Kner) was determined using the next-generation sequencing (NGS). The genome was 16 761 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. The overall nucleotide composition was 30.43% A, 27.50% T, 25.94% C, and 16.13% G, with an A + T bias of 57.93%. The gene composition and the arrangement of the R. ocellatus mitochondrial genome were similar to that of most other vertebrates. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence will help to study the evolutionary relationships and population genetics of Rhodeus fish. PMID:26258516

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sinibotia robusta (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Ding, Shuquan; Yang, Qichao; Li, Xilei; Wan, Quan

    2016-09-01

    The Sinibotia robusta mitochondrial genome (GenBank accession no. KP979711) was a circular molecule of 16 575 bp in length, with two rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, an l-strand replication origin (OL), and a control region (D-loop). The nucleotide acid composition of the entire mitogenome was 31.91% for A, 26.90% for C, 15.56% for G, and 25.63% for T, with an A + T content of 57.54%. And the A + T content of 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and D-loop was 51.26%, 56.17%, and 67.73%, respectively. PMID:26258519

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Gnathopogon taeniellus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Wei-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Xiang; Yuan, Le-Yang; Lu, Yi-Wei; Jiang, Xia-Min

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Gnathopogon taeniellus was first determined in this study. It is 16,596 bp in length, contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one control region in the typical vertebrate gene order and transcriptional direction. There are total of 29 bp short overlaps and 34 bp non-coding intergenic spacers were found in the mitogenome. Overall nucleotide base composition of light strand is 29.3% A, 25.8% C, 17.9% G and 27.0% T. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and two stop codons (TAG and TAA/T) were used in the protein-coding genes. The origin of light strand replication (OL) was identified between tRNA(Asn) and tRNA(Cys) genes and could fold a hairpin structure. The nucleotide composition of control region is 31.8% A, 20.9% C, 14.0% G and 33.3% T. PMID:25714152

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Ambastaia sidthimunki (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Wei, Min; Yang, Qichao; Yang, Yingming; Wan, Quan

    2016-09-01

    Ambastaia sidthimunki is a beautiful small-sized fish and it was categorized as Endangered B2ab (iii,v) in the IUCN Red List. In this study, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome of the A. sidthimunki. The mitochondrial genome sequence was a circular molecule with 16,574 bp in length, and it contained 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, an L-strand replication origin (OL) and a control region (D-loop). The nucleotide acid composition of the entire mitogenome was 26.94% for C, 15.55% for G, 31.84% for A and 25.67% for T, with an AT content of 57.51%. This research contributes new molecular data for the conservation of this Endangered species. PMID:25722037

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Schizopygopsis anteroventris (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yangyang; Chen, Yifeng; Li, Chunhua; He, Dekui

    2016-09-01

    Schizopygopsis anteroventris (Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae) is an ecologically and economically important cyprinid endemic to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of S. anteroventris by DNA sequencing based on PCR fragments. The mitogenome of S. anteroventris is 16,620 in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and two non-coding regions: the control region (D-loop) and the origin of light-strand replication (OL). The gene order in the mitogenome is identical with common vertebrate form. The complete mitogenome sequence is useful for further genetic studies, phylogenetic analysis and resource protection of S. anteroventris. PMID:25791361

  5. Vaillantellinae, A New Subfamily Of Cobitidae (Pisces, Cypriniformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalbant, T.T.; Banarescu, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    INTRODUCTION It is generally accepted that the Eurasian freshwater fish family Cobitidae includes three main divisions, usually considered as subfamilies: Cobitinae, Botiinae and Noemacheilinae (Berg, 1940; Ramaswami, 1953; Nalbant, 1963). The two first named, in which the lateral ethmoids are movab

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pimephales promelas (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Kai; Xiao, Liang

    2016-09-01

    The fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, is an ecological important fish distributed across North America. In this study, we firstly assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of P. promelas. The mitogenome is 16 709 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 2 non-coding regions. The gene content and order is in accord with the common vertebrate form. ATG acts as the start codon for all PCGs except cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI), which has GTG as a start codon. The nucleotide base composition of H-strand is 29.2% A, 27.9% T, 25.9% C, and 17.0% G. The complete mitochondrial genome data would be useful for further studies of reproduction, development, and adaptive evolution of P. promelas. PMID:26328777

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gobiobotia filifer (Teleostei, Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Jian; Gong, Quan; Li, Hua; Lai, Jiansheng; Li, Lianman

    2016-09-01

    The Gobiobotia filifer is a small economic fish which distributes in the upstream of Yangtze River and its distributaries. For the environmental pollution and overfishing, its population declined drastically in recent decades, so it is essential to protect its resource. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. filifer was determined with PCR technology, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,613 bp. The order and composition of genes were similar to most of the other teleost fish. Most of the genes were encoded on heavy strand, except for ND6 genes and eight tRNAs. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias of G and C has been found in different genes/regions. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. filifer would contribute to better understand evolution of this lineage, population genetics, and will help administrative department to make rules and laws to protect this lineage. PMID:25806579

  8. Molecular Systematics of the Phoxinin Genus Pteronotropis (Otophysi: Cypriniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Mayden

    2015-01-01

    inclusion of the currently recognized Notropis harperi, herein referred to as Pteronotropis. Two major clades are supported: one inclusive of P. hubbsi, P. welaka, and P. harperi and the second inclusive of P. signipinnis, P. grandipinnis, P. hypselopterus plus P. merlini sister to P. euryzonus, and P. metallicus plus P. stonei.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Ancherythroculter lini (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yibin; Hu, Juan; Zhao, Huihong; Yang, Huirong; Liu, Li

    2016-07-01

    Ancherythroculter lini is the endemic species of fish in China. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Ancherythroculter lini using the next-generation sequencing (NGS). The total length of the complete mitochondrial genome is 16 616 bp which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNAs genes, and a control region. Most of the genes are encoded on the heavy strand except ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The genes order and locations are similar to other vertebrates. The H-strand has a nucleotide composition of 30.78% A, 24.74% T, 16.48% G, and 28.00% C. 13 intergenic spacers and five gene overlaps exist in the complete mitochondrial genome. And, we found the culter genus and Ancherythroculter nigrocauda are more closely related to Ancherythroculter lini by constructing a phylogenetic tree. PMID:27158794

  10. 腕上老虎机——GIRARD-PERREGAUX VINTAGE 1945 JACKPOT TOURBILLON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    来自瑞士的GP芝柏表向来以精巧、准确的机械表制造工艺著称于世,但在2007年度SIHH日内瓦高级珠宝钟表展上,这个世界顶级的手表品牌却带来了这样一款全新设计的Vintage 1945 Jackpot Tourbillon——它将一台老虎机巧妙融入到了堪称经典的Vintage 1945腕表设计中。只要拉动表壳右侧的把手,表盘上方的3个滚筒就会开始转动,滚筒上分别印有5个不同的符号图案,能够变化出125种不同组合。

  11. Penetration and distribution of carbon particles in a teleost fish, Poecilia formosa (Girard), the Amazon molly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Data is given on the tissue distribution of carbon particles in Amazon mollies exposed for periods of 24-120 h to a 0-0.05% suspension. Very little carbon penetrated the body, either by way of the intestine or the gills. The little amount that entered appeared to pass almost exclusively through the posterior intestine. There was no anatomical specialization of the cells in this area equivalent to Peyer's patches in the intestine of mammals. We suggest that the uptake in the posterior intestine is related to its greater surface area and possibly to some enhanced mobility. After intraperitoneal (ip) injection, carbon that entered the body accumulated at three sites: the heart, the mesentery and, especially, in the head kidney. By 120 h large accumulations were seen in the intertubular areas of the kidney; there was no evidence of excretion of carbon particles from these areas. (JMT)

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and electrochemical studies of Girard's T chromone complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saeedi, Sameerah I.; Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M. A.; Ammar, Reda A.

    2016-05-01

    Complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) of general composition [M(L)2] have been. The elemental analyses, molar conductance, spectral, magnetic moment and thermal measurements studies of the compounds led to the conclusion that the ligand acts as a tridentate manner (OON). The molar conductance of the metal complexes in fresh solution of DMSO lies in the range of 8.10-10.18 Ω-1 cm2 mol-1 indicating their non-electrolytic behavior. On the basis of analytical and spectroscopic techniques, octahedral geometry of the complexes was proposed. The ligand field parameters were calculated for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes and their values were found in the range reported for a octahedral structure. The data show that the complexes have composition of ML2 type. The activation of thermodynamic parameters are calculated using different equations. The octahedral geometry of the complexes is confirmed using DFT method from DMOL3 calculations and ligand field parameters. The cyclic voltammograms of the Cu(II)/Co(II)/Ni(II) complexes investigated in DMSO solution exhibit metal centered electroactivity in the potential range -1.5 to +1.5 V. The electrochemical data obtained for Cu(II) complexes explains the change of structural arrangement of the ligand around Cu(II) ions.

  13. [The salivary glands of Philodryas patagoniensis Girard, 1857 (Serpentes, Colubridae). A morphological, morphometric and histological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R A; Contrera, M G; da Costa, J R; Petenusci, S O; Lima-Verde, J S

    1982-01-01

    Morphological, morphometrical and histochemical studies of the cell types in the salivary glands of Philodryas patagoniensis have been performed. It is concluded: 1) the acini of supra, infralabial and premaxillary glands are formed by mucous and mucoserous cells; the Duvernoy's gland by seromucous cells; 2) mucous cells show neutral and sulphated mucosubstances and sialic acid; mucoserous cells show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid and protein radicals; seromucous cells of Duvernoy's gland show neutral mucosubstance and protein radicals. The acinar area, height of tubule and duct cells, and nuclear volume of acinar, tubule and duct cells were evaluated morphometrically. PMID:7181506

  14. Marketing y responsabilidad. Una aproximación ética desde René Girard

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Ferrer Lozano, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    La presente tesis tiene como objeto analizar la ética aplicada al marketing desde la perspectiva de la responsabilidad bajo el presupuesto de la hermenéutica crítica. La ética del marketing supone el descubrimiento y análisis de los principios, valores y fundamentos éticos en el campo del marketing y su función dentro de las organizaciones, así como las responsabilidades del mismo en sus ámbitos de acción e influencia. Para ello, hemos respondido en la primera parte, a qué es el marketing...

  15. Reproductive biology of Garra regressus and Garra tana (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae from Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akewake Geremew

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Garra regressus and Garra tana was investigated by collecting monthly samples (January to December 2006 from the southern Gulf of Lake Tana, where these species are endemic.  Garra regressus has an extended breeding time from April to October while G. tana breeds throughout the year with a peak from March to July.  The mean size at maturity in both the species was not significantly different between the sexes, but G. tana had a significantly lower mean size at maturity than G. regressus in female specimens.  Absolute fecundity estimates for G. regressus ranged from 580.8–1800, while those for G. tana ranged from 538.9–2968.  Egg size frequency distribution revealed that G. regressus is a multiple spawner, while G. tana is a single spawner.  The sex ratio in the total catch of G. regressus was found to be skewed in favour of females (Chi-square, P< 0.05, while those for G. tana was not significantly different from 1:1. The mean size at maturity was not significantly different between the sexes for G. tana. 

  16. Plasma testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone levels of male pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Cypriniformes, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gazola

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The levels of testosterone (T and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT of the South American pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus were determined by radioimmunoassay during two stages of the reproductive cycle, i.e., resting and maturation, and the gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. The highest levels of T and 11-KT were reached during the maturation stage (T = 2400 ± 56 pg/ml; 11-KT = 2300 ± 60 pg/ml and lower levels were maintained during the resting period. The rise in androgen levels occurred with the appearance of spermatozoa in the maturation stage, when GSI was highest

  17. On Hypopygus lepturus, a little known dwarf gymnotid fish from South America (Pisces, Cypriniformes, Gymnotoidei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    1972-01-01

    Hypopygus lepturus Hoedeman, 1062, was hitherto known from the holotype and one paratype only, both imported aquarium specimens. In this paper the type locality of the species is restricted. Additional distributional data from Surinam are given, together with records on the occurrence of H. lepturus

  18. The c-myc coding DNA sequences of cyprinids (Teleostei: Cypriniformes): Implications for phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG XiangHui; WANG XuZhen; GAN XiaoNi; HE ShunPing

    2007-01-01

    The family Cyprinidae is one of the largest fish families in the world, which is widely distributed in East Asian, with obvious difference in characteristic size among species. The phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid taxa based on the functionally important genes can help to understand the speciation and functional divergence of the Cyprinidae. The c-myc gene is an important gene regulating individual growth.In the present study, the sequence variations of the cyprinid c-myc gene and their phylogenetic significance were analyzed. The 41 complete sequences of the c-myc gene were obtained from cyprinids and outgroups through PCR amplification and clone. The coding DNA sequences of the c-myc gene were used to infer molecular phylogenetic relationships within the Cyprinidae. Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Catostomidae), Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cobitidae) and Hemimyzon sinensis (Homalopteridae)were assigned to the outgroup taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian retrieved similar topology. Within the Cyprinidae, Leuciscini and Barbini formed the monophyletic lineage respectively with high nodal supports. Leuciscini comprises Xenocyprinae, Cultrinae, East Asian species of Leuciscinae and Danioninae, Gobioninae and Acheilognathinae, and Barbini contains Schizothoracinae, Barbinae, Cyprininae and Labeoninae. Danio rerio, D.myersi and Rasbora trilineata were supposed to separate from Leuciscinae and Barbini and to form another lineage. The positions of some Danioninae species were still unresolved. Analyses of both amino acid variation with parsimony information and two high variation regions indicated that there is no correlation between variations of single amino acid or high variation regions and characteristic size of cyprinids. In addition, the species with smaller size were usually found to be basal within clades in the tree, which might be the results of the adaptation to the primitive ecology and survival pressure.

  19. Morphometric studies of genus Placocheilus (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) from Red River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Li, Min-Hui; Wang, Chun-Ping; Qi, Mi

    2015-11-18

    It is practically difficult to differentiate Placocheilus robustus and Placocheilus caudofasciatus from Red River drainage of China. Without stated reasons, P. robustus has been assumed as the synonyms of P. caudofasciatus. The present study aims to decipher the morphological differences between two species so as to provide reliable clues for their classification by multivariate morphometry. A total of 72 specimens of two species in genus Placocheilus were examined. Besides morphological character comparisons, 10 anatomic landmarks were utilized and 23 frame structures and 15 general characters measured. The scatter plot results of principal component analysis showed that all specimens were clustered together and could not be defined as two distinct species. No significant morphological differences existed in four diagnostic characters between P. robustus and P. caudofasciatus. Thus the results of the present study fail to support P. robustus as a valid and independent species.

  20. A new Eocene catostomid (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) from northeastern China and early divergence of Catostomidae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG; Mee-mann

    2009-01-01

    A new Eocene catostomid genus and species,Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, is described from Huadian, Jilin Province, northeastern China. The materials include a nearly complete skeleton, dozens of pharyngeal bones with teeth, and a number of disarticulated bones. The new articulated specimen is large-sized and deep-bodied, with an estimated standard length of ca. 300 mm and body depth of 156 mm or about half of its standard length. The assignment of the fish to the Catostomidae is based on its falciform pharyngeal bone with one row of numerous (more than 50) compressed teeth, and the bone is much smaller than in cyprinids, especially given the size of the fish. The new fish distinguishes itself from all known catostomids (both extinct and extant) in its long anal fin with four unbranched and 17-18 branched rays, and its extremely short caudal peduncle that is only about one fourth of its depth. Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae resembles the Eocene-Oligocene transpacific-distributed Amyzon in many general skeletal characters. However, it shows a few characters uniquely shared with the Recent catostomid Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Those include a very long dorsal fin with about 50 branched fin rays, the end of dorsal fin rays being close to the caudal fin base, and anal rays stretching posteriorly beyond the base of caudal fin. It is the first fossil catostomid that shows a close relationship to the endemic Myxocyprinus now living in the Yangtze River and Minjiang River, China. The discovery of Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, along with two previously described possible catostomid genera Jianghanichthys and Vasnetzovia, may indicate that the divergence of the Catostomidae started much earlier, in the middle Eocene or earlier, on the western side of the Pacific than on its eastern side.

  1. A new Eocene catostomid (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) from northeastern China and early divergence of Catostomidae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Juan; CHANG Meemann

    2009-01-01

    A new Eocene catostomid genus and species, Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, is described from Huadian, Jilin Province, northeastern China. The materials include a nearly complete skeleton, dozens of pharyngeal bones with teeth, and a number of disarticulated bones. The new articulated specimen is large-sized and deep-bodied, with an estimated standard length of ca. 300 mm and body depth of 156 mm or about half of its standard length. The assignment of the fish to the Catostomidae is based on its falciform pharyngeal bone with one row of numerous (more than 50) compressed teeth, and the bone is much smaller than in cyprinids, especially given the size of the fish. The new fish distinguishes itself from all known catostomids (both extinct and extant) in its long anal fin with four unbranched and 17-18 branched rays, and its extremely short caudal peduncle that is only about one fourth of its depth. Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae resembles the Eocene-Oligocene transpacific-distributed Amyzon in many general skeletal characters. However, it shows a few characters uniquely shared with the Recent catostomid Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Those include a very long dorsal fin with about 50 branched fin rays, the end of dorsal fin rays being close to the caudal fin base, and anal rays stretching posteriorly beyond the base of caudal fin. It is the first fossil catostomid that shows a close relationship to the endemic Myxocyprinus now living in the Yangtze River and Minjiang River, China. The discovery of Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, along with two previously described possible catostomid genera Jianghanichthys and Vasnetzovia, may indicate that the divergence of the Catostomidae started much earlier, in the middle Eocene or earlier, on the western side of the Pacific than on its eastern side.

  2. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of Eastern Asian Cyprinidae (Pisces: Cypriniformes) inferred from cytochrome b sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Shunping; LIU; Huanzhang; CHEN; Yiyu; Masayuki; Kuwah

    2004-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences of 54 species, including 18 newly sequenced, were analyzed to infer the phylogenetic relationships within the family Cyprinidae in East Asia. Phylogenetic trees were generated using various tree-building methods, including Neighbor-joining (NJ), Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods, with Myxocyprinus asiaticus (family Catostomidae) as the designated outgroup. The results from NJ and ML methods were mostly similar, supporting some existing subfamilies within Cyprinidae as monophyletic, such as Cultrinae, Xenocyprinae and Gobioninae (including Gobiobotinae). However, genera within the subfamily "Danioninae" did not form a monophyletic group. The subfamily Leuciscinae was divided into two unrelated groups: the "Leuciscinae" in East Asia forming as a monophyletic group together with Cultrinae and Xenocyprinae, while the Leuciscinae in Europe, Siberia, and North America as another monophyletic group. The monophyly of subfamily Cyprininae sensu Howes was supported by NJ and ML trees and is basal in the tree. The position of Acheilognathinae, a widely accepted monophyletic group represented by Rhodeus sericeus, was not resolved.

  3. Plate tectonics and biogeographical patterns of the Pseudophoxinus (Pisces: Cypriniformes) species complex of central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbek, Tomas; Stölting, Kai N; Bardakci, Fevzi; Küçük, Fahrettin; Wildekamp, Rudolf H; Meyer, Axel

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Pseudophoxinus (Cyprinidae: Leuciscinae) species from central Anatolia, Turkey to test the hypothesis of geographic speciation driven by early Pliocene orogenic events. We analyzed 1141 aligned base pairs of the complete cytochrome b mitochondrial gene. Phylogenetic relationships reconstructed by maximum likelihood, Bayesian likelihood, and maximum parsimony methods are identical, and generally well supported. Species and clades are restricted to geologically well-defined units, and are deeply divergent from each other. The basal diversification of central Anatolian Pseudophoxinus is estimated to have occurred approximately 15 million years ago. Our results are in agreement with a previous study of the Anatolian fish genus Aphanius that also shows a diversification pattern driven by the Pliocene orogenic events. The distribution of clades of Aphanius and Pseudophoxinus overlap, and areas of distribution comprise the same geological units. The geological history of Anatolia is likely to have had a major impact on the diversification history of many taxa occupying central Anatolia; many of these taxa are likely to be still unrecognized as distinct.

  4. Molecular evolution of connective tissue growth factor in Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghui Kong; Xuzhen Wang; Xiaoni Gan; Junbing Li; Shunping He

    2008-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays an important role in regulation ofcell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and individual development in animals. The study of sequences variation and molecular evolution of CTGF gene across various species of the cyprinid could be helpful for understanding of speciation and gene divergence in this kind of fish. In this study, 19 novel sequences of CTGF gene were obtained from the representative species of the family Cyprinidae using PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed by neighbor-joining (N J), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian method. Oryzias latipes from the family Cyprinodontidae was assigned to be the outgroup taxon. Leuciscini and Barbini were clustered into the monophyletic lineages, respectively, with the high nodal supports. The estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution (dN/dS) for the various branches indicated that there stood the different evolution rates between the Leuciscini and the Barbini. With the ratio of dN/dS of the Leuciscini being lower than that of the Barbini, species within the Barbini were demonstrated to be subjected to the relatively less selection pressure and under the relaxable evolution background. A 6 bp indel (insertion/deletion) was found at the 5' end of CTGF gene of Cyprinidae, and this 6 bp deletion only appeared in the Leuciscini, which is a typical characteristic of the Leuciscini and provides evidence for the monophylogeny of the Leuciscini. For the amino acid sequences of CTGF protein, the most variations and indels were distributed in the signal region and IGFBP region of this protein, implying that these variations were correlated with the regulation of the CTGF gene expression and protein activity.

  5. Modified Method of Metaphase Plates Obtaining for Polyploid Fish Genera Carassius and Cobitis Karyotyping (Actinopterygii, Cypriniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhtayevych P. P.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ото- браны и апробированы современные методики получения метафазных пластинок соматических клеток рыб, дающих наибольший эффект при исследовании полиплоидных видов. На основании эмпирических данных в отношении представителей родов Carassius и Cobitis рекомендуется ме- тодика с использованием CoCl2 и колхицина. В статье приведено подробное описание модифи- цированной методики и полученные в результате её применения метафазные пластинки Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, 1758 и триплоидной формы Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758.

  6. The mitochondrial genome of Schizothorax esocinus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from Northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaz Khan, Muhammad; Nasir Khan Khattak, Muhammad; He, Dekui; Liang, Yangyang; Li, Chunhua; Ullah Dawar, Farman; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial DNA sequence represents a mainstay of phylogenetics. It allows biologists to elucidate the evolutionary relationships among species. It also permits an examination of the relatedness of populations, hence got importance in the field of biology. The current study was designed to know the mitochondrial sequence of Schizothorax esocinus, a delicious fish belonging to family Cyprinidae. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of S. esocinus from Northern Pakistan was determined. The mitogenome of S. esocinus was found to be 16 591 bp in length and consisted of 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one control region. All genes were encoded on heavy strain except ND6 and few tRNA genes. The overall base composition was T 25.5%, C 27.0%, A 29.8% and G 17.7%, A + T content 55.3% and G + C content 47.7%. The length of control region (CR) was 938 bp and contained putative termination-associated sequence (TAS) and several conserved sequence blocks (CSB) and control region also contained a microsatellite region (TA). This is the very first study reported from a reservoir of large cold water bodies in Pakistan which have a great potential for conservation of cold water fish species. This mitogenome sequence would be useful to know the phylogenetic status of the fish. PMID:26369993

  7. GLUTATHIONE AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN THE HEPATOPANCREAS OF CRAYFISH PROCAMBARUS CLARKII (GIRARD, 1852 OF LAKE TRASIMENO (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIA A. C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant parameters, such as total glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glyoxalases, catalase, and some heavy metals such as, lead, cadmium and chromium were examined in hepatopancreas of both sexes of Procambarus clarkii collected seasonally from Lake Trasimeno, from winter 2002-2003 to autumn 2003. Heavy metals content in hepatopancreas in males and females of P. clarkii was low and did not vary through the sampling periods and between sexes. On the contrary, crayfish exhibited sex-dependent differences in levels of some enzyme activities and of total glutathione, and no apparent relationship was found between contaminant burdens and antioxidant indexes in hepatopancreas. Because measured metal concentrations were low, other factors, presumably, were involved in antioxidant variations in P. clarkii and these latter seemed to be affected more by biological and environmental factors, other than those related to pollutants body burdens.

  8. Pattern of distribution of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa (Girard), after intraperitoneal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Bornbusch, A.

    1983-01-01

    The present paper describes the distribution and accumulation labelled dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in the Amazon molly after intraperitoneal injection. The study was made to see whether there was preferential accumulation of the compound in the spleen; the findings showed that this was not the case. Two hours after injection, DMBA was present throughout the body, except in the brain and the ovary. There was enhanced deposition at four sites, in the macrophages of the atrium of the heart and the peritoneum, the liver and the exocrine pancreas. DMBA was taken up by reticuloendothelial macrophages for 78 h after injection, then it was lost. The accumulation and disappearance of radioactive label seen in the liver and pancreatic cells probably represented the pattern of metabolism of the compound. By 400 h after injection there was little DMBA remaining. Label accumulated in the ameloblasts, which secrete the enamel capping of the teeth. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  9. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854 (Actinopterygii, Characidae in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doadrio Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Results Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI and a single nuclear gene (RAG1 yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations, with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Conclusion Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (~8 Mya, which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (~3.3 Mya.

  10. Life history pattern of mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki (Girard, 1859) in the Tajan River (Southern Caspian Sea to Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PATIMAR Rahman; GHORBANI Mohsen; GOL-MOHAMMADI Ali; AZIMI-GLUGAHI Hoda

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of the ecology of introduced species in new habitats can allow determinations of the degree, direction, and rate of evolutionary change. The introduction of Gambusia holbrooki in the southern Caspian Sea presents such a situation. We evaluated the life history traits of mosquitofish in the Tajan River basin. A total of 744 G. holbrooki specimens were collected between January and December 2008. The maximum observed ages are 0+ years for males and 1+ years for females. Both sexes grew allometrically (negative for males: b=2.442 and positive for females: 6=3.232). The overall sex ratio is unbalanced and dominated by females. GSI values suggest that this population of G. holbrooki matures between February-July. The highest mean GSI value is 1.80 for males and 15.97 for females in May. Egg diameter ranges from 1.00 to 3.00 mm with a mean value of 2.098 mm. Absolute fecundity varied from 7 to 57 eggs. Both ova diameter and absolute fecundity were positively correlated to fish size (length and weight). Fecundity relative to total weight fluctuated from 34.44 to 582.64 eggs/g, and to total length from 2.33 to 12.95 eggs/cm. Both were negatively correlated with female size. The characteristics of this population are important with respect to life history of the species.

  11. Life history pattern of mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki (Girard, 1859) in the Tajan River (Southern Caspian Sea to Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patimar, Rahman; Ghorbani, Mohsen; Gol-Mohammadi, Ali; Azimi-Glugahi, Hoda

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of the ecology of introduced species in new habitats can allow determinations of the degree, direction, and rate of evolutionary change. The introduction of Gambusia holbrooki in the southern Caspian Sea presents such a situation. We evaluated the life history traits of mosquitofish in the Tajan River basin. A total of 744 G. holbrooki specimens were collected between January and December 2008. The maximum observed ages are 0+ years for males and 1+ years for females. Both sexes grew allometrically (negative for males: b=2.442 and positive for females: b=3.232). The overall sex ratio is unbalanced and dominated by females. GSI values suggest that this population of G. holbrooki matures between February-July. The highest mean GSI value is 1.80 for males and 15.97 for females in May. Egg diameter ranges from 1.00 to 3.00 mm with a mean value of 2.098 mm. Absolute fecundity varied from 7 to 57 eggs. Both ova diameter and absolute fecundity were positively correlated to fish size (length and weight). Fecundity relative to total weight fluctuated from 34.44 to 582.64 eggs/g, and to total length from 2.33 to 12.95 eggs/cm. Both were negatively correlated with female size. The characteristics of this population are important with respect to life history of the species.

  12. Establishment and characterization of a fibroblast-like cell line from Anabarilius grahami (Cypriniformes:Cyprinidae)%Establishment and characterization of a fibroblast-like cell line from Anabarilius grahami (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoai WANG; Junxing YANG; Xiaoyong CHEN; Xiaofu PAN

    2012-01-01

    Though Yunnan province contains some 562 known species of fish,no cell lines from any of these have been made available to date.To protect germplasm resources and provide an effective tool in solving problems at cellular level of Anabarilius grahami,a fish endemic to Fuxian Lake,Yunnan,China,we established and characterized the major features of a continuous cell line (AGF Ⅱ) from the caudal fin tissue of A.grahami.This AGF Ⅱ cell line consists of fibroblast-like cells and has been subcultured more than 60 times over the course of a year.The cell line was maintained in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% FBS,with a cellular doubling time of 51.1 h.We continued with more experiments to optimize the culture and storage conditions,and found a variety of interesting results: cells could grow at temperature between 24 ℃ and 28 ℃,with the optimal temperature of 28 ℃.Likewise,the growth rate ofA.grahami fin cells increased when the FBS proportion increased from 5% to 20%,with the optimal growth at the concentrations of 20% FBS; cells were able to grow in L-15 and DMEM/F12 with optimal growth at L-15; DMSO is a better cryoprotectant than Glycerol,EG and MeOH for AGFⅡ cells with optimal concentration of 5% DMSO.Chromosome analysis also showed that the distribution of chromosome number varies from 38 to 52,with a modal peak at 48 chromosomes,accounting for 39.8% of all cells.Using the same primer pairs specific to mtDNA,the AGF Ⅱ cell sequences obtained by PCR were identical to those from muscle tissues ofA.grahami.Both chromosome analysis and PCR amplification confirmed the AGF Ⅱ cells were from A.grahami,also indicating that that current long-term artificial propagation ofA.grahami has been successful.Finally,we noted that when cells were transfected with pEYFP-N1 and pECFP-N1 plasmid,bright fluorescent signals were observed,suggesting that this cell line may be suitable for use in transfection and future gene expression studies.

  13. Genetic variation in Labeo fimbriatus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) populations as revealed by partial cytochrome b sequences of mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Subrat Kumar; Bej, Dillip; Das, Sofia Priyadarsani; Sahoo, Lakshman; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Das, Pratap Chandra; Das, Paramananda

    2016-05-01

    Labeo fimbriatus, a medium sized carp is assessed as a commercially important aquaculture species in Indian subcontinent. In the present study, the genetic diversity and population structure of four Indian riverine populations of L. fimbriatus have been evaluated using partial cytochrome b sequences of mitochondrial DNA. Sequencing and analysis of this gene from 108 individuals defined 7 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (π) ranged from 0.067 to 0.405 and 0.00023 to 0.03231, respectively. The Mahanadi population had the highest π level. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 47.36% of genetic variation contained within population and 53.76% of genetic variation among groups. Pairwise FST analysis indicated that there was little or no genetic differentiation among populations (-0.0018 to 04572) from different geographical regions except Mahanadi population. The Mahanadi population can be considered as a separate stock from rest three riverine populations. Accordingly, the genetic information generated from this study can be implemented while taking decision in formulating base population for the sustainable selective breeding programs of this species. PMID:25329277

  14. Theileria electrophorin.sp., a parasite of the electric eel Electrophorus electricus (Osteichthyes: Cypriniformes: Gymnotidae from Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lainson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The name Theileria electrophori n.sp. is proposed for a small parasite described in the erythrocytes of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, from Amazonian Brazil. Division of the organism in the erythrocyte produces only four bacilliform daughter cells which become scattered in the host cell, without a cruciform or rosette-shaped disposition. Exoerythrocytic meronts producing a large number of merozoites were encountered in Giemsa-stained impression smears of the internal organs, principally in the liver, and are presumably the source of the intraerythrocytic forms of the parasite. This developmental pattern is characteristic of piroplasms within the family Theileriidae, where the author considers the parasite of E. electricus to most appropriately belong. It effectively distinguishes the organism from the dactylosomatid parasites Babesiosoma Jakowska and Nigrelli, 1956 and Dactylosoma Labbé, 1894 also found in fishes. This appears to be the second report of Theileria Bettencourt, Franca and Borges, 1907 in a fish.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of North American phoxinins (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) as inferred from S7 nuclear DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, Angelo P; Mayden, Richard L

    2010-04-01

    The phylogenetic systematics of North American (NA) phoxinins, and family Leuciscidae (formerly Cyprinidae, in part) in general, have had a very dynamic history marked by uncertainty regarding the validity of many taxonomic designations. Recent molecular studies, based on mitochondrial DNA sequences, of NA phoxinins have provided the first comprehensive hypotheses for the group and suggest that they are comprised of three major lineages: creek chub-plagopterin (CC-P), western, and open posterior myodome clades. A number of phylogenetic evaluations, using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, of the formerly recognized family Cyprinidae (=Cyprinoidea) have failed to support the traditional subfamily designations. This study, based on sequences from the first intron of the nuclear gene S7, supports many of the findings of the earlier molecular studies of NA phoxinins, but also suggests that European Leuciscidae evolved within the NA phoxinin lineage and are most likely descended from the common ancestor of the CC-P clade. As in some other recent phylogenetic studies of the Cyprinoidea, analyses of this study fail to support the broader subfamily designations within the formerly recognized family Cyprinidae.

  16. Molecular phylogenetics of North American phoxinins (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) based on RAG1 and S7 nuclear DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, Angelo P; Mayden, Richard L

    2010-04-01

    Most molecular phylogenetic hypotheses for North American (NA) phoxinins are based on mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA) and the resulting hypotheses are rather variable, though there is general support for three major lineages of NA phoxinins: western, creek chub-plagopterin (CC-P), and open posterior myodome (OPM) clades. Support for a monophyletic NA phoxinin group has varied among studies. This study utilizes nuclear DNA (nDNA) sequences from the RAG1 (exon 3) and S7 (intron 1) gene regions to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships and monophyly of NA phoxinins. Results from the nDNA analyses provide overall support for the western, CC-P, and OPM clades. The CC-P clade had the best overall resolution and support in the individual and combined analyses of the nDNA data. Resolution of the western clade was fairly good, with most analyses recovering a monophyletic Gila clade. The OPM clade demonstrated the highest degree of topological variability among the analyses. The RAG1 analyses failed to recover a monophyletic NA phoxinin group by resolving the European leuciscins, inclusive Notemigonus crysoleucas, within the NA phoxinin topology. Most analyses recovered a strongly supported shiner clade though, similar to several mtDNA studies; there was a high degree of topological variability among the results.

  17. Age and growth in the indian major carp Labeo rohita (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from tropical rivers of Ganga basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Gusain, Om Prakash; Dwivedi, Arvind Kumar; Joukrushna, Jena

    2013-12-01

    Labeo rohita is a member of the Indian major carp species and originally an inhabitant of the Ganga river network in India. It is among the top ten aquaculture species of the world. Since there is a lack of information on the growth pattern of the wild populations of this species, this study aimed at evaluating the pattern of age and growth, to support the development of effective management plans. A total of 1082 samples of L. rohita were obtained from May 2009 to July 2012 in six drainages of the Ganga basin. Scales of the fish were used to determine the age and growth by analyzing the annual rings growth. Out of six populations, a maximum 8+ age classes were recorded from two rivers (Betwa and Sharda). The back-calculated lengths at 8+ age class ranged from 86.22 cm to 91.66 cm. However, for the rest of rivers up to 7+ age classes were recorded. Among growth parameters, specific rate of length increase (C(l)) and specific rate of weight increase (Cw) showed decreasing trend, and three distinct life stages of L. rohita were recorded based on growth constant data (C(lt)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the back-calculated length data set of six populations indicated a significant difference (p Ganga basin.

  18. Taxonomic status of a population of Gymoncypris waddelli Regan, 1905 (Cypriniformes: Schizothoracinae) distributed in Pengqu River, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Tao; Feng, Chen-Guang; Wanghe, Kun-Yuan; Li, Guo-Gang; Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Gymnocypris waddelli, a highland cold-water fish, is distributed among rivers and lakes of the southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Although previously described as G. waddelli, specimens from the Pengqu River are morphologically distinguishable from those from Lake Yamzhog Yumco, which is the type locality of G. waddelli. We investigated morphological variations of G. waddelli specimens from Pengqu River and Lake Yamzhog Yumco using not only traditional morphological methods but also newly-developed geometric morphometric analysis; furthermore, mitochondrial Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene analysis was employed to explore the phylogenetic position of the Pengqu River population. Our morphological analyses suggested that G. waddelli from the Pengqu River had an obtuse snout, nearly straight oral fissure, shorter lower jaw than upper jaw, broad mouth and sparse inside gill rakers of the first arch relative to the Lake Yamzhog Yumco population. The strongly supported monophyly of Pengqu population according to mitochondrial datasets was obtained, indicating genetic differences between Pengqu River and Lake Yamzhog Yumco populations. Given their substantial genetic and morphological divergence, specimens from Pengqu River warrant recognition as a distinct species, here described and named Gymnocypris pengquensis. PMID:27395577

  19. [Morphological changes in gametes of tiger barb Puntius tetrazona (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and the implementation of in vitro fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castanedo, Omar; Toledano-Olivares, Ángel; Martínez-Espinosa, David; Ávalos-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    The production of ornamental fishes represents an economic activity of a growing number of Mexican families. Nevertheless, the reproduction of fish in captivity is one of the complications faced by farmers. This study was set up to: (i) evaluate the morphological and functional changes induced by hydration in the gametes of fish tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona; 240 samples) at tree times after hydration (10, 20 and 30s) with classic spermograms (volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and normal morphology); and (ii) evaluate the implementation of in vitro fertilization based on the ovulation rate, the percentage of fertilization and hatching; and the larval numbers obtained after 72 hours. The average volume of milt was 3.0 ± 0.7 μL, and the minimum, maximum and average concentration of sperm was 44.4 x 10(6) spz/mL, 52.3 x 10(6) spz/mL, and 48.1 ± 5.9 x 10(6) spz/mL, respectively. The viability and motility of the sperm was 84.6 ± 3.2% and 81.5 ± 2.2%, respectively. The diameter of the sperm with/without water contact was 2.10 ± 6 μm and 3.8 ± 1.0 μm (p fish as a model for other ornamental fishes of commercial interest. Our results demonstrate that the in vitro fertilization is a very high viable option to optimize and maximize resources; besides, the reproduction management optimization under controlled conditions may enhance wild fish stocks preservation. PMID:25720172

  20. Age and growth in the indian major carp Labeo rohita (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from tropical rivers of Ganga basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Gusain, Om Prakash; Dwivedi, Arvind Kumar; Joukrushna, Jena

    2013-12-01

    Labeo rohita is a member of the Indian major carp species and originally an inhabitant of the Ganga river network in India. It is among the top ten aquaculture species of the world. Since there is a lack of information on the growth pattern of the wild populations of this species, this study aimed at evaluating the pattern of age and growth, to support the development of effective management plans. A total of 1082 samples of L. rohita were obtained from May 2009 to July 2012 in six drainages of the Ganga basin. Scales of the fish were used to determine the age and growth by analyzing the annual rings growth. Out of six populations, a maximum 8+ age classes were recorded from two rivers (Betwa and Sharda). The back-calculated lengths at 8+ age class ranged from 86.22 cm to 91.66 cm. However, for the rest of rivers up to 7+ age classes were recorded. Among growth parameters, specific rate of length increase (C(l)) and specific rate of weight increase (Cw) showed decreasing trend, and three distinct life stages of L. rohita were recorded based on growth constant data (C(lt)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the back-calculated length data set of six populations indicated a significant difference (p Ganga basin. PMID:24432546

  1. 食蚊鱼对白纹伊蚊的捕食作用研究%Predation of Gambusia affinis (Baird et Girard) to Aedes albopictus Skuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽娟; 曹玉江; 张国权; 童晓立

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解食蚊鱼对白纹伊蚊幼虫的捕食规律性变化,以及光对食蚊鱼捕食的影响.方法 将1 d的24 h划分为8个时间段,统计每个时间段食蚊鱼的捕食量,并计算捕食速率.设计光照和黑暗处理,观察光对食蚊鱼捕食的影响.结果 食蚊鱼雌雄鱼对白纹伊蚊幼虫的平均日捕食量分别为64和22头.食蚊鱼在24 h内对白纹伊蚊幼虫的捕食行为集中在试验开始后的0 h~6 h,捕食量(Na)随着时间(t)的变化而变化,雌鱼捕食量与时间关系模型为Na=42.71/(1+e1.7602-0.2210t),雄鱼为Na=21.91/(1+e1.5437-0.2189t);捕食速率(V)与时间段(x)的关系呈负指数趋势下降;食蚊鱼雌鱼在光照情况下的捕食量明显高于无光照时的捕食量.结论 光照和自身饥饿程度均能影响食蚊鱼的捕食量,可为利用食蚊鱼灭蚊提供参考依据.

  2. Presencia de Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853 en un humedal boscoso del Sur de Chile. Posibles implicancias sobre la fauna local de invertebrados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Parra-Coloma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Las especies invasoras son la principal causa de pérdida debiodiversidad del planeta, producto de la depredación que afecta a la faunalocal mediante competencia, hibridación, alteración del hábitat y transmisiónde enfermedades. En este estudio se describe la posible implicancia del pezmosquito sobre la fauna de invertebrados en un humedal boscoso presente en laregión de la Araucanía, Chile. Los resultados nos indican la presencia de Gambusia affinis en todos los sitios demuestreo, destacándose su gran adaptabilidad a la temperatura y pH. El roldepredador de Gambusia affinis sobremosquitos, puede favorecer al desarrollo de sus larvas, al consumirinvertebrados predadores de éstas, influyendo en la estructura trófica de lascomunidades.

  3. Combining morphology and genetics in resolving taxonomy--a systematic revision of spined loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) inferred from the partial S6K1 gene sequences and implication of indel sites in intron 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG; XiangHui; WANG; XuZhen; GAN; XiaoNi; LI; JunBing; HE; ShunPing

    2007-01-01

    The family Cyprinidae is widely distributed in East Asia, and has the important phylogenetic signifi- cance in the fish evolution. In this study, the 5′ end partial sequences (containing exon 1, exon 2 and indel 1) of S6K1 gene were obtained from 30 representative species in Cyprinidae and outgroup using PCR amplification and sequencing. The phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed with neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian meth- ods. Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Catostomidae) was assigned to the outgroup taxon. Similar phylogenetic relationships within the family Cyprinidae were achieved with the four analyses. Leuciscini and Barbini were monophyletic lineages respectively with the high nodal supports. Leuciscini comprises Hypophthalmichthyinae, Xenocyprinae, Cultrinae, Gobioninae, Acheilognathinae and East Asian species of Leuciscinae and Danioninae. Monophyly of East Asian clade was supported with high nodal support. Barbini comprises Schizothoracinae, Barbinae, Cyprininae and Labeoninae. The monophyletic lineage consisting of Danio rerio, D. myersi, and Rasbora trilineata was basal in the tree. In addition, the large fragment indels in intron 1 were analyzed to improve the understanding of Cyprinidae relationships. The results showed that the large fragment indels were correlated with the relations among species. Some conserved regions in intron 1 were thought to be involved in the functional regulation. However, no correlation was found between sequence variations and species characteristic size.

  5. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Majtánová

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis. We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA. Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  6. Schistura megalodon species nova, a new river loach from the Irra-waddy basin in Dehong, Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A new species of river loach, Schistura megalodon sp. nov., is described from the Irrawaddy basin in Yingjiang County, Dehong Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The following combination of diagnostic characters serve to distinguish it from all other congeners in the given zoogeographical region: a large processus dentiformes in the upper jaw, a short pre-anus length of 65.4%-66.3% of SL, long paired fins (pectoral: 20.8%-24.2% of SL; pelvic: 17.9%-20.6% of SL), a wide body of 9.7%-11.3% of SL at anal fin origin, an incomplete lateral line, the absence of an orbital lobe, and a oad and distinct basicaudal bar with forward extensions.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese hook snout carp Opsariichthys bidens (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) and an alternative pattern of mitogenomic evolution in vertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xuzhen; Wang, Jun; He, Shunping;

    2007-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese hook snout carp, Opsariichthys bidens, was newly determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method. The 16,611-nucleotide mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12S, 16S), 22 tRNA genes, and a no......The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese hook snout carp, Opsariichthys bidens, was newly determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method. The 16,611-nucleotide mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12S, 16S), 22 tRNA genes...... genome of O. bidens reveals an alternative pattern of vertebrate mitochondrial evolution. For the mitochondrial protein genes of O. bidens, the most frequently used codon generally ends with either A or C, with C preferred over A for most fourfold degenerate codon families; the relative synonymous codon...... usage of G-ending codons is greatly elevated in all categories. The codon usage pattern of O. bidens mitochondrial protein genes is remarkably different from the general pattern found previously in the relatively closely related zebrafish and most other vertebrate mitochondria. Nucleotide bias at third...

  8. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely located and related species and estimate extinction risk even more accurately than currently applied IUCN criteria.

  9. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj, Ivana; Ćaleta, Marko; Marčić, Zoran; Šanda, Radek; Vukić, Jasna; Mrakovčić, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis) whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy) and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely located and related species and estimate extinction risk even more accurately than currently applied IUCN criteria. PMID:26176227

  10. Genetic variation of wild and hatchery populations of the catla Indian major carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822: Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae revealed by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Zakiur Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation is a key component for improving a stock through selective breeding programs. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to assess genetic variation in three wild population of the catla carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822 in the Halda, Jamuna and Padma rivers and one hatchery population in Bangladesh. Five decamer random primers were used to amplify RAPD markers from 30 fish from each population. Thirty of the 55 scorable bands were polymorphic, indicating some degree of genetic variation in all the populations. The proportion of polymorphic loci and gene diversity values reflected a relatively higher level of genetic variation in the Halda population. Sixteen of the 30 polymorphic loci showed a significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001 departure from homogeneity and the F ST values in the different populations indicated some degree of genetic differentiation in the population pairs. Estimated genetic distances between populations were directly correlated with geographical distances. The unweighted pair group method with averages (UPGMA dendrogram showed two clusters, the Halda population forming one cluster and the other populations the second cluster. Genetic variation of C. catla is a useful trait for developing a good management strategy for maintaining genetic quality of the species.

  11. The influence of water hardness and PCBs mixtures on embryonic development and hatching of Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Katarzyna Socha

    2015-11-01

    After 24 h of incubation there was no significant difference in the percentage of live eggs between groups either in experiment with Aroclor 1254 or Delor 103. In the case of hatching rate tested PCBs mixtures had no effect in both variants of water harness. Delor 103 had no effect on the percentage of deformed larvae of Prussian carp in both hard and soft water. Only the observation of the number of deformed larvae showed higher teratogenic influence of Aroclor 1254 in hard water. Summing up, our results showed that Delor 103 is not harmful to the development of activated Prussian carp eggs in both hard and soft water, but in the case of Aroclor 1254 diluted in hard water increased teratogenic effect was observed.

  12. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF ZACCO PLATYPUS (CYPRINIFORMES: CYPRINIDAE) DISTRIBUTED IN BEIJING%北京地区宽鳍(鱼巤)的早期发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢迎春; 赵亚辉; 李高岩; 唐文乔; 张春光

    2011-01-01

    Pale chub Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846), a kind of small cyprinid fish, widely distributes in the East Asia including east part of China, Japan and Korea Peninsula. This fish is always found in rivers and streams, especially in the swiftly running waters. In breeding season, the male will express remarkable sexual dimorphism. Numerous sharp nuptial tubercles can be found on the head (especially jaws) and fins. Recently, the populations of Zacco platypus are shrinking down in many places in China due to over-capture, environment change and pollution. Under this background, understanding the life history of Zacco platypus will be very helpful for future conservation and sustainable use. Therefore, we observed the early development of Zacco platypus collected from the Huaijiuhe River in Beijing. Fertilized eggs were obtained through dry method of artificial fertilization, 10-15 fertilized eggs in the process ofgranule development were randomly selected. The processes and characteristics of early development have been observed and documented under the microscope. The mature eggs were spherical in shape, and the average egg diameter was 1.04 mm. At average water temperature of 23.CC (17.1-28.0"C), the early development from fertilization to hatch took total 73h01m and 1682.31Ch accumulated temperature. The embryonic development took 37min to develop into blastodermic disc through discoidal cleavage; and then took another more than 30min to develop into two-cell. Mulberry occurred about 4h after fertilization, multi-layer stack such as morula blastomeres, animal pole extremely high uplift. Blastula finished at 6h22min after fertilization, and embryonic development was into gastrula about 6hl8min after late blastula. Blastopore formed around 19h after fertilization, and then myocomma appeared when blastopore closed. Eye capsule formed at 22h46min after fertilization. 25h27min after fertilization, tail bud appeared on the ventral posterior embryo. Tail fin formed around 29h after fertilization. The embryonic development took lh to develop into effect of muscle after tail fin, embryo body could be seen tic regular intermittent, spherical yolk sac cylindrical front, rear section with the further growth of the caudal fin was elongate. Heart fully formed and slowly beat at 38h35min after fertilization, average heart beat was 84 times per min. The embryonic development took around 73h from fertilized egg to hatch, and then took 6.3 days to develop into flexion larvae. The development speed was slower in larvae than that in embryonic stage. Flexion larvae died in large scales may be because limited conditions of artificial cultivation and lack of energy supply when coexistence of mixed nutrition. Comparing to 21 other cyprinid species, development time of Zacco platypus was longer than that of seven species. Total development time of Zacco platypus was slightly longer than sympatric species Opsariichthys bidens, and obviously longer than Zacco temminckii. We also found the development speed before hatch of northern population was faster than southern one, but slower after hatch.%作者对分布于北京市怀柔区怀九河的宽鳍(鱼巤)(Zacco platypus)的胚胎发育及仔鱼前期发育进行了研究,过程中采用人工干法授精获取受精卵,观察并描述了宽鳍(鱼巤)早期发育过程及其特点.结果显示,宽鳍(鱼巤)成熟卵呈圆球状,平均卵径1.04 mm,为沉性卵.在平均23.0℃(17.1-28.0℃)水温条件下,从受精卵到孵化经历了73hlmin,积温为1682.3度·时;孵化后6.5d进入弯曲期仔鱼.仔鱼前期发育速度与出膜前相比明显减慢;弯曲期仔鱼出现大量死亡可能与有限的人工培育条件、混合营养期能量供给不足等原因有关.通过比较发现,宽鳍(鱼巤)与鲤科中其他21个种相比,早期发育时间比其中7个种均长.宽鳍(鱼巤)早期发育时间比同域分布、相同发育水温的马口鱼略长,明显长于同属的纵纹(鱼巤)的发育时间.宽鳍(鱼巤)南、北方种群仔鱼发育速度存在差异,北方种群出膜前发育速度比南方种群快,但出膜后发育速度减慢.

  13. Phylogeography of Pteronotropis signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus Complex (Teleostei: Cypriniformes, with Comments on Diversity and History of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Mayden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cyprinid genus Pteronotropis is endemic to southeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean of North America. Never before has the genus been demonstrated to be monophyletic. We investigate both the phylogenetic relationships and the phylogeography of some species in the genus using mitochondrial ND2 sequences. In no analysis is the genus resolved as monophyletic if Notropis harperi is not included in the genus. Biogeographic and phylogeographic evaluations are conducted with Pteronotropis, including P. signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus complex. Patterns of relationships and population genetic analyses support divergences within multiple clades both at the species level and within species that are tied to abiotic changes in the region. Replicated patterns across clades are observed, as well as patterns previously found in other taxa. Pteronotropis hypselopterus is likely not a natural grouping as populations from some drainages form clades more closely related to other species of the genus. The general patterns of relationships indicate likely cryptic species not currently recognized. Finally, the patterns of species relationships and clades and population structuring within species serve as another example of replicated divergences in the biodiversity east and west of the Mobile Bay.

  14. Phylogeography of Pteronotropis signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus Complex (Teleostei: Cypriniformes), with Comments on Diversity and History of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayden, Richard L; Allen, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The cyprinid genus Pteronotropis is endemic to southeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean of North America. Never before has the genus been demonstrated to be monophyletic. We investigate both the phylogenetic relationships and the phylogeography of some species in the genus using mitochondrial ND2 sequences. In no analysis is the genus resolved as monophyletic if Notropis harperi is not included in the genus. Biogeographic and phylogeographic evaluations are conducted with Pteronotropis, including P. signipinnis, P. euryzonus, and the P. hypselopterus complex. Patterns of relationships and population genetic analyses support divergences within multiple clades both at the species level and within species that are tied to abiotic changes in the region. Replicated patterns across clades are observed, as well as patterns previously found in other taxa. Pteronotropis hypselopterus is likely not a natural grouping as populations from some drainages form clades more closely related to other species of the genus. The general patterns of relationships indicate likely cryptic species not currently recognized. Finally, the patterns of species relationships and clades and population structuring within species serve as another example of replicated divergences in the biodiversity east and west of the Mobile Bay. PMID:26114110

  15. Characterizing co-NL by a group action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Clément; Seiller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper, Girard (2012) proposed to use his recent construction of a geometry of interaction in the hyperfinite factor (Girard 2011) in an innovative way to characterize complexity classes. We begin by giving a detailed explanation of both the choices and the motivations of Girard......'s definitions. We then provide a complete proof that the complexity class co-NL can be characterized using this new approach. We introduce the non-deterministic pointer machine as a technical tool, a concrete model to compute algorithms....

  16. 棒花鱼(鲤形目,鲤科)全线粒体基因组测定与分析%THE COMPLETE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE OF MITOCHONDRIAL GENOME OF ABBOTTINA RIVULARIS (CYPRINIFORMES,CYPRINIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺怀亚; 王佳; 尤平

    2013-01-01

    采用长聚合酶链式反应(L-PCR),以L-PCR扩增产物为模板,用30对短PCR引物进行2次PCR(Sub-PCR)扩增,测定并注释了棒花鱼全线粒体基因组.结果表明:棒花鱼线粒体基因组全长16 597 bp,A+T含量55.7%,基因组成及排列顺序与其它硬骨鱼类一致,包括13个蛋白质编码基因,22个tRNA基因,2个rRNA基因和1个控制区(D-loop).L链编码1个蛋白质编码基因(ND6)和8个tRNA基因(tRNA-Gln,tRNA-A1a,tRNA-Cys,tRNA-Asn,tRNA-Tyr,tRNA-Ser,tRNA-Glu,tRNA-Pro),其余基因由H链编码.棒花鱼线粒体基因排列紧密,基因间隔12处60 bp,间隔长度1~31bp不等;基因重叠区7处24bp,重叠区碱基覆盖数在1~7 bp之间.13个蛋白质编码基因中,除COⅠ的起始密码子为GTG外,其余均为ATG;8个蛋白质编码基因的3'端为完全终止密码子TAG(ND1、ND2、ND6)和TAA(COⅠ、ATP8、ATP6、ND4L、ND5),其余5个基因均为不完全终止密码子TA (ND3、ND4)和T(COⅡ、COⅢ、Cyb).除tRNA-Ser (AGY)基因外,其余21个tRNA基因二级结构均为典型的三叶草型.控制区(D-loop)位于tRNA-Pro和tRNA-Phe基因之间,长928 bp,控制区有3个结构区:终止序列区(TASs),中央保守区(CSBs)和保守序列区(CSB-1、CSB-2、CSB-3).

  17. 武汉地区西部食蚊鱼的生长、死亡系数及种群补充模式%Growth, mortality and recruitment pattern of western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis Baird & Girard, 1853) in lentic wetlands of Wuhan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张登成; 熊文; 陶捐; 陈毅峰

    2016-01-01

    基于2012年4月-2013年3月在武汉地区两样点调查的西部食蚊鱼数据,运用FAO开发的长度频率数据分析软件FiSAT Ⅱ对西部食蚊鱼的生长、死亡系数以及种群补充模式进行了估算.西部食蚊鱼全长范围为8.30-44.86 mm,其中优势全长为16-26 mm,占总数的69.17%;雌雄性别为2.63∶1,与1∶1存在显著性差异;鳞片观察发现仅存在0+、1+两个年龄组;雌雄样本全长与体重的关系式分别为W=4.686× 10-6 L3.299(R2=0.953),W=1.008×10-5 L2.989(R2=0.903);von Bertalanffy生长方程各参数为:雌性样本极限全长L∞=45.20 mm,生长系数k=0.52 a-1,起始生长年龄t0=-0.47 a,雄性样本极限全长L∞=33.60 mm,生长系数k=0.53 a-1,起始生长年龄t0=-0.50 a;雌性样本和雄性样本的自然死亡系数M分别为1.64 a-1、1.81a-1,而总死亡系数Z分别为2.29 a-1、2.37 a-1;种群补充模式表明,每年4-9月份为西部食蚊鱼的主要补充期.西部食蚊野生种群表现出了寿命短、生长速度快、自然死亡率高、种群补充时间长等特征,表明该物种是一种典型的r对策物种.据此我们提出了针对性的防控措施:阻止其引入,尽早发现并根除该物种.

  18. Disease: H00810 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d progressive myoclonus epilepsies and their genes. Epilepsia 50 Suppl 5:29-36 (2...3 (description, gene) Ramachandran N, Girard JM, Turnbull J, Minassian BA The autosomal recessively inherite

  19. Sem betonnõh skulptur dlja Kunda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kundasse paigaldatakse seitse betoonskulptuur-büsti tsemenditehase rajajast John Girard de Soucantonist (1826-1896). Kujud valmistasid 6 eesti ja 1 läti skulptor (nimed) Kunda betoonipäevade raames

  20. Exotic freshwater planarians currently known from Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Sluys; M. Kawakatsu; K. Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    Biogeographical and taxonomic information on the four non-indigenous freshwater planarians of Japan is reviewed, viz. Dugesia austroasiatica Kawakatsu, 1985, Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850), G. dorotocephala (Woodworth, 1897), and Rhodax evelinae? Marcus, 1947. The occurrence of Girardia dorotocepha

  1. Logarithmic space and permutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Clément; Seiller, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In a recent work, Girard proposed a new and innovative approach to computational complexity based on the proofs-as-programs correspondence. In a previous paper, the authors showed how Girard's proposal succeeds in obtaining a new characterization of co-NL languages as a set of operators acting on...... on a Hilbert Space. In this paper, we extend this work by showing that it is also possible to define a set of operators characterizing the class L of logarithmic space languages....

  2. Vaade minevikku kaljult mere ääres / Helju Koger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koger, Helju, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Vabaõhumuuseumis asuvast Kochidele kuulunud Liberty suvemõisast (arhitekt Otto Schott, 1905), puiesteest Via Appia, Arthur Girard de Soucantoni hävinud villast (arhitekt Rudolf Knüpffer), G. de Soucantoni tütre Helene ja Eugen Von Nottbecki suvilast nr. 15, raidkividest, Etienne Girard de Soucantoni šveitsi villast (praegu muuseumi teadurite töömaja) jm. 11 ill

  3. Whole-body concentrations of elements in three fish species from offshore oil platforms and natural areas in the Southern California Bight, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Milton S.; Saiki, Michael K.; May, Thomas W.; Yee, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    There is concern that offshore oil platforms off Southern California may be contributing to environmental contaminants accumulated by marine fishes. To examine this possibility, 18 kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus Girard, 1854), 80 kelp rockfish (Sebastes atrovirens Jordan and Gilbert, 1880), and 98 Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus Girard, 1854) were collected from five offshore oil platforms and 10 natural areas during 2005–2006 for whole-body analysis of 63

  4. Das Verhalten von Nannostomus beckfordi aripiragensis Meinken, mit einer Besprechung der Schwimmblasenfunktion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickler, Wolfgang

    1957-01-01

    Innerhalb der Characicae (wahrscheinlich sogar der Cypriniformes) ist die beschriebene Bewegungsform der Brustflossen für die kleine Gruppe der Nannostomidi kennzeichnend. Das Verhalten von Nannostomus beckfordi aripirangensis wird beschrieben. Auffällig ist eine besondere Kampfform der Männchen („V

  5. A correspondence between maximal abelian sub-algebras and linear logic fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SEILLER, THOMAS

    2016-01-01

    We show a correspondence between a classification of maximal abelian sub-algebras (MASAs) proposed by Jacques Dixmier (Dixmier 1954. Annals of Mathematics 59 (2) 279–286) and fragments of linear logic. We expose for this purpose a modified construction of Girard's hyperfinite geometry of interact......We show a correspondence between a classification of maximal abelian sub-algebras (MASAs) proposed by Jacques Dixmier (Dixmier 1954. Annals of Mathematics 59 (2) 279–286) and fragments of linear logic. We expose for this purpose a modified construction of Girard's hyperfinite geometry...... of interaction (Girard 2011. Theoretical Computer Science 412 (20) 1860–1883). The expressivity of the logic soundly interpreted in this model is dependent on properties of a MASA which is a parameter of the interpretation. We also unveil the essential role played by MASAs in previous geometry of interaction...

  6. Zrimõi sled / Lev Livshits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Лившиц, Лев, 1924-2013

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna Uue tänava hoonestuse ajaloost. Arhitekt Schotti projekti järgi ehitatud eklektilised hooned Uus t. 3 ja Girard de Soucantoni maja nr.19. Carl Engeli projekti järgi ehitatud elamu Uus t. 16 ja püssirohuait Uus t. 37

  7. Habitat Function of a Restored Salt Marsh: Post-Larval Gulf Killifish as a Sentinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful marsh restoration requires recreating conditions to ensure proper ecosystem function. One approach to monitor restoration success is using a sentinel species as a proxy integrator of salt marsh function. The gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis, Baird and Girard) is a goo...

  8. The Sacrificial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östman, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i Jesus´ lidelseshistorie forsøger artiklen via den franske religionsfilosof René Girards tanker om den hellige krise at knytte an til en generel teori om en tilstand, hvor lov og ret er suspenderede. Gennem en kritisk og perspektiverende læsning af Carl Schmitt forståes denne kr...

  9. Koomiksivestern / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2004-01-01

    Prantsuse näitleja Vincent Cassel mängib nimiosa prantsuse koomiksipõhises mängufilmis "Blueberry" : režissöör Jan Kounen. Koomiksi, millest filmi on jõudnud üpris vähe, lõid 1960-ndatel Jean-Michel Charlier ja Jean Girard

  10. "... Urged by His Wife Jezebel"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    1995-01-01

    The narrative 1 Kgs 18 of Elijah's battle on M. Carmel with the Baalpriests can be viewed as yet another OT story of the appointment of the scapegoat. Using R. Girard's methdology it appears that the Baalpriests are held responsible for the drougth, and are slaughtered as a kind of sacrifice. Her...

  11. An 'Oedipus pattern' in the Old Testament?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Lundager

    2007-01-01

    The Oedipus myth and a scapegoat pattern have been central issues in both Walter Burkert's and René Girard's writings about ancient Greek religion. This article proposes the existence of a comparable pattern in the Old Testament legend about the Ark (1-2 Samuel). Together with other Old Testament...

  12. Sartre: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Edith, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Edith Kern, Claude-Edmonde Magny, Henri Peyre, Kenneth Douglas, Edmund Wilson, Theophil Spoerri, Jacques Guicharnaud, Eric Bentley, Robert Champigny, Oreste F. Pucciani, Frederic Jameson, Rene Girard, Guido…

  13. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the multimoda

  14. Graphs of partitions and Ramanujan's tau-function

    OpenAIRE

    Brent, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The invariant z_{lambda} attached to a partition lambda sits in the denominator of the Girard-Waring solution to Newton's symmetric function relations. We interpret Ramanujan's tau-function in terms of z_lambda, and interpret z_lambda in terms of the automorphisms of a graph.

  15. Local linear logic for locality consciousness in multiset transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. McEvoy; P.H. Hartel

    1995-01-01

    We use Girard's linear logic (LL) to produce a semantics for Gamma, a multiset transformation language. The semantics improves on the existing structured operational semantics (SOS) of the language by highlighting Gamma's inefficiencies, which were hidden by the SOS. We propose a new logic called lo

  16. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  17. 放化疗治疗局部进展期胰腺癌的定性系统评价%Chemoradiotherapy in the Management of Locally Advanced Pancreatic Carcinoma: A Qualitative Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟雄; 黄凌

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 文献来源 Huguet F,Girard N,Guerche CS,et al.Chemoradiotherapy in the management of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma: A qualitative systematic review[J].J Clin Oncol,2009,27(13):2269-2277

  18. Babylonian confusion of gudgeons in the west Aegean drainages inferred by the mitochondrial DNA analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Radek Sanda; Jasna Vukic; Michal Nowak; Jan Mendel; Tihomir Stefanov; Stamatis Zogaris

    2015-01-01

    Gudgeons (Gobio and Romanogobio, Cypriniformes) are taxonomically very complicated group of primary freshwater fishes. The region of the west Aegean Sea rivers is inhabited by three species according to Kottelat and Freyhof (2007): Gobio feraensis endemic to the Pinios River basin; Gobio balcanicus inhabiting all remaining drainages, from the Aliakmon up to the Marica drainage; and Romanogobio elimeus occurring from the Pinios to the Vardar basin. Recent analysis of barcoding gene cytochrome ...

  19. Formation of oral and pharyngeal dentition in teleosts depends on differential recruitment of retinoic acid signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Gibert, Yann; Bernard, Laure; Debiais-Thibaud, Melanie; Bourrat, Franck; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Pottin, Karen; Meyer, Axel; Retaux, Sylvie; Stock, David W.; Jackman, William R.; Seritrakul, Pawat; Begemann, Gerrit; Laudet, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of evolutionary developmental biology is to link specific adaptations to changes in developmental pathways. The dentition of cypriniform fishes, which in contrast to many other teleost fish species possess pharyngeal teeth but lack oral teeth, provides a suitable model to study the development of feeding adaptations. Here, we have examined the involvement of retinoic acid (RA) in tooth development and show that RA is specifically required to induce the pharyngeal tooth develo...

  20. Formation of oral and pharyngeal dentition in teleosts depends on differential recruitment of retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Yann; Bernard, Laure; Debiais-Thibaud, Melanie; Bourrat, Franck; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Pottin, Karen; Meyer, Axel; Retaux, Sylvie; Stock, David W; Jackman, William R; Seritrakul, Pawat; Begemann, Gerrit; Laudet, Vincent

    2010-09-01

    One of the goals of evolutionary developmental biology is to link specific adaptations to changes in developmental pathways. The dentition of cypriniform fishes, which in contrast to many other teleost fish species possess pharyngeal teeth but lack oral teeth, provides a suitable model to study the development of feeding adaptations. Here, we have examined the involvement of retinoic acid (RA) in tooth development and show that RA is specifically required to induce the pharyngeal tooth developmental program in zebrafish. Perturbation of RA signaling at this stage abolished tooth induction without affecting the development of tooth-associated ceratobranchial bones. We show that this inductive event is dependent on RA synthesis from aldh1a2 in the ventral posterior pharynx. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling has been shown to be critical for tooth induction in zebrafish, and its loss has been associated with oral tooth loss in cypriniform fishes. Pharmacological treatments targeting the RA and FGF pathways revealed that both pathways act independently during tooth induction. In contrast, we find that in Mexican tetra and medaka, species that also possess oral teeth, both oral and pharyngeal teeth are induced independently of RA. Our analyses suggest an evolutionary scenario in which the gene network controlling tooth development obtained RA dependency in the lineage leading to the cypriniforms. The loss of pharyngeal teeth in this group was cancelled out through a shift in aldh1a2 expression, while oral teeth might have been lost ultimately due to deficient RA signaling in the oral cavity. PMID:20445074

  1. [Gout and hyperuricemia in Tananarive (Madagascar) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevielle, P; Teyssier, P; Valmary, J; Perrot, J; Delprat, J

    1980-01-01

    Review of 41 cases observed in "Girard et Robic hospital", Tananarive (35 cases of plain articular gout either acute or chronic, and 6 cases of latent hyperuricemia).--Gout and hyperuricemia are frequently observed within Malagasy high-lands Merina population.--Women and even, in exceptional cases, children may be affected. A responsible hereditary factor is probably associated with the side effects of food habits (diet rich in rice, local vegetables, zebu meat and pork; beverages are not abundant).

  2. A case study of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) causing ocular myiasis in a western hognose snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diclaro, J W; Lehnert, M S; Mitola, M A; Pereira, R M; Koehler, P G

    2011-07-01

    Late instar larvae of the scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris Loew, were found near the right eye of a live captive-reared western hognose snake, Heterodon nasicus Baird and Girard. Dissection and removal of the snake's dorsal cranial bones revealed tissue degradation of the infected eye, the optic nerve, and the brain case; we suggest that these factors contributed to the death of this snake. This case study further demonstrates the opportunistic behavior of M. scalaris. PMID:21845957

  3. Optimization of extraction process and investigation of antioxidant effect of polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense Kuntze

    OpenAIRE

    Xinhui Tang; Lifang Yan; Jing Gao; Haiyan Ge; Haidong Yang; Na Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the extraction technology for polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSEP) Materials and Methods : One-singer factor and response surface methodology(RSM) were established to extract the polysaccharides from L. sinense. Then, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, hydroxyl radical(.OH), and 2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ...

  4. Political crimes in the transition to modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This article is intended as a reflection piece on the question: what could be an anthropological contribution to the question of political crimes? The reflection will consist of three interrelated parts. In the first part, I wish to address the meaning of the words we use when bespeaking “crime” ...... anthropologists and sociologists, who, although known figures, have so far remained peripheral within political anthropology: Ferdinand Tönnies, Gabriel Tarde, Marcel Mauss, Gregory Bateson, Victor Turner and René Girard....

  5. Atividade reprodutiva de Physalaemus signifer (Anura, Leptodactylidae) em ambiente temporário

    OpenAIRE

    Wogel Henrique; Abrunhosa Patrícia A.; Pombal Jr. José P.

    2002-01-01

    The breeding activity of Physalaemus signifer (Girard, 1853) was monitored from July 1999 to July 2000 in a temporary pond in Palmital, Municipality of Saquarema, State of Rio de Janeiro, Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil. Males were sexually actives only in four nights, arriving at the pond on the early rainy season. Males in amplexus were larger and spent more nights in the reproductive aggregation than solitary ones. The number of nights was correlated with the mass of the males. Males adopted ...

  6. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae) at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins; Mara C. Kiefer; Carla C. Siqueira; Monique Van Sluys; Vanderlaine A Menezes; Carlos Frederico D. Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae) includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853) is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mount...

  7. Sensitivity to chemical stimuli plays a fundamental role in the food preferences. Examples in the evolutionary scale: 1. Role of the walking leg chemoreceptors in the red swamp crayfish Procambarus Clarkii 2. PROP bitter taste sensitivity and its nutritional implications in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Melis, Melania

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we studied two examples of the sensitivity to chemical stimuli and its role in the food preferences in two models of the evolutionary scale. The red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) (Crustacea: Decapoda) is an invasive species of freshwater habitats that has spread worldwide. In crayfish, like in other decapod crustaceans, reception of chemical cues occurs by way of peripheral chemoreceptors grouped within sensory hairs and typically located on the cuticle ...

  8. Evaluation of novel derivatisation reagents for the analysis of oxysterols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, Peter J., E-mail: p.j.crick@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Aponte, Jennifer; Bentley, T. William [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Matthews, Ian [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Wang, Yuqin [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Griffiths, William J., E-mail: w.j.griffiths@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New derivatisation reagents for LC–MS analysis of oxysterols. • New reagents based on Girard P give high ion-currents and informative LC–MS{sup n} spectra. • Permanent charge is vital for efficient MS{sup n} fragmentation. • New reagents offer greater scope for incorporation of isotope labels. - Abstract: Oxysterols are oxidised forms of cholesterol that are intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones. They are also ligands to nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors. Analysis of oxysterols in biological systems is challenging due to their low abundance coupled with their lack of a strong chromophore and poor ionisation characteristics in mass spectrometry (MS). We have previously used enzyme-assisted derivatisation for sterol analysis (EADSA) to identify and quantitate oxysterols in biological samples. This technique relies on tagging sterols with the Girard P reagent to introduce a charged quaternary ammonium group. Here, we have compared several modified Girard-like reagents and show that the permanent charge is vital for efficient MS{sup n} fragmentation. However, we find that the reagent can be extended to include sites for potential stable isotope labels without a loss of performance.

  9. Spectacular morphological novelty in a miniature cyprinid fish, Danionella dracula n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Ralf; Conway, Kevin W; Rüber, Lukas

    2009-06-22

    Danionella dracula is a new species of sexually dimorphic, miniature and highly developmentally truncated cyprinid fish. Compared with its close relative, the zebrafish Danio rerio, it lacks 44 bones or parts thereof and represents one of the most developmentally truncated vertebrates. Absence of the majority of bones appears to be due to developmental truncation via terminal deletion. In contrast to these larval-like features, D. dracula also shows several hyperossifications. Uniquely, among carp-like fishes, male D. dracula have a series of long, pointed odontoid processes on the jaws greatly resembling the jaw dentition of teleosts with true teeth. The anterior-most process in each jaw is extended as a canine-like fang projecting through the epithelium. True jaw teeth are absent from all 3700 species of cypriniforms and were lost at least in the Upper Eocene. It remains to be investigated, however, whether the conserved pathways to regulate tooth development in cypriniforms have been used in D. dracula to form and pattern the odontoid processes. This new species represents a remarkable example linking progenetic paedomorphosis via heterochronic change in developmental timing to the evolution of morphological novelties.

  10. Diet composition of post-metamorphic bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) in the Zhoushan archipelago,Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Bullfrogs (Runa catesbeiana) are listed as one of the 100 worst invasive alien species in the world.They are generalist predators and thus may affect native species through predation.In previous studies,the food contents of bullfrogs were mostly examined at a single site.In the present study,the diet composition of post-metamorphic bullfrogs on eight islands (Daishan,Liuheng,Xiushan,Fodu,Taohua,Xiashi,Cezi,and Putuoshan) in the Zhoushan Archipelago,Zhejiang Province of China,were examined by using the stomach flushing method from June 30 to August 11 in 2005.A total 0f391 individual frogs were measured,including 113 adults and 278 juveniles.The analysis of the stomach contents shows that,for adult bullfrogs,the most important prey (by diet volume) overall were Decapoda,Coleoptera,Odonata,Mesogastropoda,Raniformes,and Cypriniformes.For juvenile bullfrogs,these were Decapoda,Coleoptera,Cypriniformes,Odonata,Orthoptera,Hymenoptera,Lepidoptera larvae,Mesogastropoda,and Raniformes.Moreover,the prey size and diet volume increased with the body size of both adult and juvenile bullfrogs.The diet composition of primary preys of bullfrogs was significantly different among the islands.The results indicate that bullfrogs exert different predatory influences on native fauna at different sites and that bullfrogs are generalist predators with extensive ecological impacts on native fauna.

  11. Trichodina modesta: an exotic ciliate in the Neotropical region parasitizing an unusual host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladão, Gustavo Moraes Ramos; Giannecchini, Luiz Gustavo; Martins, Maurício Laterça; de Pádua, Santiago Benites

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an important ornamental fish, Betta splendens (Osphronemidae), from three different Brazilian states was examined for parasitic infestations. Smears with parasites were impregnated with silver nitrate or stained using Giemsa for taxonomic evaluation. A disc-shaped trichodinid with a body diameter of 39.7 ± 3.3 µm, adhesive disc diameter of 32.9 ± 3.1 µm and denticulate ring diameter of 19.5 ± 2.0 µm was found. The morphological characteristics resembled those of Trichodina modesta Lom, 1970, a species that shows clear host specificity for Cypriniformes. Until now, its occurrence was restricted to the Eurasian region. In the present study, a new host for T. modesta is reported and therefore the first occurrence of this species in the Americas. The parasite was possibly introduced into the Neotropical region through the exotic fish trade, especially of Cypriniformes used by aquarists. The distribution of this ciliate is discussed and a checklist of localities and hosts for the species is provided. PMID:26154956

  12. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  13. Reactions of Microsolvated Organic Compounds at Ambient Surfaces: Droplet Velocity, Charge State, and Solvent Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K.; Campbell, Dahlia I.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2012-06-01

    The exposure of charged microdroplets containing organic ions to solid-phase reagents at ambient surfaces results in heterogeneous ion/surface reactions. The electrosprayed droplets were driven pneumatically in ambient air and then electrically directed onto a surface coated with reagent. Using this reactive soft landing approach, acid-catalyzed Girard condensation was achieved at an ambient surface by directing droplets containing Girard T ions onto a dry keto-steroid. The charged droplet/surface reaction was much more efficient than the corresponding bulk solution-phase reaction performed on the same scale. The increase in product yield is ascribed to solvent evaporation, which causes moderate pH values in the starting droplet to reach extreme values and increases reagent concentrations. Comparisons are made with an experiment in which the droplets were pneumatically accelerated onto the ambient surface (reactive desorption electrospray ionization, DESI). The same reaction products were observed but differences in spatial distribution were seen associated with the "splash" of the high velocity DESI droplets. In a third type of experiment, the reactions of charged droplets with vapor phase reagents were examined by allowing electrosprayed droplets containing a reagent to intercept the headspace vapor of an analyte. Deposition onto a collector surface and mass analysis showed that samples in the vapor phase were captured by the electrospray droplets, and that instantaneous derivatization of the captured sample is possible in the open air. The systems examined under this condition included the derivatization of cortisone vapor with Girard T and that of 4-phenylpyridine N-oxide and 2-phenylacetophenone vapors with ethanolamine.

  14. Geometry of Interaction for MALL via Hughes-vanGlabbeek Proof-Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Hamano, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, a Geometry of Interaction (GoI) interpretation using Hughes-vanGlabbeek (HvG) proof-nets for multiplicative additive linear logic (MALL). Our GoI captures dynamically HvG's geometric correctness criterion--the toggling cycle condition--in terms of algebraic operators. Our new ingredient is a scalar extension of the *-algebra in Girard's *-ring of partial isometries over a boolean polynomial ring with literals of eigenweights as indeterminates. In order...

  15. Consideraciones generales acerca de la lógica lineal

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes de Medeiros, Maria da Paz; Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Norte

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se hacen consideraciones generales acerca de la lógica lineal, tomando especialmente en cuenta sus motivaciones y su formalización. En primer lugar, se explica la necesidad de expandir el conjunto usual de conectivas lógicas en la lógica lineal. Siguiendo a Girard (1987), se presenta una formalización para la lógica lineal como un cálculo de secuentes y se esboza el teorema de eliminación de corte para este sistema. Finalmente, se lleva a cabo un análisis crítico de la traducc...

  16. Lack of myristoylation of poliovirus capsid polypeptide VP0 prevents the formation of virions or results in the assembly of noninfectious virus particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Marc, D.; Masson, G.; Girard, M.; Van Der Werf, S.

    1990-01-01

    We previously described the generation of a set of mutations into a cDNA of poliovirus type 1 in the myristoylation signal of the capsid polypeptide VP4 (D. Marc, G. Drugeon, A.-L. Haenni, M. Girard, and S. van der Werf, EMBO J. 8:2661, 1989). Genomic transcripts synthesized in vitro from the mutated cDNAs were found to be noninfectious upon transfection of permissive cells, and this property correlated with the lack of VP0 myristoylation in vivo. In the study presented here, we analyzed the ...

  17. " 'Achever Clausewitz' ? -Catastrophisme et apocalypse contemporains"

    OpenAIRE

    Ramond, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Ce texte propose une confrontation entre la doctrine apocalyptique de René Girard (telle qu'elle s'exprime principalement dans son ouvrage 'Achever Clausewitz' de 2007) et celle de Günther Anders (notamment à partir de son livre 'Hiroshima est partout', 1995, tr. fr. 2008), sous l'angle de leur économie conceptuelle et de leur cohérence. Il met en évidence, pour finir, les paradoxes performatifs du discours apocalyptique, qui ne peut fonder son succès que sur ses échecs.

  18. Apocalyptic Narcissism and the Difficulty of Mourning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Mussgnug

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine how death and loss feature in recent apocalypse fiction and suggest that, in a genre mostly concerned with finitude, there appears to be paradoxically little room for expressions of mourning. I assess contemporary attitudes towards mortality through the writings of Philippe Ariès, Zygmunt Bauman, Simon Critchley and others, and propose a psychoanalytic reading of solitary survivor narrative, inspired by the work of Martin Jay. In the final part of the article, I turn to Sigmund Freud and René Girard to explore the relation between apocalyptic teleology, melancholy, and the expectation of global catastrophe.

  19. Evaluating the toxicity of oil of lemon eucalyptus, Corymbia citriodora (Hook.), against larvae of the Asian tiger mosquito and non-target fish and larval amphibians

    OpenAIRE

    Escartin, Santi; Mariani, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Hemos probado la toxicidad del aceite del eucalipto limón (OLE) contra las larvas de mosquito tigre Aedes (Stegomya) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae) y contra vertebrados acuáticos no objetivo, el pez Gambusia affinis (Baird and Girard, 1853) y el renacuajo de la rana Pelophylax perezi (López-Seodane, 1885). La mezcla acuosa de OLE fue efectiva como larvicida y letal para gambúsias y renacuajos. La mezcla acuosa expuesta durante una semana al aire libre no tu...

  20. A taxonomic revision of the Phrynosoma douglasii species complex (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanucci, Richard R

    2015-01-01

    Short-horned lizards (Phrynosoma douglasii species complex) occur throughout the inter-montane West and Great Plains of western North America. The comparative morphology and color pattern variation of short-horned lizards was studied in 3,174 specimens. Multivariate analyses of 20 morphological and color-pattern characters were applied to 977 specimens, and univariate statistics were summarized for 52 samples totaling 1,134 specimens. The results of the morphological data analyses support the recognition of P. douglasii (Bell 1828) as a distinct species, and the resurrection of P. brevirostris Girard 1858a and P. ornatissimum Girard 1858a as species distinct from P. hernandesi Girard 1858a. Two new species allied to P. brevirostris are described: P. bauri sp. nov. from the eastern plains of Colorado and northeastern New Mexico, southeastern Wyoming and southwestern Nebraska south of the North Platte River, and P. diminutum sp. nov. endemic to the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. The Mexican taxon brachycercum Smith 1942 is reassigned as a subspecies of P. ornatissimum, based on non-discrete character differences and overall morphometric similarity. The ranges of P. hernandesi and P. ornatissimum broadly overlap in central New Mexico, the former taxon occupying the coniferous forests of disjunct mountain ranges, the latter occuring in the surrounding desert grasslands. Principal components analysis has revealed morphological evidence of hybridization where the two taxa meet, generally within ecotones between montane forest associations and grasslands. Principal components analysis has also revealed a high level of morphological variability in populations occurring in the Colorado Plateau region of northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, extreme southwestern Colorado and adjacent Utah. The evidence suggests that these populations arose through past hybridization between the two species. The taxon ornatum Girard 1858b, although

  1. IMITATION AGAINST ORIGINAL: CİNGÖZ RECAİ VERSUS SHERLOCK HOLMES
    TAKLİT ORİJİNALE KARŞI: CİNGÖZ RECAİ VERSUS SHERLOCK HOLMES

    OpenAIRE

    Seval ŞAHİN

    2011-01-01

    In this article is carried out Cingöz Recai against Sherlock Holmes, which is published in 1928 by Peyami Safa using penname Server Bedi by way of taking into consideration Homi Bhabba, René Girard, Fredric Jameson and Nurdan Gürbilek’s aproach on imitation and original. Cingöz Recai is brought a different approach on the relationship between imitation and original by strategy created by the author’s explanation about both the conflict of East-West and the imitation and original. Bu makaled...

  2. Trends in the history of research on the problem of violence in the Old Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Snyman

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Violence as theological problem is a relative newcomer to the scene of Old Testament studies. It was only during the 1970�s that violence was given major attention by Old Testament scholars. In a number of studies the main focus was on Yahweh and his relation to violence. By the late I970�s the theories of Rene Girard on violence were applied to the Old Testament and played an important role in the thinking of Old Testament scholars on violence. In the last part of the article proposed solutions to the problem of violence in the Old Testament are discussed.

  3. Sin chivo expiatorio, no hay grupo: el caso de las administraciones públicas (No scapegoat, no group: the case of public administrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josu Bingen Fernández Alcalde

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Con base en Girard, Bion, Tuckman, Morgan, Anzieu, o la Sociología Clínica se analiza la posición de “Chivo Expiatorio” como suceso universal en los procesos de desarrollo de grupos y equipos. Una etapa esperable y gestionable de su evolución; no un accidente a evitar ni un motivo para desmantelar los equipos laborales puestos en marcha. Sin chivo expiatorio no hay grupo, ni regeneración grupal. Toda grupalidad vive cíclicamente “el destronamiento” de una figura anterior de liderazgo con algún tipo de violencia sacrificial. Tal acontecimiento cierra una fase de conflicto importante e inaugura una renormalización grupal. Por ello, propone incluirla como fase propia en los modelos generales de desarrollo grupal.ABSTRACTBased on Girard, Bion, Tuckman, Morgan, Anzieu, or Clinical Sociology analyzes the position of "Scapegoat" as a universal event in the development processes of groups and work groups. An expected and manageable stage of its evolution, not an accident to avoid nor a reason for dismantling the set up work teams. No scapegoat no group, no regeneration group. All groups lives cyclically "the dethronement" of an earlier figure of leadership with some sort of sacrificial violence. This event closes a major conflict phase and inaugurates a renormalization group. It is therefore proposed to include itself as a phase in the generic models of group development.

  4. L'orizzonte contemporaneo della fine del mondo. Lineamenti per una dialettica apocalisse/sopravvivenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delio Salottolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show how important is the idea of “apocalypse” in the present age and discuss if it is possible to develop any strategies of “survival”. After discussing some elements of de Martino’s thought about the temporal, psychopathological and political meaning of “apocalypse”, we’ll analyze the sense of Lars von Trier’s Melancholia as a symptom of the contemporary situation. After that, we’ll point out the importance of 11/9, the biggest and most shocking event of our time, debating the opinions of Baudrillard and Girard. Both thinkers consider 11/9 a fundamental event in order to understand the meaning of our time, Baudrillard debating the problem of our virtual society and Girard talking about the signs of a next “apocalypse”. Finally, we’ll try to introduce the concept of a “politics of survival”, such as it has been recently discussed by Didi-Huberman in his important book, Survivance des lucioles.

  5. Rhabdochona kharani sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the fish Labeo gedrosicus Zugmayer, 1912 from Garruk, District Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatullah, Kakar; Bilqees, Fatima Mujib; Kakar, Juma Khan

    2006-01-01

    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona kharani sp. nov., has been isolated from the intestine, stomach and swim bladder of the fish Labeo gedrosicus Zugmayer, 1912 (Fam. Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) from spring water at Garruk, District Kharan, Balochistan. The new species is characterized largely by the presence of eight anterior teeth in the prostom, inconspicuous deirids, by the shape and length of unequal spicules (0.08 - 0.09 and 2.9 - 3.1 mm), and by 17-18 pairs of caudal papillae including 6-7 postanal, one adanal, and 10 -11 preanal. Other characteristics include a pointed tail tip, non filamented eggs, a bulbous, voluminous, vaginal complex that is directed backward, and a vulva that is post-equatorial with a triangular large anterior lip and a smaller posterior lip.

  6. Neural bases of accented speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti eAdank

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of unfamiliar regional and foreign accents represents a challenging task for the speech perception system (Adank, Evans, Stuart-Smith, & Scott, 2009; Floccia, Goslin, Girard, & Konopczynski, 2006. Despite the frequency with which we encounter such accents, the neural mechanisms supporting successful perception of accented speech are poorly understood. Nonetheless, candidate neural substrates involved in processing speech in challenging listening conditions, including accented speech, are beginning to be identified. This review will outline neural bases associated with perception of accented speech in the light of current models of speech perception, and compare these data to brain areas associated with processing other speech distortions. We will subsequently evaluate competing models of speech processing with regards to neural processing of accented speech. See Cristia et al. (2012 for an in-depth overview of behavioural aspects of accent processing.

  7. Whisky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Jeanne

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Le clown blanc ne sourit jamais, pourtant il est drôle. On force les protagonistes de Whisky à sourire, mais on n’est jamais sûr d’avoir vraiment le droit de rire devant cette histoire simple de vies bien réglées, dérangées par un intrus, à mi-chemin entre Théorème (pour l’intrus et René Girard (pour le triangle amoureux transportés à Carrasco, petite ville d’Uruguay. Tout cela filmé façon Kaurismaki. Un cinquantenaire bourru y fabrique des chaussettes avec deux employées, et Marta son con...

  8. MONOGENEA OF EXOTIC FISHES I.DESCRIPTION OF Salsuginus bermudae FROM Gambusia affinis FOR THE FIRST TIME IN CHINA%外来鱼类单殖吸虫研究Ⅰ.食蚊鱼寄生百慕大伴盐虫Salsuginus bermudae首次在我国检出

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊向英; 丁雪娟

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a newly recorded monogenean in China, Salsuginus bermudae Rand & Wiles, 1987, found on the gills of an exotic fish, Gambusia affinis Baird and Girard, from Guangzhou, Guangdong Province. The shape of our specimens basically agrees with the original description except for the dimensions of the whole worms, the shape of the connective bars and the number of the marginal hooks.%记录采自广东广州食蚊鱼Gambusia-affinis鳃上的1种单殖吸虫——百慕大伴盐虫Salsuginus bermudae Rand & Wiles,1987.所获标本与Rand & Wiles的原始描述基本一致,但在量度、边缘小钩数量、联结片的结构上略有差异.伴盐虫属及百慕大伴盐虫均为我国首次报道.

  9. Behavioral Differentiation Induced by Insecticide Lambda-Cyhalothrin in Mosquito Fish, Gambusia affinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utku GÜNER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Test toxic material, one of most used pesticide, the Lambda cyhalothrin (LCY (TEKVANDO 5EC belongs to a group of chemicals called synthetic pyrethroids and pesticides and potential toxic pollutant contaminating aquatic ecosystems, was investigated in the present study for behavioral toxicology. Mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853 were selected for responses of Lambda cyhalothrin by Using to video-based movement analysis system. Selected 3 different doses 0.1, 0.5 and 0.75 ppm were used analyzed behavioral changes according to control group. The following behaviors were measured: total distance, travelled and average speed for treatment and control groups, maximum and average speed and time moving away from the dose applied point. This suggests that LCY contamination has the potential to significantly affect (p<0.05 the behavior of Mosquito fish, G. affinis.

  10. Cladistic analysis of Hemirhipini with establishment of Propalaus gen. nov. (Coleoptera, Elateridae, agrypninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Casari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article includes a cladistic analysis of the tribe Hemirhipini. Are included 20 Hemirhipini genera (sensu Casari-Chen 1994, Saltamartinus Casari (1996b (Hemirhipini, 6 genera excluded from Hemirhipini and kept in Agrypninae (formerly Pyrophorinae (Casari-Chen 1993 and also, Aphileus Candèze (1857, Pyrophorus Billberg (1820 and Thoramus Sharp (1877. The type-species of the majority of genera and all species of the American genera (except Saltamartinus viduus (Chevrolat 1867 are included. This analysis demonstrates that 30 genera belong to Hemirhipini: Abiphis Fleutiaux (1926, Alaolacon Candèze (1865, Alaomorphus Hauser (1900, Alaus Eschscholtz (1829, Aliteus Candèze (1857, Anthracalaus Fairmaire (1888, Aphileus Candèze (1857, Austrocalais Neboiss (1967, Calais Castelnau (1836, Catelanus Fleutiaux (1942, Chalcolepidius Eschscholtz (1829, Chalcolepis Candèze (1857, Conobajulus Van Zwaluwenburg (1940, Coryleus Fleutiaux (1942, Cryptalaus Ôhira (1967, Eleuphemus Hyslop (1921, Eumoeus Candèze (1874, Fusimorphus Fleutiaux (1942, Hemirhipus Latreille (1829, Lacais Fleutiaux (1942, Lycoreus Candèze (1857, Mocquerysia Fleutiaux (1899, Neocalais Girard (1971, Pherhimius Fleutiaux (1942, Phibisa Fleutiaux (1942, Propalaus gen. nov., Pseudocalais Girard (1971, Saltamartinus Casari (1996, Tetrigus Candèze (1857 and Thoramus Sharp (1877. The species included in Alaus do not make a monophyletic group and Propalaus gen. nov. is established to include Alaus alicii (Pjatakowa 1941 and A. haroldi (Candèze 1878. A description of Propalaus gen. nov. (type-species: Chalcolepidius haroldi Candèze, 1878 and a new key to Hemirhipini genera are also presented.Esse artigo apresenta uma análise cladística da tribo Hemirhipini. Estão incluídos na análise, 20 gêneros de Hemirhipini (sensu Casari-Chen 1994, Saltamartinus Casari (1996b (Hemirhipini, 6 gêneros excluídos de Hemirhipini e mantidos em Pyrophorinae (= Agrypninae (Casari-Chen 1993 e tamb

  11. Considerazioni mimetiche su Il perturbante (Das Unheimliche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Antonelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Si affronta una revisione della categoria psicanalitica del perturbante, con attenzione alla genesi della nozione nell’opera di Freud. Si propone quindi un’ipotesi di lettura, mediante applicazione del paradigma offerto dalla teoria mimetica di René Girard, al fine di rivedere le fondamenta antropologiche dell’esperienza codificata nel testo freudiano. Attraverso un’analisi etimologica del lemma italiano, si discute l’opportunità delle critiche rivolte alla traduzione originale, mettendo anzi in luce la complessità semantica di tale soluzione e le potenzialità esplicative che essa aggiunge alla già ampia, e nota, estensione del lemma tedesco. Con riferimento alla filosofia della storia di matrice girardiana, si mette a fuoco il ruolo della temporalità sia dal punto di vista della genesi della determinazione analitica, sia dal punto di vista delle condizioni di possibilità storiche dell’esperienza in esame.

  12. El eterno marido que no sabía amar: Un parásito del deseo en la novelística de Dostoievski

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera León, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Tomando como punto de partida los análisis de Denis de Rougemont en torno al concepto de amor-pasión en “El amor y Occidente”, así como la caracterización del triángulo del deseo mimético que René Girard realiza en “Mentira romántica y verdad novelesca”, examinamos la presencia del adulterio en dos textos que, pese a su distancia temporal, están íntimamente emparentados. El primero de ellos es “El curioso impertinente”, que encontramos intercalado dentro del “Quijote” como pequeña historia ap...

  13. Precise and accurate assay of pregnenolone and five other neurosteroids in monkey brain tissue by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Alain Y; Ke, Yuyong; Labrie, Fernand

    2016-09-01

    A series of steroids present in the brain have been named "neurosteroids" following the possibility of their role in the central nervous system impairments such as anxiety disorders, depression, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), addiction, or even neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Study of their potential role requires a sensitive and accurate assay of their concentration in the monkey brain, the closest model to the human. We have thus developed a robust, precise and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the assay of pregnenolone, pregnanolone, epipregnanolone, allopregnanolone, epiallopregnanolone, and androsterone in the cynomolgus monkey brain. The extraction method includes a thorough sample cleanup using protein precipitation and phospholipid removal, followed by hexane liquid-liquid extraction and a Girard T ketone-specific derivatization. This method opens the possibility of investigating the potential implication of these six steroids in the most suitable animal model for neurosteroid-related research. PMID:27378657

  14. Ludics and Web: Another Reading of Standard Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouqueré, Christophe

    The development of the Web lead to new programming languages. They merely come from well-known sequential languages augmented by specific libraries dedicated to web usage. They do not seriously take into account interaction, that is the most important principle in action. Relevant to the dialogue paradigm, we show that a web language may be fully designed in this spirit. We explain in which extent interaction is a central concept in web analysis. For that purpose, we use ludics as a logical framework. Ludics was developed by J.-Y. Girard as a semantics able to rebuild the logics from the notion of interaction. We present then a concrete web language whose type system is derived from ludics.

  15. Atividade reprodutiva de Physalaemus signifer (Anura, Leptodactylidae em ambiente temporário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wogel Henrique

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeding activity of Physalaemus signifer (Girard, 1853 was monitored from July 1999 to July 2000 in a temporary pond in Palmital, Municipality of Saquarema, State of Rio de Janeiro, Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil. Males were sexually actives only in four nights, arriving at the pond on the early rainy season. Males in amplexus were larger and spent more nights in the reproductive aggregation than solitary ones. The number of nights was correlated with the mass of the males. Males adopted satellite behavior as alternative tactic for mate acquisition. Changes between calling and satellite tactics were observed in different nights. Calling males were not larger and heavier than satellite ones. Satellite behavior seemed to be related with the order of arrival on the pond. Size and mass of males did not influence the results of fights. Resident males won the majority of agonistics combats. Three types of vocalizations are described: advertisement, territorial, and encounter calls.

  16. Polarized Montagovian Semantics for the Lambek-Grishin calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bastenhof, Arno

    2011-01-01

    Grishin proposed enriching the Lambek calculus with multiplicative disjunction (par) and coresiduals. Applications to linguistics were discussed by Moortgat, who spoke of the Lambek-Grishin calculus (LG). In this paper, we adapt Girard's polarity-sensitive double negation embedding for classical logic to extract a compositional Montagovian semantics from a display calculus for focused proof search in LG. We seize the opportunity to illustrate our approach alongside an analysis of extraction, providing linguistic motivation for linear distributivity of tensor over par, thus answering a question of Kurtonina&Moortgat. We conclude by comparing our proposal to the continuation semantics of Bernardi&Moortgat, corresponding to call-by- name and call-by-value evaluation strategies.

  17. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special dossier 'energy and environment' is made of 10 contributions dealing with: Man and energy, terrible lovers (Jean-Marc Jancovici); Wood fuel for southern countries (Jacques Valeix, Alain Bertrand, Philippe Girard); Energy and water: study of large-scale interactions, some medium-and long-term impacts (Jean-Francois Bonnet, Alain Ayong-Le-Kama, Stephane Cai); What solution for a sustainable nuclear energy? (Elisabeth Huffer); Opening of electricity markets: why? How? What environmental impacts? (Stephane Mattatia); Electricity and renewable energies: how far is the national grid capable to manage decentralized power sources? (Andre Merlin); Hydrogen, tomorrow's energy vector? (Jerome Perrin, Jean-Francois Deschamps; Energy in developing countries: the International Energy Agency (IEA) scenario (Cedric Philibert, Francois Cattier); The energy R and D program in the USA (Guillaume de Smedt); Energy mastery, the energy priority of the century (Pierre Radanne)

  18. Studies on the analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry using enzyme-assisted derivatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas, E-mail: J.A.F.A.ABDEL-KHALIK.744116@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Crick, Peter J. [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Carter, Graham D. [DEQAS, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Charing Cross Hospital, Fulham Palace Rd, London W6 8RF (United Kingdom); Makin, Hugh L. [Barts and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AD (United Kingdom); Wang, Yuqin [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Griffiths, William J., E-mail: w.j.griffiths@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • New method for the analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} exploiting Girard P derivatisation. • Method also applicable to vitamin D{sub 3}, 1α,25- and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. • By modification of the method 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} can also be analysed. - Abstract: The total serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamins D (25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} and 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 2}) is currently used as an indicator of vitamins D status. Vitamins D insufficiency is claimed to be associated with multiple diseases, thus accurate and precise reference methods for the quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamins D are needed. Here we present a novel enzyme-assisted derivatisation method for the analysis of vitamins D metabolites in adult serum utilising 25-[26,26,26,27,27,27-{sup 2}H{sub 6}]hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} as the internal standard. Extraction of 25-hydroxyvitamins D from serum is performed with acetonitrile, which is shown to be more efficient than ethanol. Cholesterol oxidase is used to oxidize the 3β-hydroxy group in the vitamins D metabolites followed by derivatisation of the newly formed 3-oxo group with Girard P reagent. 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 is shown to oxidize selectively the 3α-hydroxy group in the 3α-hydroxy epimer of 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. Quantification is achieved by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Recovery experiments for 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} performed on adult human serum give recovery of 102–106%. Furthermore in addition to 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} and other uncharacterised dihydroxy metabolites, were detected in adult human serum.

  19. IMITATION AGAINST ORIGINAL: CİNGÖZ RECAİ VERSUS SHERLOCK HOLMES TAKLİT ORİJİNALE KARŞI: CİNGÖZ RECAİ VERSUS SHERLOCK HOLMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval ŞAHİN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is carried out Cingöz Recai against Sherlock Holmes, which is published in 1928 by Peyami Safa using penname Server Bedi by way of taking into consideration Homi Bhabba, René Girard, Fredric Jameson and Nurdan Gürbilek’s aproach on imitation and original. Cingöz Recai is brought a different approach on the relationship between imitation and original by strategy created by the author’s explanation about both the conflict of East-West and the imitation and original. Bu makalede Peyami Safa’nın Server Bedi takma adıyla yazdığı ve 1928 yılında yayımlanan Sherlock Holmes’e Karşı Cingöz Recai serileri üzerinde durulmuştur. İncelemede Homi Bhabba, René Girard, Fredric Jameson ve Nurdan Gürbilek’in taklit ve orijinal ilişkisine dair yaklaşımlarından faydalanılmıştır. Cingöz Recai, Türk edebiyatında taklit ve orijinal ilişkisine farklı bir yaklaşım getirmiştir. Bu yaklaşımda yazarın kahramanı üzerinden ortaya koyduğu strateji bir taraftan Doğu-Batı meselesini gündeme getirirken diğer taraftan taklit ve orijinal ilişkisini sorgulamaya açar.

  20. La idealización del amor y la mujer en La vorágine The idealization of love and woman in The Vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Daniel Ortiz Caraballo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo a realizar es un análisis sociocrítico de La vorágine (1924, de José Eustasio Rivera (Neiva, 1888-Nueva York, 1928. Su objetivo es dilucidar una de las tomas de posición presente en esta obra literaria, específicamente, la toma de posición romántica en relación con sus personajes femeninos y los valores socio-económicos de la modernidad y el capitalismo, para establecer su impacto en el campo literario colombiano. El análisis textual se encuentra ordenado a partir de los conceptos de posición romántica (Girard, 1963, cronotopo (Bajtín, 1986: 269 héroe novelesco (Lukács, 1974: 161-162 y sistema de personajes como ejes fundamentales en los que se despliega buena parte de la axiología de la novelaThis essay is a sociocritic analysis of the novel La vorágine (1924, written by José Eustasio Rivera (Neiva, 1888-New York, 1928. Its objective is to elucidate one of the existent axiological position presented in this literary work, specifically, the romantic one (Girard, 1963. The reading of the text is organized in two parts: first, the idealization of love, where it is established the construction of the romantic position taken in terms of love, the socioeconomic values of modernity and capitalism, taking into account the hero of the novel and the idealization of a woman, according to the women characters and their ideological voice.

  1. 世界自然遗产预选地施秉鱼类物种组成%Fish species composition in Shibing of Guizhou, Southwest China, a candidate World Heritage Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赟; 侯秀发; 周江

    2013-01-01

    通过对贵州省中国南方喀斯特第二批世界自然遗产提名预选地施秉县的鱼类物种组成进行调查,共采集到鱼类46种,隶属于7目15科39属,其中鲤形目(Cypriniformes) 有28种,占本次调查的61%.在物种组成上,土著鱼类是该区域河流的主体,有40种,占87%;外来鱼类有6种,约占13%.其中外来入侵物种有食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis);大银鱼(Protosalanx hyalocroaniah属于人工放养;从人工养殖地逃逸到野外的鱼类有4种,分别为草鱼(Ctenopryngodon idellus)、鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)和团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycephala).%As a karst area of southern China,the Shibing in Guizhou Province is a second-batch candidate site nominated for the list of World Heritage Sites.In this paper,a three-year survey was conducted on the fish species composition in Shibing.A total of 46 species of freshwater fishes were collected,belonging to 39 genera,15 families,and 7 orders,among which,Cypriniformes had 28 species,accounting for 61% of the total.In species composition,native fishes dominated,with 40 species and occupying 87% of the total,whereas alien species had 6 species,occupying 13% of the total,and including 1 known invasive species (Gambusia affinis) and 5 artificial feeding species (Protosalanx hyalocroaniah,Ctenopryngodon idellus,Hypophthalmichthys molitrix,Aristichthys nobilis,and Megalobrama amblycephala).

  2. Mitochondrial genome of the shorthead catfish (Pelteobagrus eupogon): structure, phylogeny, and intraspecific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R-Q; Wang, D-Z; Li, C-T; Yang, X-R

    2016-01-01

    The complete 16,532-nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the shorthead catfish (Pelteobagrus eupogon) was determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method, and compared with the mitochondrial genome sequences of 49 other catfish species belonging to the order Siluriformes. The locations of protein-coding genes and ribosomal ribonucleic acids (RNAs) were identified by comparison with known sequences of other catfishes, including P. fulvidraco and P. nitidus. The P. eupogon mitochondrial genome was composed of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. The gene order was identical to that of other Siluriformes. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, and 13 protein-coding gene sequence data sets were carried out to further clarify the relative phylogenetic position of P. eupogon, and identify phylogenetic relationships among 24 families of Siluriformes. Phylogenetic analyses Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood (RAxML) 8.0.X were congruent with a basal split of the order into Clupeiformes, Characiformes, Cypriniformes, and Siluriformes, and supported a closer relationship of P. eupogon with Amblycipitidae than Siluridae. We therefore concluded that this species appears to be closely related to the Amblycipitidae. In the phylogenetic tree, the Amblycipitidae appeared as the most basal extant lineage within the Siluriformes, while the Bagridae appeared as the sister group of Cranoglanididae and Pangasiidae. The mitochondrial genome sequence of P. eupogon has been deposited in GenBank (accession No. KJ001784). PMID:27323031

  3. The analysis of cytochrome b nucleotidic sequence for Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian D. Gorgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  4. Ichthyofaunal Diversity and Water Quality in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Bera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyofauna in relation to water quality was studied on monthly basis from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Kangsabati Reservoir, West Bengal. The study revealed that physicochemical parameters of Kangsabati Reservoir were congenial for 39 fish species of commercial importance, belonging to 7 orders, 15 families, and 26 genera. The Cypriniformes were dominant with 17 species, followed by Siluriformes and Perciformes, with 7 species each, Channiformes with 3 species, Osteoglossiformes and Synbranchiformes with 2 species each, and Anguilliformes with 1 species. Regarding their conservation status, 27 species were of least concern, 1 species was vulnerable, 6 species were near threatened, 1 species was data deficient, and 4 species were not evaluated (IUCN-Version 2014.1. Economical values have also been evaluated. Water parameters such as temperature, pH, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, hardness, free CO2, salinity, total inorganic nitrogen, and phosphate were recorded and found suitable for fish production. Conductivity, transparency, and high chloride level are minor limiting factor that may needs rectification for improved fisheries management.

  5. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and phylogeny of the East Asian bagrid catfishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene was sequenced from 8 bagrid catfishes in China. Aligned with cytochrome b sequences from 9 bagrid catfishes in Japan, Korea and Russia retrieved from GenBank, and selected Silurus meridionalis, Liobagrus anguillicauda, Liobagrus reini and Phenacogrammus interruptus as outgroups, we constructed a matrix of 21 DNA sequences. The Kimura's two-parameter distances were calculated and molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods. The results show that (i) there exist 3-bp deletions of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene compared with cypriniforms and characiforms; (ii) the molecular phylogenetic tree suggests that bagrid catfishes form a monophyletic group, and the genus Mystus is the earliest divergent in the East Asian bagrid catfishes, as well as the genus Pseudobagrus is a monophyletic group but the genus Pelteobagrus and Leiocassis are complicated; and (iii) the evolution rate of the East Asian bagrids mitochondrial cytochrome b gene is about 0.18%~0.30% sequence divergence per million years.

  6. 清水江流域天柱段鱼类资源调查%Investigation on Fish Resources in Tianzhu Section of Qingshui River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟立霞; 潘年庆; 薛明淦

    2012-01-01

    对清水江流域天柱段的鱼类资源进行了调查,结果发现:共有52种(亚种),隶属4目12科41属,其中以鲤形目种类最多,鲈形目、鲇形目次之,合鳃目最少。干流分布的鱼类种类比支流多;小型野杂鱼种类多,大中型鱼类较少。近些午来鱼类资源呈减少的趋势,主要是受过度捕捞、水利工程和水域环境污染的影响。%In Tianzhu Section of Qingshui River, freshwater fish are investigated. The results show that freshwater fish have 52 species ( subspecies ) , which belong to 4 orders, 12 families, 41genera. The Cypriniformes are the most species, Perciformes and Siluriformes are less, Symbranchir are minimal. The species in main stream are more than in tributary stream. Small wild miscellaneous fish are more than large and medium fish. In recent years the fish resources have appeared a declining trend, which mainly due to overfishing, water conservancy project and water environment pollution.

  7. Cloning and tissue distribution of appetite-regulating peptides in pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkoff, H

    2015-10-01

    Pirapitinga (or red-bellied pacu, Piaractus brachypomus, Characiforme, Serrasalmidae) is an economically important South American fish for which the endocrine mechanism of the regulation of feeding has never been examined. To better understand these mechanisms, cDNAs encoding the appetite-regulating peptides orexin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), apelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), leptin and ghrelin were isolated in pirapitinga and their mRNA distributions examined in peripheral tissues and brain. When compared to other fish, the sequences obtained for all peptides were most similar to those of other Characiforme fish (i.e. Mexican cavefish) and Siluriformes (catfish) as well as Cypriniformes (i.e. goldfish, zebrafish). All peptides were widely expressed within the brain. With the exception of CART, which was only expressed in brain, the mRNAs of all peptides were present in several peripheral tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and gills. The widespread and peptide-specific distributions suggest that each peptide might have distinct physiological actions in the brain and on peripheral tissues, in particular on the gastrointestinal tract, which include feeding regulation. This preliminary study opens new avenues for further functional studies on the endocrine regulation of feeding in Serrasalmidae fish, including pirapitinga. PMID:25846408

  8. Clupeiformes' Egg Envelope Proteins characterization: The case of Engraulis encrasicolus as a proxy for stock assessment through a novel molecular tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Andrea; Leonori, Iole; Estonba, Andone; De Felice, Andrea; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-07-01

    Zona radiata proteins are essential for ensuring bactericidal resistance, oocyte nutrients uptake and functional buoyancy, sperm binding and guidance to the micropyle, and protection to the growing oocyte or embryo from the physical environment. Such glycoproteins have been characterized in terms of molecular structure, protein composition and phylogenetics in several chordate models. Nevertheless, research on teleost has not been extensive. In Clupeiformes, one of the most biologically relevant and commercially important order which accounts for over 400 species and totally contributes to more than a quarter of the world fish catch, Egg Envelope Protein (EEP) information exist only for the Clupea pallasii and Engraulis japonicus species. The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, the target of a well-consolidated fishery in the Mediterranean Sea, has been ignored until now and the interest on the Otocephala superorder has been fragmentally limited to some Cypriniformes and Gonorynchiformes, as well. The aim of the present study was to fill the ZP protein-wise gap of knowledge afflicting the understanding of the European anchovy's reproductive process and to expand the background on Clupeiformes. We cloned the five Engraulis encrasicolus' zp genes and deduced their products, determined their tissue distribution, quantified their mRNA expression throughout the reproductive cycle and provided an insight into their evolution through phylogenetic tools. Furthermore, we proposed a multivariate statistics-based method to objectively infer and/or confirm the classification of Engraulis encrasicolus' sexual maturity stages by analyzing data of zp mRNAs' relative abundance. PMID:27060425

  9. O ensino de línguas para crianças no contexto educacional brasileiro: breves reflexões e possíveis provisões The teaching of children in the Brazilian educational context: brief reflections and possible provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Hilsdorf Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir acerca do ensino de línguas estrangeiras (LE para crianças. Respaldando-nos em princípios da teoria Sócio-cultural (Vygotsky, 1978 e do Comunicativismo (Almeida Filho, 1993, 2005, voltados para o ensino de línguas (inglês para crianças (Cameron, 2001; Brewster, Ellis & Girard, 2002; entre outros, teceremos reflexões sobre a importância da aprendizagem de línguas na infância, sobre a relevância motivação e da qualidade das interações para um ensino cujo objetivo principal recai na formação integral do aluno, como também sobre o papel da gramática, da oralidade e da língua materna no processo. Serão também feitas considerações acerca da importância da formação (contínua do professor atuante nesse contexto e de possíveis procedimentos no ensino em pauta, quando serão apresentadas breves proposições orientadas pela noção bakhtiniana de gêneros.This article aims at discussing about the foreign language teaching to young learners, taking the principles of the Sociocultural Theory (Vygotksy, 1978 and of the Communicative Approach (Almeida Filho, 1993, 2005 related to Primary English teaching (Cameron, 2001; Brewster, Ellis & Girard, 2002 as a theoretical references. Considerations about the importance of language learning in childhood will be made, as well as about the role of the grammar, oral language and mother tongue in the process. Likewise, the importance of Teacher Education will be briefly approached. This work is ended with the discussion about some possible procedures in the language teaching processes followed by a brief presentation of possible guidelines based on the bakhtinian notion of discourse genres.

  10. EL CASTIGO FÍSICO: EL CUERPO COMO REPRESENTACIÓN DE LA PERSONA, UN CAPÍTULO EN LA HISTORIA DELA OCCIDENTALIZACIÓN DE AMÉRICA, SIGLOS XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRA ARAYA ESPINOZA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se centra en dos procesos paulatinos, no necesariamente consecutivos cronológicamente, pero indispensablemente ligados entre sí: la condena del castigo físico como pena judicial y la privatización de la mortificación del cuerpo, o el paso de la coacción externa a la autocoacción. Ambos tópicos permiten entender la modernidad como proceso de privatización del cuerpo desde los gestos de "ennoblecimiento del cuerpo" y de "compasión por el cuerpo". Se revisan aspectos del debate sobre el castigo físico -como elemento significativo del proceso de occidentalización de América-, desde los discursos en la documentación judicial, en los textos jurídicos referidos a las penas aflictivas en el sistema colonial penal y el debate sobre la mortificación corporal en el ámbito religioso. Teórica y metodológicamente se trabaja desde la historia de las mentalidades y del cuerpo usando las propuestas teóricas de David Le Breton, Mary Douglas, Norbert Elias, René Girard y Serge GruzinskiThis work centres on two gradual processes that in spite of not being chronologically consecutive are necessarily joined: the penalty of the physical punishment like a judicial sentence and the privatization of the mortification of the body, or the step of the external constraint to the auto-constraint. Both topics allow to understand the modernity as process of privatization of the body from the gestures of "ennoblement of the body" and of "pity for the body ". For this purpose, we will check the debates on the physical punishment as significant element of the process of "occidentalización" of America, from the judicial speeches referred to distressing sentences in the colonial penal system and the debate on the corporal mortification in the religious area. The theoretical and methodological line centres on the history of the mentalities and of the body following the offers of David Le Breton, Mary Douglas, Norbert Elias, René Girard and Serge

  11. Excreção urinária de 17-Cetoesteroides neutros no cavalo normal e no cavalo castrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ubatuba

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available Total urinary neutral 17-steroids were determined in normal and in castrated horses. One liter of a 15-26 hours urine collection was hydrolysed by refluxing with 10% HC1 (v/v for ten minutes and extracted with peroxyde-free ethyl ether. The extract was purified by washing with saturated NaHCO³ and KOH solutions. One half of the crude neutral fraction was fractionated with Girard's "T" reagent . The Zimmermann reaction was performed both in the ketonic and in the crude neutral extracts, using alcoholic 2.5N KOH and a 60 minutes period for the colour development in the dark. Optical density measuments were made in a grating Coleman Universal Spectrophotometer at 420 mµ and 520mµ; for the crude neutral fraction a colour correction equation was applied. The aliquot fraction used for colorimety was adjusted for keeping optical density measurements within the range 0.2 to 0.7. Androsterone (mp. 184-184.5°C with an absorption maximum at 290.5 mµ (Beckman Model DU Spectrophotometer was used as a reference standard. Table I, ilustrates the results obtained. At the 0.05 probability level there is a significant difference among castrated and normal group means (Fischer's "t" test. when were used the data obtained from the ketonic fractions; in spite of the use of a colour correction applied for inespecific chromogens, the same results could not be obtained with the crude neutral fractions, Since Girard's reagent fractionation is generaly accepted as the best method for correcting the inespecific chromogen interference in the determination of the 17-ketosteroids by the Zimmermann reaction, we emphasize the value of the results obtained with the ketonic fractions. From these results it appears, as occurs in others mammals, that castrated horses show a lower level of urinary 17-ketosteroids excretion than the normal horses. The significance of the horse testis contribution for the neutral urinary steroid metabolites is discussed. Since horse urine has a

  12. Solar thermal power meeting - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the presentations and debates of the first edition of the Solar thermal power meeting. Content: 1 - Opening talk (Jean-Louis BAL, SER); 2 - Solar thermal power, European and global road-maps (Cedric Philibert, IEA; Mariangels Perez Latorre, Estela); 3 - first round-table on the international development of solar energy (Philippe Lorec, DGEC France; Said Mouline, Aderee Morocco; Obaid Amrane, Masen Morocco; Kawther Lihidheb, ANME Tunisia; Abdelaziz Boumahra, Rouiba Eclairage, Algeria; Badis Derradji, NEAL Algeria; Yao Azoumah, Lesee, 2IE Foundation Burkina Faso; Mamadou Amadou Kane, MPEM Mauritania; Jean-Charles Mulet, Bertin Technologies); 4 - Second round-table on the French solar thermal offer for export (Georgina Grenon, DGEC; Stephanie Bouzigueseschmann, DG Tresor; Armand Pineda, Alstom; Florent Brunet, Mena-Areva; Roger Pujol, CNIM; Gilles David, Enertime; Michel Wohrer, Saed; Mathieu Vrinat, Sogreah; Marc Benmarraze, Solar Euromed; 5 - Presentation of Amisole - Moroccan association of solar and wind industries (Ahmed Squalli, Amisole); 6 - Third round-table on French research at the solar industry service (Gilles Flamant, Promes Lab. CNRS; Francois Moisan, Ademe; Tahar Melliti, CGI; Andre Joffre, Derbi; Michel Wohrer, Capenergies; 7 - Fourth round table on projects financing (Vincent Girard, Loan Officer BEI; Bertrand Marchais, Miga World Bank; Philippe Meunier, CDC Climat Groupe Caisse des Depots; Christian de Gromard, AFD; Laurent Belouze, Natixis; Piotr Michalowski, Loan Officer BEI); 8 - Closing of the meeting (Roger Pujol, SER)

  13. Fabrication of cationic cellulosic nanofibrils through aqueous quaternization pretreatment and their use in colloid aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Henrikki; Suopajärvi, Terhi; Sirviö, Juho; Hormi, Osmo; Niinimäki, Jouko

    2014-03-15

    The aqueous pre-treatment of cellulose with periodate and Girard' reagent T was employed as a novel and promising method to promote nanofibrillation of wood pulp and to obtain cellulosic nanofibrils with cationic functionality (CNFC). To demonstrate the feasibility of CNFCs in particle aggregation, a kaolin clay model suspension was aggregated by the CNFCs. Direct high-pressure homogenization of cationized cellulose resulted in nanofibrils exhibiting typical widths of 10-50 nm and cationic charge densities ranging from 1.10 to 2.13 mequiv.g(-1). The nanofibril suspensions existed in the form of highly transparent gels and possessed cellulose I crystalline structures. All of the CNFCs promoted strong aggregation of kaolin and produced voluminous kaolin-CNFC aggregates with lateral dimensions of several millimeters. Moreover, the CNFCs maintained good aggregation performance through wide pH (3-9) and temperature (25-60 °C) ranges. Thus, CNFCs were shown to be highly potential candidates for replacement of present synthetic soluble flocculation and coagulation aids. PMID:24528718

  14. [From the creation of the Veterinary Schools to the evolution of the notion of contagion in the 19th and 20th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilet, Charles

    2012-05-01

    The creation of the Veterinary Schools in the 18th century would reveal a plethora of scientists, some of whom would be the precursors of Pasteur, some rivals, others followers collaborators or friends of the Master. Among the precursors let us name Chabbert, Huzard, Girard, Delafond, Renault, Toussaint, Galtier ; among the rivals: Chauveau, Arloing, Cornevin and Thomas; among the followers, collaborators or friends of Pasteur: Bouley, at first a resolute spontaneist, then the most fervent in defense of Pasteur (President of the Academy of Medicine and of the Academy of Sciences) and Nocard, Director of the School in Alfort, an important collaborator of Pasteur. Later, there was Leclainche, who created the International Office of Epizootics, and who was President of the Academy of Sciences; Guérin, who with Calmette developed the BCG vaccination; Ramon, the father of anatoxins (vaccines against diphtheria, and tetanus, combined vaccines, adjuvants to immunity). Thus, the creation of the Veterinary Schools contributed not only to the evolution of the notion of contagion, to the amelioration of animal health and the economics of agricultural production, but also to serious advances in human care, and to the protection of public health.

  15. Influence of salinity and prey presence on the survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Ryong; King, Sammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinization of coastal freshwater environments is a global issue. Increased salinity from sea level rise, storm surges, or other mechanisms is common in coastal freshwater marshes of Louisiana, USA. The effects of salinity increases on aquatic macroinvertebrates in these systems have received little attention, despite the importance of aquatic macroinvertebrates for nutrient cycling, biodiversity, and as a food source for vertebrate species. We used microcosm experiments to evaluate the effects of salinity, duration of exposure, and prey availability on the relative survival of dominant aquatic macroinvertebrates (i.e., Procambarus clarkii Girard, Cambarellus puer Hobbs, Libellulidae, Dytiscidae cybister) in a freshwater marsh of southwestern Louisiana. We hypothesized that increased salinity, absence of prey, and increased duration of exposure would decrease survival of aquatic macroinvertebrates and that crustaceans would have higher survival than aquatic insect taxon. Our first hypothesis was only partially supported as only salinity increases combined with prolonged exposure duration affected aquatic macroinvertebrate survival. Furthermore, crustaceans had higher survival than aquatic insects. Salinity stress may cause mortality when acting together with other stressful conditions.

  16. Occurrence of the Toxin-Producing Aspergillus versicolor Tiraboschi in Residential Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Marlena; Łuszczyńska, Katarzyna; Lechów, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    In an area representative of a moderate climate zone (Lubuskie Province in Poland), mycological tests in over 270 flats demonstrated the occurrence of 82 species of moulds. Aspergillus versicolor Tiraboschi was often encountered on building partitions (frequency 4: frequently). The ability to synthesize the carcinogenic sterigmatocystin (ST) means that it poses a risk to humans and animals. Biotoxicological tests of biomasses of A. versicolor were conducted in the Microbiological and Toxicological Laboratory, using the planarians Dugesia tigrina (Girard). The obtained results of the tests covered a broad range of toxicity levels of isolated strains: from weakly toxic (100-1000 mg·L(-3)) to potently toxic (1-10 mg·L(-3)). The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) physicochemical method confirmed the ability of A. versicolor strains to synthesize sterigmatocystin. All of the samples of the air-dry biomasses of the fungi contained ST in the range between 0.03 and 534.38 mg·kg(-1). In the bio-safety level (BSL) classification A. versicolor belongs to category 1. Additionally, A. versicolor is an allergenic mould. PMID:27589778

  17. 《巴黎圣母院》新解:男女主人公替罪羊形象研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾颉

    2014-01-01

    Dans cet article, sur la base de quatre modèles de texte de persécution et de théorie du bouc-émissaire de René Girard, nous recherchons la vraie raison de la mort des personnages principaux, Quasimodo et Esmeralda, du roman de Victor Hugo Notre-Dame de Paris, et de déceler la crise de la société humaine, cachée derrière ce texte de persécution.%本文从法国著名文学批评家勒内·吉拉尔提出的迫害文本的四个范式和替罪羊机制理论出发,分析解读雨果小说《巴黎圣母院》中男女主人公爱斯美拉达和卡西莫多之死的真正原因,证明小说属于迫害文本和男女主人公作为替罪羊而死的事实,发现替罪羊的无辜及其救赎作用,揭示集体暴力的真相,发掘隐藏在这个迫害文本背后的人类社会危机。

  18. Individual variation affects departure rate from the natal pond in an ephemeral pond-breeding anuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelgren, N.D.; Rosenberg, D.K.; Heppell, S.S.; Gitelman, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Frogs exhibit extreme plasticity and individual variation in growth and behavior during metamorphosis, driven by interactions of intrinsic state factors and extrinsic environmental factors. In northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora Baird and Girard, 1852), we studied the timing of departure from the natal pond as it relates to date and size of individuals at metamorphosis in the context of environmental uncertainty. To affect body size at metamorphosis, we manipulated food availability during the larval stage for a sample (317) of 1045 uniquely marked individuals and released them at their natal ponds as newly metamorphosed frogs. We recaptured 34% of marked frogs in pitfall traps as they departed and related the timing of their initial terrestrial movements to individual properties using a time-to-event model. Median age at first capture was 4 and 9 days postmetamorphosis at two sites. The rate of departure was positively related to body size and to date of metamorphosis. Departure rate was strongly negatively related to time elapsed since rainfall, and this effect was diminished for smaller and later metamorphosing frogs. Individual variation in metamorphic traits thus affects individuals' responses to environmental variability, supporting a behavioral link with variation in survival associated with these same metamorphic traits. ?? 2008 NRC.

  19. Assessment of the Fishery Improvement Opportunities on the Pend Oreille River, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Michael R.; Willms, Roger A.; Scholz, Allan T.

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the fishery improvement opportunities on the Box Canyon portion of the Pend Oreille River. This report contains the findings of the first year of the study. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum)) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Richardson)) were present in the Pend Oreille River prior to the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The river also contained native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson)), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus (Walbaum)) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni (Girard)). Rainbow trout were planted in the river and some grew to lengths in excess of 30 inches. With the construction of Box Canyon Dam, in 1955, the most productive section of the river was inundated. Following the construction of the dam the trout fishery declined and the populations of spiny ray fish and rough fish increased. The objectives of the first year of the study were to determine the relative abundance of each species in the river and sloughs; the population levels in fish in the river and four selected tributaries; fish growth rates; the feeding habits and abundance of preferred prey; the migration patterns; and the total fishing pressure, catch per unit effort, and total harvest by conducting a year-round creel survey. 132 refs.

  20. Habitat and co-occurrence of native and invasive crayfish in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions can have dramatic effects on freshwater ecosystems and introduced crayfish can be particularly impacting. We document crayfish distribution in three large hydrographic basins (Rogue, Umpqua, Willamette/Columbia) in the Pacific Northwest USA. We used occupancy analyses to investigate habitat relationships and evidence for displacement of native Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852) by two invaders. We found invasive Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852), in 51 of 283 sites and in all three hydrographic basins. We found invasive Orconectes n. neglectus (Faxon, 1885) at 68% of sites in the Rogue basin and provide first documentation of their broad distribution in the Umpqua basin. We found P. clarkii in both lentic and lotic habitats, and it was positively associated with manmade sites. P. leniusculus was positively associated with lotic habitats and negatively related to manmade sites. In the Rogue and Umpqua basins, O. n. neglectus and P. leniusculus were similar in their habitat associations. We did not find a negative relationship in site occupancy between O. n. neglectus and P. leniusculus. Our data suggest that P. clarkii has potential to locally displace P. leniusculus. There is still time for preventive measures to limit the spread of the invasive crayfish in this region.

  1. [History of human epidemic and endemic diseases in the southwest Indian Ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaüzère, B-A; Aubry, P

    2013-05-01

    Smallpox has been known in the Mascarene Islands since 1729, and in 1898, the vaccinogenic and anti-rabies Institute of Tananarive, the future Pasteur Institute of Madagascar, was created to combat it. Cholera first arrived in the Mascarenes in 1819, but did not affect the Comoros Islands and Madagascar until the current pandemic. Bubonic plague has beset the ports of Madagascar and the Mascarenes since 1898. Girard and Robic developed the anti-plague vaccine in 1931 at the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar. The Mascarenes lost their reputation as Eden when malaria arrived in 1841, and this disease remains prominent in Madagascar and Comoros. Leprosy has been known in La Réunion since 1726 and is still very present in Mayotte, Anjouan, and Madagascar. Leptospirosis is a public health problem, except in Madagascar and the Comoros. Dengue, chikungunya, and Rift Valley fever are also present. HIV/AIDS is not a major concern, except in Mauritius, where it was spread by injection drug use, in the Seychelles and in Madagascar's largest cities. Madagascar is the principal site worldwide of chromoblastomycosis, first described there in 1914. PMID:23797833

  2. De la méconnaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dumouchel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available I argue that the conception of «méconnaissance» put forward by René Girard should be understood in relation to what Popper calls objective knowledge rather than to the classical idea of knowledge as true and justified belief. Objective knowledge considers knowledge as a tool which is open to many uses and abuses. It allows us to make sense of Girard’s claim that «méconnaissance» grows as our knowledge increases and shows that knowledge and «méconnaissance» should not be understood as polar opposites. This suggests a different relationship between «méconnaissance» and revelation, that revelation does not spell the end of «méconnaissance» but rather initiates a different type of relationship between knowledge and «méconnaissance». I try to illustrate this last point with the help of two examples: Ernesto De Martino’s analysis of tarantism in La terra del rimorso and John Rawls’s idea of a veil of ignorance in his A theory of justice.

  3. Solar thermal power meeting - Proceedings; Les Rencontres du Solaire Thermodynamique - Actes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    This document summarizes the presentations and debates of the first edition of the Solar thermal power meeting. Content: 1 - Opening talk (Jean-Louis BAL, SER); 2 - Solar thermal power, European and global road-maps (Cedric Philibert, IEA; Mariangels Perez Latorre, Estela); 3 - first round-table on the international development of solar energy (Philippe Lorec, DGEC France; Said Mouline, Aderee Morocco; Obaid Amrane, Masen Morocco; Kawther Lihidheb, ANME Tunisia; Abdelaziz Boumahra, Rouiba Eclairage, Algeria; Badis Derradji, NEAL Algeria; Yao Azoumah, Lesee, 2IE Foundation Burkina Faso; Mamadou Amadou Kane, MPEM Mauritania; Jean-Charles Mulet, Bertin Technologies); 4 - Second round-table on the French solar thermal offer for export (Georgina Grenon, DGEC; Stephanie Bouzigueseschmann, DG Tresor; Armand Pineda, Alstom; Florent Brunet, Mena-Areva; Roger Pujol, CNIM; Gilles David, Enertime; Michel Wohrer, Saed; Mathieu Vrinat, Sogreah; Marc Benmarraze, Solar Euromed; 5 - Presentation of Amisole - Moroccan association of solar and wind industries (Ahmed Squalli, Amisole); 6 - Third round-table on French research at the solar industry service (Gilles Flamant, Promes Lab. CNRS; Francois Moisan, Ademe; Tahar Melliti, CGI; Andre Joffre, Derbi; Michel Wohrer, Capenergies; 7 - Fourth round table on projects financing (Vincent Girard, Loan Officer BEI; Bertrand Marchais, Miga World Bank; Philippe Meunier, CDC Climat Groupe Caisse des Depots; Christian de Gromard, AFD; Laurent Belouze, Natixis; Piotr Michalowski, Loan Officer BEI); 8 - Closing of the meeting (Roger Pujol, SER)

  4. Complex influences of low-head dams and artificial wetlands on fishes in a Colorado River tributary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, R.J.; Rahel, F.J.; Hubert, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Low-head dams in arid regions restrict fish movement and create novel habitats that have complex effects on fish assemblages. The influence of low-head dams and artificial wetlands on fishes in Muddy Creek, a tributary of the Colorado River system in the USA was examined. Upstream, fish assemblages were dominated by native species including two species of conservation concern, bluehead sucker, Catostomus discobolus Cope, and roundtail chub, Gila robusta Baird and Girard. The artificial wetlands contained almost exclusively non-native fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, and white sucker, Catostomus commersonii (Lacep??de). Downstream, fish assemblages were dominated by non-native species. Upstream spawning migrations by non-native white suckers were blocked by dams associated with the wetlands. However, the wetlands do not provide habitat for native fishes and likely inhibit fish movement. The wetlands appear to be a source habitat for non-native fishes and a sink habitat for native fishes. Two non-native species, sand shiner, Notropis stramineus (Cope), and redside shiner, Richardsonius balteatus (Richardson), were present only downstream of the wetlands, suggesting a beneficial role of the wetlands in preventing upstream colonisation by non-native fishes. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Hydrologic Properties of Aquifers in the Central Savannah River Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snipes, D.S.; Benson, S.M.; Price Jr., Van; Temples, T.J.

    1996-01-02

    The hydrologic properties of selected aquifer systems underlying the Milhaven and Girard sites in Georgia were determined through a series of aquifer performance tests performed from October, 1994 to January, 1995. At the Milhaven site, the systems under investigation consisted of the upper, middle and lower components of the Upper Floridan, the lower Dublin, and the lower Midville aquifers. At the Dublin site, only the lower Dublin and lower Midville aquifers were tested. In addition, the hydrologic properties of the lower Midville aquifer underlying the P, B and D Areas at the Savannah River Site were determined by a series of aquifer tests conducted in 1993 and 1994. The tests generally consisted of collecting water level and atmospheric data for 24 hours followed by a 72 hour pump test and a subsequent 72 hour recovery period. These tests were designed to determine the aquifer properties over a large area, to determine whether any hydrologic boundaries existed in the area, and to find out if leakance could be induced through the confining units which separated the aquifer units.

  6. Scientific Programme Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  7. Free choice permission as resource-sensitive reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Free choice permission is a long-standing puzzle in deontic logic and in natural language semantics. It involves what appears to be a conjunctive use of "or": from "You may eat an apple or a pear", we can infer that "You may eat an apple" and that "You may eat a pear" -- though not that "You may eat an apple and a pear". Following Lokhorst (1997, I argue that because permission is a limited resource, a resource-sensitive logic such as Girard's Linear Logic is better suited to modeling permission talk than, say, classical logic. A resource-sensitive approach enables the semantics to track not only that permission has been granted and what sort of permission it is (i.e., permission to eat apples versus permission to eat pears, but also how much permission has been granted, i.e., whether there is enough permission to eat two pieces of fruit or only one. The account here is primarily semantic (as opposed to pragmatic, with no special modes of composition or special pragmatic rules. The paper includes an introduction to Linear Logic. doi:10.3765/sp.3.10 BibTeX info

  8. Chemical Analysis of Organic Aerosols Using Reactive Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, A.; Laskin, J.; Nizkorodov, S.

    2013-12-01

    Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization (nano-DESI) technique integrated with high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) enables molecular level analysis of organic aerosol (OA) samples. In nano-DESI, analyte is desorbed into a small volume solvent bridge formed between two capillaries positioned in contact with analyte and enables fast and efficient characterization of OA collected on substrates without sample preparation. We report applications of the nano-DESI/HR-MS approach in a number of our recent studies focused on molecular identification of organic compounds in laboratory and in field collected OA samples. Reactive nano-DESI approach where selected reagent is added to the solvent is used for examining the presence of individual species containing specific functional groups and for their quantification within complex mixtures of OA. Specifically, we use the Girard's reagent T (GT) to probe and quantify carbonyl compounds in the SOA mixtures. We estimate for the first time the amounts of dimers and trimers in the SOA mixtures. We found that the most abundant dimer in limonene/O3 SOA was detected at the ˜0.5 pg level and the total amount of dimers and trimers in the analyzed sample was ˜11 pg. Understanding of the OA composition at the molecular level allowed us to identify key aging reactions, including the transformation of carbonyls to imines and carbonyl-imine oligomerization, that may contribute to the formation of brown carbon in the atmosphere.

  9. Phylogeny of eight snappers (Lutjanidae) in Chinese coastal waters inferred from partial mtDNA 12S rRNA Sequences%基于12S rRNA部分序列分析的中国8种笛鲷科鱼类系统发育初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐优良; 章群; 余帆洋; 周佳怡; 司丛利; 黄小彧; 马奔

    2011-01-01

    Partial sequences of 12S rRNA gene of eight snappers collected in coastal waters of china determined in the present study and two lutjanid sequences downloaded from GenBank were combined to reconstruct Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees with Siganus unimaculatus, S. fuscescens, Monotaxis grandocu/is, Lethrinus obsoletus (perciformes), Myripristis berndti, Beryx splendens, Sargocentron rubrum (Beryciformes), and Danio rerio(Cypriniformes) as outgroups. Totally 170 variable sites and 126 parsimony-informative sites existed in the 895 bp sequences, and the ts/tv ratio was 2.39. Phylogenetic trees showed that the Caesioninae were nested within the Lutjaninae, supporting the recent opinion that the Caesionidae shoud be regarded as a synonym of the Lutjanidae, but their phylogenetic relationships to other lutjanid species remained to be further studied. L. malabarius and L.sebae formed a well-supported clade, supporting the taxonomical treatment of L. malabarius and L. sebae based on morphological characters; however morphologically similar species L. johni and L. argentimaculatus were genetically quite different, indicating that morphologically similar species were not necessarily genetically closely related.%测定了中国近海8种笛鲷鱼类线粒体12s rRNA基因部分序列,结合GenBank中下载的2种笛鲷鱼类序列,以鲈形目(Perciformes)中的单列齿鲷(Monotaxis grandoculis)、黄带裸颊鲷(Lethrinus obsoletus)、尖嘴蓝子鱼(Siganus unimaculatus)、褐蓝子鱼(Siganusfuscescens)和金眼鲷目(Peryciformes)中的点鳍棘鳍鱼(Sargocentron rubrum)、大鳞锯鳞鱼(Myripristis berndti)、红金眼鲷(Beryx splendens)以及鲤形目(Cypriniformes)中的印度斑马鱼(Danio rerio)为外类群,构建最大似然树和贝叶斯推断树,发现在895bp的同源序列中,共有170个变异位点,其中简约信息位点126个,转换/颠换值为2.39;最大似然树和贝叶斯推断树显示梅鲷鱼类(Caesioninae)镶嵌在笛鲷

  10. Fish remnants from the excavations of the Bronze Age barrow near Maryanskoe village (Dnepropetrovsk region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kovalchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bronze Age mound (2.5–2.3 kya BC is located near the Maryanskoe village (Apostolovskyi district, Dnepropetrovsk region and was excavated in 1953. The results of determination of the fish remnants, which were found during the excavation, are presented in the paper. Eleven species belonging to 9 genera, 5 families and 5 orders (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes, Perciformes were identified: russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt et Ratzeburg, 1833, stellate sturgeon A. stellatus Pallas, 1771, common ide Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758, common roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758, pontic roach R. frisii (Nordmann, 1840, common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758, common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758, european catfish Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758, northern pike Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758, and zander Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758. Most of them are quite common in the Dnieper river basin. It was found that carp fishes predominate in the number of species. Most of the bone remnants in the collection belong to zander, catfish and pike, while common roach, pontic roach and common bream are identified by the few bones. This may indicate a different role of these species in the diet of the local population. The ratio of skeletal elements in the collection is the evidence of the fish cutting on the site. Body length and weight was reconstructed for 64 fish specimens. It was found that they were mature and small-sized, except for catfish, pike and perch. Taking into account the characteristics of the funeral rituals of the Yamna culture population, fish bones from the mound near Maryanskoe can be remnants of the parting meal.

  11. The impact of mining upon the features of the Blue Lagoon Lake in the Aghireşu area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril Pandi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The substrate of Aghireşu area contains several resources, which in time it was exploited and processed in locality. Among them is the brown coal, the gypsum, the kaolin. The exploitations began in galleries, and then passed to phase of surface quarries. After mining was formed several lakes trough the collapse of the galleries; to them was added the artificial lakes too. The Blue Lagoon Lake is a hydrological unit, the most representative of mixed origin. The water characteristics of the lake are under the influence of mineral composition of the substrate, the activity of mining, the erosion processes, the characteristics of lakes depressions, the climate elements, etc. The water physical and chemical properties are analyzed in space and time scale variation. Sampling and analysis made afford to compare the values in horizontally and vertically plain. The paper is part of a larger scale study for some genes` (Cytb, ND4L and D-loop nucleotidic structure identification by sequencing, to distinguish the structural differences and their exact length inase pairs. Research was carried out on individuals of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782 (Actinopterygii,Cypriniformes from two different populations, Iezăreni and Movileni (Iaşi, from which dorsal musculartissue was sampled. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA isolation and purification was carried out automaticallyusing Promega’s Maxwell 16 (SEV module. Cytochrome b (cytb was multiplied by a two stage>polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using two sets of complementary primers (1 set for each fragment.Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that the cytochrome b has one sequence of 1140bp. Theobtained sequences were subsequently compared with sequences of the same gene from otherindividuals within this species, towards identifying possible differences in the nucleotidic structure.Key Words: Carassius, cytocrhome b, mtDNA.

  12. First Record of Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Digenea) from the Americas, with Comments on the Taxonomy of Transversotrema patialense (Soparkar, 1924) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960, and an Updated List of Its Hosts and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Matthew R; Cox-Gardiner, Stephanie J; Cribb, Thomas H; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    Specimens of Transversotrema patialense (sensu lato) ( Soparkar, 1924 ) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960 (Digenea: Transversotrematidae) infected the skin (epidermal spaces beneath scales near pectoral fins) of 4 of 126 (prevalence 3%; mean intensity 1.8) zebrafish ( Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822) [Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae]) purchased in 2009 and cultured by a California (USA) fish supplier. These fish were sold as "laboratory-reared" and "specific pathogen free," purportedly raised in a recirculating aquaculture system that included zebrafish only. We herein describe the morphological features of this transversotrematid using light and scanning electron microscopy, provide a comprehensive list of hosts (snails and fishes) and geographic locality records for specimens reported as T. patialense, which is perhaps a species complex, and provide a brief historical synopsis of the taxonomic and life history research that has been conducted on this fluke. No species of Transversotrema previously had been reported from the Americas; however, this discovery is not surprising given that: (1) a suitable intermediate host (red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) [Cerithioidea: Thiaridae]) has been established in California and elsewhere in North America, (2) the zebrafish is a susceptible definitive host, and (3) T. patialense reportedly matures on a broad ecological and phylogenetic spectrum of freshwater fishes. To our knowledge, this is the northern-most geographic locality record for a species of this genus. We suspect this case study represents an example of a parasite that may now be established in North America by the fortuitous co-occurrence of a susceptible, exotic snail host (the red-rimmed melania) and a susceptible, widely distributed, exotic fish host (the zebrafish). PMID:26335181

  13. Basal and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced expression of cytochrome P450 1A, 1B and 1C genes in the Brazilian guppy, Poecilia vivipara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, Tarquin; Zanette, Juliano; Zacchi, Flávia L; Stegeman, John J; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2012-11-15

    In fish there are four cytochrome P450 (CYP1) subfamilies: CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C, and CYP1D. Here we cloned Poecilia vivipara CYP1A, with an inferred amino acid sequence 91% identical to CYP1A from the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus, another member of the Cypriniformes, and an important model in ecotoxicology. In addition, we examined the expression of CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 by qPCR in liver, gill, and intestine of adult P. vivipara injected with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) or held in clean water (control group) for 24h. All three tissues examined showed basal expression of the three CYP1 genes. CYP1A was most strongly expressed in the liver, while CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 were most strongly expressed in the gill and intestine respectively. 3-MC induced CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 significantly (20-120-fold) in the three organs, consistent with the regulation of CYP1A, CYP1B1 and CYP1C1 via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Validation of CYP1 gene biomarkers in fish collected from a contaminated urban mangrove environment was confirmed with significant induction of CYP1A and CYP1C1 in gills (10-15-fold) and CYP1B1 in liver (23-fold), relative to fish from a control site. The responsiveness of these CYP1 genes indicates P. vivipara is suitable as a model for environmental toxicology studies and environmental assessment in Brazil.

  14. Independently evolved upper jaw protrusion mechanisms show convergent hydrodynamic function in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Katie Lynn; Holzman, Roi; Hernandez, L Patricia; Wainwright, Peter C

    2012-05-01

    A protrusible upper jaw has independently evolved multiple times within teleosts and has been implicated in the success of two groups in particular: Acanthomorpha and Cypriniformes. We use digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to compare suction feeding flow dynamics in a representative of each of these clades: goldfish and bluegill. Using DPIV, we contrast the spatial pattern of flow, the temporal relationship between flow and head kinematics, and the contribution of jaw protrusion to the forces exerted on prey. As expected, the spatial patterns of flow were similar in the two species. However, goldfish were slower to reach maximal kinematic excursions, and were more flexible in the relative timing of jaw protrusion, other jaw movements and suction flows. Goldfish were also able to sustain flow speeds for a prolonged period of time as compared with bluegill, in part because goldfish generate lower peak flow speeds. In both species, jaw protrusion increased the force exerted on the prey. However, slower jaw protrusion in goldfish resulted in less augmentation of suction forces. This difference in force exerted on prey corresponds with differences in trophic niches and feeding behavior of the two species. The bluegill uses powerful suction to capture insect larvae whereas the goldfish uses winnowing to sort through detritus and sediment. The kinethmoid of goldfish may permit jaw protrusion that is independent of lower jaw movement, which could explain the ability of goldfish to decouple suction flows (due to buccal expansion) from upper jaw protrusion. Nevertheless, our results show that jaw protrusion allows both species to augment the force exerted on prey, suggesting that this is a fundamental benefit of jaw protrusion to suction feeders. PMID:22496281

  15. Taxocoenosis and distribution of nektonic fauna in the rice fields of Kashmir (J and K) India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaar, S W N; Bhat, G A

    2011-04-15

    Present study attempts to identify the taxocoenosis and distribution of nektonic fauna harbouring the rice field ecosystems of Kashmir. The main objective of the study was to provide an overview of the nektonic community composition and physicochemical characteristics of flood waters. 6 sites were selected in Kupwara, Bandipora, Budgam, Srinagar, Pulwama and Anantnag districts of valley Kashmir. A total of 26 taxa belonging to 13 different orders were reported during the study which commenced through 2 consecutive crop cycles. The taxocoenosis was dominated by Coleoptera (10 taxa) followed by Hemiptera (3 taxa), Diptera (2 taxa), Diplostraca (2 taxa), Acarina, Anostraca, Anura, Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Cypriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Odonata and Pulmonata (1 taxa each). Diversity was calculated using Simpsons Index (D), Simpsons Index of Diversity (1-D), Simpsons Reciprocal Index (1/D), Shannon-Weiner Index (H'), Margalef Richness Index (d) and Evenness Index (e). Kupwara (34 degrees 02'N; 74 degrees 16'E) formed the most diverse site registering a total of 2384 individuals belonging to 24 taxa. A perusal of the primary data related to the physicochemical attributes of flood waters exhibited that average water temperature varied between 19-30 degrees C, average air temperature varied between 21 and 33 degrees C. pH depicted a variation between 6.0 and 9.0, Dissolved Oxygen varied between a minimum of 1.0 mg L(-1) and a maximum of 10 mg L(-1). Free CO2 ranged between 0 mg L(-1) and 6.1 mg(-1). The results pressed the need for recognizing and preserving rice fields as potential habitats for organisms that have successfully adapted to the highly manipulated and eutrophic conditions of rice paddies. PMID:21936252

  16. Physiological hepatic response to zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure in the white sucker, Catostomus commersonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieni, Christopher Anthony; Callaghan, Neal Ingraham; Gormley, Patrick Thomas; Butler, Kathryn Marie Alison; Maccormack, Tyson James

    2014-05-01

    Liver toxicity of commercially relevant zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) was assessed in a benthic freshwater cypriniform, the white sucker (Catostomus commersonii). Exposure to nZnO caused several changes in levels of liver enzyme activity, antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation end products consistent with an oxidative stress response. Aconitase activity decreased by ~65% but tended to be restored to original levels upon supplementation with Fe(2+), indicating oxidative inactivation of the 4Fe-4S cluster. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreased by ~29%, and glutathione levels increased by ~56%. Taken together, these suggest that nZnO induces hepatic physiological stress. Each assay was then validated by using a single liver homogenate or plasma sample that was partitioned and treated with nZnO or Zn(2+), the breakdown product of nZnO. It was found that Zn(2+), but not nZnO, increased detected glutathione reductase activity by ~14% and decreased detected malondialdehyde by ~39%. This indicates that if appreciable nZnO dissolution occurs in liver samples during processing and assay, it may skew results, with implications not only for this study, but also for a wide range of nanotoxicology studies focusing on nZnO. Finally, in vitro incubations of cell-free rat blood plasma with nZnO failed to generate any significant increase in malondialdehyde or protein carbonyl levels, or any significant decrease in ferric reducing ability of plasma. This suggests that at the level tested, any oxidative stress caused by nZnO is the result of a coordinated physiological response by the liver. PMID:24704545

  17. Gonadotropin-Releasing hormones in the brain and pituitary of the white sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. Craig; Tobet, Stuart A.; Chase, Cindy; Waldron, Travis; Sower, Stacia A.

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated GnRH forms within the brain of a representative of the order Cypriniformes, the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, using HPLC, RIA, andimmunocytochemistry. Several immunoreactive (ir) GnRH forms were identified in the brain of the white sucker by chromatography and radioimmunoassay, including ir-salmon GnRH, ir-lamprey GnRH-I and -III, and ir-chicken GnRH-II. Results from immunocytochemical studies were consistent with multiple GnRH forms distributed in different patterns, particularly for fibers. Neuronal perikarya containing ir-salmon GnRH and ir-lamprey-like GnRH were found laterally within the preoptic area and rostralhypothalamus. Cells containing exclusively ir-salmon GnRH appeared slightly more rostrally, but in the same region. Fibers containing ir-salmon GnRH and ir-lamprey-like GnRH were seen throughout the caudal telencephalon and extended into thediencephalon, toward the pituitary. Fibers containing ir-chicken-II-like GnRH were also seen in the caudal telencephalon, but were concentrated more dorsally in the diencephalon. Within the pituitary, fibers containing ir-salmon GnRH and ir-lamprey-like GnRH entered the neurohypophysis, but differed in their destinations. Fibers containing ir-salmon GnRH remained within the neurohypophysis, while fibers containing ir-lamprey-like GnRH targeted adenohypophyseal tissue. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple GnRH forms with multiple functions exist within the brain and pituitary of teleosts and provide further evidence of a lamprey-like GnRH within an early evolved teleost species.

  18. Composition and changes in abundance and biomass of fish assemblages along the Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River over the last decade

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    Shasha Sun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River, which lies near the estuary with an irregular semidiurnal tide, is the National Aquatic Germplasm Resource Reserve and plays an important role in conserving fishery resources. To clarify the composition and changes in abundance/biomass of fish assemblages of these coastal waters, investigations were carried out along the Jingjiang section of the Yangtze River in the autumns of 2002 to 2011. Results showed that 91 species, belonging to 12 orders and 23 families, were collected from surveys conducted during this period. Fish included 47 species of Cypriniformes, 17 species of Perciformes and 10 species of Siluriformes. Four were migratory species, 13 were estuarine, and 74 were freshwater fish. The average number of different fish species recorded each autumn was 47 (range = 32–61, and mean Jaccard similarity index was 53.72 (range = 38.46–69.09%. The total number of dominant and common species recorded was 42, with the annual value averaging 19. Dominant and common species were mainly small fish, such as Hemiculter bleekeri, Pseudobrama simony, Pseudobagrus nitidus etc., as well as juveniles of large or medium fish, such as Culter alburnus, Parabramis pekinensis, P. vachellii etc. The mean individual weight (MIW of the fish assemblage was 6.99 g. The abundance biomass comparison curve indicated that the first dominant species recorded in autumn in all years except 2010 were all very small-sized fish. The most dominant species in 2002–2009 were also of small-size fish, and large-size fish only contributed to the dominant species in 2010 and 2011. Our research also indicated a general increase in abundance or biomass (CPUEN、CPUEW, the MIW of the fish assemblage, and the population size of 62% of dominant and common species. This suggested that fishery resources of the waters studied are likely to improve.

  19. Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Mengqi

    2015-04-01

    Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method Through quantitative inspection method , the biological characteristics of crucian was preliminary researched. Crucian , Belongs to Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Carassius auratus, is a kind of main plant-eating omnivorous fish,like Gregarious, selection and ranking. Crucian are widely distributed, perennial water all over the country all have production. Determine the indicators of crucian in the experiment, to understand the growth, reproduction situation of crucian in this area . Using the measured data (such as the scale length ,scale size and wheel diameter and so on) and related functional to calculate growth of crucian in any one year.According to the egg shape, color, weight ,etc to determine its maturity, with the mean egg diameter per 20 eggs and the number of eggs per 0.5 grams, to calculate the relative and absolute fecundity of the fish .Measured crucian were female puberty. Based on the relation between the scale diameter and length and the information, linear relationship between crucian scale diameter and length: y=1.530+3.0649. From the data, the fertility and is closely relative to the increase of age. The older, the more mature gonad development. The more amount of eggs. In addition, absolute fecundity increases with the pituitary gland.Through quantitative check crucian bait food intake by the object, reveals the main food, secondary foods, and chance food of crucian ,and understand that crucian degree of be fond of of all kinds of bait organisms.Fish fertility with weight gain, it has the characteristics of species and populations, and at the same tmes influenced by the age of the individual, body length, body weight, environmental conditions (especially the nutrition conditions), and breeding habits, spawning times factors and the size of the egg. After a series of studies of crucian biological character, provide the ecological basis for local crucian's feeding, breeding

  20. Influência dos fatores abióticos e da disponibilidade de presas sobre comunidade de serpentes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul Influence of abiotic factors and availability of prey on the occurrence of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Noeli Zanella

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre a disponibilidade de presas e a dieta das espécies de serpentes mais abundantes do Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, foi estudada em duas áreas: floresta e campo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido utilizando serpentes coletadas com os métodos: procura limitada por tempo, encontros ocasionais, armadilhas de interceptação e queda, e serpentes depositadas na coleção de répteis da Universidade de Passo Fundo. Foram registradas as guildas alimentares das seis espécies mais abundantes: anurófagas (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 e Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodentívoras (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; moluscófagas (n = 1: Tomodon dorsatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 e generalistas (n = 2: Liophis poecilogyrus (Wied-Neuwied, 1825 e Philodryas patagoniensis (Girard, 1858. Dos fatores abióticos analisados, a abundância de serpentes foi mais relacionada à temperatura máxima (R² = 0,66 e não apresentou relação significativa com a pluviosidade. A abundância de anfíbios apresentou relação positiva com a pluviosidade (R² = 0,54 e não foi significativa com a temperatura mínima. A abundância de serpentes não foi correlacionada com a abundância de anfíbios e roedores.The influence of abiotic factors on the availability of prey and on the diet of the most abundant snake species in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul was studied in two areas: forest and field. Snakes captured using time-constrained search, occasional encounters and pitfall traps and snakes deposited in the reptile collection of the University of Passo Fundo were studied. The feeding guilds of the six most abundant species were recorded: anurophagous (n = 2: Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 and Thamnodynates cf. strigatus (Günther, 1858; rodent-eating (n = 1: Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; molluscophagous (n = 1: Tomodon

  1. Exploring the Jupiter's and Saturn's radiation belts with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien N.; Zarka, Philippe; Pater Imke, de; Hess, Sebastien; Tasse, Cyril; Courtin, Regis; Hofstadter, Mark; Santos-Costa, Daniel; Nettelmann, Nadine; lorenzato, Lise

    2014-05-01

    Since its detection in the mid-fifties, the decimeter synchrotron radiation (DIM), originating from the radiation belts of Jupiter, has been extensively observed over a wide spectrum (from >300 MHz to 22 GHz) by various radio instruments (VLA, ATCA, WSRT, Cassini...). They provided accurate flux measurements as well as resolved maps of the emission that revealed spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities. The strong magnetic field (~4.2 G at the equator) is responsible for the radio emission generated by relativistic electrons. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility configuration (fast rotating 'dipole' magnetic field, beamed radio emission) and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) (e.g. de Pater & Klein, 1989; de Pater & Dunn, 2003; Bagenal (ed.) et al., 2004; Santos-Costa, 2009, 2011). A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons populating the inner magnetosphere over a wide frequency range. The low frequencies are associated with electron of lower energies situated in weaker magnetic field regions. LOFAR, the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) (van Haarlem et al., 2012), the last generation of versatile and digital ground-based radio interferometer operates in the [30-250] MHz bandwidth. It brings very high time (~μsec), frequency (~kHz) and angular (~asec) resolutions and huge sensitivities (~mJy). In November 2011, a single 10-hour track enabled to cover an entire planetary rotation and led to image, for the first time, the radiation belts between 127-172 MHz (Girard et al. 2012, 2013). In Feb 2013, an 11-hour joint LOFAR/WSRT observing campaign seized the dyname state of the radiation belts from 45 MHz up to 5 GHz. We will present the current study of the radiation belts

  2. El matrimonio de Tobías y la sexualidad: un estudio psicológico

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    Cristián Barría Iroumé

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El libro de Tobías del Antiguo Testamento es un relato novelado que trata de la vida familiar, la muerte y la sexualidad. Hay un caso de matrimonio vinculado a la muerte: una joven desespera después de haber perdido sucesivamente siete maridos en la noche de bodas. Dios se apiada y la ayudará a través de un ángel. Un joven, Tobías, con su virtud la salvará del maleficio. Este relato ha tenido un profundo impacto en la concepción de la sexualidad y del matrimonio cristiano en la historia, asociándosele con una actitud de moderación sexual inicial (las noches de Tobías. Se analiza el relato utilizando conceptos antropológicos y psicoanalíticos: los ritos de paso; la curación milagrosa; el temor de la iniciación sexual y la noción de víctima expiatoria según R. Girard. Es el relato de un pueblo antiguo que elabora religiosamente sus temores ante la muerte y el sexo. Se encuentran en el texto elementos de transición desde una concepción mítica y mágica arcaica hasta una concepción más evolucionada de religiosidad. Se contrasta su visión moralizante del sexo con la visión más libre y optimista del CantarThe book of Tobit from the Old Testament is a novelized narrative that treats of family life, death and sexuality. There is a case of matrimony linked to death: a young woman becomes desperate after having lost successively seven husbands on their wedding nights. God has pity on her, and helps her through an angel. A young man, Tobit, will virtuously save her from the curse. This story has had a profound impact on the concept of sexuality and of Christian marriage in history, associating itself with an attitude of initial sexual moderation (Tobit's nights. This narrative is analyzed in this article by utilizing anthropological and psychoanalytical concepts: the rites of passage; the miraculous healing; the fear of sexual initiation and the notion of the expiatory victim according to R. Girard. It is the story of an ancient

  3. Culpabilisation as a religious function

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    Ivan Davydov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The author continues his study of the functions of religion. The first section is devoted to a description of the various approaches to a functional analysis of religion suggested by members of the Bielefeld School of Sociology (Franz-Xaver Kaufmann, Hans Küng, Niklas Luhmann, by Thomas O’Dea, as well as by Russian experts: Yablokov, Tokarev, and Kagarov. In this context, the author studies the question regarding the functionality specific to religion, particularly in relation to magic. The author suggests that the post-modern paradigm allows him to define and describe a new and specific function of religion: that of culpabilisation. In order to explain and better define this function (that of sensing or placing guilt, the author turns to a study of the origins of the feelings of guilt and the way guilt is defined by semantics and metaphysics. Guilt feelings are described in the works of some of the foremost experts in the fi eld of twentieth century philosophy and theology: René Girard (anthropologist, Gilles Deleuse and Paul Ricoeur (philosophers, Karl Rahner (theologian and Julia Kristeva (semiotician, together with concepts drawn from Freud (psycho-analytics and Pitirim Sorokin (sociology. All these are representative of the post-modern paradigm and worked in the fields of classical or non-classical paradigms. The author concludes that religious culpabilisation precedes the institution of organized religion and the setting apart of a priesthood or professional clergy. Its development is set along the following logical chain of the development of phenomena: Soteriology — Eschatology — Hamartology — Theodicy — Culpabilisation.

  4. Simulation of radar backscattering from snowpack at X-band and Ku-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Michel; Phan, Xuan-Vu; Ferro-Famil, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a multilayer snowpack electromagnetic backscattering model, based on Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT). This model is capable of simulating the interaction of electromagnetic wave (EMW) at X-band and Ku-band frequencies with multilayer snowpack. The air-snow interface and snow-ground backscattering components are calculated using the Integral Equation Model (IEM) by [1], whereas the volume backscattering component is calculated based on the solution of Vector Radiative Transfer (VRT) equation at order 1. Case study has been carried out using measurement data from NoSREx project [2], which include SnowScat data in X-band and Ku-band, TerraSAR-X acquisitions and snowpack stratigraphic in-situ measurements. The results of model simulations show good agreement with the radar observations, and therefore allow the DMRT model to be used in various applications, such as data assimilation [3]. [1] A.K. Fung and K.S. Chen, "An update on the iem surface backscattering model," Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 75 - 77, april 2004. [2] J. Lemmetyinen, A. Kontu, J. Pulliainen, A. Wiesmann, C. Werner, T. Nagler, H. Rott, and M. Heidinger, "Technical assistance for the deployment of an x- to ku-band scatterometer during the nosrex ii experiment," Final Report, ESA ESTEC Contract No. 22671/09/NL/JA., 2011. [3] X. V. Phan, L. Ferro-Famil, M. Gay, Y. Durand, M. Dumont, S. Morin, S. Allain, G. D'Urso, and A. Girard, "3d-var multilayer assimilation of x-band sar data into a detailed snowpack model," The Cryosphere Discussions, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 4881-4912, 2013.

  5. Towards a psycho-anthropological view of religious violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Aziz

    2007-06-01

    Understanding the phenomenon of religious violence requires a theoretical approach to the task. Ideally, the theoretical framework must integrate (1) the insights of neurobiology and ethnology elucidating the roots of aggression in the organism and its manifestations in animal behaviour, (2) the expression of these in human violence, which requires careful attention to linguistic and other expressions in culture, (3) the special role of religious representations in this connection, and (4) the mechanisms, in time and place, whereby the role of religion in the maintenance of cultural order is reversed, and becomes an ally of violence. Psychological theories, like the psychoanalytic school, have a contribution to make to this end. But they also exhibit limitations. The most compelling anthropological theory to date is René Girard's, which focuses on mimetic desire, violence, its resolution through scapegoating and subsequent enactment in ritual. The sacred is seen to lie at the origins of cultural order. But it also harbours a potential for a resurgence of the violence it conceals. Other researchers have shown how certain features of modernity unwittingly fuel violence through the promulgation of stereotypical, group identities. Contemporary Islamist violence (Jihadism) offers a case-study for these theoretical axioms. The example is not peculiar or sui generis. Rather it illustrates, more widely, the nature of the sacred and its relation to history. The Islamic tradition and modern Muslim history also provide a template for an analytic understanding of religious symbols, and their degradation into symbols of a typically modern demand for recognition of ego and group orientated identities. This psychosocial configuration necessarily escapes the attention of the actors, and because of the nominal persistence of old symbols, may also escape the attention of observers. To expose and explain these discrepancies is one of the central tasks of analysis in the proposed

  6. Ergosterone-coupled Triazol molecules trigger mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and acidocalcisomal Ca2+ release in Leishmania mexicana promastigotes

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    Figarella K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Leishmania causes a variety of sicknesses with different clinical manifestations known as leishmaniasis. The chemotherapy currently in use is not adequate because of their side effects, resistance occurrence, and recurrences. Investigations looking for new targets or new active molecules focus mainly on the disruption of parasite specific pathways. In this sense, ergosterol biosynthesis is one of the most attractive because it does not occur in mammals. Here, we report the synthesis of ergosterone coupled molecules and the characterization of their biological activity on Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. Molecule synthesis involved three steps: ergosterone formation using Jones oxidation, synthesis of Girard reagents, and coupling reaction. All compounds were obtained in good yield and high purity. Results show that ergosterone-triazol molecules (Erg-GTr and Erg-GTr2 exhibit an antiproliferative effect in low micromolar range with a selectivity index ~10 when compared to human dermic fibroblasts. Addition of Erg-GTr or Erg-GTr2 to parasites led to a rapid [Ca2+]cyt increase and acidocalcisomes alkalinization, indicating that Ca2+ was released from this organelle. Evaluation of cell death markers revealed some apoptosis-like indicators, as phosphatidylserine exposure, DNA damage, and cytosolic vacuolization and autophagy exacerbation. Furthermore, mitochondrion hyperpolarization and superoxide production increase were detected already 6 hours after drug addition, denoting that oxidative stress is implicated in triggering the observed phenotype. Taken together our results indicate that ergosterone-triazol coupled molecules induce a regulated cell death process in the parasite and may represent starting point molecules in the search of new chemotherapeutic agents to combat leishmaniasis.

  7. DA LEGITIMAÇÃO Wisnik e o futebol

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    Pedro Dolabela Chagas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Acompanha-se a operação de legitimação do futebol comoobjeto de investigação intelectual em Veneno remédio – o futebole o Brasil, de José Miguel Wisnik. Correspondências com outrostrabalhos de legitimação semelhantes, nos estudos literários ena crítica da música pop. Após uma discussão preliminar sobrea legitimação, o artigo segue três etapas: na primeira,caracteriza-se o antagonista contra o qual Wisnik legitima ofutebol mediante o cotejo de proposições de Hannah Arendt,Gilles Lipovetski e René Girard; na segunda, através deaproximações com o universo pop, discute-se a ética dalegitimação de Wisnik, que não denega os problemas levantadoscontra o futebol, absorvendo-os, mas requalificando-os, noseu trabalho de legitimação; na terceira, vê-se como Wisniksitua na análise das especificidades do futebol o caminho parauma analítica que não o soterre sob expectativas externas àsua própria lógica de acontecimento. Ao final, localiza-se emWisnik a proposição de que o futebol expressa como futebol osproblemas que o afligem, proposição aliada a uma recusa emestabilizar um padrão valorativo que retire o futebol do fluxoda cultura para congelá-lo nalguma posição hierárquicaespecífica, seja ela baixa ou elevada.

  8. Using meteorological ensembles for atmospheric dispersion modelling of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périllat, Raphaël; Korsakissok, Irène; Mallet, Vivien; Mathieu, Anne; Sekiyama, Thomas; Didier, Damien; Kajino, Mizuo; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Adachi, Kouji

    2016-04-01

    Dispersion models are used in response to an accidental release of radionuclides of the atmosphere, to infer mitigation actions, and complement field measurements for the assessment of short and long term environmental and sanitary impacts. However, the predictions of these models are subject to important uncertainties, especially due to input data, such as meteorological fields or source term. This is still the case more than four years after the Fukushima disaster (Korsakissok et al., 2012, Girard et al., 2014). In the framework of the SAKURA project, an MRI-IRSN collaboration, a meteorological ensemble of 20 members designed by MRI (Sekiyama et al. 2013) was used with IRSN's atmospheric dispersion models. Another ensemble, retrieved from ECMWF and comprising 50 members, was also used for comparison. The MRI ensemble is 3-hour assimilated, with a 3-kilometers resolution, designed to reduce the meteorological uncertainty in the Fukushima case. The ECMWF is a 24-hour forecast with a coarser grid, representative of the uncertainty of the data available in a crisis context. First, it was necessary to assess the quality of the ensembles for our purpose, to ensure that their spread was representative of the uncertainty of meteorological fields. Using meteorological observations allowed characterizing the ensembles' spread, with tools such as Talagrand diagrams. Then, the uncertainty was propagated through atmospheric dispersion models. The underlying question is whether the output spread is larger than the input spread, that is, whether small uncertainties in meteorological fields can produce large differences in atmospheric dispersion results. Here again, the use of field observations was crucial, in order to characterize the spread of the ensemble of atmospheric dispersion simulations. In the case of the Fukushima accident, gamma dose rates, air activities and deposition data were available. Based on these data, selection criteria for the ensemble members were

  9. The origin of ethics and social order in a society without state power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K

    1999-06-01

    How ethics and social order in a society without state power had originated and developed is one of enigmas which human beings have tried to solve for a long time. Several theories on the origin of social order have been proposed since the "Social Contract" theory of Thomas Hobbes. According to Hobbes, as a society without state power is in a condition called war, a social contract among men is the origin of social order in a society where every man is against every man. Rousseau says that when human beings reach the stage in which they live in a permanent neighborhood, a property system is introduced. Then, too much ambition and avarice of man who has possessions compel him to propose the formation of a political institution, providing social order which enables him to keep his possessions. According to Nietzsche, the principle of equilibrium, that is, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth is an important concept for the oldest theory of low and morality as well as the basis of justice. The sense of superiority and nobility which a strong man brave enough to take revenge feels is the origin of the antithesis "good" and "bad". Girard says that the sacred violence wielded by the community to sacrifice a surrogate victim brings about social order in a society without state power. All the aforementioned theories seem to have failed to find out that a society without state power has its own ethics that had spontaneously developed on the pagan culture. Previously, I indicated that a society without state power or a society where state power cannot function well, such as the tribal society in northern Albania, has ethics which is based on the ancient concepts of "Guest-god", "food (commensality)" and "blood". In the present paper, I propose a new theory on the origin of ethics and social order, using the model of ethics of the Kanun.

  10. The origin of ethics and social order in a society without state power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K

    1999-06-01

    How ethics and social order in a society without state power had originated and developed is one of enigmas which human beings have tried to solve for a long time. Several theories on the origin of social order have been proposed since the "Social Contract" theory of Thomas Hobbes. According to Hobbes, as a society without state power is in a condition called war, a social contract among men is the origin of social order in a society where every man is against every man. Rousseau says that when human beings reach the stage in which they live in a permanent neighborhood, a property system is introduced. Then, too much ambition and avarice of man who has possessions compel him to propose the formation of a political institution, providing social order which enables him to keep his possessions. According to Nietzsche, the principle of equilibrium, that is, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth is an important concept for the oldest theory of low and morality as well as the basis of justice. The sense of superiority and nobility which a strong man brave enough to take revenge feels is the origin of the antithesis "good" and "bad". Girard says that the sacred violence wielded by the community to sacrifice a surrogate victim brings about social order in a society without state power. All the aforementioned theories seem to have failed to find out that a society without state power has its own ethics that had spontaneously developed on the pagan culture. Previously, I indicated that a society without state power or a society where state power cannot function well, such as the tribal society in northern Albania, has ethics which is based on the ancient concepts of "Guest-god", "food (commensality)" and "blood". In the present paper, I propose a new theory on the origin of ethics and social order, using the model of ethics of the Kanun. PMID:10402726

  11. On the function of the ultimate legs of some Scolopendridae (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kronmüller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The function of the variously shaped ultimate legs of Scolopendridae is briefly reviewed. Their function in Scolopendra heros Girard, 1853, Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, 1815, Scolopendra morsitans (Linnaeus, 1758, Scolopendra galapagoensis Bollman, 1889, Scolopendra hainanum Kronmüller, 2012, Scolopendra spinosissima Kraepelin, 1903 Cormocephalus aurantiipes (Newport, 1844 and Ethmostigmus trigonopodus (Leach, 1817, in which they are least specialised has been investigated. Specimens were tapped with forceps on different parts of the trunk to simulate the attack of a predator. When tapped on the first third of the trunk (near the head, the centipedes attacked the forceps with their forcipules. When tapped on the last third or the ultimate legs, they adopted a warning position, raising the ultimate legs to display the ventral and medial prefemoral spines as well as the spined coxopleural processes. In some cases the centipedes attacked the forceps with the claws of the ultimate legs by chopping down on them after lifting the legs high into the warning position. When tapped in the mid part of the trunk, the centipedes curled sideways to reach the forceps with their forcipules and ultimate legs simultaneously. Scolopendra galapagoensis not only lifted the ultimate legs into the warning position but also the last 3-4 pairs of locomotory legs, presenting their distodorsal prefemoral spines. This resembles the warning posture of some spiders. In addition to their function in warning behaviour, defensive stabbing, ritualised meeting reactions and during courtship behaviour, the ultimate legs may in addition act as hooks and perhaps be involved in species recognition. No evidence was found that the ultimate legs are used to catch prey, nor of prey or predators being held between the prefemora.

  12. Mimetic desire and scapegoat mechanism in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Pisk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most fundamental question about sport is what is sport, what is its origin and its essence? Because sport is connected with the human being (there is no sport without human beings different anthropological visions of human being result in different understandings of sport. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to present and explain an anthropological vision of the human being and society as was developed by René Girard. In his view mimetic desire and the scapegoat mechanism have a central role in any culture, religion or other secular institutions. The explanatory power of his theory is presented when it is applied to the world of sport. METHODS: Our methodology is philosophical, involving conceptual analysis and the application of the outcomes to sport. RESULTS: In the paper we show that mimetic desire can be recognized as one of the important origins of recreational and competitive sports. When people recognize what other people are able to do or accomplish in sport this invokes the mimetic desire as a result of which motivation for sport and competiveness can arise. But mimetic rivalry leads to an unstable situation. Therefore a second element is needed: Scapegoating in sport is presented as a mean to preserve the good reputation of sport, to keep peace in sport as well as in society as a whole. Finally, the attempt to overcome mimetic desire and scapegoating in sport is presented and the question if this is worth trying at all is opened. CONCLUSIONS: The theories of mimetic desire and scapegoat mechanism have great explanatory power when they are applied to the field of sport. They could reveal us some hidden motives and forces which drive athletes and sport as a whole. Moreover, they exceed the world of sport and reveal the influence of sport on the whole of society.

  13. Absolute GPS Time Event Generation and Capture for Remote Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIRES Collaboration

    The HiRes experiment operates fixed location and portable lasers at remote desert locations to generate calibration events. One physics goal of HiRes is to search for unusual showers. These may appear similar to upward or horizontally pointing laser tracks used for atmospheric calibration. It is therefore necessary to remove all of these calibration events from the HiRes detector data stream in a physics blind manner. A robust and convenient "tagging" method is to generate the calibration events at precisely known times. To facilitate this tagging method we have developed the GPSY (Global Positioning System YAG) module. It uses a GPS receiver, an embedded processor and additional timing logic to generate laser triggers at arbitrary programmed times and frequencies with better than 100nS accuracy. The GPSY module has two trigger outputs (one microsecond resolution) to trigger the laser flash-lamp and Q-switch and one event capture input (25nS resolution). The GPSY module can be programmed either by a front panel menu based interface or by a host computer via an RS232 serial interface. The latter also allows for computer logging of generated and captured event times. Details of the design and the implementation of these devices will be presented. 1 Motivation Air Showers represent a small fraction, much less than a percent, of the total High Resolution Fly's Eye data sample. The bulk of the sample is calibration data. Most of this calibration data is generated by two types of systems that use lasers. One type sends light directly to the detectors via optical fibers to monitor detector gains (Girard 2001). The other sends a beam of light into the sky and the scattered light that reaches the detectors is used to monitor atmospheric effects (Wiencke 1998). It is important that these calibration events be cleanly separated from the rest of the sample both to provide a complete set of monitoring information, and more

  14. Chemical Analysis of Complex Organic Mixtures Using Reactive Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Eckert, Peter A.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Alexander

    2012-08-21

    Reactive nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was utilized for the analysis of secondary organic aerosol produced through ozonolysis of limonene (LSOA). Previous studies showed that LSOA constituents are multifunctional compounds containing aldehyde and ketone groups. In this study, we used the selectivity of the Girard T (GT) reagent towards carbonyl compounds to examine the utility of reactive nano-DESI for the analysis of complex organic mixtures. In these experiments, 1-100 {micro}M GT solution was used as a working solvent for reactive nano-DESI analysis. Abundant products of a single addition of GT to LSOA constituents were observed at GT concentrations in excess of 10 {micro}M. We found that LSOA compounds with 18-20 carbon atoms (dimers) and 27-30 carbon atoms (trimers) react with GT through a simple addition reaction resulting in formation of the carbinolamine derivative. In contrast, reactions of GT with monomeric species result in formation of both the carbinolamine and the hydrazone derivatives. In addition, several monomers did not react with GT on the timescale of our experiment. These molecules were characterized by relatively high values of the double bond equivalent (DBE) and low oxygen content. Furthermore, because addition of a charged GT tag to a neutral molecule eliminates the discrimination against the low proton affinity compounds in the ionization process, reactive nano-DESI analysis enables quantification of individual compounds in the complex mixture. For example, we were able to estimate for the first time the amounts of dimers and trimers in the LSOA mixture. Specifically, we found that the most abundant LSOA dimer was detected at ca. 0.5 pg level and the total amount of dimers and trimers in the analyzed sample was just around 11 pg. Our results indicate that reactive nano-DESI is a valuable approach for examining the presence of specific functional groups and

  15. Review of Studies on the Germplasm Resources of the Schizothoracinae Fishes%裂腹鱼类种质多样性研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代应贵; 肖海

    2011-01-01

    裂腹鱼类隶属于鲤形目鲤科裂腹鱼亚科,目前已记录有12属90种(亚种),是鲤科鱼类中为数不多的适应于亚洲中部青藏高原地区自然条件的一个自然类群.整个裂腹鱼类呈现出以青藏高原为中心的分布格局,中国是世界上裂腹鱼类种类分布最多的国家.目前,随着对鱼类种质资源研究越来越受到人们的关注,裂腹鱼类作为产地名贵经济鱼类,其种质资源已成为了研究的热点.主要从形态分类、物种多样性、地理分布、细胞水平、生化水平和分子水平等,对多年来裂腹鱼类种质资源研究方面的进展进行了综述,以期为裂腹鱼类资源的保护和利用提供基础资料.%The schizothoracinae fishes, commonly known as mountain carps, which belong to schizothoracinae, cyprinidae and cypriniforme, comprise 90 species (subspecies) and 12 genera. Almost all species in schizothoracinae are the wild species of big to middle size with highly scientific and economic value. The group of fishes are mainly distributed in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and its adjacent area. Especially, most of the species in schizothoracinae live in China and many are endemic to China. The germplasm resources, also biodiversity, cytology resources, means the gene pool of species. The germplasm resources can be studied by the methods of morphology, cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology. With the development of study on the germplasm resources of fishes, the germplasm resources of the schizothoracinae fishes has become one of research foci today. This paper reviews the progress of study on the germplasm resources of the schizothoracinae fishes, including the researches in the classification, species diversity, geographic distribution, cytology, biochemistry and molecular biology of the group, so as to supply scientific data for the conservation and utilization of the schizothoracinae fishes.

  16. Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Xiaoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe 1. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV, which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this

  17. [Ichthyofauna and its community diversity in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu-Yi; Lü, Xian-Guo; Lou, Yan-Jing; Lou, Xiao-Nan; Xue, Bin; Yao, Shu-Chun; Xiao, Hai-Feng

    2012-12-01

    Based on the investigations of fish resources in Jingpo Lake and Wudalianchi Lakes in 2008-2011 and the historical data, this paper analyzed the characteristics of ichthyofauna and its community diversity in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China. The ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was consisted of 64 native species, belonging to 47 genera, 16 families, and 9 orders, among which, one species was the second class National protected wild animal, four species were Chinese endemic species, and five species were Chinese vulnerable species. In the 64 recorded species, there were 44 species of Cypriniformes order and 37 species of Cyprinidae family dominated, respectively. The ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was formed by 7 fauna complexes, among which, the eastern plain fauna complex was dominant, the common species from the South and the North occupied 53.1%, and the northern endemic species took up 46.9%. The Shannon, Fisher-alpha, Pielou, Margalef, and Simpson indices of the ichthyofauna were 2.078, 4.536, 0.575, 3.723, and 0.269, respectively, and the abundance distribution pattern of native species accorded with lognormal model. The Bray-Curtis, Morisita-Horn, Ochiai, Sørensen, and Whittaker indices between the communities of ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China and the Jingpo Lake were 0.820, 0.992, 0.870, 0.862 and 0.138, respectively, and those between the communities of ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes and the Wudalianchi Lakes were 0.210, 0.516, 0.838, 0.825, and 0.175, respectively. The ichthyofauna in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was characterized by the mutual infiltration between the South and the North, and the overlap and transition between the Palaeoarctic realm and the Oricetal realm. It was suggested that the ichthyofauna community species diversity in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was higher, the species structure was more

  18. Early Pliocene Sturgeons and Bony Fishes from the Dniester Valley (Republic of Moldova / Осетровые и костистые рыбы раннего плиоцена из долины Днестра (Республика Молдова

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk О. М.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available В статье описаны ископаемые остатки рыб из отложений раннего плиоцена долины Днестра (Республика Молдова. Из место- нахождений Никольское и Уютное идентифицированы семь видов, относящихся к 6 родам, 4 се- мействам и 4 отрядам (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes. Все они являют- ся морфологическими аналогами рецентных таксонов. В статье представлен краткий обзор раз- вития пресноводной ихтиофауны в бассейне Нижнего Днестра на протяжении раннего плиоцена.

  19. The fate of the duplicated androgen receptor in fishes: a late neofunctionalization event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haendler Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the observation of an increased number of paralogous genes in teleost fishes compared with other vertebrates and on the conserved synteny between duplicated copies, it has been shown that a whole genome duplication (WGD occurred during the evolution of Actinopterygian fish. Comparative phylogenetic dating of this duplication event suggests that it occurred early on, specifically in teleosts. It has been proposed that this event might have facilitated the evolutionary radiation and the phenotypic diversification of the teleost fish, notably by allowing the sub- or neo-functionalization of many duplicated genes. Results In this paper, we studied in a wide range of Actinopterygians the duplication and fate of the androgen receptor (AR, NR3C4, a nuclear receptor known to play a key role in sex-determination in vertebrates. The pattern of AR gene duplication is consistent with an early WGD event: it has been duplicated into two genes AR-A and AR-B after the split of the Acipenseriformes from the lineage leading to teleost fish but before the divergence of Osteoglossiformes. Genomic and syntenic analyses in addition to lack of PCR amplification show that one of the duplicated copies, AR-B, was lost in several basal Clupeocephala such as Cypriniformes (including the model species zebrafish, Siluriformes, Characiformes and Salmoniformes. Interestingly, we also found that, in basal teleost fish (Osteoglossiformes and Anguilliformes, the two copies remain very similar, whereas, specifically in Percomorphs, one of the copies, AR-B, has accumulated substitutions in both the ligand binding domain (LBD and the DNA binding domain (DBD. Conclusion The comparison of the mutations present in these divergent AR-B with those known in human to be implicated in complete, partial or mild androgen insensitivity syndrome suggests that the existence of two distinct AR duplicates may be correlated to specific functional differences that may be

  20. 莫莫格国家级自然保护区的鱼类多样性%Fish Diversity in Momoge National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富亿; 吕宪国; 娄彦景; 娄晓楠; 薛滨; 姚书春; 肖海丰; 王波

    2012-01-01

    2008~2010年,在鱼类资源调查的基础上,分析了莫莫格国家级自然保护区的鱼类多样性特征.调查结果显示,莫莫格国家级自然保护区有鱼类物种5目11科42属49种,其中本区土著种5目10科38属45种,包括中国特有种4种,中国易危种5种,冷水种8种,国家Ⅱ级保护动物1种.土著种群落中,有鲤形目(Cypriniformes)鱼类32种,鲤科(Cyprinidae)鱼类29种,鮈亚科(Gobioninae)鱼类13种;古北界北方区黑龙江亚区黑龙江分区的物种为22种;源于东部平原和北方平原生态类群的鱼类有27种;适应于江—湖缓流环境和淡水定居生活的鱼类有33种;草上产卵和水层产卵繁殖的鱼类有37种:杂食性和初级肉食性种类有28种,它们均相对占优势.莫莫格国家级自然保护区与嫩江的鱼类群落物种结构Jaccard系数和Morisita-Hom相似性指数分别为0.918和0.838;稀有种(包括中国易危种)和常见种分别为14种和25种;物种多度格局近似于对数正态分布.这些结果表明,莫莫格国家级自然保护区的鱼类多样性与嫩江密切相关,鱼类区系复杂,物种组成与生态类型多样;群落结构相对较稳定,多样性程度相对较高,但仍面临着稀有种(包括中国易危种)尚占有一定比例而导致群落结构脆弱的潜在威胁.保持嫩江鱼类群落结构的稳定,对维护和发展莫莫格国家级自然保护区的鱼类多样性具有特别重要的意义.%Engaged in sample survey by 57 surveys with gill net, trawl net, trap net and pull net, the samples of 6 542 fish individuals were collected in Momoge National Nature Reserve during 2008-2010. The characteristics of the fish diversity in Momoge National Nature Reserve were analyzed. It was observed that there were 49 species/subspecies of 42 genus, 11 families, and 5 orders. Four species of these were introduced species while the others were indigenous, including 4 species peculiar and 5 vulnerable to China, and 8 of

  1. Biomass valorisation, a new dynamics for French agriculture. Colloquium proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    programme (J. Siret, Agrice); 14 - Vegetable chemistry: from research to development (J. Barbier Valagro); 15 - Vegetable chemistry (M.E. Borredon); 16 - Biomass: a new stake (M. Girard, Pronovial)

  2. Yttrium-90 resin microspheres as an adjunct to sorafenib in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Armeen Mahvash,1 Ravi Murthy,1 Bruno C Odisio,1 Kanwal Pratap Raghav,2 Lauren Girard,2 Sheree Cheung,1 Van Nguyen,3 Joe Ensor,4 Sameer Gadani,5 Khaled M Elsayes,6 Reham Abdel-Wahab,1,7 Manal Hassan,1 Ahmed S Shalaby,1 James C Yao,1 Michael J Wallace,1 Ahmed O Kaseb2 1Department of Interventional Radiology, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, 3Department of Pharmacy, 4Department of Statistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 5Department of Radiology, Saint Louis University Hospital, St Louis, MO, 6Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 7Department of Clinical Oncology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt Purpose: The safety and efficacy of the combined use of sorafenib and yttrium-90 resin microspheres (Y90 RMS to treat advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is not well established. We determined the incidence of adverse events with this combination therapy in patients with advanced HCC at our institution and analyzed the treatment and survival outcomes. Materials and methods: We reviewed the records of 19 patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer class B or C HCC who underwent treatment with Y90 RMS (for 21 sessions while receiving full or reduced doses of sorafenib between January 2008 and May 2010. Therapy response was evaluated using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. We evaluated median overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS as well as hepatic and extrahepatic disease PFS and incidence of adverse events. Results: The median patient age was 67 years, and portal or hepatic venous invasion was present in eight patients (42%. Ten patients received reduced doses of sorafenib. The median Y90 radiation activity delivered was 41.2 mCi. The partial response of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors was observed in four patients (19%. The median hepatic disease PFS was 7.82 months, extrahepatic

  3. Phase II trial of bevacizumab and erlotinib as a second-line therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaseb AO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed O Kaseb,1 Jeffrey S Morris,2 Michiko Iwasaki,1 Humaid O Al-Shamsi,1 Kanwal Pratap Singh Raghav,1 Lauren Girard,1 Sheree Cheung,1 Van Nguyen,3 Khaled M Elsayes,4 Lianchun Xiao,2 Reham Abdel-Wahab,1,5 Ahmed S Shalaby,1 Manal Hassan,1 Hesham M Hassabo,1 Robert A Wolff,1 James C Yao1 1Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, 2Department of Biostatistics, 3Department of Pharmacy, 4Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 5Department of Clinical Oncology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt Trial registry: Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01180959. Background: Early clinical studies of bevacizumab and erlotinib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC have a tolerable toxicity and a promising clinical outcome. We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of this combination as a second-line therapy for HCC refractory to sorafenib. Methods: For this single-arm, Phase II study, we recruited patients with Child–Pugh class A or B liver disease, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0–2, and advanced HCC that was not amenable to surgical or regional therapies and treatment with sorafenib had failed (disease progressed or patient could not tolerate sorafenib. Patients received 10 mg/kg intravenous bevacizumab every 14 days and 150 mg oral erlotinib daily for 28-day cycles until progression. Tumor response was evaluated every two cycles using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. The primary end point was the 16-week progression-free survival rate. Secondary end points included time to progression and overall survival. Results: A total of 44 patients were enrolled and had a median follow-up time of 33.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.5 months – not defined. The 16-week progression-free survival rate was 43% (95% CI: 28%–59%, median time to progression was 3.9 months (95% CI: 2.0–8.3 months, and median overall survival duration was 9.9 months

  4. Habitat selection of two gobies (Microgobius gulosus, Gobiosoma robustum): influence of structural complexity, competitive interactions and presence of a predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Herein I compare the relative importance of preference for structurally complex habitat against avoidance of competitors and predators in two benthic fishes common in the Gulf of Mexico. The code goby Gobiosoma robustum Ginsburg and clown goby Microgobius gulosus (Girard) are common, ecologically similar fishes found throughout the Gulf of Mexico and in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean. In Florida Bay, these fishes exhibit habitat partitioning: G. robustum is most abundant in seagrass-dominated areas while M. gulosus is most abundant in sparsely vegetated habitats. In a small-scale field survey, I documented the microhabitat use of these species where their distributions overlap. In a series of laboratory experiments, I presented each species with structured (artificial seagrass) versus nonstructured (bare sand) habitats and measured their frequency of choosing either habitat type. I then examined the use of structured versus nonstructured habitats when the two species were placed together in a mixed group. Finally, I placed a predator (Opsanus beta) in the experimental aquaria to determine how its presence influenced habitat selection. In the field, G. robustum was more abundant in seagrass and M. gulosus was more abundant in bare mud. In the laboratory, both species selected grass over sand in allopatry. However, in sympatry, M. gulosus occupied sand more often when paired with G. robustum than when alone. G. robustum appears to directly influence the habitat choice of M. gulosus: It seems that M. gulosus is pushed out of the structured habitat that is the preferred habitat of G. robustum. Thus, competition appears to modify the habitat selection of these species when they occur in sympatry. Additionally, the presence of the toadfish was a sufficient stimulus to provoke both M. gulosus and G. robustum to increase their selection for sand (compared to single-species treatments). Distribution patterns of M. gulosus and G. robustum

  5. Influencias de la densidad y podas sobre la producción de Pinus taeda L. a los 7 años de edad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Costas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available En un ensayo con 3 niveles de densidad y 12 tratamientos de poda, se evaluaron los efectos de la densidad, la altura de poda, el número de levantes de poda y la interacción entre la densidad y las podas sobre la producción de la masa de Pinus taeda L. a los 7 años de edad. Las variables evaluadas fueron el diámetro a la altura de pecho medio (DAP, la altura media, el volumen individual, el volumen por unidad de superficie, el área basal, el diámetro máximo sobre muñón (DMSM, el coeficiente de forma de Girard (CFG, el diámetro de ramas (DRBC y el ángulo de inserción de las ramas (ARBC en la base de la copa. En los tratamientos con mayor densidad de plantación se observaron mayores volúmenes por unidad de superficie, área basal y CFG que en los tratamientos con menor densidad. Estos produjeron mayores DAP, volúmenes individuales, DMSM, DRBC y ARBC que los tratamientos con mayores densidades. Los tratamientos con menores alturas finales de poda produjeron mayores DAP, volúmenes individuales, área basal y volúmenes por unidad de superficie que los tratamientos con mayores alturas de poda. Los menores DMSM se obtuvieron con alturas finales de poda de 3,30 m y 4,40 m realizadas a los 4 años de edad y los mayores DMSM ocurrieron al no efectuarse podas a los 5 años hasta 5,50 m y 6,60 m. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los valores medios de DRBC, ARBC y CFG producidos por los 12 tratamientos de poda. La interacción entre densidad y los tratamientos de poda no fue significativa para ninguna de las variables respuestas.

  6. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mountain range, Rio de Janeiro. Individuals of I. parva were captured in April 2005 using different sampling methods: time constrained search (transects, plots of 5 x 5 m (25 m² on the litter, and pitfall traps with drift fences. We found 240 frogs; 35 females and 205 males. Females (mean SVL = 19.1 mm were significantly larger (F1,238 = 143.016, R² = 0.375, p < 0.001 than males (13.2 mm. The species preyed mainly on arthropods, with ants and isopods being the most important items, both showing high values of importance index (Ix = 50.0 and 26.7, respectively. Ischnocnema parva is a terrestrial species whose preferential microhabitat at the Serra da Concórdia was the litter of the forest floor (78.7%. The activity was predominantly crepuscular-nocturnal and the estimated density of I. parva was 24.9 ind/100 m². For the eight ovigerous females captured, the mean number of mature oocytes per female was 25 (range: 22-30 and the oocyte mean diameter was 1.11 mm (N = 40 oocytes. Oocyte number increased with female body size (R² = 0.504, F1,6 = 6.107, p < 0.05, N = 8, indicating that as females increase in size they produce larger clutches. Some ecological aspects such as diet and microhabitat use were similar to that observed for an insular population of I. parva, whereas reproductive traits differed. Thus, long term studies are necessary to understand the extent to which these differences are explained by environmental factors.

  7. Nuclear works. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the conception of a LILW repository (Marc Mormont, Anne Bergmans), The contribution of Social Sciences and Humanities to the scientific program for radioactive waste management of Andra (Luis Aparicio), The public expert and the nuclear catastrophe (Christine Fassert); 5 - Nuclear governance: Did Fukushima put an end to nuclear revival? A post-Fukushima debates analysis in Finnish, French and British media (Markku Lehtonen), Nuclear secrecy at the test of the right to participation (Philippe Billet), Nuclear science, politics and national construction: what remains from Nehru's India in these times of uncertainty? (Berenice Girard); 6 - Working in the nuclear industry. Training and work collectives: Nuclear industry: a workers-less world? (Pierre Fournier), Ambiguity dynamics at NPPs, a pluri-disciplinary approach (Nicolas Lot), Sino-French nuclear engineering curriculums: what kind of innovation configuration? (Richard Marion). This document brings together the French and English abstracts of the different talks

  8. Biomass valorisation, a new dynamics for French agriculture. Colloquium proceedings; La valorisation de la biomasse, une nouvelle dynamique pour l'agriculture francaise. Actes du colloque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    energy) research programme (J. Siret, Agrice); 14 - Vegetable chemistry: from research to development (J. Barbier Valagro); 15 - Vegetable chemistry (M.E. Borredon); 16 - Biomass: a new stake (M. Girard, Pronovial)

  9. Bound states and critical behavior of the Yukawa potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yongyao

    2006-01-01

    [1]Yukawa,H.,On the interaction of elementary particles,Proc.Phys.Math Soc.Jap.,1935,17:48-57.[2]Sachs,R.,Goeppert-Mayer,M.,Calculations on a new neutron-proton interaction potential,Phys.Rev.,1938,53:991-993.[3]Harris,G.,Attractive two-body interactions in partially ionized plasmas,Phys.Rev.,1962,125:1131-1140.[4]Schey,H.,Schwartz,J.,Counting the bound states in short-range central potentials,Phys.Rev.B,1965,139:1428-1432.[5]Rogers,J.,Graboske,H.,Harwood,E.,Bound eigenstates of the static screened Coulomb poten-tial,Phys.Rev.A,1970,1:1577-1586.[6]McEnnan,J.,Kissel,L.,Pratt,R.,Analytic perturbation theory for screened Coulomb potentials:non-relativistic case,Phys.Rev.A,1976,13:532-559.[7]Gerry,C.,Estimates of the ground states of the Yukawa potential from the Bogoliubov inequality,J.Phys.A,1984,17:L313-L315.[8]Kr(o)ger,H.,Girard,R.,Dufour,G.,Direct calculation of the S matrix in coordinate space,Phys.Rev.C,1988,37:486-496.[9]Girard,R.,Kr(o)ger,H.,Labelle,P.et al.,Computation of a long time evolution in a Schr(o)dinger system,Phys.Rev.A,1988,37:3195-3200.[10]Garavelli,S.,Oliveira,F.,Analytical solution for a Yukawa-type potential,Phys.Rev.Lett.,1991,66:1310-1313.[11]Gomes,O.,Chacham,H.,Mohallem,J.,Variational calculations for the bound-unbound transition of the Yukawa potential,Phys.Rev.A,1994,50:228-231.[12]Yukalov,V.,Yukalova,E.,Oliveira,F.,Renormalization-group solutions for Yukawa potential,J.Phys.A,1998,31:4337-4348.[13]Brau,F.,Necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of bound states in a central potential,J.Phys.A,2003,36:9907-9913.[14]Bertini,L.,Mella,M.,Bressanini,D.et al.,Borromean binding in H-2 with Yukawa potential:a nonadiabatic quantum Monte Carlo study,Phys.Rev.A,2004,69:042504.[15]Dean,D.,Drummond,I.,Horgan,R.,Effective diffusion constant in a two-dimensional medium of charged point scatterers,J.Phys.A,2004,37:2039-2046.[16]De-Leo,S.,Rotelli,P.,Amplification of coupling for Yukawa potentials,Phys.Rev.D,2004,69:034006.[17]Khrapak

  10. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoa ultrastructure in five species of the Curimatidae with some considerations on spermatozoal ultrastructure in the Characiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Quagio-Grassiotto

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Spermiogenesis in the curimatid species, Steindachnerina insculpta, Cyphocharax gillii, C. modestus, C. spilotus, and Potamorhina altamazonica, is characterized by lateral development of the flagellum, nuclear rotation, eccentric nuclear fossa formation, and chromatin compacted into thick fibers. These spermatozoa exhibit a spherical head containing a nucleus with the chromatin highly condensed into thick fibers with small electron-lucent areas, and no acrosome. The nuclear fossa is of the moderate type and eccentric and penetrated by the centriolar complex. The midpiece is small, has many elongate vesicles, and a short cytoplasmic channel. Mitochondria may be elongate, branched or C-shaped, and are separated from the initial segment of the axoneme by the cytoplasmic channel. The flagellum contains the classical axoneme structure (9+2 and has a membranous compartment in the initial region; it does not have lateral fins. Only small differences were observed among the analyzed species and genera of the Curimatidae. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoa in the Curimatidae have many of the characteristics found in almost all other characiform species. On the other hand, the presence of a membranous compartment in the initial region of curimatid flagella, a structure common in many Cypriniformes spermatozoa, is unknown in other characiforms. Spermiogenesis and the spermatozoa of the Characiformes are discussed.A espermiogênese nas espécies Steindachnerina insculpta, Cyphocharax gillii, C. modestus, C. spilotus e Potamorhina altamazonica de Curimatidae é caracterizada pelo desenvolvimento lateral do flagelo, rotação do núcleo, formação excêntrica da fossa nuclear e cromatina compactada em fibras espessas. Estes espermatozóides exibem uma cabeça esférica contendo um núcleo com cromatina altamente condensada em fibras espessas com pequenas áreas eletronlúcidas, e sem acrossoma. A fossa nuclear é do tipo moderado e excêntrico, penetrada pelo

  11. Diversity and Community Structure of the Fishes in the Headstream Region of the Dongjiang River%东江源头区域鱼类物种多样性及群落组成的特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓凤云; 张春光; 赵亚辉; 周岐海; 张洁

    2013-01-01

    生物多样性和鱼类群落结构的变化是反映人类作用及环境变化对鱼类群落影响的重要指标.2010年我们的调查结果显示,覆盖整个东江源头区的12个采样点收集和鉴定的鱼类标本共计7目18科56属74种.除陈氏新银鱼(Neosalanx tangkahkeii)、齐氏罗非鱼(Tilapia zillii)和食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)3种为外来物种外,其余71种均为土著鱼类.主要以鲤形目(77.5%)、鲇形目(9.9%)和鲈形目(8.4%)为主.优势种为宽鳍(鲼)(Zacco platypus),占14.87%,其次为马口鱼(Opsariichthys bidens)(9.93%)和侧条光唇鱼(Acrossocheilus parallens)(9.36%).本研究还以G-F指数、Shannon-Wiener指数、Pielou's均匀性指数、Margalef丰富度指数和Simpson指数评估了东江源头区域的鱼类多样性;东江源头区域鱼类群落以杂食性、定居性、中下层和底栖种类为主,源头这种鱼类群落组成结构与东江下游鱼类具有相同趋势,但相似性指数仅为0.39.拦河建坝是导致洄游性、半洄游性鱼类减少的主要原因,其次,水体污染、河道取沙、过度捕捞及有害渔具渔法的使用仍是源头区域生物多样性的主要胁迫因素.%The biodiversity and structure of fish communities is an important indicator of anthropogenic and environmental impacts. Here, we reported the results of a survey carried out in 2010, in which we sampled the fish at twelve stations throughout the headstream region of the Dongjiang River. A total of 74 species in 7 orders, 18 families and 56 genera were collected and identified. Of these 74 species, 71 species were native while only Neosalanx tangkahkeii, Tilapia zillii and Gambusia affinis were exotic species. Among all the species, order Cypriniformes was the most dominant component (77.5%), followed by order Siluriformes (9. 9% ) , order Perciformes (8. 4% ). As the results of relative abundance, the dominant species were Zacco platypus, accounted for 14. 87% , followed by

  12. 勒氏笛鲷(Lutjanus russellii)肌肉生长抑制素基因的克隆与分析%Cloning and Analysis of the Myostatin (MSTN) Gene in Russell's Snapper, Lutjanus russellii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓思平; 李嘉颖; 张婉玲; 宋春杰; 李广丽; 朱春华; 吴天利

    2011-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) gene was isolated from Russell's snapper, Lutjanus russellii by homology cloning method with the genome DNA. The Russell's snapper MSTN was 2887 bp in length, including three exons and two introns, along with 101 bp 5-UTR (untranslated region), 385 bp exon 1, 354 bp intron 1, 370 bp exon 2, 761 bp intron 2, 381 bp exon 3 and 1 932 bp 3'-UTR. The Russell's snapper MSTN gene encodes a 378 amino acid protein, including nine conserved cysteine residues, a RVRR proteolytic cleavage domain, and a putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids. Amino acid sequence analyses show the Russell's snapper MSTN has closer affinity with type 1 MSTN than type 2 MSTN of several telests. And it has the highest identity with Perciformes, higher identity with Cypriniformes, and the least identity with that of mouse, human and chicken MSTN. Neighbor-joining method and the results also show Russell's snapper has the closest homology with morone. And it clusters with type 1 MSTN of fish. It suggests that the Russell's snapper MSTN we isolated may belong to type I MSTN.%以勒氏笛鲷(Lutjanus russellii)基因组DNA为模板,采用同源克隆的方法,获得2887bp的肌肉生长抑制素(myostatin,MSTN)基因组序列,该MSTN序列具有3个外显子和2个内含子,包括101bp的5′-UTR、385bp的外显子1、354bp的内含子1、370bp的外显子2、761bp的内含子2、381bp的外显子3和1932bp的3′-UTR.整个开放阅读框编码了378个氨基酸,前面的22个氨基酸为信号肽,具有9个保守的半胱氨基酸及一个RVRR的蛋白酶解加工位点.氨基酸序列分析发现,该基因编码的蛋白质与其他鱼类的Ⅰ型同源性较高,与其他鱼类的2型MSTN同源性较低,且与鲈形目的同源性最高,与鲤形目的同源性较低,与人、鼠和鸡的同源性最低.采用邻接法(Neighbor-Joining)构建的MSTN的系统发育树表明,勒氏笛鲷MSTN与鲈形目鱼类的狼鲈属亲缘关系较近,且与鱼类的MSTN-1聚为1支.这表明该基因属于Ⅰ型MSTN基因.

  13. Fish community structure in intertidal area of Acipenser sinensis Natural Reserve in Yangtze River estuary%长江口中华鲟自然保护区潮间带鱼类群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨刚; 洪巧巧; 张涛; 侯俊利; 智玉龙; 庄平; 章龙珍

    2012-01-01

    为深入了解鱼类对潮间带水域的利用,2010年5月、8月、11月在长江口中华鲟自然保护区潮间带水域进行了插网调查.结果表明:调查期间共出现28种鱼类,隶属于10目16科,鲤形目种类最多,其次为鲈形目;群落优势种为中国花鲈(Lateolabrax maculates)、鲅(Liza haematocheila)和窄体舌鳎(Cynoglossus gracilis);长江口中华鲟自然保护区潮间带鱼类群落可以分为河口定居鱼类、海洋偶见鱼类、降海洄游鱼类、溯河洄游鱼类、海洋洄游鱼类和淡水鱼类6种生态类群,其中河口定居鱼类和海洋洄游鱼类占据明显优势.对调查水域鱼类群落进行聚类分析,结果表明秋季和春夏季差异显著,(鲮)、中国花鲈、斑尾刺虾虎鱼(Acanthogobius ommaturus)是对季节差异贡献最大的3种鱼类.主成分分析结果表明,夏季鱼类群落主要受到海洋洄游鱼类的影响,而秋季主要受到河口定居鱼类的影响,这2种鱼类的幼鱼在不同季节利用潮间带水域索饵肥育可能是造成季节差异的主要原因.%In order to understand the utilization of intertidal water area by fishes, an investigation with fyke was conducted on the fish community structure in the intertidal area of Acipenser sinensis Natural Reserve in Yangtze River estuary in May, August and November 2010. A total of 28 fish species belonging to 16 families and 10 orders were collected, among which, Lateolabrax maculates , Liza haematocheila, and Cynoglossus gracilis were the dominant species. Cypriniformes had the largest species number, followed by Perciformes. The fish communities could be classified into 6 ecological groups, i. e. , estuarine species, marine stragglers, catadromous species, anadro-mous species, marine migrants, and freshwater species, and the estuarine species and marine migrants took up distinct advantage. Cluster analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the fish communities in autumn and in spring

  14. Cloning and expression analysis of the insulin-like growth factor 1 in Elopichthys bambusa%鳡胰岛素样生长因子1基因的克隆及其组织特异性表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁建锋; 李建林; 徐建荣; 卢祥云; 柏洁; 顾志良

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to clone full-length IGFl cDNA sequence and to determine its expression in various tissues from Elopichthys bambusa. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) were used to amplify full-length of IGF1 cDNA. Semi-quantatative RT-PCR was used to compare IGF1 gene expression levels from various tissues. A full-length of IGF1 cDNA sequence in E. bambusa was obtained, which included a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 486 bp, a 5 -untranslated region of 218 bp, and a 3 -untranslated region of 140 bp. The putative peplide contained a signal sequence of 44 amino acid, a mature peptide of 70 amino acid in the functional domain- and an extended carboxyl-terminal peptide of 47 amino acid in domain E. IGFl from E. bambusa showed an amino acid identity of 94. 41%-99. 38% with that from Cy print formes. The phylogenetic analyses showed that IGF1 from E. bambusa had closest relationship with other fishes in Cypriniformes. Furthermore, IGF1 mRNA levels were highest in liver but relatively low or absent in heart. A part of IGF1 promoter sequence was cloned by using Genome Walking, which included a Myogenic Differentiation Antigen (Myo D). But there was not a consensus TATA box about 5' to the start site of transcription in IGF1. These results indicated the IGF1 promoter differed to the classic promoter. These findings provide clue for IGF1 involvement in the growth and development of E. bambusa and are potential basis for its effective breeding and propagation.%为克隆鳡(Elopichys bambusa)的胰岛素样生长因子1(IGF1)全长cDNA和启动子序列及明确其组织表达特征,采用反转录PCR (RT -PCR)、cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)和染色体步移等技术,从鳡肌肉中获得了IGF1基因的全长cDNA(844 bp)和上游启动子部分序列(627 bp).结果表明:IGF1基因包含218 bp的5 '端非翻译区、140 bp的3 '端非翻译区和486 bp的开放性阅读框(ORF),编码161

  15. 太湖鱼类群落结构及多样性%Community structure and diversity of fish in Lake Taihu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛志刚; 谷孝鸿; 曾庆飞; 周露洪; 王小林; 吴林坤; 曹萍; 孙明波

    2011-01-01

    In 2009-2010, bottom trawl surveys were conducted on the fish resources in Lake Taihu, aimed to understand the characteristics of fish community structure and diversity in the Lake. A total of 50 fish species were collected, belonging to 40 genera, 15 families, and 10 orders, among which, Cypriniformes had the largest species number, accounting for 68% of the total. The fish community was composed of three ecological guilds, and limnology species were most abundant (78% of the total abundance). The dominant species were of mini-type fish such as Coilia ectenes taihuensis, Hyporhamphus intermedius, and Salangichthys jordani. As compared with historical data, the fish species number in the Lake decreased, the composition of dominant species changed greater, and the mini-type fishes with body mass <30 g were absolutely dominant , with an obvious tendency of fish resources becoming smaller-scale. Due to overfishing and water pollution, the Margalef richness index D, Shannon diversity indices H'N and H'N, and Pielou evenness indices J'N and J'w in the Lake all decreased, being 1.54, 0.21, 0.46, 0.07, and 0. 14, respectively. To some extent, the differences in the fish species composition and biodiversity reflected the adaption characteristics of the fishes to the environmental variables such as nutrients and transparency in the Lake.%为了解太湖鱼类群落结构和多样性的分布特征,于2009-2010年利用拖网等网具对该水域的鱼类资源进行了调查.结果表明:本次调查共采获鱼类50种,隶属10目15科40属,其中鲤形目种类最多,占总数的68%;鱼类生态类型以湖泊定居性种类为主,群落优势种为湖鲚(Coilia ectenes taihuensis)、间下鱵(Hyporhamphus intermedius)和陈氏短吻银鱼(Salangichthys jordani)等小型鱼类;与历史资料相比,太湖鱼类的物种数量下降,优势种组成发生较大变化,鱼类群落中体质量<30 g的小型鱼类占绝对优势,渔业资源小型化趋势明显.由

  16. Putative relationships among inseminating and externally fertilizing characids, with a description of a new genus and species of Brazilian inseminating fish bearing an anal-fin gland in males (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley H. Weitzman

    2005-09-01

    Bryconadenos and Attonitus are discussed in relation to certain other inseminating characids, such as the species of Brittanichthys and Hollandichthys, that are not currently hypothesized to belong to Clade A and presumably acquired insemination independently. It is concluded that much additional data regarding the reproductive modes as well as other anatomical/physiological systems of characids currently included in and excluded from Clade A are necessary before a reasonably supported phylogeny of Clade A characids and their possible outgroup relatives can be advanced. The anal-fin gland cells of sexually active male Bryconadenos specimens are histologically indistinguishable from club cells (also called alarm substance cells found within the skin of cypriniforms, characiforms, catfishes, and other otophysan fishes. These cells occur at the skin's surface of the anal-fin gland in male Bryconadenos where they are organized into an organ. Many other adult male characids have club cells at the anal-fin's skin surface, often associated with anal-fin hooks, but were not found organized into an organ as in Bryconadenos. We hypothesize these cells to secrete a pheromone during courtship via holocrine secretion. Males of the genera Lophiobrycon , Glandulocauda, and Mimagoniates, tribe Glandulocaudini, were found to have club cells associated with their caudal-fin organ, but no specialized mucus cells were present as found in the caudal organ of males of the glandulocaudine Corynopoma riisei, tribe Stevardiini (= Corynopomini of past authors. In this species, males have hypertrophied mucus cells hypothesized to be modified for pheromone secretion. Evidence that the derived scales and fin rays of the caudal organ of males of the tribe Glandulocaudini are not homologous with that of other tribes of the Glandulocaudinae, as this subfamily was previously recognized, is discussed and it is concluded that the members of the tribe Glandulocaudini should be recognized as a separate subfamily

  17. Ichthyofauna composition and distribution of fishes in Yunnan section of Lancang River%澜沧江云南段鱼类区系组成与分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明典; 陈大庆; 段辛斌; 王珂; 刘绍平

    2011-01-01

    Lancang River originates from alpine springs on the slopes of the Tanggula Mountain in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the species and distribution of fishes are very special in the river. To understand the present composition and distribution of fishes in this water system, a comprehensive survey was carried out in Yunnan section of Lancang River and its affiliated lake, Erhai Lake. Fifty two sampling sites were set up based on the different elevation and multiple habitatation. In the 4 787 fish samples collected, five orders, 14 families, 80 species of aboriginal fishes were identified, with another 59 species recorded in references. All the fishes,consisting of six orders, 18 families, are composed of fishes from two regions: Xikang-Tibetan Sub-region belonging to West China Region and Nukiang-Lancang Subregion belonging to South China Region. In addition,21 species of exotic fishes were collected. The differences in horizontal and vertical distribution of aboriginal fish are obvious. The horizontal distribution shows an obvious diversity and regional variety. The distribution of fish in Lancang River was influenced by altitude and climate. Many groups of fish have a certain distribution range. The Tetraodontiformes, the Perciformes and some species of the Cypriniformes are limited to low elevation regions in the tropics. The distribution of the Cyprinidaes and the Siluriformes which take up a large proportion in Lancang River shows a gradual replacement of different groups with the rise of altitude. Compared with the historical data,the current species number of aboriginal fish in some sections of Lancang River has decreased obviously.Environmental stress caused by river construction, over-fishing, pollution and exotic fish is external impact factors for fishes in Lancang River. Relevant departments should adopt various measures to tackle the problem such as establishing nature reserves, promoting artificial enhancement and releasing, setting up eco

  18. 长江口九段沙湿地潮沟鱼类组成及其多样性%Fish species composition and diversity in intertidal creek of Jiuduansha wetland in the Yangtze River estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚小玲; 张晓懿; 朱敏; 任胜杰; 孙瑛

    2011-01-01

    长江口九段沙湿地潮沟鱼类组成有着典型的长江口鱼类区系特征,为了解该湿地尤其是湿地潮沟鱼类的组成和多样性,在2009至2010年间对九段沙湿地的上沙、中沙和下沙潮沟进行了5次调查,共捕获鱼类3 637尾,105 158.9 g,42种,分别隶属于11目、22科。其中种类和个体数均以鲈形目居多,有20种,3 433尾,其次是鲤形目7种,49尾和鲱形目5种,33尾;海水、河口、淡水、洄游4种生态类型的种类所占百分比分别为26.19%、40.48%、23.81%、9.52%,而河口性鱼类的个体数和总湿重占绝对优势%The fish composition of intertidal creek of Jiuduansha wetland in the Yangtze River estuary has the typical ichthyofauna trait of Yangtze River estuary.To comprehend the fish species composition and diversity of this wetland especially the intertidal creek,we surveyed the creek of Shangsha,Zhongsha and Xiasha five times from 2009 to 2010.A total of 3 637 tails with 105 158.9 g and 42 species were captured,these species belonging to 11 orders and 22 families.The fishes number and species number of Perciformes are the highest,with 20 species,3 433 tails,next,Cypriniformes and Clupeiformes with 7 species,49 tails and 5 species,33 tails respectively.The percentage of marine species is 26.19%,estuarine species is 40.48%,freshwater species is 23.81% and diadromous species is 9.52%.The number of fishes(94.4%) and wet weight(96.3%) of estuarine species both were absolutely dominant.The catch in Shangsha,Zhongsha and Xiasha were 21 species with 742 tails 51 025.2 g,30 species with 1 007 tails 29 427.5 g and 20 species with 1 888 species 24 696.2 g respectively.Most of them were estuarine species.According to the relative density(RD) and relative significance index(IRI),it shows that Acanthogobius ommaturus,Liza haermatochiel and Eleutheronema tetradactylu were dominant species,especially the Acanthogobius ommaturus has the absolute advantage.As for diversity

  19. STUDY ON AGE, GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND THE STATUS OF RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT OFCULTER OXYCEPHALOIDES (KREYENBERG ET PAPPENHEIM) IN THE XIAO RIVER%小江拟尖头鲌的年龄、生长、繁殖及其资源开发状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段鹏翔; 杨志; 唐会元; 肖琼; 龚云; 肖调义; 刘小燕

    2015-01-01

    Culter oxycephaloides (Kreyenberg et Pappenheim), which belongs to genusCulter, subfamilyCultrinae, familyCyprinidae, order Cypriniformes. They are a unique species in China and mainly live in the rivers and lakes of the Yangtze River Basin. Due to the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the ecosystem of the upper Yangtze River basin especially the tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir has been profoundly changed. The Xiao River is an important tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, and the habitat of a variety of organisms especially fishes. According to the data collected in 2013, some sections of the Xiao River have become major spawning grounds ofCulter oxycephaloides. Hence it is critical to investigate the age structure and the growth characteristics ofCulter oxycephaloides, in order to better manage and protect this fish resource. In April-July and October-December of 2013, we collected 1741 individuals from the Xiao River of the Three Gorges Reservoir and conducted the fish biology and ecology study. Our 245 samples could be divided into 5 age groups, and 2—3 year-old individuals accounted for 78.75% of the total samples. The relationship between the body length (L) and the body weight (W) could be fitted asW = 0.000007L3.10 (R2=0.9,N=789). The Von Bertalanffy growth function wasLt=519.63[1–e–0.22(t+0.12)],Wt=1806.08 [1–e–0.22(t+0.12)]3.10. The growth inflexion point of the body weight was 5.02 years, and the corresponding body length was 348 mm and the body weight was 558.8 g. The absolute fecundities ranged between 20382 and 88430 eggs per fish, and the relative fecundities were between 54 and 161 eggs/g. The eggs of mature females were 0.03—0.14 cm in diameter, with an average of 0.11 cm. Based on the frequency distribution plot of egg diameters, we deduced that the development of oocytes in the ovaries ofCulter oxycephaloides was in a successive process and the female could spawn twice within a reproductive period. We compared

  20. STUDY ON AGE, GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND THE STATUS OF RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT OFCULTER OXYCEPHALOIDES (KREYENBERG ET PAPPENHEIM) IN THE XIAO RIVER%小江拟尖头鲌的年龄、生长、繁殖及其资源开发状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段鹏翔; 杨志; 唐会元; 肖琼; 龚云; 肖调义; 刘小燕

    2015-01-01

    拟尖头鲌(Culter oxycephaloides)属鲤形目(Cypriniformes),鲤科(Cyprinidae),鲌亚科(Cultrinae),鲌属(Culter),为中国特有鱼类,分布于长江流域的四川、湖北、湖南等省的江河湖泊中。2013年4—7月以及10—12月在三峡库区支流小江江段收集拟尖头鲌样本1741尾,对其年龄、生长、繁殖及其资源开发状况进行了研究。结果表明:鲌所采集的拟尖头包括5个年龄组,其中2—3龄年龄组为优势年龄组,占78.59%(N=425尾);体长与体重呈幂函数关系,表达式为W =0.000007L3.10(R2=0.99,N=789尾),其生长属于匀速生长类型;采用von Bertalanffy生长方程分别拟合体长、体重与年龄的关系,其表达式分别为:Lt=519.63[1–e–0.22(t+0.12)],Wt=1806.08[1–e–0.22(t+0.12)]3.10;生长拐点年龄t=5.02龄,此时对应的体长348 mm,体重558.8 g;绝对繁殖力变动范围为20382—88430粒/尾,相对繁殖力变动范围为54—161粒/g,体重与绝对繁殖力的关系以二次方程曲线拟合度最优,其表达式为 Fabs=33462.08+0.11W–44.01W2(R2=0.49, sig.=0.02<0.05,N=31);Ⅳ卵巢卵径变动范围为0.0675—0.1325 cm,平均值为0.1060 cm;鲌拟尖头产卵类型为分批产卵类型;小江拟尖头鲌的现有开发率为E=0.51/年; Beverton-Holt动态综合模型显示,目前小江拟尖头鲌的Emax为0.40/年, E10为0.32/年, E50为0.25/年。根据研究,目前小江拟尖头鲌的种群处于过度开发状况,应采取措施,加强其资源保护。%Culter oxycephaloides (Kreyenberg et Pappenheim), which belongs to genusCulter, subfamilyCultrinae, familyCyprinidae, order Cypriniformes. They are a unique species in China and mainly live in the rivers and lakes of the Yangtze River Basin. Due to the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the ecosystem of the upper Yangtze River basin especially the tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir has been profoundly changed. The Xiao River is an important tributary of the Three

  1. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Baal

    1965-01-01

    fig. - S. Kooijman, P.K. Neuhaus, Beiträge zur Ethnographie der Pala, Mittel Neu Irland (aus dem Nachlass bearbeitet von P.C. Laufer, MSC und Carl A. Schmitz. Kölner Ethnologische Mitteilungen, Köln 1962. 452 S., 28 Abb. - J. van Baal, Peter Matthiessen, De Zonen van Nopoe; Een Kroniek uit het Steentijdperk. Vertaald uit het Engels door Beb Vuyk. J.A. Boom en Zoon, Meppel. - J. Prins, Robert R. Jay, Religion and politics in rural central Java. Cultural Report Series no. 12, Southeast Asia Studies - Yale University. VIII en 107 pagina’s, en een bibliografie. - L. Sluimers, G.I. Lewinson, Philippiny mezjdu perwoj i wtoroj mirowymi wojnami. Moskwa, Izdateljstwo wostotsjnoj literatury, 1958. (G.I. Lewinson, De Philippijnen tussen de Eerste en de tweede Wereldoorlog. Moskou, Uitgeverij voor Oosterse Literatuur, 1958. 288 blz., krt. - R.T. Zuidema, Rafael Girard, Los Mayas Eternos XIV, 493 blz., 250 foto’s en vele tekeningen, schema en 5 kaarten. Antigua Librería Robredo, Mexico D.F. 1962. - R.T. Zuidema, Bodo Spranz, Göttergestalten in den Mexikanischen Bilderhandschriften der Codex Borgia-Gruppe. Eine ikonographische Untersuchung. Acta Humboldtiana, Series Geographica et Ethnographica Nr. 4. Franz Steiner Verlag GmbH. Wiesbaden, 1964. 435 blz., 1791 fig., 32 afb., 2 tabellen.

  2. Integrating top-down and bottom-up approaches to design a cost-effective and equitable programme of measures for adaptation of a river basin to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    the implementation of cooperative game theory to define cost allocation scenarios. These results are compared with cost allocation rules based on social justice principles to provide contrasted insights into a negotiation process. The interdisciplinary framework developed in this research combines economics and water resources engineering methods, establishing a promising means of bridging the gap between bottom-up and top-down approaches and supporting the creation of cost-effective and equitable adaptation plans at the local level. The approach has been applied to the Orb river basin in Southern France. Acknowledgements The study has been partially supported by the IMPADAPT project /CGL2013-48424-C2-1-R) from the Spanish ministry MINECO (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad) and European FEDER funds. Corentin Girard is supported by a grant from the University Lecturer Training Program (FPU12/03803) of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports of Spain.

  3. Apresentação do Dossiê

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Fatima de Souza Ribeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Brazilian Methodist Church celebrates 40 years of the approval of the admission of women as elders of or pastor in the Church. Among the many fruits resulting from this opening, exists today at the Theology Seminary of the Methodist Church the Otilia-Chaves-Center, a space for training, sharing and reflection on issues concerning gender church and society. Within this context of the celebrations of these 40 years, the Otilia-Chaves-Center was also challenged to contribute by organizing a Dossier uniting articles written by Methodist women. The theological journal Caminhando presents in this edition the results of this initiative, containing articles of pastors and theologians of the Methodist Church, working in various areas within church and society. The proposal is to share what these women are producing in their field of knowledge. In this journal, you find mainly reflections focusing on the three major areas of theological knowledge: biblical, systematic and pastoral theology. On the subject of the Bible, Suely dos Santos Xavier, elder of the Methodist Church and professor for the Old Testament, presents in dialogue with Marcel Mauss, Henri Hubert and Rene Girard,an anthropological reading of sacrifice interpreting Leviticus 6:17-23, in order to understand a little more about societies where sacrifice is a central part of its religion.In the area of ​​Theology / History, Margarida Ribeiro, elder of the Methodist Church and historian, points out the trajectory of Methodist women from England to Brazil, and how these women made a difference in their time. After this, Elena Silva, elder of the Methodist Church and educator, emphasizes the role of the first Methodist woman preachers, especially those who exercised their ministries based on what she calls their “social charisma”. In a similar direction, Vera Silva elder of the Methodist Church and educator presents the possibility of Christian education in everyday life

  4. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Caribbean, 1624-1783 (Bonham C. Richardson Michaeline A. Crichlow; Negotiating Caribbean Freedom: Peasants and the State in Development (Christine Chivallon Peta Gay Jensen; The Last Colonials: The Story of Two European Families in Jamaica (Karl Watson Marc Tardieu; Les Antillais à Paris: D’hier à aujourd’hui (David Beriss Rhonda D. Frederick; “Colón Man a Come”: Mythographies of Panamá Canal Migration (Michael L. Conniff James Robertson; Gone is the Ancient Glory: Spanish Town, Jamaica, 1534-2000 (Philip D. Morgan Philippe R. Girard; Paradise Lost: Haiti’s Tumultuous Journey from Pearl of the Caribbean to Third World Hotspot (Carolle Charles Michael Deibert; Notes from the Last Testament: The Struggle for Haiti (Carolle Charles Ellen de Vries; Suriname na de binnenlandse oorlog (Aspha E. Bijnaar In: New West Indian Guide/ Nieuwe West-Indische Gids no. 82 (2008, no: 1-2, Leiden

  5. Towards an equitable allocation of the cost of a global change adaptation plan at the river basin scale: going beyond the perfect cooperation assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Pulido-Velázquez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    of the adaptation plan, different allocation scenarios are considered. The LCRBOM allows defining a solution space based on economic rationality concepts from cooperative game theory (the core of the game), and then, to define equitable allocation of the cost of the programme of measures (the Shapley value and the nucleolus). Moreover, alternative allocation scenarios have been considered based on axiomatic principles of social justice, such as "utilitarian", "prior rights" or "strict equality", applied in the case study area. The comparison of the cost allocation scenarios brings insight to inform the decision making process at the river basin scale and potentially reap the efficiency gains from cooperation in the design of adaptation plan. The study has been partially supported by the IMPADAPT project /CGL2013-48424-C2-1-R) from the Spanish ministry MINECO (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad) and European FEDER funds. Corentin Girard is supported by a grant from the University Lecturer Training Program (FPU12/03803) of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports of Spain.

  6. 广东省恩平市锦江河上游野生鱼类资源群落生态特征调查%A preliminary study on the structure of wild fish community in the upstream of Jinjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭乾开; 黎华寿; 崔科; 贺鸿志

    2012-01-01

    Zuiew), Silurus asotus Linnaeus, Ophicephalus argus, Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky), Siniperca scherzeri Steindacho, Micropterus salmoides, Misgurnus anguillieaudatu and so forth which take a percentage of 30.61% of the captured fishes are economical ; other 8 species, including Carassius auratus (Linnaeus), Tilapia nilotica, Xenocypris argentea, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Hypophthalmmichthy-srnolitrix, Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson), Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cirrhinus molitorella and so on which take a percentage of 16. 32% are common economical; the else taking 53.06%, including 26 species and 2 known ones are non-economical. Among the Cypriniformes, Cyprinus carpio and Pseudolaubuca sinensis are dominant species (IRIS500) while Carassius auratus, Pseudoperilampus lighti Wu, P. engraulis, Squaliobarbus curriculus, Hemiculter bleekeri and Pseudoperilarnpus lighti are common ones ; as for the Perciforrnes, Oreochromis and Ctenogobius giurinus are dominant (IRI≥500) while Channa asiatica, Ophicephalus argus, Micropterus salmoides , Macropodus opercuiaris , Rhinogobius duospilus , Mugilogoblus myxodermus and Hypseleotris swinhonis are commone; and for the Cyprinodontirormes, Gambusra affinis and Clarias batrachus are dominant (IRI≥ 500) while Ymbranchiformes monopterusalba, Plecostous Punctatus and Silurus asotus are common. We expect that our surveys and analysis would provide scientific proof for the protection and the implementation of the fish resources in Jinjiang River in Enping.

  7. 基于生态修复的青海湖沙柳河鱼道建设与维护%Construction and management of fish passage on Shaliu River adjacent to Qinghai Lake based on ecological restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓春; 史建全

    2014-01-01

    为减少水坝对青海湖裸鲤溯河洄游的阻隔,在入湖的沙柳河上先后建设了导壁式、简易模块式和阶梯型鱼道。通过对青海湖鱼道建设案例分析,得出鱼道设计需要关注的问题:鱼道进鱼口设计要安排在鱼类洄游通路并采取集鱼措施,鱼道设计要依据鱼类洄游能力,鱼道运行要注意改进和维护,鱼道设计需要多学科专家共同参与。结合国内外鱼道设计、建设和运行情况,提出基于生态修复的鱼道建设维护对策:确立生态系统功能价值的鱼道设计目标,确立从鱼的角度出发,系统性的鱼道设计理念、建设和管护方式。%Gymnocypris przewalskii belongs to subfamily of Schizothoracinae, family of Cyprinidae and order of Cypriniformes, and it is an endemic species only distributed in the Qinghai Lake and its adjacent rivers and lakes. It possesses migration characteristics, and goes upstream from the lake to surrounding rivers in the reproduction season. However, several dams built on the rivers flowing into the lake with the agricultural development in the Qinghai Lake region since 1970s, severely blocked its migration passages, leading to obviously decreasing of resources of Gymnocypris przewalskii in recent years. To protect Gymnocypris przewalskii, three kinds of fish passages on the dams of rivers flowing into the Qinghai Lake were introduced, which were types of guide wall, simple steel modular and ladder slope, respectively. 1) The guide wall type fish passage was separately constructed on the dams in the Shaliu River, Quanji River and Haergai River in 2006, which were built along river side, but it had several defects because of the lack of experience. 2) The simple steel modular type fish passage was designed and constructed on the dam of the Shaliu River in 2008, Based on biological characteristics of Gymnocypris przewalskii and the basic situation of the dam and environmental conditions of the Shaliu

  8. BIODIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SMALL-SIZED FISH IN THE NEARSHORE OF CHANGSHU REACH IN THE YANGTZE RIVER%长江常熟江段近岸小型鱼类群落结构及多样性探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐东坡; 刘凯; 张敏莹; 段金荣; 张敏; 施炜纲

    2012-01-01

    2009年3月-2010年2月,利用密目插网对长江常熟江段小型鱼类进行了连续监测,首次对该江段的小型鱼类群落组成、优势种组成及生物多样性进行了剖析。结果表明:该江段共有小型鱼类24种,隶属于5目7科,其中鲤形目最多。根据IRI指数分析,贝氏鳖、刀鲚、窄体舌鳎、蛇蛔和光泽黄颡鱼为优势种,共占总数量的83.44%,占总重量的82.02%;贝氏鳖和窄体舌鳎在各个季节中均为优势种,刀鲚在春、夏、秋3季为优势种。基于渔获数量的分析结果显示,常熟江段各月多样性特征值范围为:Shannon-Wiener指数(H’)1.18-1.76,Margalef指数(R)0.87-2.07,Pielou指数(J’)0.48-0.83,McNaughton指数(Dn)0.57-0.86。Margalef指数和Mc-Naughton指数春季最高,冬季最低;Shannon-Wiener指数和Pielou指数冬季最高,夏季最低。最后探讨了影响该江段小型鱼类群落结构的各种因素,提出了合理开发和保护小型渔业资源的建议。%Based on the fishery survey by setting net from March 9,009 to February 2010,the community structure, dominant species composition and biodiversity of small-sized fishes have been analyzed. 24 species of small-sized fishes were collected,which belongs to 5 orders, 7 families,and most of the species were be- long to Cypriniformes. The dominant species were Hemiculter bleekeri, Coilia nasus, Cynoglossus trigram- mus ,Saurogobio dabryi and Pelteobaggrus nitidus ,which occupied 83.44~ of the total catch in number, and 82.02O/6o of the total weight. Herniculter bleekeri and Cynoglossus trigrammus were the dominant spe- cies in each season,and Coilia nasus in spring, summer and autumn. Four diversity indexes, Shannon-Wie- nerds index (H') ,Margalef's index(R') ,Pilou' s index(J') ,McNaughton's index(Dn) ,were calculated by catch in number to analyze the characteristics of species diversity of

  9. 鲤肠道小肽转运载体PepT1多克隆抗体的制备及其组织表达分析%Preparation of the antibody and tissue distribution of the peptide transporter PepT1 inCyprinus carpio L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫潇; 杨丽萍; 郑文佳; 孙君君; 卢荣华; 聂国兴

    2016-01-01

    transcriptional level. Our results provide a foundation for study of the structure and function of PepT1 at both the molecular and protein levels in carp. Additionally, we provide a basis for analysis of the relationship between small peptide absorption and protein metabolism. The antibody described here will be an important tool for local-ization and quantitative research of PepT1 in related fish such asCarassius auratus,Ctenopharyngodon idellus, that belong to the family Cyprinidae or even in Cypriniformes.%为从蛋白水平研究小肽转运载体(PepT1)在鲤(Cyprinus carpio L.)不同组织中的表达及分布规律,本研究采用PCR法获得PepT1 cDNA片段,并转化至大肠杆菌Rosetta,对目标多肽进行原核表达,将PepT1重组蛋白纯化后免疫新西兰长耳兔(Oryctolagus cuniculus),获取兔抗鲤PepT1多克隆抗体。采用ELISA检测抗体效价,免疫组化检测PepT1的组织表达情况,并用荧光实时定量PCR技术检测PepT1转录水平组织表达情况。结果显示,目标多肽分子量约为28 kD;抗体效价达到4×105。PepT1在鲤的前肠、中肠、后肠、脾、肝胰脏和肾中均有表达。肠道组织 PepT1的高表达与其主要完成食物中肽的吸收功能密切相关,且吸收部位主要集中在前肠和中肠;肾中PepT1免疫染色阳性区域也较为明显,这与肾小管基底膜存在对短肽的重吸收功能相关。此外,肝胰脏和脾PepT1也有一定量的表达,可能与这两个重要器官代谢旺盛有关。本研究制备的兔抗鲤 PepT1多克隆抗体能够有效识别鲤各组织中的PepT1蛋白,在后续研究中亦可用于其他鱼类PepT1转运蛋白的表达定位和定量研究。

  10. Ichthyofauna and its community diversity in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China%东北地区火山堰塞湖鱼类区系与群落多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富亿; 吕宪国; 娄彦景; 娄晓楠; 薛滨; 姚书春; 肖海丰

    2012-01-01

    根据2008-2011年镜泊湖和五大连池鱼类学调查结果和历史资料,分析了东北地区火山堰塞湖鱼类区系特征和群落物种多样性状况.东北地区火山堰塞湖鱼类区系由9目16科47属64种土著种构成,其中国家Ⅱ级野生保护物种1种,中国特有种4种,中国易危种5种;64种鱼类中,鲤形目44种,鲤科37种,分别占优势.东北地区火山堰塞湖鱼类区系由7个区系复合体构成,以东部平原区系复合体为主体;南北方重叠种、北方特有种分别占53.1%和46.9%.东北地区火山堰塞湖鱼类群落Shannon、Fisher-α、Pielou、Margalef和Simpson指数值分别为2.078、4.536、0.575、3.723和0.269,土著种多度分布格局可以用对数正态分布描述;与镜泊湖亚群落间Bray-Curtis、Morisita-Horn、Ochiai、S(o)rensen和Whittaker指数值分别为0.820、0.992、0.870、0.862和0.138,与五大连池亚群落间各指数值分别为0.210、0.516、0.838、0.825和0.175.东北地区火山堰塞湖鱼类区系具有南北方物种相互渗透、古北界与东洋界交汇过渡的特点;群落物种多样性程度较高,物种结构较稳定,但物种丰富度呈下降趋势.%Based on the investigations of fish resources in Jingpo Lake and Wudalianchi Lakes in 2008-2011 and the historical data, this paper analyzed the characteristics of ichthyofauna and its community diversity in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China. The ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was consisted of 64 native species, belonging to 47 genera, 16 families , and 9 orders, among which, one species was the second class National protected wild animal, four species were Chinese endemic species, and five species were Chinese vulnerable species. In the 64 recorded species, there were 44 species of Cypriniformes order and 37 species of Cyprinidae family dominated, respectively. The ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was formed by 7 fauna

  11. 鄱阳湖子湖“堑秋湖”渔业资源结构特征分析%STURCTURE AND FEATURES OF FISHERY RESOURCES OF SUB-LAKES IN POYANG LAKE, JIANGXI, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾泽国; 张笑辰; 刘观华; 金杰峰; 陈家宽; 金斌松

    2015-01-01

    genera,7 of them were commercial fishes,and there was no fisheries production in Shahu because of the low water level.The results of the investigation study showed that the largest group was from Cypriniformes,and had the similar fish species in different years,but the dominant species were changed and the yield of catch had a downward trend.The analysis of non-metrimultidimensional scaling (MDS) showed that community diversity varied among years and sub-lakes.The correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive correlation between CPUE a day and the water level in the year of 2011,while such correlation declined in the year of 2012 and 2013.%“堑秋湖”是广泛存在于鄱阳湖湖区且与鄱阳湖水文节律特征相顺应的一种渔业方式.为了解“堑秋湖”渔获物组成特征及其产量与水位之间的关系,于2011~2013年“堑秋湖”期间对江西鄱阳湖国家级自然保护区的子湖大湖池和沙湖进行了连续3年的渔业调查.2011年,大湖池和沙湖与修河分别相通23 d和10 d,鄱阳湖属旱涝急转气候;2012年鄱阳湖水势较大,大湖池和沙湖与修河分别相通124 d和108 d.2013年鄱阳湖再现旱情,大湖池和沙湖均未能与修河连通.2011年渔业调查开展7次,2012年调查9次,2013年调查5次.3 a调查累计获得鱼类59种隶属于6目12科43属.3年研究结果表明渔获物以鲤科鱼类为主,在种类上变化不大但优势物种有所改变且渔获物产量呈下降趋势,无度量多维排序结果(MSD)显示鱼类群落在不同年度和子湖间分离明显.经济鱼类的单位捕捞努力量(CPUE)与水位变化的线性回归分析结果表明,2011年经济鱼类产量与当日水位呈正相关性,但2012年和2013年两者的相关性却不明显.

  12. 基于生态修复的青海湖沙柳河鱼道建设与维护%Construction and management of fish passage on Shaliu River adjacent to Qinghai Lake based on ecological restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓春; 史建全

    2014-01-01

    Gymnocypris przewalskii belongs to subfamily of Schizothoracinae, family of Cyprinidae and order of Cypriniformes, and it is an endemic species only distributed in the Qinghai Lake and its adjacent rivers and lakes. It possesses migration characteristics, and goes upstream from the lake to surrounding rivers in the reproduction season. However, several dams built on the rivers flowing into the lake with the agricultural development in the Qinghai Lake region since 1970s, severely blocked its migration passages, leading to obviously decreasing of resources of Gymnocypris przewalskii in recent years. To protect Gymnocypris przewalskii, three kinds of fish passages on the dams of rivers flowing into the Qinghai Lake were introduced, which were types of guide wall, simple steel modular and ladder slope, respectively. 1) The guide wall type fish passage was separately constructed on the dams in the Shaliu River, Quanji River and Haergai River in 2006, which were built along river side, but it had several defects because of the lack of experience. 2) The simple steel modular type fish passage was designed and constructed on the dam of the Shaliu River in 2008, Based on biological characteristics of Gymnocypris przewalskii and the basic situation of the dam and environmental conditions of the Shaliu River. After considering inlet location of fish passage, suction flow and hydraulic conditions within passage, the inlet was located at the area with aggregated fish and slow current velocity. The water flow was 0.5 m/s, the current velocity was 0.1-0.25 m3/s, as well as the slope of 1:10 within fish passage. 3) The ladder slope type fish passage was built on the dam of Shaliu River in 2010, which used two types open fishponds of multi-ladder and slight slope. Fish passage without hindrance had been almost come to be real through this type. This type was designed according to basic theories and related parameters of simple fish passage. The length was 80 m and the width was 1

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    , Zhengtong Liu, Hsiao-Kuan Yuan, Rasmus H Pedersen, Alexandra Boltasseva, Jiji Chen, Joseph Irudayaraj, Alexander V Kildishev and Vladimir M Shalaev Confinement and propagation characteristics of subwavelength plasmonic modes R F Oulton, G Bartal, D F P Pile and X Zhang Theory on the scattering of light and surface plasmon polaritons by arrays of holes and dimples in a metal film F de León-Pérez, G Brucoli, F J García-Vidal and L Martín-Moreno Shaping and manipulation of light fields with bottom-up plasmonic structures C Girard, E Dujardin, G Baffou and R Quidant Gold nanorods and nanospheroids for enhancing spontaneous emission A Mohammadi, V Sandoghdar and M Agio Generation of surface plasmons at single subwavelength slits: from slit to ridge plasmon J-Y Laluet, A Drezet, C Genet and T W Ebbesen Mode mapping of plasmonic stars using TPL microscopy P Ghenuche, S Cherukulappurath and R Quidant Controlling optical transmission through magneto-plasmonic crystals with an external magnetic field G A Wurtz, W Hendren, R Pollard, R Atkinson, L Le Guyader, A Kirilyuk, Th Rasing, I I Smolyaninov and A V Zayats Nanoplasmonic renormalization and enhancement of Coulomb interactions M Durach, A Rusina, V I Klimov and M I Stockman Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides Pierre Berini Mapping plasmons in nanoantennas via cathodoluminescence R Gómez-Medina, N Yamamoto, M Nakano and F J García de Abajo Theoretical analysis of gold nano-strip gap plasmon resonators T Søndergaard, J Jung, S I Bozhevolnyi and G Della Valle Surface plasmon polariton-mediated enhancement of the emission of dye molecules on metallic gratings J Gómez Rivas, G Vecchi and V Giannini Nanoshells to nanoeggs to nanocups: optical properties of reduced symmetry core-shell nanoparticles beyond the quasistatic limit Mark W Knight and Naomi J Halas Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency T H Taminiau, F D Stefani and N F van Hulst Green

  14. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The African Diaspora: A History Through Culture, by Patrick Manning (reviewed by Joseph C. Miller Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, by David Eltis & David Richardson (reviewed by Ted Maris-Wolf Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery, by Seymour Drescher (reviewed by Gregory E. O’Malley Paths to Freedom: Manumission in the Atlantic World, edited by Rosemary Brana-Shute & Randy J. Sparks (reviewed by Matthew Mason You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery, by Jeremy D. Popkin (reviewed by Philippe R. Girard Fighting for Honor: The History of African Martial Arts in the Atlantic World, by T .J. Desch Obi (reviewed by Flávio Gomes & Antonio Liberac Cardoso Simões Pires Working the Diaspora: The Impact of African Labor on the Anglo-American World, 1650-1850, by Frederick C. Knight (reviewed by Walter Hawthorne The Akan Diaspora in the Americas, by Kwasi Konadu (reviewed by Ray Kea Tradition and the Black Atlantic: Critical Theory in the African Diaspora, by Henry Louis Gates Jr. (reviewed by Deborah A. Thomas From Africa to Jamaica: The Making of an Atlantic Slave Society, 1775-1807, by Audra A. Diptee (reviewed by D.A. Dunkley Elections, Violence and the Democratic Process in Jamaica 1944-2007, by Amanda Sives (reviewed by Douglas Midgett Caciques and Cemi Idols: The Web Spun by Taino Rulers between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, by José R. Oliver (reviewed by Brian D. Bates The Latin American Identity and the African Diaspora: Ethnogenesis in Context, by Antonio Olliz Boyd (reviewed by Dawn F. Stinchcomb Reconstructing Racial Identity and the African Past in the Dominican Republic, by Kimberly Eison Simmons (reviewed by Ginetta E.B. Candelario Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora in the Wider Caribbean, edited by Philippe Zacaïr (reviewed by Catherine Benoît Duvalier’s Ghosts: Race, Diaspora, and U.S. Imperialism in Haitian Literatures, by Jana

  15. Clinopyroxene application in petrogenesis identification of volcanic rocks associated with salt domes from Shurab (Southeast Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Falahaty

    2016-07-01

    Isfahan for its financial supports. Reference Adams, G.E. and Bishop, F.C., 1986. The olivine- clinopyroxene geobar- ometer: experimental results in the CaO- FeO- MgO- SiO2 system. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 94(2: 230-237. Droop, G.T.R., 1987. A general equation for estimating Fe3+ in ferromagnesian silicates and oxides from microprobe analysis, using stoichiometric criteria. Mineralogical Magazine, 51(361: 431-437. Helz, R.T., 1973. Phase relations of basalts in their melting range at PH2O= 5 kb as a function of oxygen fugacity. Journal of Petrolology, 17(2: 139-193. Kretz, R., 1994. Metamorphic Crystallization. Chichester and New York, New York, 530 pp. Kushiro, I., 1960. Si- AI relation in clinopyroxenes from igneous rocks. American Journal of Science, 258(5: 548-554. Lebas, N.J., 1962. The role of aluminous in igneous clinopyroxenes with relation to their parentage. American Journal of Science, 260(4: 267-88. Leterrier, J., Maury, R.C., Thonon, P., Girard, D. and Marchal, M., 1982. Clinopyroxene composition as a method of identification of the magmatic affinities of paleo- volcanic series. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 59(1: 139-154. Morimoto, N., 1988. Nomenclature of pyroxenes. Fortschr mineral, 66: 237-252. Nisbet, E.G. and Pearce, J.A., 1977. Clinopyroxene composition of mafic lavas from different tectonic settings. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 63(2: 161-173. Schweitzer, E.L., Papike, J.J. and bence, A. E., 1979. Statitical analysis of clinopyroxenes from deep sea basalts. American Mineralogist, 642: 501-513. Soesoo, A., 1997. A multivariate statistical analysis of clinopyroxene composition: empirical coordinates for the crystallisation PT-estimations. Geological Society of Sweden (Geologiska Föreningen, 119(1: 55-60. Verhooge, J., 1962. Distribution of titanium between silicates and oxydes in igneous rocks. American Journal of Science, 260(2: 211-220.